Sample records for palmi karny thysanoptera

  1. Detection of the Quarantine Species Thrips palmi by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Przybylska, Arnika; Fiedler, ?aneta; Kucharczyk, Halina; Obr?palska-St?plowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Thrips palmi (from the order Thysanoptera) is a serious insect pest of various crops, including vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants, causing significant economic losses. Its presence constitutes a double threat; not only does T. palmi feed on the plants, it is also a vector for several plant viruses. T. palmi originated in Asia, but has spread to North and Central America, Africa, Oceania and the Caribbean in recent decades. This species has been sporadically noted in Europe and is under quarantine regulation in the European Union. For non-specialists its larval stages are indistinguishable morphologically from another widespread and serious insect pest Frankliniella occidentalis (a non-quarantine species in the European Union) as well as other frequently occurring thrips. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification protocol to amplify rDNA regions of T. palmi. The results were consistent whether isolated DNA or crushed insects were used as template, indicating that the DNA isolation step could be omitted. The described method is species-specific and sensitive and provides a rapid diagnostic tool to detect T. palmi in the field. PMID:25793743

  2. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  3. The Species Composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) Inhabiting Mango Orchards in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md.

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

  4. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    PubMed

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

  5. Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi

    PubMed Central

    Akella, Sudhakar V. S.; Kirk, William D. J.; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F. A.; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

  6. POPULATION ECOLOGY Reproductive Modes in Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Reproductive Modes in Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Populations from New York Onion Fields BRIAN A. NAULT,1,2 ANTHONY M. SHELTON,1 JODY L. GANGLOFF-KAUFMANN,1 MICHAEL E patterns of reproductive modes in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, populations and potential effects

  7. A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Surrey, British Columbia to Blaine, Washington by an AP...

  8. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Overwintering Locations and Hosts for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Overwintering Locations and Hosts for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Onion Cropping Ecosystem in New York E. LARENTZAKI, A. M. SHELTON,1 F. R. MUSSER,2 B. A. NAULT, AND J locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently

  9. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

  10. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  11. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  12. Toxicity of selected insecticides to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using a glass-vial bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are important pests that are primarily controlled with insecticides on both onions and cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Resistance to various insecticides has been reported so data are needed on toxicity of insecticides r...

  13. An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

  14. The economic impact of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on California avocado production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Hoddle; Karen M. Jetter; Joseph G. Morse

    2003-01-01

    In 1996, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied almost exclusively on biological control to strategies dependent on insecticides to maintain thrips densities below economically damaging levels. By 1998, average losses due to thrips feeding damage in untreated infested groves reduced industry revenues by 12%. Producer costs increased by about 4.5%

  15. Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a new pest of major economic significance in California avocado natural enemies on avocado (Persea americana Miller) Mark S. Hoddle,a,* Sueo Nakahara,b and Phil A was discovered attacking avocados in California, USA, in 1996. Host plant surveys in California indicated that S

  16. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  17. The potential use of different predatory bug species in the biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Blaeser; C. Sengonca; T. Zegula

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the suitability of different predatory bug species, such as Dicyphus tamaninii Wagner, Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur), Orius albidipennis Reuter, Orius majusculus Reuter and Orius sauteri Poppius, for the biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were investigated. Development of the predatory bug species, their reproduction as well as their daily and total prey consumption over a

  18. Selection of colour of sticky trap for monitoring adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Harman, J Alex; Mao, Chang Xuan; Morse, Joseph G

    2007-02-01

    Adult bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande), overwintering inside the navel of navel oranges shipped from California to Australia, are an actionable pest for the importing country, i.e. infested lots are fumigated with methyl bromide. Strict quarantine regulations regarding C. fasciatus prompted studies on the best colour sticky trap that might be used to monitor for bean thrips populations in the vicinity of California citrus groves prior to harvesting fruit for export. Preliminary experiments identified the most attractive trap of each of four colours (blue, green, white, yellow) commonly used to sample adult Thysanoptera. Three trials of a field study were conducted, comparing C. fasciatus capture on the best card of each colour using asparagus ferns naturally infested with high levels of this pest. Based on significantly higher catch on green sticky cards, this colour trap is recommended for potential use in California's bean thrips mitigation plan designed to reduce thrips levels on citrus exported to Australia. PMID:17125151

  19. STUDY ON BIOLOGY OF ONION THRIPS, THRIPS TABACI LINDEMAN (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) ON CUCUMBER (VAR. SULTAN) IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid-Reza Pourian; Majid Mirab-balou; Marzieh Alizadeh; Szilvia Orosz

    2009-01-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of greenhouse crops in Iran. It is one of the major limiting factors affecting yield of cucumber. A study on the biology of this pest was carried out in laboratory condition (25±1°C, 70±5% RH and 16:8 h (L: D) photoperiod) on cucumber (var. Soltan) in 2007. This survey showed

  20. The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...

  1. Manipulation of ultraviolet light affects immigration behavior of Ceratothripoides claratris (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T H N; Borgemeister, C; Max, J; Poehling, H M

    2009-08-01

    Studies were conducted in tropical greenhouses to elucidate the role of UV light (UV) for the orientation and flight behavior of the thrips Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest on tomato (Lycopersicum spp.), in the hot and humid tropics of South-East Asia. Four greenhouse types characterized by different combinations of UV-absorbing or -transmitting plastic films and nets on the roof and sidewalls, respectively, were used in these studies. In choice experiments C. claratris always preferred the environment with higher UV intensity. Furthermore, natural thrips populations around the greenhouses were captured during the majority of control dates in lower numbers on sticky traps on the outer sidewalls of greenhouses clad with UV-absorbing materials compared with UV-transmitting materials. The immigration of thrips into the UV-absorbing greenhouses also was impeded, as measured by sticky traps on the inner side walls. UV-absorbing plastic roofs showed the most pronounced deterrent effect for thrips movement toward greenhouses, and the UV-absorbing net effectively reduced thrips numbers crossing the net barrier into the greenhouse. A simple extension of UV-absorbing plastic roof around conventional greenhouses clad with UV-transmitting plastic and net reduced thrips capture rates inside the greenhouse up to 77% when thrips was released at 1 m distance from the net walls. These results are discussed in the context of wavelength dependent insect vision and the dilemma of tropical greenhouse constructions, i.e., physical pest exclusion versus appropriate ventilation to ensure a conducive microclimate for plant growth. PMID:19736769

  2. Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton.

    PubMed

    Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

    2009-06-01

    Cotton hardlock caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg) can reduce cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., yields > 70% in the southeastern United States. The spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. Frankliniella spp. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating Fusarium conidia. Experiments were conducted at Marianna and Quincy in Florida in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether there was a relationship between the number of adult and larval thrips inhabiting the flowers of cotton and the incidence of cotton hardlock. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was > 98% of the adult thrips in the samples at both locations each year. The adults of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) also were collected. There were no significant regression relationships between weekly mean densities of thrips in the flowers and the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest in any of the experiments. Additional experiments were conducted at each location in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide significantly reduced the numbers of adult F. tritici, the number of thrips larvae, and the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide were as affective as applications of the insecticide plus fungicide. In one experiment, applications of the fungicide reduced the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide usually significantly increased the number of adult F. occidentalis. None of the pesticide treatments significantly affected the numbers of the key thrips predator Orius insidiosus (Say). We conclude that insecticidal control of the adults and larvae of F. tritici during flowering reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock. However, there were no significant regression relationships between the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest and the number of thrips in the flowers. PMID:19610399

  3. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  4. Population dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and other thrips species on two ornamental host plant species in Southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

    2014-08-01

    Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf distortion, small flower area (size), and thrips population concentrations near buds and terminals. PMID:25182610

  5. Effects of neem and spinosad on Ceratothripoides claratris (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important vegetable pest in Thailand, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Premachandra, Dammini W T S; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2005-04-01

    Toxicity of three biopesticides, i.e., two neem products and spinosad, was determined on foliage-dwelling life stages of Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major thrips pest on tomatoes, Lycopersicon spp., in central Thailand. Direct and residual contact toxicities of NeemAzal-TS (1% azadirachtin) and systemic activity of NeemAzal-MD 5 (5% azadirachtin) affected the survival of first larval stage (L1) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, neither second larval stage (L2) nor adult survival was influenced by both neem products. On the contrary, spinosad caused 100% mortality in both larval stages and adults of C. claratris regardless of the concentrations tested. No strong ovicidal effects were detected in three different age groups of eggs (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 d old) topically treated with both NeemAzal-TS and spinosad. Residual toxicity was highest with fresh residues of NeemAzal-TS compared with 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-d-old residues and in general was higher under laboratory than greenhouse conditions. Irrespective of the age of the spray residues, spinosad always caused 100% mortality in larvae and adults. Strongest systemic effects were observed in L1 larvae 1 d after soil drenching with NeemAzal-MD 5 at the highest concentration tested. Foliar and soil applications of NeemAzal-TS and NeemAzal-MD 5, respectively, did not cause any oviposition deterrent effects. PMID:15889736

  6. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100

  7. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine. PMID:20021760

  8. Thysanoptera biodiversity in the Neotropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence A. Mound

    2002-01-01

    It is suggested that descriptive taxonomy of thrips must be integrated into biological studies if we are to understand patterns of evolutionary and ecological diversity. Collecting and describing new taxa is easy, but understanding their position in ecosystems and how they have contributed to the origin and maintenance of bio- logical diversity is more important yet more difficult. Many authors

