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Effects of Temperature on the Development and Population Growth of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi, on Eggplant, Solanum melongena  

PubMed Central

The effects of temperature on the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), preimaginal development, survival, fecundity, longevity of females and males, and population growth were investigated at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31° C, 70–80% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D. The results indicated that the duration of egg, larval, and pupal stages was significantly influenced by increased temperature. The egg-to-adult developmental period of T. palmi declined from 35.7 to 9.6 days as the temperature increased from 16 to 31° C. The developmental threshold temperature estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.25° C, with a thermal constant of 196.1 degree-days. The developmental threshold temperature was 13.91, 11.82, 9.36, and 10.45° C for adult pre-oviposition period, total pre-oviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity, respectively. The thermal constants for completing the adult pre-oviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity were 29.3, 227.3, 454.6, and 344.8 degree-days, respectively. Female longevity was found to be shortest at 31° C (18.7 days) and longest at 16° C (56.7 days), and male longevity was shortest at 31° C (15.5 days) and longest at 16° C (50.7 days). Fecundity was highest at 25° C (64.2 eggs/female) and lowest at 16° C (23.4 eggs/female). The population trend index of T. palmi was highest at 25° C (31.3) and lowest at 16° C (7.6). The optimal developmental temperature for T. palmi in eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), was determined to be 25° C. PMID:25373225

Yadav, Ramchandra; Chang, Niann-Tai



Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi, on eggplant, Solanum melongena.  


The effects of temperature on the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), preimaginal development, survival, fecundity, longevity of females and males, and population growth were investigated at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, and 31° C, 70-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 L:D. The results indicated that the duration of egg, larval, and pupal stages was significantly influenced by increased temperature. The egg-to-adult developmental period of T. palmi declined from 35.7 to 9.6 days as the temperature increased from 16 to 31° C. The developmental threshold temperature estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.25° C, with a thermal constant of 196.1 degree-days. The developmental threshold temperature was 13.91, 11.82, 9.36, and 10.45° C for adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity, respectively. The thermal constants for completing the adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, female longevity, and male longevity were 29.3, 227.3, 454.6, and 344.8 degree-days, respectively. Female longevity was found to be shortest at 31° C (18.7 days) and longest at 16° C (56.7 days), and male longevity was shortest at 31° C (15.5 days) and longest at 16° C (50.7 days). Fecundity was highest at 25° C (64.2 eggs/female) and lowest at 16° C (23.4 eggs/female). The population trend index of T. palmi was highest at 25° C (31.3) and lowest at 16° C (7.6). The optimal developmental temperature for T. palmi in eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), was determined to be 25° C. PMID:25373225

Yadav, Ramchandra; Chang, Niann-Tai



Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.  


The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C



Some Thoughts on the Future of Economic Theory By Edi Karni  

E-print Network

Some Thoughts on the Future of Economic Theory By Edi Karni Scientific theories are parsimonious of scientific revolutions. In the past, major advances in economic theory occurred when the dominant paradigm of preferences Economic theory takes individual preferences as a primitive concept. This attitude is problematic

Niebur, Ernst


Effect of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus on the Life History and Feeding Preference of Thrips palmi  

PubMed Central

Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus–Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors. PMID:25010157

Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei



POPULATION ECOLOGY Reproductive Modes in Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Reproductive Modes in Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Populations from New York Onion Fields BRIAN A. NAULT,1,2 ANTHONY M. SHELTON,1 JODY L. GANGLOFF-KAUFMANN,1 MICHAEL E patterns of reproductive modes in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, populations and potential effects

Nault, Brian


ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Overwintering Locations and Hosts for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Overwintering Locations and Hosts for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Onion Cropping Ecosystem in New York E. LARENTZAKI, A. M. SHELTON,1 F. R. MUSSER,2 B. A. NAULT, AND J locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently

Nault, Brian


A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) Nematode from Thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)  

PubMed Central

A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Canada to Blaine, WA, by a USDA-APHIS-PPQ port inspector. Nematodes were attached to the abdomen of the female insect and sent to us in saline. Seven nematodes (five females, two males) were measured and these and others were processed for permanent slides. An adult female and a female juvenile were prepared for PCR. Morphologically these nematodes belonged to the Trichodorus sparsus group, and the 28S rDNA D2-D3 sequence showed greatest similarity to Trichodorus paragiennensis (94%) and T. giennensis (93%), with greatest morphological similarity to the latter species. Among other morphological differences, the innermost uterus width is wider than in related species. Trichodorus spp. are normally found in soil, so this is the first population seen in the atypical habitat of an insect. Morphological and molecular characteristics of Trichodorus sp. are presented, but a putative new species name is not currently advisable because of relatively poor condition of specimens. Ecological associations are also discussed. PMID:25276005

Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.



An overview of chilli thrips. Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) biology, distribution and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the insect order Thysanoptera, the genus Scirtothrips Shull contains more than 100 thrips species, among which 10 species have been reported as serious pests of agricultural crops. Within this genus, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in th...


Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...


An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin



HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Straw Mulch on Populations of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera  

E-print Network

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Straw Mulch on Populations of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Onion E. LARENTZAKI, J. PLATE, B. A. NAULT, AND A. M. SHELTON1 Department of Entomology, New. Econ. Entomol. 101(4): 1317Ð1324 (2008) ABSTRACT Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips

Nault, Brian


Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.



Comparison of methods for sampling Thysanoptera on basswood ( Tilia americana L.) trees in mixed northern hardwood deciduous forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy arthropods play integral roles in the functioning, biodiversity, and productivity of forest ecosystems. Yet quantitative sampling of arboreal arthropods poses formidable challenges. We evaluated three methods of sampling the introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus Uzel (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), from the foliage of basswood canopies with respect to statistical variability and practical considerations (legal, economic and logistical accessibility). All three methods

S. M. Werner; E. V. Nordheim; K. F. Raffa



Selection of colour of sticky trap for monitoring adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


Adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande), overwintering inside the navel of navel oranges shipped from California to Australia, are an actionable pest for the importing country, i.e. infested lots are fumigated with methyl bromide. Strict quarantine regulations regarding C. fasciatus prompted studies on the best colour sticky trap that might be used to monitor for bean thrips populations in the vicinity of California citrus groves prior to harvesting fruit for export. Preliminary experiments identified the most attractive trap of each of four colours (blue, green, white, yellow) commonly used to sample adult Thysanoptera. Three trials of a field study were conducted, comparing C. fasciatus capture on the best card of each colour using asparagus ferns naturally infested with high levels of this pest. Based on significantly higher catch on green sticky cards, this colour trap is recommended for potential use in California's bean thrips mitigation plan designed to reduce thrips levels on citrus exported to Australia. PMID:17125151

Harman, J Alex; Mao, Chang Xuan; Morse, Joseph G




PubMed Central

The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

Dickey, Aaron M.; Trease, Andrew J.; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J. Kent; Shatters, Robert G.; Mckenzie, Cindy L.; Davis, Paul H.; Osborne, Lance S.



Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta).  


Wolbachia are bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and filarial nematodes. They cause thelytoky, which is a form of parthenogenesis in which females produce females without males, in hymenopteran insects. Infection of this parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia has been restricted to the order Hymenoptera, but was found in another insect order, Thysanoptera. A parthenogenetic colony of a predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Aeolothripidae) possessed B-group Wolbachia. Male progeny were produced from this thrips by heat and tetracycline treatments. Males produced motile sperm, which were transferred to the female spermatheca by mating. However, the mating did not affect the sex ratios of the next generation, suggesting that the sperm do not fertilize the eggs. PMID:11375084

Arakaki, N; Miyoshi, T; Noda, H



Plant quality and conspecific density effects on Anaphothrips obscurus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) wing diphenism and population ecology.  


Factors that influence thysanopteran wing diphenism are not well known. In these studies, the impact of food quality, mediated through nitrogen addition, and conspecific density was explored on the wing diphenism of an herbivorous thrips species (Anaphothrips obscurus Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In the first study, nitrogen was added to timothy grass (Phleum pretense L.) (Poales: Poaceae) transplants, and naturally occurring thrips populations were caged on the plants. Thrips abundance and foliar nutrients were assessed every 2 wk. A separate factorial experiment in growth chambers explored the impact of both plant nitrogen addition and thrips abundance on wing diphenism. Thrips density was manipulated by adding either 3 or 40 thrips to potted and caged timothy. Thrips abundance and foliar nutrients were measured 58 d after treatment placement. Plant quality directly affected thrips wing diphenism independent of thrips density in both experiments. Near the end of the field cage experiment, density may have indirectly impacted wing diphenism. In both experiments, plant quality and thrips density interacted to affect thrips population abundance. Plant quality alone can affect thrips wing diphenism, but it remains unclear whether density alone can affect thrips wing diphenism. This is a unique and understudied system that will be useful to examine generalized theories on the negative interaction between reproduction and dispersal. PMID:20388303

Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B



Grass thrips (Anaphothrips obscurus) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population dynamics and sampling method comparison in timothy.  


Sampling studies were conducted on grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in timothy, Phleum pratense L. These studies were used to compare the occurrence of brachypterous and macropterous thrips across sampling methods, seasons, and time of day. Information about the population dynamics of this thrips was also revealed. Three absolute and two relative methods were tested at three different dates within a season and three different daily times during four harvest periods. Thrips were counted and different phenotypes were recorded from one of the absolute methods. Absolute methods were the most similar to one another over time of day and within seasonal dates. Relative methods varied in assessing thrips population dynamics over time of day and within seasonal dates. Based on thrips collected from the plant and sticky card counts, macropterous individuals increased in the spring and summer. Thrips aerially dispersed in the summer. An absolute method, the beat cup method (rapping timothy inside a plastic cup), was among the least variable sampling methods and was faster than direct observations. These findings parallel other studies, documenting the commonality of diel and diurnal effects on sampled arthropod abundance and the seasonal effects on population abundance and structure. These studies also demonstrate that estimated population abundance can be markedly affected by temporal patterns as well as shifting adult phenotypes. PMID:22546460

Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B



The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...


