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1

Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils to Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).  

PubMed

The fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils to adult Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis Poppius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) was examined by using a vapor phase toxicity bioassay and compared with those of dichlorvos, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and thiamethoxam, four commonly used insecticides. Responses varied according to oil type and insect species. As judged by 24-h LC50 values, pennyroyal oil (2.63 mg/liter air) was the most toxic fumigant and was 23.6-fold more toxic than dichlorvos (62.09 mg/liter air) against adult T. palmi. Potent fumigant toxicity (LC50, 11.03-19.21 mg/liter air) was observed in armoise, basil, cedarleaf, coriander, cypress, howood, hyssop, marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, rosemary, and sage (Dalmatia) oils. Neither emamectin benzoate, spinosad, nor thiamethoxam exhibited fumigant action. Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LC50, 6.3 x 10(-6) mg/liter air) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LC50 values of the 13 essential oils ranged from 17.29 to 158.22 mg/liter air. O. strigicollis was 1.4-22.1 times less susceptible than T. palmi to the essential oils. The essential oils described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of T. palmi in greenhouses. PMID:17066806

Yi, Chang-Geun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Park, Chang-Gyu; Ahn, Young-Joon

2006-10-01

2

Rapid cold hardening of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Cold tolerance of the palm thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, was investigated to predict its survival in field during winter. Supercooling points of T. palmi were varied among the developmental stages and ranged from -26.4 to -18.4°C. However, the cold injuries occurred above supercooling points in terms of higher mortality. The exposure to subzero temperatures (-5° to -15°C) resulted in significant mortalities to all developmental stages of T. palmi. A preexposure to a low temperature (4°C) for 7 h significantly increased the cold tolerance of all stages of T. palmi with respect to survival at -10°C and supercooling capacity. The rapid cold hardening (RCH) was dependent on the duration of the preexposure period at 4°C in adult stage. Polyol and sugar analysis using an high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that 4°C preexposure caused accumulation of glycerol, trehalose, mannitol, and mannose in the adults. The increase in trehalose levels was more significant than the others. This study suggests that all stages of T. palmi are able to become cold-hardy by RCH, in which several polyols and sugars may play crucial roles as cryoprotectants. PMID:25182622

Park, Youngjin; Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Yonggyun

2014-08-01

3

Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi, on eggplant, Solanum melongena.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature on the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), preimaginal development, survival, fecundity, longevity of females and males, and population growth were investigated at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31° C, 70-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D. The results indicated that the duration of egg, larval, and pupal stages was significantly influenced by increased temperature. The egg-to-adult developmental period of T. palmi declined from 35.7 to 9.6 days as the temperature increased from 16 to 31° C. The developmental threshold temperature estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.25° C, with a thermal constant of 196.1 degreedays. The developmental threshold temperature was 13.91, 11.82, 9.36, and 10.45° C for adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity, respectively. The thermal constants for completing the adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity were 29.3, 227.3, 454.6, and 344.8 degreedays, respectively. Female longevity was found to be shortest at 31° C (18.7 days) and longest at 16° C (56.7 days), and male longevity was shortest at 31° C (15.5 days) and longest at 16° C (50.7 days). Fecundity was highest at 25° C (64.2 eggs/female) and lowest at 16° C (23.4 eggs/female). The population trend index of T. palmi was highest at 25° C (31.3) and lowest at 16° C (7.6). The optimal developmental temperature for T. palmi in eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), was determined to be 25° C. PMID:25373225

Yadav, Ramchandra; Chang, Niann-Tai

2014-01-01

4

Effects of Temperature on the Development and Population Growth of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi, on Eggplant, Solanum melongena  

PubMed Central

The effects of temperature on the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), preimaginal development, survival, fecundity, longevity of females and males, and population growth were investigated at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31° C, 70–80% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D. The results indicated that the duration of egg, larval, and pupal stages was significantly influenced by increased temperature. The egg-to-adult developmental period of T. palmi declined from 35.7 to 9.6 days as the temperature increased from 16 to 31° C. The developmental threshold temperature estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.25° C, with a thermal constant of 196.1 degree-days. The developmental threshold temperature was 13.91, 11.82, 9.36, and 10.45° C for adult pre-oviposition period, total pre-oviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity, respectively. The thermal constants for completing the adult pre-oviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity were 29.3, 227.3, 454.6, and 344.8 degree-days, respectively. Female longevity was found to be shortest at 31° C (18.7 days) and longest at 16° C (56.7 days), and male longevity was shortest at 31° C (15.5 days) and longest at 16° C (50.7 days). Fecundity was highest at 25° C (64.2 eggs/female) and lowest at 16° C (23.4 eggs/female). The population trend index of T. palmi was highest at 25° C (31.3) and lowest at 16° C (7.6). The optimal developmental temperature for T. palmi in eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), was determined to be 25° C. PMID:25373225

Yadav, Ramchandra; Chang, Niann-Tai

2014-01-01

5

Revue bibliographique et premires observations en Guadeloupe sur Thrips palmi Karny  

E-print Network

biology (life history, effect of host plant and temperature), ecology and on the various means of control en situation de surproduction s'est brutalement retrouvé en situation de rareté avec un triplement de'apparition brutale de ce fléau, s'imposait la recherche immédiate d'un moyen chimique offrant une riposte rapide au

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

Akella, Sudhakar V. S.; Kirk, William D. J.; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F. A.; Hamilton, James G. C.

2014-01-01

7

Thrips (Thysanoptera) identification using artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

We studied the use of a supervised artificial neural network (ANN) model for semi-automated identification of 18 common European species of Thysanoptera from four genera: Aeolothrips Haliday (Aeolothripidae), Chirothrips Haliday, Dendrothrips Uzel, and Limothrips Haliday (all Thripidae). As input data, we entered 17 continuous morphometric and two qualitative two-state characters measured or determined on different parts of the thrips body (head, pronotum, forewing and ovipositor) and the sex. Our experimental data set included 498 thrips specimens. A relatively simple ANN architecture (multilayer perceptrons with a single hidden layer) enabled a 97% correct simultaneous identification of both males and females of all the 18 species in an independent test. This high reliability of classification is promising for a wider application of ANN in the practice of Thysanoptera identification. PMID:18423077

Fedor, P; Malenovský, I; Vanhara, J; Sierka, W; Havel, J

2008-10-01

8

STRAPKY (THYSANOPTERA) V HNIEZDACH VTÁKOV A CICAVCOV NPR JURSKÝ ŠÚR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nests of birds and mammals provide special ecological conditions for a rich and various invertebrate nidofauna, e.g. of Acarina, Psocoptera and Siphonaptera groups. However thrips (Thysanoptera) are out of a main focus of studying according to this point of view. Therefore our research of 105 nests of 19 bird and 2 mammal species in the National Nature Reserve Jurský Šúr

PETER J. FEDOR; JAROSLAV PELIKÁN; MIROSLAV KRUMPÁL

9

Thysanoptera infestation on skin and periorbital cellulitis in ostriches (Struthio camelus) aged 14 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To report the infestation of Thysanoptera (Limothrips denticornis) on ostriches (Struthio camelus) and to determine their relative density.METHODS: A farm in Poland was studied on which ostriches aged 14 months were severely infested with L. denticornis (thrips). Thrips were collected and their density on the neck, torso and legs (10 cm) of 85 ostriches determined at 0600, 1200 and

RG Cooper

2007-01-01

10

An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

2013-01-01

11

Thysanoptera as apparent pollinators of West Indies mahogany, Swietenia mahagoni (Meliaceae)  

E-print Network

Note Thysanoptera as apparent pollinators of West Indies mahogany, Swietenia mahagoni (Meliaceae conducted to elucidate the putative role of insects in pollination of West Indies mahogany, Swietenia of the stigma. This behavior may assist pollination. Most thrips sampled had mahogany pollen adhering to them

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

A trichodorus (triplonchida: trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (thysanoptera: panchaetothripinae).  