  9. Predictive Point-Cloud Compression Stefan Gumhold Zachi Karni Martin Isenburg Hans-Peter Seidel

    E-print Network

    Gumhold, Stefan

    .8 21.76 maple01 45k con 1.57 18.11 17.94x 16.9 16.31 bunny 35k lin 1.15 14.48 14.31x 14.8 18.52 santa) constant prediction (maple01 has no fine-scale structure) and b) linear prediction (bunny is a 3d scan); c

  10. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration. PMID:22507010

  11. Molecular Identification Key for Pest Species of Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Mark S. Hoddle; Laurence A. Mound; Richard Stouthamer

    2006-01-01

    Effective plant quarantine and biological control initiatives require rapid and accurate identiÞcation of exotic and potentially invasive taxa that may cause high economic losses or envi- ronmental damage. The genus Scirtothrips Shull includes several species that are serious agricultural pests, and, because of their minute size and cryptic behavior, prone to undetected transport through international trade of plant material. Although

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Fe-Pd Ferromagnetic Shape-Memory Thin Films Yuki Sugimura, Tzahi Cohen-Karni, Patrick McCluskey and Joost Vlassak

    E-print Network

    Fabrication and Characterization of Fe-Pd Ferromagnetic Shape-Memory Thin Films Yuki Sugimura was employed to measure film stress as a function of temperature. The shape memory effect was demonstrated in samples containing the fct martensite phase at room temperature. INTRODUCTION Ferromagnetic shape memory

  13. Stress evolution in sputter-deposited FePd shape-memory Y. Sugimura, I. Cohen-Karni, P. McCluskey, and J.J. Vlassaka)

    E-print Network

    composition, this metastable austenitic phase transforms to either a body-centered tetragonal (bct) or a face of approximately 30 at.%, this metastable austenitic phase eventually transforms to a face-centered tetragonal (fct) martensitic phase if the temperature is lowered further. It is this transformation that is responsible

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Moulton (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population and its damage on lemon.

    PubMed

    Goane, L; Casmuz, A; Salas, H; Lizondo, M; Gastaminza, G; Vera, M T

    2013-02-01

    Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Moulton has recently been detected in lemon (Citrus limon) orchards in northwest Argentina, causing high levels of damage on fruits. Severe damage results in the rejection of fruit for export, which must then be sold in the industry. However, the restrictions imposed by the citrus industry on insecticide residues sometimes also result in fruit rejection. Here, we studied the ecology and behavior of C. orchidii in order to propose a pest management strategy that could meet both export and industry demands. Seasonal occurrence and canopy distribution of C. orchidii in lemon orchards were evaluated, and field experimental manipulations of thrips populations were performed to analyze how the length (45, 100, 130, and 200 days) and timing (January, February, or March) of C. orchidii activity related with fruit damage. Lemons harvested during summer showed lower infestation levels (?0.64 individual per fruit) than those harvested in winter (?1.88 individuals per fruit). Higher proportions of damaged fruits were recorded in the lower part of the tree. Changes in the population levels of C. orchidii were closely associated with fruit phenology. The longer the lemon fruits were exposed to the thrips, the higher was the damage. However, the time of infestations did not affect fruit damage. Our data provide a first step towards understanding the factors that determine the severity of fruit damage caused by C. orchidii in northwest Argentina. PMID:23949715

  15. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...

  16. Ectoparasitism and phoresy in Thysanoptera: the case of Aulacothrips dictyotus (Heterothripidae) in the Neotropical savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estevão Alves-Silva; Kleber Del-Claro

    2011-01-01

    Thrips are cosmopolitan and abundant insects with great diversity in the Neotropics, but taxonomic and crop pest aspects comprise almost all of our knowledge of these insects. Here we describe a unique case of an ectoparasite species, Aulacothrips dictyotus Hood (Heterothripidae), which infests and also uses as dispersal vector (phoresy behaviour) the hemipteran Enchenopa brasiliensis (Membracidae). Thrips fix themselves on

  17. Precision application of aldicarb to enhance efficiency of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) management in cotton.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; All, J N; Roberts, P M; Bush, P

    2003-06-01

    Field studies were conducted during 1999-2001 in two climatic/edaphic areas of Georgia (Southern Piedmont and East Gulf Coastal Plain) to test the hypothesis that precision placement of aldicarb with cotton seed in hill planting at spatially specific intervals could decrease insecticide use for management of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Precision-placed aldicarb controlled thrips during cotton seedling stages using per ha amounts of one-half or less than standard in-furrow application rates with no significant differences in yield. Residual analysis of cotton plants showed that plants in precision placement plots had as much or more aldicarb and aldicarb metabolites present as compared with cotton treated with conventional in-furrow treatments. Higher rates of precision-placed aldicarb did cause phytotoxic burning early in the growing season, but no significant impact on yield was observed. PMID:12852612

  18. Host-Parasite Biology of Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Kelly; Funderburk, Joe; Boucias, Drion

    2005-01-01

    Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy of Frankliniella fusca in peanut. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the reproductive biology of T. fuscum as affected by gender and stage of development of the host and to determine the effects of parasitism on host longevity, fecundity, and mortality. The adult females of F. fusca were the most readily parasitized (P < 0.001) in the laboratory experiments followed by the second instars, the first instars, and the adult males. One generation of T. fuscum developed within the parasitized larvae and adults, with the males and females emerging only during the adult stage of the host. Parasitism did not cause mortality of the host. Parasitism affected male longevity (P < 0.001) but not female longevity. The adult female thrips that were parasitized as first or second instars did not lay eggs, and the adult females stopped laying eggs within 3 days of being parasitized. The female-to-male sex ratio of T. fuscum emerging from parasitized male and female F. fusca was 22 and 18 to 1, respectively. More T. fuscum emerged from female hosts than from male hosts (P < 0.001). More emerged from hosts parasitized as larvae compared with hosts parasitized as adults (P < 0.05). The intrinsic capacity of increase of T. fuscum ranged between 0.29 and 0.37 when parasitizing the adult males and females and between 0.18 and 0.21 when parasitizing the larval males and females. Percent parasitism of F. fusca was estimated in peanut fields. The flowers were the primary site for aggregation of the adults of F. fusca and for the free-living females of T. fuscum to parasitize new hosts. As under laboratory conditions, field parasitism of adult males was less than parasitism of adult females in 2001 and 2002 (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Our study indicates that T. fuscum is a potential biological control agent capable of suppressing F. fusca populations in peanut. PMID:19262837

  19. Integrated management tactics for Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in field-grown pepper.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Stuart R; Yearby, Erika L; Funderburk, Joseph E; Stavisky, Julianne; Momol, M Timur; Olson, Steve M

    2003-08-01

    In a 2-yr study, the impacts of different plastic soil mulches, insecticides, and predator releases on Frankliniella thrips and their natural enemies were investigated in field-grown peppers. Ultraviolet light (UV)-reflective mulch significantly reduced early season abundance of adult thrips compared with standard black plastic mulch. This difference diminished as the growing seasons progressed. Late season abundance of thrips larvae was higher in UV reflective mulch compared with black mulch plots. The abundance of the predator Orius insidiosus (Say) was significantly lower in UV-reflective mulch compared with black mulch treatments. Infection of plants with tomato spotted wilt virus, a pathogen vectored by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), was <6%. In the year with the higher disease incidence (2000), UV-reflective mulch plots had significantly less disease (1.9%) compared with black mulch plots (4.4%). Yield was significantly higher in UV-reflective mulch (24,529 kg/ha) compared with black mulch (15,315 kg/ha) during this year. Effects of insecticides varied with species of thrips. Spinosad reduced abundance of F. occidentalis, but not Frankliniella tritici. In contrast, esfenvalerate and acephate reduced numbers of F. tritici and Frankliniella bispinosa, but resulted in higher populations of F. occidentalis. Spinosad was the least disruptive insecticide to populations of O. insidiosus. Releases of O. insidiosus and Geocoris punctipes (Say) reduced populations of thrips immediately after releases; naturally occurring predators probably provided late season control of thrips. Our results suggest that UV-reflective mulch, combined with early season applications of spinosad, can effectively reduce abundance of thrips in field-grown pepper. PMID:14503592

  20. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2011-08-01

    Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips. PMID:22251688

  1. Efficacy of neem oil against thrips (Thysanoptera) on mango panicles and its compatibility with mango pollinators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Aliakbarpour; M. R. Che Salmah; O. Dzolkhifli

    A field trial was conducted in a mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchard located on Penang Island, Malaysia, to determine the efficacy of neem oil at 1, 2 and 3% concentrations and imidacloprid,\\u000a a commonly used synthetic insecticide, on populations of thrips and their toxicities to mango pollinators. Daily periodicities\\u000a of several pollinators that frequently visited mango panicles were studied prior

  2. Evaluation of diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Hoddle; J. Jones; K. Oishi; D. Morgan; L. Robinson

    2001-01-01

    The suitability of ten diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen, the key natural enemy of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, a pest of California grown avocados, was determined in the laboratory. The experimental diets evaluated were: (i) irradiated Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs; (ii) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and avocado pollen; (iii) Tetranychus pacificus McGregor eggs; (iv) T. pacificus

  3. Developmental and reproductive biology of Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a new avocado pest in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Hoddle

    2002-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive biology of a new avocado pest, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, was determined in the laboratory at five constant temperatures, 15, 20, 25, 27.5 and 30°C. At 20°C, S. perseae exhibited greatest larval to adult survivorship (41%), and mated females produced a greater proportion of female offspring at this temperature when compared to 15, 25, 27.5 and 30°C.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. RUGMAN-JONES; M. S. HODDLE; R. STOUTHAMER

    2005-01-01

    The recent invasion of California by avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae , has had a serious economic impact on the Californian avocado industry. Here we report the isolation and characterization of six microsatellite loci for S. perseae , four of which were highly polymorphic (number of observed alleles ranged from three to 13 and expected heterozygosity from 0.31 to 0.87). These

  5. Attraction of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aeolothripidae) to colored sticky cards in a California avocado orchard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Hoddle; Lindsay Robinson; David Morgan

    2002-01-01

    Yellow, white, and blue sticky cards were tested in an avocado orchard for their attractiveness to Scirtothrips perseae, Frankliniella occidentalis and Franklinothrips orizabensis. Clear pieces of plastic coated with adhesive were used as controls to determine rates of random interception of thrips independent of color. Yellow was most attractive to S. perseae and white cards captured mostly F. orizabensis and

  6. INFLUENCE OF TRAP CONFIGURATION AND SIZE ON FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) CAPTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The numbers of Frankliniella occidentalis (WFT) caught on flat surface rectangular blue sticky cards were the highest for 36-cm traps (largest perimeters), followed by 30.2-cm (intermediate perimeters) and 26.8-cm traps (smallest perimeters). Similar to the blue card traps, more WFT (70-80% of the ...