Annual Cycles of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Thrips Abundance on North Florida Uncultivated Reproductive Hosts: Predicting Possible Sources of Pest Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) thrips damage a variety of crops, feed on a broad range of hosts, and often migrate into cropping systems from adjacent vegetation. To determine potential sources of Frankliniella spp. thrips on crops, annual cycles of abundance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), and Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) were evaluated on seven common, uncultivated

Tobin D. Northfield; Dean R. Paini; Joe E. Funderburk; Stuart R. Reitz



Dissecting the mode of maize chlorotic mottle virus transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by Frankliniella williamsi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) has been recorded in Hawaii (Kauai Island) since the early 1990s and has since become one of the most widespread corn viruses in the Hawaiian Islands. In the United States Mainland, MCMV has been reported to be transmitted by six different species of chrysomelid beetles, including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. However, none of these beetle species have been reported in Hawaii where the corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has been identified to be the main vector. In this study, we developed leaf disk transmission assays and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the mode of MCMV transmission by the corn thrips. We showed that thrips transmitted the virus with no evidence for latent periods. Both larvae and adults transmitted the virus for up to 6 d after acquisition, with decreasing rates of transmission as time progressed. There was no evidence that adult thrips that acquired the virus as larvae were competent vectors. Real time reverse-transcription polomerase chain reaction assays showed that viral load was depleted from the vector's body after thrips had access to healthy plant tissue. Depletion of viral load was also observed when thrips matured from larvae to adults. Thrips were able to transmit MCMV after acquisition and inoculation access periods of 3 h. However, transmission efficiency increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods. Taken altogether our data suggests that corn thrips transmit MCMV in a semipersistent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting evidence of a plant virus transmitted semipersistently by thrips. PMID:23448010

Cabanas, D; Watanabe, S; Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A



Spatial dependence, dispersion, and sequential sampling of Anaphothrips obscurus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in timothy.  


The spatial distribution and dispersion of Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was examined with the goal of establishing a sequential sampling plan for this pest in timothy, Phleum pratense L. (Poaceae). Approximately 16 different California timothy fields were sampled twice yearly from 2006 to 2008 using direct observation and the beat cup method. For direct observation, the number of thrips on each leaf of the plant was counted. For the beat cup method, tillers were tapped into a cup and dislodged thrips were counted. Samples were separated by ?3 m in 2006 and 2007 and exactly 3 m in 2008. Spatial autocorrelation of intrafield population distribution was tested for significance in 2008 using Moran's I, but autocorrelation was not detected. The population dispersion was assessed by Taylor's power law and was determined to be aggregated and density-dependent. Intraplant population dispersion and distribution for each year were also evaluated for adults, larvae, and total thrips. All lifestages were highly spatially dependent and more thrips were found near the top of the plant than the bottom. Direct observation proved to be a more accurate and precise method than the beat cup method, especially when thrips abundances were greater than one. However, the number of samples required to provide an accurate level of precision was unrealistic for both methods. A sequential sampling plan was evaluated, but was not practical for the beat cup method because few thrips were found using this method. Because there was no spatial autocorrelation at sampling distances of 3 m, samples can be taken at intervals at 3 m to obtain spatially independent population abundance estimates. PMID:22251648

Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B



Maize planting time and arthropod abundance in southern Mindanao, Philippines. I. Population dynamics of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly plantings conducted over 4 years in a rainfed triple maize cropping system in southern Mindanao, Philippines, revealed the Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) as the most important insect pest. Of minor importance and being restricted to one crop stage were rice seedling maggot Atherigona oryzae Malloch, thrips Thrips palmi Karny and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall), corn leafhopper Cicadulina

J. A. Litsinger; C. G. Dela Cruz; B. L. Canapi; A. T. Barrion



Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G



Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against soil-dwelling life stages of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


The efficacy of six entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains was tested in a laboratory study against soil-dwelling life stages of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The EPN strain collections screened included two Heterorhabditis bacteriophora species, i.e., H. bacteriophora HK3 (H.b H) and H. bacteriophora HB Brecan (H.b B), three Steinernema feltiae species, i.e., S. feltiae Sylt (S.f S), S. feltiae OBSIII (S.f O), and S. feltiae strain CR (S.f C), and the S. carpocapsae strain DD136 (S.c D). All soil-dwelling life stages of WFT were susceptible to the tested EPN strains. The most virulent strains were S.f S, S.c D, and H.b H. The S.f O strain was highly virulent against late second instar larvae and prepupae of WFT under high soil moisture conditions, but less effective against pupae under comparatively drier soil conditions. Results from dose rate experiments indicate that a comparatively high concentration of 400 infective juveniles (IJs) per cm(2) was needed to obtain high mortality in all soil-dwelling life stages of WFT. However, dose rates of 100-200 IJs/cm(2) already caused 30-50% mortality in WFT. The chances for combining EPNs with other biological control agents of WFT are discussed. PMID:11812114

Ebssa, L; Borgemeister, C; Berndt, O; Poehling, H M



Low temperature phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry.  


U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with diluted pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2 degrees C was studied to control western flower thrips and to determine effects on the quality of the treated products. Total thrips control was achieved in > or = 18-h fumigation treatments with > or = 250 ppm phosphine. One day fumigation treatment with 1,000 ppm phosphine was tested on lettuce and broccoli. One-day fumigation treatments with 500 ppm and 1,000 ppm phosphine were tested on asparagus and strawberry. Visual quality of lettuce, broccoli, and asparagus was evaluated after 2-wk posttreatment storage. Strawberry quality was evaluated immediately after fumigation and after 1-wk posttreatment storage. For all the products, there were no significant differences between the treatments and the controls in postharvest quality, and there were no injuries caused by the fumigation treatments. Therefore, phosphine fumigation at low temperature was promising for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry. PMID:19133457

Liu, Yong-Biao



Life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) on Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and two factitious food sources.  


The aim of this work was to study the life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis Moreira, Klompen and Moraes preying on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a serious cosmopolitan pest of different crops, as well as on Protorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae), prospective factitious foods for the mass rearing of the predator. Experiments were conducted in a chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH and in the dark. Total immature development (egg-adult) was completed in 12.3 ± 5, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.1 ± 0.6 on F. occidentalis, Protorhabditis sp. and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Fecundity and intrinsic rate of increase were higher on Protorhabditis sp. (71.6 ± 9.1 eggs/female; 0.28 female/female/day) than on F. occidentalis (63.8 ± 14.8; 0.23) and T. putrescentiae (43.1 ± 8.9; 0.23). Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis and its larval stages can be completed without feeding. Protonymphs and deutonymphs can survive in the absence of food for about a month, and adults for almost 2 months. It was concluded that C. jaboticabalensis is a promising biological control agent of F. occidentalis and that it may be mass reared with the use of Protorhabditis sp. or T. putrescentiae. PMID:25491292

Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Busoli, Antônio Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto José



Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.  


The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan



Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants  

PubMed Central

Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100

Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo



Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.  


In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall: I. purpurea, I. hederacea, M. verticillata, A. palmeri, C. obtusifolia, R. scabra, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Polygonum pensylvanicum L., and Chenopodium album L. PMID:16539098

Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G



65-jähriges Jubiläum von Ludwig Karni?ar  

E-print Network

in der Folge zur engen wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit mit den rechtswissen- schaftlichen Fakultäten in Maribor und Ljubljana. Das mit dem Sprachkurs ist jetzt schon fast dreißig Jahre her und wer, so frage ich, hätte damals gedacht, dass ich jemals... Bergbauernfamilie in Ebriach/Obirsko hinein- geboren und mit der zweisprachigen Volksschule und dem Bundesgymnasium für Slowenen in Klagenfurt wurde auch die Grundlage für seinen späteren Beruf geschaffen. Musische Begabung, die wohl Hand in Hand geht mit...

Kocher, Gernot



The male reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera): Sperm structure and spermiogenesis.  


Considering the overall uniformity of the morphology of Zoraptera, the structural diversity of the male genital system is remarkable. Structures related to the male reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli differ profoundly from those of Zorotypus hubbardi. The testes are elongated rather than spherical, the seminal vesicle is apparently absent, and the deferent ducts are very long. A feature shared by these two species and other zorapterans examined is that the two accessory glands are closely adherent to each other and form a single large structure, from which the ejaculatory duct originates. This is a potential zorapteran autapomorphy. Another feature possibly present in the groundplan of the order is the strong elongation of the sperm cells. This may be connected with a reproductive strategy of males trying to avoid re-mating of females with other males after the first copulation. The extremely long and coiled spermathecal duct of Z. caudelli and other zorapteran species is possibly correlated with the sperm elongation, and both features combined may result in a sexual isolating mechanism. The short duration of mating of Zorotypus barberi and Zorotypus gurneyi suggests that the male introduces sperm into the female tract up to the opening of the spermathecal duct using their long coiled aedeagus. A thick glycocalyx around the sperm in the distal part of the deferent ducts probably protects the sperm cells during their forward progression towards the long spermathecal duct, and is removed when they reach the apical receptacle. The spermatogenesis of Z. caudelli follows a pattern commonly found in insects, but differs distinctly from that of Z. hubbardi in the number of spermatids in each sperm cyst. An unusual and possibly autapomorphic feature of Z. caudelli is a disconnection of sub-tubules A and B at the level of microtubule doublets 1 and 6 of the mature sperm cells. It is conceivable that this results in a shorter period of sperm motility. The character combination found in different zorapteran species supports the view that the sperm, a very compact functional unit, does not evolve as a unit, but like in other more complex body regions, sperm components can also be modified independently from each other. This results in different mosaic patterns of plesiomorphic and derived features in a very compact entity in different species of the very small and otherwise uniform order Zoraptera. In Z. caudelli, for instance, the bi-layered acrosome and small accessory bodies are plesiomorphic states among several others, whereas the mitochondrial derivatives and the elongate nucleus are apparently derived conditions. Other combinations likely occur in other zorapteran species. Only few but noteworthy sperm characters indicate possible phylogenetic affinities of Zoraptera. A possible synapomorphic feature, the presence of dense laminae radiating in a cartwheel array between neighbouring centriolar triplets, is shared with Phasmatodea and Embioptera. Another potential synapomorphy shared with Phasmatodea is the presence of 17 protofilaments in the tubular wall of the outer accessory microtubules. PMID:21996133

Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Gottardo, M; Machida, R; Mashimo, Y; Beutel, R G



Insecticide resistance in onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onion thrips from onion (Allium cepa) crops were tested for resistance to four insecticides (deltamethrin, diazinon, dichlorvos, and endosulfan) following reports of failure of insecticides to control onion thrips in the field. Bioassays to determine baseline concentration?mortality responses used thrips from two insecticide susceptible populations. Leaf discs (24 mm diam.) cut from leek (Allium porrum) were dipped in insecticide solutions

N. A. Martin; P. J. Workman; R. C. Butler



Stress evolution in sputter-deposited FePd shape-memory Y. Sugimura, I. Cohen-Karni, P. McCluskey, and J.J. Vlassaka)  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION Shape-memory alloys can recover large strains due to a thermoelastic martensitic transformation­Ti alloys in particu- lar have been developed successfully into actuators and sensors in various engineering­ Ni, Fe­Co­Ni­Ti systems in addition to intermetallics based on the Heusler-phase Ni2Mn


Fabrication and Characterization of Fe-Pd Ferromagnetic Shape-Memory Thin Films Yuki Sugimura, Tzahi Cohen-Karni, Patrick McCluskey and Joost Vlassak  

E-print Network

have been produced by magnetron sputtering. Various heat treatment conditions were studied in order with a variation in Pd content are obtained by magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-deposition heat treatment DETAILS Fe-Pd thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering in a high vacuum chamber equipped


An Evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Performance on Different Plant Leaves Based on Life History Characteristics.  


