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Sample records for palmi karny thysanoptera

  1. Detection and Localization of Wolbachia in Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Saurav, Gunjan Kumar; Daimei, Guisuibou; Rana, Vipin Singh; Popli, Sonam; Rajagopal, Raman

    2016-06-01

    Thrips palmi Karny is a globally distributed polyphagous agricultural pest. It causes huge economic loss by its biological behaviors like feeding, reproduction and transmission of tospoviruses. Since T. palmi shows close morphological similarities with other thrips species, we employed mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene as a molecular marker. BLAST analysis of this sequence helped us to identify the collected specimen as T. palmi. We observed the female to male ratio of about 3:1 from collected samples and suspected the presence of Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia was detected by PCR using genus specific primers of 16S rRNA gene. Further confirmation of Wolbachia strain was achieved by conducting PCR amplification of three ubiquitous genes ftsZ, gatB and groEL. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with concatenated sequences of ftsZ and gatB gene to assign supergroup to Wolbachia. Finally, we localized Wolbachia in abdominal region of the insect using fluorescent in situ hybridization with the help of confocal microscope. Our result confirmed the presence of Wolbachia supergroup B strain for the first time in T. palmi. PMID:27570308

  2. Molecular differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and development of a species-specific marker for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and melon thrips, T. palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), vectors of tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Asokan, R; Krishna Kumar, N K; Kumar, Vikas; Ranganath, H R

    2007-10-01

    A quick and developmental-stage non-limiting method of the identification of vectors of tospoviruses, such as Thrips tabaci and T. palmi, is important in the study of vector transmission, insecticide resistance, biological control, etc. Morphological identification of these thrips vectors is often a stumbling block in the absence of a specialist and limited by polymorphism, sex, stage of development, etc. Molecular identification, on the other hand, is not hampered by the above factors and can easily be followed by a non-specialist with a little training. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) exhibits reliable inter-species variations as compared to the other markers. In this communication, we present the differences in the mtCOI partial sequence of morphologically identified specimens of T. tabaci and T. palmi collected from onion and watermelon, respectively. Species-specific markers, identified in this study, could successfully determine T. tabaci and T. palmi, which corroborated the morphological identification. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both T. tabaci and T. palmi formed different clades as compared to the other NCBI accessions. The implication of these variations in vector efficiency has to be investigated further. The result of this investigation is useful in the quick identification of T. tabaci and T. palmi, a critical factor in understanding the epidemiology of the tospoviruses, their management and also in quarantine. PMID:17916265

  3. Detection of the Quarantine Species Thrips palmi by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Przybylska, Arnika; Fiedler, Żaneta; Kucharczyk, Halina; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Thrips palmi (from the order Thysanoptera) is a serious insect pest of various crops, including vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants, causing significant economic losses. Its presence constitutes a double threat; not only does T. palmi feed on the plants, it is also a vector for several plant viruses. T. palmi originated in Asia, but has spread to North and Central America, Africa, Oceania and the Caribbean in recent decades. This species has been sporadically noted in Europe and is under quarantine regulation in the European Union. For non-specialists its larval stages are indistinguishable morphologically from another widespread and serious insect pest Frankliniella occidentalis (a non-quarantine species in the European Union) as well as other frequently occurring thrips. In this study, we have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification protocol to amplify rDNA regions of T. palmi. The results were consistent whether isolated DNA or crushed insects were used as template, indicating that the DNA isolation step could be omitted. The described method is species-specific and sensitive and provides a rapid diagnostic tool to detect T. palmi in the field. PMID:25793743

  4. Revision of Paraloxoblemmus Karny (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae) with a new combination, Paraloxoblemmus longifrons (Chopard 1969), and lectotype designation for Paraloxoblemmus loxoblemmoides (Karny).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeng-Tze

    2015-01-01

    The genus Paraloxoblemmus Karny has not been revised since 1907. In this paper, I present a lectotype designation and photographs of the type species, Paraloxoblemmus loxoblemmoides (Karny). In addition, a new combination Paraloxoblemmus longifrons (Chopard, 1969) is established. This species is transferred from Loxoblemmus Saussure based on the structure of the male genitalia of the holotype. Loxoblemmus longifrons Chopard is relegated as a subjective synonym. PMID:25661948

  5. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  6. The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2012-05-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

  7. Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi

    PubMed Central

    Akella, Sudhakar V. S.; Kirk, William D. J.; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F. A.; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

  8. Meniscus ascent by thrips (Thysanoptera).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jiménez, Victor Manuel; Arriaga-Ramirez, Sarahi; Dudley, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Meniscus climbing using a fixed body posture has been well documented for various aquatic and neustonic insects, but is not known from small flying insects that inadvertently become trapped on water surfaces. Here, we show that thrips (order Thysanoptera) can ascend a meniscus by arching their non-wetting bodies to translate head-first and upward along a water surface; if initially oriented backwards, they can turn by 180° to ascend head-first, and climb upward on a surrounding boundary. Using variable-concentration sucrose solutions, we show that translational and climbing speeds during meniscus ascent vary inversely with fluid viscosity. Becoming trapped in water is a frequent event for flying insects, and given that most of them are very small, dedicated behaviours to escape water may be commonplace among pterygotes. PMID:27624795

  9. Effect of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus on the Life History and Feeding Preference of Thrips palmi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus–Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors. PMID:25010157

  10. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  11. The fine structure of the rectal pads of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2016-07-01

    The rectal pads of a species of the controversial polyneopteran order Zoraptera were examined using histological sections and TEM micrographs. Six pads are present along the thin rectal epithelium. Each pad consists of a few large principal cells surrounded by flattened junctional cells, which extend also beneath the principal cells. The cells are lined by a thin apical cuticle. No basal cells and no cavity have been observed beneath the pad. Principal cells have a regular layer of apical microvilli and are joined by intercellular septate junctions, which are interrupted by short dilatations of the intercellular space. At these levels the two adjacent plasma membranes are joined by short zonulae adhaerentes. In the cytoplasm, a rich system of strict associations between lateral plasma membranes and mitochondria forms scalariform junctions. Rectal pads share ultrastructural features with similar excretory organs of several neopteran groups, in particular with Blattodea (roaches and termites) and Thysanoptera, and are involved in fluid reabsorption and ion regulation. PMID:27368527

  12. A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Surrey, British Columbia to Blaine, Washington by an AP...

  13. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  14. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  15. Estimating bacterial diversity in Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) via next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last two decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as ...

  16. An overview of chilli thrips. Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) biology, distribution and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the insect order Thysanoptera, the genus Scirtothrips Shull contains more than 100 thrips species, among which 10 species have been reported as serious pests of agricultural crops. Within this genus, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in th...

  17. Toxicity of selected insecticides to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using a glass-vial bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are important pests that are primarily controlled with insecticides on both onions and cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Resistance to various insecticides has been reported so data are needed on toxicity of insecticides r...

  18. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  19. ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Trease, Andrew J; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert G; Mckenzie, Cindy L; Davis, Paul H; Osborne, Lance S

    2014-06-01

    The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

  20. Night of the living thrips: an unusual outbreak of Thysanoptera dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carness, Jeffrey M; Winchester, Jonathan C; Oras, Michael J; Arora, Navin S

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the etiology of a cutaneous eruption in the setting of an acute cluster outbreak is of utmost importance due to the inherent potential public health impact. The differential diagnosis ranges from innocuous arthropod bites to more concerning causes such as infection, medication reaction, and environmental exposure. We report the simultaneous presentation of 15 US Marines who presented with numerous discrete papular skin eruptions. Subsequent thorough patient evaluation and history, literature review, immunization status reconciliation, entomological assessment, site survey, and skin biopsy were performed. This case series is one of the largest reported to date of a cluster outbreak of a papular dermatitis secondary to bites from thrips (ie, insects of the order Thysanoptera). PMID:27023090

  1. ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Aaron M.; Trease, Andrew J.; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J. Kent; Shatters, Robert G.; Mckenzie, Cindy L.; Davis, Paul H.; Osborne, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

  2. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising. PMID:18767742

  3. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5ʹ (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips. PMID:26741134

  4. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips. PMID:26741134

  5. The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...

  6. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Franklin H.; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E.

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard “Tres A” characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard “La Escondida” that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. PMID:26246440

  7. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed. PMID:18767744

  8. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. PMID:26246440

  9. Endemics and adventives: Thysanoptera (Insecta) biodiversity of Norfolk, a tiny Pacific Island.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n. PMID:26249431

  10. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed. PMID:21404832

  11. Effects of Bt cotton on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its predator, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rishi; Tian, Jun-Ce; Naranjo, Steven E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2014-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate tritrophic transfer of insecticidal Cry proteins from transgenic cotton to an herbivore and its predator, and to examine effects of these proteins on the predator's development, survival, and reproduction. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced in Bollgard-II (BG-II, Event 15985) cotton plants were acquired by Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important sucking pest of cotton, and its generalist predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The average protein titers in BG-II cotton leaves were 1,256 and 43,637 ng Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab per gram fresh leaf tissue, respectively. At the second trophic level, larvae of T. tabaci reared on BG-II cotton for 48-96 h had 22.1 and 2.1% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab levels expressed in leaves, respectively. At the third trophic level, O. insidiosus that fed on T. tabaci larvae had 4.4 and 0.3% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab protein levels, respectively, expressed in BG-II plants. O. insidiosus survivorship, time of nymphal development, adult weight, preoviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and adult longevity were not adversely affected owing to consumption of T. tabaci larvae that had fed on BG-II cotton compared with non-Bt cotton. Our results indicate that O. insidiosus, a common predator of T. tabaci, is not harmed by BG-II cotton when exposed to Bt proteins through its prey. Thus, O. insidiosus can continue to provide important biological control services in the cotton ecosystem when BG-II cotton is used to control primary lepidopteran pests. PMID:25026649

  12. Dissecting the mode of maize chlorotic mottle virus transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by Frankliniella williamsi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Cabanas, D; Watanabe, S; Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A

    2013-02-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) has been recorded in Hawaii (Kauai Island) since the early 1990s and has since become one of the most widespread corn viruses in the Hawaiian Islands. In the United States Mainland, MCMV has been reported to be transmitted by six different species of chrysomelid beetles, including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. However, none of these beetle species have been reported in Hawaii where the corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has been identified to be the main vector. In this study, we developed leaf disk transmission assays and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the mode of MCMV transmission by the corn thrips. We showed that thrips transmitted the virus with no evidence for latent periods. Both larvae and adults transmitted the virus for up to 6 d after acquisition, with decreasing rates of transmission as time progressed. There was no evidence that adult thrips that acquired the virus as larvae were competent vectors. Real time reverse-transcription polomerase chain reaction assays showed that viral load was depleted from the vector's body after thrips had access to healthy plant tissue. Depletion of viral load was also observed when thrips matured from larvae to adults. Thrips were able to transmit MCMV after acquisition and inoculation access periods of 3 h. However, transmission efficiency increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods. Taken altogether our data suggests that corn thrips transmit MCMV in a semipersistent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting evidence of a plant virus transmitted semipersistently by thrips. PMID:23448010

  13. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. PMID:26470219

  14. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV. PMID:20568640

  15. Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-12-01

    Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P < 0.018; for 2009: P < 0.000; for 2010: P < 0.008). In 2008, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatments with pyrethrins and Neemex was 9.6 (19.2%) and 9.7 (19.5%) respectively, compared with 12.2 (24.3%) in the untreated control. In 2009, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatment with pyrethrins was 3.7 (7.3%) and 3.9 (7.8%) in treatment with Neemex compared with 8.6 (17.3%) in the untreated control, while in 2010 the mean damaged fruits in these treatments was recorded at 18.7 (37.5%) and 19.6 (39.2), respectively, compared with 29.6 fruits (59.2%) in the control. Oikos 10 EC showed significant effect only in 2009 and 2010. In these years, the mean number of damaged fruits was recorded at 5.5 and 21.2 compared with 8.6 and 29.6 fruits in the untreated control, respectively. Garlic extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control. PMID:22299360

  16. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  17. Potential new insecticides for the control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on sweet pepper, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Broughton, S; Herron, G A

    2009-04-01

    New pesticides are required to maintain effective resistance management strategies for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). We tested the efficacy of acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam, two neonicotinoids that represent a newer class of insecticides for the control of thrips. We also tested chlorfenapyr, a pyrrol compound, and a lower than registered rate of the biopesticide spinosad. Laboratory bioassays were used to predict the relative efficacy of insecticides against F. occidentalis and to forecast likely field rates. Two doses within the calculated LC99.99 range were used to predict field rates and trial rates of 0.5 g and 1.0 active ingredient (AI)/liter acetamiprid, 0.025 and 0.05 g (AI)/liter chlorfenapyr, 0.3 and 0.6 g (AI)/liter thiamethoxam, and 0.01 g (AI)/ liter spinosad were tested in the greenhouse against pepper, lettuce, and tomato. With the exception of acetamiprid, field trial doses predicted from laboratory bioassay translated to effective field efficacy. All products controlled F. occidentalis at the rates trialed and so have potential to augment current chemical controls. Increasing mortality correlated with increasing acetamiprid concentration in a greenhouse lettuce trial, suggesting that the higher trial rate (1.0 g [AI]/liter) may be required in some lettuce crops. The lower than registered (0.01 g [AI]/liter) rate of spinosad also significantly reduced F. occidentalis numbers and is a viable control option that may be useful in specific integrated pest management programs. The implications of introducing neonicotinoids into existing insecticide resistance management strategies for F. occidentalis are discussed. PMID:19449645

  18. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (<12%) until August, when infection levels increased dramatically in some fields. The densities of adult and larval thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV. PMID:20388253

  19. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance. PMID:17849870

  20. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. PMID:27329626

  1. Population dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and other thrips species on two ornamental host plant species in Southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

    2014-08-01

    Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf

  2. Population Dynamics of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the Predator Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) as Influenced by Flower Color of Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae).

