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1

Parameter estimation for a temperature-dependent development model of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of immature Thrips palmi Karny was investigated at 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, and 35°C, 20–40% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Developmental time decreased with increasing temperature up to 32.5°C in all stages. The total developmental time was longest at 12.5°C (64.2days) and shortest at 32.5°C (9.2days). The lower developmental threshold was

Chang-Gyu Park; Hwang-Yong Kim; Joon-Ho Lee

2010-01-01

2

PLANTAS CULTIVADAS Y SILVESTRES HOSPEDERAS DE Thrips tabaci Y Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) EN QUÍBOR, ESTADO LARA, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated and wild plants hosting Thrips tabaci and Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) in Quíbor valley, Lara State, Venezuela The presence of the bean yellow trips Thrips palmi Karny, and the onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different cultivated and wild plants in rainy and dry seasons was recorded in several places of Quíbor valley, Lara State, Venezuela. Adults of

Jorge Salas

2003-01-01

3

Molecular differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and development of a species-specific marker for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and melon thrips, T. palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), vectors of tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae).  

PubMed

A quick and developmental-stage non-limiting method of the identification of vectors of tospoviruses, such as Thrips tabaci and T. palmi, is important in the study of vector transmission, insecticide resistance, biological control, etc. Morphological identification of these thrips vectors is often a stumbling block in the absence of a specialist and limited by polymorphism, sex, stage of development, etc. Molecular identification, on the other hand, is not hampered by the above factors and can easily be followed by a non-specialist with a little training. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) exhibits reliable inter-species variations as compared to the other markers. In this communication, we present the differences in the mtCOI partial sequence of morphologically identified specimens of T. tabaci and T. palmi collected from onion and watermelon, respectively. Species-specific markers, identified in this study, could successfully determine T. tabaci and T. palmi, which corroborated the morphological identification. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both T. tabaci and T. palmi formed different clades as compared to the other NCBI accessions. The implication of these variations in vector efficiency has to be investigated further. The result of this investigation is useful in the quick identification of T. tabaci and T. palmi, a critical factor in understanding the epidemiology of the tospoviruses, their management and also in quarantine. PMID:17916265

Asokan, R; Krishna Kumar, N K; Kumar, Vikas; Ranganath, H R

2007-10-01

4

Spatial distribution and sampling plans for Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting fall potato in Korea.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of adult and immature Thrips palmi Karny on fall potato, Solanum tuberosum L., on Cheju Island, Korea, was studied over a 2-yr period by visually inspecting potato leaves. The majority of thrips collected from the leaves were observed in the top one-third of the plant. The within-field spatial patterns of adults and immature thrips were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of Taylor's power law did not differ among adults and immature thrips. A fixed-precision-level sampling plan was developed using the parameters from Taylor's power law and was tested with resampling simulations using eight independent data sets. Over a wide range of densities, the simulation demonstrated that actual sampling precision (d = SEM/mean) values at d = 0.25 averaged < 0.24 in all cases. A binomial sampling plan for estimating mean density was developed using an empirical model evaluated at tally thresholds (the minimum number of insects present before a leaf is considered infested) of one, three, five, and eight thrips per leaf. Increasing sampling size had little effect on the precision of the estimated mean regardless of tally threshold (T). However, increasing T had a dramatic effect on precision. The best tally threshold for estimating thrips density based on the applicable density ranges and the precision of the model was T = 5. A binomial sampling plan with a tally threshold of five and a fixed sample size of 30 leaves should be an effective replacement for enumerative counts when thrips average < 10 per leaf. PMID:10826206

Cho, K; Kang, S H; Lee, G S

2000-04-01

5

Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi, on eggplant, Solanum melongena.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature on the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), preimaginal development, survival, fecundity, longevity of females and males, and population growth were investigated at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31° C, 70-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D. The results indicated that the duration of egg, larval, and pupal stages was significantly influenced by increased temperature. The egg-to-adult developmental period of T. palmi declined from 35.7 to 9.6 days as the temperature increased from 16 to 31° C. The developmental threshold temperature estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.25° C, with a thermal constant of 196.1 degree-days. The developmental threshold temperature was 13.91, 11.82, 9.36, and 10.45° C for adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity, respectively. The thermal constants for completing the adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity were 29.3, 227.3, 454.6, and 344.8 degree-days, respectively. Female longevity was found to be shortest at 31° C (18.7 days) and longest at 16° C (56.7 days), and male longevity was shortest at 31° C (15.5 days) and longest at 16° C (50.7 days). Fecundity was highest at 25° C (64.2 eggs/female) and lowest at 16° C (23.4 eggs/female). The population trend index of T. palmi was highest at 25° C (31.3) and lowest at 16° C (7.6). The optimal developmental temperature for T. palmi in eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), was determined to be 25° C. PMID:25373225

Yadav, Ramchandra; Chang, Niann-Tai

2014-01-01

6

Effects of Temperature on the Development and Population Growth of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi, on Eggplant, Solanum melongena  

PubMed Central

The effects of temperature on the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), preimaginal development, survival, fecundity, longevity of females and males, and population growth were investigated at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31° C, 70–80% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D. The results indicated that the duration of egg, larval, and pupal stages was significantly influenced by increased temperature. The egg-to-adult developmental period of T. palmi declined from 35.7 to 9.6 days as the temperature increased from 16 to 31° C. The developmental threshold temperature estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.25° C, with a thermal constant of 196.1 degree-days. The developmental threshold temperature was 13.91, 11.82, 9.36, and 10.45° C for adult pre-oviposition period, total pre-oviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity, respectively. The thermal constants for completing the adult pre-oviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity were 29.3, 227.3, 454.6, and 344.8 degree-days, respectively. Female longevity was found to be shortest at 31° C (18.7 days) and longest at 16° C (56.7 days), and male longevity was shortest at 31° C (15.5 days) and longest at 16° C (50.7 days). Fecundity was highest at 25° C (64.2 eggs/female) and lowest at 16° C (23.4 eggs/female). The population trend index of T. palmi was highest at 25° C (31.3) and lowest at 16° C (7.6). The optimal developmental temperature for T. palmi in eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), was determined to be 25° C. PMID:25373225

Yadav, Ramchandra; Chang, Niann-Tai

2014-01-01

7

Detection of the Quarantine Species Thrips palmi by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Thrips palmi (from the order Thysanoptera) is a serious insect pest of various crops, including vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants, causing significant economic losses. Its presence constitutes a double threat; not only does T. palmi feed on the plants, it is also a vector for several plant viruses. T. palmi originated in Asia, but has spread to North and Central America, Africa, Oceania and the Caribbean in recent decades. This species has been sporadically noted in Europe and is under quarantine regulation in the European Union. For non-specialists its larval stages are indistinguishable morphologically from another widespread and serious insect pest Frankliniella occidentalis (a non-quarantine species in the European Union) as well as other frequently occurring thrips. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification protocol to amplify rDNA regions of T. palmi. The results were consistent whether isolated DNA or crushed insects were used as template, indicating that the DNA isolation step could be omitted. The described method is species-specific and sensitive and provides a rapid diagnostic tool to detect T. palmi in the field. PMID:25793743

Przybylska, Arnika; Fiedler, ?aneta; Kucharczyk, Halina; Obr?palska-St?plowska, Aleksandra

2015-01-01

8

Revision of Paraloxoblemmus Karny (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae) with a new combination, Paraloxoblemmus longifrons (Chopard 1969), and lectotype designation for Paraloxoblemmus loxoblemmoides (Karny).  

PubMed

The genus Paraloxoblemmus Karny has not been revised since 1907. In this paper, I present a lectotype designation and photographs of the type species, Paraloxoblemmus loxoblemmoides (Karny). In addition, a new combination Paraloxoblemmus longifrons (Chopard, 1969) is established. This species is transferred from Loxoblemmus Saussure based on the structure of the male genitalia of the holotype. Loxoblemmus longifrons Chopard is relegated as a subjective synonym. PMID:25661948

Yang, Jeng-Tze

2015-01-01

9

The Species Composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) Inhabiting Mango Orchards in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md.

2012-01-01

10

Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

Akella, Sudhakar V. S.; Kirk, William D. J.; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F. A.; Hamilton, James G. C.

2014-01-01

11

Effect of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus on the Life History and Feeding Preference of Thrips palmi  

PubMed Central

Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus–Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors. PMID:25010157

Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

2014-01-01

12

Thysanoptera as apparent pollinators of West Indies mahogany, Swietenia mahagoni (Meliaceae)  

E-print Network

Note Thysanoptera as apparent pollinators of West Indies mahogany, Swietenia mahagoni (Meliaceae conducted to elucidate the putative role of insects in pollination of West Indies mahogany, Swietenia. Thysanoptera/ thrips / pollinisation / acajou / Swietenia / arbres tropicaux #12;INTRODUCTION West Indies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Genome size and ploidy of Thysanoptera.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry was used to study the genome sizes and ploidy levels for four thrips species: Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, Frankliniella?fusca Hinds, and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). F.?orizabensis males and females had 1C genome sizes of 426?Mb and 422?Mb, respectively. Male and female F.?fusca had 1C genome sizes of 392?Mb and 409?Mb, whereas F.?occidentalis males and females had smaller 1C genomes that were 345?Mb and 337?Mb, respectively. Male F.?orizabensis, F.?occidentalis and F.?fusca were haploid and females diploid. Five isofemale lines of T.?tabaci, initiated from parthenogenetic, thelytokous females and collected from different locations in North Carolina, were included in this study; no males were available. One isofemale line was diploid with a genome size of 1C?=?310?Mb, and the other four had a mean genome size of 1C?=?482?Mb, which is consistent with evidence from microsatellite data of diploidy and polyploidy, respectively, in these same five thelytokous lines. This is the first study to produce genome size estimates for thysanopteran species, and report polyploidy in T.?tabaci populations. PMID:23121082

Jacobson, A L; Johnston, J S; Rotenberg, D; Whitfield, A E; Booth, W; Vargo, E L; Kennedy, G G

2013-02-01

14

Effects of heat stress on survival of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Temperature is known to play a crucial role in the population dynamics of insects. Insects have evolved different mechanisms to resist unfavorable extreme temperatures. In recent years, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), have caused significant damage to vegetable crops. Because of global warming and expanding areas of vegetable cultivation, a study of the effects of heat stress on these thrips species is warranted. We exposed the various developmental stages of western flower thrips and onion thrips to temperatures of 41, 43, or 45 degrees C for 2, 6, 12, 24, or 36 h to determine the effects of heat stress on survival. Our results showed that the heat resistance of nonadult western flower thrips was greater than that of the nonadult onion thrips, and that the natural heat resistant ability was the primary factor in heat resistance in western flower thrips. In contrast, the heat resistance of adult onion thrips was greater than that of the adult western flower thrips, which was primarily the result of the ability of searching suitable microenvironment that enabled the onion thrips to mitigate the effects of high temperatures more efficiently than the western flower thrips. Our analysis of the differences in heat resistance between western flower thrips and onion thrips provides important information for the development of thermal treatments for controlling western flower thrips and onion thrips. PMID:25195431

Wang, J C; Zhang, B; Wang, J P; Li, H G; Wang, S F; Sun, L J; Zheng, C Y

2014-08-01

15

POPULATION ECOLOGY Reproductive Modes in Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Reproductive Modes in Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Populations from New York Onion Fields BRIAN A. NAULT,1,2 ANTHONY M. SHELTON,1 JODY L. GANGLOFF-KAUFMANN,1 MICHAEL E patterns of reproductive modes in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, populations and potential effects

Nault, Brian

16

DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING TRAPS FOR MONITORING SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a recently identified invasive pest to the Caribbean, and poses a significant threat to agriculture and trade in the region. Methods are needed to detect the presence and to monitor populations of this pest so that it can be effectively mana...

17

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Overwintering Locations and Hosts for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Overwintering Locations and Hosts for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Onion Cropping Ecosystem in New York E. LARENTZAKI, A. M. SHELTON,1 F. R. MUSSER,2 B. A. NAULT, AND J locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently

Nault, Brian

18

Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.  

PubMed

The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

Vassiliou, V A

2010-02-01

19

Genomic analyses of sodium channel ?-subunit genes from strains of melon thrips, Thrips palmi, with different sensitivities to cypermethrin.  

PubMed

We examined the genomic organization of the sodium channel ?-subunit gene in two strains of melon thrips, Thrips palmi, having differing sensitivity to cypermethrin. The nucleotide sequences of the strains included 18 or 16 putative exons which covered the entire coding region of the gene producing 2039 amino acid residues. Deduced amino acid sequences of both strains showed 80% homology with those of Periplaneta americana and Cimex lectularius. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of both strains showed no consistent amino acid difference. In addition to the previously reported resistant amino acid (Ile) at the T929I site, both strains encoded another resistant amino acids at two positions which are involved in pyrethroid resistance in other arthropods. These amino acids might also involve in the basal levels of resistance to pyrethroids of both strains. PMID:24485319

Bao, Wen Xue; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Sonoda, Shoji

2014-01-01

20

Analysis of the thrips fauna (Thysanoptera) on flowers of herbs.  

PubMed

Studies of Thysanoptera were realized at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Mydlniki near Cracow over the years 2003-2005. This research work covers the observations of the species composition of thrips and the periods of the occurrence of the particulars species of thrips and their numerousness. The thrips were collected from flowers of Valeriana officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Levisticum officinale Koch. Following thrips species dominated samples collected directly from plants: Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), Thrips fuscipennis Haliday, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and Thrips major Uzel. The greatest number of thrips was noticed during flowering period on Valeriana officinalis L., and Hypericum perforatum L. PMID:18399479

Pobozniak, Maria

2007-01-01

21

Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist  

PubMed Central

Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

Minaei, Kambiz

2013-01-01

22

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Straw Mulch on Populations of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera  

E-print Network

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Straw Mulch on Populations of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Onion E. LARENTZAKI, J. PLATE, B. A. NAULT, AND A. M. SHELTON1 Department of Entomology, New. Econ. Entomol. 101(4): 1317Ð1324 (2008) ABSTRACT Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips

Nault, Brian

23

An overview of chilli thrips. Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) biology, distribution and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the insect order Thysanoptera, the genus Scirtothrips Shull contains more than 100 thrips species, among which 10 species have been reported as serious pests of agricultural crops. Within this genus, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in th...

24

An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

2013-01-01

25

The first thrips species (Insecta, Thysanoptera) from cycad male cones, and its family level significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species of Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae, Cycadothrips chadwicki, is described, collected from within the male cones of the cycad Macrozamia communis in Australia. This is the first published record of a member of this Order of insects from this family of Gymnosperms, but its relationship to these plants remains unknown. Details of the structure of the antennae and

Laurence Mound

1991-01-01

26

Estimating bacterial diversity in Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) via next generation sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The last two decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as ...

27

The economic impact of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on California avocado production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied almost exclusively on biological control to strategies dependent on insecticides to maintain thrips densities below economically damaging levels. By 1998, average losses due to thrips feeding damage in untreated infested groves reduced industry revenues by 12%. Producer costs increased by about 4.5%

Mark S. Hoddle; Karen M. Jetter; Joseph G. Morse

2003-01-01

28

Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

29

A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) Nematode from Thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)  

PubMed Central

A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed. PMID:25276005

Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.

2014-01-01

30

Distribution and ecology of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) bacterial symbionts.  

PubMed

Bacterial populations in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) collected in diverse California environments consisted of two bacterial symbionts: BFo-1 and BFo-2 (B = bacteria, Fo = Frankliniella occidentalis, numbers reflect different types). Dual infections of BFo-1 and BFo-2 were found in 50% of the thrips, 18% had neither bacterium, and 24 and 8% were infected solely with BFo-1 and BFo-2, respectively. No other bacteria consistently infected F. occidentalis. Dual infections occurred more often in male thrips and in thrips of both sexes from southern mountain and valley sites. As average collection year or month minimum temperature decreased, infections of BFo-1, alone or in dual infections, increased significantly. As yearly precipitation increased, infection with BFo-1 alone also increased. F. occidentalis color morphology did not affect bacterial infection. BFo-1 created weak biofilms at 25 and 32 degrees C; BFo-2 made strong biofilms at 25 degrees C and no biofilms at 32 degrees C. When the bacteria were grown in culture together, weak biofilms formed at both temperatures studied, although there was no way to determine what each bacterium contributed to the biofilm. BFo-1 and BFo-2 grew at similar rates at 25 and 30 degrees C. Our data show BFo-1 and BFo-2 occur in natural populations of F. occidentalis and support the hypothesis BFo have a symbiotic relationship with F. occidentalis. Regional differences in bacterial prevalence suggest bacterial infection is associated with environmental conditions, and altitude, temperature, and precipitation may be important factors. PMID:19689885

Chanbusarakum, Lisa J; Ullman, Diane E

2009-08-01

31

Genetics of spinosad resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

The genetic basis of spinosad resistance was investigated in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The resistant strain, selected in the laboratory for spinosad resistance from a pool of thrips populations collected in Almeria (southeastern Spain), showed a very high resistance to spinosad (356,547-fold based on LC50 values) compared with the laboratory susceptible strain. Mortality data from reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible thrips indicated that resistance was autosomal and not influenced by maternal effects. Analysis of probit lines from the parental strains and reciprocal crosses showed that resistance was expressed as an almost completely recessive trait. To determine the number of genes involved, a direct test of monogenic inheritance based on the backcrosses suggested that resistance to spinosad was probably controlled by one locus. Another approach, which was based on phenotypic variances, showed that nE, or the minimum number of freely segregating genetic factors for the resistant strain, equaled 0.59. PMID:17598556

Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Fernandez, E; Grávalos, C; Contreras, J

2007-06-01

32

A trichodorus (triplonchida: trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (thysanoptera: panchaetothripinae).  

PubMed

A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed. PMID:25276005

Carta, L K; Skantar, A M

2014-09-01

33

Thysanoptera intercepted in the Netherlands on plant products from Ethiopia, with description of two new species of the genus Thrips.  

PubMed

An overview is given of 18 Thysanoptera species found on Ethiopian cut flowers, cuttings and vegetables during import inspection in the Netherlands. Consignments consisted mostly of cut flowers, in total belonging to twelve plant genera. Details on geographical distribution and host plants of the thrips encountered are given, and two are newly described: T. cacuminis sp. n. and T. dezeeuwi sp. n. The results do not give any serious indication of increased invasiveness by Ethiopian Thysanoptera.  PMID:24870899

Vierbergen, Gijsbertus

2014-01-01

34

Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

2013-01-01

35

Comparison of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) as candidates for biological control of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolia (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

36

ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING.  

PubMed

The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

Dickey, Aaron M; Trease, Andrew J; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert G; Mckenzie, Cindy L; Davis, Paul H; Osborne, Lance S

2014-06-01

37

Selection of colour of sticky trap for monitoring adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande), overwintering inside the navel of navel oranges shipped from California to Australia, are an actionable pest for the importing country, i.e. infested lots are fumigated with methyl bromide. Strict quarantine regulations regarding C. fasciatus prompted studies on the best colour sticky trap that might be used to monitor for bean thrips populations in the vicinity of California citrus groves prior to harvesting fruit for export. Preliminary experiments identified the most attractive trap of each of four colours (blue, green, white, yellow) commonly used to sample adult Thysanoptera. Three trials of a field study were conducted, comparing C. fasciatus capture on the best card of each colour using asparagus ferns naturally infested with high levels of this pest. Based on significantly higher catch on green sticky cards, this colour trap is recommended for potential use in California's bean thrips mitigation plan designed to reduce thrips levels on citrus exported to Australia. PMID:17125151

Harman, J Alex; Mao, Chang Xuan; Morse, Joseph G

2007-02-01

38

[Thysanoptera (Insecta)-Vicia faba (Fabaceae) association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina].  

PubMed

The different phenological stages of Vicia faba provide food resources and substrates for the development of a significant diversity of insects. This study aimed to identify the complex of anthophyllous thrips, analyze the species population fluctuations, to obtain some bioecological aspects and the role they play in this association. The study and sampling was conducted during the flowering-fruiting bean crop stages in two phytogeographical regions of Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479m asl) on a weekly basis, from October-December 1995-1996 and Puna (3 367m asl) every two weeks, from December 2007-March 2008. Each sample consisted of 25 flowers taken at random; only at Prepuna a complementary sampling of three hits per plant (n=10 plants) was conducted. Observations were made on oviposition sites, admission to the flower, pupation sites, feeding behavior and injuries caused. In Prepuna, the Thysanoptera complex consisted of Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei and Thrips tabaci; in Puna, the specific diversity was restricted to F. australis and F. gemina. Although the planting-harvest period in both areas did not match, the fluctuations in populations showed the same pattern: as flowering progressed, the number of thrips coincided with the availability of food resources. In both areas, F. australis was the dominant species and maintained successive populations; it layed eggs in flower buds, and larvae hatched when flowers opened; feeding larvae and adults brought about silvery stains with black spots. In Prepuna, F. australis went through the mobile immature stages on flowers, while quiescent stages were on the ground; in the Puna, all development stages took place within the flowers. Thrips tabaci, F. shultzei, F. occidentalis and F. gemina were temporary and opportunistic in Prepuna, while the presence of F. gemina was sporadic in Puna. The number of Thysanoptera species associated with beans cultivation in Argentina has increased. PMID:22458213

Zamar, María Inés; Neder de Román, Lilia Estela

2012-03-01

39

The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...

40

Grass thrips (Anaphothrips obscurus) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population dynamics and sampling method comparison in timothy.  

PubMed

Sampling studies were conducted on grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in timothy, Phleum pratense L. These studies were used to compare the occurrence of brachypterous and macropterous thrips across sampling methods, seasons, and time of day. Information about the population dynamics of this thrips was also revealed. Three absolute and two relative methods were tested at three different dates within a season and three different daily times during four harvest periods. Thrips were counted and different phenotypes were recorded from one of the absolute methods. Absolute methods were the most similar to one another over time of day and within seasonal dates. Relative methods varied in assessing thrips population dynamics over time of day and within seasonal dates. Based on thrips collected from the plant and sticky card counts, macropterous individuals increased in the spring and summer. Thrips aerially dispersed in the summer. An absolute method, the beat cup method (rapping timothy inside a plastic cup), was among the least variable sampling methods and was faster than direct observations. These findings parallel other studies, documenting the commonality of diel and diurnal effects on sampled arthropod abundance and the seasonal effects on population abundance and structure. These studies also demonstrate that estimated population abundance can be markedly affected by temporal patterns as well as shifting adult phenotypes. PMID:22546460

Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B

2010-10-01

41

Impact of production system on development of insecticide resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become one of the most difficult insects to control in the intensive agriculture of southeastern Spain. However, resistance problems are quite different in two neighboring areas, Murcia and Almeria, with distinct production systems. Thirty-six field populations of western flower thrips from sweet pepper crops were collected in two different dates in Murcia and Almeria in 2005 and 2006. Western flower thrips populations collected were exposed to a diagnostic concentration of spinosad, methiocarb, acrinathrin, and formetanate. The results allowed the recognition of higher levels of resistance in Almeria compared with Murcia throughout the growing season. The mortality at the diagnostic concentration for spinosad (120 ppm) in western flower thrips populations ranged from 34 to 81% in Almeria, and from 73 to 100% in Murcia. The mortalities at the diagnostic concentration to acrinathrin (800 ppm) and formetanate (8000 ppm) were 17-31% in Almeria and 77-100% in Murcia, and 14-41% in Almeria and 48-99% in Murcia, respectively, indicating large geographic variations. Toxicity of methiocarb was higher for western flower thrips populations from both areas. However, mortality at the diagnostic concentration of methiocarb (2000 ppm) varied from 56 to 90% in Almeria, and it was from 94 to 100% in Murcia. The impact of production systems and agricultural practices of each area on the development and stability of insecticide resistance is discussed. PMID:18950052

Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Abellán, J

2008-10-01

42

Maize planting time and arthropod abundance in southern Mindanao, Philippines. I. Population dynamics of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly plantings conducted over 4 years in a rainfed triple maize cropping system in southern Mindanao, Philippines, revealed the Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) as the most important insect pest. Of minor importance and being restricted to one crop stage were rice seedling maggot Atherigona oryzae Malloch, thrips Thrips palmi Karny and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall), corn leafhopper Cicadulina

J. A. Litsinger; C. G. Dela Cruz; B. L. Canapi; A. T. Barrion

2007-01-01

43

Effects of Bt cotton on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its predator, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate tritrophic transfer of insecticidal Cry proteins from transgenic cotton to an herbivore and its predator, and to examine effects of these proteins on the predator's development, survival, and reproduction. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced in Bollgard-II (BG-II, Event 15985) cotton plants were acquired by Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important sucking pest of cotton, and its generalist predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The average protein titers in BG-II cotton leaves were 1,256 and 43,637 ng Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab per gram fresh leaf tissue, respectively. At the second trophic level, larvae of T. tabaci reared on BG-II cotton for 48-96 h had 22.1 and 2.1% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab levels expressed in leaves, respectively. At the third trophic level, O. insidiosus that fed on T. tabaci larvae had 4.4 and 0.3% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab protein levels, respectively, expressed in BG-II plants. O. insidiosus survivorship, time of nymphal development, adult weight, preoviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and adult longevity were not adversely affected owing to consumption of T. tabaci larvae that had fed on BG-II cotton compared with non-Bt cotton. Our results indicate that O. insidiosus, a common predator of T. tabaci, is not harmed by BG-II cotton when exposed to Bt proteins through its prey. Thus, O. insidiosus can continue to provide important biological control services in the cotton ecosystem when BG-II cotton is used to control primary lepidopteran pests. PMID:25026649

Kumar, Rishi; Tian, Jun-Ce; Naranjo, Steven E; Shelton, Anthony M

2014-06-01

44

Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.  

PubMed

Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P < 0.018; for 2009: P < 0.000; for 2010: P < 0.008). In 2008, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatments with pyrethrins and Neemex was 9.6 (19.2%) and 9.7 (19.5%) respectively, compared with 12.2 (24.3%) in the untreated control. In 2009, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatment with pyrethrins was 3.7 (7.3%) and 3.9 (7.8%) in treatment with Neemex compared with 8.6 (17.3%) in the untreated control, while in 2010 the mean damaged fruits in these treatments was recorded at 18.7 (37.5%) and 19.6 (39.2), respectively, compared with 29.6 fruits (59.2%) in the control. Oikos 10 EC showed significant effect only in 2009 and 2010. In these years, the mean number of damaged fruits was recorded at 5.5 and 21.2 compared with 8.6 and 29.6 fruits in the untreated control, respectively. Garlic extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control. PMID:22299360

Vassiliou, V A

2011-12-01

45

Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton hardlock caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg) can reduce cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., yields > 70% in the southeastern United States. The spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. Frankliniella spp. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating Fusarium conidia. Experiments were conducted at Marianna and Quincy in Florida in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether there was a relationship between the number of adult and larval thrips inhabiting the flowers of cotton and the incidence of cotton hardlock. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was > 98% of the adult thrips in the samples at both locations each year. The adults of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) also were collected. There were no significant regression relationships between weekly mean densities of thrips in the flowers and the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest in any of the experiments. Additional experiments were conducted at each location in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide significantly reduced the numbers of adult F. tritici, the number of thrips larvae, and the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide were as affective as applications of the insecticide plus fungicide. In one experiment, applications of the fungicide reduced the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide usually significantly increased the number of adult F. occidentalis. None of the pesticide treatments significantly affected the numbers of the key thrips predator Orius insidiosus (Say). We conclude that insecticidal control of the adults and larvae of F. tritici during flowering reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock. However, there were no significant regression relationships between the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest and the number of thrips in the flowers. PMID:19610399

Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

2009-06-01

46

Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

2013-02-01

47

Repellency of essential oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as affected by type of oil and polymer release.  

PubMed

Eight essential oils [0.125-1.0% (vol:vol) in acetone] were separately deposited on leaf disks to evaluate their potential to repel western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), adult females. Two of the best-performing essential oils were incorporated into polymer matrices of methyl cellulose or alginate [0.5 or 1% (wt:vol)] to verify the potential of the polymer to extend repellency of oils over time (24-120 h). Results showed that at a concentration of 0.5%, Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory) were the most repellent essential oils. For these two treatments, no western flower thrips were counted on treated leaf disks 60 min after the start of the test. T. serpyllum and O. compactum also showed repellency values > or = 90% at this concentration. With both the alginate and methyl cellulose polymers, the incorporation of polymers into treatment solutions containing 0.5% concentrations of S. montana and T. serpyllum resulted in higher repellency compared with treatment solutions lacking these polymers for a minimum of 3 d. For the alginate polymer, differences associated with polymer concentrations were most dramatic. High repellency was maintained for 4 d when a 0.5% concentration of the alginate was used in combination with a 0.5% concentration of S. montana. The use of repellent oils with polymers that extend their repellency may prove useful for both pre- and postharvest applications in flower crops. PMID:22928303

Picard, Isabelle; Hollingsworth, Robert G; Salmieri, Stéphane; Lacroix, Monique

2012-08-01

48

Life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and two factitious food sources.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis Moreira, Klompen and Moraes preying on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a serious cosmopolitan pest of different crops, as well as on Protorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae), prospective factitious foods for the mass rearing of the predator. Experiments were conducted in a chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH and in the dark. Total immature development (egg-adult) was completed in 12.3 ± 5, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.1 ± 0.6 on F. occidentalis, Protorhabditis sp. and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Fecundity and intrinsic rate of increase were higher on Protorhabditis sp. (71.6 ± 9.1 eggs/female; 0.28 female/female/day) than on F. occidentalis (63.8 ± 14.8; 0.23) and T. putrescentiae (43.1 ± 8.9; 0.23). Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis and its larval stages can be completed without feeding. Protonymphs and deutonymphs can survive in the absence of food for about a month, and adults for almost 2 months. It was concluded that C. jaboticabalensis is a promising biological control agent of F. occidentalis and that it may be mass reared with the use of Protorhabditis sp. or T. putrescentiae. PMID:25491292

Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Busoli, Antônio Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto José

2015-02-01

49

Low temperature phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry.  

PubMed

U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with diluted pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2 degrees C was studied to control western flower thrips and to determine effects on the quality of the treated products. Total thrips control was achieved in > or = 18-h fumigation treatments with > or = 250 ppm phosphine. One day fumigation treatment with 1,000 ppm phosphine was tested on lettuce and broccoli. One-day fumigation treatments with 500 ppm and 1,000 ppm phosphine were tested on asparagus and strawberry. Visual quality of lettuce, broccoli, and asparagus was evaluated after 2-wk posttreatment storage. Strawberry quality was evaluated immediately after fumigation and after 1-wk posttreatment storage. For all the products, there were no significant differences between the treatments and the controls in postharvest quality, and there were no injuries caused by the fumigation treatments. Therefore, phosphine fumigation at low temperature was promising for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry. PMID:19133457

Liu, Yong-Biao

2008-12-01

50

Population dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and other thrips species on two ornamental host plant species in Southern Florida.  

PubMed

Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf distortion, small flower area (size), and thrips population concentrations near buds and terminals. PMID:25182610

Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

2014-08-01

51

Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.  

PubMed

Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops. PMID:25195445

Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

2014-08-01

52

Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.  

PubMed

The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters. PMID:24498732

Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

2013-12-01

53

Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants  

PubMed Central

Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100

Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

2006-01-01

54

Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.  

PubMed

The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

2014-09-01

55

Within-tree and temporal distribution of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nymphs in citrus canopies and their influence on premature fruit abscission.  

PubMed

Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has recently become a pest of citrus whose nymphs feed on the surface of young fruitlets. This feeding habit causes patches or rings of tissue scar around the apex as fruit mature. Currently, little is known about the distribution of P. kellyanus nymphs. Further knowledge would allow the development of an appropriate sampling protocol and targeted pesticide application. In our first experiment, the abundance of first- and second-generation P. kellyanus nymphs was surveyed in a citrus orchard at different times of day to characterize their spatial and temporal distributions. The distribution of damaged fruit was also measured at harvest. Our results showed that P. kellyanus nymphs tended to be present in the upper half of the canopy and mainly damaged the fruit located in this area of the canopy. However, P. kellyanus nymphs were uniformly distributed among the four cardinal directions of the canopy and throughout the day. Consequently, cardinal direction and time of the day seem to be less important when developing a sampling plan or in improving targeting or timing of insecticidal spray applications. In our second experiment, we tracked the presence of P. kellyanus nymphs in labeled fruit daily. These data were used to determine how many days the nymphs occupied a fruit and to relate occupancy and premature fruit abscission. The nymphs of P. kellyanus remained on the same fruit for only 1 d. The rate of fruit abscission in June was significantly higher in fruit occupied by first-generation P. kellyanus nymphs than in nonoccupied fruit. PMID:24874156

Planes, Laura; Catalan, Jose; Urbaneja, Alberto; Tena, Alejandro

2014-06-01

56

Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.  

PubMed

In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall: I. purpurea, I. hederacea, M. verticillata, A. palmeri, C. obtusifolia, R. scabra, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Polygonum pensylvanicum L., and Chenopodium album L. PMID:16539098

Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

2005-12-01

57

65-jähriges Jubiläum von Ludwig Karni?ar  

E-print Network

in der Folge zur engen wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit mit den rechtswissen- schaftlichen Fakultäten in Maribor und Ljubljana. Das mit dem Sprachkurs ist jetzt schon fast dreißig Jahre her und wer, so frage ich, hätte damals gedacht, dass ich jemals...

Kocher, Gernot

2014-11-01

58

Thrips arorai Bhatti (Thysanoptera, Thripidae): first description of the male .  

PubMed

Thrips arorai was described from two females collected on fern at Mussoorie, Uttar Pradesh, India (Bhatti 1980). Recently, a series of both sexes of this distinctive brown species with banded fore wings was collected on fern in Himachal Pradesh. Females were identified using published literature (Bhatti 1980, Palmer 1992), and the male is here described for the first time. In the key to males by Palmer, arorai will track to couplet fifty-seven.  PMID:25660777

Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

2015-01-01

59

New sericothripine thrips of South America (Thysanoptera, Thripidae, Neohydatothrips)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-seven species of Hydatothrips and Neohydatothrips occurring in South America are reviewed. Five new species of Neohydatothrips are described. An additional species from Asia, Neohydatothrips samayunkur Kudo, a pest of marigolds and various crops, has been transported via commerce into Europe,...

60

First record of Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall), a species exotic to Brazil, is first recorded in the country. Individuals were collected on banana fruits (Musa sp.) (Musaceae) in July 2010 in the municipality of Luís Alves, state of Santa Catarina, causing rusting on the fruit peel in several bunches of bananas. PMID:23949721

Lima, E F B; Milanez, J M

2013-02-01

61

Molecular identification key for pest species of Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Effective plant quarantine and biological control initiatives require rapid and accurate identification of exotic and potentially invasive taxa that may cause high economic losses or environmental damage. The genus Scirtothrips Shull includes several species that are serious agricultural pests, and, because of their minute size and cryptic behavior, prone to undetected transport through international trade of plant material. Although assigning specimens to the genus Scirtothrips is straightforward using traditional taxonomic methods, identification of species is much more difficult and requires expert knowledge of the genus. Furthermore, the validity of some Scirtothrips species is questionable. Therefore, an easy, accurate, and highly reliable technique is desirable for Scirtothrips identification. Here, we provide a simple molecular key based on the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Individual specimens can be identified by amplification of their ITS1 and ITS2 regions with general primers and determining the size of the products by using standard agarose gel electrophoresis, followed in some instances by DNA digestion with the restriction enzymes SacII or PspOM I. The advantage of this identification system is that nonspecialists are able to quickly and cheaply identify individual specimens. Material analyzed for this work was collected in the United States (California), India, South Africa, Kenya, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Australia, New Zealand and Raiatea (Society Islands French Polynesia). We have identified seven pest species with the molecular-based methods described here. It is hoped that this system can be extended to other members of the genus as their ITS1 and ITS2 sequences become available. We also provide molecular confirmation for two new Scirtothrips species, one species from Honduras and one species from New Zealand. PMID:17066817

Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Hoddle, Mark S; Mound, Laurence A; Stouthamer, Richard

2006-10-01

62

A new species of Haplothrips from southern Iran (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Haplothrips herajius sp. n. is described from leaves and flowers of a species of Suaeda in the south of Fars Province, Iran. This is the second Iranian species of Haplothrips with the unusual character state of extra setae on the metanotum. Information on variation in color and structure of the new species is provided. The similarities and host plant associations of this new species and Haplothrips kermanensis are discussed,as both are phytophagous on species of Chenopodiaceae. PMID:23794813

Minaei, Kambiz; Aleosfoor, Maryam

2013-01-01

63

Fabrication and Characterization of Fe-Pd Ferromagnetic Shape-Memory Thin Films Yuki Sugimura, Tzahi Cohen-Karni, Patrick McCluskey and Joost Vlassak  

E-print Network

- thick (100) Si wafers. The base chamber pressure was typically below 1.7 x 10-7 Torr, and the Ar working was employed to measure film stress as a function of temperature. The shape memory effect was demonstrated 150 nm- thick thermally grown oxide (TGO) on 500 µm-thick (100) Si or 200 nm-thick SiNx on 200 µm

64

An evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) performance on different plant leaves based on life history characteristics.  

PubMed

To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

2015-01-01

65

Thripenema fuscum n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), a Parasite of the Tobacco Thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera).  

PubMed

Thripenema fuscum n. sp., a parasite of the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, is described and illustrated from material collected from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in Marianna, Florida. Thripenema fuscura can be distinguished from all other previously described Thripenema spp. by the dorsal curvature of the male and the presence of a stylet in the male. Highest parasitism rates of F. fusca by T. fuscum in peanuts were 51% in 1995 and 68% in 1996. PMID:19274215

Tipping, C; Nguyen, K B; Funderburk, J E; Smart, G C

1998-06-01

66

Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.  

PubMed

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is a commonly encountered and economically important insect pest of greenhouses. Greenhouse producers typically apply pesticides as mixtures to mitigate western flower thrips populations; however, there is limited information available on the compatibility and efficacy of commonly used pesticide mixtures. This study assessed nine binary and three tertiary pesticide mixtures used in greenhouses which included pesticides containing abamectin, acephate, azadirachtin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, novaluron, pymetrozine, and spinosad. Compatibility was determined for the binary pesticide mixtures using jar tests. In addition, the binary mixtures were applied to nine horticultural plant species to determine phytotoxicity based on visual appearance assessed 7 d after treatment. Bean-dip bioassays were performed in a laboratory using green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to determine LC50 values for each individual pesticide and the mixtures to establish whether the mixtures were synergistic, antagonistic, or there was no effect. The mortality of western flower thrips was assessed after 24 h, and LC50 values were calculated. Furthermore, semifield bioassays were performed in greenhouses for binary and tertiary mixtures to evaluate the efficacy (based on percent mortality) of the pesticide mixtures against western flower thrips. Results indicated that all binary mixtures were visibly compatible, and not phytotoxic to any of the plant species evaluated. Combination index calculations based on laboratory results indicated most of the binary mixtures were synergistic; however, the mixture containing spinosad + bifenazate appeared to be antagonistic against western flower thrips. The semifield bioassays demonstrated significantly reduced efficacy associated with mixtures containing azadirachtin, however, all binary mixtures provided approximately 80% western flower thrips mortality. PMID:23448038

Willmott, Amy L; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zhu, Kun Yan

2013-02-01

67

Host-Parasite Biology of Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

PubMed Central

Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy of Frankliniella fusca in peanut. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the reproductive biology of T. fuscum as affected by gender and stage of development of the host and to determine the effects of parasitism on host longevity, fecundity, and mortality. The adult females of F. fusca were the most readily parasitized (P < 0.001) in the laboratory experiments followed by the second instars, the first instars, and the adult males. One generation of T. fuscum developed within the parasitized larvae and adults, with the males and females emerging only during the adult stage of the host. Parasitism did not cause mortality of the host. Parasitism affected male longevity (P < 0.001) but not female longevity. The adult female thrips that were parasitized as first or second instars did not lay eggs, and the adult females stopped laying eggs within 3 days of being parasitized. The female-to-male sex ratio of T. fuscum emerging from parasitized male and female F. fusca was 22 and 18 to 1, respectively. More T. fuscum emerged from female hosts than from male hosts (P < 0.001). More emerged from hosts parasitized as larvae compared with hosts parasitized as adults (P < 0.05). The intrinsic capacity of increase of T. fuscum ranged between 0.29 and 0.37 when parasitizing the adult males and females and between 0.18 and 0.21 when parasitizing the larval males and females. Percent parasitism of F. fusca was estimated in peanut fields. The flowers were the primary site for aggregation of the adults of F. fusca and for the free-living females of T. fuscum to parasitize new hosts. As under laboratory conditions, field parasitism of adult males was less than parasitism of adult females in 2001 and 2002 (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Our study indicates that T. fuscum is a potential biological control agent capable of suppressing F. fusca populations in peanut. PMID:19262837

Sims, Kelly; Funderburk, Joe; Boucias, Drion

2005-01-01

68

Reproduction of four thrips species (Frankliniella Spp.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on uncultivated hosts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many researchers have focused on the population dynamics of thrips within crops. However, thrips often migrate into crop from outside sources. An understanding of thrips ecology outside crops is needed to understand thrips ecology and subsequently develop strategies that limit damage to crops both f...

69

Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

70

Developmental and Reproductive Biology of a Predatory Franklinothrips n. sp. (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae)  

E-print Network

of Entomology and Plant Protection, University of Bonn Nussallee 9, 53115 Bonn, Germany E-mail: mark of adult Franklinothrips and ant-like behavioral patterns reinforce their mimetic color patterns pig- ments), before pupating within protective silk cocoons which are spun from secretions produced

Hoddle, Mark S.

71

Evolution of asexuality via different mechanisms in grass thrips (thysanoptera: Aptinothrips).  

PubMed

Asexual lineages can derive from sexual ancestors via different mechanisms and at variable rates, which affects the diversity of the asexual population and thereby its ecological success. We investigated the variation and evolution of reproductive systems in Aptinothrips, a genus of grass thrips comprising four species. Extensive population surveys and breeding experiments indicated sexual reproduction in A. elegans, asexuality in A. stylifer and A. karnyi, and both sexual and asexual lineages in A. rufus. Asexuality in A. stylifer and A. rufus coincides with a worldwide distribution, with sexual A. rufus lineages confined to a limited area. Inference of molecular phylogenies and antibiotic treatment revealed different causes of asexuality in different species. Asexuality in A. stylifer and A. karnyi has most likely genetic causes, while it is induced by endosymbionts in A. rufus. Endosymbiont-community characterization revealed presence of Wolbachia, and lack of other bacteria known to manipulate host reproduction. However, only 69% asexual A. rufus females are Wolbachia-infected, indicating that either an undescribed endosymbiont causes asexuality in this species or that Wolbachia was lost in several lineages that remained asexual. These results open new perspectives for studies on the maintenance of mixed sexual and asexual reproduction in natural populations. PMID:24627993

van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

2014-07-01

72

The genus Rhamphothrips in India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with description of a new species .  

PubMed

Rhamphothrips bhattii sp.n. is described from India based on specimens collected on flowers and leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae) in the States of West Bengal and Odisha. The pronotum of this species is longer than any other known member of the genus. A key to the six species of Rhamphothrips recorded from India is provided. PMID:25113365

Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

2013-01-01

73

The genus Meiothrips Priesner (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae, Idolothripinae) with a key and a new species from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Meiothrips Priesneris reviewed, with Meiothrips fuscicrussp. n., and Meiothrips nepalensis Kudo & Ananthakrishnan recorded and described from China, and a key provided to the five known species. COI sequences of the new species and Meiothrips nepalensis are also provided. PMID:22532786

Dang, Li-Hong; Qiao, Ge-Xia

2012-01-01

74

Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...

75

EVALUATION OF FRANKLINIELLA BISPINOSA (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) AS A VECTOR OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS IN PEPPER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella occidentalis is the key vector responsible for the emergence of Tomato spotted wilt virus as a global threat to agriculture. Frankliniella bispinosa is a common thrips in Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda, but the role of F. bispinosa in the epidemiology of the virus is not known. The ...

76

Distribution, adaptive dynamics, and phylogeny of gall-inducing thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of the Indian subcontinent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad range of aspects relating to distribution, phylogeny, polymorphism, social behavior, and adaptive diversity in gall-inducing thrips of the Orient has been discussed. The phenomenon of sex-limited polymorphism is typical among several gall-inducing thrips. Their significance has been considered, making the study of gall-inducing thrips relevant in terms of host preference and performance.

T. N. Ananthakrishnan

2007-01-01

77

Predation behaviors of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) towards Scirtothrips perseae and  

E-print Network

Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouchee) in avocado leaf arenas were videotaped forages on avocado leaves that have been treated with insecticides that exhibit translaminar activity. Ã? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Keywords: Avocado; Predatory behavior; Prey

Hoddle, Mark S.

78

Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural  

E-print Network

natural enemies on avocado (Persea americana Miller) Mark S. Hoddle,a,* Sueo Nakahara,b and Phil A was discovered attacking avocados in California, USA, in 1996. Host plant surveys in California indicated that S. perseae has a highly restricted host range with larvae being found only on avocados, while adults were

Hoddle, Mark S.

79

Crop Protection 21 (2002) 383388 Attraction of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aeolothripidae)  

E-print Network

) to colored sticky cards in a California avocado orchard Mark S. Hoddlea, *, Lindsay Robinsona , David Morganb cards were tested in an avocado orchard for their attractiveness to Scirtothrips perseae, Frankliniella foliage and fruit of ``Hass'' avocado, Persea americana var. drymifolia Blake (Laur- aceae), in Ventura

Hoddle, Mark S.

80

Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana for management of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in California blueberries.  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus and mango fruits. This insect has broadened its host range to become a significant pest of commercial blueberries grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We evaluated Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of citrus thrips in blueberries grown under two watering regimes (drip irrigation with and without overhead sprinklers) and using two fungal formulations (commercially available spores in suspension vs. colonized seed) over two sampling periods, that is, for two 3-d periods after treatment. We found significant differences in thrips densities as a function of water regime treatment and fungal formulation. Thrips levels were reduced significantly with both fungal treatments at 3 d after treatment, but at 6 d, only results with colonized seed differed from the control treatment. These data suggest entomopathogenic fungi might be useful for control of citrus thrips on blueberries in particular situations (in organic production or as a resistance management tool) but that traditional pesticides will likely remain the preferred management option. PMID:24224239

Zahn, Deane K; Haviland, David R; Stanghellini, M E; Morsel, Joseph G

2013-10-01

81

Spatial and temporal variation in Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Moulton (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population and its damage on lemon.  

PubMed

Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Moulton has recently been detected in lemon (Citrus limon) orchards in northwest Argentina, causing high levels of damage on fruits. Severe damage results in the rejection of fruit for export, which must then be sold in the industry. However, the restrictions imposed by the citrus industry on insecticide residues sometimes also result in fruit rejection. Here, we studied the ecology and behavior of C. orchidii in order to propose a pest management strategy that could meet both export and industry demands. Seasonal occurrence and canopy distribution of C. orchidii in lemon orchards were evaluated, and field experimental manipulations of thrips populations were performed to analyze how the length (45, 100, 130, and 200 days) and timing (January, February, or March) of C. orchidii activity related with fruit damage. Lemons harvested during summer showed lower infestation levels (?0.64 individual per fruit) than those harvested in winter (?1.88 individuals per fruit). Higher proportions of damaged fruits were recorded in the lower part of the tree. Changes in the population levels of C. orchidii were closely associated with fruit phenology. The longer the lemon fruits were exposed to the thrips, the higher was the damage. However, the time of infestations did not affect fruit damage. Our data provide a first step towards understanding the factors that determine the severity of fruit damage caused by C. orchidii in northwest Argentina. PMID:23949715

Goane, L; Casmuz, A; Salas, H; Lizondo, M; Gastaminza, G; Vera, M T

2013-02-01

82

Population dynamics and within-plant distribution of Frankliniella spp. thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in cotton.  

PubMed

Thrips cause damage to seedling cotton, and they are associated with the spread of Fusarium hardlock, a serious disease affecting cotton bolls that reduces lint yield in the southern United States. The population dynamics and within-plant distribution of Frankliniella spp. thrips in cotton were determined in 2005, 2006, and 2007 in Quincy and in 2006 and 2007 in Marianna, FL. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was >98% of the adult thrips collected. The adults of F. bispinosa (Morgan), F. occidentalis (Pergande), and F. fusca (Hinds) also were collected. Populations of F. fusca inhabited the cotton leaves of vegetative-stage cotton. The other species were highly anthophilic, primarily inhabiting cotton during its reproductive growth stages. Densities of these species peaked during mid-season, which also coincided with peak bloom. The adult F. tritici and the thrips larvae were aggregated in the flowers over the other plant parts, with more collected in the upper than the lower canopies. These patterns of aggregation were observed at each location each year, and the numerical differences usually were significant (P < 0.05). Densities of adult F. tritici were low on the leaves, squares, and bolls. The population dynamics and with-plant distribution of individual thrips species has not previously been determined for cotton in the southern United States. PMID:19689901

Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

2009-08-01

83

The genus Sitothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with a new grass-living species from southern Iran.  

PubMed

One of the generic characters given by zur Strassen (2003) for species of the genus Sitothrips Priesner (1931) is the presence of 2-segmented maxillary palps. In contrast, a new species of this genus is described below from Iran in which the maxillary palps are clearly 3-segmented (Fig. 5). The genus was erected for arabicus Priesner from Egypt, a species now recorded widely among countries around the Mediterranean, from Morocco to southern Russia. Three further species are listed in Sitothrips: almargeniensis Titschack from Spain and Portugal, lindbergi zur Strassen from the Canary Islands and Morocco, and calcaratus (Savenko) from southern Russia. The identity of the latter species remains in some doubt as, in contrast to the other species, it was described as wingless and lacking ocelli (Savenko 1944), but zur Strassen (2003) provided an illustrated key to the other three species. PMID:25543811

Minaei, Kambiz; Mound, Laurence

2014-01-01

84

Species of Thripinae (Thysanoptera) from bamboo in Malaysia, with one new species and six new records.  

PubMed

Nine species of Thripinae that inhabit bamboo are recorded from Malaysia. Clypeothrips idrisi sp.n. is described as a second species in the genus, and Trichromothrips bruncurrum Reyes is considered a syn.n. of Neocorynothrips asiaticus Ramakrishna & Margabandhu. Six species are newly recorded from Malaysia: N. asiaticus, Okajimaella tubercula, Simulothrips banpoti, Stenchaetothrips bambusicola, S. bambusae and S. spinalis. Seven species of Stenchaetothrips are now known from Malaysia. Illustrations and descriptions of each species are provided. PMID:25781107

Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

2015-01-01

85

The chrysanthemum thrips, Thrips nigropilosus Uzel (Terebrantia: Thysanoptera), on Scotch thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Compositae: Cynareae) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrips nigropilosus is found in New Zealand on Cirsium vulgare (Scotch thistle) — a new host record for this species. An account of its other host records and distribution is given as well as new distribution records for New Zealand.

Annette K. Walker; B. Michaux

1989-01-01

86

Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the population dynamics of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ontario onion fields.  

PubMed

Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are an economic pest of alliums worldwide. In Ontario onion-growing regions, seasonal abundance and population trends of onion thrips are not well known. The objectives of this research were to investigate onion thrips population dynamics by using both white sticky traps and plant counts, to gain insight into flight height, and to determine the genus and sex of thrips fauna present in monitored fields. Adult thrips were captured on white sticky traps placed in two commercial onion fields in the Thedford-Grand Bend Marsh region as early as mid-May in 2001, 2002, and 2003. Thrips were not recorded on onion plants in these fields until late June and early July. A comparison of sticky trap captures to plant counts revealed a strong, positive correlation, indicating that sticky traps, which consistently detected thrips earlier than plant counts, could be used instead of plant counts early in the season to monitor onion thrips populations. Pole traps placed in onion and an adjacent soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., field revealed that regardless of crop type, most thrips were captured 0.7-0.95 m above the soil surface. During this study, 70% of 137,000 thrips captured on sticky traps and 89% of 1,482 thrips captured in pan traps were female onion thrips. No male onion thrips were identified in this study: most of the remaining thrips were Frankliniella spp. PMID:16539160

MacIntyre-Allen, J K; Scott-Dupree, C D; Tolman, J H; Harris, C R

2005-12-01

87

Imidacloprid effects on probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tomato.  

PubMed

The effects of tomato, Lycopersicum spp., leaves treated with imidacloprid on probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergrande) were examined using an electrical penetration graph technique and an intact leaf bioassay. For each experiment, thrips were subjected to nontreated plants and plants treated with either of two rates of imidacloprid: 7.81 and 41.55 microg [(AI)] per plant. F. fusca probed less frequently on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid compared with the nontreated plants. The duration of F. fusca noningestion probing waveforms and ingestion was shorter on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid compared with that on nontreated plants. In contrast, F. occidentalis probed longer and more frequently on plants treated with either the low or high imidacloprid rates compared with nontreated plants. They also ingested more frequently and for longer durations on plants treated with the high rate compared with nontreated plants. The duration and frequency of noningesting probing waveforms were greater on the imidacloprid-treated plants compared with the nontreated plants. F. occidentalis probed and ingested more frequently and for a longer duration than F. fusca on plants treated with the high rate of imidacloprid. F. fusca ingested more frequently and the duration of ingestion was longer than F. occidentalis in untreated plants. F. fusca and F. occidentalis settling behavior differed within the first 30 min in a choice bioassay. F. fusca preferred settling on leaves of nontreated plants, whereas F. occidentalis showed no preference in an intact leaf choice bioassay. PMID:16334332

Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

2005-10-01

88

Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested table grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...

89

Intraguild predation among Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Neoseiulus californicus and Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae) under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

This study was carried out on the ability of predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner to feed on 2 phytoseiid species and vice versa. Also the effect of predation of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) on Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein and Arutunjan and vice versa was evaluated. The larvae, prepupae, and pupae of thrips and the eggs, larvae, and protonymphs of phytoseiids were selected as intraguild prey. The intraguild predation (IGP) among S. longicornis and 2 phytoseiid species was unidirectional and in favor of phytoseiids, i.e., S. longicornis was not able to feed on larval stages of 2 phytoseiids. However, N. californicus and T. bagdasarjani fed on the 1st instar larvae (1.39 and 0.80 per day), 2nd instar larvae (0.87 and 0.55 per day), prepupae (0.51 and 0.48 per day), and pupae of thrips (0.51 and 0.49 per day, respectively). Both phytoseiids fed on eggs, larvae, and protonymphal stages of each other. Females of N. californicus consumed more phytoseiid larvae (2.49 per day) than T. bagdasarjani, which consumed 1.08 N. californicus larvae per day. When Tetranychus urticae was presented as an extraguild prey, intensity of IGP between 2 species of phytoseiids and on larval stages of S. longicornis reduced significantly. Therefore, it is concluded that (i) IGP existed among the 3 examined species and lack of feeding of S. longicornis on 2 phytoseiid species can be justified by its feeding type (monophagy), (ii) N. californicus was much more prone to IGP than was T. bagdasarjani. PMID:23956242

Farazmand, Azadeh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Kamali, Karim

2015-04-01

90

Two new ectoparasitic species of Aulacothrips Hood, 1952 (Thysanoptera: Heterothripidae) associated with ant-tended treehoppers (Hemiptera).  

PubMed

Aulacothrips Hood, 1952 is a remarkable South American genus of ectoparasitic thrips which feed on gregarious ant-tended hemipterans (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Here we describe two new species of this genus infesting membracid treehoppers in Colombia and Brazilian Amazon, and provide a key to the five Aulacothrips spp. now recognised. Aulacothrips levinotus n. sp. is unique in having pronotum with only two pairs of major setae; and Aulacothrips tenuis n. sp. has unusually long abdominal tergite IX. These findings will be helpful for understanding the species diversification in this genus, bringing a new perspective on the diversity of Aulacothrips spp. and their myrmecophilous hemipteran hosts. PMID:25274260

Cavalleri, Adriano; Kaminski, Lucas A

2014-11-01

91

The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition

E. K. Chatzivassiliou; D. Peters; N. I. Katis

2007-01-01

92

Morphometric analysis of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) pertaining to different geographical regions of the world  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Belonging to the devastating genus Scirtothrips, Scirthothrips dorsalis (Hood) is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in south Florida. Since its advent in 2005, it is dispersing quickly all over the state. It is a threat to the fruit, ornamental and vegetable industries ow...

93

Prey preference of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for species of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in pepper flowers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine prey preference of O. insidiosus between Frankliniella occidentalis and F. tritici, and between adult and 2nd instar of F. occidentalis in pepper flowers. Corresponding studies were conducted to determine the distribution of these thrips in the absence ...

94

Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

95

Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.  

PubMed

A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

2014-10-01

96

New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scritothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in the southeast region of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. During scouting and sampling various hosts at different commercial nursery locations in Florida (Miami-Dade Count...

97

Impact of neonicotinoid seed treatments on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and soybean yield in Virginia and North Carolina.  

PubMed

Currently there are several neonicotinoid insecticide seed treatments registered for use on soybean (Glycine max L.), with disparity in adoption rates in the eastern United States. A complex of seedling insect pests is found in mid-south soybean, but thrips are the primary early season pest of soybean in Virginia and North Carolina. Published knowledge regarding their impact on soybean yield is minimal, as is the impact of thrips on soybean yield; thrips species composition is also understudied. In 2008 through 2010, nine field experiments in Virginia and North Carolina were conducted to evaluate the impact on thrips population dynamics; the influence on yield of neonicotinoid seed treatments, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, was reported from nine of these experiments. Moreover, thrips species abundance was recorded in three of these experiments. Both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam reduced thrips densities compared with untreated soybean. Thiamethoxam was more effective than imidacloprid in reducing adult thrips densities at 5 wk after planting. Adult densities peaked at 3 wk after planting, followed by larval densities, which peaked at 4 wk after planting. The most abundant thrips species was Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), followed by Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach). Other common species included F. occidentalis (Pergande) and F. tritici (Fitch). In general, F. fusca was more common earlier in the season, while N. variabilis was more common later in the season. There were no significant differences in yield among any of the treatments or in the untreated controls. Although neonicotinoid insecticides reduced thrips abundance, data collected in these studies demonstrated that there was no positive yield response. PMID:22812126

Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, D Ames; Malone, Sean

2012-06-01

98

The genus Ctenothrips from India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
with description of one new species and one new record.
 

PubMed

Ctenothrips barapatharensis sp.n. is described from specimens collected on ferns from Himachal Pradesh state of India. This is the only species in this genus having dark thickenings attached to fore ocellus. Ctenothrips niger Kudô is newly recorded from India, and the brachypterous form is described for the first time. A key to the three species of Ctenothrips from India is provided. PMID:24989741

Tyagi, Kaomud; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Kumar, Vikas

2014-01-01

99

Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural enemies on avocado ( Persea americana Miller)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara was discovered attacking avocados in California, USA, in 1996. Host plant surveys in California indicated that S. perseae has a highly restricted host range with larvae being found only on avocados, while adults were collected from 11 different plant species. As part of a management program for this pest, a “classical” biological control program was initiated and

Mark S. Hoddle; Sueo Nakahara; Phil A. Phillips

2002-01-01

100

Vertical and horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of an invasive thrips species, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a newly introduced insect pest of various tropical and subtropical crops that poses a significant economic threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. Since its introduction in 2005, S. dorsalis has established in 30 counties of Florida and 8 counties of T...

101

Management of chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peppers by Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Orius indidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in southeast of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. In this study, we examined biological control of chilli thrips with a predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, an...

102

Center for Turbulence Research Annual Research Briefs 2008  

E-print Network

, in which interfaces are not resolved on the grid but are regularized over a few computational cells-tracking methods, such as the Ghost Fluid Method (Fedkiw et al. 1999) or pres- sure evolution algorithms (Karni

Prinz, Friedrich B.

103

Occurrence of the western flower thrips, Franklliniella occidentalis, and potential predators on host plants in near-orchard habitats of Washington and Oregon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), 1895 and potential thrips pred...

104

Use of CC traps with different trap base colors for silverleaf whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae).  

PubMed

During 1996, 1997, and 1999, studies were conducted in cotton, sugar beets, alfalfa, yardlong bean, and peanut fields to compare insect catches in CC traps equipped with different trap base colors. The studies were conducted in southwestern United States, China, and India. The nine colors, white, rum, red, yellow, lime green, spring green, woodland green (dark green), true blue, and black, varied in spectral reflectance in the visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-1050 nm) portions of spectrum. Lime green, yellow, and spring green were the three most attractive trap base colors for silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, and leafhopper, Empoasca spp. adults. The three trap base colors were moderately high in the green, yellow, and orange spectral regions (490-600 nm), resembling the spectral reflectance curve of the abaxial (underleaf) surfaces of green cotton leaves. True blue and white were the most attractive trap base colors for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), adults. The true blue and white trap bases were moderately high in the blue spectral region (400-480 nm). PMID:10985050

Chu, C C; Pinter, P J; Henneberry, T J; Umeda, K; Natwick, E T; Wei, Y A; Reddy, V R; Shrepatis, M

2000-08-01

105

Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence  

PubMed Central

Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European ‘L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

2013-01-01

106

Seasonal abundance of hemipteran predators in relation to western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on weeds in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalist predators and the prey species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) were periodically sampled from 64 weed species to determine their numerical interrelationships in three ecologically different locations in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2002–2003. Adult and nymph stages of seven hemipteran predator species were recorded: Deraeocoris pallens Reuter, Geocoris arenarius (Jakovkev), Nabis punctatus Costa, Orius laevigatus Fieber, Orius majusculus

Ekrem Atakan; ?rfan Tunç

2010-01-01

107

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

2010-03-01

108

Estimating development and temperature thresholds of Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on eggs of two-spotted spider mite using linear and nonlinear models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development rate of the predatory thrips, Scolothrips longicornis Priesner, fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch was determined at 15, 20, 26, 30, 35, and 37°C. No development occurred at 40°C. The total development time from egg\\u000a to adult emergence for females was estimated to be 48.1, 22.8, 13.6, 10.6, 8.3 and 9.6 days, respectively. The development\\u000a time decreased with increasing temperature

Hajar Pakyari; Yaghoub Fathipour; Annie Enkegaard

2011-01-01

109

Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biological control agents of Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on pepper  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invasive chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood poses a significant risk to many food and ornamental crops in the Caribbean, Florida and Texas. We evaluated two species of phytoseiid mite as predators of S. dorsalis. In leaf disc assays, gravid females of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius s...

110

Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): Scanning electron micrographs of key taxonomic traits and a preliminary morphometric analysis of the general morphology of populations of different continents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) is an emerging pest of numerous economically important vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. Since its advent in 2005, it has rapidly dispersed across the state and is causing significant damage to horticultural and nursery production statewide. A comparison of morp...

111

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations. PMID:20094879

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G; Vega, Fernando E; Harwood, James D

2010-03-01

112

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator–prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million\\/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric G. Chapman; Fernando E. Vega; James D. Harwood

2010-01-01

113

Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

114

The morphology and biology of the entomophilic Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), and the histopathologic effects of parasitism on the host Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy capable of reducing local populations of Frankliniella fusca and reducing transmission of plant diseases vectored by F. fusca. We used light and electron microscopy to detail the in vivo life cycle of the nematode and to determine the effects of parasitism on th...

115

Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.  

PubMed

Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

2013-09-01

116

Regional and temporal variation in susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in onion fields in New York.  

PubMed

Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion fields in New York were evaluated for their susceptibility to the commonly used pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior T), using a novel system called the Thrips Insecticide Bioassay System (TIBS). To use TIBS, thrips are collected directly from the plant into an insecticide-treated 0.5-ml microcentrifuge tube that has a flexible plastic cap with a small well into which 0.08 ml of a 10% sugar-water solution with food colorant is deposited. The solution is sealed into the well with a small piece of stretched parafilm through which the thrips can feed on the solution. Thrips mortality is assessed after 24 h with the help of a dissecting stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios were >1,000 in five populations. Percent mortality at 100 ppm, a recommended field rate, varied from 9 to 100%, indicating high levels of variation in susceptibility. Particular instances of resistance appeared to be the result of practices within an individual field rather than a regional phenomenon. In 2002, we also observed large differences in onion thrips susceptibility, not only between individual fields but also between thrips collected in a single field at mid season and late season, again suggesting that insecticide-use practices within an individual field caused differences in susceptibility. Additional tests indicated no differences in susceptibility between adult and larval onion thrips populations and only relatively minor differences between populations collected from different parts of the same field. Using TIBS, several populations of onion thrips with different susceptibilities to lambda-cyhalothrin were identified and then subjected to lambda-cyhalothrin-treated onion plants. There was a highly significant positive relationship between percent mortality of thrips from TIBS and percent mortality from the treated onion plants, indicating that results from TIBS could be used to predict spray performance. These data suggest that use of TIBS for evaluating susceptibility to particular insecticides could be instrumental for developing a resistance management strategy for onion thrips. PMID:14977125

Shelton, A M; Nault, B A; Plate, J; Zhao, J Z

2003-12-01

117

Seasonal dynamics of thrips (Thrips tabaci) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) transmitters of iris yellow spot virus: a serious viral pathogen of onion bulb and seed crops.  

PubMed

Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an important economic constraint to the production of bulb and seed onion crops in the United States and many other parts of the world. Because the virus is exclusively spread by thrips, the ability to rapidly detect the virus in thrips vectors would facilitate studies on the role of thrips in virus epidemiology, and thus formulation of better vector management strategies. Using a polyclonal antiserum produced against the recombinant, Escherichia coli-expressed nonstructural protein coded by the small (S) RNA of IYSV, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detecting IYSV in individual as well as groups of adult thrips. The approach enabled estimating the proportion of potential thrips transmitters in a large number of field-collected thrips collected from field-grown onion plants. Availability of a practical and inexpensive test to identify viruliferous thrips would be useful in epidemiological studies to better understand the role of thrips vectors in outbreaks of this economically important virus of onion. PMID:24665687

Bag, Sudeep; Rondon, Silvia I; Druffel, Keri L; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

2014-02-01

118

Overwintering of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Winter Annual Weeds Infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus and Patterns of Virus Movement Between Susceptible Weed Hosts.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Overwintering of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, was investigated on common winter annual host plants infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Populations of tobacco thrips produced on TSWV-infected plants did not differ from those produced on healthy plants, whereas populations varied greatly among host plant species. The mean per plant populations of F. fusca averaged 401, 162, and 10 thrips per plant on Stellaria media, Scleranthus annuus, and Sonchus asper, respectively, during peak abundance in May. Adult F. fusca collected from plant hosts were predominately brachypterous throughout the winter and early spring, but macropterous forms predominated in late spring. Weed hosts varied in their ability to serve as overwintering sources of TSWV inoculum. Following the initial infection by TSWV in October 1997, 75% of Scleranthus annuus and Stellaria media retained infection over the winter and spring season, whereas only 17% of Sonchus asper plants remained infected throughout the same interval. Mortality of TSWV-infected Sonchus asper plants exceeded 25%, but mortality of infected Stellaria media and Scleranthus annuus did not exceed 8%. TSWV transmission by thrips produced on infected plants was greatest on Stellaria media (18%), intermediate on Scleranthus annuus (6%), and lowest on Sonchus asper (2%). Very few viruliferous F. fusca were recovered from soil samples collected below infected wild host plants. Vegetative growth stages of Stellaria media, Sonchus asper, and Ranunculus sardous were more susceptible to F. fusca transmission of TSWV than flowering growth stages, whereas both growth stages of Scleranthus annuus were equally susceptible. In a field study to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of virus movement from a central source of TSWV-infected Stellaria media to adjacent plots of R. sardous, the incidence of infection in R. sardous plots increased from <1% in March to >42% in June 1999. Infection levels in the Stellaria media inoculum source remained high throughout the experiment, averaging nearly 80% until June 1999 when all Stellaria media plants had senesced. Dispersal of TSWV from the inoculum source extended to the limits of the experimental plot (>37 m). Significant directional patterns of TSWV spread to the R. sardous plots were detected in April and May but not in June. R. sardous infections were detected as early as March and April, suggesting that overwintering inoculum levels in an area can increase rapidly during the spring in susceptible weed hosts prior to planting of susceptible crops. This increase in the abundance of TSWV inoculum sources occurs at a time when vector populations are increasing rapidly. The spread of TSWV among weeds in the spring serves to bridge the period when overwintered inoculum sources decline and susceptible crops are planted. PMID:18944235

Groves, R L; Walgenbach, J F; Moyer, J W; Kennedy, G G

2001-09-01

119

Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China  

PubMed Central

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

120

The Highly Rearranged Mitochondrial Genome of the Plague Thrips, Thrips imaginis (Insecta: Thysanoptera): Convergence of Two Novel Gene Boundaries and an Extraordinary Arrangement of rRNA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

for the evolution of duplicate control regions and for the gene translocations, but intramitochondrial recombination may account for the gene inversions in T. imaginis. All the 18 genes between control regions #1 and #2 have translocated and\\/or inverted, whereas only six of the 20 genes outside this region have translocated and\\/or inverted. Moreover, the extra tRNA gene and the two

Renfu Shao; Stephen C. Barker

2003-01-01

121

The Liothrips-lineage of thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from Iran with the first record of micropterous morph of a Liothrips species.  

PubMed

A key is provided to the three Phlaeothripinae genera of the Liothrips-lineage known from Iran, Cephalothrips, Liothrips, and Liophloeothrips. Ataliothrips is placed as a new synonym of Liothrips, and the micropterous morph of L. reuteri described, this morph being unique among species of Liothrips. Illustrated keys are provided to the species of these genera recorded from Iran, all of which are considered to be leaf-feeding. In addition, a key is provided to the three species of Liophloeothrips from Europe, because L. hungaricus has been recorded from Iran although with no known voucher specimens. PMID:25544135

Minaei, Kambiz; Mound, Laurence

2014-01-01

122

Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

123

Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitism reduces both the feeding of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut and the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least nine thrips species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipping & Nguyen, a natural enemy of F....

124

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Insecticide Efficacy on Developing Action Thresholds for  

E-print Network

Management: A Case Study of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Onion BRIAN A. NAULT1 AND ANTHONY M and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripi- dae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion Ã?elds from 2006 to 2008

Nault, Brian

125

Crop Protection 22 (2003) 485493 The economic impact of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara  

E-print Network

(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on California avocado production Mark S. Hoddlea, *, Karen M. Jetterb , Joseph G (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied. perseae is calculated to be $5.22 million (US) per year. For the entire USA avocado industry, the annual

Hoddle, Mark S.

126

Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase I in Liver of Periparturient Dairy Cows: Effects of Prepartum Intake, Postpartum Induction of Ketosis, and Periparturient Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the role of mitochondrial carnitine palmi- toyltransferase I (CPT I) in liver on peripartal adapta- tions of fatty acid metabolism. From dry-off to parturi- tion, cows were fed a diet at either ad libitum (n = 17) or restricted intake (RI,80% of calculated requirements for net energy; n = 18). After parturition,

H. M. Dann; J. K. Drackley

2005-01-01

127

Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

128

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

129

Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

130

Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

131

Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms, and management strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This ...

132

Distribution on cotton of Amrasca devastans and Ayyaria chaetophora in relation to pest scouting techniques for Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of thrips Ayyaria chaetophora Karny and jassids Amrasca devastans (Dist.) on cotton in Thailand show aggregation and can be adequately described by the negative binomial distribution. The majority of thrips are found on the top four or five expanded leaves, while the bulk of the population of jassid nymphs can be located on four adjacent expanded leaves towards

T. H. Mabbett; M. Nachapong; K. Monglakul; J. Mekdaeng

1984-01-01

133

YONGHONG AN Department of Economics  

E-print Network

(primary), Edi Karni, and Richard Spady M.A. in Economics, Johns Hopkins University, 2007 Course work in physics, Johns Hopkins University, Sep 2004-May 2005 M.S. in Physics, Tsinghua University, 2003 B´e, and Stephen Shore Dissertation: Essays in Development Economics M.A. in Economics, Johns Hopkins University

Niebur, Ernst

134

482 NATURE MATERIALS | VOL 10 | JULY 2011 | www.nature.com/naturematerials news & views  

E-print Network

, utilization of waste heat exhausted from solar thermal or other power-generation systems. Jacob Karni and cost for reaching the optimum LEC point. As Fig. 1 shows, the efficiency of thermoelectric systems , the system efficiency of thermoelectrics could be similar to that of flat non-concentrating photovoltaics

Bhatia, Sangeeta

135

Individual Sense of Fairness: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental test of the theory of individual sense of fairness of Karni and Safra (2000). According to this theory individuals' choice among random procedures designed to allocate indivisible goods is motivated, in part, by concern for fairness. The experimental study is intended to test this hypothesis. In the experiments, the subjects are asked to play a

Barry Sopher; Edi Karni; Tim Salmon

2001-01-01

136

New neotropical species of the Genus Phlugis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) and comments on the tribe Phlugidini  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

After reviewing the literature on the tribe Phlugidini, Tenuiphlugis Kavan (with 4 species) is herein synonymized with the genus Lucienola Gurney. Seventeen new species of the predaceous katydid genus Phlugis Karny (Meconematinae) are described and figured. All of these species were collected from r...

137

The Stephen and Nancy GrandThe Stephen and Nancy GrandThe Stephen and Nancy GrandThe Stephen and Nancy Grand Water ResearchWater ResearchWater ResearchWater Research  

E-print Network

, Davis, Global Warming and its Impacts on Water Availability for Agriculture 10:20-10:40 Arnon Karnieli Management Practices on the Exacerbation or Mitigation of Global Warming 11:50-12:10 Uri Shani, Israel Water:45-14:05 Sharon Avrahami, Technion, The Impact of Global Change on N2O Emission Rates by Change in Environmental

138

Using DNA barcodes to confirm the presence of a new invasive cockroach pest in New York City.  

PubMed

Recently, specimens of a Periplaneta sp. were discovered in New York, NY, that did not match the typical morphology of Periplaneta americana L., the ubiquitous American cockroach. Here, we used DNA barcoding and morphological identification to confirm that this newly invasive pest species was indeed Periplaneta japonica Karny, 1908. We discuss this recent invasion in light of known life history traits of this species, with specific predictions for its impact in the urban northeastern United States. PMID:24498724

Evangelista, Dominic; Buss, Lyle; Ware, Jessica L

2013-12-01

139

Nuclear Chemistry Beta decay of 71,73  

E-print Network

.R. Bingham, I.G. Darby, T.N. Ginter, S.V. Ilyushkin, M. Karny, W. Krolas, P.F. Mantica, M. Pfutzner, K. Baumann, A. Becerril, T. Elliot, A. Estrade, D. Galaviz, T. Ginter, M. Hausmann, S. Hennrich, R. Kessler. Baumann, D. Bazin, J.S. Berryman, B.A. Brown, R.H. Cyburt, H.L. Crawford, A. Estrade, A. Gade, T. Ginter

Mantica, Paul F.

140

FLUORIDE EXPOSURE AND SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EGGS AND BONES OF THE HERRING GULL (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND THE COMMON GULL (LARUS CANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shellof 285 herring gull eggs (Laru.s' argentatus) and 120 comnmon gull eggs (Larus canus), collectedMay 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies eXpd)se(l to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smiielters locatedatKarni#{248}y and Sunndai, amid from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume- index,shellthickness,thickness-index,and fertilization of the eggs also were monitore(l. In 1)0th

Turid Vikoren; Gudbrand Stuve

141

A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

142

FIELD TRIALS TESTING THE EFFICACY OF ‘CC TRAPS’ FOR DETECTING AND MONITORING SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (HOOD) IN HOT PEPPERS IN ST. VINCENT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a newly identified invasive pest to the Caribbean, and poses a significant threat to agriculture and trade in the region. Methods are needed to detect the presence and to monitor populations of this pest so that they can be effectively managed...

143

Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

144

INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE AND RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT Regional and Temporal Variation in Susceptibility to -Cyhalothrin  

E-print Network

to -Cyhalothrin in Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Onion Fields in New York A. M(6): 1843Ð1848 (2003) ABSTRACT Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios

Nault, Brian

145

Effect of different ornamental pepper pollen on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newly introduced pest in the United States is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still ...

146

To be published in Systematic Entomology Treehopper's helmet is not homologous with wings (Hemiptera: Membracidae)  

E-print Network

with wings (Hemiptera: Membracidae) Kazunori Yoshizawa Systematic Entomology, Graduate School of Agriculture-11-706-4939 The helmet-like structure of membracid treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) has long been recognized, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera, to which treehoppers belong), the anterior region of dorsal T2 (mesoscutum

Yoshizawa, Kazunori

147

NUMBERS AND TYPES OF ARTHROPODS OVERWINTERING ON COMMON MULLEIN, VERBASCUM THAPUS L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE), IN A CENTRAL WASHINGTON FRUIT-GROWING REGION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Densities and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L., in a fruit-growing region of Central Washington were determined. Over 45,000 arthropods were collected from 55 plants (5 plants from each of 11 sites), dominated numerically by Acari and Thysanoptera. Insects r...

148

Variation Within and Between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant ...

149

Effects of thrips feeding on tospovirus transmission in chrysanthemum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and rapid spread of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Western Europe since the 1980s led to a considerable increase of losses in different, mainly ornamental crops due to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infections. Besides the losses inflicted by TSWV, F. occidentalis itself is also an important pest on many of these crops. Chrysanthemum is one of

Wetering van de F

1999-01-01

150

Bulletin of Entomological Research (2002) 92, 279285 DOI: 10.1079/BER2002169 Developmental and reproductive biology  

E-print Network

and reproductive biology of Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a new avocado pest in California M The developmental and reproductive biology of a new avocado pest, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, was determined In June 1996, an unknown species of thrips was discovered damaging foliage and fruit of Hass avocado

Hoddle, Mark S.

151

Molecular Ecology Notes (2005) 5, 644646 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01012.x 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-print Network

in the avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) P. F. RUGMAN-JONES,* A. R. WEEKS, M. S, Australia Abstract The recent invasion of California by avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae, has had a serious economic impact on the Californian avocado industry. Here we report the isolation

Hoddle, Mark S.

152

2007 The Authors Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 124: 101115, 2007 Journal compilation 2007 The Netherlands Entomological Society 101  

E-print Network

pest of Californian avocado orchards, using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers P.F. Rugman, USA Accepted: 13 February 2007 Key words: avocado thrips, mtDNA, source population, bottleneck, gene flow, incursion management, invasive species, Thysanoptera, Thripidae Abstract The Californian avocado

Hoddle, Mark S.

153

Management strategies for western flower thrips and the role of insecticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Today, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most significant agricultural pests globally because of the damage it is able to inflict on a wide range of crops. Adults and larvae feed by piercing plant tissues with their needle-shape...

154

Migration arising from gradients in shear stress: Particle distributions in Poiseuille flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental evidence for the existence of shear induced migration processes is reviewed and the mechanism by Leighton and Acrivos (1987b) is described in detail. The proposed mechanism is shown to lead to the existence of an additional shear induced migration in the presence of gradients in shear stress such as would be found in Poiseuille flow, and which may be used to predict the amplitude of the observed short-term viscosity increase. The concentration and velocity profiles which result from such a migration are discussed in detail and are compared to the experimental observations of Karnis, Goldsmith and Mason (1966).

Leighton, D. T., Jr.

1988-01-01

155

An unexpected mixture of substances in the defensive secretions of the tubuliferan thrips, Callococcithrips fuscipennis (Moulton).  

PubMed

Adults and larvae of the thrips Callococcithrips fuscipennis (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Tubulifera: Phlaeothripidae) live in the sticky wax masses of adult females of the felt scale insect Callococcus acaciae (Maskell) (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae). The scale is sessile and feeds on Kunzea shrubs (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). If stressed, the thrips produce droplets of secretions. The mixture contains pentadecane, tridecane, two monoterpenoids, hexadecyl butanoate, and smaller amounts of 15 other esters of long-chain unbranched alcohols identified as acetates, butanoates, hexanoates, and octanoates. The monoterpenoids are dolichodial, an iridoid, and an unknown substance with a mass spectrum very similar to that of anisomorphal and peruphasmal, diastereomers of dolichodial, but with a different retention time. Iridoids, butanoates, hexanoates, and octanoates have not been previously identified in Thysanoptera. PMID:18506530

Tschuch, Gunther; Lindemann, Peter; Moritz, Gerald

2008-06-01

156

Chemistry of clothianidin and related compounds.  

PubMed

Clothianidin, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been found by former Agro Division, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., at present) and codeveloped with Bayer CropScience. During the studies on neonicotinoid insecticides, nitenpyram (an open-chain nitromethylene derivative) was prepared first, showing a potent activity against Hemiptera and Thysanoptera pests, and its modification led to clothianidin (a nitroguanidine derivative). Clothianidin exhibits excellent control efficacies in small amounts for a wide variety of insect pests such as Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera for the long term, with excellent systemic action and by a variety of application methods. The structural features of clothianidin are a thiazole ring and an open-chain guanidine skeleton. The structure-activity relationships of guanidine derivatives and the synthetic studies of clothianidin are also discussed. PMID:20873771

Uneme, Hideki

2011-04-13

157

Influence of weedy field margins on abundance patterns of the predatory bugs Orius spp. and their prey, the western flower thrips ( Frankliniella occidentalis ), on faba bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of weedy field strips on the abundance patterns of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and predatory bugs of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), on faba bean and on weeds was investigated in Adana province, Turkey, during 2005–2006. There\\u000a were two treatments: in one treatment, weeds at the margins and inside the plots were regularly controlled by

Ekrem Atakan

2010-01-01

158

Influence of planting date on the relationship between populations of Frankliniella flower thrips and predatory bug Orius niger in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of three planting dates [mid-March (early-planted), 15 April–15 May (normal-or timely planted) and mid-June\\u000a (late-planted)] of cotton variety SG 125 on the relationship between populations of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the predatory bug, Orius niger (Wolff) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were investigated in Adana province in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2003\\u000a and 2004. To facilitate

Ekrem Atakan; Oktay Gençer

2008-01-01

159

Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

2015-01-01

160

Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

2015-01-01

161

Thrips pollination of the dioecious ant plant Macaranga hullettii (Euphorbiaceae) in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Discussion about thrips (Thysanoptera) as main pollinators has been controversial in the past because thrips do not fit the preconception of an effective pollinator. In this study, we present evidence for thrips pollination in the dioecious pioneer tree genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Macaranga hullettii is pollinated predominantly by one thrips species, Neoheegeria sp. (Phlaeothripidae, Thysanoptera). As a reward for pollinators, the protective floral bracteoles function as breeding sites for thrips and trichomal nectaries on the adaxial surface of the floral bracteoles provide alimentation. Flowering phenology of both staminate and pistillate trees was highly synchronized within 3-4 wk periods. In contrast to pistillate trees, staminate trees start to breed the thrips inside the developing inflorescences ?2 wk before anthesis. Breeding of Neoheegeria sp. in the laboratory indicates that the thrips development is completed within ?17 d. Thus, staminate trees offer breeding sites for one thrips generation until the onset of pollen presentation. Intraspecific pollen transfer by thrips was proved by pollen loads of thrips taken from receptive pistillate inflorescences of M. hullettii. Bagging experiments of different mesh sizes showed that seed set reached almost the level of open-pollinated flowers when exclusively tiny insects like thrips were able to enter the net bags, but no apomictic seed set occurred when no insect access was given to the flowers. PMID:21669711

Moog, Ute; Fiala, Brigitte; Federle, Walter; Maschwitz, Ulrich

2002-01-01

162

Biological and molecular characterization of tospoviruses in Thailand.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight isolates of tospoviruses associated with tomato, pepper, cucurbits, peanut, and Physalis plants collected from fields in different regions of Thailand were characterized. On the basis of N gene and protein sequence relationships, three tospoviruses were identified, namely Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV). CLUSTAL analysis of selected N protein sequences showed different isolates of CaCV in three distinct clades. Based on necrosis symptoms on tomato and their 93% identity to CaCV isolates in the other two clades, CaCV-TD8, CaCV-AIT and CaCV-KS16-Thailand tomato tospovirus were designated as CaCV-tomato necrosis strain. A phylogenetic tree based on the 413-amino-acid Gc fragment of the CaCV-Pkk isolate supported the existence of three distinct CaCV clades. Vigna unguiculata produced concentric rings useful for discriminating the Thai CaCV peanut isolates from tomato or pepper isolates. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with species-specific primers, the three tospoviruses could be detected in mixed infections in watermelon and Physalis, as well as in the bodies of thrips vectors, Thrips palmi and Scirtothrips dorsalis, collected from fields. PMID:18188501

Chiemsombat, Pissawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Warin, Nuchanard; Hongprayoon, Ratchanee; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Pongsapich, Preyapan

2008-01-01

163

Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae  

PubMed Central

The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175

Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

2010-01-01

164

Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips on broccoli.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for controlling western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on broccoli at a low temperature of 1 degree C. Complete control was achieved in 5 d at 0.003% oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen level of 0.03%, 6-d treatment killed -85% of thrips, and 10-d treatment killed all thrips. The 5-d ULO treatment with 0.003% oxygen was successfully tested on iced commercial broccoli of several cultivars without any noticeable negative effects on shelf-life and postharvest quality. The ULO treatment provided a safe and effective alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips on exported broccoli for industrial development. PMID:17598530

Liu, Yong-Biao

2007-06-01

165

Floral scent compounds of Amazonian Annonaceae species pollinated by small beetles and thrips.  

PubMed

Chemical analysis (GC-MS) yielded a total of 58 volatile compounds in the floral scents of six species of Annonaceae distributed in four genera (Xylopia, Anaxagorea, Duguetia, and Rollinia), Xylopia aromatica is pollinated principally by Thysanoptera and secondarily by small beetles (Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae), whereas the five other species were pollinated by Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae only. Although the six Annonaceae species attract a similar array of pollinator groups, the major constituents of their floral scents are of different biochemical origin. The fragrances of flowers of Anaxagorea brevipes and Anaxagorea dolichocarpa were dominated by esters of aliphatic acids (ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate), which were not detected in the other species. Monoterpenes (limonene, p-cymene, alpha-pinene) were the main scent compounds of Duguetia asterotricha, and naphthalene prevailed in the scent of Rollinia insignis flowers. The odors of X. aromatica and Xylopia benthamii flowers were dominated by high amounts of benzenoids (methylbenzoate, 2-phenylethyl alcohol). PMID:11130664

Jürgens, A; Webber, A C; Gottsberger, G

2000-11-01

166

Evidence for a male-produced sex pheromone in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.  

PubMed

Olfactometer bioassays of walking adult western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) showed that virgin females (1- to 3-d postemergence) were attracted to the odor of 25 adult males, but not to the odor of 25 adult females, providing behavioral evidence for a male-produced sex pheromone in this species. In contrast to earlier findings, mixed-age adult males were attracted to the odor of adult males. GC analysis of odors collected on SPME fibers revealed two major components and five minor components that were present in the male odor and not in the female odor. The compounds were not present in hexane extracts of males, indicating that these compounds are produced on demand and not stored. PMID:15074664

Kirk, William D J; Hamilton, James G C

2004-01-01

167

Intra- and interspecific molecular polymorphism of thrips species.  

PubMed

Molecular polymorphism of six species of Thysanoptera of both sexes, collected from different locations and host plants in Hungary was studied by using RAPD-PCR technique. The specimens were classified according to sampling sites (Gödöllö, Nagykovácsi and Valkó), host plants (Lathyrus tuberosus, Medicago sativa, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense), sexes, and larvae in case of Aeolothrips intermedius. On the basis of the total of 103 fragments generated by 15 RAPD primers the genetic distances were calculated by cluster analysis using simple matching method. The dendrogram resulted in two main groups: Aeolothripidae (Aeolothrips intermedius) and Thripidae (Frankliniella intonsa, Kakothrips robustus, Odontothrips confusus, Thrips dilatatus and T. tabaci). Within the family Thripidae two subgroups were observed including (i) F. intonsa, T. dilatatus and T. tabaci, and (ii) K. robustus and O. confusus. Two population-specific and one sex-linked fragments were identified by the RAPD primers, OPQ 14, NO11 and OPA08, respectively. PMID:12371611

Bayar, K; Törjék, O; Kiss, Erzsébet; Gyulai, G; Heszky, L

2002-01-01

168

Species Diversity, Seasonal Dynamics, and Vertical Distribution of Litter—Dwelling Thrips in an Urban Forest Remnant of South China  

PubMed Central

Litter—dwelling thrips are an important component of soil macroinvertebrates in tropical and subtropical regions. However, little is known about assemblage composition, seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of litter—dwelling thrips. A survey of forest litter—dwelling thrips and other soil macroinvertebrates was conducted in an urban forest remnant at Guangzhou, China during 2004–2005 and 2008–2009. A total of 835 Tullgren samples were collected during the study. Thysanoptera constituted 6.5% of total litter—dwelling macroinvertebrate individuals extracted, representing three families, 19 genera, and 25 species. Psalidothrips ascitus Ananthakrishnan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Hyidiothrips guangdongensis Wang, Tong and Zhang represented 78.5% of all individuals of litter—dwelling thrips during the survey. Numbers of species and density of leaf—litter thrips fluctuated between different months. Density of litter thrips increased from March until October, reaching a maximum of 41.1 individuals/m2 followed by a decrease. In January and February only a few larval thrips were present. Species diversity gradually increased from July (four species) to December (10 species), and then declined rapidly. The vertical distribution showed that the leaf—litter thrips species richness and abundance decreased significantly with soil depth; they were found only in the litter layer and upper soil layer (0-5 cm in depth) and were entirely absent in deeper soil layers. The results suggest that litter—dwelling thrips are a common group of litter invertebrates with high species diversity in subtropical regions. These urban forest remnants should be given special consideration in forest conservation planning, because of their significance as refugia for the litter invertebrate assemblages, especially for leaf—litter thrips. PMID:22937731

Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli

2012-01-01

169

Association of ?-Secretase with Lipid Rafts in Post-Golgi and Endosome Membranes*  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease-associated ?-amyloid peptides (A?) are generated by the sequential proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?- and ?-secretases. There is growing evidence that cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains are involved in regulating trafficking and processing of APP. BACE1, the major ?-secretase in neurons is a palmi-toylated transmembrane protein that resides in lipid rafts. A subset of APP is subject to amyloidogenic processing by BACE1 in lipid rafts, and this process depends on the integrity of lipid rafts. Here we describe the association of all four components of the ?-secretase complex, namely presenilin 1 (PS1)-derived fragments, mature nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2, with cholesterol-rich detergent insoluble membrane (DIM) domains of non-neuronal cells and neurons that fulfill the criteria of lipid rafts. In PS1?/?/PS2?/? and NCT?/? fibroblasts, ?-secretase components that still remain fail to become detergent-resistant, suggesting that raft association requires ?-secretase complex assembly. Biochemical evidence shows that subunits of the ?-secretase complex and three TGN/endosome-resident SNAREs cofractionate in sucrose density gradients, and show similar solubility or insolubility characteristics in distinct non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents, indicative of their co-residence in membrane microdomains with similar protein-lipid composition. This notion is confirmed using magnetic immunoisolation of PS1- or syntaxin 6-positive membrane patches from a mixture of membranes with similar buoyant densities following Lubrol WX extraction or sonication, and gradient centrifugation. These findings are consistent with the localization of ?-secretase in lipid raft microdomains of post-Golgi and endosomes, organelles previously implicated in amyloidogenic processing of APP. PMID:15322084

Vetrivel, Kulandaivelu S.; Cheng, Haipeng; Lin, William; Sakurai, Takashi; Li, Tong; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Wong, Philip C.; Xu, Huaxi; Thinakaran, Gopal

2005-01-01

170

The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.  

PubMed

Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found. PMID:22208869

Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

2011-01-01

171

Insects' RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of “Hidden Break” in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci  

PubMed Central

With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a “hidden break” which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect's RNA, the “hidden break” is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of “hidden break” was depicted in whiteflies' 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect's 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species.

Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Ombura, Fidelis Levi; Aroko, Erick Onyango

2015-01-01

172

Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions  

E-print Network

In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may determine the outcome of such interactions. We carried out experiments under controlled conditions on young rose plants in order to assess the impact of these indirect interactions on life history traits of three pests: the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae), the aphid Rhodobium porosum Sanderson (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Our results indicated (i) a bi-directional negative interaction between B. cinerea and R. porosum, which is conveyed by decreased aphid growth rate and reduced fungal lesion area, as well as (ii) an indirect negative effect of B. cinerea on insect behavior. No indirect effect was observed between thrips and aphids. This research highlights several complex interactions that may be

Raphaëlle Mouttet; Cécile Thomas; Nicolas Desneux

2011-01-01

173

Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions  

PubMed Central

In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may determine the outcome of such interactions. We carried out experiments under controlled conditions on young rose plants in order to assess the impact of these indirect interactions on life history traits of three pests: the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae), the aphid Rhodobium porosum Sanderson (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Our results indicated (i) a bi-directional negative interaction between B. cinerea and R. porosum, which is conveyed by decreased aphid growth rate and reduced fungal lesion area, as well as (ii) an indirect negative effect of B. cinerea on insect behavior. No indirect effect was observed between thrips and aphids. This research highlights several complex interactions that may be involved in structuring herbivore and plant pathogen communities within natural and managed ecosystems. PMID:21611161

Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Bearez, Philippe; Thomas, Cécile; Desneux, Nicolas

2011-01-01

174

Seasonality of Litter Insects and Relationship with Rainfall in a Wet Evergreen Forest in South Western Ghats  

PubMed Central

The seasonality of litter insect abundance and its relationship with rainfall was analyzed in a wet evergreen forest on the windward side of south Western Ghats. Monthly litter samples were collected using Berlese funnels during 4 seasons of a year: southwest monsoon season June—August), northeast monsoon season (September—November), summer (March -May) and pre-summer season (December—February). Insect fauna as a whole showed no seasonal variation in abundance, however, some individual insect orders showed significant seasonal variation. Overall insect fauna and individual orders were distributed independently relative to rainfall. All insect orders with the exception of Psocoptera were present during all four seasons. Coleoptera (42%) was the dominant group in all seasons followed by Formicidae (12.3%), insect larvae (10.1%), Collembola (9.2%) and Thysanoptera (8.9%). Exceptionally high abundance of Ptiliidae contributed to the unprecedented abundance of litter Coleoptera. The aseasonality of litter insect fauna as a whole is attributed to year-round availability of rainfall and the absence of severe summer conditions. PMID:19619036

Anu, Anto; Sabu, Thomas K; Vineesh, PJ

2009-01-01

175

The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed. PMID:24205864

Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

2013-01-01

176

Insects' RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of "Hidden Break" in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci.  

PubMed

With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a "hidden break" which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect's RNA, the "hidden break" is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of "hidden break" was depicted in whiteflies' 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect's 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species. PMID:25767721

Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Ombura, Fidelis Levi; Aroko, Erick Onyango

2015-01-01

177

Effect of Different Temperatures on Consumption of Two Spotted Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Eggs by the Predatory Thrips, Scolothrips longicornis  

PubMed Central

Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15° C to 37° C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 °C to 37 °C, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower temperature thresholds for consumption by first and second instar larvae of S. longicornis was estimated to be 6.8 ± 0.04° C and 4.6 ± 0.03° C, respectively. The daily consumption of ovipositing females followed a nonlinear pattern, with maximum daily predation estimated at 32.8° C. From the model used to describe consumption of ovipositing females, an upper threshold for consumption of 41.4° C was estimated. The performance of S. longicornis at the different temperatures is discussed in relation to its practical use in integrated pest control programs. PMID:23425212

Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

2012-01-01

178

The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips  

PubMed Central

Abstract To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05). Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05), but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05). The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Pielou eveness index (J), and Simpson dominance index (D). All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:25061351

Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli; Wu, Donghui

2014-01-01

179

Detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

A method for rapid and reliable detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera Thripidae) would be a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of this virus. A RT-PCR method developed for this purpose is reported. The method was tested on thrips involved in laboratory transmission trials and on thrips collected in the field, whose capability to transmit TSWV was checked previously by leaf disk assays. The RT-PCR results were consistent with the results obtained by the leaf disk assays. Among thrips involved in laboratory experiments, 97% of the adults that transmitted TSWV were positive by RT-PCR; as did some non-transmitter adults reacted, whereas among field-collected thrips only the individuals able to transmit were positive by RT-PCR. In addition, healthy thrips were allowed to feed as adults on virus-infected leaves for 48 h, and then examined by RT-PCR immediately or after starving or feeding on virus-free plants for various times, to determine if virus ingested (but not transmissible) was also detectable. The virus was detectable immediately after the feed or within 12 and 24 h for individuals starved or fed on virus-free plants, respectively, but not after those periods. Thus, the method could detect rapidly and reliably the virus in vectors from the field, providing 24 h of starving to avoid positive RT-PCR results from thrips simply carrying the virus. PMID:12668270

Mason, Giovanna; Roggero, Piero; Tavella, Luciana

2003-04-01

180

Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

2011-01-01

181

Arthropods, plants, and transmission lines in Arizona: secondary succession in a Sonoran Desert habitat  

SciTech Connect

Overall arthropod densities were low at this site, but the arthropod densities on the disturbed areas appeared to be enhanced after several years. No taxa were found to be statistically different in density between control and disturbed plots. Diversity decreased on the disturbed area after construction. Arthropod community similarity (C) was lower after construction, but C values appear to be related to presence or absence of annual herbs and grasses and not to total cover. Except for globe mallow, there were no pioneer plant species on the experimental plot. Effects of powerline construction on the experimental plant community were a brief reduction in total cover and a slight increase in cover of herbs and annual grasses. The 1976 and 1977 samples exhibit comparable cover values of these plants on both experimental and control plots. The dominant arthropod taxa on the experimental area (especially Thysanoptera, Cicadellidae, Coccinellidae, and Melyridae) appear to be responding numerically to the annual herbs and grasses which are becoming established on the plot.

Johnson, C.D.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Beley, J.R.

1981-09-01

182

Alkaloid metabolism in thrips-Papaveraceae interaction: recognition and mutual response.  

PubMed

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), the Western Flower Thrips (WFT), is a polyphagous and highly adaptable insect of the order Thysanoptera. It has a broad host range but is rarely found on Papaveraceae, which might be due to deterrent effects of alkaloids present in most species of this family. In order to test the adaptive potential of WFT, we investigated its interaction with two Papaveraceae offered as sole feeding source. We found that WFT are able to live and feed on leaves of Eschscholzia californica and Chelidonium majus. Both plants respond to thrips feeding by the enhanced production of benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Furthermore, cell cultures of E. californica react to water insoluble compounds prepared from adult thrips with enhanced alkaloid production. During feeding, WFT take up benzophenanthridine alkaloids from either plant and from an artificial feeding medium and convert them to their less toxic dihydroderivatives. This was shown in detail with sanguinarine, the most cytotoxic benzophenanthridine. A similar conversion is used in plants to prevent self-intoxication by their own toxins. We conclude that WFT causes a phytoalexin-like response in Papaveraceae, but is able to adapt to such host plants by detoxification of toxic alkaloids. PMID:24331426

Schütz, Ingeborg; Moritz, Gerald B; Roos, Werner

2014-01-15

183

Discovery of the new proton emitter ^144Tm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton emitter studies enable precise probing of the composition of the wave function of nuclei beyond the proton dripline. In a decay of proton radioactive odd-odd nuclei excited levels in the (even-Z,odd-N) daughters can be populated allowing us to deduce the properties of single particle neutron states. So far, fine structure in proton emission was observed for only one odd-odd emitter, ^146Tm [1]. The neighbouring odd-odd isotope ^144Tm is an obvious candidate to exhibit similar decay pattern . Its decay should be dominated by a large ?h_11/2 component present in the ground and isomeric state wavefunction, as it was observed for ^146Tm[1] and ^145Tm[2]. The admixture of the 2^+ øtimes ?f_7/2 component or of the mirror [?h_11/2 ?s_1/2] proton-neutron configuration can cause the fine structure in proton emission. Evidence for the proton decay of ^144Tm was found in an experiment at the Recoil Mass Spectrometer [3] at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ^144Tm events were found in a weak (? ? 10 nb) p5n channel of the fusion reaction of ^58Ni beam at 340 MeV on a ^92Mo target. The observed decay energy of about 1.8 MeV and the half-life of the order of ? 1 ?s suggest proton emission from the dominant ?h_11/2 part of the wave function. The detection of this very short proton emitter was made possible by use of a double-sided silicon strip detector connected to a fast Digital-Signal-Processing-based acquisition system [4]. [1] T.N. Ginter et al., Phys. Rev.C68, 034330 (2003). [2] M. Karny et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 012502 (2003). [3] C. J. Gross et al., Nucl.Instrum.Methods A450, 12 (2000). [4] R. Grzywacz, Nucl. Instrum. MethodsB204, 649 (2003).

Grzywacz, Robert

2004-11-01

184

Variation within and between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization  

PubMed Central

Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R.; Funderburk, Joseph E.; Olson, Steve M.

2011-01-01

185

Variation within and between Frankliniella thrips species in host plant utilization.  

PubMed

Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Olson, Steve M

2011-01-01

186

Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?  

PubMed Central

Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a general ecological principle, consistency, reliability, and precision are appropriate criteria to evaluate the applicability of a given sampling method for both community-level and taxa-specific arthropod surveys in any ecosystem. PMID:24223273

Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

2013-01-01

187

Primordial Enemies: Fungal Pathogens in Thrips Societies  

PubMed Central

Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general? PMID:23185420

Turnbull, Christine; Wilson, Peter D.; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Smith, Shannon; Beattie, Doug; Hussey, Sam; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Andrew

2012-01-01

188

Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Proprioseiopsis asetus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on asparagus thrips, Thrips tabaci.  

PubMed

Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most important pests of asparagus in China. In this study the effects of five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) on the growth, survivorship and reproduction of Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on T. tabaci was examined under laboratory conditions. Development time of immatures decreased with increasing temperature. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold (T 0) and thermal constant (K) of P. asetus were estimated at 15.2 °C and 75.8 degree days by means of a linear model. Fertilized females fed on T. tabaci produced offspring of both sexes, whereas the offspring sex ratio [?/(? + ?)] of P. asetus at 20-35 °C was female-biased (0.68-0.78) and not significantly influenced by temperature. Survivorship during immature development was significantly influenced by temperature, and was especially low at 15 °C. Pre- and post-oviposition periods of fertilized females shortened with the increase in temperature. The longest oviposition period was 20.4 days, at 25 °C, whereas at 15 °C the mites did not reproduce. Maximum average life time fecundity and mean daily fecundity was recorded at 25 and 35 °C, respectively; the intrinsic rate of increase ranged from 0.05 (20 °C) to 0.17 (35 °C). The results indicate the capability of P. asetus to develop and reproduce at a broad range of temperatures, especially above 25 °C, which can be used for better management of T. tabaci in asparagus. PMID:24797293

Huang, Jian Hua; Freed, Shoaib; Wang, Li Si; Qin, Wen Jing; Chen, Hong Fan; Qin, Hou Guo

2014-10-01

189

Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control.  

PubMed

There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for postharvest pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Four insect species including western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera Thripidae); aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae); confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at various life stages were fumigated with 0.1-2.0% nitric oxide under ultralow oxygen levels of < or = 50 ppm in 1.9-liter glass jars at 2-25 degrees C depending on insect species. Fumigations were effective against all four insect species. Efficacy of nitric oxide fumigation increased with nitric oxide concentration, treatment time, and temperature. There were also considerable variations among insect species as well as life stages in susceptibility to nitric oxide fumigation. Complete control of thrips was achieved in 2 and 8 h with 2.0 and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively, at 2 degrees C. At the same temperature, complete control of the aphid was achieved in 3, 9, and 12 h with 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively. Larvae, pupae, and adults of confused flour beetle were effectively controlled in 24 h with 0.5% nitric oxide at 20 degrees C. Complete mortality of confused flour beetle eggs was achieved in 24 h with 2.0% nitric oxide at 10 degrees C. Rice weevil adults and eggs were effectively controlled with 1.0% nitric oxide in 24 and 48 h, respectively, at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that nitric oxide has potential as a fumigant for postharvest pest control. PMID:24498723

Liu, Yong-Biao

2013-12-01

190

How Predictable Are the Behavioral Responses of Insects to Herbivore Induced Changes in Plants? Responses of Two Congeneric Thrips to Induced Cotton Plants  

PubMed Central

Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae)) damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae), Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate. PMID:23691075

Silva, Rehan; Furlong, Michael J.; Wilson, Lewis J.; Walter, Gimme H.

2013-01-01

191

Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325

Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

2012-01-01

192

Expression and Characterization of a Soluble Form of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoprotein GN  

PubMed Central

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an economically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, GN and GC, are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not required for the initial infection of plants. Thus, it is assumed that the envelope glycoproteins play important roles in the entry of TSWV into the insect midgut, the first site of infection. To directly test the hypothesis that GN plays a role in TSWV acquisition by thrips, we expressed and purified a soluble, recombinant form of the GN protein (GN-S). The expression of GN-S allowed us to examine the function of GN in the absence of other viral proteins. We detected specific binding to thrips midguts when purified GN-S was fed to thrips in an in vivo binding assay. The TSWV nucleocapsid protein and human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B did not bind to thrips midguts, indicating that the GN-S-thrips midgut interaction is specific. TSWV acquisition inhibition assays revealed that thrips that were concomitantly fed purified TSWV and GN-S had reduced amounts of virus in their midguts compared to thrips that were fed TSWV only. Our findings that GN-S binds to larval thrips guts and decreases TSWV acquisition provide evidence that GN may serve as a viral ligand that mediates the attachment of TSWV to receptors displayed on the epithelial cells of the thrips midgut. PMID:15542672

Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.; German, Thomas L.

2004-01-01

193

6-Pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one: a potent peach-derived kairomone for New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus.  

PubMed

New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are attracted to ripening fruits, especially peaches. Volatiles from unripe and ripe peach fruits were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Six lactones were found only in ripe peach volatiles: ?-heptalactone, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, ?-decalactone, and ?-decalactone. When these compounds were tested individually in field-trapping experiments, three of them (?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, and 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one) attracted New Zealand flower thrips. In another field-trapping experiment, aimed at testing various combinations of the three active compounds, no synergistic effects were found among all combinations tested; no combination caught more thrips than 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, alone. A further field-trapping experiment was conducted to determine the dose (10, 100, and 500 mg) of 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one that gave the greatest catch of T. obscuratus, while also comparing it against another attractant, ethyl nicotinate, for T. obscuratus. The greatest catches in traps baited with either attractant were at loadings of 500 mg. At both 10 and 500 mg, traps baited with 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one caught more T. obscuratus than those baited with the same amounts of ethyl nicotinate. 6-Pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one is a potent attractant for New Zealand flower thrips and, therefore, could be used for monitoring and control of New Zealand flower thrips. Work is underway developing monitoring and control options utilizing 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one for this important pest. PMID:24435661

El-Sayed, A M; Mitchell, V J; Suckling, D M

2014-01-01

194

Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis  

PubMed Central

Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 108, 7.0 × 105, and 9.9 × 105 CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94–99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84–93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81–94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62–66%, and different horticultural oils by 58–85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

2013-01-01

195

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

196

How predictable are the behavioral responses of insects to herbivore induced changes in plants? Responses of two congeneric thrips to induced cotton plants.  

PubMed

Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae)) damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae), Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate. PMID:23691075

Silva, Rehan; Furlong, Michael J; Wilson, Lewis J; Walter, Gimme H

2013-01-01

197

Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment  

PubMed Central

Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms “construct niches,” favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within “domiciles” made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70–80%) or low (8–10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile’s role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at “high” humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from “deferred byproduct mutualism,” that is, backup parental care in case of mortality. PMID:25419084

2014-01-01

198

Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment.  

PubMed

Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms "construct niches," favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within "domiciles" made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70-80%) or low (8-10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile's role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at "high" humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from "deferred byproduct mutualism," that is, backup parental care in case of mortality. PMID:25419084

Gilbert, James D J

2014-11-01

199

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

200

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

201

Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: a continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration.  

PubMed

The effects of insecticides used for California citrus pest management were evaluated using larval and adult stages of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This predatory beetle is essential for control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Williston) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus. When adult beetles were exposed to treated citrus leaves, adult survival was significantly reduced by the foliar neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the pyrethroid cyfluthrin. Progeny production was significantly reduced by imidacloprid, cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin, and buprofezin. Buprofezin, pyriproxifen, and foliar imidacloprid also significantly reduced successful development of larvae into the adult stage. When vedalia stages were fed insecticide-treated cottony cushion scale reared on Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait, toxic effects were more severe than contact toxicity alone. Adult beetle survival was most profoundly reduced by the pyrethroids and to a lesser extent the foliar neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Progeny production and larval development to adulthood were reduced by all insecticides but were most severely affected by pyriproxifen and the pyrethroids. Systemically applied neonicotinoids were toxic to vedalia larvae feeding on cottony cushion scale that had ingested these insecticides. These data demonstrate that IGRs, neonicotinoid insecticides, and pyrethroid insecticides have a significant, negative impact on vedalia beetles. Depending on the rate of insecticide used, the number and timing of applications, and the level of coverage of the tree, disruption of vedalia can be minimized. However, the situation is made difficult when pests such as citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), forktailed bush katydid Scuddaria furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Orthoptera: Tettigoiniidae), or glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata Say (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) require these pesticide treatments during periods of vedalia beetle activity. PMID:14650510

Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Gu, Ping

2003-10-01

202

Railway infrastructure monitoring with COSMO/SkyMed imagery and multi-temporal SAR interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For all the European Countries, the rail network represents a key critical infrastructure, deserving protection in view of its continuous structure spread over the whole territory, of the high number of European citizens using it for personal and professional reasons, and of the large volume of freight moving through it. Railway system traverses a wide variety of terrains and encounters a range of geo-technical conditions. The interaction of these factors together with climatic and seismic forcing, may produce ground instabilities that impact on the safety and efficiency of rail operations. In such context, a particular interest is directed to the development of technologies regarding both the prevention of mishaps of infrastructures and the fast recovery of their normal working conditions after the occurrence of accidents (disaster managing). Both these issues are of strategic interest for EU Countries, and in particular for Italy, since, more than other countries, it is characterized by a geo-morphological and hydro-geological structure complexity that increases the risk of natural catastrophes due to landslides, overflowings and floods. The present study has been carried out in the framework of a scientific project aimed at producing a diagnostic system, capable to foresee and monitor landslide events along railway networks by integrating in situ data, detected from on board sophisticated innovative measuring systems, with Earth Observation (EO) techniques. Particular importance is devoted to the use of advanced SAR interferometry, thanks to their all-weather, day-night capability to detect and measure with sub-centimeter accuracy ground surface displacements that, in such context, can occur before a landslide event or after that movements . Special attention is directed to the use of SAR images acquired by COSMO/SkyMed (ASI) constellation capable to achieve very high spatial resolution and very short revisit and response time. In this context, a stack of 57 CSK stripmap images (pol.: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-03; resolution: 3x3 m2) have been acquired from October 2009 to April 2012, covering the Calabria's Tyrrhenian coast, between the towns of Palmi and Reggio Calabria. The imaged area is of strategic importance since the two towns are connected by a stretch of the Tyrrhenian railway line, a fundamental line (as classified by RFI, the Italian Rail Network) belonging to the TEN-T network, i.e. the trans-european transport network defined since early '90 by the European Commission. Moreover, Calabria region is a challenging area where carrying on an analysis on weathering-related slope movements . In Calabria, on 2009the geo-hydrological crisis was so severe that the Italian Government had to declare the "state of emergency ". This paper concerns the processing of the CSK dataset performed through the SPINUA algorithm a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique originally developed with the aim of detection and monitoring of coherent targets in non- or scarcely urbanized areas. The displacement maps derived on the area of interest will be presented and commented with particular attention to the potential impact that such EO-based product can have on the railway networks monitoring. Acknowledgments CSK data provided by ASI in the framework of the project CAR-SLIDE, funded by MIUR (PON01_00536)

Chiaradia, M.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Bovenga, F.; Guerriero, L.

2012-12-01

203

Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

2014-05-01

204

What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic signal that can be extracted from Insecta mitogenomes. Based on the combined use of the five best topology-performing genes we obtained comparable results to whole mitogenomes, highlighting the important role of data quality. Conclusion We show for the first time that mitogenomic data agrees with nuclear and morphological data for several of the most controversial insect evolutionary relationships, adding a new independent source of evidence to study relationships among insect orders. We propose that deeper divergences cannot be inferred with the current available methods due to sequence saturation and compositional bias inconsistencies. Our exploratory analysis indicates that the CAT model is the best dealing with LBA and it could be useful for other groups and datasets with similar phylogenetic difficulties. PMID:22032248

2011-01-01

205

Artificial and factitious foods support the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii.  

PubMed

The generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), decapsulated dry cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Anostraca: Artemiidae), and on meridic artificial diets (composed of honey, sucrose, tryptone, yeast extract, and egg yolk) supplemented with pupal hemolymph of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (AD1), with E. kuehniella eggs (AD2) or with A. franciscana cysts (AD3). Development, reproduction and predation capacity of the predatory mites were assessed in the first (G1) and sixth generation (G6) of rearing on the different diets. Immature survival rates in G1 were similar on all diets (96.8-100 %). After six generations, however, survival of A. swirskii was significantly reduced on all diets except on A. franciscana cysts. Oviposition rates did not differ between generations when females were fed on E. kuehniella, AD2 or AD3. The total number of deposited eggs was similar among diets except in G6 where the females fed on A. franciscana cysts produced more eggs than those maintained on E. kuehniella eggs. On most diets the intrinsic rates of increase in G1 were superior to those in G6, except for predators supplied with A. franciscana cysts where no differences were observed among generations. Female mites did not lose their capacity to kill first instar Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) after six generations on the different diets, but predation rates in G6 on E. kuehniella were lower than in G1. In conclusion, the different factitious and artificial diets tested in the present study supported the development and reproduction of A. swirskii for a single generation but fitness losses occurred to a varying degree after several generations on E. kuehniella eggs or the artificial diets. Artificial diet enriched with A. franciscana cysts yielded better results than the other artificial diets. Amblyseius swirskii performed best on decapsulated Artemia cysts indicating their potential for use in the mass production of the predator or to sustain its populations in the crop after release. PMID:24154947

Nguyen, Duc Tung; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Clercq, Patrick

2014-02-01