To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin



Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella occidentalis is the key vector responsible for the emergence of Tomato spotted wilt virus as a global threat to agriculture. Frankliniella bispinosa is a common thrips in Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda, but the role of F. bispinosa in the epidemiology of the virus is not known. The ...


Fine structure of the salivary glands of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis consist of two parts: the tubular and the ovoidal glands. The tubular glands have microvillate cells, which are rich in mitochondria, associated with sinuous plasma membrane and produce a watery secretion. The ovoid glands have cells that are rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes and produce viscous secretions of proteinaceous material. It is

Giovanna Del Bene; Vittoria Cavallo; Pietro Lupetti; Romano Dallai



Species composition and population dynamics of thrips (Thysanoptera) in mango orchards of northern peninsular Malaysia.  


Thrips are key pests of mango, Mangifera indica (L.), in Malaysia, including the Northern Peninsular. As Penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. With a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in Penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through two flowering seasons of 2009 using CO(2) collection technique. Larval population falling into the ground to pupate and adults emerging from the soil were investigated in both orchards. Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) were the most prevalent species in the sprayed and the unsprayed orchards, respectively. The abundance of thrips was high during the flowering period of the dry season and decreased during the flowering period of the rainy season. This latter period coincided with decreased temperature and increased relative humidity. Percentage of adult emergence from the soil was lower in the rainy season than recorded in the dry season in both orchards. Taken together, these observations suggest that T. hawaiiensis and S. dorsalis are the main thrips species pests of mango panicles in Penang. Direct control with insecticides focusing on these two species may help to reduce cosmetic injuries and other damages on mango fruits. PMID:22546435

Aliakbarpour, H; Che Salmah, M R; Dieng, H



A new species of the genus Karnyothrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) from China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Karnyothrips cyathomorphus sp. n. (Phlaeothripidae: Phlaeothripinae) is described as a new apterous species in the genus Karnyothrips Watson 1923, and it represents the fourth species of the genus to be recorded from China. A key to the Chinese species is given. PMID:24223484

Wang, Jun; Mirab-balou, Majid; Tong, Xiao-li



Biology of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida), an Obligate Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera) Parasite  

PubMed Central

Frankliniella occidentalis, a serious pest of agricultural crops, is difficult to manage because chemical and biological control measures frequently fail to affect F. occidentalis in their preferred microhabitats. Parasitism by the host-specific, entomopathogenic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi may provide a much-needed alternative to current control strategies. Infection does not cause death of the host; rather, the result is sterilization that leads to suppression of F. occidentalis populations. We describe a simple rearing method and the results from studies aimed at providing details on its biology-both essential first steps to examining its biological control potential. All F. occidentalis life stages are susceptible to infection, but to varying degrees (most susceptible to least susceptible): female pupae, second instar larvae, first instar larvae, male pupae, adult females, adult males. Nematodes emerge from female and male F. occidentalis for approximately 15 and 9 days, with approximately 14 and 7 nematodes emerging per day, respectively. Females and males are short-lived outside of the host, with mean survival rates ranging between 7 and 86 hours. Transmission does not occur in the soil but rather on or within plant structures that are preferred microhabitats visited by F. occidentalis. Results from a dose-response study suggest that augmentative applications of T. nicklewoodi may be useful to generate increased infection rates and subsequent suppression of F. occidentalis populations. PMID:19265952

Mason, Judy M.; Heinz, Kevin M.



Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...


Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) affects onion production in the United States and worldwide. The presence of IYSV in Georgia was confirmed in 2003. Two important thrips species that transmit tospoviruses, the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Lindeman)) and the tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) are known to infest onion in Georgia. However, T. tabaci is the only confirmed vector of IYSV. Experiments were conducted to test the vector status of F. fusca in comparison with T. tabaci. F. fusca and T. tabaci larvae and adults reared on IYSV-infected hosts were tested with antiserum specific to the nonstructural protein of IYSV through an antigen coated plate ELISA. The detection rates for F. fusca larvae and adults were 4.5 and 5.1%, respectively, and for T. tabaci larvae and adults they were 20.0 and 24.0%, respectively, indicating that both F. fusca and T. tabaci can transmit IYSV. Further, transmission efficiencies of F. fusca and T. tabaci were evaluated by using an indicator host, lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum (Salisbury)). Both F. fusca and T. tabaci transmitted IYSV at 18.3 and 76.6%, respectively. Results confirmed that F. fusca also can transmit IYSV but at a lower efficiency than T. tabaci. To attest if low vector competency of our laboratory-reared F. fusca population affected its IYSV transmission capability, a Tomato spotted wilt virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) transmission experiment was conducted. F. fusca transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus at a competent rate (90%) suggesting that the transmission efficiency of a competent thrips vector can widely vary between two closely related viruses. PMID:22420253

Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Pappu, Hanu R; Diffie, Stan; Riley, David G; Gitaitis, Ron D



Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...


Evaluation of medium treatments for management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) and Bradysia coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  


Two greenhouse experiments, each comprising two trials, were conducted to evaluate medium drenches of insect growth regulators and conventional insecticides to reduce emergence of adult western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats, Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) from the medium. In the insect growth regulator trials, diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen provided the greatest reduction in thrips emergence, and fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin resulted in the most significant reduction of fungus gnat emergence. Treatments with the contact insecticides, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos, resulted in the greatest reduction of thrips and fungus gnat populations. These data suggest that fungus gnats are susceptible to many compounds used in commercial greenhouse production. Even though medium drenches are not currently used for thrips management, drenches with diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos could aid in reducing thrips populations in greenhouse management programs. PMID:11802598

Ludwig, S W; Oetting, R D



Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test. PMID:16539139

Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G



The genus Ctenothrips from India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
with description of one new species and one new record.


Ctenothrips barapatharensis sp.n. is described from specimens collected on ferns from Himachal Pradesh state of India. This is the only species in this genus having dark thickenings attached to fore ocellus. Ctenothrips niger Kudô is newly recorded from India, and the brachypterous form is described for the first time. A key to the three species of Ctenothrips from India is provided. PMID:24989741

Tyagi, Kaomud; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Kumar, Vikas



The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition

E. K. Chatzivassiliou; D. Peters; N. I. Katis



New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scritothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in the southeast region of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. During scouting and sampling various hosts at different commercial nursery locations in Florida (Miami-Dade Count...


Insecticide bioassays for western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidental is) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays were tested for their suitability to determine the resistance of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) to insecticides. Adult female greenhouse and lupin strains of western flower thrips were exposed to bean leaf discs treated with insecticide solutions for 24 h at 25°C. The susceptibility of greenhouse strain western flower thrips was further assessed following

N. A. Martin; P. J. Workman; R. C. Butler



Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera:Thripidae)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ?Ct method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects. PMID:25356721

Zheng, Yu-Tao; Li, Hong-Bo; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou



Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...


Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.  


A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles



Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural enemies on avocado ( Persea americana Miller)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara was discovered attacking avocados in California, USA, in 1996. Host plant surveys in California indicated that S. perseae has a highly restricted host range with larvae being found only on avocados, while adults were collected from 11 different plant species. As part of a management program for this pest, a “classical” biological control program was initiated and

Mark S. Hoddle; Sueo Nakahara; Phil A. Phillips



In vivo rearing of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and prospects as a biological control agent of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  


Methods are described for the in vivo production of the nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi (Siddiqi), an obligate parasite and potential biological control agent of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Nematode infection is not lethal but causes sterilization of adult female hosts. Both fertilization and horizontal transmission of T. nicklewoodi is achieved in 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tubes (infection arenas), in the presence of 100% humidity, a temporary food source and preferably a damp substrate. Following exposure to infection arenas, F. occidentalis are reared on excised bean leaves Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in polypropylene containers for 2 wk at 25 degrees C to allow the reproduction and development of a single generation of nematodes within infected hosts's abdominal cavity. To identify infected hosts after this incubation period, thrips are isolated in microcentrifuge tubes and monitored for free-living nematodes being released along with frass. Infected thrips are reintroduced back into infection arenas to inoculate further thrips to maintain the culture. We documented the output of the rearing procedure using a standard method and following simple manipulation of several individual parameters of the infection technique. The standard method was the most efficient, and resulted in an increased (output/input) ratio of infected thrips of approximately 2; i.e., the number of infected thrips approximately doubles each generation. Monitoring infected thrips revealed that nematodes were first released between 12-14 d postinfection and for an average of 7.9 d at 25 degrees C; highlighting the potential to reuse infective thrips between infection arenas. The possibility of using T. nicklewoodi as an inoculative agent against F. occidentalis infesting floricultural crops is discussed. PMID:12216805

Arthurs, Steven; Heinz, Kevin M



Molecular cloning and characterization of an Hsp90/70 organizing protein gene from Frankliniella occidentalis (Insecta: Thysanoptera, Thripidae).  


The heat shock 90/70 organizing protein (Hop), also known as Sti-1 (stress-induced protein-1), is a co-chaperone that usually mediates the interaction of Hsp90 and Hsp70 and has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants. However, its role in insects remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a Hop homologue gene from Frankliniella occidentalis (Fohop). The Fohop contains a 1659bp ORF encoding a protein of 552 amino acids with a caculated molecular mass of approximately 62.25kDa, which displays a reasonable degree of identity with the known Hops and shares several canonical motifs, including three tetratricopeptide repeated motif domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two aspartic acid-proline (DP) repeat motifs (DP1 and DP2). As in other hops, Fohop contains introns, but the number and the position are quite variable. The mRNA expression patterns indicated that Fohop was constitutively expressed throughout the developmental stages, but was obviously upregulated by heat stress both in larvae and adults. Our studies imply that Hop, as in other Hsps, may play an important role in heat shock response of F. occidentalis. PMID:23458874

Li, Hong-Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou



The chrysanthemum thrips, Thrips nigropilosus Uzel (Terebrantia: Thysanoptera), on Scotch thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Compositae: Cynareae) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrips nigropilosus is found in New Zealand on Cirsium vulgare (Scotch thistle) — a new host record for this species. An account of its other host records and distribution is given as well as new distribution records for New Zealand.

