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The seasonal abundance of flower thrips, Frankliniella spp, melon thrips (MT), Thrips palmiKarny, and composite thrips (CT), Microcephalothrips abdominalis Crawford, was determined by collecting infested blooms from bell peppers, crimson clover (CCL), and creeping oxeye (COE) Wedelia trilobata (L.). Predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and minute pirate bugs (MPB), Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were collected from all host plants.
Galen Frantz; Larry Jacobs; G. Dudley Sutherland; H. Charles Mellinger
Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly.
Collections, observations and experiments were used to investigate the behavioural ecology of gall thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. Data are presented on aspects of gall morphology, male and female morphology, behaviour, life cycles, and sex ratios for six gall-forming species, five species of inquilines (invaders that do not form galls), and one genus that uses
Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country.
In 1996, Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) invaded California avocado orchards and moved pest management practices that relied almost exclusively on biological control to strategies dependent on insecticides to maintain thrips densities below economically damaging levels. By 1998, average losses due to thrips feeding damage in untreated infested groves reduced industry revenues by 12%. Producer costs increased by about 4.5%
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 101(3): 491Ð500 (2008) ABSTRACT Results of analyses of molecular sequence (COI, 28S-D2) and morphology (21 char- acter states) data, both alone and combined, were used to determine relationships between 18 species of Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, Thripinae). Two species of Neohydatothrips from Panama were used as the outgroup. Five major pest Scirtothrips were included in these analyses:
Mark S. Hoddle; John M. Heraty; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Laurence A. Mound; Richard Stouthamer
Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.
Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) thrips damage a variety of crops, feed on a broad range of hosts, and often migrate into cropping systems from adjacent vegetation. To determine potential sources of Frankliniella spp. thrips on crops, annual cycles of abundance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), and Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) were evaluated on seven common, uncultivated
Tobin D. Northfield; Dean R. Paini; Joe E. Funderburk; Stuart R. Reitz
Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016
Thrips cause considerable economic loss to mango, Mangifera indica L., in Penang, Malaysia. Three nondestructive sampling techniques--shaking mango panicles over a moist plastic tray, washing the panicles with ethanol, and immobilization of thrips by using CO2--were evaluated for their precision to determine the most effective technique to capture mango flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in an orchard located at Balik Pulau, Penang, Malaysia, during two flowering seasons from December 2008 to February 2009 and from August to September 2009. The efficiency of each of the three sampling techniques was compared with absolute population counts on whole panicles as a reference. Diurnal flight activity of thrips species was assessed using yellow sticky traps. All three sampling methods and sticky traps were used at two hourly intervals from 0800 to 1800 hours to get insight into diurnal periodicity of thrips abundance in the orchard. Based on pooled data for the two seasons, the CO2 method was the most efficient procedure extracting 80.7% adults and 74.5% larvae. The CO2 method had the lowest relative variation and was the most accurate procedure compared with the absolute method as shown by regression analysis. All collection techniques showed that the numbers of all thrips species in mango panicles increased after 0800 hours, reaching a peak between 1200 and 1400 hours. Adults thrips captured on the sticky traps were the most abundant between 0800-1000 and 1400-1600 hours. According to results of this study, the CO2 method is recommended for sampling of thrips in the field. It is a nondestructive sampling procedure that neither damages flowers nor diminishes fruit production. Management of thrips populations in mango orchards with insecticides would be more effectively carried out during their peak population abundance on the flower panicles at midday to 1400 hours. PMID:20568607
Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100
The general structure of the female genital system of Zorotypus caudelli is described. The ovarioles are of the panoistic type. Due to the reduction of the envelope (tunica externa) the ovarioles are in direct contact with the hemolymph like in some other insect groups, Plecoptera included. The calices are much larger in Z. caudelli then in Zorotypus hubbardi and their epithelial cells produce large amounts of secretions, probably protecting the surface of the eggs deposited on the substrate. Eggs taken from the calyx bear a series of long fringes, which are missing in the eggs found in the ovariole, and in other zorapteran species. The long sperm of Z. caudelli and the long spermathecal duct are likely related to a sexual isolating mechanism (cryptic female choice), impeding female re-mating. The apical receptacle and the spermathecal duct - both of ectodermal origin - consist of three cell types. In addition to the cells beneath the cuticle lining the lumen, two other cell types are visible: secretory and canal cells. The cytoplasm of the former is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and Golgi complexes, which produce numerous discrete dense secretory bodies. These products are released into the receiving canal crossing the extracellular cavity of secretory cells, extending over a series of long microvilli. The secretion is transported towards the lumen of the apical receptacle of the spermatheca or to that of the spermathecal duct by a connecting canal formed by the canal cells. It is enriched by material produced by the slender canal cells. Before mating, the sperm cells are enveloped by a thick glycocalyx produced at the level of the male accessory glands, but it is absent when they have reached the apical receptacle, and also in the spermathecal duct lumen. It is likely removed by secretions of the spermatheca. The eggs are fertilized at the level of the common oviduct where the spermathecal duct opens. Two micropyles at the dorsal side of the equator level possibly facilitate fertilization. The presence of these two micropyles is a presumably derived feature shared with Phasmatodea. The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Z. caudelli does not allow to assess the phylogenetic position at the present stage of knowledge. The enlarged calyx and the temporary presence of long fringes on the eggs are potential autapomorphies of Z. caudelli or may indicate relationships with other Zorotypus species. PMID:21996134
Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Gottardo, M; Machida, R; Mashimo, Y; Beutel, R G
Since its establishment in Florida in 2005, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, a highly polyphagous species, has become an economically important pest of ornamental plants and a potentially significant pest of vegetable and fruit crops. Fruit and vegetable production in Florida is trending toward significant adoption of organic methods and use of widely dispersed small fields in rapidly urbanizing landscapes. Landscape plants may serve as refugia from which S. dorsalis recruits can disperse to nearby fruit and vegetable plantings. Therefore, information on this pest's biology including how it is affected by various host species is needed to develop effective integrated pest management (IPM) programs. In the greenhouse and laboratory condition, we studied the effects of various host plants, development, diel flight activity, oviposition, and demographics of S. dorsalis. The pest preferred Jalapeño pepper and Knockout rose over the other hosts, and it was most active between 1000 and 1600 hours EST. Irrespective of the host species, the duration of each of the immature stadia varied within a narrow range, and their respective sizes were quite similar. Demographic parameters quantified included gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproductive rate (R(o)), intrinsic rate of increase per day (R(m)), finite rate of increase per day (?), and mean generation time (T). The pest population may increase by a factor of ? 1.09/d, so that it may double in 8 or 9 d. The above information should be helpful in the development of sound programs to manage S. dorsalis on various crops and in the formulation of detection strategies by quarantine officers. PMID:22546433
Adult thrips were most abundant on flower clusters of apple, Malus × domestica Borkhausen, from king bloom to full bloom. Low numbers of thrips remained on the clusters after petal fall as fruit enlarged. Immature thrips peaked in numbers after densities of adults had peaked, usually by petal fall...
Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall), a species exotic to Brazil, is first recorded in the country. Individuals were collected on banana fruits (Musa sp.) (Musaceae) in July 2010 in the municipality of Luís Alves, state of Santa Catarina, causing rusting on the fruit peel in several bunches of bananas. PMID:23949721
A B S T R A C T The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a good working model for studies of irradiation as a quarantine treatment on agricultural products against this insect group. A study was conducted to evaluate the mortality of this species, resulting from different dosages of gamma irradiation. Field populations were collected and exposed to
The suitability of ten diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen, the key natural enemy of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, a pest of California grown avocados, was determined in the laboratory. The experimental diets evaluated were: (i) irradiated Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs; (ii) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and avocado pollen; (iii) Tetranychus pacificus McGregor eggs; (iv) T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (v) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs; (vi) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs, T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (vii) Scirtothrips perseae; (viii) Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouchè); (ix) avocado pollen; and (x) a young avocado leaf. Franklinothrips orizabensis larvae were unable to develop to adulthood on diets 9 and 10. The remaining eight diets supported complete development of F. orizabensis, but only diets 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 produced fecund females. On diet 5, F. orizabensis exhibited high larval to adult survivorship (90%), mated females exhibited highest daily and lifetime fecundity, and the progeny of mated females were female biased (53%). Analysis of jackknife estimates of net reproduction (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (lambda) were all significantly greater for F. orizabensis reared on irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs (i.e. diet 5) than corresponding values for other diets on which female F. orizabensis were able to complete development and reproduce. Incorporation of avocado pollen into diets had an adverse effect on demographic statistics for F. orizabensis, and low quality diets resulted in male biased sex ratios for this predator. PMID:11587623
Hoddle, M S; Jones, J; Oishi, K; Morgan, D; Robinson, L
Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...
Frankliniella occidentalis is the key vector responsible for the emergence of Tomato spotted wilt virus as a global threat to agriculture. Frankliniella bispinosa is a common thrips in Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda, but the role of F. bispinosa in the epidemiology of the virus is not known. The ...
Systems of chemical control were implemented in a plastic greenhouse to control mainly Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in eggplant with several effective eligible groups of insecticides, spraying insecticide singly with new mode of action or in sequence with conventional. The system consisted of three phase of strategy to cope with initial population build up, sporadic pests and F. occidentalis population control.