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Charles; Funderburk, Joe; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Knox, Gary; Andersen, Peter; Adkins, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Crapemyrtle is a common landscape planting that is a resource subsidy for beneficial insects. Field studies were conducted to determine the influence of crapemyrtle flower color on the population abundances and predator-prey dynamics of the herbivorous Frankliniella species and the predator Orius insidiosus. Adults and immatures of predator and prey were highly anthophilous, preferring white 'Acoma' flowers compared with lavender 'Apalachee', red 'Carolina Beauty', and pink 'Choctaw'. The predator was aggregated with its prey in a density-dependent manner: the adults by preferring the crapemyrtle clones also preferred by the thrips and the nymphs by direct tracking or as a function of increased prey and fecundity. Acoma was best for preference and buildup of O. insidiosus populations, and it was the only clone where there was no buildup in thrips populations. Two species of Karnyothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaoethripidae), predators of small insects, were common in Tillandsia usneoides, an epiphyte on the crapemyrtle. Crapemyrtle is a bridge to enhance populations of O. insidiosus during summer months when there are few other hosts in the southern USA. PMID:26313973

  3. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and non-treated trap plants for the management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in greenhouse ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Shipp, J Les; Jandricic, Sarah; Murphy, Graeme; Short, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of trap cropping as an integrated control strategy against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), was explored in potted chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev), greenhouse crops. The efficacy of flowering chrysanthemum trap plants, either treated with the insecticide spinosad or untreated, to regulate F. occidentalis populations was tested at different spatial scales (small cage, large cage and commercial greenhouse) and for different time periods (1 or 4 weeks). It was demonstrated that flowering chrysanthemums as trap plants lower the number of adult F. occidentalis in a vegetative chrysanthemum crop and, as a result, reduce crop damage. In the 4 week large-cage trial and the commercial trial, significant differences between the control and the trap plant treatments started to appear in the third week of the experiment. Larvae were only significantly reduced by the presence of trap plants in the 1 week small-cage trials. There were no significant differences between treatments with spinosad-treated and untreated trap plants in the number of F. occidentalis on the crop. This suggests that there was minimal movement of adult F. occidentalis back and forth between the trap plants and the crop to feed and oviposit. It is concluded that the trap plant strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management against F. occidentalis in greenhouses. PMID:17659537

  4. Within-tree and temporal distribution of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nymphs in citrus canopies and their influence on premature fruit abscission.

    PubMed

    Planes, Laura; Catalan, Jose; Urbaneja, Alberto; Tena, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has recently become a pest of citrus whose nymphs feed on the surface of young fruitlets. This feeding habit causes patches or rings of tissue scar around the apex as fruit mature. Currently, little is known about the distribution of P. kellyanus nymphs. Further knowledge would allow the development of an appropriate sampling protocol and targeted pesticide application. In our first experiment, the abundance of first- and second-generation P. kellyanus nymphs was surveyed in a citrus orchard at different times of day to characterize their spatial and temporal distributions. The distribution of damaged fruit was also measured at harvest. Our results showed that P. kellyanus nymphs tended to be present in the upper half of the canopy and mainly damaged the fruit located in this area of the canopy. However, P. kellyanus nymphs were uniformly distributed among the four cardinal directions of the canopy and throughout the day. Consequently, cardinal direction and time of the day seem to be less important when developing a sampling plan or in improving targeting or timing of insecticidal spray applications. In our second experiment, we tracked the presence of P. kellyanus nymphs in labeled fruit daily. These data were used to determine how many days the nymphs occupied a fruit and to relate occupancy and premature fruit abscission. The nymphs of P. kellyanus remained on the same fruit for only 1 d. The rate of fruit abscission in June was significantly higher in fruit occupied by first-generation P. kellyanus nymphs than in nonoccupied fruit. PMID:24874156

  5. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine. PMID:20021760

  6. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

  7. Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-08-01

    An action threshold (AT) is one of the most important decision-making elements in integrated pest management. Unlike economic thresholds, ATs are not typically derived from an economic injury level model, but they are more commonly used. ATs may be identified from research-based, pest-crop relationships, but they also may be based on experience. ATs may be adjusted depending on, e.g., weather and plant variety, but modifying ATs to accommodate differences in insecticide efficacy has received little attention. To examine this point, several combinations of ATs and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion fields from 2006 to 2008 by using registered insecticides for T. tabaci on onions. We hypothesized that the most efficacious insecticides would provide acceptable control of thrips populations regardless of AT (one, three, and five thrips per leaf), whereas less effective products would only control populations using the lowest AT (one thrips per leaf). Results indicated that T. tabaci infestations were managed effectively when spinetoram was applied after a three larvae per leaf threshold, but not when using lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl or formetanate hydrochloride. However, T. tabaci infestations were managed well when methomyl and formetanate hydrochloride were applied after a one larva per leaf threshold. T. tabaci infestations were never controlled using lambda-cyhalothrin, regardless of the AT used. None of the products reduced T. tabaci populations to an acceptable level when applied at a five larvae per leaf threshold. Implications of adjusting ATs based on efficacy of different insecticides are discussed. PMID:20857743

  8. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  9. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) developmental stage and host plant stage.

    PubMed

    Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, J L

    2005-10-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (> or =20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only approximately 28-37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality. PMID:16334313

  10. Species-richness in Neotropical Sericothripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Élison Fabrício B; Mound, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Two of the three recognized genera of Sericothripinae are known from the Neotropics, and 14 new species from this area are here described in this subfamily. Illustrated keys are provided to females of seven species of Hydatothrips, and 41 species of Neohydatothrips, mainly from Brazil but including all recorded species south of the border between Mexico and USA. Plant species on which breeding has been recorded are indicated where possible, notes are provided on the few species of economic importance, and a key is appended to second instar larvae of seven species. Neohydatothrips burungae (Hood) stat. rev. and N. aztecus Johansen stat. rev. are recalled from synonymy with Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner), and N. denigratus (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized with N. burungae. Hydatothrips williamsi (Hood) comb. n. is relocated from Neohydatothrips, and as this produces a homonym in the genus, Hydatothrips tareei nom. nov. is proposed for Hydatothrips williamsi Mound & Tree from Australia. PMID:27615957

  11. TIMING OF OVIPOSITION OF THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) IN APPLE FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult thrips were most abundant on flower clusters of apple, Malus × domestica Borkhausen, from king bloom to full bloom. Low numbers of thrips remained on the clusters after petal fall as fruit enlarged. Immature thrips peaked in numbers after densities of adults had peaked, usually by petal fall...

  12. A new species of Haplothrips from southern Iran (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz; Aleosfoor, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Haplothrips herajius sp. n. is described from leaves and flowers of a species of Suaeda in the south of Fars Province, Iran. This is the second Iranian species of Haplothrips with the unusual character state of extra setae on the metanotum. Information on variation in color and structure of the new species is provided. The similarities and host plant associations of this new species and Haplothrips kermanensis are discussed,as both are phytophagous on species of Chenopodiaceae. PMID:23794813

  13. [Taxonomic revision of the Haplothrips-Karnyothrips group (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)].

    PubMed

    Retana-Salazar, Axel P; Soto-Rodríguez, Gerardo A

    2007-06-01

    The generic group ("ensemble") Haplothrips-Karnyothrips is reviewed, following the most recently published criteria for distinguishing generic characters. We establish a new diagnosis for each genus. A review of a Central American collection is included and a new genus of Phlaeothripidae is described from the Central Pacific of Costa Rica from specimens collected on Cyperaceae flowers during the dry season. The genus can be distinguished by widely separated maxillary stylets, absent maxillary bridge, pelta shape and the setae B1, which measures two thirds of the tube length. We include a key based on characters of phylogenetic importance. PMID:19069772

  14. First record of Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, E F B; Milanez, J M

    2013-02-01

    Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall), a species exotic to Brazil, is first recorded in the country. Individuals were collected on banana fruits (Musa sp.) (Musaceae) in July 2010 in the municipality of Luís Alves, state of Santa Catarina, causing rusting on the fruit peel in several bunches of bananas. PMID:23949721

  15. Biological parameters of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on selected hosts.

    PubMed

    Seal, D R; Klassen, W; Kumar, V

    2010-10-01

    Since its establishment in Florida in 2005, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, a highly polyphagous species, has become an economically important pest of ornamental plants and a potentially significant pest of vegetable and fruit crops. Fruit and vegetable production in Florida is trending toward significant adoption of organic methods and use of widely dispersed small fields in rapidly urbanizing landscapes. Landscape plants may serve as refugia from which S. dorsalis recruits can disperse to nearby fruit and vegetable plantings. Therefore, information on this pest's biology including how it is affected by various host species is needed to develop effective integrated pest management (IPM) programs. In the greenhouse and laboratory condition, we studied the effects of various host plants, development, diel flight activity, oviposition, and demographics of S. dorsalis. The pest preferred Jalapeño pepper and Knockout rose over the other hosts, and it was most active between 1000 and 1600 hours EST. Irrespective of the host species, the duration of each of the immature stadia varied within a narrow range, and their respective sizes were quite similar. Demographic parameters quantified included gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproductive rate (R(o)), intrinsic rate of increase per day (R(m)), finite rate of increase per day (λ), and mean generation time (T). The pest population may increase by a factor of ≈ 1.09/d, so that it may double in 8 or 9 d. The above information should be helpful in the development of sound programs to manage S. dorsalis on various crops and in the formulation of detection strategies by quarantine officers. PMID:22546433

  16. A new species of Danothrips from Southwestern China (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yajin; Xie, Yonghui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    Danothrips salicis sp. n. is described from young leaves of Salix sp. in Southwestern China. This species is similar to D. moundi, D. theifolii and D. trifasciatus, but can be distinguished by the colour of the fore wing, the median longitudinal split on tergite X of females, and in males by the situation of the median short thorn-like setae on tergite IX. PMID:27615912

  17. An Evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Performance on Different Plant Leaves Based on Life History Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

  18. An evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) performance on different plant leaves based on life history characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

  19. Biotic resistance limits the invasiveness of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai

    2016-04-01

    The spread of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has resulted in the world-wide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. It is hypothesized that frequent exposure to insecticides in intensive agriculture selected for resistant populations, which allowed invasive populations in the eastern USA to overcome biotic resistance from the native community of species. Research conducted in Florida to understand the role of biotic factors in limiting the abundance of the western flower thrips is reviewed. Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are effective predators that suppress populations of thrips on crop and non-crop hosts in southern and northern Florida. Orius are more effective predators of the western flower thrips than the native flower thrips, F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan). The native species are competitors of the western flower thrips. Excessive fertilization and the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in crop fields further enhances populations of the western flower thrips. Interactions with native species clearly limit the abundance of western flower thrips in Florida, but populations are abundant in fertilized crop fields where application of insecticides excludes predators and competitor species. PMID:26149353

  20. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  1. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  2. Chaetanaphothrips kiyosumianus (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) new to India with first record of the male.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas; Bhuyan, Mantu; Shandilya, Sharadha; Chanda, Sanjoy K

    2016-01-01

    The male of Chaetanaphothrips kiyosumianus Kudô is diagnosed for the first time along with the first record of this species from India. Molecular data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (mtCOI) from specimens of this species are also generated as additional data for future studies. PMID:27515639

  3. The Sericothripinae genus Neohydatothrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in India with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Neohydatothrips are described from India, N. chandrai and N. plumeria. The former was collected on leaves of a hedge plant in northwest India, and the latter on flowers and leaves of Plumeria sp. in eastern India. A key to the seven species of Neohydatothrips recorded from India is also provided. Partial sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (mtCOI) from the holotypes of each of these two new species were generated. PMID:27395685

  4. Review of the spore-feeding Idolothripinae from China (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Li-Hong; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated key is provided to the 19 genera of the subfamily Idolothripinae from China, and a checklist given to 62 named species, of which six species are newly recorded from China, together with the genus Bolothrips that is represented by two un-named species. A generic diagnosis is given for each genus, along with some discussion of systematic relationship problems and species diversity. Identification keys to species of 11 genera are provided, and Megathrips antennatus Guo, Feng & Duan is considered as a new synonymof Megathrips lativentris (Heeger). PMID:24194662

  5. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...

  6. Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Amy L; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2013-02-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is a commonly encountered and economically important insect pest of greenhouses. Greenhouse producers typically apply pesticides as mixtures to mitigate western flower thrips populations; however, there is limited information available on the compatibility and efficacy of commonly used pesticide mixtures. This study assessed nine binary and three tertiary pesticide mixtures used in greenhouses which included pesticides containing abamectin, acephate, azadirachtin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, novaluron, pymetrozine, and spinosad. Compatibility was determined for the binary pesticide mixtures using jar tests. In addition, the binary mixtures were applied to nine horticultural plant species to determine phytotoxicity based on visual appearance assessed 7 d after treatment. Bean-dip bioassays were performed in a laboratory using green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to determine LC50 values for each individual pesticide and the mixtures to establish whether the mixtures were synergistic, antagonistic, or there was no effect. The mortality of western flower thrips was assessed after 24 h, and LC50 values were calculated. Furthermore, semifield bioassays were performed in greenhouses for binary and tertiary mixtures to evaluate the efficacy (based on percent mortality) of the pesticide mixtures against western flower thrips. Results indicated that all binary mixtures were visibly compatible, and not phytotoxic to any of the plant species evaluated. Combination index calculations based on laboratory results indicated most of the binary mixtures were synergistic; however, the mixture containing spinosad + bifenazate appeared to be antagonistic against western flower thrips. The semifield bioassays demonstrated significantly reduced efficacy associated with mixtures containing azadirachtin, however, all binary mixtures provided approximately 80% western flower thrips mortality. PMID:23448038

  7. One new species and two new records of the genus Aeolothrips from Iran (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701

  8. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

  10. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  11. The first micropterous species of the southern European genus Kakothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Marullo, Rita; Ravazzi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The European genus Kakothrips Williams includes seven species (ThripsWiki 2015) that are known to be flower-living mainly on Fabaceae plants. The genus is recorded across Europe from Morocco to England, and eastwards to Syria and Iran (zur Strassen 2003). Only K. pisivorus (Westwood) is known from northern Europe, and this is the senior synonym of the type species K. robustus (Uzel) (Collins 2010). Closely related to Frankliniella, the species share with the members of that genus the character states of ctenidia present on tergite VIII anterolateral to the spiracles, and a complete row of setae on both longitudinal veins of the fore wing. Also, the pronotal anteromarginal and anteroangular setae are half as long as the posteroangular setae. The character states of the genus Kakothrips include: ocellar setae pair III arising between posterior ocelli; fore tarsus with an apical tooth, laterally; pronotal posterior margin without a pair of small setae between the major posteromarginal setae. In some of the species the males bear a pair of stout tubercles laterally on tergite VIII, and sternites III-VI or III-VII of males have a transverse pore plate. All the described species are known only from macropterae, and they are similar to each other in structure. A few distinguishing characters include colour of body, fore wings and antennal segments; the shape, length and position of the fore tarsal tooth; size of body, antennal segments, and major setae; and in males, shape of sternal pore plates, and length of setae on tergite IX. PMID:27395885

  12. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...

  13. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Garzia, Giovanna Tropea; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  14. Biology of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida), an Obligate Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera) Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Judy M.; Heinz, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis, a serious pest of agricultural crops, is difficult to manage because chemical and biological control measures frequently fail to affect F. occidentalis in their preferred microhabitats. Parasitism by the host-specific, entomopathogenic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi may provide a much-needed alternative to current control strategies. Infection does not cause death of the host; rather, the result is sterilization that leads to suppression of F. occidentalis populations. We describe a simple rearing method and the results from studies aimed at providing details on its biology-both essential first steps to examining its biological control potential. All F. occidentalis life stages are susceptible to infection, but to varying degrees (most susceptible to least susceptible): female pupae, second instar larvae, first instar larvae, male pupae, adult females, adult males. Nematodes emerge from female and male F. occidentalis for approximately 15 and 9 days, with approximately 14 and 7 nematodes emerging per day, respectively. Females and males are short-lived outside of the host, with mean survival rates ranging between 7 and 86 hours. Transmission does not occur in the soil but rather on or within plant structures that are preferred microhabitats visited by F. occidentalis. Results from a dose-response study suggest that augmentative applications of T. nicklewoodi may be useful to generate increased infection rates and subsequent suppression of F. occidentalis populations. PMID:19265952

  15. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-01-01

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species. PMID:25947697

  16. The genus Rhamphothrips in India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with description of a new species .

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Rhamphothrips bhattii sp.n. is described from India based on specimens collected on flowers and leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae) in the States of West Bengal and Odisha. The pronotum of this species is longer than any other known member of the genus. A key to the six species of Rhamphothrips recorded from India is provided. PMID:25113365

  17. Host-Parasite Biology of Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Kelly; Funderburk, Joe; Boucias, Drion

    2005-01-01

    Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy of Frankliniella fusca in peanut. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the reproductive biology of T. fuscum as affected by gender and stage of development of the host and to determine the effects of parasitism on host longevity, fecundity, and mortality. The adult females of F. fusca were the most readily parasitized (P < 0.001) in the laboratory experiments followed by the second instars, the first instars, and the adult males. One generation of T. fuscum developed within the parasitized larvae and adults, with the males and females emerging only during the adult stage of the host. Parasitism did not cause mortality of the host. Parasitism affected male longevity (P < 0.001) but not female longevity. The adult female thrips that were parasitized as first or second instars did not lay eggs, and the adult females stopped laying eggs within 3 days of being parasitized. The female-to-male sex ratio of T. fuscum emerging from parasitized male and female F. fusca was 22 and 18 to 1, respectively. More T. fuscum emerged from female hosts than from male hosts (P < 0.001). More emerged from hosts parasitized as larvae compared with hosts parasitized as adults (P < 0.05). The intrinsic capacity of increase of T. fuscum ranged between 0.29 and 0.37 when parasitizing the adult males and females and between 0.18 and 0.21 when parasitizing the larval males and females. Percent parasitism of F. fusca was estimated in peanut fields. The flowers were the primary site for aggregation of the adults of F. fusca and for the free-living females of T. fuscum to parasitize new hosts. As under laboratory conditions, field parasitism of adult males was less than parasitism of adult females in 2001 and 2002 (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Our study indicates that T. fuscum is a potential biological control agent capable of suppressing F. fusca populations in peanut. PMID:19262837

  18. Systemic effects of neem on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Thoeming, G; Borgemeister, C; Sétamou, M; Poehling, H M

    2003-06-01

    The systemic effects of neem on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), were investigated in laboratory trials using green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in arena and microcosm experiments. In arena experiments, systemic effects of neem against western flower thrips larvae on primary bean leaves were observed with maximum corrected mortality of 50.6%. In microcosm experiments using bean seedlings, higher efficacy in the control of western flower thrips were observed with soil applications of neem on a substrate mixture (i.e., Fruhstorfer Erde, Type P, and sand) in a 1:1 ratio (93% corrected mortality) compared with application on the commercial substrate only (76% corrected mortality). However, longer persistence of neem was observed with soil application on the commercial substrate, which showed effects against thrips for up to 6 d after application. In addition to systemic effects observed on all foliage-feeding stages of western flower thrips, mortality on contact and repellent effects were observed on soil-inhabiting stages after soil applications of neem. Finally, bean seedlings grown from seeds pregerminated for 3 d in neem emulsion were also toxic to western flower thrips. PMID:12852622

  19. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  20. Genera of the leaf-feeding Dendrothripinae of the world (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), with new species from Australia and Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2016-01-01

    Character states used in distinguishing taxa within the Thripidae subfamily Dendrothripinae are discussed, and a key presented to the 11 genera recognized worldwide. Comments on each of these genera are provided, together with keys to the species from Australia of Dendrothrips, Ensiferothrips and Pseudodendrothrips. From Australia are described, four new species of Dendrothrips, one of Pseudodendrothrips, and a remarkable new species of Ensiferothrips that has required a re-diagnosis of that genus. Another new species of Ensiferothrips is described from Sulawesi, thus greatly extending the known geographical range of this previously Australian genus. PMID:27394887

  1. Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

    2014-10-01

    A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

  2. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the rotation program. Therefore, by incorporating entomopathogenic organisms into insecticide rotation programs, greenhouse producers can decrease costs without affecting suppression, as well as diminish selection pressure on western flower thrips adult populations, which may avoid or delay resistance development. PMID:26470338

  3. Vertical and horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of an invasive thrips species, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a newly introduced insect pest of various tropical and subtropical crops that poses a significant economic threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. Since its introduction in 2005, S. dorsalis has established in 30 counties of Florida and 8 counties of T...

  4. New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scritothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in the southeast region of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. During scouting and sampling various hosts at different commercial nursery locations in Florida (Miami-Dade Count...

  5. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  6. Ambaeolothrips: a new genus of Neotropical Aeolothripidae (Thysanoptera), with observations on the type-species from mango trees in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence; Cavalleri, Adriano; O'donnell, Cheryle; Infante, Francisco; Ortiz, Antonio; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Ambaeolothrips gen. n. is diagnosed for three Neotropical species: the type species romanruizi Ruiz-De la Cruz et al. comb. n. from Mexico, microstriatus Hood comb. n. from Panama, and pampeanus sp. n. from southern Brazil. Variation is discussed among character states that are used in the generic classification of the family Aeolothripidae, including segmentation of the antennae and maxillary palps, sculpture of the metanotum and presence of sternal discal setae. New field observations on the biology of romanruizi indicate that this species is phytophagous in flowers and on leaves, with no evidence of predation on the larvae of other thrips. PMID:27395682

  7. In vivo rearing of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and prospects as a biological control agent of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Steven; Heinz, Kevin M

    2002-08-01

    Methods are described for the in vivo production of the nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi (Siddiqi), an obligate parasite and potential biological control agent of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Nematode infection is not lethal but causes sterilization of adult female hosts. Both fertilization and horizontal transmission of T. nicklewoodi is achieved in 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tubes (infection arenas), in the presence of 100% humidity, a temporary food source and preferably a damp substrate. Following exposure to infection arenas, F. occidentalis are reared on excised bean leaves Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in polypropylene containers for 2 wk at 25 degrees C to allow the reproduction and development of a single generation of nematodes within infected hosts's abdominal cavity. To identify infected hosts after this incubation period, thrips are isolated in microcentrifuge tubes and monitored for free-living nematodes being released along with frass. Infected thrips are reintroduced back into infection arenas to inoculate further thrips to maintain the culture. We documented the output of the rearing procedure using a standard method and following simple manipulation of several individual parameters of the infection technique. The standard method was the most efficient, and resulted in an increased (output/input) ratio of infected thrips of approximately 2; i.e., the number of infected thrips approximately doubles each generation. Monitoring infected thrips revealed that nematodes were first released between 12-14 d postinfection and for an average of 7.9 d at 25 degrees C; highlighting the potential to reuse infective thrips between infection arenas. The possibility of using T. nicklewoodi as an inoculative agent against F. occidentalis infesting floricultural crops is discussed. PMID:12216805

  8. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...

  9. Genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) with a new species of Siamothrips from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2015-01-01

    The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented. These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel, Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirtothrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips, with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n. PMID:26624136

  10. A new record of Holarctic genus Odontothrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from India with a new species.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The Holarctic genus Odontothrips of Megalurothrips genus-group was established by Amyot & Serville in 1843 with type species Thrips phaleratus Haliday (Mound & Palmer 1981, Mirab-balou & Chen 2011). This genus is known by 32 species from the Palearctic and Nearctic regions (ThripsWiki 2015), and these species are flower-living and mainly associated with flowers of family Fabaceae (Xie et al. 2010). The pest status of Odontothrips species is uncertain, but some species are reported to cause superficial damage to the flowers on which they feed. O. confusus Priesner is reported as a pest on lucerne in France and Czech Republic (Pitkin 1972), and also on legumes in Romania (Pustai et al. 2015). O. loti (Haliday) is reported as a major pest on Alfalfa in north China, where it feeds on tender leaves and causes leaf curling, whitening and withering (Kou et al. 2011). PMID:27395891

  11. Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Abamectin on the Biological Performance of the Predatory Thrips Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-04-01

    Determination of sublethal and transgenerational effects of pesticides on natural enemies is necessary for successful implementation of biocontrol in integrated pest management programs. In this study, these effects of abamectin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch were estimated under laboratory conditions in which adult predators were exposed to pesticide residues on bean leaves. The estimated values of LC50 for female and male predators were 0.091 and 0.067 µg a.i./ml, respectively. Low-lethal concentrations (LC10, LC20 and LC30) of abamectin severely affected fecundity and longevity of treated females of S. longicornis. In addition, transgenerational effects on reproductive and life table parameters of the subsequent generation were observed. The results from this research can be used to develop guidelines for the use of abamectin to minimize the impact on S. longicornis. PMID:26470166

  12. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  13. Management of chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peppers by Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Orius indidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in southeast of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. In this study, we examined biological control of chilli thrips with a predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, an...

  14. Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the population dynamics of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ontario onion fields.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre-Allen, J K; Scott-Dupree, C D; Tolman, J H; Harris, C R

    2005-12-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are an economic pest of alliums worldwide. In Ontario onion-growing regions, seasonal abundance and population trends of onion thrips are not well known. The objectives of this research were to investigate onion thrips population dynamics by using both white sticky traps and plant counts, to gain insight into flight height, and to determine the genus and sex of thrips fauna present in monitored fields. Adult thrips were captured on white sticky traps placed in two commercial onion fields in the Thedford-Grand Bend Marsh region as early as mid-May in 2001, 2002, and 2003. Thrips were not recorded on onion plants in these fields until late June and early July. A comparison of sticky trap captures to plant counts revealed a strong, positive correlation, indicating that sticky traps, which consistently detected thrips earlier than plant counts, could be used instead of plant counts early in the season to monitor onion thrips populations. Pole traps placed in onion and an adjacent soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., field revealed that regardless of crop type, most thrips were captured 0.7-0.95 m above the soil surface. During this study, 70% of 137,000 thrips captured on sticky traps and 89% of 1,482 thrips captured in pan traps were female onion thrips. No male onion thrips were identified in this study: most of the remaining thrips were Frankliniella spp. PMID:16539160

  15. Prey preference of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for species of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in pepper flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine prey preference of O. insidiosus between Frankliniella occidentalis and F. tritici, and between adult and 2nd instar of F. occidentalis in pepper flowers. Corresponding studies were conducted to determine the distribution of these thrips in the absence ...

  16. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-partite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multi-partite mitochondrial genome architecture...

  17. Effect of Spinosad Resistance on Transmission of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus by the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wan, Yanran; Xie, Wen; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wei, Guoshu; Zhou, Xiaomao; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in a persistent-propagative manner. We previously observed significant results in terms of feeding behavior of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and -resistant (Spin-R) strains of F. occidentalis using electrical penetration graph. TSWV transmission by the two strains was compared in the present study. The results showed that the titer of TSWV-N RNA (a part of S RNA of TSWV and encoding the nucleocapsid protein) in Ivf03 and Spin-R strains was not significantly different after a 48-h inoculation access period. The TSWV transmission rate did not significantly differ between the two strains and was 51.0% for Ivf03 and 44.4% for Spin-R. The virus transmission rate was significantly higher for males than females of both strains. The virus transmission rate for males and females of Ivf03 was 68.1 and 33.8%, respectively; however, in case of Spin-R, it was 60 and 28.8% for males and females, respectively. Additionally, number of probes and duration of probes were generally greater for viruliferous females of Ivf03 than for viruliferous females of Spin-R but the total number and duration of noningestion probes did not significantly differ between males of the two strains. The latter finding behavior may help explain the similar transmission rates for the susceptible and resistant strains. PMID:26377766

  18. Occurrence of the western flower thrips, Franklliniella occidentalis, and potential predators on host plants in near-orchard habitats of Washington and Oregon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), 1895 and potential thrips pred...

  19. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  20. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  1. Two years research on efficiency of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory, to reduce damage caused by onion thrips(Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on leek.

    PubMed

    Gombac, P; Trdan, S

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and 2011, a field experiment was carried out at the Laboratory Field at the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the aim to investigate suitability of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L) and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), for reducing damage caused by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) on leek (Allium porrum L.). Four leek cultivars--'Columbus', 'Forrest', 'Lancelot' and 'Lincoln'--were used in the research (Bejo Zaden B.V., Netherlands). In both years, the mean index of damage caused by feeding of the pest on the leek leaves increased from the first evaluation (13 July 2009 and 18 June 2011) in both treatments with intercrops and in control treatment (without intercrop). Leek grown with birdsfoot trefoil as intercrop was in both years statistically the least damaged from thrips. Also summer savory was efficient in the same context in comparison with control treatment. In year 2009 cultivar 'Lancelot' was the least damaged in all treatments, and in year 2011 'Lancelot' and 'Forrest'. In both years intercrop and cultivar also had a significant influence on the yield of leek. The highest yield was obtained on the control plots, meanwhile birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory were pretty competitive and yield of leek grown with them as intercrops was therefore significantly lower. PMID:23885428

  2. Investigation on the optimal term of one-fold insecticide application for decreasing onion thrips ( Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) damage on early white cabbage.

    PubMed

    Trdan, S; Valic, N; Bogataj, A; Znidarcic, D

    2004-01-01

    An impact of the term of one-fold insecticide application to reduce the damage of the onion thrips in early white cabbage was established. During the growing season plants were treated with insecticide (abamectin) in three different terms (treatment 1: 9 June, treatment 2: 16 June, treatment 3: 23 June, and treatment 4: untreated). On the exterior leaves of cabbage heads, treated with the insecticide, statistically significantly lower mean index of damage was determined as compared to the untreated plants. No significant differences were found between three different terms of application. The majority of the economically important damages in all of the treatments was found between the 3rd and 6th exterior leaf in the head. The highest mean weight of heads (1517.3 g) and mean net weight of heads I = mean weight of heads - weight of damaged and removed leavesl (1166.3 g) were established in plants which were treated the last. These parameters were the lowest in untreated plants (1083.3 g / 805.6 g). The yield loss due to damaged leaves removal amounted from 22.9% (treatment 2) to 25.6% (treatment 4). Based on the results obtained in this research we concluded that yield loss due to onion thrips attack in plants with one-fold insecticide application is not substantially lower as in untreated plants (though statistically significant differences between them were established), because insecticide cannot reach the interior leaves in the head. Substantial differences in the total and net weight of heads between the treatments and especially between the treated and untreated plants are explained by the fact that feeding of numerous thrips populations in the heads and on the exterior cabbage leaves negatively affects plant physiology and yield. The highest average yield in plants which were treated the last indicates a possibility that insecticide also inhibits plant growth and development to a certain extent. PMID:15759423

  3. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed. PMID:20021751

  4. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  5. Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  6. Incidence and characterization of resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, A; Khajehali, J; Van Leeuwen, T

    2016-05-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is the main pest of onion-growing fields in Isfahan and is mainly controlled by frequently spraying several insecticides. To investigate the resistance status and mechanisms, the susceptibility of ten field populations collected from Isfahan onion-growing regions were tested to several currently used pesticides. Resistance to the tested insecticides was observed in most populations when compared with the susceptible reference population. Enhanced detoxification, implicated by the use of inhibitors of major metabolic detoxification enzymes, was observed in the populations resistant to profenofos and chlorpyrifos. In the deltamethrin resistant populations, the amino acid substitution T929I was detected in the voltage gated sodium channel, which is known to confer pyrethroid resistance. These data are a first step towards more efficient resistance management tactics through early detection of resistant onion thrips in Iran. PMID:27017878

  7. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    PubMed

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  8. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

  9. The morphology and biology of the entomophilic Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), and the histopathologic effects of parasitism on the host Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy capable of reducing local populations of Frankliniella fusca and reducing transmission of plant diseases vectored by F. fusca. We used light and electron microscopy to detail the in vivo life cycle of the nematode and to determine the effects of parasitism on th...

  10. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. PMID:26314037

  11. Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitism reduces both the feeding of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut and the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least nine thrips species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipping & Nguyen, a natural enemy of F....

  12. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  13. Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biological control agents of Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood poses a significant risk to many food and ornamental crops in the Caribbean, Florida and Texas. We evaluated two species of phytoseiid mite as predators of S. dorsalis. In leaf disc assays, gravid females of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius s...

  14. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  15. Resolving cryptic species with morphology and DNA; thrips as a potential biocontrol agent of Brazilian peppertree, with a new species and overview of Pseudophilothrips (Thysanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular and morphological evidence is presented to support the description of a second species of Pseudophilothrips in Brazil in association with Schinus terebinthifolius, an invasive weedy tree in North America. Pseudophilothrips is here recognized as a weakly defined genus comprising 13 describe...

  16. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas: Species Composition, Seasonal Population Dynamics, Damage and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, population dynamics of thrips on cotton, and their predaceous natural enemies, damage and control, were determined at two different sites during three consecutive seasons from 2005 to 2007 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. We observed seven different species of th...

  17. 75 FR 30303 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... introduced into the United States via peppers, including 8 insect pests, 1 bacterium, 1 fungus, and 2 viruses...). Melon thrips (Thrips palmi). Bacterium: Bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2)....

  18. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    PubMed

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-01-01

    Axylus group is used to include the five genera Axylus Stål, 1877, Anthracites Redtenbacher, 1891 sensu stricto, Eucoptaspis Willemse, 1966, Eulobaspis gen. nov., and Heminicsara Karny, 1912. It is mainly based on a combination of the characters shape of pronotum, spiniform meso- and metasternal lobes, and similar basic ground plans of the male cerci, titillators and female subgenital plates. The five genera together with two superficially similar genera Euanthracites gen. nov. and Sulasara gen. nov. are fully revised. Papuacites gen. nov. is proposed for two New Guinean species formerly included in Anthracites. Nicsara Walker, 1869 is restricted to Australian species; Spinisternum Willemse, 1942 is synonymised with Heminicsara Karny, 1912; Odontocoryphus Karny, 1907 based on two nymphs is synonymised with Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888; Pseudoliara Karny, 1907 described after one nymph is regarded incertae sedis. 40 new combination of species are proposed: Axylus bimaculatus (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., A. inferior (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. inflatus (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. loboensis (De Haan, 1842) comb. nov., A. minutus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., A. nigrifrons (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. philippinus (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., A, taylori (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., and A. thoracicus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov. (all from Nicsara); Euanthracites apoensis (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., E. femoralis (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., E. rufus (Ingrisch, 1998) comb. nov., and E. tibialis (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Eucoptaspis inexpectatus (Willemse, 1953) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus Karny, 1907); Eulobaspis dehaani (Karny, 1920) comb. nov., E. emarginata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. moluccana (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., E. personata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. quadrimaculata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. rotundata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., and E. strigatipes (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Eulobaspis lobaspoides (Karny, 1907) comb. nov

  19. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  20. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  1. Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

  2. Analyzing predation of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Mediterranean lettuce crops using molecular techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hoverflies are generalist predators of a great variety of primary pests. Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are two common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where they occur alongside alternative prey (e.g., Collembola). ...

  3. Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

  4. Four new species of the genus Phryganogryllacris (Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae, Gryllacridinae) in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaomiao; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic study of the genus Phryganogryllacris Karny, 1937 is presented. Four new species are described: Phryganogryllacris brevipennis sp. nov., Phryganogryllacris hubeiensis sp. nov., Phryganogryllacris sigillata sp. nov., Phryganogryllacris fanjingshanensis sp. nov.. A key to the species and the distributional data of Phryganogryllacris are provided. PMID:27395630

  5. Using DNA barcodes to confirm the presence of a new invasive cockroach pest in New York City.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dominic; Buss, Lyle; Ware, Jessica L

    2013-12-01

    Recently, specimens of a Periplaneta sp. were discovered in New York, NY, that did not match the typical morphology of Periplaneta americana L., the ubiquitous American cockroach. Here, we used DNA barcoding and morphological identification to confirm that this newly invasive pest species was indeed Periplaneta japonica Karny, 1908. We discuss this recent invasion in light of known life history traits of this species, with specific predictions for its impact in the urban northeastern United States. PMID:24498724

  6. Zorotypus weiweii (Zoraptera: Zorotypidae), a new species of angel insects, from Sabah, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus weiweii, is described and figured from Sabah, East Malaysia. The new species represents the second angel insect from Borneo. Z. caudelli Karny was also collected near the type locality of Z. weiweii. Methods of specimen collection and a brief note of angel insects in Malaysia were provided based on new materials and biological observations. PMID:27615990

  7. Taxonomic, bioacoustic and faunistic data on a collection of Tettigonioidea from Eastern Congo (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Hemp, Claudia; Liu, Chunxiang; Volleth, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    During a 14-day excursion in March 1990, 28 species of tettigonioids were found at Irangi (1º54'S, 28º27'E), ca.100 km north west of Bukavu at Lake Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire), and at other localities near Bukavu. One species -Arantia (Arantia) gracilicercata Heller sp. n. - is new to science, another one-Pantecphyllus helleri Schmidt et al. 2004-was already described as new in a generic revision. All our specimens of the morphologically quite diverse and sexually dimorphic phaneropterine genus Arantia were studied using molecular methods. We propose a new subgenus Arantia (Euarantia) Heller subgen. n. based on relative tegmen width. Songs and stridulatory organs were studied in 9 species. Two phaneropterines, Horatosphaga leggei and Pardalota asymmetrica, showed remarkable calling songs lasting more than 10 s and produced by quite complicated stridulatory movements. The song of the large phaneropterine Zeuneria biramosa is noteworthy because of its unusually low carrier frequency of 3.7 kHz. Based on the examination of other specimens and species, some taxonomic changes are proposed (Phaneropteridae Burmeister, 1838 stat. rev.; Afromecopoda monroviana (Karsch, 1886) stat. rev.; Leproscirtus ebneri Karny, 1919, syn. n., Leproscirtus karschi Karny, 1919, syn. n., Leproscirtus granulosus aptera Karny, 1919, syn. n., all synonyms of Leproscirtus granulosus (Karsch, 1886); Lanistoides Sjöstedt, 1913 stat. rev.; Plastocorypha cabrai Griffini, 1909 stat. n.). PMID:24872232

  8. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  9. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  10. Variation Within and Between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant ...

  11. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  12. Host regulation by Thripinema fuscum and effects on Frankliniella fusca population dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tobacco thrips Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a polyphagous insect pest of numerous fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops. Significantly, F. fusca is known to cause extensive economic damage in various cropping systems by transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (Bunyavi...

  13. Management strategies for western flower thrips and the role of insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most significant agricultural pests globally because of the damage it is able to inflict on a wide range of crops. Adults and larvae feed by piercing plant tissues with their needle-shape...

  14. Migration arising from gradients in shear stress: Particle distributions in Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, D. T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the existence of shear induced migration processes is reviewed and the mechanism by Leighton and Acrivos (1987b) is described in detail. The proposed mechanism is shown to lead to the existence of an additional shear induced migration in the presence of gradients in shear stress such as would be found in Poiseuille flow, and which may be used to predict the amplitude of the observed short-term viscosity increase. The concentration and velocity profiles which result from such a migration are discussed in detail and are compared to the experimental observations of Karnis, Goldsmith and Mason (1966).

  15. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

  16. Impact of factitious foods and prey on the oviposition of the predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Campos, C; Wäckers, F L; Pekas, A

    2016-09-01

    The soil-dwelling predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) are important biocontrol agents of several pests (Astigmata, Thysanoptera, Diptera). There is little information regarding the use of factitious foods that potentially improve their mass rearing and population development once released in the field. Here we tested the suitability of several types of factitious food and prey for G. aculeifer and S. scimitus. Factitious foods included eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), hydrated encapsulated cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Anostraca: Artemiidae), two species of saprophytic nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus and Panagrellus sp.) (Nematoda: Panagrolaimidae) and pollen of cattail Typha angustifolia (Poales: Typhaceae). Parameters tested were oviposition over a 3-day period compared with controls provided with either second instars of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or a mix of instars of the commercially used prey mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae) or the absence of food. Compared to the standard prey mite T. putrescentiae, G. aculeifer showed elevated oviposition when fed thrips larvae, E. kuehniella eggs, Artemia sp. cysts or the saprophytic P. redivivus. Oviposition by S. scimitus was high when provided with thrips larvae and P. redivivus, but not significantly different from oviposition on T. putrescentiae. Oviposition for both predatory mite species was very low or zero when provided with T. angustifolia pollen. Finally, G. aculeifer consumed significantly more thrips larvae than S. scimitus. The implication of these results for the mass-rearing of G. aculeifer and S. scimitus are discussed. PMID:27388446

  17. Faulting and earthquake triggering during the 1783 Calabria seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, E.; Monaco, C.; Tapponnier, P.; Tortorici, L.; Winter, T.

    2001-12-01

    Between the 1783 February 5 and 1783 March 28, five earthquakes struck the southern part of Calabria. The main shock (February 5) and the first aftershock (February 6) devastated the region ENE of the Messina Strait. The greatest damage occurred along the foot of the Aspromonte Mountains south of San Giorgio Morgeto, and along the Tyrrhenian coast south of Palmi. A surface break about 18km long, with several feet of downthrow to the west, formed along the Cittanova (Santa Cristina) Fault as a result of the main shock. On February 7, a third large shock ruined villages at the foot of the Serre Mountains north of San Giorgio Morgeto. Morphological and structural evidence, combined with a reassessment of observations made at the time of the earthquakes, suggest that these three shocks were shallow (<=20km) and related to slip on the west-dipping, NE-striking Cittanova-Sant'Eufemia, Palmi-Scilla and Serre normal faults, respectively, which juxtapose the basement of the Aspromonte and Serre mountains with the Pleistocene deposits of the Gioia Tauro and Mesima basins, and border the Palmi coastal high. The three faults belong to an active rift that stretches from northern Calabria to offshore the Ionian coast of Sicily. The spatial coupling between the 1783 events is investigated by resolving changes of Coulomb failure stress. The main shock (1783 February 5, M ~7), on the Cittanova and Sant'Eufemia faults, increased that stress by several bars on the Scilla Fault, triggering the 1783 February 6 earthquake (M ~6.5). The cumulative effect of these two shocks was to raise the Coulomb stress by more than 1bar on the SW part of the Serre Fault, which was subsequently the site of the 1783 February 7 shock (M ~6.5). In turn, the first three events increased the stress by about 1 bar on the NE part of this latter fault, leading to the 1783 March 1 shock (M ~5.7). The gap between the 1783 February 7 and 1783 March 1 events may be related to the previous occurrence of an

  18. Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multi-factor climate change experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Villalpando, Sean; Williams, Ray; Norby, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.

  19. A review of brood-site pollination mutualism: plants providing breeding sites for their pollinators.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shoko

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, I review pollination systems in which plants provide breeding sites as a reward for pollination. I divide the pollinators into three groups based upon ovipositing sites and the larval food of insects. The first group consists of ovule parasites found in only five plant lineages, e.g., the fig wasps and yucca moths, pollination systems in which pollinator specificity is very high. The second group is pollen parasitism, primarily by thrips (Thysanoptera), but specificity of the pollinators is low. In the third group, pollinator larvae (Coleoptera and Diptera) develop in decomposed flowers and inflorescences of plants and these adaptations evolved repeatedly via different pathways in various plant taxa. Pollinator specificity varies, and shifts in pollinators may occur between related or unrelated insects. PMID:12579365

  20. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  1. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, G W

    2004-08-01

    One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera). PMID:15622841

  2. Flight of the smallest insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Hedrick, Tyson; Robinson, Alice

    2009-11-01

    A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Over this range of scales, flight aerodynamics as well as the relative lift and drag forces generated are surprisingly similar. The smallest flying insects (Re˜10) have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, we have used a three-pronged approach that consists of measurements of flight kinematics in the tiny insect Thysanoptera (thrips), measurements of flow velocities using physical models, and direct numerical simulations to compute lift and drag forces. We find that drag forces can be an order of magnitude larger than lift forces, particularly during the clap and fling motion used by all tiny insects recorded to date.

  3. Preliminary study of urine metabolism in type two diabetic patients based on GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Geng, Fang; Hu, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ye-Qiu; Liu, Jun-Cen; Qi, Yong-Hua; Li, Li-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparative study of type 2 diabetes and healthy controls by metabolomics methods to explore the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes. Methods: Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a variety of multivariate statistical analysis methods to the healthy control group 58 cases, 68 cases of Type II diabetes group were analyzed. Chromatographic conditions: DB-5MS column; the carrier gas He; flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, the injection volume 1 uL; split ratio is 100: 1. MS conditions: electron impact (EI) ion source, an auxiliary temperature of 280°C, the ion source 230°C, quadrupole 150°C; mass scan range 30~600 mAu. Results: Established analytical method based on urine metabolomics GC-MS of Type II diabetes, determine the urine succinic acid, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, tyrosine, slanine, acetoace acid, mannose, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, Phenylalanine, fructose, D-glucose, palmi acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly were significantly changed. Conclusion: Based on metabolomics of GC-MS detection and analysis metabolites can be found differences between type 2 diabetes and healthy control group, PCA diagram can effectively distinguish Type II diabetes and healthy control group, with load diagrams and PLS-DA VIP value metabolite screening, the resulting differences in metabolic pathways involved metabolites, including amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and energy metabolism. PMID:27508010

  4. Seafloor characterization and benthic megafaunal distribution of an active submarine canyon and surrounding sectors: The case of Gioia Canyon (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Martorelli, Eleonora; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep Maria; Chiocci, Francesco Latino

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, high-resolution seismic profiles, ROV video images and sediment samples to identify the principal morpho-sedimentary features and related megabenthic communities along the upper reach of the Gioia Canyon (depth < 600 m) and the surrounding shelf and slope areas. Interpretation of the multidisciplinary dataset was undertaken to evaluate the relationships between seafloor characteristics and faunal distribution along a submarine canyon in an active tectonic setting. The results from this study indicate that physical disturbance on the seafloor at the canyon head and surrounding shelf, related to high sedimentation rates and occasional turbidite flows, may limit the variability of megabenthic communities. Evidence of diffuse trawl marks over soft sedimentary bottoms indicates anthropogenic impact due to fishing activities, which could explain low abundances of megabenthic species observed locally. The canyon margins and flanks along the continental slope host octocorals Funiculina quadrangularis and Isidella elongata, species that are indicative of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) and relevant in terms of sustainable management priorities. At the Palmi Ridge, the occurrence of outcropping rocks and bottom currents related to the presence of Levantine Intermediate Waters, provide conditions for the development of hard-bottom assemblages, including the black coral Antipathella subpinnata and deep-sea sponges fields.

  5. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    PubMed

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand. PMID:26141731

  6. Atmospheric deposition impacts on nutrients and biological budgets of the Mediterranean Sea, results from the high resolution coupled model NEMOMED12/PISCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richon, Camille; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Dulac, François; Desboeufs, Karine; Nabat, Pierre; Guieu, Cécile; Aumont, Olivier; Palmieri, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is at present not included in regional oceanic biogeochemical models of the Mediterranean Sea, whereas, along with river inputs, it represents a significant source of nutrients at the basin scale, especially through intense desert dust events. Moreover, observations (e.g. DUNE campaign, Guieu et al. 2010) show that these events significantly modify the biogeochemistry of the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea. We use a high resolution (1/12°) version of the 3D coupled model NEMOMED12/PISCES to investigate the effects of high resolution atmospheric dust deposition forcings on the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean basin. The biogeochemical model PISCES represents the evolution of 24 prognostic tracers including five nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and iron) and two phytoplankton and zooplanktons groups (Palmiéri, 2014). From decadal simulations (1982-2012) we evaluate the influence of natural dust and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on the budget of nutrients in the basin and its impact on the biogeochemistry (primary production, plankton distributions...). Our results show that natural dust deposition accounts for 15% of global PO4 budget and that it influences primarily the southern part of the basin. Anthropogenic nitrogen accounts for 50% of bioavailable N supply for the northern part. Deposition events significantly affect biological production; primary productivity enhancement can be as high as 30% in the areas of high deposition, especially during the stratified period. Further developments of the model will include 0D and 1D modeling of bacteria in the frame of the PEACETIME project.

  7. Annotated list of Ensifera (Orthoptera) and further records on Caelifera (Orthoptera) of Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A list of the Tettigoniidae and Gryllacrididae (Orthoptera: Ensifera) of Mt Kilimanjaro is presented. A total number of 63 Ensifera was recorded for this mountain, of which 25 species belonged to Phaneropterinae, 18 to Conocephalinae, 6 to Hetrodinae and three to Pseudophyllinae. The subfamily Meconematinae contributed two species while only one species of the subfamilies Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Saginae was found. Gryllacrididae contributed six species. Three species recorded in literature were not found again during the research period. 15 species are newly recorded for Mt Kilimanjaro in this study and one species of Agraeciini newly described. Two new genera, Afroanthracites Hemp & Ingrisch n. gen. (type species: Anthracites montium Sjöstedt, 1910) and Afroagraecia Ingrisch & Hemp n. gen. (type species: Agraecia sansibara Redtenbacher, 1891), are erected on African Agraeciini (Conocephalinae). Anthracites kilimandjaricus Sjöstedt, 1910 is snonymized with A. montium Sjöstedt, 1910. Agraecia sansibara (Redtenbacher, 1891), Anthracites bloyeti Brongniart, 1897 and Anelytra panteli Karny are transferred to Afroagraecia. Aethiomerus stenorhinus Saussure, 1899 is synonymised with Afroagraecia sansibara (Redtenbacher, 1891). In Caelifera two Catantopinae (Acrididae) species are newly recorded for Mt Kilimanjaro and one pyrgomorphid species, Maura lurida (Fabricius, 1781), recovered again for the area. PMID:24698921

  8. A flux-split algorithm applied to conservative models for multicomponent compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, Antonio; Mulet, Pep

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we consider a conservative extension of the Euler equations for gas dynamics to describe a two-component compressible flow in Cartesian coordinates. It is well known that classical shock-capturing schemes applied to conservative models are oscillatory near the interface between the two gases. Several authors have addressed this problem proposing either a primitive consistent algorithm [J. Comput. Phys. 112 (1994) 31] or Lagrangian ingredients (Ghost Fluid Method by Fedkiw et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 152 (1999) 452] and [J. Comput. Phys. 169 (2001) 594]). We solve directly this conservative model by a flux-split algorithm, due to the first author (see [J. Comput. Phys. 125 (1996) 42]), together with a high-order (WENO5) flux reconstruction [J. Comput. Phys. 115 (1994) 200; 83 (1989) 32]. This algorithm seems to reduce the oscillations near the interfaces in a way that does not affect the physics of the experiments. We validate our algorithm with the numerical simulation of the interaction of a Mach 1.22 shock wave impinging a helium bubble in air, under the same conditions studied by Haas and Sturtevant [J. Fluid Mech. 181 (1987) 41] and successfully simulated by Quirk and Karni [J. Fluid Mech. 318 (1996) 129].

  9. Association of γ-Secretase with Lipid Rafts in Post-Golgi and Endosome Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivel, Kulandaivelu S.; Cheng, Haipeng; Lin, William; Sakurai, Takashi; Li, Tong; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Wong, Philip C.; Xu, Huaxi; Thinakaran, Gopal

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease-associated β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are generated by the sequential proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. There is growing evidence that cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains are involved in regulating trafficking and processing of APP. BACE1, the major γ-secretase in neurons is a palmi-toylated transmembrane protein that resides in lipid rafts. A subset of APP is subject to amyloidogenic processing by BACE1 in lipid rafts, and this process depends on the integrity of lipid rafts. Here we describe the association of all four components of the γ-secretase complex, namely presenilin 1 (PS1)-derived fragments, mature nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2, with cholesterol-rich detergent insoluble membrane (DIM) domains of non-neuronal cells and neurons that fulfill the criteria of lipid rafts. In PS1−/−/PS2−/− and NCT−/− fibroblasts, γ-secretase components that still remain fail to become detergent-resistant, suggesting that raft association requires γ-secretase complex assembly. Biochemical evidence shows that subunits of the γ-secretase complex and three TGN/endosome-resident SNAREs cofractionate in sucrose density gradients, and show similar solubility or insolubility characteristics in distinct non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents, indicative of their co-residence in membrane microdomains with similar protein-lipid composition. This notion is confirmed using magnetic immunoisolation of PS1- or syntaxin 6-positive membrane patches from a mixture of membranes with similar buoyant densities following Lubrol WX extraction or sonication, and gradient centrifugation. These findings are consistent with the localization of γ-secretase in lipid raft microdomains of post-Golgi and endosomes, organelles previously implicated in amyloidogenic processing of APP. PMID:15322084

  10. Stable Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis in Nonviruliferous and Viruliferous Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Huipeng; Ma, Yabin; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Zheng, Changying; Chu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for measuring and evaluating gene expression during variable biological processes. To facilitate gene expression studies, normalization of genes of interest relative to stable reference genes is crucial. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), the main vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a destructive invasive species. In this study, the expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes from nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis were investigated. Five distinct algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder, were used to determine the performance of these genes. geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), elongation factor 1 α, and ribosomal protein l32 (RPL32) as the most stable reference genes, and the ΔCt method identified HSP60, HSP70, RPL32, and heat shock protein 90 as the most stable reference genes. Additionally, two reference genes were sufficient for reliable normalization in nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis. This work provides a foundation for investigating the molecular mechanisms of TSWV and F. occidentalis interactions. PMID:26244556

  11. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  12. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  13. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed. PMID:24205864

  14. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    PubMed

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found. PMID:22208869

  15. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M. K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A. R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found. PMID:22208869

  16. Continuous exposure to the deterrents cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate does not alter the behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Barbara; Spangl, Bernhard; Koschier, Elisabeth Helene

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a generalist, cell sap-feeding insect species with piercing-sucking mouthparts, after continuous exposure to two deterrent secondary plant compounds are investigated. We compared in choice assays on bean leaf discs, the settling, feeding, and oviposition preferences of F. occidentalis females that had no experience with the two fatty acid derivatives methyl jasmonate and cis-jasmone before testing (naïve thrips) vs. females that had been exposed to the deterrent compounds before testing (experienced thrips). The thrips were exposed to the deterrents at low or high concentrations for varied time periods and subsequently tested on bean leaf discs treated with the respective deterrent at either a low or a high concentration. Frankliniella occidentalis females avoided settling on the deterrent-treated bean leaf discs for an observation period of 6 h, independent of their previous experience. Our results demonstrate that feeding and oviposition deterrence of the jasmonates to the thrips were not altered by continuous exposure of the thrips to the jasmonates. Habituation was not induced, neither by exposure to the low concentration of the deterrents nor by exposure to the high concentration. These results indicate that the risk of habituation to two volatile deterrent compounds after repeated exposure is not evident in F. occidentalis. This makes the two compounds potential candidates to be integrated in pest management strategies. PMID:26726263

  17. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna. PMID:27627066

  18. The molecular action of the novel insecticide, Pyridalyl.

    PubMed

    Powell, Gerard F; Ward, Deborah A; Prescott, Mark C; Spiller, David G; White, Michael R H; Turner, Phillip C; Earley, Fergus G P; Phillips, Janet; Rees, Huw H

    2011-07-01

    Pyridalyl is a recently discovered insecticide that exhibits high insecticidal activity against Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera. Pyridalyl action requires cytochrome P450 activity, possibly for production of a bioactive derivative, Pyridalyl metabolism being prevented by general P450 inhibitors. Apoptosis is apparently not involved in the cytotoxicity. Continuous culture of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells in sub-lethal doses of Pyridalyl, results in a Pyridalyl-resistant cell line. Probing the molecular action of Pyridalyl by comparison of the proteomes of Pyridalyl-resistant and -susceptible cell lines, revealed differential expression of a number of proteins, including the up-regulation of thiol peroxiredoxin (TPx), in the resistant cells. Treatment of Bombyx mori larvae with Pyridalyl, followed by comparison of the midgut microsomal sub-proteome, revealed the up-regulation of three proteasome subunits. Such subunits, together with Hsp70 stress proteins, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs) and thiol peroxiredoxin (TPx) were also up-regulated in the whole proteome of B. mori BM36 cells following treatment with the insecticide. The foregoing results lead to the hypothesis that cytochrome P450 action leads to an active Pyridalyl metabolite, which results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to damage to cellular macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and enhanced proteasome activity leads to increased protein degradation and necrotic cell death. PMID:21497652

  19. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  20. Influence of native flowering plant strips on natural enemies and herbivores in adjacent blueberry fields.

    PubMed

    Walton, Nathaniel J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Conservation plantings of native wildflowers were established adjacent to highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fields to test the hypothesis that provision of resources for natural enemies increases their abundance in adjacent crop fields without increasing the abundance of pest insects. For two growing seasons, natural enemies and herbivorous insects were sampled in fields with flowering borders and in control fields where growers maintained standard mown grass perimeters. Insects were categorized according to their trophic level and their potential pest status, and their abundance was compared between years and between treatments. Syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) were significantly more abundant in fields with conservation strips, as were plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae), thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and hoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), thrips, fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), and pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) decreased significantly in abundance from 2007 to 2008. Beneficial insect abundance in crop fields increased in the latter half of the season in both years and this increase was more pronounced in fields adjacent to conservation plantings. We discuss the implications of these findings for pest management and conservation of biodiversity in farmland. PMID:22251649

  1. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tourtois, Joseph; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev), and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. PMID:26463077

  2. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China. PMID:26429578

  3. Arthropods, plants, and transmission lines in Arizona: secondary succession in a Sonoran Desert habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Beley, J.R.

    1981-09-01

    Overall arthropod densities were low at this site, but the arthropod densities on the disturbed areas appeared to be enhanced after several years. No taxa were found to be statistically different in density between control and disturbed plots. Diversity decreased on the disturbed area after construction. Arthropod community similarity (C) was lower after construction, but C values appear to be related to presence or absence of annual herbs and grasses and not to total cover. Except for globe mallow, there were no pioneer plant species on the experimental plot. Effects of powerline construction on the experimental plant community were a brief reduction in total cover and a slight increase in cover of herbs and annual grasses. The 1976 and 1977 samples exhibit comparable cover values of these plants on both experimental and control plots. The dominant arthropod taxa on the experimental area (especially Thysanoptera, Cicadellidae, Coccinellidae, and Melyridae) appear to be responding numerically to the annual herbs and grasses which are becoming established on the plot.

  4. Two new species of Scirtothrips genus-group (Thripidae) of Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2016-01-01

    The survey of Thysanoptera in peninsular Malaysia has been concentrated largely in areas growing crops and flowers around Kuala Lumpur, and the Cameron Highlands, and there are few records of these insects from native forests particularly in the northern part of the country. The two species described here were collected during a recent visit to Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, in Perak State, part of the second largest forested area on the peninsular, and connected to the Bang Lang National Park, in Yala Province, Thailand. This forest has been well known as home to a number of endangered animals, including Malayan tigers and Asian elephants, as well as remarkable plant species such as Rafflesia with the world's largest flowers (Abdullah et al. 2011). Despite this, forest areas are facing a major challenge from the insatiable demand for timber, palm oil and minerals, with an 80% increase in deforestation rate in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005 (FAO 2010). Forested land in peninsular Malaysia has been estimated at 5.88 million-ha or 44% of total area, but the coverage of reserved virgin forest is about 0.40 % or 23,002-ha (Dahlan 2008). PMID:27394331

  5. Stable Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis in Nonviruliferous and Viruliferous Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxiao; Li, Hui; Pan, Huipeng; Ma, Yabin; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Zheng, Changying; Chu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for measuring and evaluating gene expression during variable biological processes. To facilitate gene expression studies, normalization of genes of interest relative to stable reference genes is crucial. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), the main vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a destructive invasive species. In this study, the expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes from nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis were investigated. Five distinct algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder, were used to determine the performance of these genes. geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), elongation factor 1 α, and ribosomal protein l32 (RPL32) as the most stable reference genes, and the ΔCt method identified HSP60, HSP70, RPL32, and heat shock protein 90 as the most stable reference genes. Additionally, two reference genes were sufficient for reliable normalization in nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis. This work provides a foundation for investigating the molecular mechanisms of TSWV and F. occidentalis interactions. PMID:26244556

  6. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. PMID:26149473

  7. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  8. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  9. Primordial enemies: fungal pathogens in thrips societies.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christine; Wilson, Peter D; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Smith, Shannon; Beattie, Doug; Hussey, Sam; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Microbial pathogens are ancient selective agents that have driven many aspects of multicellular evolution, including genetic, behavioural, chemical and immune defence systems. It appears that fungi specialised to attack insects were already present in the environments in which social insects first evolved and we hypothesise that if the early stages of social evolution required antifungal defences, then covariance between levels of sociality and antifungal defences might be evident in extant lineages, the defences becoming stronger with group size and increasing social organisation. Thus, we compared the activity of cuticular antifungal compounds in thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) representing a gradient of increasing group size and sociality: solitary, communal, social and eusocial, against the entomopathogen Cordyceps bassiana. Solitary and communal species showed little or no activity. In contrast, the social and eusocial species killed this fungus, suggesting that the evolution of sociality has been accompanied by sharp increases in the effectiveness of antifungal compounds. The antiquity of fungal entomopathogens, demonstrated by fossil finds, coupled with the unequivocal response of thrips colonies to them shown here, suggests two new insights into the evolution of thrips sociality: First, traits that enabled nascent colonies to defend themselves against microbial pathogens should be added to those considered essential for social evolution. Second, limits to the strength of antimicrobials, through resource constraints or self-antibiosis, may have been overcome by increase in the numbers of individuals secreting them, thus driving increases in colony size. If this is the case for social thrips, then we may ask: did antimicrobial traits and microbes such as fungal entomopathogens play an integral part in the evolution of insect sociality in general? PMID:23185420

  10. Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST = 0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325

  11. Dynamics of the Leaf-Litter Arthropod Fauna Following Fire in a Neotropical Woodland Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Pacheco, Renata; Silva, Raphael C.; Vasconcelos, Pedro B.; Lopes, Cauê T.; Costa, Alan N.; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of

  12. Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms “construct niches,” favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within “domiciles” made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70–80%) or low (8–10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile’s role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at “high” humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from “deferred byproduct mutualism,” that is, backup parental care in case of mortality. PMID:25419084

  13. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  14. Neither insects nor wind: ambophily in dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Rios, L D; Fuchs, E J; Hodel, D R; Cascante-Marín, A

    2014-07-01

    Pollination of Neotropical dioecious trees is commonly related to generalist insects. Similar data for non-tree species with separated genders are inconclusive. Recent studies on pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae) suggest that species are either insect- or wind-pollinated. However, the wide variety of inflorescence and floral attributes within the genus suggests mixed pollination mode involving entomophily and anemophily. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied the pollination of Chamaedorea costaricana, C. macrospadix, C. pinnatifrons and C. tepejilote in two montane forests in Costa Rica. A complementary morphological analysis of floral traits was carried out to distinguish species groups within the genus according to their most probable pollination mechanism. We conducted pollinator exclusion experiments, field observations on visitors to pistillate and staminate inflorescences, and trapped airborne pollen. A cluster analysis using 18 floral traits selected for their association with wind and insect pollination syndromes was carried out using 52 Chamaedorea species. Exclusion experiments showed that both wind and insects, mostly thrips (Thysanoptera), pollinated the studied species. Thrips used staminate inflorescences as brood sites and pollinated pistillate flowers by deception. Insects caught on pistillate inflorescences transported pollen, while traps proved that pollen is wind-borne. Our empirical findings clearly suggest that pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms is likely to involve both insects and wind. A cluster analysis showed that the majority of studied species have a combination of floral traits that allow for both pollination modes. Our pollination experiments and morphological analysis both suggest that while some species may be completely entomophilous or anemophilous, ambophily might be a common condition within Chamaedorea. Our results propose a higher diversity of pollination mechanisms of Neotropical dioecious

  15. Insect Herbivores Associated With Ludwigia Species, Oligospermum Section, in Their Argentine Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Cristina; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The South American water primroses, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet, L. grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven, and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae, Section Oligospermum), have become invasive in several watersheds of the United States and Europe. Surveys were carried out in center-east of Argentina to find insect species that might serve as biological control agents for L. g. subsp. hexapetala in California and elsewhere. Stems (0.5–0.6 m) of Ludwigia species, Sect. Oligospermum, were collected in 41 sites and analyzed in the laboratory; immature insects were reared to adults. The plant species found in the area were L. grandiflora (2 sites), L. g. subsp. hexapetala (33 sites), and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (4 sites). There was a variety of insect guilds feeding on L. g. subsp. hexapetala, including six species with stem-borer larvae, one species with fruit-feeding larvae, four species with defoliating larvae, two species with defoliating larvae on young leaves and axil meristems, one species of cell content feeder, and three species of sap feeders. Nine of these species also have defoliating adults. Biological information on most of them is provided. Of these insect herbivores, only two species were also found on L. grandiflora, and one on L. peploides. Several of the species found on L. g. hexapetala, such as the cell-content feeder Liothrips ludwigi (Thysanoptera), the stem-borers Merocnemus binotatus (Boheman) and Tyloderma spp. (Coleoptera), are promising candidates for biocontrol agents. PMID:25502037

  16. Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  17. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  18. Dynamics of the leaf-litter arthropod fauna following fire in a neotropical woodland savanna.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Pacheco, Renata; Silva, Raphael C; Vasconcelos, Pedro B; Lopes, Cauê T; Costa, Alan N; Bruna, Emilio M

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of

  19. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  20. Insecticidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, H; Vincent, C; Bostanian, N J

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorium (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Side effects on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) also were determined. With green peach aphid, UDA-245 at 0.5% concentration was significantly more effective than the control (water) treatment in a laboratory bioassay and significantly more effective than neem oil and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap in a greenhouse assay. With the western flower thrips, UDA-245 at 0.5% was significantly more effective than neem oil, insecticidal soap and the control treatment in a laboratory bioassay, whereas in a greenhouse assay, UDA-245 at 1.0% was the only treatment that maintained control of the western flower thrips 2 wk after the last treatment period. UDA-245 at 0.5% (laboratory bioassay) was significantly more effective in managing greenhouse whitefly than neem oil, endosulfan, and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap. Insecticidal soap proved to be toxic to the parasitoid E. formosa (71.9% mortality), whereas UDA-245 at 0.5% was not significantly more toxic than the control (11.2 and 4.6% mortality, respectively). Our results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management (IPM) program using a botanical such as UDA-245 could effectively control infestations of major pests present while having a negligible effect on biological control agents. PMID:15384351

  1. Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of Proprioseiopsis asetus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on asparagus thrips, Thrips tabaci.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian Hua; Freed, Shoaib; Wang, Li Si; Qin, Wen Jing; Chen, Hong Fan; Qin, Hou Guo

    2014-10-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most important pests of asparagus in China. In this study the effects of five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) on the growth, survivorship and reproduction of Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed on T. tabaci was examined under laboratory conditions. Development time of immatures decreased with increasing temperature. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold (T 0) and thermal constant (K) of P. asetus were estimated at 15.2 °C and 75.8 degree days by means of a linear model. Fertilized females fed on T. tabaci produced offspring of both sexes, whereas the offspring sex ratio [♀/(♀ + ♂)] of P. asetus at 20-35 °C was female-biased (0.68-0.78) and not significantly influenced by temperature. Survivorship during immature development was significantly influenced by temperature, and was especially low at 15 °C. Pre- and post-oviposition periods of fertilized females shortened with the increase in temperature. The longest oviposition period was 20.4 days, at 25 °C, whereas at 15 °C the mites did not reproduce. Maximum average life time fecundity and mean daily fecundity was recorded at 25 and 35 °C, respectively; the intrinsic rate of increase ranged from 0.05 (20 °C) to 0.17 (35 °C). The results indicate the capability of P. asetus to develop and reproduce at a broad range of temperatures, especially above 25 °C, which can be used for better management of T. tabaci in asparagus. PMID:24797293

  2. Thrips Settling, Oviposition and IYSV Distribution on Onion Foliage.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Anitha; Riley, David; Nischwitz, Claudia; Gitaitis, Ron; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-06-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) adult and larval settling and oviposition on onion (Allium cepa L.) foliage were investigated in relation to leaf position and leaf length at prebulb plant growth stages under controlled conditions. In the laboratory, four and six adult females of T. tabaci were released on onion plants at three-leaf stage and six- to eight-leaf stage, respectively, and thrips egg, nymph, and adult count data were collected on each of the three inner most leaves at every 2-cm leaf segment. Thrips settling and oviposition parameters were quantified during the light period on the above ground portion of onion plants from the distal end of the bulb or leaf sheath "neck" through the tips of the foliage. Results from studies confirmed that distribution of thrips adults, nymphs, and eggs were skewed toward the base of the plant. The settling distributions of thrips adults and nymphs differed slightly from the egg distribution in that oviposition occurred all the way to the tip of the leaf while adults and nymphs were typically not observed near the tip. In a field study, the foliage was divided into three equal partitions, i.e., top, middle, basal thirds, and thrips adults by species, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and T. tabaci, were collected from each partition to determine if there was a similar bias of all adult thrips toward the base of the plant. The results suggested that adults of different species appear to segregate along leaf length. Finally, thrips oviposition on 2-cm segments and Iris yellow spot virus positive leaf segments were quantified in the field, irrespective of thrips species. Both variables demonstrated a very similar pattern of bias toward the base of the plant and were significantly correlated. PMID:26470242

  3. Variation within and between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R.; Funderburk, Joseph E.; Olson, Steve M.

    2011-01-01

    Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

  4. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  5. Artificial and factitious foods support the development and reproduction of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Tung; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Clercq, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), decapsulated dry cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Anostraca: Artemiidae), and on meridic artificial diets (composed of honey, sucrose, tryptone, yeast extract, and egg yolk) supplemented with pupal hemolymph of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (AD1), with E. kuehniella eggs (AD2) or with A. franciscana cysts (AD3). Development, reproduction and predation capacity of the predatory mites were assessed in the first (G1) and sixth generation (G6) of rearing on the different diets. Immature survival rates in G1 were similar on all diets (96.8-100 %). After six generations, however, survival of A. swirskii was significantly reduced on all diets except on A. franciscana cysts. Oviposition rates did not differ between generations when females were fed on E. kuehniella, AD2 or AD3. The total number of deposited eggs was similar among diets except in G6 where the females fed on A. franciscana cysts produced more eggs than those maintained on E. kuehniella eggs. On most diets the intrinsic rates of increase in G1 were superior to those in G6, except for predators supplied with A. franciscana cysts where no differences were observed among generations. Female mites did not lose their capacity to kill first instar Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) after six generations on the different diets, but predation rates in G6 on E. kuehniella were lower than in G1. In conclusion, the different factitious and artificial diets tested in the present study supported the development and reproduction of A. swirskii for a single generation but fitness losses occurred to a varying degree after several generations on E. kuehniella eggs or the artificial diets. Artificial diet enriched with A. franciscana cysts yielded better results

  6. Spinosad toxicity to pollinators and associated risk.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Monte A; Thompson, Gary D; Husband, Brian; Miles, Mark M

    2003-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide derived from an actinomycete bacterium species, Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Mertz and Yao 1990), that displays the efficacy of a synthetic insecticide. It consists of the two most active metabolites, designated spinosyn A and D. Both spinosyns are readily degraded in moist aerobic soil, and field dissipation, which is quite rapid (half-life, 0.3-0.5 d) can be attributed to photolysis or a combination of metabolism and photolysis. Spinosad causes neurological effects in insects that are consistent with the general activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but by a mechanism that is novel among known insecticide compounds. Spinosad has a high level of efficacy for lepidopteran larvae, as well as some Diptera, Coleoptera, Thysanoptera, and Hymenoptera, but has limited to no activity to other insects and exhibits low toxicity to mammals and other wildlife. Although spinosad has low toxicity to most beneficial insects, initial acute laboratory tests indicated that spinosad is intrinsically toxic to pollinators. The hazard of spinosad to bees was evaluated using a tiered approach. Initial acute laboratory exposures were conducted, followed by toxicity of residues of spinosad on treated foliage, greenhouse studies to assess acute as well as chronic toxicity, confined field assessments, and finally full field studies using a variety of crops under typical use conditions. These data were used to assess the potential of adverse effects on foraging bees following the use of spinosad. This research has clearly demonstrated that spinosad residues that have been allowed to dry for 3 hr are not acutely harmful to honeybees when low-volume and ultralow-volume sprays are used. Further, glasshouse and semifield studies have demonstrated that dried residues are not acutely toxic, and although pollen and nectar from sprayed plants may have transient effects on brood development, the residues do not overtly affect hive viability of either the

  7. Interactions of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in genetically engineered cotton with predatory heteropterans.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jorge B; Ruberson, John R

    2008-06-01

    A number of cotton varieties have been genetically transformed with genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to continuously produce Bt endotoxins, offering whole plant and season-long protection against many lepidopteran larvae. Constant whole-plant toxin expression creates a significant opportunity for non-target herbivores to acquire and bio-accumulate the toxin for higher trophic levels. In the present study we investigated movement of Cry1Ac toxin from the transgenic cotton plant through specific predator-prey pairings, using omnivorous predators with common cotton pests as prey: (1) the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with the predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae); (2) the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae), with the predatory big-eyed bug Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Geocoridae) and (3) with the predatory damsel bug Nabis roseipennis (Heteropera: Nabidae); and (4) the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with the predatory pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). We quantified Cry1Ac toxin in the cotton plants, and in the pests and predators, and the effects of continuous feeding on S. exigua larvae fed either Bt or non-Bt cotton on life history traits of P. maculiventris. All three herbivores were able to convey Cry1Ac toxin to their respective predators. Among the herbivores, T. urticae exhibited 16.8 times more toxin in their bodies than that expressed in Bt-cotton plant, followed by S. exigua (1.05 times), and F. occidentalis immatures and adults (0.63 and 0.73 times, respectively). Of the toxin in the respective herbivorous prey, 4, 40, 17 and 14% of that amount was measured in the predators G. punctipes, P. maculiventris, O. insidiosus, and N. roseipennis, respectively. The predator P. maculiventris exhibited similar life history characteristics (developmental time, survival, longevity, and fecundity) regardless of the prey's food

  8. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 108, 7.0 × 105, and 9.9 × 105 CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94–99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84–93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81–94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62–66%, and different horticultural oils by 58–85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

  9. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

  10. Railway infrastructure monitoring with COSMO/SkyMed imagery and multi-temporal SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Bovenga, F.; Guerriero, L.

    2012-12-01

    stripmap images (pol.: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-03; resolution: 3x3 m2) have been acquired from October 2009 to April 2012, covering the Calabria's Tyrrhenian coast, between the towns of Palmi and Reggio Calabria. The imaged area is of strategic importance since the two towns are connected by a stretch of the Tyrrhenian railway line, a fundamental line (as classified by RFI, the Italian Rail Network) belonging to the TEN-T network, i.e. the trans-european transport network defined since early '90 by the European Commission. Moreover, Calabria region is a challenging area where carrying on an analysis on weathering-related slope movements . In Calabria, on 2009the geo-hydrological crisis was so severe that the Italian Government had to declare the "state of emergency ". This paper concerns the processing of the CSK dataset performed through the SPINUA algorithm a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique originally developed with the aim of detection and monitoring of coherent targets in non- or scarcely urbanized areas. The displacement maps derived on the area of interest will be presented and commented with particular attention to the potential impact that such EO-based product can have on the railway networks monitoring. Acknowledgments CSK data provided by ASI in the framework of the project CAR-SLIDE, funded by MIUR (PON01_00536)

  11. Have the northwest Negev dunefield sands reddened since their deposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan G.; Porat, Naomi; Rozensten, Ofer

    2010-05-01

    older sand source but not to reddening in situ with time. Remotely sensed RI calculated from Landsat TM 5 (30 m pixel) RGB bands of bare Sinai sands also portrays the spatial RI difference between the central and southern sands. To summarize, we find no direct connection between dune sand deposition age and sand grain coating redness in the Negev dunes. It seems that stable aeolian sand and dune sections in the Negev have not reddened since their deposition. Sand grain coating redness was probably inherited during an earlier diagenetic stage in an environment different than today's. References Ben-Dor, E., Levin, N., Singer, A., Karnieli, A., Braun, O. & Kidron, G.J., 2006. Quantitative mapping of the soil rubification process on sand dunes using an airborne hyperspectral sensor. Geoderma, 131:1-21. Tsoar, H., Wenkart, R. & Blumberg, D.G., 2008. Formation and geomorphology of the north-western Negev sand dunes. In (Breckle, S.W., Yair, A.& Veste, M.) eds., Arid dunes ecosystems: The Nizzana sands in the Negev Desert. Springer pub. 475 pp.

  12. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    The anareolate New World subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 is reviewed and keys to the six tribes currently included are presented; these are: Cladomorphini Bradley & Galil, 1977, Cladoxerini Karny, 1923, Cranidiini Günther, 1953, Pterinoxylini n. trib., Hesperophasmatini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and Haplopodini Günther, 1953 rev. stat.. New diagnoses are presented for all these tribes and possible relationships within Cladomorphinae are discusssed. Morphology of the genitalia and egg-structures indicate Cladomorphinae as presently treated to be polyphyletic. Two subordinate groups are recognized within present Cladomorphinae, which differ considerably in numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs. The first group and here regarded as Cladomorphinae sensu stricto is formed by the mostly South American Cladomorphini + Cranidiini + Cladoxerini, while the second group is formed by the predominantly Caribbean Hesperophasmatini + Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Haplopodini.        Members of the first group (= Cladomorphini sensu stricto) share the dorsally carinate basitarsus in which the two dorsal carinae are melted with another, increasingly elongated gonapophyses VIII of females which are noticeably longer than gonapophyses IX and lamellate as well as strongly displaced medioventral carina of the profemora. Cranidiini + Cladomorphini share the strongly elongated and filiform gonapophyses VIII and presence of gonoplacs in the females, specialized poculum of males and presence of a median line in the eggs. Cranidiini differs from all other tribes of Cladomorphinae by the entirely unarmed legs of both sexes, distinctly broadened and leaf-like body and prominent longitudinal keel of the mesosternum of females, prominently enlarged poculum and spinulose phallus of males as well as the conspicuous narrowing of the posteromedian gap of the internal micropylar plate of the eggs and noticeably separated median line. Cladomorphini is characteristic

  13. Hyperspectral sensors and the conservation of monumental buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Chiarantini, Leandro; Costagliola, Pilar; Moretti, Sandro; Paba, Francesca; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    -FieldSpec FP Pro spectroradiometer), which continuously acquires punctual reflectance spectra in the range 350-2500 nm, both in natural light conditions and by a contact probe (fixed geometry of shot). This instrument is used on field for the identification of different materials, as well as for the definition of maps (e.g geological maps) if coupled with other hyperspectral instruments. 2) Hyperspectral sensor SIM-GA (Selex Galileo Multisensor Hyperspectral System), a system with spatial acquisition of data which may be used on an earth as well as on an airborne platform. SIM-GA consists of two electro-optical heads, which operate in the VNIR and SWIR regions, respectively, between 400-1000 nm and 1000-2500 nm (3). Although the spectral signature in the VNIR of many minerals is known, the co-presence of more minerals on a surface can affect the quantitative analysis of gypsum. Different minerals, such as gypsum, calcite, weddellite, whewellite, and other components (i.e. carbon particles in black crusts) are, in fact, commonly found on historical surfaces. In order to illustrate the complexity, but also the potentiality of hyperspectral sensors (portable or remote sensing) for the characterization of stone surfaces, a case study, the Facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence - Italy, will be presented. References 1) R.N. Clark and G.A. Swayze, 1995, "Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice, and snow, and other materials: The USGS Tricorder Algorithm", in "Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop", JPL Publication 95-1,1,39-40 2) E. Ben-Dor, K. Patin, A. Banin and A. Karnieli, 2002, "Mapping of several soil properties using DATS-7915 hyperspectral scanner data. A case study over clayely soils in Israel", International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(6), 1043-1062 3) S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of

  14. Hyperspectral sensors and the conservation of monumental buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camaiti, Mara; Benvenuti, Marco; Chiarantini, Leandro; Costagliola, Pilar; Moretti, Sandro; Paba, Francesca; Pecchioni, Elena; Vettori, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    -FieldSpec FP Pro spectroradiometer), which continuously acquires punctual reflectance spectra in the range 350-2500 nm, both in natural light conditions and by a contact probe (fixed geometry of shot). This instrument is used on field for the identification of different materials, as well as for the definition of maps (e.g geological maps) if coupled with other hyperspectral instruments. 2) Hyperspectral sensor SIM-GA (Selex Galileo Multisensor Hyperspectral System), a system with spatial acquisition of data which may be used on an earth as well as on an airborne platform. SIM-GA consists of two electro-optical heads, which operate in the VNIR and SWIR regions, respectively, between 400-1000 nm and 1000-2500 nm (3). Although the spectral signature in the VNIR of many minerals is known, the co-presence of more minerals on a surface can affect the quantitative analysis of gypsum. Different minerals, such as gypsum, calcite, weddellite, whewellite, and other components (i.e. carbon particles in black crusts) are, in fact, commonly found on historical surfaces. In order to illustrate the complexity, but also the potentiality of hyperspectral sensors (portable or remote sensing) for the characterization of stone surfaces, a case study, the Facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence - Italy, will be presented. References 1) R.N. Clark and G.A. Swayze, 1995, "Mapping minerals, amorphous materials, environmental materials, vegetation, water, ice, and snow, and other materials: The USGS Tricorder Algorithm", in "Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop", JPL Publication 95-1,1,39-40 2) E. Ben-Dor, K. Patin, A. Banin and A. Karnieli, 2002, "Mapping of several soil properties using DATS-7915 hyperspectral scanner data. A case study over clayely soils in Israel", International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(6), 1043-1062 3) S. Vettori, M. Benvenuti, M. Camaiti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, S. Moretti, E. Pecchioni, 2008, "Assessment of the deterioration status of

  15. The Strepsiptera problem: phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M F; Carpenter, J C; Wheeler, Q D; Wheeler, W C

    1997-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the holometabolous insect orders were inferred from cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (85 exemplars) and 28S rDNA (52 exemplars) and morphological characters. Exemplar outgroup taxa were Collembola (1 sequence), Archaeognatha (1), Ephemerida (1), Odonata (2), Plecoptera (2), Blattodea (1), Mantodea (1), Dermaptera (1), Orthoptera (1), Phasmatodea (1), Embioptera (1), Psocoptera (1), Phthiraptera (1), Hemiptera (4), and Thysanoptera (1). Exemplar ingroup taxa were Coleoptera: Archostemata (1), Adephaga (2), and Polyphaga (7); Megaloptera (1); Raphidioptera (1); Neuroptera (sensu stricto = Planipennia): Mantispoidea (2), Hemerobioidea (2), and Myrmeleontoidea (2); Hymenoptera: Symphyta (4) and Apocrita (19); Trichoptera: Hydropsychoidea (1) and Limnephiloidea (2); Lepidoptera: Ditrysia (3); Siphonaptera: Pulicoidea (1) and Ceratophylloidea (2); Mecoptera: Meropeidae (1), Boreidae (1), Panorpidae (1), and Bittacidae (2); Diptera: Nematocera (1), Brachycera (2), and Cyclorrhapha (1); and Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae (1), Myrmecolacidae (1), Elenchidae (1), and Stylopidae (3). We analyzed approximately 1 kilobase of 18S rDNA, starting 398 nucleotides downstream of the 5' end, and approximately 400 bp of 28S rDNA in expansion segment D3. Multiple alignment of the 18S and 28S sequences resulted in 1,116 nucleotide positions with 24 insert regions and 398 positions with 14 insert regions, respectively. All Strepsiptera and Neuroptera have large insert regions in 18S and 28S. The secondary structure of 18S insert 23 is composed of long stems that are GC rich in the basal Strepsiptera and AT rich in the more derived Strepsiptera. A matrix of 176 morphological characters was analyzed for holometabolous orders. Incongruence length difference tests indicate that the 28S + morphological data sets are incongruent but that 28S + 18S, 18S + morphology, and 28S + 18S + morphology fail to reject the hypothesis of