Annette K. Walker; B. Michaux



Abundance of Thrips obscuratus (Crawford) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) during wine grape flowering in different regions in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a first step in understanding the pest status of thrips in wine grapes in New Zealand, we aimed to determine the species composition of thrips in grape inflorescences in four grape-growing regions of the country (sampling grape cv. ‘Chardonnay’ from 18 growers) and to quantify their abundance. Of the regions, by far the largest numbers of thrips were recorded

M. V. Marroni; D. A. J. Teulon; R. R. Scott; M. V. Jaspers



Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...


The morphology and biology of the entomophilic Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), and the histopathological effects of parasitism on the host Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used light and electron microscopy to detail the in vivo life cycle of the nematode Thripinema fuscum and to determine the effects of parasitism on tissues of the thrips host Frankliniella fusca. The parasitic T. fuscum female produced eggs within 4–5 days after ingress and the host haemocoele became packed with eggs and developing juvenile nematodes. Mature juveniles migrated

Kelly Sims; James J. Becnel; Joe Funderburk



Biological control of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) vectored Beauveria bassiana in greenhouse sweet pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bumble bees to disseminate conidia of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin from hive-mounted dispensers to greenhouse sweet peppers for the control of tarnished plant bug (TPB) and western flower thrips (WFT) was investigated in greenhouse trials using large screened enclosures. Samples collected from the enclosures (four treatments) on two sampling dates showed that 97, 90, 91, and 42%

Mohammad S. Al-mazra’awi; Les Shipp; Bruce Broadbent; Peter Kevan



Overwintering of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Winter Annual Weeds Infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus and Patterns of Virus Movement Between Susceptible Weed Hosts.  


ABSTRACT Overwintering of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, was investigated on common winter annual host plants infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Populations of tobacco thrips produced on TSWV-infected plants did not differ from those produced on healthy plants, whereas populations varied greatly among host plant species. The mean per plant populations of F. fusca averaged 401, 162, and 10 thrips per plant on Stellaria media, Scleranthus annuus, and Sonchus asper, respectively, during peak abundance in May. Adult F. fusca collected from plant hosts were predominately brachypterous throughout the winter and early spring, but macropterous forms predominated in late spring. Weed hosts varied in their ability to serve as overwintering sources of TSWV inoculum. Following the initial infection by TSWV in October 1997, 75% of Scleranthus annuus and Stellaria media retained infection over the winter and spring season, whereas only 17% of Sonchus asper plants remained infected throughout the same interval. Mortality of TSWV-infected Sonchus asper plants exceeded 25%, but mortality of infected Stellaria media and Scleranthus annuus did not exceed 8%. TSWV transmission by thrips produced on infected plants was greatest on Stellaria media (18%), intermediate on Scleranthus annuus (6%), and lowest on Sonchus asper (2%). Very few viruliferous F. fusca were recovered from soil samples collected below infected wild host plants. Vegetative growth stages of Stellaria media, Sonchus asper, and Ranunculus sardous were more susceptible to F. fusca transmission of TSWV than flowering growth stages, whereas both growth stages of Scleranthus annuus were equally susceptible. In a field study to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of virus movement from a central source of TSWV-infected Stellaria media to adjacent plots of R. sardous, the incidence of infection in R. sardous plots increased from <1% in March to >42% in June 1999. Infection levels in the Stellaria media inoculum source remained high throughout the experiment, averaging nearly 80% until June 1999 when all Stellaria media plants had senesced. Dispersal of TSWV from the inoculum source extended to the limits of the experimental plot (>37 m). Significant directional patterns of TSWV spread to the R. sardous plots were detected in April and May but not in June. R. sardous infections were detected as early as March and April, suggesting that overwintering inoculum levels in an area can increase rapidly during the spring in susceptible weed hosts prior to planting of susceptible crops. This increase in the abundance of TSWV inoculum sources occurs at a time when vector populations are increasing rapidly. The spread of TSWV among weeds in the spring serves to bridge the period when overwintered inoculum sources decline and susceptible crops are planted. PMID:18944235

Groves, R L; Walgenbach, J F; Moyer, J W; Kennedy, G G



Fungus-feeding phlaeothripine Thysanoptera in the genus Holothrips from Australia and New Caledonia, with a structurally similar new genus, Holoengythrips.  


Ten species of Holothrips, including seven new species, are recognized from Australia, with one further new species from New Caledonia. A new genus, Holoengythrips, is described from Australia, with nine new species that look similar to Holothrips species in having elongate maxillary stylets that are close together medially for the full length of the head. In contrast to species of Holothrips, the species of Holoengythrips are strongly sexually dimorphic, with antennal segment VIII separated from VII and the maxillary stylets more slender, and the males have a pore plate on the eighth sternite. Holoengythrips is therefore considered to be more closely related to Hoplandrothrips.  PMID:25283196

Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J



Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.



Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. I. Temperature, time & oxygen level on insect mortality & lettuce quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments with different oxygen levels, treatment times, and temperatures were studied to determine responses of western flower thrips and effects on postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce. Over 99.6% mortality rates of thrips were achieved in three ULO treatments of 2, 3, and...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three seperate studies were conducted to report the effects of kaolin applications (Surround WP) on southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V.ashei Reade) blueberries. When applied to mature blueberry plants, kaolin clay emulsion dried to form a white reflective film ...


Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...


The Highly Rearranged Mitochondrial Genome of the Plague Thrips, Thrips imaginis (Insecta: Thysanoptera): Convergence of Two Novel Gene Boundaries and an Extraordinary Arrangement of rRNA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

for the evolution of duplicate control regions and for the gene translocations, but intramitochondrial recombination may account for the gene inversions in T. imaginis. All the 18 genes between control regions #1 and #2 have translocated and\\/or inverted, whereas only six of the 20 genes outside this region have translocated and\\/or inverted. Moreover, the extra tRNA gene and the two

Renfu Shao; Stephen C. Barker



Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China  

PubMed Central

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian




E-print Network

, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. 181 #12;182 KARNI ET AL. and gene-ontology of the abundant information on genes that change their expression levels within the affected tissue under

Shamir, Ron


POPULATION ECOLOGY Temporal Dynamics of Iris Yellow Spot Virus and Its Vector,  

E-print Network

(Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Seeded and Transplanted Onion Fields CYNTHIA L. HSU,1,2 CHRISTINE A. HOEPTING,3.1603/EN09165 ABSTRACT Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV

Nault, Brian



E-print Network

. Nault. 2011. Weed hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and their potential role in the epidemiology of Iris yellow spot virus in an onion ecosystem. Environ. Entomol. (in press). 3. Diaz-Montano, J., M. Fuchs, B. A. Nault, J. Fail and A. M. Shelton. 2011. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

Nault, Brian


HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Insecticide Efficacy on Developing Action Thresholds for  

E-print Network

Management: A Case Study of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Onion BRIAN A. NAULT1 AND ANTHONY M and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripi- dae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion Ã?elds from 2006 to 2008

Nault, Brian


PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Onion Cultivars for Resistance to Onion Thrips  

E-print Network

PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Onion Cultivars for Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera. SHELTON1 J. Econ. Entomol. 103(3): 925Ð937 (2010); DOI: 10.1603/EC09263 ABSTRACT Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion

Nault, Brian


Lack of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 upregulates basal thermogenesis but causes hypothermia in a cold environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a microsomal enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of oleate and palmi- toleate. Mice with a targeted disruption of the SCD1 iso- form (SCD1 ? \\/ ? ) exhibit reduced adiposity and increased energy expenditure. To address whether the energy expen- diture is attributable to increased thermogenesis, we investi- gated the effect of SCD1 deficiency on basal

Seong-Ho Lee; Agnieszka Dobrzyn; Pawel Dobrzyn; Shaikh Mizanoor Rahman; Makoto Miyazaki; James M. Ntambi



(Z)-3-Dodecenoic acid is the main component of full-body n-hexane extracts from two Acacia gall-inducing thrips (Thysanoptera) and may function as an alarm pheromone.  


A major interest in the gall-inducing thrips of Australia began with the discovery that some species have eusocial colonies. The origin of social castes remains one of the outstanding questions in evolutionary biology. The inference of the ancestral stage from study of solitary species is important to understanding the evolutionary history of semiochemicals in social species. Here we investigated two solitary species, Kladothrips nicolsoni and K. rugosus. Whole body extracts revealed that (Z)-3-dodecenoic acid, here reported for the first time in a thrips species, is the main component. (Z)-3-Dodecenoic acid and (E)-3-dodecenoic acid were synthesized in high stereoisomeric purity (> 99.8%) and exposed to K. nicolsoni 2nd-instar larvae in a contact chemoreception bioassay to test for potential bioactivity. Both isomers decreased the average time spent in the treated area per entry suggesting repellence at the tested dose. (Z)-3-Dodecenoic acid may function as alarm pheromone. (E)-3-Dodecenoic acid increased also the absolute change in direction of larvae compared to an n-hexane control and could potentially function as a repellent. PMID:25265854

Wallin, Erika A; De Facci, Monica; Anderbrant, Olle; Hedenström, Erik



Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...


Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms, and management strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This ...


Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...


Sleep and rest facilitate implicit memory in a visual search task S.C. Mednick a,*, T. Makovski b  

E-print Network

sleep, specifically rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (Karni, Tanne, RubSleep and rest facilitate implicit memory in a visual search task S.C. Mednick a,*, T. Makovski b in revised form 7 April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Contextual cueing Sleep Naps Implicit memory

Mednick, Sara C.


which settles the debate about the exclusiveness of memory con-solidation during sleep.  

E-print Network

1997], REM sleep depriva- tion [Karni et al. 1994], and correlations between sleep parame- ters the percentage of REM sleep and performance (this is a preliminary result; the study is still in progress). On the other hand, the insignificant finding regarding non-REM Stage 2 sleep and performance is not in line


updated 1242102 Dept. Dept.  

E-print Network

updated 1242102 Dept. Dept. David Spear, Chair HST Ty Tessitore PSC Chris Blackwell CLS Carolyn Clemens BUS David Rutledge REL Susan D'Amato PHY John Wheeler CHM Ken Peterson ECN Sarah Worth PHL Jeremy Carmela Epright, CoChair PHL Ken Kolb SOC Sophia Kearns, CoChair MLL Lisa Knight REL Karni Bhati ENG


New neotropical species of the Genus Phlugis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) and comments on the tribe Phlugidini  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

After reviewing the literature on the tribe Phlugidini, Tenuiphlugis Kavan (with 4 species) is herein synonymized with the genus Lucienola Gurney. Seventeen new species of the predaceous katydid genus Phlugis Karny (Meconematinae) are described and figured. All of these species were collected from r...