  7. Biology of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida), an Obligate Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera) Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Judy M.; Heinz, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis, a serious pest of agricultural crops, is difficult to manage because chemical and biological control measures frequently fail to affect F. occidentalis in their preferred microhabitats. Parasitism by the host-specific, entomopathogenic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi may provide a much-needed alternative to current control strategies. Infection does not cause death of the host; rather, the result is sterilization that leads to suppression of F. occidentalis populations. We describe a simple rearing method and the results from studies aimed at providing details on its biology-both essential first steps to examining its biological control potential. All F. occidentalis life stages are susceptible to infection, but to varying degrees (most susceptible to least susceptible): female pupae, second instar larvae, first instar larvae, male pupae, adult females, adult males. Nematodes emerge from female and male F. occidentalis for approximately 15 and 9 days, with approximately 14 and 7 nematodes emerging per day, respectively. Females and males are short-lived outside of the host, with mean survival rates ranging between 7 and 86 hours. Transmission does not occur in the soil but rather on or within plant structures that are preferred microhabitats visited by F. occidentalis. Results from a dose-response study suggest that augmentative applications of T. nicklewoodi may be useful to generate increased infection rates and subsequent suppression of F. occidentalis populations. PMID:19265952

  8. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-01-01

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species. PMID:25947697

  9. SOIL SAMPLING AND EXTRACTION METHODS WITH POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO PEAR THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Bater

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips populations as they move from

  10. Crop Protection 21 (2002) 383388 Attraction of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aeolothripidae)

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    have only been recorded as economic pests of avocados and host plant surveys suggest this species feeds) to colored sticky cards in a California avocado orchard Mark S. Hoddlea, *, Lindsay Robinsona , David Morganb and Agriculture, Integrated Pest Control Branch, Mt Rubidoux Field Station, CA 92501, USA Received 1 February 2001

  11. Resistance of avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to sabadilla, a botanically derived bait.

    PubMed

    Humeres, Eduardo C; Morse, Joseph G

    2006-09-01

    Bioassays were conducted on four avocado thrips (Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara) populations in southern California that had had limited past exposure to the botanical pesticide sabadilla, with the objective of establishing baseline susceptibility levels for the purpose of resistance monitoring. Reports of avocado thrips resistance in a grove that had received six sabadilla sprays over 2 years were confirmed when a bioassay indicated resistance ratios of 7.6 and 18.8 at the LC50 and LC90, respectively. Owing to the availability of other unrelated pesticides, sabadilla sprays were discontinued at this site, and, after 5.5 years, resistance ratios had dropped to near baseline levels. Avocado thrips baseline susceptibility to cyfluthrin was also obtained from one grove for future resistance monitoring studies. Resistance management principles are discussed in relation to the limited future options available for avocado thrips control. PMID:16791911

  12. Evaluation of diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae).

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Jones, J; Oishi, K; Morgan, D; Robinson, L

    2001-08-01

    The suitability of ten diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen, the key natural enemy of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, a pest of California grown avocados, was determined in the laboratory. The experimental diets evaluated were: (i) irradiated Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs; (ii) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and avocado pollen; (iii) Tetranychus pacificus McGregor eggs; (iv) T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (v) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs; (vi) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs, T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (vii) Scirtothrips perseae; (viii) Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouchè); (ix) avocado pollen; and (x) a young avocado leaf. Franklinothrips orizabensis larvae were unable to develop to adulthood on diets 9 and 10. The remaining eight diets supported complete development of F. orizabensis, but only diets 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 produced fecund females. On diet 5, F. orizabensis exhibited high larval to adult survivorship (90%), mated females exhibited highest daily and lifetime fecundity, and the progeny of mated females were female biased (53%). Analysis of jackknife estimates of net reproduction (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (lambda) were all significantly greater for F. orizabensis reared on irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs (i.e. diet 5) than corresponding values for other diets on which female F. orizabensis were able to complete development and reproduce. Incorporation of avocado pollen into diets had an adverse effect on demographic statistics for F. orizabensis, and low quality diets resulted in male biased sex ratios for this predator. PMID:11587623

  13. Developmental and reproductive biology of Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a new avocado pest in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S

    2002-08-01

    The developmental and reproductive biology of a new avocado pest, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, was determined in the laboratory at five constant temperatures, 15, 20, 25, 27.5 and 30 degrees C. At 20 degrees C, S. perseae exhibited greatest larval to adult survivorship (41%), and mated females produced a greater proportion of female offspring at this temperature when compared to 15, 25, 27.5 and 30 degrees C. Average lifetime fecundity and preoviposition period was greatest at 15 degrees C at 39.6 eggs per female and 17.6 days, respectively. Jackknifed estimates of net reproduction (Ro), capacity for increase (rc), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (lambda) were all significantly greater at 20 degrees C than corresponding values at 15, 25 and 27.5 degrees C. Population doubling time (Td) was significantly lower at 20 degrees C, indicating S. perseae populations can double 33-71% faster at this temperature in comparison to 15, 25 and 27.5 degrees C. Mean adult longevity decreased with increasing temperature, from a maximum of 52.4 days at 15 degrees C to a minimum of 2.4 days at 30 degrees C. Developmental rates increased linearly with increasing temperatures for eggs and rates were non-linear for development of first and second instar larvae, propupae, pupae, and for egg to adult development. Linear regression and fitting of the modified Logan model to developmental rate data for egg to adult development estimated that 344.8 day degrees were required above a minimum threshold of 6.9 degrees C to complete development. An upper developmental threshold was estimated at 37.6 degrees C with an optimal temperature of 30.5 degrees C for egg to adult development. Unmated females produced only male offspring confirming arrhenotoky in S. perseae. PMID:12191435

  14. Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

    2014-10-01

    A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

  15. Olfactory responses of Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to odors of host plants and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)–plant complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng ZhongYu-Rong; Yu-Rong He; Yan Gao; Guo-Jun Qi; Chen-Yin Zhao; Li-Hua Lu

    We studied the olfactory responses of Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to odors from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), pepper (Capsicum aunuum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), three host plants, and their complexes with different treatments (undamaged, mechanically damaged, infested, pre-infested)\\u000a in an olfactometer. The results showed that N. cucumeris preferred the odors of undamaged eggplant, pepper, and tomato to clean air. N.

  16. Morphometric analysis of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) pertaining to different geographical regions of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belonging to the devastating genus Scirtothrips, Scirthothrips dorsalis (Hood) is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in south Florida. Since its advent in 2005, it is dispersing quickly all over the state. It is a threat to the fruit, ornamental and vegetable industries ow...

  17. Vertical and horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of an invasive thrips species, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a newly introduced insect pest of various tropical and subtropical crops that poses a significant economic threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. Since its introduction in 2005, S. dorsalis has established in 30 counties of Florida and 8 counties of T...

  18. The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Chatzivassiliou; D. Peters; N. I. Katis

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition

  19. Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G

    2005-12-01

    Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test. PMID:16539139

  20. Phenology of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) and Associated Natural Enemies in Southern California Avocado Orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Hoddle

    The phenology of Scirtothrips perseae, an exotic avocado pest, was monitored every 1-2 weeks in three avocado orchards in two distinct climate zones in southern California (CA), USA for 52-95 weeks over 1998-2000. Survey results indicated that mean weekly temperatures over a 24-32 week period that averaged 15°C (range 8.74-24.97°C)) were significantly correlated with population increases of this pest. Conversely,

  1. EVALUATION OF PESTICIDE EFFECTIVENESS ON THE CONTROL OF Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) ON AVOCADO TREES (Persea americana Mill)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ripa

    The effectiveness of seven pesticides for the control of greenhouse thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis was evaluated in two trials carried out in the province of Quillota, Chile, between January and March 2006. The foliage was treated with commercial dosages of: thiamethoxam (Actara 25 WG), mineral oil (Citroliv miscible), imidacloprid (Confidor Forte 200 SL), Thiacloprid (Calipso 480 SC), Spinosad (Success 48), abamectin+mineral

  2. Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural enemies on avocado ( Persea americana Miller)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Hoddle; Sueo Nakahara; Phil A. Phillips

    2002-01-01

    Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara was discovered attacking avocados in California, USA, in 1996. Host plant surveys in California indicated that S. perseae has a highly restricted host range with larvae being found only on avocados, while adults were collected from 11 different plant species. As part of a management program for this pest, a “classical” biological control program was initiated and

  3. New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scritothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in the southeast region of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. During scouting and sampling various hosts at different commercial nursery locations in Florida (Miami-Dade Count...

  4. Management of chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peppers by Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Orius indidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in southeast of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. In this study, we examined biological control of chilli thrips with a predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, an...

  5. Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

    2001-01-01

    The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067

  6. Quantification of imidacloprid toxicity to avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), using a combined bioassay and ELISA approach.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Frank J; Toscano, Nick C; Urena, Anthony A; Morse, Joseph G

    2005-08-01

    A competitive ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique was evaluated for quantifying titres of imidacloprid in homogenates of leaf discs sampled from avocado plants treated with systemic applications of imidacloprid 240 g litre(-1) SC (Admire). Matrix effects were evident with undiluted leaf tissue homogenates, but these were effectively eliminated by dilution of homogenates in water. In a field trial conducted in a commercial nursery, there was an excellent correlation between imidacloprid residues within leaves and avocado thrips (Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara) mortality. However, with subsequent sampling over a 2-month period, the relationship between mortality and apparent imidacloprid concentration became less robust, suggesting that the material was being degraded within the plant to non-toxic metabolites. Nevertheless, assessments of thrips mortality on leaves that had been recently treated with imidacloprid established a lower threshold of activity for imidacloprid residues of 6 ng cm(-2) leaf. Limitations on the use of ELISA to quantify the impact of systemic insecticides on pest populations are discussed. PMID:15834841

  7. MORAL SENTIMENTS AND SOCIAL CHOICE and Zvi Safra

    E-print Network

    Niebur, Ernst

    MORAL SENTIMENTS AND SOCIAL CHOICE Edi Karni and Zvi Safra April 1, 2007 Corresponding author: Edi Karni, Dept. of economics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD 21218, USA Running title: Moral of fairness. Taking the viewpoint that social justice reflects the moral attitudes of the constituent members

  8. Biological studies of the Australian predatory mite Typhlodromips montdorensis (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a potential biocontrol agent for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Y Steiner; Stephen Goodwin; Tony M Wellham; Idris M Barchia; Lorraine J Spohr

    2003-01-01

    The biology of the Australian phytoseiid mite Typhlodromips montdorensis is described from material collected in Queensland and South Australia in 1994-1996. At 25 ° C, when fed on cumbungi ( Typha sp.) pollen, the life cycle was completed in approximately 7 days, with an intrinsic rate of natural increase ( r m ) of 0.32. Female-male pairs produced a mean

  9. Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): Scanning electron micrographs of key taxonomic traits and a preliminary morphometric analysis of the general morphology of populations of different continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) is an emerging pest of numerous economically important vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. Since its advent in 2005, it has rapidly dispersed across the state and is causing significant damage to horticultural and nursery production statewide. A comparison of morp...

  10. Evaluation of Sampling Methodology for Determining the Phenology, Relative Density, and Dispersion of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Nectarine Orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isobel A. Pearsall; Judith H. Myers

    2000-01-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), cause serious economic damage to nectarines in the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, British Columbia, Canada. We evaluated several sampling methods for western flower thrips for their precision and ability to predict general population trends. Beating of branches, flicking of buds, and visual estimation methods were not accurate for estimating numbers of thrips in nectarine

  11. Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the phenology, relative density, and dispersion of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, I A; Myers, J H

    2000-04-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), cause serious economic damage to nectarines in the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, British Columbia, Canada. We evaluated several sampling methods for western flower thrips for their precision and ability to predict general population trends. Beating of branches, flicking of buds, and visual estimation methods were not accurate for estimating numbers of thrips in nectarine buds. Thrips caught on sticky cards indicated general population trends, but were less efficient than collecting nectarine buds and counting thrips. Searching for thrips from buds in the field underestimated the density of both adults and larvae, and for adults, underestimated the proportion of the pale morph of western flower thrips. Dispersion patterns of thrips populations among orchards were either random or aggregated dependent on the development stage of the nectarine buds. PMID:10826205

  12. Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitism reduces both the feeding of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut and the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least nine thrips species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipping & Nguyen, a natural enemy of F....

  13. Compatibility of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) with Amblyseius ( Iphiseius) degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse roses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Chow; Amanda Chau; Kevin M. Heinz

    2008-01-01

    The compatibility of two commercially-marketed natural enemies of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), an anthocorid bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), and a phytoseiid mite, Amblyseius (=Iphiseius) degenerans Berlese, was tested on cut roses, Rosa hybrida L. cv. ‘Tropicana’. Our goal was to determine the extent to which intraguild predation could affect suppression of F. occidentalis by this predator complex. We conducted laboratory experiments

  14. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence

    PubMed Central

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-01-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European ‘L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  15. Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G; Vega, Fernando E; Harwood, James D

    2010-03-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations. PMID:20094879

  16. Use of CC traps with different trap base colors for silverleaf whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Pinter, P J; Henneberry, T J; Umeda, K; Natwick, E T; Wei, Y A; Reddy, V R; Shrepatis, M

    2000-08-01

    During 1996, 1997, and 1999, studies were conducted in cotton, sugar beets, alfalfa, yardlong bean, and peanut fields to compare insect catches in CC traps equipped with different trap base colors. The studies were conducted in southwestern United States, China, and India. The nine colors, white, rum, red, yellow, lime green, spring green, woodland green (dark green), true blue, and black, varied in spectral reflectance in the visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-1050 nm) portions of spectrum. Lime green, yellow, and spring green were the three most attractive trap base colors for silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, and leafhopper, Empoasca spp. adults. The three trap base colors were moderately high in the green, yellow, and orange spectral regions (490-600 nm), resembling the spectral reflectance curve of the abaxial (underleaf) surfaces of green cotton leaves. True blue and white were the most attractive trap base colors for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), adults. The true blue and white trap bases were moderately high in the blue spectral region (400-480 nm). PMID:10985050

  17. Overwintering of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Winter Annual Weeds Infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus and Patterns of Virus Movement Between Susceptible Weed Hosts.

    PubMed

    Groves, R L; Walgenbach, J F; Moyer, J W; Kennedy, G G

    2001-09-01

    ABSTRACT Overwintering of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, was investigated on common winter annual host plants infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Populations of tobacco thrips produced on TSWV-infected plants did not differ from those produced on healthy plants, whereas populations varied greatly among host plant species. The mean per plant populations of F. fusca averaged 401, 162, and 10 thrips per plant on Stellaria media, Scleranthus annuus, and Sonchus asper, respectively, during peak abundance in May. Adult F. fusca collected from plant hosts were predominately brachypterous throughout the winter and early spring, but macropterous forms predominated in late spring. Weed hosts varied in their ability to serve as overwintering sources of TSWV inoculum. Following the initial infection by TSWV in October 1997, 75% of Scleranthus annuus and Stellaria media retained infection over the winter and spring season, whereas only 17% of Sonchus asper plants remained infected throughout the same interval. Mortality of TSWV-infected Sonchus asper plants exceeded 25%, but mortality of infected Stellaria media and Scleranthus annuus did not exceed 8%. TSWV transmission by thrips produced on infected plants was greatest on Stellaria media (18%), intermediate on Scleranthus annuus (6%), and lowest on Sonchus asper (2%). Very few viruliferous F. fusca were recovered from soil samples collected below infected wild host plants. Vegetative growth stages of Stellaria media, Sonchus asper, and Ranunculus sardous were more susceptible to F. fusca transmission of TSWV than flowering growth stages, whereas both growth stages of Scleranthus annuus were equally susceptible. In a field study to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of virus movement from a central source of TSWV-infected Stellaria media to adjacent plots of R. sardous, the incidence of infection in R. sardous plots increased from <1% in March to >42% in June 1999. Infection levels in the Stellaria media inoculum source remained high throughout the experiment, averaging nearly 80% until June 1999 when all Stellaria media plants had senesced. Dispersal of TSWV from the inoculum source extended to the limits of the experimental plot (>37 m). Significant directional patterns of TSWV spread to the R. sardous plots were detected in April and May but not in June. R. sardous infections were detected as early as March and April, suggesting that overwintering inoculum levels in an area can increase rapidly during the spring in susceptible weed hosts prior to planting of susceptible crops. This increase in the abundance of TSWV inoculum sources occurs at a time when vector populations are increasing rapidly. The spread of TSWV among weeds in the spring serves to bridge the period when overwintered inoculum sources decline and susceptible crops are planted. PMID:18944235

  18. Commonly Intercepted Thrips at U.S. Ports-of-Entry from Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean. IV. Miscellaneous thripine genera excluding Frankliniella, Iridothrips, and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 130 species of thrips occurring in Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean region were intercepted by U. S. agricultural quarantine officers from shipments of plants and cut flowers at various ports-of-entry in the United States from 1983 to 1999. This paper is Part 4 of a guide to the iden...

  19. EFFECTS OF KAOLIN CLAY APPLICATION ON FLOWER BUD DEVELOPMENT, FRUIT QUALITY AND YIELD, AND FLOWER THRIPS [FRANKLINIELLA SPP. (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE)] POPULATIONS OF BLUEBERRY PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three seperate studies were conducted to report the effects of kaolin applications (Surround WP) on southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V.ashei Reade) blueberries. When applied to mature blueberry plants, kaolin clay emulsion dried to form a white reflective film ...

  20. HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Impact of Insecticide Efficacy on Developing Action Thresholds for

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    Management: A Case Study of Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Onion BRIAN A. NAULT1 AND ANTHONY M and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripi- dae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion Þelds from 2006 to 2008

  1. PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Onion Cultivars for Resistance to Onion Thrips

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Onion Cultivars for Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera. SHELTON1 J. Econ. Entomol. 103(3): 925Ð937 (2010); DOI: 10.1603/EC09263 ABSTRACT Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion

  2. POPULATION ECOLOGY Temporal Dynamics of Iris Yellow Spot Virus and Its Vector,

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Seeded and Transplanted Onion Fields CYNTHIA L. HSU,1,2 CHRISTINE A. HOEPTING,3.1603/EN09165 ABSTRACT Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV

  3. Crop Protection 22 (2003) 485493 The economic impact of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied analysis; Exotic pest; Avocado; Scirtothrips perseae 1. Introduction The introduction of an exotic pest (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on California avocado production Mark S. Hoddlea, *, Karen M. Jetterb , Joseph G

  4. enzyme activities in muscle (experiment 1). This suggests that the fatty acids deposited

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    content of muscle, perirenal fat or liver. Rather, the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids mainly. In the liver, carnitine palmi- toyltransferase I (CPT I) controls the entry of long-chain fatty acidsenzyme activities in muscle (experiment 1). This suggests that the fatty acids deposited in muscle

  5. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

  6. Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

  7. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  8. This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the

    E-print Network

    Sagi, Dov

    perceptual learning, adaptation and sleep Nitzan Censor a , Avi Karni b , Dov Sagi a,* a Department of Neurobiology/Brain Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel b The Brain attributed to memory consolidation. A strong dependence of con- solidation on sleep was suggested though

  9. Based on the MACC we wrote a simple code to extract the onset time of a

    E-print Network

    Karniel, Amir

    superiority of the proposed method · In a case study of lifting task with control subjects and with a teenager al. Brain 2006) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS · Maayan Karni conducted the lifting task in patients with a pure motor or sensorimotor lacunar syndrome Brain. 129(6):1415-1425 · Related Posters, here

  10. FOUNDATIONS OF BAYESIAN THEORY Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Niebur, Ernst

    FOUNDATIONS OF BAYESIAN THEORY Edi Karni Department of Economics Johns Hopkins University August 23: Subjective expected utility, Bayesian theory, subjec- tive probabilities. JEL Classification Numbers: D81 I of Bayesian decision making under uncertainty with state- dependent preferences. The theory provides

  11. FLUORIDE EXPOSURE AND SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EGGS AND BONES OF THE HERRING GULL (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND THE COMMON GULL (LARUS CANUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turid Vikoren; Gudbrand Stuve

    Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shellof 285 herring gull eggs (Laru.s' argentatus) and 120 comnmon gull eggs (Larus canus), collectedMay 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies eXpd)se(l to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smiielters locatedatKarni#{248}y and Sunndai, amid from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume- index,shellthickness,thickness-index,and fertilization of the eggs also were monitore(l. In 1)0th

  12. Volume 59, number1 CHEMICAL PHYSICSLETlXRS 1 November1978 PRODUCTION OF EXCITED METAL ATOMS BY UV MULTIPHOTON DlSSOCiATION

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    MULTIPHOTON DlSSOCiATION OF METAL ALKYL AND METAL CARBONYL COMPOUNDS 2. KARNY, R N&WAN and R.N. ZARFL atoms by irradiating the vapors of various metal alkyls and carbonyls with the output of an ArF (1930 A) or KrF (2490 A) laser. This technique has been used to form highly excited metal atoms of iron, lead

  13. Review of the species of the genus Marthogryllacris (Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae, Gryllacridinae) .

    PubMed

    Li, Miaomiao; Fang, Yan; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Kai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the genus Marthogryllacris Karny, 1937 was presented. The genus Borneogryllacris should be regarded as a subgenus of Marthogryllacris. Five new species were described: M. (M.) rufonotata sp. nov., M. (B.) nanlingensis sp. nov., M. (B.) bimaculata sp. nov., M. (B.) spinosa sp. nov. and M. (B.) elongata sp. nov.. A key to the species of Marthogryllacris and the distributional data were provided. PMID:25544143

  14. REFEREED PUBLICATIONS 118. 2005 Casey, C.A., and M.P. Parrella. Evaluation of a mechanical dispenser and interplant bridges

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    . Arabidopsis IQD1, a novel calmodulin-binding nuclear protein, stimulates glucosinolate accumulation and plant for three methods of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density assessment. J. Econ. Entomology 104 Parasitoid Behavior. Animal Behavior 82: 1159-1165 132. 2013. Parrell, M. P. A History of the Entomology

  15. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  16. INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE AND RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT Regional and Temporal Variation in Susceptibility to -Cyhalothrin

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    to -Cyhalothrin in Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Onion Fields in New York A. M(6): 1843Ð1848 (2003) ABSTRACT Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios

  17. Variation Within and Between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant ...

  18. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MyLo L Thao; Linda Baumann; Paul Baumann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced

  19. Can Failure be Turned into Success for Biological Control of Mile-a-Minute Weed (Mikania micrantha)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW J. W. COCK; CAROL A. ELLISON; HARRY C. EVANS; PETER A. C. OOI

    Research into biological control of Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) started in 1978, concentrating on insect agents. Host specificity studies on the first agent, Liothrips mikaniae (Priesner) (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) from Trinidad were completed by 1982, and the thrips was released in the Solomon Islands in 1988 and, subsequently in Malaysia in 1990. Neither release led to establishment, and possible reasons for

  20. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  1. THRIPS POLLINATION OF THE DIOECIOUS ANT PLANT MACARANGA HULLETTII (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN SOUTHEAST ASIA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UTE MOOG; BRIGITTE FIALA; WALTER FEDERLE; ULRICH MASCHWITZ

    2002-01-01

    Discussion about thrips (Thysanoptera) as main pollinators has been controversial in the past because thrips do not fit the precon- ception of an effective pollinator. In this study, we present evidence for thrips pollination in the dioecious pioneer tree genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Macaranga hullettii is pollinated predominantly by one thrips species, Neoheegeria sp. (Phlaeothripidae, Thysan- optera). As a reward for

  2. Resistance of Greenhouse, Laboratory, and Native Populations of Western Flower Thrips to Spinosad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Loughner; Daniel F. Warnock; Raymond A. Cloyd

    2005-01-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) collected from greenhouse, laboratory, and native populations were evaluated for resistance to the insecticide spinosad. Individual cut stems of transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. f.) were inoculated with 25 adults from 1 of 9 thrips populations and maintained in isolation chambers. Treatments of no spray, water spray, spinosad at

  3. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  4. Recent Progress on Avocado Thrips Biology and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Project Leaders; Mark S. Hoddle; Joseph G. Morse; Phil Phillips; Ben Faber; Eve Oevering; Paul Flores; Lindsay Robinson; Kris Tollerup; Alan Urena; Pamela Watkins

    Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was discovered in California in July of 1996 and spread rapidly from two initial sites of discovery near Port Hueneme in Ventura County and at the Irvine Ranch in Orange County. Avocado thrips larvae and adults can build to such high densities over the fall through spring period on young leaves on top-worked

  5. Invasions of Leaf Feeding Arthropods: Why Are So Many New Pests Attacking California-Grown Avocados?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Hoddle

    Historically, pesticide use in California avocado orchards has been minimal. Important pests like greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst) (Acari: Tetranychidae), six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatm (Riley) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and omnivorous looper, Sabulodes aegrotata (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Amorbia cuneana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) have been kept below economically injurious levels by natural enemies (Fleschner, 1954;

  6. Effect of different ornamental pepper pollen on the development and reproduction of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newly introduced pest in the United States is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still ...

  7. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program November 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 74165

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    , Klambothrips myopori (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripi- dae), is an invasive species that has been causing great trees, shrubs and groundcovers. In California, myoporum thrips has only been observed on two species of Myoporum typically used for erosion control in California landscapes. In Hawaii, it has also been found at

  8. Molecular Ecology Notes (2005) 5, 644646 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01012.x 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    , is a serious exotic pest of avocado that was first discovered attacking avocados in California in 1996 of this pest has seriously impacted the Californian avocado industry, with long-term losses esti- mated in the avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) P. F. RUGMAN-JONES,* A. R. WEEKS, M. S

  9. The insect fauna of Selaginella (Pteridophyta: Lycopsida), with descriptions of three new species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Mound; J. H. Martin; A. Polaszek

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen species from the following six orders of insects have been recorded as breeding on pteridophytes of the Lycopsida: Homoptera, Thysanoptera, Mecoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. All but one of these is from Selaginella, the exception being a pyralid moth from Lycopodium in Hawaii. Three new species are described from Selaginella eurynota in Costa Rica: Aleurotulus pteridophytae Martin sp. nov.

  10. A novel long-chained acetate in the defensive secretion of thrips.

    PubMed

    Tschuch, Gunther; Lindemann, Peter; Niesen, Anja; Csuk, René; Moritz, Gerald

    2005-07-01

    Defensive secretions of adult and larval Suocerathrips linguis (Phlaeothripidae, Thysanoptera) were found to contain a long-chained acetate, (11Z)-11,19-eicosadienyl acetate, that was not previously known to occur naturally. This substance occurred together with octadecyl acetate and other long-chained acetates. The eicosadienyl acetate repels ants and spreads on the surface of such potential predators. The mixture can provide a long-lasting surface coating. PMID:16222792

  11. Evaluation of phytoseiid predators for control of western flower thrips on greenhouse cucumber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerben J. Messelink; Sebastiaan E. F. Van Steenpaal; Pierre M. J. Ramakers

    2006-01-01

    Ten predatory mite species, all phytoseiids, were evaluated for control of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on greenhouse cucumber. This study was done to further improve biological control of\\u000a thrips on this crop. Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) is at present used for biological control of thrips in greenhouses. Compared to this species, Typhlodromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor),

  12. Migration of specialist insect predators to exploit patchily distributed spider mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Shimoda; Junji Takabayashi

    2001-01-01

    It is believed that specialist predators of spider mites often migrate by flight or aerial transport to exploit patchily\\u000a distributed prey. The migration is an important factor in determining the seasonal occurrence of the predators in a field.\\u000a Several species of specialist insect predators, such as Oligota kashmirica benefica (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Scolothrips takahashii (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), migrate between orchard trees

  13. Gall induction by hemipteroid insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anantanarayanan Raman

    2012-01-01

    The Thysanoptera and sternorrhynchous Hemiptera induce galls through feeding action, a behavior similar to that in the Cecidomyiidae. Salivary glands of gall-founding female thrips include greater quantities of hydrolyzing enzymes and soluble proteins than those in either males or pupae, which possibly alter the host-tissue metabolism, enabling galls to develop. Piercing-and-sucking mouthparts of the Hemiptera are adapted for an exclusively

  14. Gall induction by hemipteroid insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anantanarayanan Raman

    2011-01-01

    The Thysanoptera and sternorrhynchous Hemiptera induce galls through feeding action, a behavior similar to that in the Cecidomyiidae. Salivary glands of gall-founding female thrips include greater quantities of hydrolyzing enzymes and soluble proteins than those in either males or pupae, which possibly alter the host-tissue metabolism, enabling galls to develop. Piercing-and-sucking mouthparts of the Hemiptera are adapted for an exclusively

  15. Use of azadirachtin as a larvicide or feeding deterrent for control of western flower thrips in orchard systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Pearsall; E. J. Hogue

    2000-01-01

    Field trials were carried out to assess the efficacy of a 4% azadirachtin (aza)-containing neem seed extract EC, against damage\\u000a by western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] on nectarine crops in the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Several trials\\u000a were conducted during the years 1993 to 1995 to assess the repellent and larvicidal properties of aza, specifically: whether

  16. A list of arthropod pests of avocado and pecan trees in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wysoki; Y. Izhar

    1978-01-01

    Lists are given of arthropod pests of avocado and pecan trees in Israel. These include ten new pests of avocado and three\\u000a of pecan. The pests of economic importance on avocado includeBoarmia (Ascotis) selenaria (Schiff.) (Geometridae, Lepidoptera) andHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thrypidae, Thysanoptera). The pests of importance on pecans includeEmpoasca decedens (Paoli) (Jassidae, Homoptera),Zeuzera pyrina L. (Cossidae, Lepidoptera), andMonellia costalis (Fitch)

  17. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

  18. An investigation of the oil from the seed of Citrullus vulgaris 

    E-print Network

    Tsao, Chung Min

    1951-01-01

    ". ". ri. (1, r, o , ;, roon citron) ! 0". boon invo. ". "1;ntoG! for i. a C. "or- , "e i Qri 't ico, ". 11(1. ~nlv c(! for itoo f . tr iI nci(i co". . 1T)o oition noin, , "~!10 lo, ". ('. Onlt, -nlcohol not!'0('. ~~i the prcljninorv oonnrntion of Qoli.... 63 1. 47 0. 50 0. 98 19. 80 76o62 g acid in total +Led acids, 80. 8 0. 50 1. 20 0. 40 0. 80 16. 00 61. 90 TABLE IV COMPOSITI(8 OF NIIED FATTI ACIDS Zn S ua raotX n ~m' ~ z ast&~~VW +ristic PeXmitic Stearic ~ristoleic Palmi. toleic Oleic...

  19. The aerial telescope of Giuseppe Campani in the Astronomical-Physical Cabinet of the Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel (German Title: Das Luftfernrohr von Giuseppe Campani im Astronomisch-Physikalischen Kabinett der Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trier, Friedrich H.; Gaulke, Karsten

    Several large-size objective lenses are found in the Astronomical-Physical Cabinet in Cassel, which have aroused several times the interest of specialists in the past. One of them bears the signature “Guiseppe Campani in Roma anno 1684 Palmi 145”. Since G.D. Cassini, the first director of Paris Observatory, discovered several of Saturn's moons and the Cassini division of Saturn's ring with Campani-lenses of similar construction, the cultural value of the Cassel lense is to be estimated highly. Starting from the technique of the aerial telescope, the contribution tries to answer the question which astronomical observations have theoretically been possible with it, and tells the story of the purchase in Rome and the attempts in Cassel to use the aerial telescope for astronomical use even almost 100 years after its construction.

  20. Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci, Have Gut Bacteria That are Closely Related to the Symbionts of the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Egbert J.; van der Wurff, André W. G.; Jacobs, Gerrit; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar bacterial symbionts, the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, was studied because, like F. occidentalis, it is phytophagous. Contrary to F. occidentalis, T. tabaci is endemic in Europe and biotypes have been described. Bacteria were isolated from the majority of populations and biotypes of T. tabaci examined. Bacteria were present in high numbers in most individuals of the populations studied. Like F. occidentalis, T. tabaci contained one type of bacterium that clearly outnumbered all other types present in the gut. This bacterium was identified as an Erwinia species, as was also the case for F. occidentalis. However, its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence differed from the bacteria present in F. occidentalis. PMID:20298113

  1. Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multi-factor climate change experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Villalpando, Sean [Appalachian State University; Williams, Ray [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.

  2. Torsional Electromechanics of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joselevich, Ernesto; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Segev, Lior; Srur-Lavi, Onit; Cohen, Sidney R.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are known to be distinctly metallic or semiconducting depending on their diameter and chirality. Here we show that continuously varying the chirality by mechanical torsion can induce conductance oscillations, which can be attributed to metal-semiconductor periodic transitions. The phenomenon is observed in multi-walled carbon nanotubes, where both the torque and the current are shown to be carried predominantly by the outermost wall. The oscillation period with torsion is consistent with the theoretical shifting of the corners of the first Brillouin zone of graphene across different subbands allowed in the nanotube. Beyond a critical torsion, the conductance irreversibly drops due to torsional failure, allowing us to determine the torsional strength of carbon nanotubes. Our experiments indicate that carbon nanotubes could be used as self-sensing torsional springs for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). [1] E. Joselevich, Twisting nanotubes: From torsion to chirality, ChemPhysChem 2006, 7, 1405. [2] T. Cohen-Karni, L. Segev, O. Srur-Lavi, S. R. Cohen, E. Joselevich, Torsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes, Nature Nanotechnology, 2006, 1, 36.

  3. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed. PMID:24205864

  4. Effect of Different Temperatures on Consumption of Two Spotted Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Eggs by the Predatory Thrips, Scolothrips longicornis

    PubMed Central

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15° C to 37° C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 °C to 37 °C, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower temperature thresholds for consumption by first and second instar larvae of S. longicornis was estimated to be 6.8 ± 0.04° C and 4.6 ± 0.03° C, respectively. The daily consumption of ovipositing females followed a nonlinear pattern, with maximum daily predation estimated at 32.8° C. From the model used to describe consumption of ovipositing females, an upper threshold for consumption of 41.4° C was estimated. The performance of S. longicornis at the different temperatures is discussed in relation to its practical use in integrated pest control programs. PMID:23425212

  5. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli; Wu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05). Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05), but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05). The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), Pielou eveness index (J), and Simpson dominance index (D). All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:25061351

  6. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  7. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2013-12-01

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for postharvest pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Four insect species including western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera Thripidae); aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae); confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at various life stages were fumigated with 0.1-2.0% nitric oxide under ultralow oxygen levels of < or = 50 ppm in 1.9-liter glass jars at 2-25 degrees C depending on insect species. Fumigations were effective against all four insect species. Efficacy of nitric oxide fumigation increased with nitric oxide concentration, treatment time, and temperature. There were also considerable variations among insect species as well as life stages in susceptibility to nitric oxide fumigation. Complete control of thrips was achieved in 2 and 8 h with 2.0 and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively, at 2 degrees C. At the same temperature, complete control of the aphid was achieved in 3, 9, and 12 h with 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively. Larvae, pupae, and adults of confused flour beetle were effectively controlled in 24 h with 0.5% nitric oxide at 20 degrees C. Complete mortality of confused flour beetle eggs was achieved in 24 h with 2.0% nitric oxide at 10 degrees C. Rice weevil adults and eggs were effectively controlled with 1.0% nitric oxide in 24 and 48 h, respectively, at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that nitric oxide has potential as a fumigant for postharvest pest control. PMID:24498723

  8. Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Proprioseiopsis asetus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on asparagus thrips, Thrips tabaci.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian Hua; Freed, Shoaib; Wang, Li Si; Qin, Wen Jing; Chen, Hong Fan; Qin, Hou Guo

    2014-10-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most important pests of asparagus in China. In this study the effects of five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) on the growth, survivorship and reproduction of Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on T. tabaci was examined under laboratory conditions. Development time of immatures decreased with increasing temperature. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold (T 0) and thermal constant (K) of P. asetus were estimated at 15.2 °C and 75.8 degree days by means of a linear model. Fertilized females fed on T. tabaci produced offspring of both sexes, whereas the offspring sex ratio [?/(? + ?)] of P. asetus at 20-35 °C was female-biased (0.68-0.78) and not significantly influenced by temperature. Survivorship during immature development was significantly influenced by temperature, and was especially low at 15 °C. Pre- and post-oviposition periods of fertilized females shortened with the increase in temperature. The longest oviposition period was 20.4 days, at 25 °C, whereas at 15 °C the mites did not reproduce. Maximum average life time fecundity and mean daily fecundity was recorded at 25 and 35 °C, respectively; the intrinsic rate of increase ranged from 0.05 (20 °C) to 0.17 (35 °C). The results indicate the capability of P. asetus to develop and reproduce at a broad range of temperatures, especially above 25 °C, which can be used for better management of T. tabaci in asparagus. PMID:24797293

  9. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a general ecological principle, consistency, reliability, and precision are appropriate criteria to evaluate the applicability of a given sampling method for both community-level and taxa-specific arthropod surveys in any ecosystem. PMID:24223273

  10. Salivary proteins of plant-feeding hemipteroids - implication in phytophagy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Khan, A N; Subrahmanyam, S; Raman, A; Taylor, G S; Fletcher, M J

    2014-04-01

    Many hemipteroids are major pests and vectors of microbial pathogens, infecting crops. Saliva of the hemipteroids is critical in enabling them to be voracious feeders on plants, including the economically important ones. A plethora of hemipteroid salivary enzymes is known to inflict stress in plants, either by degrading the plant tissue or by affecting their normal metabolism. Hemipteroids utilize one of the following three strategies of feeding behaviour: salivary sheath feeding, osmotic-pump feeding and cell-rupture feeding. The last strategy also includes several different tactics such as lacerate-and-flush, lacerate-and-sip and macerate-and-flush. Understanding hemipteroid feeding mechanisms is critical, since feeding behaviour directs salivary composition. Saliva of the Heteroptera that are specialized as fruit and seed feeders, includes cell-degrading enzymes, auchenorrhynchan salivary composition also predominantly consists of cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase and protease, whereas that of the Sternorhyncha includes a variety of allelochemical-detoxifying enzymes. Little is known about the salivary composition of the Thysanoptera. Cell-degrading proteins such as amylase, pectinase, cellulase and pectinesterase enable stylet entry into the plant tissue. In contrast, enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, laccase and trehalase detoxify plant chemicals, enabling the circumvention of plant-defence mechanisms. Salivary enzymes such as M1-zinc metalloprotease and CLIP-domain serine protease as in Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae), and non-enzymatic proteins such as apolipophorin, ficolin-3-like protein and 'lava-lamp' protein as in Diuraphis noxia (Aphididae) have the capacity to alter host-plant-defence mechanisms. A majority of the hemipteroids feed on phloem, hence Ca++-binding proteins such as C002 protein, calreticulin-like isoform 1 and calmodulin (critical for preventing sieve-plate occlusion) are increasingly being recognized in hemipteroid-plant interactions. Determination of a staggering variety of proteins shows the complexity of hemipteroid saliva: effector proteins localized in hemipteran saliva suggest a similarity to the physiology of pathogen-plant interactions. PMID:24280006

  11. Phylogenetic distribution of TTAGG telomeric repeats in insects.

    PubMed

    Frydrychová, Radmila; Grossmann, Petr; Trubac, Pavel; Vítková, Magda; Marec, Frantisek

    2004-02-01

    We examined the presence of TTAGG telomeric repeats in 22 species from 20 insect orders with no or inconclusive information on the telomere composition by single-primer polymerase chain reaction with (TTAGG)6 primers, Southern hybridization of genomic DNAs, and fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosomes with (TTAGG)n probes. The (TTAGG)n sequence was present in 15 species and absent in 7 species. In a compilation of new and published data, we combined the distribution of (TTAGG)n telomere motif with the insect phylogenetic tree. The pattern of phylogenetic distribution of the TTAGG repeats clearly supported a hypothesis that the sequence was an ancestral motif of insect telomeres but was lost repeatedly during insect evolution. The motif was conserved in the "primitive" apterous insect orders, the Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, in the "lower" Neoptera (Plecoptera, Phasmida, Orthoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, and Isoptera) with the exception of Dermaptera, and in Paraneoptera (Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, and Sternorrhyncha) with the exception of Heteroptera. Surprisingly, the (TTAGG)n motif was not found in the "primitive" pterygotes, the Palaeoptera (Ephemeroptera and Odonata). The Endopterygota were heterogeneous for the occurrence of TTAGG repeats. The motif was conserved in Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera but was lost in one clade formed by Diptera, Siphonaptera, and Mecoptera. It was also lost in Raphidioptera, whereas it was present in Megaloptera. In contrast with previous authors, we did not find the motif in Neuroptera. Finally, both TTAGG-positive and TTAGG-negative species were reported in Coleoptera. The repeated losses of TTAGG in different branches of the insect phylogenetic tree and, in particular, in the most successful lineage of insect evolution, the Endopterygota, suggest a backup mechanism in the genome of insects that enabled them frequent evolutionary changes in telomere composition. PMID:15060613

  12. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a general ecological principle, consistency, reliability, and precision are appropriate criteria to evaluate the applicability of a given sampling method for both community-level and taxa-specific arthropod surveys in any ecosystem. PMID:24223273

  13. Systemic use of spinosad to control the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomatoes grown in rockwool.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, T; Dermauw, W; van de Veire, M; Tirry, L

    2005-01-01

    Spinosad is a reduced-risk insecticide derived as a fermentation product from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It is toxic by ingestion and contact and has a unique mode of action on the insect nervous system. Spinosad exhibits a high degree of selective toxicity towards the insect orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Thysanoptera, but is less toxic to many beneficial arthropods. To determine if spinosad could be valuable as an alternative acaricide for the control of Tetranychus urticae, laboratory toxicity experiments with leaf-disk bio-assays were performed on a laboratory susceptible and several resistant strains. LC50 values were rather high in comparison with newly developed commercial acaricides. Surprisingly, when spinosad was applied to the roots of tomato plants in rock wool, excellent control of spider mites was obtained. Apparently, spinosad has systemic properties and quantities as low as 1 mg/plant could protect tomato plants from mite infestation. Different substrates with varying percentage of clay and organic matter were tested in comparison with rockwool and showed that sufficient control was restricted to the rockwool substrate. Consequently, a dose-response experiment with tomato plants grown in rockwool was set up. The persistence of spinosad toxicity when applied via the roots was determined, and pointed to a long lasting control (up to 30 DAT). Spinosad amounts in leaves after systemic application were determined with an immunological technique to quantify spinosad uptake. Correlations between mite control, spinosad uptake and leaf concentrations can be helpful to determine the necessary dose in field situations. PMID:16180075

  14. Dynamics of the Leaf-Litter Arthropod Fauna Following Fire in a Neotropical Woodland Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Pacheco, Renata; Silva, Raphael C.; Vasconcelos, Pedro B.; Lopes, Cauê T.; Costa, Alan N.; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of only 1–2 years may jeopardize the long-term conservation of litter arthropod communities. PMID:19898619

  15. Neither insects nor wind: ambophily in dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Rios, L D; Fuchs, E J; Hodel, D R; Cascante-Marín, A

    2014-07-01

    Pollination of Neotropical dioecious trees is commonly related to generalist insects. Similar data for non-tree species with separated genders are inconclusive. Recent studies on pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae) suggest that species are either insect- or wind-pollinated. However, the wide variety of inflorescence and floral attributes within the genus suggests mixed pollination mode involving entomophily and anemophily. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied the pollination of Chamaedorea costaricana, C. macrospadix, C. pinnatifrons and C. tepejilote in two montane forests in Costa Rica. A complementary morphological analysis of floral traits was carried out to distinguish species groups within the genus according to their most probable pollination mechanism. We conducted pollinator exclusion experiments, field observations on visitors to pistillate and staminate inflorescences, and trapped airborne pollen. A cluster analysis using 18 floral traits selected for their association with wind and insect pollination syndromes was carried out using 52 Chamaedorea species. Exclusion experiments showed that both wind and insects, mostly thrips (Thysanoptera), pollinated the studied species. Thrips used staminate inflorescences as brood sites and pollinated pistillate flowers by deception. Insects caught on pistillate inflorescences transported pollen, while traps proved that pollen is wind-borne. Our empirical findings clearly suggest that pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms is likely to involve both insects and wind. A cluster analysis showed that the majority of studied species have a combination of floral traits that allow for both pollination modes. Our pollination experiments and morphological analysis both suggest that while some species may be completely entomophilous or anemophilous, ambophily might be a common condition within Chamaedorea. Our results propose a higher diversity of pollination mechanisms of Neotropical dioecious species than previously suggested. PMID:25068158

  16. Insecticidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, H; Vincent, C; Bostanian, N J

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorium (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Side effects on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) also were determined. With green peach aphid, UDA-245 at 0.5% concentration was significantly more effective than the control (water) treatment in a laboratory bioassay and significantly more effective than neem oil and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap in a greenhouse assay. With the western flower thrips, UDA-245 at 0.5% was significantly more effective than neem oil, insecticidal soap and the control treatment in a laboratory bioassay, whereas in a greenhouse assay, UDA-245 at 1.0% was the only treatment that maintained control of the western flower thrips 2 wk after the last treatment period. UDA-245 at 0.5% (laboratory bioassay) was significantly more effective in managing greenhouse whitefly than neem oil, endosulfan, and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap. Insecticidal soap proved to be toxic to the parasitoid E. formosa (71.9% mortality), whereas UDA-245 at 0.5% was not significantly more toxic than the control (11.2 and 4.6% mortality, respectively). Our results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management (IPM) program using a botanical such as UDA-245 could effectively control infestations of major pests present while having a negligible effect on biological control agents. PMID:15384351

  17. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  18. How Predictable Are the Behavioral Responses of Insects to Herbivore Induced Changes in Plants? Responses of Two Congeneric Thrips to Induced Cotton Plants

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rehan; Furlong, Michael J.; Wilson, Lewis J.; Walter, Gimme H.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in plants following insect attack are referred to as induced responses. These responses are widely viewed as a form of defence against further insect attack. In the current study we explore whether it is possible to make generalizations about induced plant responses given the unpredictability and variability observed in insect-plant interactions. Experiments were conducted to test for consistency in the responses of two congeneric thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergrande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum Linneaus (Malvales: Malvaceae)) damaged by various insect herbivores. In dual-choice experiments that compared intact and damaged cotton seedlings, F. schultzei was attracted to seedlings damaged by Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Trombidiforms: Tetranychidae), Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), F. schultzei and F. occidentalis but not to mechanically damaged seedlings. In similar tests, F. occidentalis was attracted to undamaged cotton seedlings when simultaneously exposed to seedlings damaged by H. armigera, T. molitor or F. occidentalis. However, when exposed to F. schultzei or T. urticae damaged plants, F. occidentalis was more attracted towards damaged plants. A quantitative relationship was also apparent, F. schultzei showed increased attraction to damaged seedlings as the density of T. urticae or F. schultzei increased. In contrast, although F. occidentalis demonstrated increased attraction to plants damaged by higher densities of T. urticae, there was a negative relationship between attraction and the density of damaging conspecifics. Both species showed greater attraction to T. urticae damaged seedlings than to seedlings damaged by conspecifics. Results demonstrate that the responses of both species of thrips were context dependent, making generalizations difficult to formulate. PMID:23691075

  19. Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325

  20. Railway infrastructure monitoring with COSMO/SkyMed imagery and multi-temporal SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Bovenga, F.; Guerriero, L.

    2012-12-01

    For all the European Countries, the rail network represents a key critical infrastructure, deserving protection in view of its continuous structure spread over the whole territory, of the high number of European citizens using it for personal and professional reasons, and of the large volume of freight moving through it. Railway system traverses a wide variety of terrains and encounters a range of geo-technical conditions. The interaction of these factors together with climatic and seismic forcing, may produce ground instabilities that impact on the safety and efficiency of rail operations. In such context, a particular interest is directed to the development of technologies regarding both the prevention of mishaps of infrastructures and the fast recovery of their normal working conditions after the occurrence of accidents (disaster managing). Both these issues are of strategic interest for EU Countries, and in particular for Italy, since, more than other countries, it is characterized by a geo-morphological and hydro-geological structure complexity that increases the risk of natural catastrophes due to landslides, overflowings and floods. The present study has been carried out in the framework of a scientific project aimed at producing a diagnostic system, capable to foresee and monitor landslide events along railway networks by integrating in situ data, detected from on board sophisticated innovative measuring systems, with Earth Observation (EO) techniques. Particular importance is devoted to the use of advanced SAR interferometry, thanks to their all-weather, day-night capability to detect and measure with sub-centimeter accuracy ground surface displacements that, in such context, can occur before a landslide event or after that movements . Special attention is directed to the use of SAR images acquired by COSMO/SkyMed (ASI) constellation capable to achieve very high spatial resolution and very short revisit and response time. In this context, a stack of 57 CSK stripmap images (pol.: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-03; resolution: 3x3 m2) have been acquired from October 2009 to April 2012, covering the Calabria's Tyrrhenian coast, between the towns of Palmi and Reggio Calabria. The imaged area is of strategic importance since the two towns are connected by a stretch of the Tyrrhenian railway line, a fundamental line (as classified by RFI, the Italian Rail Network) belonging to the TEN-T network, i.e. the trans-european transport network defined since early '90 by the European Commission. Moreover, Calabria region is a challenging area where carrying on an analysis on weathering-related slope movements . In Calabria, on 2009the geo-hydrological crisis was so severe that the Italian Government had to declare the "state of emergency ". This paper concerns the processing of the CSK dataset performed through the SPINUA algorithm a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique originally developed with the aim of detection and monitoring of coherent targets in non- or scarcely urbanized areas. The displacement maps derived on the area of interest will be presented and commented with particular attention to the potential impact that such EO-based product can have on the railway networks monitoring. Acknowledgments CSK data provided by ASI in the framework of the project CAR-SLIDE, funded by MIUR (PON01_00536)

  1. Artificial and factitious foods support the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Tung; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Clercq, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), decapsulated dry cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Anostraca: Artemiidae), and on meridic artificial diets (composed of honey, sucrose, tryptone, yeast extract, and egg yolk) supplemented with pupal hemolymph of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (AD1), with E. kuehniella eggs (AD2) or with A. franciscana cysts (AD3). Development, reproduction and predation capacity of the predatory mites were assessed in the first (G1) and sixth generation (G6) of rearing on the different diets. Immature survival rates in G1 were similar on all diets (96.8-100 %). After six generations, however, survival of A. swirskii was significantly reduced on all diets except on A. franciscana cysts. Oviposition rates did not differ between generations when females were fed on E. kuehniella, AD2 or AD3. The total number of deposited eggs was similar among diets except in G6 where the females fed on A. franciscana cysts produced more eggs than those maintained on E. kuehniella eggs. On most diets the intrinsic rates of increase in G1 were superior to those in G6, except for predators supplied with A. franciscana cysts where no differences were observed among generations. Female mites did not lose their capacity to kill first instar Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) after six generations on the different diets, but predation rates in G6 on E. kuehniella were lower than in G1. In conclusion, the different factitious and artificial diets tested in the present study supported the development and reproduction of A. swirskii for a single generation but fitness losses occurred to a varying degree after several generations on E. kuehniella eggs or the artificial diets. Artificial diet enriched with A. franciscana cysts yielded better results than the other artificial diets. Amblyseius swirskii performed best on decapsulated Artemia cysts indicating their potential for use in the mass production of the predator or to sustain its populations in the crop after release. PMID:24154947

  2. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

  3. What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic signal that can be extracted from Insecta mitogenomes. Based on the combined use of the five best topology-performing genes we obtained comparable results to whole mitogenomes, highlighting the important role of data quality. Conclusion We show for the first time that mitogenomic data agrees with nuclear and morphological data for several of the most controversial insect evolutionary relationships, adding a new independent source of evidence to study relationships among insect orders. We propose that deeper divergences cannot be inferred with the current available methods due to sequence saturation and compositional bias inconsistencies. Our exploratory analysis indicates that the CAT model is the best dealing with LBA and it could be useful for other groups and datasets with similar phylogenetic difficulties. PMID:22032248

  4. The Strepsiptera problem: phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M F; Carpenter, J C; Wheeler, Q D; Wheeler, W C

    1997-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the holometabolous insect orders were inferred from cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (85 exemplars) and 28S rDNA (52 exemplars) and morphological characters. Exemplar outgroup taxa were Collembola (1 sequence), Archaeognatha (1), Ephemerida (1), Odonata (2), Plecoptera (2), Blattodea (1), Mantodea (1), Dermaptera (1), Orthoptera (1), Phasmatodea (1), Embioptera (1), Psocoptera (1), Phthiraptera (1), Hemiptera (4), and Thysanoptera (1). Exemplar ingroup taxa were Coleoptera: Archostemata (1), Adephaga (2), and Polyphaga (7); Megaloptera (1); Raphidioptera (1); Neuroptera (sensu stricto = Planipennia): Mantispoidea (2), Hemerobioidea (2), and Myrmeleontoidea (2); Hymenoptera: Symphyta (4) and Apocrita (19); Trichoptera: Hydropsychoidea (1) and Limnephiloidea (2); Lepidoptera: Ditrysia (3); Siphonaptera: Pulicoidea (1) and Ceratophylloidea (2); Mecoptera: Meropeidae (1), Boreidae (1), Panorpidae (1), and Bittacidae (2); Diptera: Nematocera (1), Brachycera (2), and Cyclorrhapha (1); and Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae (1), Myrmecolacidae (1), Elenchidae (1), and Stylopidae (3). We analyzed approximately 1 kilobase of 18S rDNA, starting 398 nucleotides downstream of the 5' end, and approximately 400 bp of 28S rDNA in expansion segment D3. Multiple alignment of the 18S and 28S sequences resulted in 1,116 nucleotide positions with 24 insert regions and 398 positions with 14 insert regions, respectively. All Strepsiptera and Neuroptera have large insert regions in 18S and 28S. The secondary structure of 18S insert 23 is composed of long stems that are GC rich in the basal Strepsiptera and AT rich in the more derived Strepsiptera. A matrix of 176 morphological characters was analyzed for holometabolous orders. Incongruence length difference tests indicate that the 28S + morphological data sets are incongruent but that 28S + 18S, 18S + morphology, and 28S + 18S + morphology fail to reject the hypothesis of congruence. Phylogenetic trees were generated by parsimony analysis, and clade robustness was evaluated by branch length, Bremer support, percentage of extra steps required to force paraphyly, and sensitivity analysis using the following parameters: gap weights, morphological character weights, methods of data set combination, removal of key taxa, and alignment region. The following are monophyletic under most or all combinations of parameter values: Holometabola, Polyphaga, Megaloptera + Raphidioptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Amphiesmenoptera (Trichoptera + Lepidoptera), Siphonaptera, Siphonaptera + Mecoptera, Strepsiptera, Diptera, and Strepsiptera + Diptera (Halteria). Antliophora (Mecoptera + Diptera + Siphonaptera + Strepsiptera), Mecopterida (Antliophora + Amphiesmenoptera), and Hymenoptera + Mecopterida are supported in the majority of total evidence analyses. Mecoptera may be paraphyletic because Boreus is often placed as sister group to the fleas; hence, Siphonaptera may be subordinate within Mecoptera. The 18S sequences for Priacma (Coleoptera: Archostemata), Colpocaccus (Coleoptera: Adephaga), Agulla (Raphidioptera), and Corydalus (Megaloptera) are nearly identical, and Neuropterida are monophyletic only when those two beetle sequences are removed from the analysis. Coleoptera are therefore paraphyletic under almost all combinations of parameter values. Halteria and Amphiesmenoptera have high Bremer support values and long branch lengths. The data do not support placement of Strepsiptera outside of Holometabola nor as sister group to Coleoptera. We reject the notion that the monophyly of Halteria is due to long branch attraction because Strepsiptera and Diptera do not have the longest branches and there is phylogenetic congruence between molecules, across the entire parameter space, and between morphological and molecular data. PMID:11975347