Thrips are cosmopolitan and abundant insects with great diversity in the Neotropics, but taxonomic and crop pest aspects comprise almost all of our knowledge of these insects. Here we describe a unique case of an ectoparasite species, Aulacothrips dictyotus Hood (Heterothripidae), which infests and also uses as dispersal vector (phoresy behaviour) the hemipteran Enchenopa brasiliensis (Membracidae). Thrips fix themselves on
Caliothrips fasciatus is native to the USA and western Mexico and overwintering adults are regular contaminants in the 'navel' of navel oranges exported from California, USA to Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Due to the long history of regular interceptions of C. fasciatus in Australia, a survey for this thrips was undertaken around airports, seaports, public recreational parks and major
Mark S Hoddle; Christina D Stosic; Laurence A Mound
Approximately 23 species of thrips were recorded from flowers of 26 species of Australian subtropical rainforest trees, shrubs and vines (in 17 families) in the Manning Valley, coastal northern New South Wales. Pollination by thrips (thripophily) appears more widespread in rainforest communities than has been previously recognized. The pollination ecology of Wilkiea huegeliana (Monimiaceae) was studied in detail. Wilkiea huegeliana
We evaluated the toxicity of phloxine B photoactive dye combined with a cane molasses bait against citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton). Laboratory bioassays conducted under artificial light showed that thrips mortality followed a log-dose probit-response model with an estimated LC50 of 0.0079% dye. Diluted cane molasses plus 0.01% phloxine B then was used as a standard for comparison of eight additional baits, including three formulations of concentrated citrus peel liquor (CCPL1-3). Citrus thrips mortality ranked highest to lowest with CCPL1 and CCPL3 > CCPL2, Mo-Bait and cane molasses > concentrated beet molasses, concentrated cane molasses, hemicellulose extract, and whey. Several commercial surfactants were tested to see if their addition to the standard increased efficacy. Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Tween 60 at 1% and Cohort, Hyper-Active, Kinetic, and Silwet at 0.25% when added to the standard, reduced citrus thrips mortality, whereas Tween 60 and Dyne-Amic at 0.25% had no effect. Cane molasses with one or 5% phloxine B dye and CCPL1 with 1% dye were sprayed on citrus trees and allowed to weather in the field. Laboratory bioassays conducted after leaves had weathered for up to 8 d indicated that bait-dye toxicity was persistent. Possible use of the bait-dye mixture in commercial control of citrus thrips is discussed. PMID:12852598
With blue sticky card traps as sampling tools, populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), developing on normal-leaf and okra-leaf upland cotton strains and cultivars, were studied in the field in 2003 and 2004. Five normal-leaf and three okra-leaf strains and cultiv...
Aggregations of Frankliniella schultzei males were observed on the corollas of Hibiscus rosasinensis and Gossypium hirsutum flowers in southeast Queensland. Aggregations were seen only on the upper surfaces of corollas but may have occurred on other flower parts, which were hidden from view. Conspecific females entered aggregations and a small proportion of them mated [18% (n = 163), H. rosasinensis;
A total of 130 species of thrips occurring in Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean region were intercepted by U. S. agricultural quarantine officers in shipments of plants and cut flowers at the various ports of entry in the United States from 1983 to 1999. Of the 24 most commonly intercepted speci...
The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067
Although thrips are known as inhabitants of flowers, they are also abundant and diverse in other microhabitats. There is an information gap concerning them, especially related to the native fauna in southern Brazil. The structure and composition of the thysanopteran community in different microhabitats was studied at the "Parque Estadual de Itapuã" (30 degrees 22' S 51 degrees 02' W), RS, southern Brazil. Between June 1999 and May 2001, branches (n = 1,274), flowers (n = 774), grass tussocks (n = 596) and leaf litter (n = 603) were sampled systematically in 20 points of four trails (T1 - Pedreira beach, T2 - Araçá beach, T3 - Lagoinha, and T4 - Grota hill). We found 2,197 adult thrips determined in 73 species in 41 genera, of which 37 could be nominated. Four families are represented, Thripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Heterothripidae and Merothripidae, with the first the most abundant (N = 1,599) and with the highest species richness (S = 32). The highest thrips abundance occurred in flowers N = 1,224 and the highest number of exclusive species occurred in the leaf litter (27). Frankliniella rodeos Moulton, 1933, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, 1919 and Smicrothrips particula Hood, 1952 comprise 49.4% of the total sampled. Regarding T2, we obtained the highest abundance (N = 935) and highest species richness (S = 43). The composition of the faunas in each kind of environment proved very particular. PMID:17119824
Pinent, S M J; Romanowski, H P; Redaelli, L R; Cavalleri, A
Laboratory studies were conducted to determine prey preference of O. insidiosus between Frankliniella occidentalis and F. tritici, and between adult and 2nd instar of F. occidentalis in pepper flowers. Corresponding studies were conducted to determine the distribution of these thrips in the absence ...
Laboratory studies were conducted to compare predation of Orius insidiosus (Say) on adult and 2nd instars of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and on F. occidentalis and F. tritici (Fitch) in pepper flowers. Corresponding studies were conducted to compare the dispersal from pepper flowers of th...
Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara was discovered attacking avocados in California, USA, in 1996. Host plant surveys in California indicated that S. perseae has a highly restricted host range with larvae being found only on avocados, while adults were collected from 11 different plant species. As part of a management program for this pest, a “classical” biological control program was initiated and
The effect of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., plant and leaf age on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) was studied using electrical penetration graph technique and whole plant bioassays. Male and female F. fusca probed and ingested more and for longer periods of time on 3- and 4-wk-old plants compared with 6- and 8-wk-old plants. Female F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently than males in the plant age experiment, but not in the leaf age experiment. F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently on 2- and 4-wk-old leaves compared with 1-wk-old leaves. Plant age did not affect the probing frequency or duration of F. occidentalis; however, males probed and ingested longer than females in the plant age experiment and on the oldest leaf in the leaf age experiment. Both thrips species preferred to settle on 3-wk-old plants. F. fusca preferred to settle on 4-wk-old leaves after settling randomly for an hour. F. occidentalis showed no settling preference relative to leaf age. The preference of F. fusca for young plants suggests that this species could attack tomato plants at a very early stage, which is important for understanding its role as a vector in the transmission of Tospovirus in the field. PMID:18348813
Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...
The effectiveness of inoculative releases of the mirid predator Dicyphus hesperus Knight for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on greenhouse tomatoes was evaluated in terms of suppression of the population densities of F. occidentalis and associated fruit damage in the presence of the predator over two seasonal trials. An inoculative release of one D. hesperus per plant (approximately 0.1:10 predator:prey ratio) at a high F. occidentalis population density (140 thrips per plant) suppressed the thrips population density to a significantly lower level, compared with the nonrelease greenhouse, but not below a thrips level that caused economic fruit damage. As the predator:prey ratio increased to approximately 0.5:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis, the mean percentage of the thrips-damaged fruit in the D. hesperus release greenhouse decreased to 1.6%. However, the amount of fruit feeding by D. hesperus was highly correlated to the availability of prey (or predator:prey ratio) under greenhouse conditions. D. hesperus-induced fruit damage occurred when the predator:prey ratio was >1:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis. Considering the potential risk of fruit damage by D. hesperus and the need for effective control of F. occidentalis, a 0.5-1:10 D. hesperus:F. occidentalis ratio is recommended when the thrips population density is in the range of 60-150 thrips per plant. PMID:16686140
New Zealand fl ower thrips (NZFT) can damage nectarine fruits during the six weeks from fl owering. Cost-effective control strategies depend on the ability to predict when NZFT numbers will be high. Sampling carried out on gorse from July to November and on fruit trees between September and October established that few NZFT overwintered in Central Otago (CO), and hence
New Zealand fl ower thrips (NZFT) can damage nectarine fruits during the six weeks from fl owering. Cost-effective control strategies depend on the ability to predict when NZFT numbers will be high. Sampling carried out on gorse from July to November and on fruit trees between September and October established that few NZFT overwintered in Central Otago (CO), and hence
Fig pollination is a well-known example of obligate mutualism involving specialized fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) and Ficus (Moraceae). However, pollination is poorly understood in Castilleae, the recently identified sister group to Ficus. Here we report the first record of thrips pollination in a member of the paleotropical Castilleae. We used phenological measurements, insect trapping, and pollinator exclusion experiments to investigate
Nyree J. C. Zerega; Laurence A. Mound; George D. Weiblen
for the evolution of duplicate control regions and for the gene translocations, but intramitochondrial recombination may account for the gene inversions in T. imaginis. All the 18 genes between control regions #1 and #2 have translocated and\\/or inverted, whereas only six of the 20 genes outside this region have translocated and\\/or inverted. Moreover, the extra tRNA gene and the two
Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893
Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion fields in New York were evaluated for their susceptibility to the commonly used pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior T), using a novel system called the Thrips Insecticide Bioassay System (TIBS). To use TIBS, thrips are collected directly from the plant into an insecticide-treated 0.5-ml microcentrifuge tube that has a flexible plastic cap with a small well into which 0.08 ml of a 10% sugar-water solution with food colorant is deposited. The solution is sealed into the well with a small piece of stretched parafilm through which the thrips can feed on the solution. Thrips mortality is assessed after 24 h with the help of a dissecting stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios were >1,000 in five populations. Percent mortality at 100 ppm, a recommended field rate, varied from 9 to 100%, indicating high levels of variation in susceptibility. Particular instances of resistance appeared to be the result of practices within an individual field rather than a regional phenomenon. In 2002, we also observed large differences in onion thrips susceptibility, not only between individual fields but also between thrips collected in a single field at mid season and late season, again suggesting that insecticide-use practices within an individual field caused differences in susceptibility. Additional tests indicated no differences in susceptibility between adult and larval onion thrips populations and only relatively minor differences between populations collected from different parts of the same field. Using TIBS, several populations of onion thrips with different susceptibilities to lambda-cyhalothrin were identified and then subjected to lambda-cyhalothrin-treated onion plants. There was a highly significant positive relationship between percent mortality of thrips from TIBS and percent mortality from the treated onion plants, indicating that results from TIBS could be used to predict spray performance. These data suggest that use of TIBS for evaluating susceptibility to particular insecticides could be instrumental for developing a resistance management strategy for onion thrips. PMID:14977125
The invasive chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood poses a significant risk to many food and ornamental crops in the Caribbean, Florida and Texas. We evaluated two species of phytoseiid mites as predators of S. dorsalis. In leaf disc assays, gravid females of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii both fed on S. dorsalis at statistically similar rates. Larvae were the preferred
Steven Arthurs; Cindy L. McKenzie; Jianjun Chen; Mahmut Dogramaci; Mary Brennan; Katherine Houben; Lance Osborne
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million\\/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei
Juliana Jaramillo; Eric G. Chapman; Fernando E. Vega; James D. Harwood
The life cycle and biology of Thrips florum Schumtz, an actionable quarantine pest, was studied on gardenia flowers to facilitate timing of control procedures. In laboratory tests, the development period from egg to adult female required a minimum of 17 days at 20°C and 11 days at 24°C. In control...
Weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius), have been successfully used to control the main insect pests of cashew plantations in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. The red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard), is an economically important insect pest of mango, Mangifera indica L., orchards in the Northern Territory. This work was undertaken to evaluate whether weaver ants, which are abundant in
This paper presents the findings of research on emerging global trends in consumer food preferences with credence attributes. Credence qualities cannot be evaluated in normal use. Instead the assessment of their value requires information sought through the search and experience of a product (Darbi & Karni, 1973). Key trends identified were Health and wellness foods, environmentally sustainable and ethical food
When rearranging a part of the collections of Orthoptera in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden I found a number of specimens belonging to this tribus, which by former authors is considered as a separate subfamily with the name Eumegalodontinae (Kirby, 1906, p. 289; Caudell, 1927, p. 30). With Karny I think it justified to let it retain its
After reviewing the literature on the tribe Phlugidini, Tenuiphlugis Kavan (with 4 species) is herein synonymized with the genus Lucienola Gurney. Seventeen new species of the predaceous katydid genus Phlugis Karny (Meconematinae) are described and figured. All of these species were collected from r...
Visual texture discrimination has been shown to induce long-lasting behavioral improvement restricted to the trained eye and trained location in visual field [Karni, A. & Sagi, D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 4966-4970]. We tested the hypothesis that such learning involves durable neural modifications at the earliest cortical stages of the visual system, where eye specificity, orientation, and
For the expected utility model with state dependent utilities, Karni, Schmeidler & Vind (1983, Econometrica) show how to recover uniquely the involved subjective probabilities if the preferences, contingent on a hypothetical probability distribution over the state space, are known. This they do for consequence spaces, consisting of lotteries on sets of prizes. This paper adapts their work to consequence spaces
A heterozygous F1 mapping population of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) was created and evalu- ated for resistance to frosty pod (caused by Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.) Evans et al.), and black pod (caused by Phytophthora palmi- vora (Butl.) Butl.) and for fi ve horticultural traits at CATIE in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The popula- tion consisted of 256 F1 progeny
J. Steven Brown; Wilbert Phillips-Mora; Emilio J. Power; Cheryl Krol; Cuauhtemoc Cervantes-Martinez; Juan Carlos Motamayor; Raymond J. Schnell
Chemical analysis (GC–MS) yielded a total of 58 volatile compounds in the floral scents of six species of Annonaceae distributed in four genera (Xylopia, Anaxagorea, Duguetia, and Rollinia). Xylopia aromatica is pollinated principally by Thysanoptera and secondarily by small beetles (Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae), whereas the five other species were pollinated by Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae only. Although the six Annonaceae species
Andreas Jürgens; Antonio C. Webber; Gerhard Gottsberger
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a newly identified invasive pest to the Caribbean, and poses a significant threat to agriculture and trade in the region. Methods are needed to detect the presence and to monitor populations of this pest so that they can be effectively managed...
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an important virus, economically in the UK, causing damaging disease in ornamental and vegetable crops. The virus is vectored by several species of thrips, most importantly the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]). The vector thrips themselves constitute a damaging pest and are difficult to control completely. Monitoring thrips numbers is an
N. Boonham; P. Smith; K. Walsh; J. Tame; J. Morris; N. Spence; J. Bennison; I. Barker
Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant ...
The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance to insecticides. Pesticide resistance can have a negative impact on integrated pest management programmes with chemical control as one of the components. Resistance
In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...
Dispersion patterns of phytophagous thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were determined for greenhouse cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., in Cheju-do, Korea, during 1995 and 1996. Thrips populations were sampled using leaf sample, yellow sticky trap and visual estimate concurrently on each sampling date. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) was the most dominant thrips species, accounting 92% of all specimens collected from leaf samples and yellow
was calculated. The major components, based on number of specimens, are: Coleoptera (29 %), Homoptera (18 %), Blattodea (17 %), Diptera (13 %), Thysanoptera (7 %), and Hymenoptera and Orthoptera (6 % each). The major components of the 108 specimens (at least 68 species) of Hymenoptera are approximately: Chalcidoidea (20 %), Formicidae and Sphecidae s.l. (12 % each), Megalyridae, Braconidae
Insect, disease, tree condition, weather, and soil data were sampled from 22 northern hardwood forest sites containing American basswood, Tilia americana L., in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota from 1998 to 2000. Basswood dieback increased by 10% during this period. Insect abundance on basswood foliage was dominated by Thysanoptera, of which the introduced basswood thrips, Thrips calcaratus Uzel, accounted for over
Microsomal monoacylglycerol acyltransferase is a developmentally expressed enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of sn-1,2-diacylglycero1 from sn-2-monoacylglycero1 and palmi- toyl-CoA. The activity is present in liver from fetal and suckling rats but is absent in the adult. In order to obtain a stable perma- nent cell line that expresses this activity, Fa0 rat hepatoma cells and hepatocytes from 8-day-old baby rats
Quantitative structures are obtained at 30? C for the fully hydrated fluid phases of palmi- toyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), with a dou- ble bond on the sn-2 hydrocarbon chain, and for dierucoylphosphatidylcholine (di22:1PC), with a double bond on each hydrocarbon chain. The form factors F(qz) for both lipids are obtained using a combination of three methods. (1) Volumetric mea- surements provide F(0).
Norbert Kucerka; Stephanie Tristram-Nagle; John F. Nagle
Fatty acid translocase (FAT\\/CD36) is a mem- brane protein putatively involved in the transmembrane transport of long-chain fatty acids. We tested the hypothesis that expression of this protein in H9c2, a rat heart cell line normally not expressing FAT, would increase cellular palmi- tate uptake. We were able to stably transfect H9c2 cells with FAT, yielding 15 cell lines showing
Frans A. Van Nieuwenhoven; Joost J. F. P. Luiken; Yvonne F. De Jong; Paul A. Grimaldi; Ger J. Van der Vusse; Jan F. C. Glatz
It is believed that specialist predators of spider mites often migrate by flight or aerial transport to exploit patchily\\u000a distributed prey. The migration is an important factor in determining the seasonal occurrence of the predators in a field.\\u000a Several species of specialist insect predators, such as Oligota kashmirica benefica (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Scolothrips takahashii (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), migrate between orchard trees
The influence of three planting dates [mid-March (early-planted), 15 April–15 May (normal-or timely planted) and mid-June\\u000a (late-planted)] of cotton variety SG 125 on the relationship between populations of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the predatory bug, Orius niger (Wolff) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were investigated in Adana province in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2003\\u000a and 2004. To facilitate
A first part of the article contains a thermodynamic theory describing the temperature distribution in a Curie wheel. The occurring nonlinear ordinary differential equation has an analytical solution. If a Curie wheel is stabilized by levitation, it is named Palmy wheel. These wheels show a full structure, and because of this reason, their uptake of heat from a flame (Curie wheel) or by (solar) light absorption (Palmy wheel) only on the periphery of a cylinder is very limited. To improve the method, a modification of the principle by introducing a convective heat transport into a porous wheel is discussed. By this the power conversion rate from a heat flux to mechanical and electric power is very much increased. The second part of the article presents results of a theoretical/numerical study on the efficiencies of magnetic power conversion plants operating with porous wheels. Furthermore, these efficiencies—which are promising—are compared with those of existing power conversion plants, as e.g. geothermal binary cycle power plants.
A micro-cage bioassay was developed to test the effect of slash pine pollen (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) supplementation to a whole onion plant (Allium cepa L. variety Pegasus) diet on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) reproductive parameters. Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) females were placed on two to three-leaf stage onion seedling under a treatment of either slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pollen dusting (a pollen supplement) or no pollen treatment. Adult survival, net oviposition, and offspring produced over a series of ten 2-d intervals were recorded. From these values, l(x), l(x)m(x), and R(0) values were constructed. A trimodal distribution of oviposition was observed with the pollen supplement. Increased oviposition rates led to higher female offspring production per female and to a four-fold increase in F. fusca net reproduction on pollen-treated onions. PMID:20388281
To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.
Villalpando, Sean [Appalachian State University; Williams, Ray [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL
It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar bacterial symbionts, the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, was studied because, like F. occidentalis, it is phytophagous. Contrary to F. occidentalis, T. tabaci is endemic in Europe and biotypes have been described. Bacteria were isolated from the majority of populations and biotypes of T. tabaci examined. Bacteria were present in high numbers in most individuals of the populations studied. Like F. occidentalis, T. tabaci contained one type of bacterium that clearly outnumbered all other types present in the gut. This bacterium was identified as an Erwinia species, as was also the case for F. occidentalis. However, its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence differed from the bacteria present in F. occidentalis.
de Vries, Egbert J.; van der Wurff, Andre W. G.; Jacobs, Gerrit; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.
The thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an invasive pest that poses a significant economical threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. In this study, DNA sequence data and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were utilized to develop a molecular diagnostic marker for S. dorsalis. The DNA sequence variation from the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was analyzed from various thrips species, including S. dorsalis. A primer set and polymerase chain reaction cycling parameters were designed for the amplification of a single marker fragment of S. dorsalis ITS2 rDNA. Specificity tests performed on ten thrips species, efficacy tests performed on fifteen S. dorsalis populations, and tests on primer sensitivity and robustness all demonstrated the diagnostic utility of this marker. This diagnostic PCR assay provides a quick, simple, and reliable molecular technique to be used in the identification of S. dorsalis.
Farris, R E; Ruiz-Arce, R; Ciomperlik, M; Vasquez, J D; DeLeon, R
The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites.
Litter—dwelling thrips are an important component of soil macroinvertebrates in tropical and subtropical regions. However, little is known about assemblage composition, seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of litter—dwelling thrips. A survey of forest litter—dwelling thrips and other soil macroinvertebrates was conducted in an urban forest remnant at Guangzhou, China during 2004–2005 and 2008–2009. A total of 835 Tullgren samples were collected during the study. Thysanoptera constituted 6.5% of total litter—dwelling macroinvertebrate individuals extracted, representing three families, 19 genera, and 25 species. Psalidothrips ascitus Ananthakrishnan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Hyidiothrips guangdongensis Wang, Tong and Zhang represented 78.5% of all individuals of litter—dwelling thrips during the survey. Numbers of species and density of leaf—litter thrips fluctuated between different months. Density of litter thrips increased from March until October, reaching a maximum of 41.1 individuals/m2 followed by a decrease. In January and February only a few larval thrips were present. Species diversity gradually increased from July (four species) to December (10 species), and then declined rapidly. The vertical distribution showed that the leaf—litter thrips species richness and abundance decreased significantly with soil depth; they were found only in the litter layer and upper soil layer (0-5 cm in depth) and were entirely absent in deeper soil layers. The results suggest that litter—dwelling thrips are a common group of litter invertebrates with high species diversity in subtropical regions. These urban forest remnants should be given special consideration in forest conservation planning, because of their significance as refugia for the litter invertebrate assemblages, especially for leaf—litter thrips.
Torsion-induced conductance oscillations have been recently observed in multi-wall carbon nanotubes^1,2. These oscillations have been interpreted as metal-semiconductor periodic transitions, while an alternative interpretation attributed the phenomenon to changes in registry between the walls. Here we show^3 that the period of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the squared diameter of the nanotube (??˜1/d^2). This dependence is theoretically predicted from the shifting of the corners of the first Brillouin zone of graphene across different subbands allowed in the nanotube, whereas a change in registry should give rise to a simple inverse dependence (??˜1/d). Hence, the experimental results validate the interpretation of Fermi level shift across subbands vs. that of registry change, as a source of torsion-induced conductance oscillations in carbon nanotubes.  T. Cohen-Karni et al, Nature Nanotech. 1, 36 (2006).  E. Joselevich, ChemPhysChem 7, 1405 (2006).  K. S. Nagapriya et al, in preparation.
Visual texture discrimination has been shown to induce long-lasting behavioral improvement restricted to the trained eye and trained location in visual field [Karni, A. & Sagi, D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 4966-4970]. We tested the hypothesis that such learning involves durable neural modifications at the earliest cortical stages of the visual system, where eye specificity, orientation, and location information are mapped with highest resolution. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans, we measured neural activity 24 h after a single session of intensive monocular training on visual texture discrimination, performed in one visual quadrant. Within-subject comparisons between trained and untrained eye for targets presented within the same quadrant revealed higher activity in a corresponding retinotopic area of visual cortex. Functional connectivity analysis showed that these learning-dependent changes were not associated with an increased engagement of other brain areas remote from early visual cortex. We suggest that these new data are consistent with recent proposals that the cellular mechanisms underlying this type of perceptual learning may involve changes in local connections within primary visual cortex. Our findings provide a direct demonstration of learning-dependent reorganization at early processing stages in the visual cortex of adult humans. PMID:12446842
Overall arthropod densities were low at this site, but the arthropod densities on the disturbed areas appeared to be enhanced after several years. No taxa were found to be statistically different in density between control and disturbed plots. Diversity decreased on the disturbed area after construction. Arthropod community similarity (C) was lower after construction, but C values appear to be related to presence or absence of annual herbs and grasses and not to total cover. Except for globe mallow, there were no pioneer plant species on the experimental plot. Effects of powerline construction on the experimental plant community were a brief reduction in total cover and a slight increase in cover of herbs and annual grasses. The 1976 and 1977 samples exhibit comparable cover values of these plants on both experimental and control plots. The dominant arthropod taxa on the experimental area (especially Thysanoptera, Cicadellidae, Coccinellidae, and Melyridae) appear to be responding numerically to the annual herbs and grasses which are becoming established on the plot.
Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.
Walker, M. K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A. R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D. A. J.
Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB.
Mazza, Carlos A.; Zavala, Jorge; Scopel, Ana L.; Ballare, Carlos L.
Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145
Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F
Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general?
The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China.
Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 108, 7.0 × 105, and 9.9 × 105 CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94–99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84–93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81–94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62–66%, and different horticultural oils by 58–85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest.
Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizabal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce
The effects of insecticides used for California citrus pest management were evaluated using larval and adult stages of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This predatory beetle is essential for control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Williston) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in San Joaquin Valley citrus. When adult beetles were exposed to treated citrus leaves, adult survival was significantly reduced by the foliar neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the pyrethroid cyfluthrin. Progeny production was significantly reduced by imidacloprid, cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin, and buprofezin. Buprofezin, pyriproxifen, and foliar imidacloprid also significantly reduced successful development of larvae into the adult stage. When vedalia stages were fed insecticide-treated cottony cushion scale reared on Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait, toxic effects were more severe than contact toxicity alone. Adult beetle survival was most profoundly reduced by the pyrethroids and to a lesser extent the foliar neonicotinoids acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Progeny production and larval development to adulthood were reduced by all insecticides but were most severely affected by pyriproxifen and the pyrethroids. Systemically applied neonicotinoids were toxic to vedalia larvae feeding on cottony cushion scale that had ingested these insecticides. These data demonstrate that IGRs, neonicotinoid insecticides, and pyrethroid insecticides have a significant, negative impact on vedalia beetles. Depending on the rate of insecticide used, the number and timing of applications, and the level of coverage of the tree, disruption of vedalia can be minimized. However, the situation is made difficult when pests such as citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), forktailed bush katydid Scuddaria furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Orthoptera: Tettigoiniidae), or glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata Say (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) require these pesticide treatments during periods of vedalia beetle activity. PMID:14650510
The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorium (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Side effects on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) also were determined. With green peach aphid, UDA-245 at 0.5% concentration was significantly more effective than the control (water) treatment in a laboratory bioassay and significantly more effective than neem oil and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap in a greenhouse assay. With the western flower thrips, UDA-245 at 0.5% was significantly more effective than neem oil, insecticidal soap and the control treatment in a laboratory bioassay, whereas in a greenhouse assay, UDA-245 at 1.0% was the only treatment that maintained control of the western flower thrips 2 wk after the last treatment period. UDA-245 at 0.5% (laboratory bioassay) was significantly more effective in managing greenhouse whitefly than neem oil, endosulfan, and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap. Insecticidal soap proved to be toxic to the parasitoid E. formosa (71.9% mortality), whereas UDA-245 at 0.5% was not significantly more toxic than the control (11.2 and 4.6% mortality, respectively). Our results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management (IPM) program using a botanical such as UDA-245 could effectively control infestations of major pests present while having a negligible effect on biological control agents. PMID:15384351
Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of only 1–2 years may jeopardize the long-term conservation of litter arthropod communities.
Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Pacheco, Renata; Silva, Raphael C.; Vasconcelos, Pedro B.; Lopes, Caue T.; Costa, Alan N.; Bruna, Emilio M.
A number of cotton varieties have been genetically transformed with genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to continuously produce Bt endotoxins, offering whole plant and season-long protection against many lepidopteran larvae. Constant whole-plant toxin expression creates a significant opportunity for non-target herbivores to acquire and bio-accumulate the toxin for higher trophic levels. In the present study we investigated movement of Cry1Ac toxin from the transgenic cotton plant through specific predator-prey pairings, using omnivorous predators with common cotton pests as prey: (1) the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with the predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae); (2) the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae), with the predatory big-eyed bug Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Geocoridae) and (3) with the predatory damsel bug Nabis roseipennis (Heteropera: Nabidae); and (4) the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with the predatory pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). We quantified Cry1Ac toxin in the cotton plants, and in the pests and predators, and the effects of continuous feeding on S. exigua larvae fed either Bt or non-Bt cotton on life history traits of P. maculiventris. All three herbivores were able to convey Cry1Ac toxin to their respective predators. Among the herbivores, T. urticae exhibited 16.8 times more toxin in their bodies than that expressed in Bt-cotton plant, followed by S. exigua (1.05 times), and F. occidentalis immatures and adults (0.63 and 0.73 times, respectively). Of the toxin in the respective herbivorous prey, 4, 40, 17 and 14% of that amount was measured in the predators G. punctipes, P. maculiventris, O. insidiosus, and N. roseipennis, respectively. The predator P. maculiventris exhibited similar life history characteristics (developmental time, survival, longevity, and fecundity) regardless of the prey's food source. Thus, Cry1Ac toxin is conveyed through non-target herbivores to natural enemies at different levels depending on the herbivore species, but continuous lifetime contact with the toxin by the predator P. maculiventris through its prey had no effect on the predator's life history. The results found here, supplemented with others already published, suggest that feeding on Cry1Ac contaminated non-target herbivores does not harm predatory heteropterans and, therefore, cultivation of Bt cotton may provide an opportunity for conservation of these predators in cotton ecosystems by reducing insecticide use. PMID:17570072
The continuous control of the conservation state of outdoor materials is a good practice for timely planning conservative interventions and therefore to preserve historical buildings. The monitoring of surfaces composition, in order to characterize compounds of neo-formation and deposition, by traditional diagnostic campaigns, although gives accurate results, is a long and expensive method, and often micro-destructive analyses are required. On the other hand, hyperspectral analysis in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) region is a very common technique for determining the characteristics and properties of soils, air, and water in consideration of its capability to give information in a rapid, simultaneous and not-destructive way. VNIR Hypespectral analysis, which discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of absorption at specific wavelengths, are in fact successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks (1), as well as for detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity (2). Among the existing VNIR techniques (Laboratory Spectroscopy - LS, Portable Spectroscopy - PS and Imaging Spectroscopy - IS), PS and IS can play a crucial role in the characterization of components of exposed stone surfaces. In particular, the Imaging Spectroscopic (remote sensing), which uses sensors placed both on land or airborne, may contribute to the monitoring of large areas in consideration of its ability to produce large areal maps at relatively low costs. In this presentation the application of hyperspectral instruments (mainly PS and IS, not applied before in the field of monumental building diagnostic) to quantify the degradation of carbonate surfaces will be discussed. In particular, considering gypsum as the precursor symptom of damage, many factors which may affect the estimation of gypsum content on the surface will be taken into consideration. Two hyperspectral sensors will be considered: 1) A portable radiometer (ASD-FieldSpec FP Pro spectroradiometer), which continuously acquires punctual reflectance spectra in the range 350-2500 nm, both in natural light conditions and by a contact probe (fixed geometry of shot). This instrument is used on field for the identification of different materials, as well as for the definition of maps (e.g geological maps) if coupled with other hyperspectral instruments. 2) Hyperspectral sensor SIM-GA (Selex Galileo Multisensor Hyperspectral System), a system with spatial acquisition of data which may be used on an earth as well as on an airborne platform. SIM-GA consists of two electro-optical heads, which operate in the VNIR and SWIR regions, respectively, between 400-1000 nm and 1000-2500 nm (3). Although the spectral signature in the VNIR of many minerals is known, the co-presence of more minerals on a surface can affect the quantitative analysis of gypsum. Different minerals, such as gypsum, calcite, weddellite, whewellite, and other components (i.e. carbon particles in black crusts) are, in fact, commonly found on historical surfaces. In order to illustrate the complexity, but also the potentiality of hyperspectral sensors (portable or remote sensing) for the characterization of stone surfaces, a case study, the Facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence - Italy, will be presented. References 1) R.N. Clark and G.A. Swayze, 1995, "Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice, and snow, and other materials: The USGS Tricorder Algorithm", in "Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop", JPL Publication 95-1,1,39-40 2) E. Ben-Dor, K. Patin, A. Banin and A. Karnieli, 2002, "Mapping of several soil properties using DATS-7915 hyperspectral scanner data. A case study over clayely soils in Israel", International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(6), 1043-1062 3) S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of historical buildings by Hyperspectral Imaging techniques&q