Experience-dependent changes in cerebellar contributions to motor sequence learning  

E-print Network

* , Allen W. Song§ , Avi Karni¶ , Franc¸ois Lalonde , Michelle M. Adams **, and Leslie G. Ungerleider of movement sequences (2, 5, 10, 11). In addition, functional brain imaging studies have reported changes of conditioned responses have been reported to be similar in both cerebellar sites (2). By contrast, others have

Baker, Chris I.


CHEMPHYSCHEM 2001, No. 1 WILEY-VCH-Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 2001 1439-4235/01/02/01 $ 17.50+.50/0 55 Effects of Oxidation on the Nanoscale  

E-print Network

, in addition to their light [12] J. Hofkens, M. Maus, T. Gensch, T. Vosch, M. Cotlet, F. Köhn, A. Herrmann, K, T. Gensch, M. Maus, T. Vosch, Y. Karni, G. Schweitzer, F. C. De Schryver, A. Herrmann, K. Mullen. Gensch, M. Maus, F. C. De Schryver, A. Herrmann, K. Mullen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1999, 310, 73. [15] Y

Carter, Emily A.


Stable transfection of fatty acid translocase (CD36) in a rat heart muscle cell line (H9c2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid translocase (FAT\\/CD36) is a mem- brane protein putatively involved in the transmembrane transport of long-chain fatty acids. We tested the hypothesis that expression of this protein in H9c2, a rat heart cell line normally not expressing FAT, would increase cellular palmi- tate uptake. We were able to stably transfect H9c2 cells with FAT, yielding 15 cell lines showing

Frans A. Van Nieuwenhoven; Joost J. F. P. Luiken; Yvonne F. De Jong; Paul A. Grimaldi; Ger J. Van der Vusse; Jan F. C. Glatz



Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shellof 285 herring gull eggs (Laru.s' argentatus) and 120 comnmon gull eggs (Larus canus), collectedMay 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies eXpd)se(l to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smiielters locatedatKarni#{248}y and Sunndai, amid from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume- index,shellthickness,thickness-index,and fertilization of the eggs also were monitore(l. In 1)0th

Turid Vikoren; Gudbrand Stuve


Variation Within and Between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant ...


Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...


INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE AND RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT Regional and Temporal Variation in Susceptibility to -Cyhalothrin  

E-print Network

to -Cyhalothrin in Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Onion Fields in New York A. M(6): 1843Ð1848 (2003) ABSTRACT Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios

Nault, Brian


Management strategies for western flower thrips and the role of insecticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Today, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most significant agricultural pests globally because of the damage it is able to inflict on a wide range of crops. Adults and larvae feed by piercing plant tissues with their needle-shape...


Physiological responses of pear thrips-damaged sugar maples to light and water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We assessed the effect of feeding damage by pear thrips, Tueniothrips inconsequens Uzel (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on gas exchange and water relations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings. Compared to undamaged seedlings, feeding punctures in the leaf epidermis of thrips-damaged seedlings decreased water use efficiency, increased leaf conductance to water vapor, and decreased predawn water potential. Under conditions of



see Trichoptera Sean O'Donnell  

E-print Network

and reproductive females are referred to as queens. Termite colonies possess long-lived royal couples (a queen. In contrast, male eusocial thrips (Thysanoptera) and termites (Isoptera) comprise part of the worker force specialization as more complex, larger societies evolve from smaller, simpler ones. In some ants, workers lack

O'Donnell, Sean



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a newly identified invasive pest to the Caribbean, and poses a significant threat to agriculture and trade in the region. Methods are needed to detect the presence and to monitor populations of this pest so that they can be effectively managed...


Manipulating fertilization: a management tactic against Frankliniella occidentalis on potted chrysanthemum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilization during production of greenhouse chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev), will influence Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations as well as plant productivity and postproduction longevity. It is essential to include fertilization effects in the development of crop management practices that reduce thrips populations and maintain plant marketability. In this study, we lowered fertilization to reduce thrips population abundance while maintaining

Amanda Chau; Kevin M. Heinz



An ancient pollinator of a contemporary plant ( Cyclamen persicum): When pollination syndromes break down  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollination of Cyclamen persicum (Primulaceae) was studied in two wild populations in Israel. Buzz-pollination proved to be extremely rare, and performed by a large Anthophora bee only. The most frequent pollinators were various unspecialized species of thrips (Thysanoptera) and hoverflies (Syrphidae). In the Winter-flowering populations the commonest visitor was a small primitive moth, Micropteris elegans (Micropterigidae, Lepidoptera). These moths feed

Racheli Schwartz-Tzachor; Amotz Dafni; Simon G. Potts; Dan Eisikowitch



Migration arising from gradients in shear stress: Particle distributions in Poiseuille flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental evidence for the existence of shear induced migration processes is reviewed and the mechanism by Leighton and Acrivos (1987b) is described in detail. The proposed mechanism is shown to lead to the existence of an additional shear induced migration in the presence of gradients in shear stress such as would be found in Poiseuille flow, and which may be used to predict the amplitude of the observed short-term viscosity increase. The concentration and velocity profiles which result from such a migration are discussed in detail and are compared to the experimental observations of Karnis, Goldsmith and Mason (1966).

Leighton, D. T., Jr.



Multiple origins of parasitism in lice: phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicates that the Phthiraptera and Psocoptera are not monophyletic.  


The Paraneoptera (Hemipteroid Assemblage) comprises the orders Thysanoptera (thrips), Hemiptera (bugs), Phthiraptera (lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice). The phylogenetic relationships among the Psocodea (Phthiraptera and Psocoptera), Thysanoptera and Hemiptera are unresolved, as are some relationships within the Psocodea. Here, we present phylogenetic hypotheses inferred from SSU rDNA sequences; the most controversial of which is the apparent paraphyly of the Phthiraptera, which are parasites of birds and mammals, with respect to one family of Psocoptera, the Liposcelididae. The order Psocoptera and the suborder that contains the Liposcelididae, the Troctomorpha, are also paraphyletic. The two remaining psocopteran suborders, the Psocomorpha and the Trogiomorpha, are apparently monophyletic. The Liposcelididae is most closely related to lice from the suborder Amblycera. These results suggest that the taxonomy of the Psocodea needs revision. In addition, there are implications for the evolution of parasitism in insects; parasitism may have evolved twice in lice or have evolved once and been subsequently lost in the Liposcelididae. PMID:16007465

Murrell, Anna; Barker, Stephen C



Influence of planting date on the relationship between populations of Frankliniella flower thrips and predatory bug Orius niger in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of three planting dates [mid-March (early-planted), 15 April–15 May (normal-or timely planted) and mid-June\\u000a (late-planted)] of cotton variety SG 125 on the relationship between populations of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the predatory bug, Orius niger (Wolff) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were investigated in Adana province in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2003\\u000a and 2004. To facilitate

Ekrem Atakan; Oktay Gençer



Population genetics of the understory fishtail palm Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti in Belize: high genetic connectivity with local differentiation  

E-print Network

). They flower once per year and have a thrip-mediated pollination sys- tem (via Brooksithrips chamaedoreae: Thysanoptera) [30]. Its subglobose, aromatic, black fruits and red rachises imply a combination of gravity and animal dispersal, pos- sibly squirrels... in Belize. Predicted groups based on Holocene climate change (South and South regions) and Mayan defor- estation (west-east group and South group) with Temash as an outlier are show in gray. Manatee (22) Pueblo Viejo (18) Temash (24) Columbia (7) Belize...

Cibrian-Jaramillo, Angelica; Bacon, Christine D; Garwood, Nancy C; Bateman, Richard M; Thomas, Meredith M; Russell, Steven R; Bailey, Donovan C; Hahn, William J; Bridgewater, Samuel G M; DeSalle, Rob



Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.  


We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. PMID:21288465

Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi



Occurrence of midgut perimicrovillar membranes in paraneopteran insect orders with comments on their function and evolutionary significance.  


Hemipterans are characterized by the absence of the peritrophic membrane, an anatomical structure that envelopes the food bolus in the majority of insects. However, the microvillar membranes of many hemipteran midgut cells are not in direct contact with the food bolus, due to the existence of the so-called perimicrovillar membrane (PMM), which covers the microvilli extending into the gut lumen with dead ends. alpha-Glucosidase is a biochemical marker for PMM in the seed sucker bug Dysdercus peruvianus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). In this article, we report that adults of the major hemipteran infra-orders (Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Heteroptera) have PMM and a major membrane bound alpha-glucosidase, which has properties similar to those of the D. peruvianus enzyme. A polyclonal antibody raised against the enzyme of D. peruvianus recognized the enzymes present in PMM from the above-mentioned hemipteran groups. The same antibody was also able of recognizing perimicrovillar alpha-glucosidase from thrips. No PMM nor membrane-bound alpha-glucosidase were found in Psocoptera and Phthiraptera midguts. This suggests that PMM and PMM-bound-alpha-glucosidase are widespread among insects of the order Hemiptera and of the sister order Thysanoptera. The data support the hypothesis that PMM may have originated in the Condylognatha (Paraneopteran taxon including Hemiptera and Thysanoptera) ancestral stock and are associated with plant sap feeding. PMID:18089029

Silva, Carlos P; Silva, José R; Vasconcelos, Fábio F; Petretski, Marílvia D A; Damatta, Renato A; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Terra, Walter R



Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multi-factor climate change experiment  

SciTech Connect

To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.

Villalpando, Sean [Appalachian State University; Williams, Ray [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL



Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.  


Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed. PMID:21331569

Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J



Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips on broccoli.  