PubMed

A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed. PMID:25276005

Carta, L K; Skantar, A M

2014-09-01

13

A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) Nematode from Thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)  

PubMed Central

A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed.

Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.

2014-01-01

14

Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

2013-01-01

15

Spinosad resistance of melon thrips, Thrips palmi, is conferred by G275E mutation in ?6 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and cytochrome P450 detoxification.  

PubMed

To examine the resistance mechanisms of Thrips palmi against spinosad, we cloned partial nucleotide sequences of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?6 subunit (TP?6) gene from susceptible (OK) and resistant (TS1 and TS5) strains and compared the deduced amino acid sequences among the three strains. The OK, TS1, and TS5 strains respectively showed LC50 values of 3.4mg/L, 2838.5mg/L, and 6655.5mg/L. The deduced amino acid sequence of TP?6 gene showed 96% identity with that of Frankliniella occidentalis. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of TP?6 gene among the three strains showed that the TS1 and TS5 strains had a resistant amino acid, Glu, at amino acid position 275. On the other hand, a susceptible amino acid, Gly, was encoded at the corresponding amino acid position for the OK strain. The synergist, piperonyl butoxide, respectively caused 1.1-fold , 5.8-fold , and 9.0-fold decreases in the resistance ratios of the OK, TS1, and TS5 strains. These results suggest that spinosad resistance of T. palmi is conferred by reduced sensitivity of TP?6 and cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification. PMID:24974117

Bao, Wen Xue; Narai, Yutaka; Nakano, Akio; Kaneda, Takemichi; Murai, Tamotsu; Sonoda, Shoji

2014-06-01

16

ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING  

PubMed Central

The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

Dickey, Aaron M.; Trease, Andrew J.; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J. Kent; Shatters, Robert G.; Mckenzie, Cindy L.; Davis, Paul H.; Osborne, Lance S.

2014-01-01

17

Dissecting the mode of maize chlorotic mottle virus transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by Frankliniella williamsi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) has been recorded in Hawaii (Kauai Island) since the early 1990s and has since become one of the most widespread corn viruses in the Hawaiian Islands. In the United States Mainland, MCMV has been reported to be transmitted by six different species of chrysomelid beetles, including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. However, none of these beetle species have been reported in Hawaii where the corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has been identified to be the main vector. In this study, we developed leaf disk transmission assays and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the mode of MCMV transmission by the corn thrips. We showed that thrips transmitted the virus with no evidence for latent periods. Both larvae and adults transmitted the virus for up to 6 d after acquisition, with decreasing rates of transmission as time progressed. There was no evidence that adult thrips that acquired the virus as larvae were competent vectors. Real time reverse-transcription polomerase chain reaction assays showed that viral load was depleted from the vector's body after thrips had access to healthy plant tissue. Depletion of viral load was also observed when thrips matured from larvae to adults. Thrips were able to transmit MCMV after acquisition and inoculation access periods of 3 h. However, transmission efficiency increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods. Taken altogether our data suggests that corn thrips transmit MCMV in a semipersistent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting evidence of a plant virus transmitted semipersistently by thrips. PMID:23448010

Cabanas, D; Watanabe, S; Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A

2013-02-01

18

Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

2013-02-01

19

Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton hardlock caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg) can reduce cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., yields > 70% in the southeastern United States. The spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. Frankliniella spp. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating Fusarium conidia. Experiments were conducted at Marianna and Quincy in Florida in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether there was a relationship between the number of adult and larval thrips inhabiting the flowers of cotton and the incidence of cotton hardlock. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was > 98% of the adult thrips in the samples at both locations each year. The adults of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) also were collected. There were no significant regression relationships between weekly mean densities of thrips in the flowers and the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest in any of the experiments. Additional experiments were conducted at each location in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide significantly reduced the numbers of adult F. tritici, the number of thrips larvae, and the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide were as affective as applications of the insecticide plus fungicide. In one experiment, applications of the fungicide reduced the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide usually significantly increased the number of adult F. occidentalis. None of the pesticide treatments significantly affected the numbers of the key thrips predator Orius insidiosus (Say). We conclude that insecticidal control of the adults and larvae of F. tritici during flowering reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock. However, there were no significant regression relationships between the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest and the number of thrips in the flowers. PMID:19610399

Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

2009-06-01

20

Repellency of essential oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as affected by type of oil and polymer release.  

PubMed

Eight essential oils [0.125-1.0% (vol:vol) in acetone] were separately deposited on leaf disks to evaluate their potential to repel western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), adult females. Two of the best-performing essential oils were incorporated into polymer matrices of methyl cellulose or alginate [0.5 or 1% (wt:vol)] to verify the potential of the polymer to extend repellency of oils over time (24-120 h). Results showed that at a concentration of 0.5%, Thymus vulgaris L. (common thyme) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory) were the most repellent essential oils. For these two treatments, no western flower thrips were counted on treated leaf disks 60 min after the start of the test. T. serpyllum and O. compactum also showed repellency values > or = 90% at this concentration. With both the alginate and methyl cellulose polymers, the incorporation of polymers into treatment solutions containing 0.5% concentrations of S. montana and T. serpyllum resulted in higher repellency compared with treatment solutions lacking these polymers for a minimum of 3 d. For the alginate polymer, differences associated with polymer concentrations were most dramatic. High repellency was maintained for 4 d when a 0.5% concentration of the alginate was used in combination with a 0.5% concentration of S. montana. The use of repellent oils with polymers that extend their repellency may prove useful for both pre- and postharvest applications in flower crops. PMID:22928303

Picard, Isabelle; Hollingsworth, Robert G; Salmieri, Stéphane; Lacroix, Monique

2012-08-01

21

Population Dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Other Thrips Species on Two Ornamental Host Plant Species in Southern Florida.  

PubMed

Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf distortion, small flower area (size), and thrips population concentrations near buds and terminals. PMID:25182610

Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

2014-08-01

22

Effect of temperature on life table parameters of predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) fed on twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors that affect the efficiency of biological control agents. This study examined the effect of temperature on the sex ratio, longevity, oviposition periods, fecundity and life table parameters of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) fed on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), at six constant temperatures: 15, 20, 26, 30, 35, and 37 degrees C. Approximately 75% of the progeny were female, except at 37 degrees C, at which temperature the proportion of males increased. Adult longevity as well as the preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods decreased significantly with temperature. Thus, adults lived for approximately 5 wk at 15 degrees C and < 1 wk at 37 degrees C with preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods ranging from 6.4 to 0.4, 24.4-3.1, and 7-0.8 d between the two temperature extremes, respectively. The maximum (56.48 eggs) and minimum (11.69 eggs) value of total fecundity was recorded at 26 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of S. longicornis increased linearly with increasing temperature from 0.056 d(-1) at 15 degrees C to 0.310 d(-1) at 35 degrees C. The lower temperature threshold for the population increase of S. longicornis was estimated to be around 5 degrees C. The data suggest that the upper temperature threshold for the predatory thrips is approximately 37 degrees C. The results showed that populations of S. longicornis are able to develop at a broad range of temperatures and that this predator is well adapted to the high temperatures that occur in the Mediterranean region. PMID:21735896

Pakyari, Hajar; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Enkegaard, Annie

2011-06-01

23

Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants  

PubMed Central

Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100

Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

2006-01-01

24

Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.  

PubMed

The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

2014-09-01

25

Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.  

PubMed

In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall: I. purpurea, I. hederacea, M. verticillata, A. palmeri, C. obtusifolia, R. scabra, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Polygonum pensylvanicum L., and Chenopodium album L. PMID:16539098

Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

2005-12-01

26

Some Thoughts on the Future of Economic Theory By Edi Karni  

E-print Network

and social circumstances. Moreover, the welfare analysis currently practiced in economics is based, their implications, and welfare consequences. Analogously to engineering, economic theory also explores the design, and cultural changes, then welfare economics as we know it will have to be fundamentally revised. Furthermore

Niebur, Ernst

27

STRAPKY (THYSANOPTERA) V HNIEZDACH VTÁKOV A CICAVCOV JUHOZÁPADNÉHO SLOVENSKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of thrips in nests of vertebrates probably refers to their passive transport on vegetation, especially on nest material. However an active transport seems to be significant as well. This paper deals with the thrips occurring in nests of birds and mammals in south-western Slovakia. The study material of 37 positive nests (of 16 bird and 1 mammal species) included

PETER J. FEDOR; MIROSLAV KRUMPÁL

28

[Taxonomic revision of the Haplothrips-Karnyothrips group (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)].  

PubMed

The generic group ("ensemble") Haplothrips-Karnyothrips is reviewed, following the most recently published criteria for distinguishing generic characters. We establish a new diagnosis for each genus. A review of a Central American collection is included and a new genus of Phlaeothripidae is described from the Central Pacific of Costa Rica from specimens collected on Cyperaceae flowers during the dry season. The genus can be distinguished by widely separated maxillary stylets, absent maxillary bridge, pelta shape and the setae B1, which measures two thirds of the tube length. We include a key based on characters of phylogenetic importance. PMID:19069772

Retana-Salazar, Axel P; Soto-Rodríguez, Gerardo A

2007-06-01

29

The American genus Dactuliothrips (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) with three new species.  

PubMed

Three new species of Dactuliothrips Moulton are described, two from Mendoza, Argentina and one from Southern California, USA: D. prosopis sp.n. from Prosopis alpataco (Fabaceae), D. monttea sp.n. from Monttea aphylla (Scrophulariaceae), and D. ephedra sp.n. from Ephedra sp. (Ephedraceae). A revised diagnosis and an illustrated identification key to the nine recognized species of Dactuliothrips are also provided. Pictures and notes about the host plants for the species from Argentina are included, together with new records for D. kaszabi from Argentina. PMID:25277890

Pereyra, Veronica; De Borbón, Carlos Manuel

2013-01-01

30

First record of Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall), a species exotic to Brazil, is first recorded in the country. Individuals were collected on banana fruits (Musa sp.) (Musaceae) in July 2010 in the municipality of Luís Alves, state of Santa Catarina, causing rusting on the fruit peel in several bunches of bananas. PMID:23949721

Lima, E F B; Milanez, J M

2013-02-01

31

Evaluation of medium treatments for management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) and Bradysia coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

PubMed

Two greenhouse experiments, each comprising two trials, were conducted to evaluate medium drenches of insect growth regulators and conventional insecticides to reduce emergence of adult western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats, Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) from the medium. In the insect growth regulator trials, diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen provided the greatest reduction in thrips emergence, and fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin resulted in the most significant reduction of fungus gnat emergence. Treatments with the contact insecticides, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos, resulted in the greatest reduction of thrips and fungus gnat populations. These data suggest that fungus gnats are susceptible to many compounds used in commercial greenhouse production. Even though medium drenches are not currently used for thrips management, drenches with diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos could aid in reducing thrips populations in greenhouse management programs. PMID:11802598

Ludwig, S W; Oetting, R D

2001-12-01

32

Cross-resistance and baseline susceptibility of spirotetramat in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest all over the world. New products against thrips are necessary, as there are few effective compounds exhibiting cross-resistance among them. Lethal effects, cross-resistance, and baseline susceptibility to spirotetramat were evaluated in this study. A new bioassay method for testing thrips against spirotetramat was developed. Spirotetramat showed a significant mortality effect on larvae after 7 d of exposure, but a low effect was observed on adults. Baseline results for larval instars showed LC50 values ranging from 11.59 to 49.81 mg AI/liter, with a low natural variability (3.2-fold). Cross-resistance studies showed overlapping confidence limits of the LC50 values for laboratory-selected (against acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate, and spinosad) resistant and susceptible strains, and low resistance factors, from 0.5 to 1.9, suggesting no cross-resistance to conventional insecticides previously used. A slight ovicidal effect (21-40% reduction) was also detected. Despite presenting low effects on adults, spirotetramat showed high but slow efficacy on F. occidentalis larvae. Field populations in southeast Spain showed a consistent susceptibility to spirotetramat. Given the scarcity of effective products and the lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides, spirotetramat can be considered as a good chemical tool to control F. occidentalis. PMID:25026688

Guillén, Juan; Navarro, Miguel; Bielza, Pablo

2014-06-01

33

Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.  

PubMed

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is a commonly encountered and economically important insect pest of greenhouses. Greenhouse producers typically apply pesticides as mixtures to mitigate western flower thrips populations; however, there is limited information available on the compatibility and efficacy of commonly used pesticide mixtures. This study assessed nine binary and three tertiary pesticide mixtures used in greenhouses which included pesticides containing abamectin, acephate, azadirachtin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, novaluron, pymetrozine, and spinosad. Compatibility was determined for the binary pesticide mixtures using jar tests. In addition, the binary mixtures were applied to nine horticultural plant species to determine phytotoxicity based on visual appearance assessed 7 d after treatment. Bean-dip bioassays were performed in a laboratory using green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to determine LC50 values for each individual pesticide and the mixtures to establish whether the mixtures were synergistic, antagonistic, or there was no effect. The mortality of western flower thrips was assessed after 24 h, and LC50 values were calculated. Furthermore, semifield bioassays were performed in greenhouses for binary and tertiary mixtures to evaluate the efficacy (based on percent mortality) of the pesticide mixtures against western flower thrips. Results indicated that all binary mixtures were visibly compatible, and not phytotoxic to any of the plant species evaluated. Combination index calculations based on laboratory results indicated most of the binary mixtures were synergistic; however, the mixture containing spinosad + bifenazate appeared to be antagonistic against western flower thrips. The semifield bioassays demonstrated significantly reduced efficacy associated with mixtures containing azadirachtin, however, all binary mixtures provided approximately 80% western flower thrips mortality. PMID:23448038

Willmott, Amy L; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zhu, Kun Yan

2013-02-01

34

Economic Thresholds of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) for Unripe Red Pepper in Greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to develop economic thresholds of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) for unripe red pepper in greenhouses. To investigate the relationship between the density of thrips and resulting damages, experimental plots with five treatments (0, 4, 16, 48, 96 adults per plot) as initial release densities were established at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and

Hong-Hyun Park; Joon-Ho Lee; Ki-Baik Uhm

2007-01-01

35

Antixenotic resistance of cabbage to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). I. Light reflectance.  

PubMed

Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has become a significant pest of cabbage (Brasssica oleracea L.) in regions with a dry continental climate. Thrips-resistant cabbage varieties have been developed in breeding programs, but the mechanisms ofresistance remain largely unknown. Antixenosis, one of the three resistance mechanisms, may play a role but no plant trait has been identified as a source of antixenosis. A series of studies were conducted to identify resistance mechanisms in this insect- crop interaction and to seek plant traits that were correlated to resistance. In this first article of the series, the result of studying antixenosis and overall resistance of cabbage and the correlation between antixenosis and light reflectance characteristics are reported. There were distinct differences in the overall resistance to thrips between the six cabbage varieties studied. There were more pronounced differences between varieties based on the number of damaged head leaves compared with the use of damage ratings as a measure of overall resistance. Varieties also differed in their level of antixenosis; proportional abundance of thrips adults on head-forming leaves was more closely correlated to overall resistance of cabbage than actual thrips numbers. Some of the variables computed from the recorded reflectance spectra of cabbage were correlated to thrips abundance on head-forming leaves only in the first but not in the second year of this study, suggesting that either spectral characteristics do not affect antixenosis or other variables may affect thrips' responses to spectral cues. Furthermore, multiple spray applications of a kaolin particle-based product significantly changed the light reflectance characteristics of cabbage, but it did not reduce the actual thrips abundance on head-forming leaves. PMID:24498763

Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark E; Shelton, Anthony M

2013-12-01

36

Evaluation of phloxine B as a possible control agent against citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

We evaluated the toxicity of phloxine B photoactive dye combined with a cane molasses bait against citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton). Laboratory bioassays conducted under artificial light showed that thrips mortality followed a log-dose probit-response model with an estimated LC50 of 0.0079% dye. Diluted cane molasses plus 0.01% phloxine B then was used as a standard for comparison of eight additional baits, including three formulations of concentrated citrus peel liquor (CCPL1-3). Citrus thrips mortality ranked highest to lowest with CCPL1 and CCPL3 > CCPL2, Mo-Bait and cane molasses > concentrated beet molasses, concentrated cane molasses, hemicellulose extract, and whey. Several commercial surfactants were tested to see if their addition to the standard increased efficacy. Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Tween 60 at 1% and Cohort, Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Silwet at 0.25% when added to the standard, reduced citrus thrips mortality, whereas Tween 60 and Dyne-Amic at 0.25% had no effect. Cane molasses with one or 5% phloxine B dye and CCPL1 with 1% dye were sprayed on citrus trees and allowed to weather in the field. Laboratory bioassays conducted after leaves had weathered for up to 8 d indicated that bait-dye toxicity was persistent. Possible use of the bait-dye mixture in commercial control of citrus thrips is discussed. PMID:12852598

Tollerup, K; Morse, J G

2003-06-01

37

Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana for management of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in California blueberries.  

PubMed

Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus and mango fruits. This insect has broadened its host range to become a significant pest of commercial blueberries grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We evaluated Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of citrus thrips in blueberries grown under two watering regimes (drip irrigation with and without overhead sprinklers) and using two fungal formulations (commercially available spores in suspension vs. colonized seed) over two sampling periods, that is, for two 3-d periods after treatment. We found significant differences in thrips densities as a function of water regime treatment and fungal formulation. Thrips levels were reduced significantly with both fungal treatments at 3 d after treatment, but at 6 d, only results with colonized seed differed from the control treatment. These data suggest entomopathogenic fungi might be useful for control of citrus thrips on blueberries in particular situations (in organic production or as a resistance management tool) but that traditional pesticides will likely remain the preferred management option. PMID:24224239

Zahn, Deane K; Haviland, David R; Stanghellini, M E; Morsel, Joseph G

2013-10-01

38

Systematic relationships of Vuilletia and Senegathrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae) from galls on the West African shrub Guiera senegalensis.  

PubMed

Widespread and common across much of the drier areas of western Africa, the woody shrub Guiera senegalensis (Combretaceae) is the sole member of its genus. Similarly widespread is Vuilletia houardi, a thrips species that induces galls on this shrub, and is recorded from Mali, Senegal, Gambia and northern Nigeria (Pitkin & Mound 1973). Moreover, large numbers of galls, together with their included thrips, have now been studied from Burkina Faso. Some galls (Figs 1, 2) are invaded by Senegathrips coutini, a species whose biology is not known but that is possibly a predator. Moreover, Liothrips africana also sometimes breeds within these galls, but is possibly using these only as a convenient shelter. A re-description and line-drawings of V. houardi was provided by zur Strassen (1958), but no modern diagnosis of this genus, nor of Senegathrips, is available, the objective here being to provide formal diagnoses for these two monotypic genera.  PMID:24943155

Mound, Laurence A; Dahiya, Nisha; Yerbanga, Rakiswende S

2014-01-01

39

Insecticide bioassays for western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidental is) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays were tested for their suitability to determine the resistance of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) to insecticides. Adult female greenhouse and lupin strains of western flower thrips were exposed to bean leaf discs treated with insecticide solutions for 24 h at 25°C. The susceptibility of greenhouse strain western flower thrips was further assessed following

N. A. Martin; P. J. Workman; R. C. Butler

2005-01-01

40

Abundance of Thrips obscuratus (Crawford) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) during wine grape flowering in different regions in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a first step in understanding the pest status of thrips in wine grapes in New Zealand, we aimed to determine the species composition of thrips in grape inflorescences in four grape-growing regions of the country (sampling grape cv. ‘Chardonnay’ from 18 growers) and to quantify their abundance. Of the regions, by far the largest numbers of thrips were recorded

M. V. Marroni; D. A. J. Teulon; R. R. Scott; M. V. Jaspers

2012-01-01

41

The genus Ctenothrips from India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
with description of one new species and one new record.
 

PubMed

Ctenothrips barapatharensis sp.n. is described from specimens collected on ferns from Himachal Pradesh state of India. This is the only species in this genus having dark thickenings attached to fore ocellus. Ctenothrips niger Kudô is newly recorded from India, and the brachypterous form is described for the first time. A key to the three species of Ctenothrips from India is provided. PMID:24989741

Tyagi, Kaomud; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Kumar, Vikas

2014-01-01

42

The genus Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Malaysia, with four new species and comments on Biltothrips, a related genus .  

PubMed

Species of the genus Scirtothrips are studied from Malaysia for the first time. Six species of this genus are here recorded from Malaysia: S. dobroskyi is newly recorded, and four new species: S. lantanae sp.n., S. lixinae sp.n., S. hitam sp.n. and S. malayensis sp.n. are described together with an illustrated identification key. Relationships were examined between S. dorsalis and the closely related S. hitam sp.n., based on the mitochondrial gene COI, and a redescription of the widespread pest species, dorsalis, is provided. Biltothrips minutus (Bhatti) is reported from Malaysia for the first time, and illustrations provided to distinguish this genus from Scirtothrips.  PMID:25284657

Ng, Y F; Mound, L A; Azidah, A A

2014-01-01

43

Evaluation of a Push-Pull Strategy for the Management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Bell Peppers.  

PubMed

A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

2014-10-01

44

The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition

E. K. Chatzivassiliou; D. Peters; N. I. Katis

2007-01-01

45

Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

PubMed

Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test. PMID:16539139

Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G

2005-12-01

46

Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera:Thripidae)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ?Ct method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects. PMID:25356721

Zheng, Yu-Tao; Li, Hong-Bo; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

2014-01-01

47

Redescription of Aquatic Grass Inhabiting Frankliniella zizaniophila (Thripidae: Thripinae) With Remarks on Its Systematic Position Within the Genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera).  

PubMed

The aquatic grass-inhabiting thrip, Frankliniella zizaniophila (Han & Zhang 1982) (Thripidae: Thripinae), is redescribed and illustrated, and the larvae and the yellow color type of this species are described for the first time. Judging from its unique morphological characters and host plant, the systematic position of this species in Frankliniella is questionable, but until the thrips fauna of Asia is better explored, it seems best to leave this species in Frankliniella, rather than to erect a new monobasic genus. PMID:25347842

Mirab-Balou, Majid; Tong, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

2014-01-01

48

Two new ectoparasitic species of Aulacothrips Hood, 1952 (Thysanoptera: Heterothripidae) associated with ant-tended treehoppers (Hemiptera).  

PubMed

Aulacothrips Hood, 1952 is a remarkable South American genus of ectoparasitic thrips which feed on gregarious ant-tended hemipterans (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Here we describe two new species of this genus infesting membracid treehoppers in Colombia and Brazilian Amazon, and provide a key to the five Aulacothrips spp. now recognised. Aulacothrips levinotus n. sp. is unique in having pronotum with only two pairs of major setae; and Aulacothrips tenuis n. sp. has unusually long abdominal tergite IX. These findings will be helpful for understanding the species diversification in this genus, bringing a new perspective on the diversity of Aulacothrips spp. and their myrmecophilous hemipteran hosts. PMID:25274260

Cavalleri, Adriano; Kaminski, Lucas A

2014-11-01

49

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

or access, or posting on open internet sites, your personal or institution's website or repository. All rights reserved. Keywords: Perceptual learning; Adaptation; Consolidation; Sleep; Texture monocular, suggesting localized plasticity in human adult primary visual cortex (Karni & Sagi, 1991, 1993

Sagi, Dov

50

Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.  

PubMed

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

51

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

2010-03-01

52

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator–prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million\\/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric G. Chapman; Fernando E. Vega; James D. Harwood

2010-01-01

53

Origin of intra-individual variation in PCR-amplified mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): mitochondrial heteroplasmy or nuclear integration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genome is increasingly being used as a species diagnostic marker in insects. Typically, genomic DNA is PCR amplified and then analysed by restriction analyses or sequencing. This analysis system may cause some serious problems for molecular diagnosis. Besides the errors introduced by the PCR process, mtDNA sequence variation of amplified fragments may originate from mtDNA heteroplasmy or from

JUERG E. FREY; BEATRICE FREY

2004-01-01

54

Fax +41 61 306 12 34 E-Mail karger@karger.ch  

E-print Network

of Tubulin in Human Leukemic Lymphocytes Joan M. Caron Margot Herwood Department of Cell Biology, University residues. Often in cells, pro- teins are found in both a palmitoylated and non-palmi- toylated form. While regions of the plas- ma membrane that are used for cell signaling. Only the palmitoylated form

Terasaki, Mark

55

Orthopterological notes I : On the Lesini of the Leiden Museum (Tettigoniidae, Copiphorinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When rearranging a part of the collections of Orthoptera in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden I found a number of specimens belonging to this tribus, which by former authors is considered as a separate subfamily with the name Eumegalodontinae (Kirby, 1906, p. 289; Caudell, 1927, p. 30). With Karny I think it justified to let it retain its

Jong de C

1942-01-01

56

Torsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Torsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes TZAHI COHEN-KARNI1 *, LIOR and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2 Chemical Research Support, Weizmann by mechanical torsion4 can induce conductance oscillations, which can be attributed to metal

Joselevich, Ernesto

57

Consumer Skepticism of Advertising Claims: Testing Hypotheses from Economics of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propositions regarding consumers' differential skepticism for search, experience, and credence claims are tested in an experiment using adult consumers. The results provide clear support for Nelson's (1970) hypotheses that consumers are more skeptical of experience than search attribute claims and more skeptical of subjective than of objective claims. No support is found, however, for the Darby and Karni (1973) hypothesis

Gary T. Ford; Darlene B. Smith; John L. Swasy

1990-01-01

58

Research grants (For periods including 2004) Dynamic intra-seasonal irrigation management under water scarcity, water quality, irrigation  

E-print Network

to Salinization in Turkmenistan and Examining New Phytoremediation Methods A. Karnieli Grantor: US-AID Duration-2005 Assessing and Monitoring Pasture Degradation Processes in Turkmenistan Using Remote Sensing Methods (CA22: 2003-2006 Estimation of seasonal dynamics of desert pastures productivity in Turkmenistan using NOAA

Prigozhin, Leonid

59

FLUORIDE EXPOSURE AND SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EGGS AND BONES OF THE HERRING GULL (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND THE COMMON GULL (LARUS CANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shellof 285 herring gull eggs (Laru.s' argentatus) and 120 comnmon gull eggs (Larus canus), collectedMay 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies eXpd)se(l to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smiielters locatedatKarni#{248}y and Sunndai, amid from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume- index,shellthickness,thickness-index,and fertilization of the eggs also were monitore(l. In 1)0th

Turid Vikoren; Gudbrand Stuve

60

Impacts of the introduced basswood thrips ( Thrips calcaratus Uzel) on forest health in the Great Lakes region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect, disease, tree condition, weather, and soil data were sampled from 22 northern hardwood forest sites containing American basswood, Tilia americana L., in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota from 1998 to 2000. Basswood dieback increased by 10% during this period. Insect abundance on basswood foliage was dominated by Thysanoptera, of which the introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus Uzel, accounted for over

S. M. Werner; E. V. Nordheim; K. F. Raffa

2005-01-01

61

PUBLICATIONS REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES (*-DENOTES GRADUATE STUDENT OR POST DOC IN MY  

E-print Network

. R. Dillard, S. J. Fleischer and F. E. Gildow. 2009. Modeling temporal trends in aphid vector efficiency of Cucumber mosaic virus by aphids associated with virus epidemics in snap bean. Phytopathology 98 tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) caught

Nault, Brian

62

Can Failure be Turned into Success for Biological Control of Mile-a-Minute Weed (Mikania micrantha)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into biological control of Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) started in 1978, concentrating on insect agents. Host specificity studies on the first agent, Liothrips mikaniae (Priesner) (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) from Trinidad were completed by 1982, and the thrips was released in the Solomon Islands in 1988 and, subsequently in Malaysia in 1990. Neither release led to establishment, and possible reasons for

MATTHEW J. W. COCK; CAROL A. ELLISON; HARRY C. EVANS; PETER A. C. OOI

63

Influence of plant volatiles on feeding damage caused by the onion thrips Thrips tabaci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf disc bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of essential oils and their volatile constituents from plant species (Lamiaceae family) at three concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 1% on the feeding activity of adult female onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman; Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The percentage of feeding damage area on leek (Allium porrum L.) leaf discs and the adult survival

Elisabeth H Koschier; Katrin A Sedy; Johannes Novak

2002-01-01

64

Plant odours with potential for a push-pull strategy to control the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the efficacy of four plant essential oils to repel onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in the presence of an attractive odour, ethyl iso-nicotinate in a pasture field. Four horizontal white sticky plates were placed adjacent to (directions: N, S, E, W) a central horizontal white plate (C). After 24 h, in the treatment combination where the

Tol van R. W. H. M; D. E. James; Kogel de W. J; D. A. J. Teulon

2007-01-01

65

Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\\\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\\\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\\\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\\\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\\\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\\\approx 10$.

Laura A. Miller; Steven Harenber; Ty Hedrick; Alice Robinson; Arvind Santhanakrishnan; Audrey Lowe

2011-01-01

66

Parallel diversification of Australian gall-thrips on Acacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversification of gall-inducing Australian Kladothrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) on Acacia has produced a pair of sister-clades, each of which includes a suite of lineages that utilize virtually the same set of 15 closely related host plant species. This pattern of parallel insect-host plant radiation may be driven by cospeciation, host-shifting to the same set of host plants, or some combination

M. J. McLeish; B. J. Crespi; T. W. Chapman; M. P. Schwarz

2007-01-01

67

Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects  

E-print Network

We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

2011-01-01

68

Innate responses to putative ancestral hosts: is the attraction of Western flower thrips to pine pollen a result of relict olfactory receptors?  

PubMed

Pollinophagy is widely documented in the order Thysanoptera, with representative individuals from six of the nine divergent families known to feed on pollen. Various pollens of the genus Pinus increase the development time, fecundity, longevity, and settling preference of Western Flower Thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Certain species of flower thrips discriminate among pollen types, but no studies have elucidated the olfactory cues that play a role in their pollen preferences. In this study, the volatile organic compounds emitted by pollens of the genus Pinus were elucidated. Various chemicals from pollen headspace elicited electrophysiological responses from WFT antennae. The compound (S)-(-)-verbenone, identified in pollen headspace, attracted WFT in a 4-arm olfactometer. This compound has potential for use in integrated pest management programs against the pest. We present the hypothesis that this polyphagous insect may have retained ancestral 'relict' olfactory receptors through the course of evolution, to explain this attraction to pine pollen. This attraction has allowed the insect to find and exploit an unusual nutrient source that significantly increases its fitness. The study demonstrates how fossil record analysis and subsequent evolutionary knowledge can aid in explaining possibilities as to why some insects sense and respond to chemicals that would otherwise seem peculiar to their ecology, allowing insight into the evolutionary forces that may shape insect olfactory systems over time. PMID:24879603

Abdullah, Zayed S; Ficken, Katherine J; Greenfield, Bethany P J; Butt, Tariq M

2014-06-01

69

Flight of the smallest insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Over this range of scales, flight aerodynamics as well as the relative lift and drag forces generated are surprisingly similar. The smallest flying insects (Re˜10) have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, we have used a three-pronged approach that consists of measurements of flight kinematics in the tiny insect Thysanoptera (thrips), measurements of flow velocities using physical models, and direct numerical simulations to compute lift and drag forces. We find that drag forces can be an order of magnitude larger than lift forces, particularly during the clap and fling motion used by all tiny insects recorded to date.

Miller, Laura; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Hedrick, Tyson; Robinson, Alice

2009-11-01

70

Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.  

PubMed

Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed. PMID:21331569

Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

2011-03-01

71

When hymenopteran males reinvented diploidy.  

PubMed

In most plants and animals, a consistent relationship exists between the DNA content of a cell and its metabolic activity. The male-haploid sex determination of Hymenoptera and other arthropods may therefore impose a particular selective pressure upon males, which must evolve adaptations to cope with a genomic DNA reduced by half compared with that of females. Here, we show that a nuclear DNA content similar to that of females is restored in muscles of males in all hymenopteran lineages tested except the most basal one (Xyelidae). This doubling of DNA content in males does not occur in other haplodiploid insects, such as thrips (Thysanoptera) and whiteflies (Sternorrhyncha). These results indicate that this adaptation probably occurred early in hymenopteran history, possibly because males acquired strong flying and dispersal abilities. PMID:15886099

Aron, Serge; de Menten, Ludivine; Van Bockstaele, Dirk R; Blank, Stephan M; Roisin, Yves

2005-05-10

72

Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae  

PubMed Central

The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175

Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

2010-01-01

73

Development of a Ribosomal DNA ITS2 Marker for the Identification of the Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis  

PubMed Central

The thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an invasive pest that poses a significant economical threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. In this study, DNA sequence data and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were utilized to develop a molecular diagnostic marker for S. dorsalis. The DNA sequence variation from the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was analyzed from various thrips species, including S. dorsalis. A primer set and polymerase chain reaction cycling parameters were designed for the amplification of a single marker fragment of S. dorsalis ITS2 rDNA. Specificity tests performed on ten thrips species, efficacy tests performed on fifteen S. dorsalis populations, and tests on primer sensitivity and robustness all demonstrated the diagnostic utility of this marker. This diagnostic PCR assay provides a quick, simple, and reliable molecular technique to be used in the identification of S. dorsalis. PMID:20578948

Farris, R E; Ruiz-Arce, R; Ciomperlik, M; Vasquez, J D; DeLeon, R

2010-01-01

74

Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multi-factor climate change experiment  

SciTech Connect

To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.

Villalpando, Sean [Appalachian State University; Williams, Ray [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2009-01-01

75

Development and Characterization of 18 Novel EST-SSRs from the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. For a better understanding of the genetic makeup and migration patterns of F. occidentalis throughout the world, we characterized 18 novel polymorphic EST-derived microsatellites. The mutational mechanism of these EST-SSRs was also investigated to facilitate the selection of appropriate combinations of markers for population genetic studies. Genetic diversity of these novel markers was assessed in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Harbin, Dali, and Guiyang). The results showed that all these 18 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, with an average of 5.50 alleles per locus. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.072 to 0.707 and 0.089 to 0.851, respectively. Furthermore, only two locus/population combinations (WFT144 in Dali and WFT50 in Guiyang) significantly deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Pairwise FST analysis showed a low but significant differentiation (0.026 < FST < 0.032) among all three pairwise population comparisons. Sequence analysis of alleles per locus revealed a complex mutational pattern of these EST-SSRs. Thus, these EST-SSRs are useful markers but greater attention should be paid to the mutational characteristics of these microsatellites when they are used in population genetic studies. PMID:22489130

Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

2012-01-01

76

Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: Behavioral responses and ecosystem implications  

PubMed Central

Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB. PMID:9927679

Mazza, Carlos A.; Zavala, Jorge; Scopel, Ana L.; Ballare, Carlos L.

1999-01-01

77

Intra-guild vs extra-guild prey: effect on predator fitness and preference of Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

The relationships between the predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), and their prey, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were investigated to determine the effects of predation on intra-guild or extra-guild prey and predator preference. Life history characteristics of both predatory mites were measured when fed eggs and larvae of the other predator species and compared to data obtained when the predators were fed thrips larvae. In addition, choice tests were conducted to determine if the predators had a preference for different prey or if they were indiscriminate predators. Amblyseius swirskii appears to be an important intra-guild predator of N. cucumeris juveniles because of a high predation rate and a preference for N. cucumeris juveniles over thrips. Neoseiulus cucumeris is also an intra-guild predator of A. swirskii juveniles; however, it has a lower predation rate than A. swirskii. Contrary to intra-guild predation theory, intra-guild prey was an equally good or better food source than thrips (extra-guild prey) for both predators, based on high oviposition rates and fast development times. The results of this study indicate a high potential for negative interactions between A. swirskii and N. cucumeris when used together in biological control of thrips. PMID:19419591

Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, L; Scott-Dupree, C

2010-04-01

78

Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions  

PubMed Central

In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may determine the outcome of such interactions. We carried out experiments under controlled conditions on young rose plants in order to assess the impact of these indirect interactions on life history traits of three pests: the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae), the aphid Rhodobium porosum Sanderson (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Our results indicated (i) a bi-directional negative interaction between B. cinerea and R. porosum, which is conveyed by decreased aphid growth rate and reduced fungal lesion area, as well as (ii) an indirect negative effect of B. cinerea on insect behavior. No indirect effect was observed between thrips and aphids. This research highlights several complex interactions that may be involved in structuring herbivore and plant pathogen communities within natural and managed ecosystems. PMID:21611161

Mouttet, Raphaelle; Bearez, Philippe; Thomas, Cecile; Desneux, Nicolas

2011-01-01

79

Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, M?xico, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

Sanchez-Pena, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raul F.

2011-01-01

80

Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep.  

PubMed

The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y.J. Greenstein, M. Grudman, J. Winson, Long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is induced preferentially on the positive phase of theta-rhythm, Brain Res. 439 (1988) 383-387] this experience-dependent phase shift, which developed progressively over multiple sessions in the environment, is consistent with the hypothesis that circuits may be restructured during REM sleep by selectively strengthening recently acquired memories and weakening older ones. PMID:10650147

Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

2000-02-01

81

Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis  

PubMed Central

Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 108, 7.0 × 105, and 9.9 × 105 CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94–99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84–93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81–94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62–66%, and different horticultural oils by 58–85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizabal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

2013-01-01

82

Host plant effects on the behaviour and performance of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

Biological control in ornamental crops is challenging due to the wide diversity of crops and cultivars. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trichome density on different host plants influences the behavior and performance of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Behavioural observations of this predator in the presence or absence of prey (western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were done on leaf squares of ornamental plant species differing in trichome density (rose, chrysanthemum and gerbera) and compared to a smooth surface (plastic). Tomato leaves were used to observe the influence of glandular trichomes. The performance of A. swirskii was assessed by measuring predation and oviposition rate. Behaviour of A. swirskii was influenced by plant species. Up to a certain density of trichomes, trichome number had a negative effect on walking speed. It was highest on plastic, followed by rose. No differences were found among chrysanthemum, gerbera and tomato. Walking speed was slightly higher on disks without prey. Proportion of time spent walking was the same on leaf disks of all plant species, with and without prey. No effect of glandular trichomes on tomato leaves was seen. Most thrips were killed and consumed on gerbera, and least on rose. Predation rates on chrysanthemum and plastic were intermediate. In contrast, no differences in oviposition rate were found among plant species. The results of this study indicate that trichome density can explain some of the variability in efficacy of A. swirskii on different crops. Release rates of A. swirskii may need to be adjusted depending on the crop in which it is used. PMID:24037505

Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Shipp, Les; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia; Brommit, Angela; Lee, Wonhyo

2014-02-01

83

Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: a continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration.  

PubMed

The effects of insecticides used for California citrus pest management were evaluated using larval and adult stages of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This predatory beetle is essential for control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Williston) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus. When adult beetles were exposed to treated citrus leaves, adult survival was significantly reduced by the foliar neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the pyrethroid cyfluthrin. Progeny production was significantly reduced by imidacloprid, cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin, and buprofezin. Buprofezin, pyriproxifen, and foliar imidacloprid also significantly reduced successful development of larvae into the adult stage. When vedalia stages were fed insecticide-treated cottony cushion scale reared on Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait, toxic effects were more severe than contact toxicity alone. Adult beetle survival was most profoundly reduced by the pyrethroids and to a lesser extent the foliar neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Progeny production and larval development to adulthood were reduced by all insecticides but were most severely affected by pyriproxifen and the pyrethroids. Systemically applied neonicotinoids were toxic to vedalia larvae feeding on cottony cushion scale that had ingested these insecticides. These data demonstrate that IGRs, neonicotinoid insecticides, and pyrethroid insecticides have a significant, negative impact on vedalia beetles. Depending on the rate of insecticide used, the number and timing of applications, and the level of coverage of the tree, disruption of vedalia can be minimized. However, the situation is made difficult when pests such as citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), forktailed bush katydid Scuddaria furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Orthoptera: Tettigoiniidae), or glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata Say (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) require these pesticide treatments during periods of vedalia beetle activity. PMID:14650510

Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Gu, Ping

2003-10-01

84

Variation within and between Frankliniella thrips species in host plant utilization.  

PubMed

Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Olson, Steve M

2011-01-01

85

How Predictable Are the Behavioral Responses of Insects to Herbivore Induced Changes in Plants? Responses of Two Congeneric Thrips to Induced Cotton Plants  

PubMed Central

Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae)) damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae), Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate. PMID:23691075

Silva, Rehan; Furlong, Michael J.; Wilson, Lewis J.; Walter, Gimme H.

2013-01-01

86

Primordial Enemies: Fungal Pathogens in Thrips Societies  

PubMed Central

Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general? PMID:23185420

Turnbull, Christine; Wilson, Peter D.; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Smith, Shannon; Beattie, Doug; Hussey, Sam; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Andrew

2012-01-01

87

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

88

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamo, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

89

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

90

Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment  

PubMed Central

Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms “construct niches,” favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within “domiciles” made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70–80%) or low (8–10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile’s role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at “high” humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from “deferred byproduct mutualism,” that is, backup parental care in case of mortality.

2014-01-01

91

Neither insects nor wind: ambophily in dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae).  

PubMed

Pollination of Neotropical dioecious trees is commonly related to generalist insects. Similar data for non-tree species with separated genders are inconclusive. Recent studies on pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae) suggest that species are either insect- or wind-pollinated. However, the wide variety of inflorescence and floral attributes within the genus suggests mixed pollination mode involving entomophily and anemophily. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied the pollination of Chamaedorea costaricana, C. macrospadix, C. pinnatifrons and C. tepejilote in two montane forests in Costa Rica. A complementary morphological analysis of floral traits was carried out to distinguish species groups within the genus according to their most probable pollination mechanism. We conducted pollinator exclusion experiments, field observations on visitors to pistillate and staminate inflorescences, and trapped airborne pollen. A cluster analysis using 18 floral traits selected for their association with wind and insect pollination syndromes was carried out using 52 Chamaedorea species. Exclusion experiments showed that both wind and insects, mostly thrips (Thysanoptera), pollinated the studied species. Thrips used staminate inflorescences as brood sites and pollinated pistillate flowers by deception. Insects caught on pistillate inflorescences transported pollen, while traps proved that pollen is wind-borne. Our empirical findings clearly suggest that pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms is likely to involve both insects and wind. A cluster analysis showed that the majority of studied species have a combination of floral traits that allow for both pollination modes. Our pollination experiments and morphological analysis both suggest that while some species may be completely entomophilous or anemophilous, ambophily might be a common condition within Chamaedorea. Our results propose a higher diversity of pollination mechanisms of Neotropical dioecious species than previously suggested. PMID:25068158

Rios, L D; Fuchs, E J; Hodel, D R; Cascante-Marín, A

2014-07-01

92

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

93

Hyperspectral sensors and the conservation of monumental buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous control of the conservation state of outdoor materials is a good practice for timely planning conservative interventions and therefore to preserve historical buildings. The monitoring of surfaces composition, in order to characterize compounds of neo-formation and deposition, by traditional diagnostic campaigns, although gives accurate results, is a long and expensive method, and often micro-destructive analyses are required. On the other hand, hyperspectral analysis in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) region is a very common technique for determining the characteristics and properties of soils, air, and water in consideration of its capability to give information in a rapid, simultaneous and not-destructive way. VNIR Hypespectral analysis, which discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of absorption at specific wavelengths, are in fact successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks (1), as well as for detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity (2). Among the existing VNIR techniques (Laboratory Spectroscopy - LS, Portable Spectroscopy - PS and Imaging Spectroscopy - IS), PS and IS can play a crucial role in the characterization of components of exposed stone surfaces. In particular, the Imaging Spectroscopic (remote sensing), which uses sensors placed both on land or airborne, may contribute to the monitoring of large areas in consideration of its ability to produce large areal maps at relatively low costs. In this presentation the application of hyperspectral instruments (mainly PS and IS, not applied before in the field of monumental building diagnostic) to quantify the degradation of carbonate surfaces will be discussed. In particular, considering gypsum as the precursor symptom of damage, many factors which may affect the estimation of gypsum content on the surface will be taken into consideration. Two hyperspectral sensors will be considered: 1) A portable radiometer (ASD-FieldSpec FP Pro spectroradiometer), which continuously acquires punctual reflectance spectra in the range 350-2500 nm, both in natural light conditions and by a contact probe (fixed geometry of shot). This instrument is used on field for the identification of different materials, as well as for the definition of maps (e.g geological maps) if coupled with other hyperspectral instruments. 2) Hyperspectral sensor SIM-GA (Selex Galileo Multisensor Hyperspectral System), a system with spatial acquisition of data which may be used on an earth as well as on an airborne platform. SIM-GA consists of two electro-optical heads, which operate in the VNIR and SWIR regions, respectively, between 400-1000 nm and 1000-2500 nm (3). Although the spectral signature in the VNIR of many minerals is known, the co-presence of more minerals on a surface can affect the quantitative analysis of gypsum. Different minerals, such as gypsum, calcite, weddellite, whewellite, and other components (i.e. carbon particles in black crusts) are, in fact, commonly found on historical surfaces. In order to illustrate the complexity, but also the potentiality of hyperspectral sensors (portable or remote sensing) for the characterization of stone surfaces, a case study, the Facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence - Italy, will be presented. References 1) R.N. Clark and G.A. Swayze, 1995, "Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice, and snow, and other materials: The USGS Tricorder Algorithm", in "Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop", JPL Publication 95-1,1,39-40 2) E. Ben-Dor, K. Patin, A. Banin and A. Karnieli, 2002, "Mapping of several soil properties using DATS-7915 hyperspectral scanner data. A case study over clayely soils in Israel", International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(6), 1043-1062 3) S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of historical buildings by Hyperspectral Imaging techniques&q

Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Chiarantini, Leandro; Costagliola, Pilar; Moretti, Sandro; Paba, Francesca; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia

2010-05-01

94

Have the northwest Negev dunefield sands reddened since their deposition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sand grain coating redness has been extensively both in coastal and inland desert dunes. In Israel, sand redness has been quantified by calculating a spectral redness index (RI) using single RGB bands (RI= R2/(B*G3)) from reflectance spectroscopy. The RI values have been correlated to ferric oxide mass that was dissolved from sand grain coatings (Ben Dor et al., 2006; Tsoar et al., 2008). Five main requirements have been proposed to enhance sand grain reddening: iron source from the weathering of iron-bearing minerals originating from parent rock or aeolian dust, minimum moisture content, oxidizing interstitial conditions, sediment stability and time. Thus, as many researches have suggested, when the source factors and climatic conditions are homogenous, redder sands indicate increased maturity. The northwest Negev dunefield has been classified by Tsoar et al. (2008) into 3 incursion units based upon contouring a grid of RI values for surface sand samples. The central incursion unit has been suggested to be younger due to relatively lower RI values that decrease to the east. This work tests the relationship between RI values and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of aeolian sand sampled from the near surface down to dune substrate throughout the NW Negev dunefield. Room-dried sand samples were measured in the laboratory with an ASD FieldSpec spectrometer and RI was calculated. Dune sections have been found to usually have similar RI values throughout their vertical profile despite OSL ages ranging between recent and Late Pleistocene. Along a W-E transect, RI values also tend to be similar. The central (Haluzza) part of the dunefield exhibits significantly lower RI values than RI of sands south of the Qeren Ridge. Dune base OSL ages possibly representing burial/stabilization of an initial incursion are slightly more mature in the south and may be evidence of the earliest dune incursion into the Negev. Thus the increased redness may be attributed to an older sand source but not to reddening in situ with time. Remotely sensed RI calculated from Landsat TM 5 (30 m pixel) RGB bands of bare Sinai sands also portrays the spatial RI difference between the central and southern sands. To summarize, we find no direct connection between dune sand deposition age and sand grain coating redness in the Negev dunes. It seems that stable aeolian sand and dune sections in the Negev have not reddened since their deposition. Sand grain coating redness was probably inherited during an earlier diagenetic stage in an environment different than today's. References Ben-Dor, E., Levin, N., Singer, A., Karnieli, A., Braun, O. & Kidron, G.J., 2006. Quantitative mapping of the soil rubification process on sand dunes using an airborne hyperspectral sensor. Geoderma, 131:1-21. Tsoar, H., Wenkart, R. & Blumberg, D.G., 2008. Formation and geomorphology of the north-western Negev sand dunes. In (Breckle, S.W., Yair, A.& Veste, M.) eds., Arid dunes ecosystems: The Nizzana sands in the Negev Desert. Springer pub. 475 pp.

Roskin, Joel; Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan G.; Porat, Naomi; Rozensten, Ofer

2010-05-01

95

Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis.  

PubMed

Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 10(4) CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 10(5) for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 10(5) for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 10(8), 7.0 × 10(5), and 9.9 × 10(5) CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94-99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84-93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81-94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62-66%, and different horticultural oils by 58-85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

2013-01-01