Laboratory studies were conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for controlling western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on broccoli at a low temperature of 1 degree C. Complete control was achieved in 5 d at 0.003% oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen level of 0.03%, 6-d treatment killed -85% of thrips, and 10-d treatment killed all thrips. The 5-d ULO treatment with 0.003% oxygen was successfully tested on iced commercial broccoli of several cultivars without any noticeable negative effects on shelf-life and postharvest quality. The ULO treatment provided a safe and effective alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips on exported broccoli for industrial development. PMID:17598530

Liu, Yong-Biao



Species Diversity, Seasonal Dynamics, and Vertical Distribution of Litter—Dwelling Thrips in an Urban Forest Remnant of South China  

PubMed Central

Litter—dwelling thrips are an important component of soil macroinvertebrates in tropical and subtropical regions. However, little is known about assemblage composition, seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of litter—dwelling thrips. A survey of forest litter—dwelling thrips and other soil macroinvertebrates was conducted in an urban forest remnant at Guangzhou, China during 2004–2005 and 2008–2009. A total of 835 Tullgren samples were collected during the study. Thysanoptera constituted 6.5% of total litter—dwelling macroinvertebrate individuals extracted, representing three families, 19 genera, and 25 species. Psalidothrips ascitus Ananthakrishnan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Hyidiothrips guangdongensis Wang, Tong and Zhang represented 78.5% of all individuals of litter—dwelling thrips during the survey. Numbers of species and density of leaf—litter thrips fluctuated between different months. Density of litter thrips increased from March until October, reaching a maximum of 41.1 individuals/m2 followed by a decrease. In January and February only a few larval thrips were present. Species diversity gradually increased from July (four species) to December (10 species), and then declined rapidly. The vertical distribution showed that the leaf—litter thrips species richness and abundance decreased significantly with soil depth; they were found only in the litter layer and upper soil layer (0-5 cm in depth) and were entirely absent in deeper soil layers. The results suggest that litter—dwelling thrips are a common group of litter invertebrates with high species diversity in subtropical regions. These urban forest remnants should be given special consideration in forest conservation planning, because of their significance as refugia for the litter invertebrate assemblages, especially for leaf—litter thrips. PMID:22937731

Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli



Embryonic development of Zoraptera with special reference to external morphology, and its phylogenetic implications (Insecta).  


The embryonic development of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera) is described with the main focus on its external features. A small heart-shaped embryo is formed on the dorsal side of the egg by the fusion of paired blastoderm regions with higher cellular density. The orientation of its anteroposterior axis is opposed to that of the egg. This unusual condition shows the potential autapomorphy of Zoraptera. The embryo extends along the egg surface and after reaching its full length, it migrates into the yolk. After developing there for a period of time, it reappears on the surface, accompanied by a reversion of its anteroposterior axis, finally taking its position on the ventral side of the egg. The definitive dorsal closure completes, and the prelarva hatches after perforating the chorion with very long egg tooth formed on the embryonic cuticle. Embryological data suggest the placement of Zoraptera among the "lower neopteran" or polyneopteran lineage: features supporting this are embryo formation by the fusion of paired regions with higher cellular density and blastokinesis accompanied by full elongation of the embryo on the egg surface. The extraordinarily long egg tooth has potential synapomorphy with Embioptera or Eukinolabia (= Embioptera + Phasmatodea). Together with the results from our previous studies on the egg structure, male reproductive system and spermatozoa, the close affinity of Zoraptera with Eukinolabia appears likely, that is, a clade Zoraptera + (Embioptera + Phasmatodea). PMID:24136564

Mashimo, Yuta; Beutel, Rolf G; Dallai, Romano; Lee, Chow-Yang; Machida, Ryuichiro



Physiological responses of pear thrips-damaged sugar maples to light and water stress.  


We assessed the effect of feeding damage by pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel (Thysanoptera:Thripidae), on gas exchange and water relations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings. Compared to undamaged seedlings, feeding punctures in the leaf epidermis of thrips-damaged seedlings decreased water use efficiency, increased leaf conductance to water vapor, and decreased predawn water potential. Under conditions of high soil water and high light intensity, carbon dioxide exchange rate (CER) was greater for thrips-damaged than undamaged seedlings because of greater CO(2) conductance through feeding punctures. Under conditions of low soil water, CER was lower for thrips-damaged than undamaged seedlings as a result of water stress. Carbon dioxide exchange rate at low light and low soil water was limited by non-stomatal factors, but no difference in non-stomatal limitation to CER was detected between thrips-damaged and undamaged seedlings. Leaf tissue water relations differed between thrips-damaged and undamaged seedlings and under high and low soil water conditions. The results suggest that the reduction in leaf area of thrips-damaged seedlings can be partially compensated by elevated CER under conditions of high light intensity and high soil water. However, high gas exchange rates through feeding punctures predisposes thrips-damaged seedlings to water stress that can reduce CER under conditions of low soil water. PMID:14972850

Kolb, T E; McCormick, L H; Shumway, D L



The molecular action of the novel insecticide, Pyridalyl.  


Pyridalyl is a recently discovered insecticide that exhibits high insecticidal activity against Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera. Pyridalyl action requires cytochrome P450 activity, possibly for production of a bioactive derivative, Pyridalyl metabolism being prevented by general P450 inhibitors. Apoptosis is apparently not involved in the cytotoxicity. Continuous culture of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells in sub-lethal doses of Pyridalyl, results in a Pyridalyl-resistant cell line. Probing the molecular action of Pyridalyl by comparison of the proteomes of Pyridalyl-resistant and -susceptible cell lines, revealed differential expression of a number of proteins, including the up-regulation of thiol peroxiredoxin (TPx), in the resistant cells. Treatment of Bombyx mori larvae with Pyridalyl, followed by comparison of the midgut microsomal sub-proteome, revealed the up-regulation of three proteasome subunits. Such subunits, together with Hsp70 stress proteins, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs) and thiol peroxiredoxin (TPx) were also up-regulated in the whole proteome of B. mori BM36 cells following treatment with the insecticide. The foregoing results lead to the hypothesis that cytochrome P450 action leads to an active Pyridalyl metabolite, which results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to damage to cellular macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and enhanced proteasome activity leads to increased protein degradation and necrotic cell death. PMID:21497652

Powell, Gerard F; Ward, Deborah A; Prescott, Mark C; Spiller, David G; White, Michael R H; Turner, Phillip C; Earley, Fergus G P; Phillips, Janet; Rees, Huw H



Seasonality of litter insects and relationship with rainfall in a wet evergreen forest in South Western Ghats.  


The seasonality of litter insect abundance and its relationship with rainfall was analyzed in a wet evergreen forest on the windward side of south Western Ghats. Monthly litter samples were collected using Berlese funnels during 4 seasons of a year: southwest monsoon season June-August), northeast monsoon season (September-November), summer (March -May) and pre-summer season (December-February). Insect fauna as a whole showed no seasonal variation in abundance, however, some individual insect orders showed significant seasonal variation. Overall insect fauna and individual orders were distributed independently relative to rainfall. All insect orders with the exception of Psocoptera were present during all four seasons. Coleoptera (42%) was the dominant group in all seasons followed by Formicidae (12.3%), insect larvae (10.1%), Collembola (9.2%) and Thysanoptera (8.9%). Exceptionally high abundance of Ptiliidae contributed to the unprecedented abundance of litter Coleoptera. The aseasonality of litter insect fauna as a whole is attributed to year-round availability of rainfall and the absence of severe summer conditions. PMID:19619036

Anu, Anto; Sabu, Thomas K; Vineesh, P J



The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.  


Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found. PMID:22208869

Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J



Development and Characterization of 18 Novel EST-SSRs from the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. For a better understanding of the genetic makeup and migration patterns of F. occidentalis throughout the world, we characterized 18 novel polymorphic EST-derived microsatellites. The mutational mechanism of these EST-SSRs was also investigated to facilitate the selection of appropriate combinations of markers for population genetic studies. Genetic diversity of these novel markers was assessed in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Harbin, Dali, and Guiyang). The results showed that all these 18 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15, with an average of 5.50 alleles per locus. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.072 to 0.707 and 0.089 to 0.851, respectively. Furthermore, only two locus/population combinations (WFT144 in Dali and WFT50 in Guiyang) significantly deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Pairwise FST analysis showed a low but significant differentiation (0.026 < FST < 0.032) among all three pairwise population comparisons. Sequence analysis of alleles per locus revealed a complex mutational pattern of these EST-SSRs. Thus, these EST-SSRs are useful markers but greater attention should be paid to the mutational characteristics of these microsatellites when they are used in population genetic studies. PMID:22489130

Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Xiao-Yue



Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions  

PubMed Central

In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may determine the outcome of such interactions. We carried out experiments under controlled conditions on young rose plants in order to assess the impact of these indirect interactions on life history traits of three pests: the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae), the aphid Rhodobium porosum Sanderson (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Our results indicated (i) a bi-directional negative interaction between B. cinerea and R. porosum, which is conveyed by decreased aphid growth rate and reduced fungal lesion area, as well as (ii) an indirect negative effect of B. cinerea on insect behavior. No indirect effect was observed between thrips and aphids. This research highlights several complex interactions that may be involved in structuring herbivore and plant pathogen communities within natural and managed ecosystems. PMID:21611161

Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Bearez, Philippe; Thomas, Cécile; Desneux, Nicolas



Antimicrobial strength increases with group size: implications for social evolution  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that aggregations of animals are likely to attract pathogenic micro-organisms and that this is especially the case for semisocial and eusocial insects where selection ultimately led to group sizes in the thousands or even millions, attracting the epithet ‘superorganism’. Here, we analyse antimicrobial strength, per individual, in eight thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) that present increasing innate group sizes and show that species with the largest group size (100–700) had the strongest antimicrobials, those with smaller groups (10–80) had lower antimicrobial activity, while solitary species showed none. Species with large innate group sizes showed strong antimicrobial activity while the semisocial species showed no activity until group size increased sufficiently to make activity detectable. The eusocial species behaved in a similar way, with detectable activity appearing once group size exceeded 120. These analyses show that antimicrobial strength is determined by innate group size. This suggests that the evolution of sociality that, by definition, increases group size, may have had particular requirements for defences against microbial pathogens. Thus, increase in group size, accompanied by increased antibiotic strength, may have been a critical factor determining the ‘point of no return’, early in the evolution of social insects, beyond which the evolution of social anatomical and morphological traits was irreversible. Our data suggest that traits that increase group size in general are accompanied by increased antimicrobial strength and that this was critical for transitions from solitary to social and eusocial organization. PMID:20880858

Turnbull, Christine; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Doug; Briscoe, David; Smith, Shannon; Wilson, Peter; Beattie, Andrew



Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: behavioral responses and ecosystem implications.  


Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB. PMID:9927679

Mazza, C A; Zavala, J; Scopel, A L; Ballaré, C L



Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: Behavioral responses and ecosystem implications  

PubMed Central

Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB. PMID:9927679

Mazza, Carlos A.; Zavala, Jorge; Scopel, Ana L.; Ballaré, Carlos L.



Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.



Effect of different temperatures on consumption of two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae, eggs by the predatory thrips, Scolothrips longicornis.  


Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15° C to 37° C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 (°)C to 37 (°)C, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower temperature thresholds for consumption by first and second instar larvae of S. longicornis was estimated to be 6.8 ± 0.04° C and 4.6 ± 0.03° C, respectively. The daily consumption of ovipositing females followed a nonlinear pattern, with maximum daily predation estimated at 32.8° C. From the model used to describe consumption of ovipositing females, an upper threshold for consumption of 41.4° C was estimated. The performance of S. longicornis at the different temperatures is discussed in relation to its practical use in integrated pest control programs. PMID:23425212

Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie



Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment  

PubMed Central

Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms “construct niches,” favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within “domiciles” made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70–80%) or low (8–10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile’s role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at “high” humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from “deferred byproduct mutualism,” that is, backup parental care in case of mortality. PMID:25419084



Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?  

PubMed Central

Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a general ecological principle, consistency, reliability, and precision are appropriate criteria to evaluate the applicability of a given sampling method for both community-level and taxa-specific arthropod surveys in any ecosystem. PMID:24223273

Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J



Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  


The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini



Expression and Characterization of a Soluble Form of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoprotein GN  

PubMed Central

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an economically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, GN and GC, are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not required for the initial infection of plants. Thus, it is assumed that the envelope glycoproteins play important roles in the entry of TSWV into the insect midgut, the first site of infection. To directly test the hypothesis that GN plays a role in TSWV acquisition by thrips, we expressed and purified a soluble, recombinant form of the GN protein (GN-S). The expression of GN-S allowed us to examine the function of GN in the absence of other viral proteins. We detected specific binding to thrips midguts when purified GN-S was fed to thrips in an in vivo binding assay. The TSWV nucleocapsid protein and human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B did not bind to thrips midguts, indicating that the GN-S-thrips midgut interaction is specific. TSWV acquisition inhibition assays revealed that thrips that were concomitantly fed purified TSWV and GN-S had reduced amounts of virus in their midguts compared to thrips that were fed TSWV only. Our findings that GN-S binds to larval thrips guts and decreases TSWV acquisition provide evidence that GN may serve as a viral ligand that mediates the attachment of TSWV to receptors displayed on the epithelial cells of the thrips midgut. PMID:15542672

Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.; German, Thomas L.



Variation within and between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization  

PubMed Central

Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R.; Funderburk, Joseph E.; Olson, Steve M.



Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.



How predictable are the behavioral responses of insects to herbivore induced changes in plants? Responses of two congeneric thrips to induced cotton plants.  


Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae)) damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae), Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate. PMID:23691075

Silva, Rehan; Furlong, Michael J; Wilson, Lewis J; Walter, Gimme H



Silencing jasmonate signalling and jasmonate-mediated defences reveals different survival strategies between two Nicotiana attenuata accessions.  


To determine the impact of genotypic variation in secondary metabolite production on antiherbivore resistance and plant fitness, we genetically silenced biosynthetic genes for nicotine, trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPI), and jasmonate (JA) production in two accessions of Nicotiana attenuata: one from Utah (UT) which responds to herbivory with JA-induced nicotine and TPI production, and one from Arizona (AZ) which is TPI-deficient but also produces JA-induced nicotine. Transient silencing of JA biosynthesis increased Manduca sexta larval growth on wild type (WT) plants of both accessions, but not on TPI-deficient UT or nicotine-deficient AZ lines, demonstrating that JA-mediated resistance to M. sexta requires TPIs in the UT and nicotine in the naturally TPI-deficient AZ accession. When transplanted into a native UT population, AZ and UT plants, rendered equally able or unable to produce nicotine and TPIs by stable transformation, received significantly different levels of herbivory. Both accessions differed in their resistance depending on the type of herbivores: resistance to rare, voracious herbivores (Saltatoria and Mammalia) was greater in AZ than UT lines, and dependent on nicotine production, while resistance to small, abundant herbivores (Coleoptera and Thysanoptera) was greater in UT lines, and dependent on TPI production. AZ lines produced more flowers and seed capsules than UT lines independently of TPI production costs. This fitness advantage was lost when accessions did not produce nicotine. We conclude that these two accessions have developed different survival strategies and thus differ in the cost-benefit functions of their JA-mediated defences. PMID:18662222

Steppuhn, Anke; Schuman, Meredith C; Baldwin, Ian T



Phylogenetic distribution of TTAGG telomeric repeats in insects.  


We examined the presence of TTAGG telomeric repeats in 22 species from 20 insect orders with no or inconclusive information on the telomere composition by single-primer polymerase chain reaction with (TTAGG)6 primers, Southern hybridization of genomic DNAs, and fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosomes with (TTAGG)n probes. The (TTAGG)n sequence was present in 15 species and absent in 7 species. In a compilation of new and published data, we combined the distribution of (TTAGG)n telomere motif with the insect phylogenetic tree. The pattern of phylogenetic distribution of the TTAGG repeats clearly supported a hypothesis that the sequence was an ancestral motif of insect telomeres but was lost repeatedly during insect evolution. The motif was conserved in the "primitive" apterous insect orders, the Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, in the "lower" Neoptera (Plecoptera, Phasmida, Orthoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, and Isoptera) with the exception of Dermaptera, and in Paraneoptera (Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, and Sternorrhyncha) with the exception of Heteroptera. Surprisingly, the (TTAGG)n motif was not found in the "primitive" pterygotes, the Palaeoptera (Ephemeroptera and Odonata). The Endopterygota were heterogeneous for the occurrence of TTAGG repeats. The motif was conserved in Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera but was lost in one clade formed by Diptera, Siphonaptera, and Mecoptera. It was also lost in Raphidioptera, whereas it was present in Megaloptera. In contrast with previous authors, we did not find the motif in Neuroptera. Finally, both TTAGG-positive and TTAGG-negative species were reported in Coleoptera. The repeated losses of TTAGG in different branches of the insect phylogenetic tree and, in particular, in the most successful lineage of insect evolution, the Endopterygota, suggest a backup mechanism in the genome of insects that enabled them frequent evolutionary changes in telomere composition. PMID:15060613

Frydrychová, Radmila; Grossmann, Petr; Trubac, Pavel; Vítková, Magda; Marec, Frantisek



Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment.  


Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms "construct niches," favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within "domiciles" made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70-80%) or low (8-10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile's role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at "high" humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from "deferred byproduct mutualism," that is, backup parental care in case of mortality. PMID:25419084

Gilbert, James D J



Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.  


Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions. PMID:24280006

Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J



Conserving vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in citrus: a continuing challenge as new insecticides gain registration.  


The effects of insecticides used for California citrus pest management were evaluated using larval and adult stages of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This predatory beetle is essential for control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Williston) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus. When adult beetles were exposed to treated citrus leaves, adult survival was significantly reduced by the foliar neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the pyrethroid cyfluthrin. Progeny production was significantly reduced by imidacloprid, cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin, and buprofezin. Buprofezin, pyriproxifen, and foliar imidacloprid also significantly reduced successful development of larvae into the adult stage. When vedalia stages were fed insecticide-treated cottony cushion scale reared on Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait, toxic effects were more severe than contact toxicity alone. Adult beetle survival was most profoundly reduced by the pyrethroids and to a lesser extent the foliar neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Progeny production and larval development to adulthood were reduced by all insecticides but were most severely affected by pyriproxifen and the pyrethroids. Systemically applied neonicotinoids were toxic to vedalia larvae feeding on cottony cushion scale that had ingested these insecticides. These data demonstrate that IGRs, neonicotinoid insecticides, and pyrethroid insecticides have a significant, negative impact on vedalia beetles. Depending on the rate of insecticide used, the number and timing of applications, and the level of coverage of the tree, disruption of vedalia can be minimized. However, the situation is made difficult when pests such as citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), forktailed bush katydid Scuddaria furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Orthoptera: Tettigoiniidae), or glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata Say (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) require these pesticide treatments during periods of vedalia beetle activity. PMID:14650510

Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Gu, Ping



Variation within and between Frankliniella thrips species in host plant utilization.  


Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Olson, Steve M



Host plant effects on the behaviour and performance of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  


Biological control in ornamental crops is challenging due to the wide diversity of crops and cultivars. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trichome density on different host plants influences the behavior and performance of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Behavioural observations of this predator in the presence or absence of prey (western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were done on leaf squares of ornamental plant species differing in trichome density (rose, chrysanthemum and gerbera) and compared to a smooth surface (plastic). Tomato leaves were used to observe the influence of glandular trichomes. The performance of A. swirskii was assessed by measuring predation and oviposition rate. Behaviour of A. swirskii was influenced by plant species. Up to a certain density of trichomes, trichome number had a negative effect on walking speed. It was highest on plastic, followed by rose. No differences were found among chrysanthemum, gerbera and tomato. Walking speed was slightly higher on disks without prey. Proportion of time spent walking was the same on leaf disks of all plant species, with and without prey. No effect of glandular trichomes on tomato leaves was seen. Most thrips were killed and consumed on gerbera, and least on rose. Predation rates on chrysanthemum and plastic were intermediate. In contrast, no differences in oviposition rate were found among plant species. The results of this study indicate that trichome density can explain some of the variability in efficacy of A. swirskii on different crops. Release rates of A. swirskii may need to be adjusted depending on the crop in which it is used. PMID:24037505

Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Shipp, Les; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia; Brommit, Angela; Lee, Wonhyo



Systemic use of spinosad to control the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomatoes grown in rockwool.  


Spinosad is a reduced-risk insecticide derived as a fermentation product from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It is toxic by ingestion and contact and has a unique mode of action on the insect nervous system. Spinosad exhibits a high degree of selective toxicity towards the insect orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Thysanoptera, but is less toxic to many beneficial arthropods. To determine if spinosad could be valuable as an alternative acaricide for the control of Tetranychus urticae, laboratory toxicity experiments with leaf-disk bio-assays were performed on a laboratory susceptible and several resistant strains. LC50 values were rather high in comparison with newly developed commercial acaricides. Surprisingly, when spinosad was applied to the roots of tomato plants in rock wool, excellent control of spider mites was obtained. Apparently, spinosad has systemic properties and quantities as low as 1 mg/plant could protect tomato plants from mite infestation. Different substrates with varying percentage of clay and organic matter were tested in comparison with rockwool and showed that sufficient control was restricted to the rockwool substrate. Consequently, a dose-response experiment with tomato plants grown in rockwool was set up. The persistence of spinosad toxicity when applied via the roots was determined, and pointed to a long lasting control (up to 30 DAT). Spinosad amounts in leaves after systemic application were determined with an immunological technique to quantify spinosad uptake. Correlations between mite control, spinosad uptake and leaf concentrations can be helpful to determine the necessary dose in field situations. PMID:16180075

Van Leeuwen, T; Dermauw, W; van de Veire, M; Tirry, L



Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.



Railway infrastructure monitoring with COSMO/SkyMed imagery and multi-temporal SAR interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For all the European Countries, the rail network represents a key critical infrastructure, deserving protection in view of its continuous structure spread over the whole territory, of the high number of European citizens using it for personal and professional reasons, and of the large volume of freight moving through it. Railway system traverses a wide variety of terrains and encounters a range of geo-technical conditions. The interaction of these factors together with climatic and seismic forcing, may produce ground instabilities that impact on the safety and efficiency of rail operations. In such context, a particular interest is directed to the development of technologies regarding both the prevention of mishaps of infrastructures and the fast recovery of their normal working conditions after the occurrence of accidents (disaster managing). Both these issues are of strategic interest for EU Countries, and in particular for Italy, since, more than other countries, it is characterized by a geo-morphological and hydro-geological structure complexity that increases the risk of natural catastrophes due to landslides, overflowings and floods. The present study has been carried out in the framework of a scientific project aimed at producing a diagnostic system, capable to foresee and monitor landslide events along railway networks by integrating in situ data, detected from on board sophisticated innovative measuring systems, with Earth Observation (EO) techniques. Particular importance is devoted to the use of advanced SAR interferometry, thanks to their all-weather, day-night capability to detect and measure with sub-centimeter accuracy ground surface displacements that, in such context, can occur before a landslide event or after that movements . Special attention is directed to the use of SAR images acquired by COSMO/SkyMed (ASI) constellation capable to achieve very high spatial resolution and very short revisit and response time. In this context, a stack of 57 CSK stripmap images (pol.: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-03; resolution: 3x3 m2) have been acquired from October 2009 to April 2012, covering the Calabria's Tyrrhenian coast, between the towns of Palmi and Reggio Calabria. The imaged area is of strategic importance since the two towns are connected by a stretch of the Tyrrhenian railway line, a fundamental line (as classified by RFI, the Italian Rail Network) belonging to the TEN-T network, i.e. the trans-european transport network defined since early '90 by the European Commission. Moreover, Calabria region is a challenging area where carrying on an analysis on weathering-related slope movements . In Calabria, on 2009the geo-hydrological crisis was so severe that the Italian Government had to declare the "state of emergency ". This paper concerns the processing of the CSK dataset performed through the SPINUA algorithm a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique originally developed with the aim of detection and monitoring of coherent targets in non- or scarcely urbanized areas. The displacement maps derived on the area of interest will be presented and commented with particular attention to the potential impact that such EO-based product can have on the railway networks monitoring. Acknowledgments CSK data provided by ASI in the framework of the project CAR-SLIDE, funded by MIUR (PON01_00536)

Chiaradia, M.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Bovenga, F.; Guerriero, L.



Artificial and factitious foods support the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii.  


The generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), decapsulated dry cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Anostraca: Artemiidae), and on meridic artificial diets (composed of honey, sucrose, tryptone, yeast extract, and egg yolk) supplemented with pupal hemolymph of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (AD1), with E. kuehniella eggs (AD2) or with A. franciscana cysts (AD3). Development, reproduction and predation capacity of the predatory mites were assessed in the first (G1) and sixth generation (G6) of rearing on the different diets. Immature survival rates in G1 were similar on all diets (96.8-100 %). After six generations, however, survival of A. swirskii was significantly reduced on all diets except on A. franciscana cysts. Oviposition rates did not differ between generations when females were fed on E. kuehniella, AD2 or AD3. The total number of deposited eggs was similar among diets except in G6 where the females fed on A. franciscana cysts produced more eggs than those maintained on E. kuehniella eggs. On most diets the intrinsic rates of increase in G1 were superior to those in G6, except for predators supplied with A. franciscana cysts where no differences were observed among generations. Female mites did not lose their capacity to kill first instar Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) after six generations on the different diets, but predation rates in G6 on E. kuehniella were lower than in G1. In conclusion, the different factitious and artificial diets tested in the present study supported the development and reproduction of A. swirskii for a single generation but fitness losses occurred to a varying degree after several generations on E. kuehniella eggs or the artificial diets. Artificial diet enriched with A. franciscana cysts yielded better results than the other artificial diets. Amblyseius swirskii performed best on decapsulated Artemia cysts indicating their potential for use in the mass production of the predator or to sustain its populations in the crop after release. PMID:24154947

Nguyen, Duc Tung; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Clercq, Patrick



What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic signal that can be extracted from Insecta mitogenomes. Based on the combined use of the five best topology-performing genes we obtained comparable results to whole mitogenomes, highlighting the important role of data quality. Conclusion We show for the first time that mitogenomic data agrees with nuclear and morphological data for several of the most controversial insect evolutionary relationships, adding a new independent source of evidence to study relationships among insect orders. We propose that deeper divergences cannot be inferred with the current available methods due to sequence saturation and compositional bias inconsistencies. Our exploratory analysis indicates that the CAT model is the best dealing with LBA and it could be useful for other groups and datasets with similar phylogenetic difficulties. PMID:22032248



Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis.  


Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 10(4) CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 10(5) for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 10(5) for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 10(8), 7.0 × 10(5), and 9.9 × 10(5) CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94-99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84-93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81-94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62-66%, and different horticultural oils by 58-85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce



Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro



Fusarium semitectum, a potential mycopathogen against thrips and mites in chilli, Capsicum annuum.  


In India, chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) suffers with a characteristic leaf curl symptoms due to the attack of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or both. Experiments were conducted in the fields of College of Agriculture, Shimoga, India during kharif (September 2003 to January 2004) and summer (March-June) 2004. After proving its pathogenicity, the potential of the mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum was evaluated under field conditions using the popular chilli variety "Byadagi". Different combinations of Fusarium semitectum formulations with monocrotophos (0.025% and 0.05%) were tested. Oil-emulsion and dust-water formulations (DWF) at 1x 10(8) spore/ml, DWF with monocrotophos and 5% Neem Seed Kernal Extract (NSKE) were evaluated. Population of S. dorsalis, P. latus, predatory mite Amblyseius ovalis and damage index were estimated. Populations of thrips, mite and the predatory mite were estimated at 15 days interval after 30 days of transplanting. Damage index was assessed using a visual rating method. Plant height, fruit length and dry chilli yield of each treatment were also taken. Among the treatments, oil-emulsion formulation and dust water formulation of F. semitectum in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) reduced the population of thrips significantly over other treatments. Dust water formulation was achieved a significant decline of thrips population in chilli plants after 60 days of transplanting. This reduction of thrips population could be achieved due to the effect of second spraying, which was given at 50 days after transplanting. Chilli plant height and fruit length did not vary significantly among the treatment in both seasons. The highest dry chilli yield of 512 and 1058 kg/ha was recorded in dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) followed by oil formulation (432 kg/ha and 763 kg/ha) in Kharif and summer seasons, respectively. Fusarium formulation sprayed plots were recorded low damage index than NSKE, water sprayed plots including control. Oil-emulsion formulation treated plot adjusted the highest benefit cost ratio of 6.07:1. Oil emulsion formulation (refined sunflower oil-Safola) was next best to the dust water formulation of F. semitectum. and monocrotophos combination and more-over equal to the monocrotophos 0.05% alone in suppressing the thrips and mite population. These results revealed that dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) was able to suppress the population of thrips and mites and thus was able to give highest dry chilli yield. Oil emulsion formulation of F. semitectum can also be used as the next best choice in an environment friendly integrated chilli pest management programme. PMID:17385513

Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M



Hyperspectral sensors and the conservation of monumental buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous control of the conservation state of outdoor materials is a good practice for timely planning conservative interventions and therefore to preserve historical buildings. The monitoring of surfaces composition, in order to characterize compounds of neo-formation and deposition, by traditional diagnostic campaigns, although gives accurate results, is a long and expensive method, and often micro-destructive analyses are required. On the other hand, hyperspectral analysis in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) region is a very common technique for determining the characteristics and properties of soils, air, and water in consideration of its capability to give information in a rapid, simultaneous and not-destructive way. VNIR Hypespectral analysis, which discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of absorption at specific wavelengths, are in fact successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks (1), as well as for detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity (2). Among the existing VNIR techniques (Laboratory Spectroscopy - LS, Portable Spectroscopy - PS and Imaging Spectroscopy - IS), PS and IS can play a crucial role in the characterization of components of exposed stone surfaces. In particular, the Imaging Spectroscopic (remote sensing), which uses sensors placed both on land or airborne, may contribute to the monitoring of large areas in consideration of its ability to produce large areal maps at relatively low costs. In this presentation the application of hyperspectral instruments (mainly PS and IS, not applied before in the field of monumental building diagnostic) to quantify the degradation of carbonate surfaces will be discussed. In particular, considering gypsum as the precursor symptom of damage, many factors which may affect the estimation of gypsum content on the surface will be taken into consideration. Two hyperspectral sensors will be considered: 1) A portable radiometer (ASD-FieldSpec FP Pro spectroradiometer), which continuously acquires punctual reflectance spectra in the range 350-2500 nm, both in natural light conditions and by a contact probe (fixed geometry of shot). This instrument is used on field for the identification of different materials, as well as for the definition of maps (e.g geological maps) if coupled with other hyperspectral instruments. 2) Hyperspectral sensor SIM-GA (Selex Galileo Multisensor Hyperspectral System), a system with spatial acquisition of data which may be used on an earth as well as on an airborne platform. SIM-GA consists of two electro-optical heads, which operate in the VNIR and SWIR regions, respectively, between 400-1000 nm and 1000-2500 nm (3). Although the spectral signature in the VNIR of many minerals is known, the co-presence of more minerals on a surface can affect the quantitative analysis of gypsum. Different minerals, such as gypsum, calcite, weddellite, whewellite, and other components (i.e. carbon particles in black crusts) are, in fact, commonly found on historical surfaces. In order to illustrate the complexity, but also the potentiality of hyperspectral sensors (portable or remote sensing) for the characterization of stone surfaces, a case study, the Facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence - Italy, will be presented. References 1) R.N. Clark and G.A. Swayze, 1995, "Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice, and snow, and other materials: The USGS Tricorder Algorithm", in "Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop", JPL Publication 95-1,1,39-40 2) E. Ben-Dor, K. Patin, A. Banin and A. Karnieli, 2002, "Mapping of several soil properties using DATS-7915 hyperspectral scanner data. A case study over clayely soils in Israel", International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(6), 1043-1062 3) S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of historical buildings by Hyperspectral Imaging techniques&q

Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Chiarantini, Leandro; Costagliola, Pilar; Moretti, Sandro; Paba, Francesca; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia