These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Differences in evaporation between a floating pan and class a pan on land  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research was conducted to develop a method for obtaining floating pan evaporation rates in a small (less than 10,000 m2) wetland, lagoon, or pond. Floating pan and land pan evaporation data were collected from March 1 to August 31, 2005, at a small natural wetland located in the alluvium of the Canadian River near Norman, Oklahoma, at the U.S. Geological Survey Norman Landfill Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site. Floating pan evaporation rates were compared with evaporation rates from a nearby standard Class A evaporation pan on land. Floating pan evaporation rates were significantly less than land pan evaporation rates for the entire period and on a monthly basis. Results indicated that the use of a floating evaporation pan in a small free-water surface better simulates actual physical conditions on the water surface that control evaporation. Floating pan to land pan ratios were 0.82 for March, 0.87 for April, 0.85 for May, 0.85 for June, 0.79 for July, and 0.69 for August. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Masoner, J. R.; Stannard, D. I.; Christenson, S. C.

2008-01-01

2

Pan Evaporation, Relative Humidity and Daily Minimum/Maximum Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will show students how to determine rate of evaporation and the atmospheric factors that can affect this rate. Laboratory equipment needed for this investigation includes: a digital balance or triple beam balance, metric ruler in millimeter graduations, level, 2 metal pans, barograph (or barometer), hydrograph (or hygrometer), thermograph (or thermometer), anemometer, rain gauges and quart jar. Teacher background information, assessment suggestions, and a scoring rubric are included. This is Activity 1, in the learning module, Water: Here, There and Everywhere, part of the lesson series, The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

3

Modeling monthly pan evaporations using fuzzy genetic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis study investigates the ability of fuzzy genetic (FG) approach in estimation of monthly pan evaporations. Various monthly climatic data, that are, solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey, were used as inputs to the FG technique so as to estimate monthly pan evaporations. In the first part of the study, FG models were compared with neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison of the models revealed that the FG models generally performed better than the ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models were compared to each other in two different applications. In the first application the input data of Antalya Station were used as inputs to the models to estimate pan evaporation data of Mersin Station. The pan evaporation data of Mersin Station were estimated using the input data of Antalya and Mersin stations in the second application. Comparison results indicated that the FG models performed better than the ANFIS and ANN models. Comparison of the accuracy of the applied models in estimating total pan evaporations showed that the FG model provided the closest estimate. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations could be successfully estimated by the FG approach.

Ki?i, Özgür; Tombul, Mustafa

2013-01-01

4

Evolutionary neural networks for monthly pan evaporation modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating pan evaporation is very important for monitoring, survey and management of water resources. This study proposes the application evolutionary neural networks (ENN) for modeling monthly pan evaporations. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation data from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey are used in the study. In the first part of the study, ENN models are compared with those of the fuzzy genetic (FG), neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison results indicate that the ENN models generally perform better than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models are compared with each other in estimating Mersin’s pan evaporations using input data of both stations. Results reveal that the ENN models performed better than the FG, ANFIS and ANN models. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the ENN method. The performance of the ENN model with full weather data as inputs presents 0.749 and 0.759 mm of mean absolute error for the Antalya and Mersin stations, respectively.

Ki?i, Özgür

2013-08-01

5

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify area-average evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in area-average evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and area-average evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on average, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.

Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.

2009-12-01

6

Monthly pan evaporation modeling using linear genetic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the accuracy of linear genetic programming (LGP), fuzzy genetic (FG), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in modeling pan evaporations. Monthly climatic data including solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation from Antalya and Mersin stations, in Turkey are used in the study. The study composed of two parts. First part of the study focuses the comparison of LGP models with those of the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. From the comparison results, the LGP models are found to be better than the other models. Comparison of LGP models with the other models in estimating pan evaporations of the Mersin Station by using both stations' inputs is focused in the second part of the study. The results indicate that the LGP models better accuracy than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. It is seen that the pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the LGP method.

Guven, Aytac; Kisi, Ozgur

2013-10-01

7

Application of thermal model for pan evaporation to the hydrology of a defined medium, the sponge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented which estimates pan evaporation from the commonly observed values of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. These two variables are transformed to saturation vapor pressure equivalents which are used in a simple linear regression model. The model provides reasonably accurate estimates of pan evaporation rates over a large geographic area. The derived evaporation algorithm is combined with precipitation to obtain a simple moisture variable. A hypothetical medium with a capacity of 8 inches of water is initialized at 4 inches. The medium behaves like a sponge: it absorbs all incident precipitation, with runoff or drainage occurring only after it is saturated. Water is lost from this simple system through evaporation just as from a Class A pan, but at a rate proportional to its degree of saturation. The contents of the sponge is a moisture index calculated from only the maximum and minium temperatures and precipitation.

Trenchard, M. H.; Artley, J. A. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

8

A spatial analysis of pan evaporation trends in China, 1955-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pan evaporation, an indicator of potential evaporation, has decreased during the last several decades in many parts of the world. This trend is contrary to the expectation that global warming will be accompanied by an increase in terrestrial evaporation, known as the pan evaporation paradox. In this paper we present an analysis of changes in the spatial patterns of pan

Binhui Liu; Ming Xu; Mark Henderson; Weiguang Gong

2004-01-01

9

Modeling pan evaporation for Kuwait by multiple linear regression.  

PubMed

Evaporation is an important parameter for many projects related to hydrology and water resources systems. This paper constitutes the first study conducted in Kuwait to obtain empirical relations for the estimation of daily and monthly pan evaporation as functions of available meteorological data of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The data used here for the modeling are daily measurements of substantial continuity coverage, within a period of 17 years between January 1993 and December 2009, which can be considered representative of the desert climate of the urban zone of the country. Multiple linear regression technique is used with a procedure of variable selection for fitting the best model forms. The correlations of evaporation with temperature and relative humidity are also transformed in order to linearize the existing curvilinear patterns of the data by using power and exponential functions, respectively. The evaporation models suggested with the best variable combinations were shown to produce results that are in a reasonable agreement with observation values. PMID:23226984

Almedeij, Jaber

2012-01-01

10

Modeling Pan Evaporation for Kuwait by Multiple Linear Regression  

PubMed Central

Evaporation is an important parameter for many projects related to hydrology and water resources systems. This paper constitutes the first study conducted in Kuwait to obtain empirical relations for the estimation of daily and monthly pan evaporation as functions of available meteorological data of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The data used here for the modeling are daily measurements of substantial continuity coverage, within a period of 17 years between January 1993 and December 2009, which can be considered representative of the desert climate of the urban zone of the country. Multiple linear regression technique is used with a procedure of variable selection for fitting the best model forms. The correlations of evaporation with temperature and relative humidity are also transformed in order to linearize the existing curvilinear patterns of the data by using power and exponential functions, respectively. The evaporation models suggested with the best variable combinations were shown to produce results that are in a reasonable agreement with observation values. PMID:23226984

Almedeij, Jaber

2012-01-01

11

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

Canpolat, Nurtac

2006-01-01

12

Assessment of alkaliphilic haloarchaeal diversity in Sua pan evaporator ponds in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation-dependent and molecular-based culture-independent methods were used to assess alkaliphilic haloarchaeal diversity at Sua pan evaporator ponds in Botswana. Isolates belonging to the genera Natrialba, Natronococcus and Natronorubrum were recovered from brine samples by enrichment and identified through a series of biochemical tests as well as sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments. In addition, an environmental 16S rRNA library was constructed

Ashant Pravin Gareeb; Mathabatha Evodia Setati

2009-01-01

13

Rate of Water Evaporation in Texas.  

E-print Network

6000-L180 EX AS AtiRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COU-NTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 484 NOVEMBER, 1933 Rate of Water Evaporation in Texas A( rURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON... with Texas Extension Service. bandman lsbandman 7: nt rist Losses of water through evaporation from reservoirs is an important consideration in the planning for an adequate supply for domestic, municipal, or irrigation purposes and the rate...

Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

1933-01-01

14

Evaporation Rate of Water in Hydrophobic Confinement  

E-print Network

The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 {\\AA} and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm^2) the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a ten order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 {\\AA}. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50kT, and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm^2) than by the smaller (1nm^2) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this is a direct consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning cylindrical vapor tube.

Sumit Sharma; Pablo G. Debenedetti

2011-11-16

15

Spatio-temporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration and pan evaporation in the West Songnen Plain of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETref) reflect the combined effects of meteorological variables, primarily wind speed, relative humidity, net radiation and air temperature. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal trends of ETref (calculated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation), pan evaporation (Epan) and pan coefficient (Kp) in a 140?×?10 km semi-humid to semi-arid area in China. The

Liqiao Liang; Lijuan Li; Qiang Liu

2011-01-01

16

Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime  

E-print Network

Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem.

Samuel L. Braunstein; Manas K. Patra

2011-02-11

17

Utility of coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system for pan evaporation modeling in comparison with multilayer perceptron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of pan evaporation ( E pan) using black-box models has received a great deal of attention in developing countries where measurements of E pan are spatially and temporally limited. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) models were used to predict daily E pan for a semi-arid region of Iran. Six MLP and CANFIS models comprising various combinations of daily meteorological parameters were developed. The performances of the models were tested using correlation coefficient ( r), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and percentage error of estimate (PE). It was found that the MLP6 model with the Momentum learning algorithm and the Tanh activation function, which requires all input parameters, presented the most accurate E pan predictions ( r = 0.97, RMSE = 0.81 mm day-1, MAE = 0.63 mm day-1 and PE = 0.58 %). The results also showed that the most accurate E pan predictions with a CANFIS model can be achieved with the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model and the Gaussian membership function. Overall performances revealed that the MLP method was better suited than CANFIS method for modeling the E pan process.

Tabari, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Abghari, Hirad

2012-05-01

18

Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

2004-01-01

19

Vapor-based interferometric measurement of local evaporation rate and interfacial temperature of evaporating droplets.  

PubMed

The local evaporation rate and interfacial temperature are two quintessential characteristics for the study of evaporating droplets. Here, it is shown how one can extract these quantities by measuring the vapor concentration field around the droplet with digital holographic interferometry. As a concrete example, an evaporating freely receding pending droplet of 3M Novec HFE-7000 is analyzed at ambient conditions. The measured vapor cloud is shown to deviate significantly from a pure-diffusion regime calculation, but it compares favorably to a new boundary-layer theory accounting for a buoyancy-induced convection in the gas and the influence upon it of a thermal Marangoni flow. By integration of the measured local evaporation rate over the interface, the global evaporation rate is obtained and validated by a side-view measurement of the droplet shape. Advective effects are found to boost the global evaporation rate by a factor of 4 as compared to the diffusion-limited theory. PMID:24506092

Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

2014-03-01

20

Instructions for measuring the rate of evaporation from water surfaces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ·rate of evaporation from water surfaces varies with the temperature of the water, the velocity of the wind at the water surface, and the dryness of the air. Consequently, the rate of evaporation from rivers, lakes, canals, or reservoirs varies widely in different localities and for the same locality in different seasons.

U.S. Geological Survey

1898-01-01

21

Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation methods to estimate pasture evapotranspiration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was measured at 30-min resolution over a 19-month period (September 28, 2000-April 23, 2002) from a nonirrigated pasture site in Florida, USA, using eddy correlation methods. The relative magnitude of measured ETa (about 66% of long-term annual precipitation at the study site) indicates the importance of accurate ET a estimates for water resources planning. The time and cost associated with direct measurements of ETa and the rarity of historical measurements of ETa make the use of methods relying on more easily obtainable data desirable. Several such methods (Penman-Monteith (PM), modified Priestley-Taylor (PT), reference evapotranspiration (ET 0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) were related to measured ETa using regression methods to estimate PM bulk surface conductance, PT ??, ET0 vegetation coefficient, and Ep pan coefficient. The PT method, where the PT ?? is a function of green-leaf area index (LAI) and solar radiation, provided the best relation with ET a (standard error (SE) for daily ETa of 0.11 mm). The PM method, in which the bulk surface conductance was a function of net radiation and vapor-pressure deficit, was slightly less effective (SE=0.15 mm) than the PT method. Vegetation coefficients for the ET0 method (SE=0.29 mm) were found to be a simple function of LAI. Pan coefficients for the Ep method (SE=0.40 mm) were found to be a function of LAI and Ep. Historical or future meteorological, LAI, and pan evaporation data from the study site could be used, along with the relations developed within this study, to provide estimates of ETa in the absence of direct measurements of ETa. Additionally, relations among PM, PT, and ET0 methods and ETa can provide estimates of ETa in other, environmentally similar, pasture settings for which meteorological and LAI data can be obtained or estimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sumner, D. M.; Jacobs, J. M.

2005-01-01

22

Evaporation rates of droplet arrays in turbulent reacting flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of regularly ordered droplet arrays facilitate the analysis of local effects on evaporation rates. This work investigates, using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), the effects of droplet density and flow conditions on evaporation of kerosene droplets in inert and reactive convective environments. A novel model, coupling a mass conservative Level Set approach with the Ghost Fluid method, is used. The

M. R. G. Zoby; S. Navarro-Martinez; A. Kronenburg; A. J. Marquis

2011-01-01

23

Trends in pan evaporation and reference and actual evapotranspiration across the Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tibetan Plateau is one of the areas of the world where humans have had a relatively minor impact. The plateau thus provides ideal conditions for investigating evapotranspiration (In this paper, evapotranspiration terms are defined as follows: (1) “Actual evapotranspiration” includes evaporation from water and soil and transpiration from the vegetation of a specific region; (2) “potential evapotranspiration” includes the

Yongqiang Zhang; Changming Liu; Yanhong Tang; Yonghui Yang

2007-01-01

24

Urban evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements.  

PubMed

In urban areas the natural water balance is disturbed. Infiltration and evaporation are reduced, resulting in a high surface runoff and a typical city climate, which can lead to floods and damages. Water-permeable pavements have a high infiltration rate that reduces surface runoff by increasing the groundwater recharge. The high water retention capacity of the street body of up to 51 l/m(2) and its connection via pores to the surface lead to higher evaporation rates than impermeable surfaces. A comparison of these two kinds of pavements shows a 16% increase in evaporation levels of water-permeable pavements. Furthermore, the evaporation from impermeable pavements is linked directly to rain events due to fast-drying surfaces. Water-permeable pavements show a more evenly distributed evaporation after a rain event. Cooling effects by evaporative heat loss can improve the city climate even several days after rain events. On a large scale use, uncomfortable weather like sultriness or dry heat can be prevented and the urban water balance can be attenuated towards the natural. PMID:20818060

Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

2010-01-01

25

Ultra-high cooling rate utilizing thin film evaporation  

PubMed Central

This research introduces a cell cryopreservation method, which utilizes thin film evaporation and provides an ultra-high cooling rate. The microstructured surface forming the thin film evaporation was fabricated from copper microparticles with an average diameter of 50??m. Experimental results showed that a cooling rate of approximately 5×104?°C/min was achieved in a temperature range from 10?°C to ?187?°C. The current investigation will give birth to a cell cryopreservation method through vitrification with relatively low concentrations of cryoprotectants. PMID:23093807

Su, Fengmin; Ma, Hongbin; Han, Xu; Chen, Hsiu-hung; Tian, Bohan

2012-01-01

26

Characterization of the LGFSTF wind tunnel in preparation for the DOE/EPA hazardous chemical evaporation rate experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy are conducting chemical evaporation rate experiments in the DOE`s Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) wind tunnel to determine the effect on evaporation rate of pool temperature and wind speed. Evaporation rates measured in these tests will be used to verify mathematical models used to define the source (gas) rate inputs to dispersion models. In preparation for the experiments the LGFSTF tunnel has been modified to provide for the simulation of an atmospheric boundary layer flow on the tunnel floor. This report describes work performed by the DOE Modeling Support Center at the University of Arkansas to define (characterize) the turbulence properties in the boundary layer of the (modified) wind tunnel test section. Hot wire anemometry measurements were made to characterize the boundary layer flow over the evaporation test pan. Mean velocity and turbulence statistics were measured along a verticle line (extending from 0.5 cm to 60 cm above the tunnel floor) located on the tunnel centerline immediately upwind of the evaporation pan. The x-direction mean velocity data were analyzed to estimate the applicable values of the surface roughness and friction velocity for four tunnel (variable frequency controller) speed settings: 15 Hz, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, and 60 Hz.

Havens, J.; Walker, H.; Spicer, T.

1995-03-01

27

A simple, time-dependent formula for estimating evaporation rates in Texas  

E-print Network

pan evaporation, EP, for Whitney Dam, Texas . 33 Scatter diagram of the monthly mean of the daily maximum ambient air temperature, T, versus the total monthly pan evaporation, EP, for Ysleta, Texas. 35 10. The mean annual value of daily wind...), and the independent varIable, ambient air temperature (T, ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The mean monthly probability of dry atmos- phere conditions (precipitable water & 1. 00 in) over San Antonio, Texas, after Haker $1969) . 41 44 47 15. The irtercept...

Trenchard, Michael Howard

2012-06-07

28

Evaporation of forsterite in the primordial solar nebula; rates and accompanied isotopic fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation rates of forsterite in the primordial solar nebula were modeled. There are 3 evaporation regimes expected: 1. free evaporation-dominated (FED) regime, where forsterite evaporates as free evaporation, 2. hydrogen reaction-dominated (HRD) regime, where the evaporation is affected by H2 gas, and 3. H2O\\/H2 buffer-dominated (HBD) regime, where the evaporation is controlled by redox states buffered by the H2O\\/H2 ratio

Akira Tsuchiyama; Shogo Tachibana; Toshio Takahashi

1999-01-01

29

Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the water cycle. It shows water evaporating from a large body of water with a descriptive text describing the water cycle process including evaporation, condensation and precipitation. An additional diagram on transport is included.

30

Calculation of Reactive-evaporation Rates of Chromia  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is developed to calculate Cr-evaporation rates from Cr2O3 with a flat planar geometry. Variables include temperature, total pressure, gas velocity, and gas composition. The methodology was applied to solid-oxide, fuel cell conditions for metallic interconnects and to advanced-steam turbines conditions. The high velocities and pressures of the advanced steam turbine led to evaporation predictions as high as 5.18 9 10-8 kg/m2/s of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760 °C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.080 mm per year of solid Cr loss. Chromium evaporation is expected to be an important oxidation mechanism with the types of nickel-base alloys proposed for use above 650 °C in advanced-steam boilers and turbines. It is shown that laboratory experiments, with much lower steam velocities and usually much lower total pressure than found in advanced steam turbines, would best reproduce chromium-evaporation behavior with atmospheres that approach either O2 + H2O or air + H2O with 57% H2O.

Holcomb, G.R.

2008-04-01

31

Studying biofuel aerosol evaporation rates with single particle manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significant increase in the air pollution, and the impact on climate change due to the burning of fossil fuel has led to the research of alternative energies. Bio-ethanol obtained from a variety of feedstocks can provide a feasible solution. Mixing bio-ethanol with gasoline leads to a reduction in CO emission and in NOx emissions compared with the use of gasoline alone. However, adding ethanol leads to a change in the fuel evaporation. Here we present a preliminary investigation of evaporation times of single ethanol-gasoline droplets. In particular, we investigated the different evaporation rate of the droplets depending on the variation in the percentage of ethanol inside them. Two different techniques have been used to trap the droplets. One makes use of a 532nm optical tweezers set up, the other of an electrodynamics balance (EDB). The droplets decreasing size was measured using video analysis and elastic light scattering respectively. In the first case measurements were conducted at 293.15 K and ambient humidity. In the second case at 280.5 K and a controlled environment has been preserved by flowing nitrogen into the chamber. Binary phase droplets with a higher percentage of ethanol resulted in longer droplet lifetimes. Our work also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each technique for such studies. In particular it is challenging to trap droplets with low ethanol content (such as pure gasoline) by the use of EDB. Conversely such droplets are trivial to trap using optical tweezers.

Corsetti, S.; Miles, R. E. H.; Reid, J. P.; Kiefer, J.; McGloin, D.

2014-09-01

32

Black Hole Evaporation Rates without Spacetime Samuel L. Braunstein and Manas K. Patra  

E-print Network

Black Hole Evaporation Rates without Spacetime Samuel L. Braunstein and Manas K. Patra Computer tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes

Braunstein, Samuel L.

33

On the remote measurement of evaporation rates from bare wet soil under variable cloud cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporation rates from a natural wet soil surface are calculated from an energy balance equation at 0.1-hour intervals. A procedure is developed for calculating the heat flux through the soil surface from a harmonic analysis of the surface temperature curve. The evaporation integrated over an entire 24-hour period is compared with daily evaporation rates obtained from published models.

Auer, S.

1976-01-01

34

A Mass Function Constraint on Extrasolar Giant Planet Evaporation Rates  

E-print Network

The observed mass function for all known extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) varies approximately as M^{-1} for mass M between 0.2 Jupiter masses (M_J) and 5 M_J. In order to study evaporation effects for highly-irradiated EGPs in this mass range, we have constructed an observational mass function for a subset of EGPs in the same mass range but with orbital radii mass function for such highly-irradiated EGPs agrees quantitatively with the M^{-1} law, implying that the mass function for EGPs is preserved despite migration to small orbital radii. Unless there is a remarkable compensation of mass-dependent orbital migration for mass-dependent evaporation, this result places a constraint on orbital migration models and rules out the most extreme mass loss rates in the literature. A theory that predicts more moderate mass loss gives a mass function that is closer to observed statistics but still disagrees for M < 1 M_J.

W. B Hubbard; M. Hattori; A. Burrows; I. Hubeny

2007-02-09

35

Re: Fw: Evaporation rates Victor F Labson a Marcja K McNutt  

E-print Network

History: Marcia, Re: Fw: Evaporation rates t Victor F Labson a Marcja K McNutt This message has% evaporation, 10% dissolution in their reporting, compared to our undifferentiated 38-40%. We were both comforted by the fact that we were consistent. I will adapt our description to read evaporation

Fleskes, Joe

36

Evaporation Correction Methods for Microwave Retrievals of Surface Precipitation Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active and passive microwave remote sensing esti- mates of surface precipitation based on signals from hydrometeors aloft require correction for evaporated precipitation that would otherwise reach the ground. This paper develops and compares two near-surface evaporation correction methods using two years of data from 509 globally distributed rain gauges and three passive millimeter-wave Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSUs) aboard National

Chinnawat Surussavadee; David H. Staelin

2011-01-01

37

Surface wetness limit high evaporation rates from porous media into convective air flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation rate from a porous media reflect a balance between energy input and mass transfer to adjacent air (atmospheric demand) and internal transport mechanisms. For moderate atmospheric demand (<6 mm/day) a constant evaporation rate period is observed (termed stage-1) in which the evaporative flux is supplied by capillary flow from the receding drying front to the surface. Interestingly, increasing atmospheric demand (e.g., higher convective air stream) results in a gradual decrease in evaporation rate during stage-1. Hence, for similar surface water contents the relative evaporation rate decreases under high atmospheric demand. We extended the formulation of Suzuki and Maeda [1968] from static diffusion-convection at the surface adding links with internal transport mechanisms to account for gradual surface drying. Experiments in wind tunnel support the transition in surface wetness to simultaneously accommodate the atmospheric demand with porous media supply rates. The resulting balance is reflected by evaporation rate lower than potential rate over free water surface and different dynamic equilibrium states are reversible as confirmed experimentally. We conducted high resolution Infrared imaging (IR) to identify the structure and persistence of evaporative sites that support the equilibrium evaporation rate. The results are potentially useful for modern numerical models that couple surface and atmospheric flows at small scales, and could be useful for devising efficient drying strategies in industrial applications.

Shahraeeni, E.; Or, D.

2010-12-01

38

Physically modeling operative temperatures and evaporation rates in amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

(1) We designed a physical model that simulates the thermal and evaporative properties of live Western toads (Bufo boreas). (2) In controlled tests, the model tracked the body temperature of live toads with an average error of 0.3??0.03??C (test range=4-30??C). (3) It estimated the evaporative water loss of live toads with an average error of 0.35-0.65 g/h, or about 14% (test range=0.7-9 g/h). (4) Data collected with this physical model should provide an effective way for biologists to better understand habitat selection in toads and other amphibians. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bartelt, P. E.; Peterson, C. R.

2005-01-01

39

Absolute evaporation rates of non-rotating neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as candidates for evaporating very small grains, which are thought to be precursors of free-flying PAHs. Evaporation rates have been calculated so far only for species containing up to a few 100-C atoms, whereas interstellar PAH clusters could contain up to ~1000 C atoms. Aims: We present a method that generalises the calculation of the statistical evaporation rate of large PAH clusters and provides rates for species containing up to ~1000 C-atoms. Methods: The evaporation of non-rotating neutral homo-molecular PAH clusters containing up to 12 molecules from a family of highly symmetric compact PAHs is studied. Statistical calculations were performed and completed with molecular dynamics simulations at high internal energies to provide absolute values for the evaporation rate and distributions of kinetic energy released. The calculations used explicit atom-atom Lennard-Jones potentials in the rigid molecule approximation. A new method is proposed to take both inter- and intra-molecular vibrations into account. Results: Without any parameter adjustment, the calculated evaporation rates agree well with available experimental data. We find that the non-rotation assumption has a limited impact on the evaporation rates. The photostability of PAH clusters increases dramatically with the size of molecules in the clusters, and to a lesser extent with the number of molecules in the clusters. For values of the UV radiation field that are typical of the regions where evaporating very small grains are observed, the smallest clusters in this study (~50 C-atoms) are found to be quickly photo-evaporated, whereas the largest clusters (~1000 C-atoms) are photostable. Conclusions: Our results support the idea that large PAH clusters are good candidates for evaporating very small grains.

Montillaud, J.; Joblin, C.

2014-07-01

40

Open fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) flat plate collector (FPC) and spray network systems for augmenting the evaporation rate of tannery effluent (soak liquor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, tanneries in Tamilnadu, India are required to segregate the effluent of soaking and pickling sections from other wastewater streams and send it to shallow solar pans for evaporation to avoid land pollution. A large area of solar pans is required for evaporating the water in the effluent at salt concentration in the range of 4–5%. An experimental study has

K. Srithar; A. Mani

2007-01-01

41

Witnessing Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The engineers at Splash Engineering (the students) have been commissioned by Thirsty County to conduct a study of evaporation and transpiration in their region. During one week, students observe and measure (by weight) the ongoing evaporation of water in pans set up with different variables, and then assess what factors may affect evaporation. Variables include adding to the water an amount of soil and an amount of soil with growing plants.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

42

The inert gas effect on the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has been made to investigate the effect of argon and helium on the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium under one atmosphere pressure at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850°C. The experimental results were compared with the maximum rates calculated using the effusion formula as well as with values obtained using two different types of equations based on kinetic theory, diffusion theory, and empirical data. Equations have been derived for expressing the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium in both argon and helium as functions of temperature of the liquid zinc and cadmium. It was found that the rates of evaporation of zinc and cadmium were higher in helium than in argon, with the difference increasing with increasing temperature. It was also found that the experimental results obtained in argon agree with the calculated values better than those obtained in helium.

Wu, P. C. S.; O'Keefe, T. J.; Kisslinger, F.

1980-12-01

43

Surface composition and barium evaporation rate of ``pedigreed'' impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes during accelerated life testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of the surface composition and barium evaporation rate of "pedigreed" impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes. The effect of air exposure on coated cathodes was examined and was found to have no significant effect on barium evaporation rate although in some cases longer reactivation times were required. No changes in surface topography were apparent following air exposure and reactivation. Life testing was done at 100°C above the typical operating temperature for the cathode, where the typical operating temperature was taken to be 950°C for coated cathodes and 1050°C for uncoated cathodes. The cathodes were examined at different stages of life testing, up to 1200 h. Significant decreases in barium evaporation rates were found after as few as 500 h of life testing. After 1000 h the evaporation rate had decreased more than an order of magnitude. Changes in surface composition were also found. The effects of tungsten particle size, used in manufacture of the billet, on barium evaporation rate were also studied but no correlation was found.

Tomich, D. H.; Mescher, J. A.; Grant, J. T.

1987-03-01

44

Numerical Evaluation of Heat Pulse Technology for Estimation of Evaporation Rates from a Subsurface Drying Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water evaporation plays a crucial role for both the soil surface energy balance and the hydrologic cycle. Recently introduced heat pulse probes (HPP) allow in-situ measurements of subsurface soil water evaporation. The sensible heat component is calculated from soil heat flux densities measured at two depths and the change in sensible heat storage between these depths is measured by the HPP. The latent heat component detectable during stage 2 evaporation is then estimated from the heat balance residual. Although the accuracy of the estimated evaporation rate depends on many factors (i.e., location of sensor needles, soil texture), the theoretical limits of the HPP method have not been thoroughly evaluated. In the study presented, numerical simulations of the soil water evaporation process were conducted for a heat pulse line source to evaluate the capabilities of the HPP method using a high resolution grid (i.e., mm scale). Calculated temperatures at the depths of virtual sensor needles were used for the HPP method and measured subsurface evaporation rates were compared with simulated ones. The impacts of sensor needle depths were also evaluated for tri-needle (THPP) and penta-needle (PHPP) heat pulse probe configurations. Furthermore, the impact of soil texture was evaluated using coarse- and fine-textured soils. Numerical simulations including liquid water, soil water vapor flux and heat transport were conducted using the HYDRUS-1D code.

Sakai, M.; Jones, S. B.; Tuller, M.

2009-12-01

45

The inert gas effect on the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made to investigate the effect of argon and helium on the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium under one atmosphere pressure at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850°C. The experimental results were compared with the maximum rates calculated using the effusion formula as well as with values obtained using two different types of equations

P. C. S. Wu; T. J. O'Keefe; F. Kisslinger

1980-01-01

46

The evaporative requirement for heat balance determines whole-body sweat rate during exercise under conditions permitting full evaporation  

PubMed Central

Although the requirements for heat dissipation during exercise are determined by the necessity for heat balance, few studies have considered them when examining sweat production and its potential modulators. Rather, the majority of studies have used an experimental protocol based on a fixed percentage of maximum oxygen uptake (%). Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the independent contribution of the evaporative requirement for heat balance (Ereq) and % to whole-body sweat rate (WBSR) during exercise. We hypothesised that WBSR would be determined by Ereq and not by %. A total of 23 males performed two separate experiments during which they exercised for 90 min at different rates of metabolic heat production (200, 350, 500 W) at a fixed air temperature (30°C, n= 8), or at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (290 W) at different air temperatures (30, 35, 40°C, n= 15 and 45°C, n= 7). Whole-body evaporative heat loss was measured by direct calorimetry and used to calculate absolute WBSR in grams per minute. The conditions employed resulted in a wide range of Ereq (131–487 W) and % (15–55%). The individual variation in non-steady-state (0–30 min) and steady-state (30–90 min) WBSR correlated significantly with Ereq (P < 0.001). In contrast, % correlated negatively with the residual variation in WBSR not explained by Ereq, and marginally increased (?2%) the amount of total variability in WBSR described by Ereq alone (non-steady state: R2= 0.885; steady state: R2= 0.930). These data provide clear evidence that absolute WBSR during exercise is determined by Ereq, not by %. Future studies should therefore use an experimental protocol which ensures a fixed Ereq when examining absolute WBSR between individuals, irrespective of potential differences in relative exercise intensity. PMID:23459754

Gagnon, Daniel; Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

2013-01-01

47

The evaporative requirement for heat balance determines whole-body sweat rate during exercise under conditions permitting full evaporation.  

PubMed

Although the requirements for heat dissipation during exercise are determined by the necessity for heat balance, few studies have considered them when examining sweat production and its potential modulators. Rather, the majority of studies have used an experimental protocol based on a fixed percentage of maximum oxygen uptake (% ). Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the independent contribution of the evaporative requirement for heat balance (Ereq) and % to whole-body sweat rate (WBSR) during exercise. We hypothesised that WBSR would be determined by Ereq and not by % . A total of 23 males performed two separate experiments during which they exercised for 90 min at different rates of metabolic heat production (200, 350, 500 W) at a fixed air temperature (30°C, n = 8), or at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (290 W) at different air temperatures (30, 35, 40°C, n = 15 and 45°C, n = 7). Whole-body evaporative heat loss was measured by direct calorimetry and used to calculate absolute WBSR in grams per minute. The conditions employed resulted in a wide range of Ereq (131-487 W) and % (15-55%). The individual variation in non-steady-state (0-30 min) and steady-state (30-90 min) WBSR correlated significantly with Ereq (P < 0.001). In contrast, % correlated negatively with the residual variation in WBSR not explained by Ereq, and marginally increased (?2%) the amount of total variability in WBSR described by Ereq alone (non-steady state: R(2) = 0.885; steady state: R(2) = 0.930). These data provide clear evidence that absolute WBSR during exercise is determined by Ereq, not by % . Future studies should therefore use an experimental protocol which ensures a fixed Ereq when examining absolute WBSR between individuals, irrespective of potential differences in relative exercise intensity. PMID:23459754

Gagnon, Daniel; Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

2013-06-01

48

Evaporation rates of freely falling liquid nitrogen droplets in air  

SciTech Connect

The rates of heat transfer to individual droplets of liquid nitrogen falling freely in air were measured under different air temperatures similar to the conditions in a cryogenic freezing system. High-speed cinephotography was used to measure drop size and velocity. Experimental results of heat transfer rates to individual droplets were analyzed and the data were compared to those obtainable using other types of dimensionless correlations. Droplets of initial size range investigated (2.5-0.72 mm diameter) attained terminal velocities at distances of 4-6 cm freefall away from the drop generator tip. The velocity values used in the correlation of heat transfer data were averaged over the time traveled by individual droplet.

Awonorin, S.O.

1989-01-01

49

PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-0988 Smith*, R.L. Predicting Evaporation Rates and Times for Spills of Chemical Mixtures. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene (Ogden, T. (Ed.), Elsevier) 45 (6):437-445 (2001). EPA/600/J-00/125. 03/16/2000 Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for p...

50

On the Remote Measurement of Evaporation Rates from Bare Wet Soil under Variable Cloud Cover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaporation rates from a natural wet soil surface are calculated from an energy balance equation at 0.1-hour intervals. A procedure is developed for calculating the heat flux through the soil surface from a harmonic analysis of the surface temperature cur...

S. Auer

1976-01-01

51

Numerical and experimental network study of evaporation in capillary porous media. Drying rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments of evaporation are carried out in a two-dimensional micromodel under quasi-isothermal conditions. Three basic cases are investigated: in the absence of gravity forces, in a stabilizing gravity field and in a destabilizing gravity field. The drying rates are measured and compared to the results of numerical pore network simulations. While an excellent agreement between the simulations and the experiments

Joao Borges Laurindo; Marc Prat

1998-01-01

52

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy  

E-print Network

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy can be interpreted as giving a measure of their free energy difference, i a G 150 K 1100 100 J of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K and suppose that their ratio gives a measure of their free energy

53

Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.

Ripple, C. D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

1970-01-01

54

The inert gas effect on the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made to investigate the effect of argon and helium on the rate of evaporation of zinc and cadmium\\u000a under one atmosphere pressure at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850°C. The experimental results were compared with the maximum\\u000a rates calculated using the effusion formula as well as with values obtained using two different types of equations

P. C. S. Wu; T. J. O’keefe; F. Kisslinger

1980-01-01

55

METABOLIC RATE AND EVAPORATIVE WATER LOSS OF MEXICAN SPOTTED AND GREAT HORNED OWLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

AaSraAcr. -We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Homed (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO,gl .h-' for the Spotted Owl and 0.59 cc0, .g- I h- ' for the Great Homed Owl, with apparent thermoneutral zones extending from 17.0-25.2\\

JOSEPH L. GANIZY; RUSSELL P. BALDA; RUDY M. KINGS

1993-01-01

56

Evaporation Rates for Liquid Water and Ice Under Current Martian Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of studies have been concerned with the evaporation rates under martian conditions in order to place limits on the possible survival time of both liquid water and ice exposed on the surface of Mars. Such studies also aid in assessing the efficacy of an overlying layer of dust or loose regolith material in providing a barrier to free evaporation and thus prolong the lifetime of water in locations where its availability to putative living organisms would be significant. A better quantitative understanding of the effects of phase changes of water in the near surface environment would also aid the evaluation of the possible role of water in the formation of currently observed features, such as gullies in cliff walls and relatively short-term changes in the albedo of small surface areas ('dark stains'). Laboratory measurements aimed at refinement of our knowledge of these values are described here. The establishment of accurate values for evaporation rates and their dependence on the physical conditions of temperature, pressure and energy input, is an important benchmark for the further investigation of the efficacy of barriers to free evaporation in providing a prolonged period of survival of the water, particularly as a liquid.

Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Chittenden, J.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

2004-01-01

57

Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a closed body or a duct envelope moves through the atmosphere, air pressure and temperature rises occur ahead of the body or, under ram conditions, within the duct. If cloud water droplets are encountered, droplet evaporation will result because of the air-temperature rise and the relative velocity between the droplet and stagnating air. It is shown that the solution of the steady-state psychrometric equation provides evaporation rates which are the maximum possible when droplets are entrained in air moving along stagnation lines under such conditions. Calculations are made for a wide variety of water droplet diameters, ambient conditions, and flight Mach numbers. Droplet diameter, body size, and Mach number effects are found to predominate, whereas wide variation in ambient conditions are of relatively small significance in the determination of evaporation rates. The results are essentially exact for the case of movement of droplets having diameters smaller than about 30 microns along relatively long ducts (length at least several feet) or toward large obstacles (wings), since disequilibrium effects are then of little significance. Mass losses in the case of movement within ducts will often be significant fractions (one-fifth to one-half) of original droplet masses, while very small droplets within ducts will often disappear even though the entraining air is not fully stagnated. Wing-approach evaporation losses will usually be of the order of several percent of original droplet masses. Two numerical examples are given of the determination of local evaporation rates and total mass losses in cases involving cloud droplets approaching circular cylinders along stagnation lines. The cylinders chosen were of 3.95-inch (10.0+ cm) diameter and 39.5-inch 100+ cm) diameter. The smaller is representative of icing-rate measurement cylinders, while with the larger will be associated an air-flow field similar to that ahead of an airfoil having a leading-edge radius comparable with that of the cylinder. It is found that the losses are less than 5 percent. It is concluded that such losses are, in general, very small (less than 1 percent) in the case of smaller obstacles (of icing-rate measurement- cylinder size); the motional dynamics are such, however, that exceptions will occur by reason of failure of very small droplets (moving along stagnation lines) to impinge upon obstacle surfaces. In such cases, the droplets will evaporate completely.

Lowell, H. H.

1953-01-01

58

Reservoir evaporation in central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation losses from seven reservoirs operated by the Denver Water Department in central Colorado were determined during various periods from 1974 to 1980. The reservoirs studies were Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, Williams Fork, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross. Energy-budget and mass-transfer methods were used to determine evaporation. Class-A pan data also were collected at each reservoir. The energy-budget method was the most accurate of the methods used to determine evaporation. At Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, and Williams Fork Reservoirs the energy-budget method was used to calibrate the mass-transfer coefficients. Calibrated coefficients already were available for Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross Reservoirs. Using the calibrated coefficients, long-term mass-transfer evaporation rates were determined. Annual evaporation values were not determined because the instrumentation was not operated for the entire open-water season. Class-A pan data were used to determine pan coefficients for each season at each reservoir. The coefficients varied from season to season and between reservoirs, and the seasonal values ranged from 0.29 to 1.05. (USGS)

Spahr, N. E.; Ruddy, B. C.

1983-01-01

59

Exploring Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn what evaporation is and how various factors--time, heat, surface area, and wind--affect it. They also discover that water does not always evaporate at the same rate and saltwater leaves something behind when it evaporates. Finally, students a

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

60

Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome; and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide; and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

Bolgar, A. S.; Verkhoglyadova, T. S.; Samsonov, G. V.

1985-01-01

61

In situ measurement and dynamic control of the evaporation rate in vapor diffusion crystallization of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special device with a weight-sensitive facility was designed for monitoring and controlling the water evaporation in vapor diffusion protein crystallization. The device made it possible to measure the weight of the drop in real time while the crystallization experiment was going on normally. The precise water equilibration curves under different crystallization conditions could be obtained automatically. By monitoring and controlling the evaporation rate, the crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme and trichosanthin, a plant protein from Chinese herb, was optimized by regulating the reservoir solution dynamically. The experimental results of these two proteins indicate both the feasibility of the device and the usefulness of dynamic control technique. Compared with traditional crystallization experiments, dynamically controlled crystallization can reduce the number of nuclei, increase the crystal size and save experimental time effectively.

Shu, Zhan-Yong; Gong, Hai-Yun; Bi, Ru-Chang

1998-08-01

62

Controlling Dopant Profiles in Hyperdoped Silicon by Modifying Dopant Evaporation Rates During Pulsed Laser Melting  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method to control the sub-surface dopant profile in 'hyperdoped' silicon fabricated by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. Dipping silicon ion implanted with sulfur into hydrofluoric acid prior to nanosecond pulsed laser melting leads to a tenfold increase in the rate of sulfur evaporation from the surface of the melt. This results in an 80% reduction of the near-surface dopant concentration, effectively embedding the hyperdoped region in a layer up to 180 nm beneath the surface. This method should facilitate the development of blocked impurity band devices.

Recht, D.; Sullivan, J. T.; Reedy, R.; Buonassisi, T.; Aziz, M. J.

2012-03-12

63

Evaporation Rate Study and NDMA Formation from UDMH/NO2 Reaction Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory samples of uns-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) fuel/oxidizer (nitrogen dioxide) non-combustion reaction products (UFORP) were prepared using a unique permeation tube technology. Also, a synthetic UFORP was prepared from UDMH, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), dimethylammonium nitrate, sodium nitrite and purified water. The evaporation rate of UFORP and synthetic UFORP was determined under space vacuum (approx 10(exp -3) Torr) at -40 ?C and 0 ?C. The material remaining was analyzed and showed that the UFORP weight and NDMA concentration decreased over time; however, NDMA had not completely evaporated. Over 85% of the weight was removed by subjecting the UFORP to 10(-3) Torr for 7 hours at -40 ?C and 4 hours at 0 ?C. A mixture of dimethylammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite formed NDMA at a rapid rate in a moist air environment. A sample of UFORP residue was analyzed for formation of NDMA under various conditions. It was found that NDMA was not formed unless nitrite was added.

Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Dee, Louis A.; Baker, David L.

2003-01-01

64

Pan-Svalbard growth rate variability and environmental regulation in the Arctic bivalve Serripes groenlandicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth histories contained in the shells of bivalves provide continuous records of environmental and biological information over lifetimes spanning decades to centuries, thereby linking ecosystem responses to both natural and anthropogenic climatic variations over a range of scales. We examined growth rates and temporal growth patterns of 260 individuals of the circumpolar Greenland Smooth Cockle ( Serripes groenlandicus) collected between 1997 and 2009 from 11 sites around the Svalbard Archipelago. These sites encompass a range of oceanographic and environmental conditions, from strongly Atlantic-influenced conditions on the west coast to high-Arctic conditions in northeast Svalbard. Absolute growth was up to three times greater at the most strongly Atlantic-influenced locations compared to the most Arctic-influenced areas, and growth performance was highest at sites closest to the West Spitsbergen Current. We also developed growth chronologies up to 34 years in length extending back to 1974. Standardized growth indices (SGI) exhibited substantial inter-site variability, but there were also common temporal features including steadily increasing growth from the late 1980's to the mid-1990's followed by a marked shift from relatively greater to poorer growth in the mid-1990's and from 2004 to 2008. This pattern was consistent with phase-shifts in large-scale climatic drivers. Interannual variability in SGI was also related to local manifestations of the large-scale drivers, including sea temperature and sea ice extent. The temporal growth pattern at Rijpfjorden, on northeast Svalbard, was broadly representative (R = 0.81) of the entire dataset. While there were site-related differences in the specific relationships between growth and environmental parameters, the aggregated dataset indicated an overriding regional driver of bivalve growth: the Arctic Climate Regime Index (ACRI). These results demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing baselines of ecosystem variability and for identifying key ecosystem drivers across spatial and temporal scales.

Carroll, Michael L.; Ambrose, William G.; Levin, Benjamin S.; Locke V, William L.; Henkes, Gregory A.; Hop, Haakon; Renaud, Paul E.

2011-11-01

65

Simulation of lake ice and its effect on the late-Pleistocene evaporation rate of Lake Lahontan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model of lake ice was coupled with a model of lake temperature and evaporation to assess the possible effect of ice cover on the late-Pleistocene evaporation rate of Lake Lahontan. The simulations were done using a data set based on proxy temperature indicators and features of the simulated late-Pleistocene atmospheric circulation over western North America. When a data set based on a mean-annual air temperature of 3?? C (7?? C colder than present) and reduced solar radiation from jet-stream induced cloud cover was used as input to the model, ice cover lasting ??? 4 months was simulated. Simulated evaporation rates (490-527 mm a-1) were ??? 60% lower than the present-day evaporation rate (1300 mm a-1) of Pyramid Lake. With this reduced rate of evaporation, water inputs similar to the 1983 historical maxima that occurred in the Lahontan basin would have been sufficient to maintain the 13.5 ka BP high stand of Lake Lahontan. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

Hostetler, S. W.

1991-01-01

66

Stable isotopes in pedogenic calcite: Can the positive linear covariant trends be used to quantify paleo-evaporation rates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimatological models suggest enhanced evaporation rates in subtropical regions during greenhouse- world conditions. Laboratory evaporation experiments show that calcites precipitated from variably saturated solutions yield a positive linear covariant trend (PLCT) in ?18O vs ?13C values. This investigation experimentally quantifies calcite PLCT so that ?13C of subtropical paleosol calcretes may be used as a regional proxy of paleo-evaporation rates. A series of powdered CaCO3 samples with ?18O and ?13C values of -19.6‰ and -37.2‰ VPDB respectively were dissolved in deionized water in a pressure sealed container; it also contained separate vials of calcite reacted with HCl to generate a range of pCO2 environments, thus simulating a soil atmosphere. The variable pCO2 conditions simulate expected soil atmosphere pCO2 conditions in a calcrete horizon during alternative phases of calcite dissolution and precipitation. After 24 hrs, the solutions were placed in an open beaker in an incubator at 36°C and allowed to evaporate. Aliquots of 100 ?L were removed at 24 hr intervals and the time of calcite crystal nucleation was also noted. Water analyses yielded ?18O enrichments ranging from an initial value of -4.8‰ VSMOW to a range of +10.0‰ to +14.8‰ VSMOW after an evaporation period of 75 hrs. The most enriched water values were attained from the solutions formed under lower pCO2 conditions (more enriched calcite ?18O, ?13C). The array of calcite ?18O vs ?13C values fall upon a PLCT that projects from a theoretical meteoric calcite line (MCL) calculated from the incubation temperature and deionized water ?18O and ?13C values. The precipitated calcite ?18O values range from the MCL value of -8.8‰ VPDB to +0.5‰ VPDB. The higher pCO2 waters precipitated calcite very early during evaporation, and thus the ?18O and ?13C calcite values are slightly enriched relative to the theoretical MCL. The lower pCO2 conditions precipitated calcite late in the evaporation of the fluids, and thus yield more enriched calcite ?18O and ?13C values. Ongoing experiments under warmer and cooler evaporation temperatures will aid in the development of a quantitative model for paleo-evaporation rates from paleosol calcretes.

Gröcke, D.; Ufnar, D.; Beddows, P. A.

2007-12-01

67

Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land–atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid–humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

Salvucci, Guido D.; Gentine, Pierre

2013-01-01

68

Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient  

PubMed Central

The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air. PMID:23443127

Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng

2012-01-01

69

Effects of viscosity, surface tension, and evaporation rate of solvent on dry colloidal structures: A lattice Boltzmann study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms of how colloidal solution properties and drying processes result in dry colloidal structures is essential for industrial applications such as paint, ceramics, and electrodes. In this study, we develop a computational method to simulate the drying process of colloidal suspensions containing solid particles and polymers. The method consists of a solvent evaporation model, a fluid particle dynamics method, and a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method. We determine that a high-viscosity solvent, small surface tension, and a high evaporation rate of the solvent lead to a structure with dispersed particles and interconnected pores. When these conditions are not present, the particles agglomerate and the pores are disconnected.

Munekata, Toshihisa; Suzuki, Takahisa; Yamakawa, Shunsuke; Asahi, Ryoji

2013-11-01

70

Minihalo photoevaporation during cosmic reionization: evaporation times and photon consumption rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak, R-type ionization fronts (I-fronts) which swept across the intergalactic medium during the reionization of the Universe often found their paths blocked by cosmological minihaloes (haloes with virial temperatures Tvir<= 104 K). When this happened, the neutral gas which filled each minihalo was photoevaporated. In a cold dark matter universe, minihaloes formed in abundance before and during reionization and, thus, their photoevaporation is an important, possibly dominant, feature of reionization, which slowed it down and cost it many ionizing photons. In a previous paper, we described this process and presented our results of the first simulations of it by numerical gas dynamics with radiation transport in detail. In view of the importance of minihalo photoevaporation, both as a feedback mechanism on the minihaloes and as an effect on cosmic reionization, we have now performed a larger set of high-resolution simulations to determine and quantify the dependence of minihalo photoevaporation times and photon consumption rates on halo mass, redshift, ionizing flux level and spectrum. We use these results to derive simple expressions for the dependence of the evaporation time and photon consumption rate on these halo and external flux parameters. These can be conveniently applied to estimate the effects of minihaloes on the global reionization process in both semi-analytical calculations and larger-scale, lower-resolution numerical simulations, which cannot adequately resolve the minihaloes and their photoevaporation. We find that the average number of ionizing photons each minihalo atom absorbs during its photoevaporation is typically in the range 2-10. For the collapsed fraction in minihaloes expected during reionization, this can add about one photon per total atom to the requirements for completing reionization, potentially doubling the minimum number of photons required to reionize the Universe.

Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.; Raga, Alejandro C.

2005-08-01

71

INLINE HIGH-RATE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM FOR NOVEL INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CELL METALLIZATION  

E-print Network

in the food industry. For the metallization of solar cells Schott Solar AG used a batch evaporation system steps (Ag pad printing, drying, Al printing, drying) in the case of screen printed contacts used so far

72

Effects of Carbonyl Bond and Metal Cluster Dissociation and Evaporation Rates on Predictions of Nanotube Production in HiPco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the co-formation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO due to its lower bond energy as compared with that ofNiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

2002-01-01

73

A physico-chemical properties based model for estimating evaporation and absorption rates of perfumes from skin.  

PubMed

Because of their potential for inducing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) if used improperly, perfumes are carefully assessed for dermal safety prior to incorporation into cosmetic products. Exposure assessment for these materials often involves the conservative assumption of 100% absorption of each component. This report describes an improved method to estimate the absorption and evaporation of perfume ingredients from skin, based on their physico-chemical properties. The effect of environmental variables such as temperature and wind velocity can be accounted for in a logical way. This was accomplished using a first-order kinetic approach expected to be applicable for small doses applied to skin. Skin penetration rate was calculated as a fraction of the maximum flux estimated from the compound's lipid solubility, S(lip) (represented by the product of octanol/water partition coefficient, K(octt), and water solubility, S(w)), and molecular weight, MW. Evaporation rates were estimated from a modified Henry's Law approach with a stagnant boundary layer whose thickness is a function of surface airflow, v. At a given value of v, evaporation rate was assumed proportional to the ratio P(vp)/S(lip), where P(vp) is the vapour pressure of the ingredient at skin temperature, T. The model predicts a relationship for total evaporation from skin of the form %evap = 100x/(k+x) where x = P(vp)MW(2.7)/(K(oct)S(w)) and k is a parameter which depends only on v and T. Comparison with published data on perfume evaporation from human skin in vivo showed good agreement between theory and experiment for two closely related perfume mixtures (r(2) = 0.52-0.74, s = 12-14%, n = 10). Thus, the method would seem to have a good prospect of providing skin absorption estimates suitable for use in exposure assessment and improved understanding of dose-related contact allergy. PMID:18503438

Kasting, G B; Saiyasombati, P

2001-02-01

74

A New Approach to Measure Contact Angle and Evaporation Rate with Flow Visualization in a Sessile Drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contact angle and the spreading process of sessile droplet are very crucial in many technological processes, such as painting and coating, material processing, film-cooling applications, lubrication, and boiling. Additionally, as it is well known that the surface free energy of polymers cannot be directly, measured for their elastic and viscous restraints. The measurements of liquid contact angle on the polymer surfaces become extremely important to evaluate the surface free energy of polymers through indirect methods linked with the contact angle data. Due to the occurrence of liquid evaporation is inevitable, the effects of evaporation on the contact angle and the spreading become very important for more complete understanding of these processes. It is of interest to note that evaporation can induce Marangoni-Benard convection in sessile drops. However, the impacts of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes are not clear. The experimental methods used by previous investigators cannot simultaneously measure the spreading process and visualize the convection inside. Based on the laser shadowgraphic system used by the present author, a very simple optical procedure has been developed to measure the contact angle, the spreading speed, the evaporation rate, and to visualize inside convection of a sessile drop simultaneously. Two CCD cameras were used to synchronously record the real-time diameter of the sessile drop, which is essential for determination of both spreading speed and evaporation rate, and the shadowgraphic image magnified by the sessile drop acting as a thin plano-convex lens. From the shadowgraph, the inside convection of the drop can be observed if any and the image outer diameter, which linked to the drop profile, can be measured. Simple equations have been derived to calculate the drop profile, including the instantaneous contact angle, height, and volume of the sessile drop, as well as the evaporation rate. The influence of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes can be figured out through comparison of the drop profiles with and without inside convection when the sessile drop is placed at different evaporation conditions.

Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.

1999-01-01

75

Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a,b  

E-print Network

Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a2(PO4)3 High-power battery Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite (Li3V2(PO4)3/C) has been-structured Li3V2(PO4)3 and mesoporous carbon composite material have great potential for use in high-power Li

Cao, Guozhong

76

Biology of Myotis thysanodes and M. lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)—III. Metabolism, heart rate, breathing rate, evaporative water loss and general energetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption (OC), weight specific oxygen consumption (VO). heart rate (HR). breathing rate (RR) and evaporative water loss (EWL) differ in adult female Mrotis th.wrnodes and M. ~uc~~uficgus and are significantly related to thermoregulatory performance (regulating or conforming) and to reproductive condition but not to body composttion. spleen or adrenal weights or age class. 2. Multiple regression equation models of

EUGENE H. STUDIER

1976-01-01

77

Effects of viscosity, surface tension, and evaporation rate of solvent on dry colloidal structures: a lattice Boltzmann study.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of how colloidal solution properties and drying processes result in dry colloidal structures is essential for industrial applications such as paint, ceramics, and electrodes. In this study, we develop a computational method to simulate the drying process of colloidal suspensions containing solid particles and polymers. The method consists of a solvent evaporation model, a fluid particle dynamics method, and a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method. We determine that a high-viscosity solvent, small surface tension, and a high evaporation rate of the solvent lead to a structure with dispersed particles and interconnected pores. When these conditions are not present, the particles agglomerate and the pores are disconnected. PMID:24329271

Munekata, Toshihisa; Suzuki, Takahisa; Yamakawa, Shunsuke; Asahi, Ryoji

2013-11-01

78

Calculations of evaporative losses using stable water isotope composition in dry climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporative loss from surface waters is a major component of the hydrological cycle in arid zones, restricting recharge to aquifers and limiting the persistence of surface water bodies. Calculation of evaporative loss is founded on the so-called Craig-Gordon model (C-G), and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of water can be successfully used to estimate progressive evaporation. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require monitoring of water levels, inflow and outflow rates. However, the precision and reliability of calculations in very hot and dry climates can be compromised by variable isotope composition of air moisture, which thus needs to be calibrated for C-G model calculations. In this study, we tested the range of uncertainty in the estimation of evaporative losses by cross-validating a simplified stable isotope model with field pan evaporation experiments. The use of standardized pans (1.2 m diameter, max volume 300 dm3) allowed simulation of fast evaporation from shallow water bodies in hot and dry climates (mean daily temperature 29° C and relative humidity between 19 and 26% RH during an 11 day experiment). The stable isotope composition of water in pans changed from -8.23o (?18O) and -56o (?2H) to approximately +6.0o (?18O) and +2.4o (?2H), reflecting evaporative losses of 56% in sun and 53% in shade. The maximum difference between observed (measured in the field) and calculated evaporative losses was

Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Mydlowski, Adam; Dogramaci, Shawan; Hedley, Paul; Gibson, John; Grierson, Pauline

2014-05-01

79

Flow Visualization in Evaporating Liquid Drops and Measurement of Dynamic Contact Angles and Spreading Rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new hybrid optical system, consisting of reflection-refracted shadowgraphy and top-view photography, is used to visualize flow phenomena and simultaneously measure the spreading and instant dynamic contact angle in a volatile-liquid drop on a nontransparent substrate. Thermocapillary convection in the drop, induced by evaporation, and the drop real-time profile data are synchronously recorded by video recording systems. Experimental results obtained from this unique technique clearly reveal that thermocapillary convection strongly affects the spreading process and the characteristics of dynamic contact angle of the drop. Comprehensive information of a sessile drop, including the local contact angle along the periphery, the instability of the three-phase contact line, and the deformation of the drop shape is obtained and analyzed.

Zhang, Neng-Li; Chao, David F.

2001-01-01

80

Control of Leaf Expansion Rate of Droughted Maize Plants under Fluctuating Evaporative Demand (A Superposition of Hydraulic and Chemical Messages?).  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the possibility that chemical signaling does not entirely account for the effect of water deficit on the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf elongation rate (LER) under high evaporative demand. We followed time courses of LER (0.2-h interval) and spatial distribution of elongation rate in leaves of either water-deficient or abscisic acid (ABA)-fed plants subjected to varying transpiration rates in the field, in the greenhouse, and in the growth chamber. At low transpiration rates the effect of the soil water status on LER was related to the concentration of ABA in the xylem sap and could be mimicked by feeding artificial ABA. Transpiring plants experienced a further reduction in LER, directly linked to the transpiration rate or leaf water status. Leaf zones located at more than 20 mm from the ligule stopped expanding during the day and renewed expansion during the night. Neither ABA concentration in the xylem sap, which did not appreciably vary during the day, nor ABA flux into shoots could account for the effect of evaporative demand. In particular, maximum LER was observed simultaneously with a minimum ABA flux in the droughted plants, but with a maximum ABA flux in ABA-fed plants. All data were interpreted as the superposition of two additive effects: the first involved ABA signaling and was observed during the night and in ABA-fed plants, and the second involved the transpiration rate and was observed even in well-watered plants. We suggest that a hydraulic signal is the most likely candidate for this second effect. PMID:12223750

Salah, HBH.; Tardieu, F.

1997-01-01

81

Fundamental study of evaporation model in micron pore  

E-print Network

................................................................ 10 Phase-change Phenomena in Meniscus.................................................11 Evaporation Model..................................................................................... 16 Evaporation Model Based on Kinetic Theory... .......................................................................... 51 Evaporation Rate and Meniscus Profile in Pore......................................... 51 Total Evaporation Rate in Pore .................................................................. 78 Application of Evaporation Model to Heat Pipe...

Oinuma, Ryoji

2004-11-15

82

Investigation of the effect of dissolved salts, soil layers, and wind on the evaporation rate of water on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation experiments have been performed to study the stability of water under martian conditions. The first chapter of this thesis is a background introduction into the history of Mars and a description of the evidence for past and present water on Mars. The second chapter describes experiments that were performed on low concentration brine solutions, but were never published. The rest of the thesis is submitted in thesis by publication format. Chapters three and four were published in Geophysical Research Letters and chapter five has been submitted to Mars Polar Science Special Edition of Icarus . The experiments described in this thesis were performed in the planetary simulation chamber in the W.M. Keck Laboratory for Space Simulations at the Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences. By simulating the conditions on Mars, with the exception of the gravitational constant, we are able to accurately measure the evaporation and sublimation of water and water ice. We measured the evaporation rates of low concentrations of a sodium chloride brine solution, the effect of temperature on eutectic solutions of sodium chloride and calcium chloride brines, the effect of a soil layer on the sublimation rate of ice, and the effect of wind on the sublimation of ice. The results for the evaporation of brine solutions and the results for the sublimation of ice under a soil layer agree very well with theoretical calculations using Fick's Law of Diffusion, as put forth by A.P. Ingersoll and C.B. Farmer, respectively. In contrast, the sublimation rate of ice under varied wind velocities did not agree with previous theory. Therefore, a new theoretical model was developed in order to accurately describe the effect of increasing wind velocity on sublimation rates. The new theoretical model agreed extremely well with experimental data. In performing these experiments, we are better able to understand the behavior of water under martian condition and can be used to determine under what conditions liquid water could exist and how long it would survive under the current environment on Mars. The implications relate to the formation of geologic features such as gullies and the possibility of life on Mars.

Chittenden, Julie Diane

2007-08-01

83

Prediction of the rate of oil removal from seawater by evaporation and dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is presented to predict the rates of vaporization and dissolution for an oil spill floating on the sea surface. Laboratory experiments were conducted on two oil samples, a crude oil from Ahwaz oil fields in Iran and a home kerosene produced at Tehran Refinary. Effects of temperature and salt concentration on the rate of oil disappearance were

Mohammad R. Riazi; Mohsen Edalat

1996-01-01

84

Evaporation Anisotropy of Forsterite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation anisotropy of a synthetic single crystal of forsterite was investigated by high temperature vacuum experiments. The (001), (010), and (001) surfaces show microstructures characteristic for each surface. Obtained overall linear evaporation rates for the (001), (010), and (001) surfaces are ~17, ~7, and ~22 mm/hour, and the intrinsic evaporation rates, obtained by the change in surface microstructures, are ~10, ~4.5, and ~35 mm/hour, respectively. The difference between the intrinsic evaporation rates and overall rates can be regarded as contribution of dislocation, which is notable for the (100) and (010) surfaces and insignificant for the (001) surface. This is consistent with observed surface microstructures.

Ozawa, K.; Nagahara, H.; Morioka, M.

1996-03-01

85

Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

2010-08-01

86

Group evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

Shen, Hayley H.

1991-01-01

87

Global distribution of moisture, evaporation-precipitation, and diabatic heating rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global archives were established for ECMWF 12-hour, multilevel analysis beginning 1 January 1985; day and night IR temperatures, and solar incoming and solar absorbed. Routines were written to access these data conveniently from NASA/MSFC MASSTOR facility for diagnostic analysis. Calculations of diabatic heating rates were performed from the ECMWF data using 4-day intervals. Calculations of precipitable water (W) from 1 May 1985 were carried out using the ECMWF data. Because a major operational change on 1 May 1985 had a significant impact on the moisture field, values prior to that date are incompatible with subsequent analyses.

Christy, John R.

1989-01-01

88

A laboratory study of the effects of a kerosene-burner exhaust on ice nucleation and the evaporation rate of ice crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments are described during which the influence of gases and particles from the exhaust of a kerosene burner on microphysical processes were studied. In one experimental investigation the evaporation rates of ice crystals polluted with the kerosene-burner exhaust were compared with the evaporation rates of pure ice crystals. During another experimental investigation the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles was studied in terms of the efficiency of the exhaust particles to act as deposition and condensation freezing nuclei, as immersion freezing nuclei, and as contact nuclei. The results of our experiments showed that the evaporation rate of ice crystals polluted with the kerosene-burner exhaust was significantly reduced compared to the evaporation rate of pure ice crystals, implying an increased lifetime of aircraft contrails in comparison to a cloud of pure ice crystals. We also found that the kerosene-burner exhaust particles act as ice nuclei in all studied modes of ice formation at temperatures as high as -20°C, particulary freezing between 20 and 70% of the drops at temperatures warmer than -28°C in the immersion mode. Since the temperature at the level of the contrails is typically below -30°C our result allows the speculation that drop formation at the cruising altitude of air planes is immediately followed by ice crystal formation via heterogeneous nucleation.

Diehl, K.; Mitra, S. K.

89

Eighth International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Pasadena, CA, USA, July 2000 Modeling Cryogenic Spray Temperature and Evaporation Rate  

E-print Network

a high evaporation rate due to the low boiling temperature of the cryogen at atmospheric pressure (Tb=-26 PWS blood vessels [3]. How- ever, absorption of laser energy by melanin causes local- ized heating targeted PWS blood vessels [6]. To achieve optimal cooling selectivity, it is necessary to control

Aguilar, Guillermo

90

PANS IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

The types of PANs and PBzN's present or possibly present in the ambient atmosphere are discussed. iological activities of the PAN's and PBzN's are briefly considered. he concentration and composition of PANs in the atmosphere are discussed and calculations made of the production ...

91

Evaporation From Lake Superior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

2009-05-01

92

Effects of carbonyl bond, metal cluster dissociation, and evaporation rates on predictions of nanotube production in high-pressure carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the conformation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO because of its lower bond energy as compared with that of NiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence. PMID:12908232

Scott, Carl D; Smalley, Richard E

2003-01-01

93

Effects of carbonyl bond, metal cluster dissociation, and evaporation rates on predictions of nanotube production in high-pressure carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the conformation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO because of its lower bond energy as compared with that of NiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

2003-01-01

94

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous-  

E-print Network

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous- media: A multi-domain approach., 2011 (WRR) c #12;Stages of saline water evaporation � Stages of evaporation: � SS1: High evaporation rate � SS2: Evaporation rate falls subsequently � SS3: Constant low evaporation rate Salinization

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

95

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous  

E-print Network

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous media: A multi-domain approach et al., 2011 c #12;Stages of saline water evaporation ­ Stages of evaporation: · SS1: High evaporation rate · SS2: Evaporation rate falls subsequently · SS3: Constant low evaporation rate Salinization

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

96

Evaporation Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about evaporation. Learners will conduct experiments to observe the process of evaporation. They will then describe the process of evaporation, and the general water cycle, through discussion and pictures. Background information, common preconceptions, a glossary and more is included. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

97

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

98

Pan Balance-Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java tool is used to strengthen student understanding of equality and computation of numerical expressions. The applet also helps students understand that equality is a relationship, not an operation. After entering an expression in both the red and blue pan, the pans will move up and down depending on which expression is greater. When the expressions are equivalent, the pans will balance and the full equation will be entered into the Balanced Equations table. Instructions and exploration directions and questions are included.

2011-01-01

99

Streamer Evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporation is the consequence of slow plasma heating near the tops of streamers where the plasma is only weakly contained by the magnetic field. The form it takes is the slow opening of field lines at the top of the streamer and transient formation of new solar wind. It was discovered in polytropic model calculations, where due to the absence of other energy loss mechanisms in magnetostatic streamers, its ultimate endpoint is the complete evaporation of the streamer. This takes, for plausible heating rates, weeks to months in these models. Of course streamers do not behave this way, for more than one reason. One is that there are losses due to thermal conduction to the base of the streamer and radiation from the transition region. Another is that streamer heating must have a characteristic time constant and depend on the ambient physical conditions. We use our global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model with thermal conduction to examine a few examples of the effect of changing the heating scale height and of making ad hoc choices for how the heating depends on ambient conditions. At the same time, we apply and extend the analytic model of streamers, which showed that streamers will be unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than about 2xl0(exp 6) K. Slow solar wind is observed to come from streamers through transient releases. A scenario for this that is consistent with the above physical process is that heating increases the near-cusp temperature until field lines there are forced open. The subsequent evacuation of the flux tubes by the newly forming slow wind decreases the temperature and heating until the flux tubes are able to reclose. Then, over a longer time scale, heating begins to again refill the flux tubes with plasma and increase the temperature until the cycle repeats itself. The calculations we report here are first steps towards quantitative evaluation of this scenario.

Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, Shi T.; Nerney, S.

1998-01-01

100

Evaporation estimates from the Dead Sea and their implications on its water balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea (DS) is a terminal hypersaline water body situated in the deepest part of the Jordan Valley. There is a growing interest in linking the DS to the open seas due to severe water shortages in the area and the serious geological and environmental hazards to its vicinity caused by the rapid level drop of the DS. A key issue in linking the DS with the open seas would be an accurate determination of evaporation rates. There exist large uncertainties of evaporation estimates from the DS due to the complex feedback mechanisms between meteorological forcings and thermophysical properties of hypersaline solutions. Numerous methods have been used to estimate current and historical (pre-1960) evaporation rates, with estimates differing by ˜100%. Evaporation from the DS is usually deduced indirectly using energy, water balance, or pan methods with uncertainty in many parameters. Accumulated errors resulting from these uncertainties are usually pooled into the estimates of evaporation rates. In this paper, a physically based method with minimum empirical parameters is used to evaluate historical and current evaporation estimates from the DS. The more likely figures for historical and current evaporation rates from the DS were 1,500-1,600 and 1,200-1,250 mm per annum, respectively. Results obtained are congruent with field observations and with more elaborate procedures.

Oroud, Ibrahim M.

2011-12-01

101

Loving Peter Pan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the story of "Peter Pan." Considers its creation, its role on the stage, and its impact on society. Considers how "Peter Pan" is about the inability to have make-believe and the true stick together: it dramatizes an artistic failure, the failure to make the vision of the play successful. (SG)

Kinkaid, James R.

2003-01-01

102

The dynamics and stability of thin liquid films during spin coating. I. Films with constant rates of evaporation or absorption  

SciTech Connect

A fixed volume of liquid is placed on a horizontal disk spinning at a constant angular speed. The liquid forms a film that thins continuously due to centrifugal drainage and evaporation or thins to a finite thickness when surface absorption counterbalances drainage. A nonlinear evolution equation describing the shape of the film interface as a function of space and time is derived, and its stability is examined using linear theory. When there is either no mass transfer or there is evaporation from the film surface, infinitesimal disturbances decay for small wave numbers and are transiently stable for larger wave numbers. When absorption is present at the free surface, the film exhibits three different domains of stability: disturbances of small wave numbers decay, disturbances of intermediate wave numbers grow transiently, and those of larger wave numbers grow exponentially.

Reisfeld, B.; Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H. (Department of Chemical Engineering Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, The Technological Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois (USA))

1991-11-15

103

Evaporative climate changes at Bet Dagan, Israel, 1964–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of evaporation measurements made between 1964 and 1998 at Bet Dagan in Israel’s central coastal plain shows a small but statistically significant increase in screened Class A pan evaporation, mainly in the dry, summer half of the year. No changes were found in the total open water evaporation or reference crop evapotranspiraton estimated with Penman’s combined heat balance and

S. Cohen; A. Ianetz; G. Stanhill

2002-01-01

104

Experimental comparison of the ability of Dalton based and similarity theory correlations to predict water evaporation rate in different convection regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the ability of two widely used evaporation models: Dalton based correlations and similarity theory results by comparing with experimental measurements. A series of experimental investigations are carried out over a wide range of water temperatures and air velocities for 0.01 ? Gr/ Re 2 ? 100 in a rectangular heated pool. The results show that for forced convection regime satisfactory results can be achieved by using the modified Dalton correlations, while, due to ripples appear on the water free surface, similarity theory under predicts the evaporation rate. In the free convection regime, Dalton based correlations even with modification are not able to predict acceptable results. For mixed convection regime, although both the similarity theory and Dalton based correlations without modification are not able to predict the mild non-linearity behavior between water evaporation rate and vapor pressure difference, but they obtain relatively satisfactory results. A dimensionless correlation using the experimental data of all convection regimes is proposed to cover different water surface geometries and air flow conditions.

Jodat, Amin; Moghiman, Mohammad; Anbarsooz, Morteza

2012-08-01

105

(10:1, 55 nm) and was deposited by the co-evaporation of magnesium and silver metals, with deposition rates of 5 and 0.5 s1  

E-print Network

(10:1, 55 nm) and was deposited by the co-evaporation of magnesium and silver metals of 1±2 s±1 . The cathode was then capped with silver metal (100 nm) by evaporating silver at a rate of Wurtzite ZnS** By Christopher Ma, Daniel Moore, Jing Li, and Zhong L. Wang* Zinc sulfide has received great

Wang, Zhong L.

106

Comparison of energy-budget evaporation losses from two morphometrically different Florida seepage lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation was computed by the energy-budget method for two north Florida lakes with similar surface areas but different depths, for the period May 1989 to December 1990. Lake Barco, in north-central Florida, is shallow, with an average depth of 3 m; Lake Five-O, in the Florida panhandle, is considerably deeper, with an average depth of 9.5 m. As a result, the thermal regime and seasonal evaporation rates of the lakes are different. Evaporation from the shallower lake was higher than that from the deeper lake in the winter and spring. In the late summer and autumn, however, the situation is reversed. Evaporation from the shallow lake is directly related to the amount of incoming shortwave radiation because of its limited ability to store energy. The lag in evaporation at the deeper lake is a function of the greater amount of heat that it seasonally stores and releases. The difference in annual evaporation between Lake Barco (151 cm year-1) and Lake Five-O (128 cm year-1) is related to differences in regional climatic conditions between the two sites. Additionally, higher than normal evaporation rates at the two lakes are probably related to drought conditions experienced in north Florida during 1990, which resulted in higher temperatures and more incoming radiation. Monthly evaporation at Lake Barco could usually be estimated within 10% of the energy-budget evaporation using a constant pan coefficient. This lake may be representative of other shallow lakes that do not store considerable heat. Monthly evaporation at Lake Five-O, however, could not be estimated accurately by using an annual pan coefficient because of the large seasonal influence of change in stored heat. Monthly mass-transfer evaporation compared well with energy-budget evaporation at Lake Barco, but did not compare well at Lake Five-O. These errors may also be associated with changes in heat storage. Thus, the thermal regime of the lake must be considered to estimate accurately the seasonal evaporation rates from a deep lake. ?? 1994.

Sacks, L. A.; Lee, T. M.; Radell, M. J.

1994-01-01

107

II. EvaporationII. Evaporation Vaporization  

E-print Network

II. EvaporationII. Evaporation Vaporization (mtorr) cm Line-of-sight transport Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2011, NanoFab #12;Evaporation SourceEvaporation Source & compatibility #12;Evaporation SourceEvaporation Source Electron-beamInduction Electron-beamInduction Liu, UCD

Liu, Kai

108

Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry.  

PubMed

The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm(-2) was 0.41 kWh m(-3) for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m(-3) for the removal of TKN. PMID:23770619

Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2013-09-15

109

Evaporation from seven reservoirs in the Denver water-supply system, central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven reservoirs in central Colorado, operated by the Denver Board of Water Commissioners, were studied during 1967-73 to determine evaporation losses. These reservoirs, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, Gross, Antero, Cheesman, Williams Fork, and Ralston, are located on both sides of the Continental Divide. Methods for computing evaporation include energy-budget, mass-transfer, and pan relationships. Three reservoirs, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross, had mass-transfer coefficients calibrated by energy-budget studies. At the remaining reservoirs, an empirical technique was used to estimate the mass-transfer coefficient. The enery-budget-calibrated methods give the most accurate evaporation values; the empirical coefficients give only a best estimate of evaporation. All reservoirs should be calibrated by energy-budget studies. The pan method of computing evaporation is the least reliable method because of problems of advected energy through the sides of the pan, representative pan exposure , and the irregularity of ratios of reservoir to pan evaporation. (Woodard-USGS)

Ficke, John F.; Adams, D. Briane; Danielson, T. W.

1977-01-01

110

The Pan Zhichang Incident  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines why Pan Zhichang, a well-known professor and Ph.D. candidate supervisor at Nanjing University, has repeatedly been accused of plagiarism. It may not be difficult to check whether he has committed plagiarism, but seeking the deeper social and systemic reasons for a person's repeated "negligence" is indeed a thought-provoking…

Yuchen, Zhu

2007-01-01

111

Pan Balance - Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a virtual manipulative pan balance to explore and practice equality with geometric shapes. Each shape is assigned a certain weight. The pictorial representation is entered in a table and the items on each side of the balance can be represented by an algebraic expression.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-03-04

112

Evaporative Cooler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the concept of evaporative cooling through a hands-on experiment. Use a wet cloth and fan to model an air-conditioner and use temperature and relative humidity sensors to collect data. Then digitally plot the data using graphs in the activity. In an optional extension, make your own modifications to improve the cooler's efficiency.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-12

113

Evaporation regimes and evaporation modelling in an alpine tundra environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation rates responded very quickly to surface desiccation, and the control by surface resistance (derived from the Penman-Monteith model) was very pronounced. The absence of an efficient means to transfer subsurface moisture to the surface resulted in an evaporation regime which was strongly moisture-limited only a few days after precipitation. However, the high frequency of precipitation events in this environment

I. R. Saunders; W. G. Bailey; J. D. Bowers

1997-01-01

114

Analysis of energy use in tomato evaporation  

SciTech Connect

Field performance data for four tomato product evaporators are presented and analyzed. Steam and feed flow rates along with steam economies were measured and are compared to steady state theoretical evaporator models.

Rumsey, T.; Conant, T.

1980-01-01

115

Streamer Evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporation is the consequence of heating near the top of streamers in ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models, where the plasma is weakly contained by the magnetic field. Heating causes slow opening of field lines and release of new solar wind. It was discovered in simulations and, due to the absence of loss mechanisms, the ultimate end point is the complete evaporation of the streamer. Of course streamers do not behave in this way because there are losses by thermal conduction and radiation. Physically, heating is also expected to depend on ambient conditions. We use our global MHD model with thermal conduction to examine the effect of changing the heating scale height. We also apply and extend an analytic model of streamers developed by Pneuman (1968) to show that steady streamers are unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than approximately 2 x 10(exp 6) K.

Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Nerney, S. F.

1998-01-01

116

Pan-America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rains have strong socio-economic impact for the 850 million inhabitants of the American continents. Both continents depend\\u000a on rainfall to sustain agriculture, hydroelectric power, and to maintain their waterways. Rainfall over Pan-America has large\\u000a interannual variability (IAV) and intraseasonal variability (ISV). In the interannual band, El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)\\u000a has strong impact on total seasonal rainfall (Ropelewski and Halpert,

Kingtse C. Mo; Julia Nogues-Paegle

117

PanScan Study Participants  

Cancer.gov

The following principal investigators and studies are participating in PanScan. Note that the principal investigators for PanScan often are not the same individuals who are the principal investigators of the established cohorts.

118

DIRECT EVAPORATION FROM THE WASTE BODY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON LEACHATE GENERATION IN LANDFILLS IN ARID AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Evaporation from Waste is one of the dominant phenomena for landfill leachate production and compost management in arid and semi-arid regions. In this article a newly established test is performed to determine a correlation between pan evaporation and waste surface evaporation. A container with diameter of 120 centimeter and height of 60 centimeter is used for determining the evaporation

M. A. ABDOLI; HANS GUNTER RAMKE; HOSSEIN GHIASINEJAD

2009-01-01

119

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-print Network

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, and apply it to shock wave- induced evaporation and condensation of a chondrule precursor. Theory

Grossman, Lawrence

120

A Graphical Representation of the Evaporation Solution Space and the Complementary Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Complementary Relationship (CR) between regional evapotranspiration E and potential or pan evaporation Ep can be written as Ep-E0 = b(E0-E), where E0 is the evaporation rate if the entire regional surface was wet. The CR corresponds to the idea that reduced evaporation due to drying of the land surface results in increased sensible heat fluxes and an increased potential for evaporation. Recent (2009) contributions to the theory behind the CR by Pettijohn and Salvucci and by Szilagyi and Jozsa led to a much clearer grasp of the physics behind the CR by examining the role of two-dimensional heat and vapor transport. Recent papers such as those mentioned above have questioned the traditional idea that b=1, while at the same time raising questions about the proper representations of E0 and Ep. As a result, the conceptual simplicity of the original CR models by Bouchet, Morton, and Brutsaert and Stricker is no longer obvious. The goal of this work was to provide a visual representation of local evaporation as defined by the Penman-Monteith equation, and to illustrate different CR models by highlighting those parts of the Penman-Monteith evaporation solution-space that are also part of a CR model solution-space. Specifically, EF is found for a wide range of values of rs/ra and EA/Qn, where EF=E/Qn, Qn is the available energy, rs is the stomatal resistance, ra is the aerodynamic resistance, and EA is the drying power of the air. These results are used to create a 3-dimensional EF surface as a function of rs/ra and EA/Qn. Representations of several CR models based on different values of b, E0 and Ep are represented as curves drawn on the 3-D EF surface. Variations in models include those for which b=1 or b=5; for which E0 is defined with the Priestley Taylor ?=1 or ?=1.26; and for which Ep is found from Penman's equation or from simulated pan evaporation. Differences in the curves for different versions of the CR are noted. One conclusion is that, while b tends to be in the range of 3 to 6 for Ep determined from pan evaporation, a close reading of the paper by Pettijohn and Salvucci suggests it is much closer to 1 for Ep from the Penman equation. This helps to reconcile the generally good results that have been found in the literature using the Advection-Aridity approach, with the more recent reports of strong asymmetry in the CR (that is, of values of b much larger than 1).

Crago, R. D.

2011-12-01

121

Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

1986-01-01

122

Marangoni Convection and Deviations from Maxwells' Evaporation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the convective dynamics of evaporating pools of volatile liquids using an ultra-sensitive thermal imaging camera. During evaporation, there are significant convective flows inside the liquid due to Marangoni forces. We find that Marangoni convection during evaporation can dramatically affect the evaporation rates of volatile liquids. A simple heat balance model connects the convective velocities and temperature gradients to the evaporation rates.

Segre, P. N.; Snell, E. H.; Adamek, D. H.

2003-01-01

123

A Search for Fast Optical Transients in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey: M-Dwarf Flares, Asteroids, Limits on Extragalactic Rates, and Implications for LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a search for fast optical transients (? ~ 0.5 hr-1 day) using repeated observations of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS) fields. Our search takes advantage of the consecutive g P1 r P1 observations (16.5 minutes in each filter), by requiring detections in both bands, with non-detections on preceding and subsequent nights. We identify 19 transients brighter than 22.5 AB mag (S/N >~ 10). Of these, 11 events exhibit quiescent counterparts in the deep PS1/MDS templates that we identify as M4-M9 dwarfs at d ? 0.2-1.2 kpc. The remaining eight transients lack quiescent counterparts, exhibit mild but significant astrometric shifts between the g P1 and r P1 images, colors of (g - r)P1 ? 0.5-0.8 mag, non-varying light curves, and locations near the ecliptic plane with solar elongations of about 130°, which are all indicative of main-belt asteroids near the stationary point of their orbits. With identifications for all 19 transients, we place an upper limit of R FOT(? ~ 0.5 hr) <~ 0.12 deg-2 day-1 (95% confidence level) on the sky-projected rate of extragalactic fast transients at <~ 22.5 mag, a factor of 30-50 times lower than previous limits; the limit for a timescale of ~1 day is R FOT <~ 2.4 × 10-3 deg-2 day-1. To convert these sky-projected rates to volumetric rates, we explore the expected peak luminosities of fast optical transients powered by various mechanisms, and find that non-relativistic events are limited to M ? -10 to ? - 14 mag for a timescale of ~0.5 hr to ~1 day, while relativistic sources (e.g., gamma-ray bursts, magnetar-powered transients) can reach much larger luminosities. The resulting volumetric rates are <~ 13 Mpc-3 yr-1 (M ? -10 mag), <~ 0.05 Mpc-3 yr-1 (M ? -14 mag), and <~ 10-6 Mpc-3 yr-1 (M ? -24 mag), significantly above the nova, supernova, and gamma-ray burst rates, respectively, indicating that much larger surveys are required to provide meaningful constraints. Motivated by the results of our search, we discuss strategies for identifying fast optical transients in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope main survey, and reach the optimistic conclusion that the veil of foreground contaminants can be lifted with the survey data, without the need for expensive follow-up observations.

Berger, E.; Leibler, C. N.; Chornock, R.; Rest, A.; Foley, R. J.; Soderberg, A. M.; Price, P. A.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.

2013-12-01

124

Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: Implications for evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn a globally warming climate, observed rates of atmospheric evaporative demand have declined over recent decades. Several recent studies have shown that declining rates of evaporative demand are primarily governed by trends in the aerodynamic component (primarily being the combination of the effects of wind speed ( u) and atmospheric humidity) and secondarily by changes in the radiative component. A number of these studies also show that declining rates of observed near-surface u (termed 'stilling') is the primary factor contributing to declining rates of evaporative demand. One objective of this paper was to review and synthesise the literature to assess whether stilling is a globally widespread phenomenon. We analysed 148 studies reporting terrestrial u trends from across the globe (with uneven and incomplete spatial distribution and differing periods of measurement) and found that the average trend was -0.014 m s -1 a -1 for studies with more than 30 sites observing data for more than 30 years, which confirmed that stilling was widespread. Assuming a linear trend this constitutes a -0.7 m s -1 change in u over 50 years. A second objective was to confirm the declining rates of evaporative demand by reviewing papers reporting trends in measured pan evaporation ( Epan) and estimated crop reference evapotranspiration ( ETo); average trends were -3.19 mm a -2 ( n = 55) and -1.31 mm a -2 ( n = 26), respectively. A third objective was to assess the contribution to evaporative demand trends that the four primary meteorological variables (being u; atmospheric humidity; radiation; and air temperature) made. The results from 36 studies highlighted the importance of u trends. We also quantified the sensitivity of rates of evaporative demand to changes in u and how the relative contributions of the aerodynamic and radiative components change seasonally over the globe. Our review: (i) shows that terrestrial stilling is widespread across the globe; (ii) confirms declining rates of evaporative demand; and (iii) highlights the contribution u has made to these declining evaporative rates. Hence we advocate that assessing evaporative demand trends requires consideration of all four primary meteorological variables (being u, atmospheric humidity, radiation and air temperature). This is particularly relevant for long-term water resource assessment because changes in u exert greater influence on energy-limited water-yielding catchments than water-limited ones.

McVicar, Tim R.; Roderick, Michael L.; Donohue, Randall J.; Li, Ling Tao; Van Niel, Thomas G.; Thomas, Axel; Grieser, Jürgen; Jhajharia, Deepak; Himri, Youcef; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Kruger, Andries C.; Rehman, Shafiqur; Dinpashoh, Yagob

2012-01-01

125

Mapping the Amazon: Mosaic pan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pan across Amazon rainforest mosaic showing low water season (blue) and high water season (yellow). Together, these snapshots reveal conditions on the ground. Scientists listed worked as a team on Mosaicking Software and Mosaic Production.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Chapman, Bruce; Curkendall, David; Freeman, Tony; Miller, Craig; Siegel, Herb

2002-03-14

126

PanSNPdb: the Pan-Asian SNP genotyping database.  

PubMed

The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP consortium conducted the largest survey to date of human genetic diversity among Asians by sampling 1,719 unrelated individuals among 71 populations from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. We have constructed a database (PanSNPdb), which contains these data and various new analyses of them. PanSNPdb is a research resource in the analysis of the population structure of Asian peoples, including linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype distributions, and copy number variations. Furthermore, PanSNPdb provides an interactive comparison with other SNP and CNV databases, including HapMap3, JSNP, dbSNP and DGV and thus provides a comprehensive resource of human genetic diversity. The information is accessible via a widely accepted graphical interface used in many genetic variation databases. Unrestricted access to PanSNPdb and any associated files is available at: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/PASNP. PMID:21731755

Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Xu, Shuhua; Shaw, Philip J; Yang, Jin Ok; Ghang, Ho; Bhak, Jong; Liu, Edison; Tongsima, Sissades

2011-01-01

127

The Relation of External Evaporative Conditions to the Drying of Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation from laboratory soil columns was studied as a function of potential evaporative conditions. The length of time a given evaporation rate could be maintained by the soil was in good agreement with an approximate solution of the isothermal equation for unsatu- rated flow. During the falling-rate period of drying, the evaporation rate was found to approach very nearly a

W. R. Gardner; D. I. Hillel

1962-01-01

128

The Imager for Mars Pathfinder Insurance Pan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) obtained a full panorama of the Sagan Memorial Station landing site on Sol 2, before the IMP mast was deployed. The images in this panorama were taken in 4 filters (including stereo) and losslessly compressed to provide a high-quality multispectral survey of the landing site even if the IMP mast did not successfully deploy; this data set was therefore called the Insurance Pan. It was completed late in the afternoon of Sol 2, just before the IMP mast was (successfully) deployed. The data were stored in memory and returned to Earth after it became clear that downlink rates were higher than expected. The Insurance Pan horizontal (azimuth) coverage is nearly complete, with gaps caused by pointing errors and data packet losses. Stereo data were acquired in the blue (445 nm) filter, as well as right-eye green (531 nm), orange (600 nm), and near-infrared (752 nm) data.

Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Weller, L. A.

2003-01-01

129

The Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey: The Role of Galaxy Group Environment in the Star Formation Rate versus Stellar Mass Relation and Quiescent Fraction out to z ~ 0.8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M *) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M * relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 1014 M ?), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4? confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more massive galaxies, while less massive galaxies are quenched mostly through the environmental effect, with the transition mass around 1-2 × 1010 M ? in the group/cluster environment.

Lin, Lihwai; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Draper, P.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, Paul A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

2014-02-01

130

PanAmAir.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, 1928, seven passengers riding aboard a Fokker-7 inaugurated Pan American World Airlines passenger services as they flew from Key West to Havana. Over the next six decades, PanAm would grow and prosper, as it created an extensive system of routes that took early jet-setters all around the world. While the airline did experience a rebirth in the mid-1990s, its demise was hastened after the tragedy onboard Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988.Created by Beth Cozzi-Stewart, this site provides interested parties with access to a great deal of colorful material on the history of the company. Some of the offerings include a detailed history spanning PanAm's years, a chronology of the aircraft they utilized, and information about the various accidents that befell the company. Perhaps the most enjoyable part of the site is the "Multimedia" section, which includes the PanAm jingles "Just Say Hello to PanAm" and "We Fly the Way the World Wants to Fly".

Cozzi-Stewart, Beth

2004-01-01

131

Evaporation Induced Isothermal Crystallization of Silicate Melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate and role of evaporation and crystallization kinetics for silicate melt, isothermal vacuum experiments were carried out in the system MgO-SiO2. Due to successive evaporation, melt crystallized olivine at a fixed temperature. The evaporation rates and bulk chemical composition of residues varied with time, and reached a steady state. The pressure-composition phase diagram for the system at a fixed temperature well explains the experimental results. The results suggest a possibility of isothermal formation of chondrules (and some CAIs) at low pressures where evaporation takes place continuously.

Nagahara, H.

1996-03-01

132

Evaporation of charged bosonic condensate in cosmology  

E-print Network

Cosmological evolution of equilibrium plasma with a condensate of U(1)-charged bosonic field is considered. It is shown that the evaporation of the condensate is very much different from naive expectations, discussed in the literature, as well as from evaporation of non-equilibrium neutral condensate. The charged condensate evaporates much slower than the decay of the corresponding bosons. The evaporation rate is close to that of the cosmological expansion. The plasma temperature, in contrast, drops much faster than usually, namely as the third power of the cosmological scale factor. As a result the universe becomes very cold and the cosmological charge asymmetry reaches a huge value.

A. D. Dolgov; F. R. Urban

2005-05-30

133

Preciptation, Evaporation, and Transpiration Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students must use crayons or colored pencils to create maps of global precipitation and evaporation rates. One worksheet is provided to each group of students. Then a representative from each group explains their map to the rest of the class, and the instructor shows a similar map from NOAA or NASA.

Townsend-Small, Amy

134

242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system  

SciTech Connect

This document is written for the 242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system (VCS), describing its purpose and operation within the evaporator. The document establishes the operating parameters specifying pressure, temperature, flow rates, interlock safety features and interfacing sub-systems to support its operation.

Smith, V.A.

1994-09-28

135

Consider mechanical recompression evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical recompression is a technique for improving latent heat management by recycling the latent heat of evaporation. The product vapor is isotropically compressed to a higher temperature and pressure so that it can be used as the heating medium that drives the evaporation. The mechanical recompression evaporator typically requires no main process steam, cooling water, or process steam condenser. The

1994-01-01

136

Inhibiting ventilatory evaporation produces an adaptive increase in cutaneous evaporation in mourning doves Zenaida macroura.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that birds can rapidly change the conductance of water vapor at the skin surface in response to a changing need for evaporative heat loss. Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) were placed in a two-compartment chamber separating the head from the rest of the body. The rate of cutaneous evaporation was measured in response to dry ventilatory inflow at three ambient temperatures and in response to vapor-saturated ventilatory inflow at two ambient temperatures. At 35 degrees C, cutaneous evaporation increased by 72 % when evaporative water loss from the mouth was prevented, but no increase was observed at 45 degrees C. For both dry and vapor-saturated treatments, cutaneous evaporation increased significantly with increased ambient temperature. Changes in skin temperature made only a minor contribution to any observed increase in cutaneous evaporation. This indicates that Z. macroura can effect rapid adjustment of evaporative conductance at the skin in response to acute change in thermoregulatory demand. PMID:10518483

Hoffman; Walsberg

1999-01-01

137

The Role of Hysteresis in Reducing Evaporation from Soils in Contact with a Water Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation studies were conducted on three soil types in contact with a water table. For conditions of high evaporativity or increased depth to the water table, it was found that evaporation from the soils was not always in proportion to the rate of evaporation from a free-water surface. Under some conditions there was an inverse relation between evaporation from the

Richard A. Schleusener; A. T. Corey

1959-01-01

138

Measuring sub-canopy evaporation in a forested wetland using an ensemble of methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation from the sub-canopy water surface is an integral but understudied component of the water balance in forested wetlands. Previous studies have used eddy covariance, energy balance approaches, and water-table fluctuations to assess whole-system evapotranspiration. However, partitioning evaporation from transpiration is necessary for modeling the system because of different controls over each process. Sub-canopy evaporation is a physically controlled process driven by relatively small gradients in residual energy transmitted through the canopy. The low-energy sub-canopy environment is characterized by a spatiotemporally varying light environment due to sunflecks, small and often inverse temperature and vapor gradients, and a high capacity for heat storage in flood water, which each present challenges to common evapotranspiration measurement techniques. Previous studies have examined wetland surface evaporation rates with small lysimeter experiments, but this approach does not encapsulate micrometeorological processes occurring at the scale of natural wetlands. In this study, we examine a one year time series of in situ sub-canopy flux measurements from a seasonally flooded cypress-tupelo swamp in southeast Louisiana. Our objective is to apply these data towards modeling sub-canopy energy flux responses to intra-annual hydrologic, phenologic, and climatic cycles. To assess and mitigate potential errors due to the inherent measurement challenges of this environment, we utilized multiple measurement approaches including eddy covariance, Bowen ratio energy balance (with both air to air gradients and water surface to air gradients) and direct measurement using a floating evaporation pan. Preliminary results show that Bowen ratio energy balance measurements are useful for constraining evaporation measurements when low wind speed conditions create a non-ideal setting for eddy covariance. However, Bowen ratios were often highly erratic due to the weak temperature and humidity gradients. This suggests the need to use combined methods during periods with problematic boundary layer conditions.

Allen, S. T.; Edwards, B.; Reba, M. L.; Keim, R.

2013-12-01

139

Quantifying nonisothermal subsurface soil water evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of energy and mass transfer during soil water evaporation is critical for improving understanding of the hydrologic cycle and for many environmental, agricultural, and engineering applications. Drying of soil under radiation boundary conditions results in formation of a dry surface layer (DSL), which is accompanied by a shift in the position of the latent heat sink from the surface to the subsurface. Detailed investigation of evaporative dynamics within this active near-surface zone has mostly been limited to modeling, with few measurements available to test models. Soil column studies were conducted to quantify nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles using a sensible heat balance (SHB) approach. Eleven-needle heat pulse probes were used to measure soil temperature and thermal property distributions at the millimeter scale in the near-surface soil. Depth-integrated SHB evaporation rates were compared with mass balance evaporation estimates under controlled laboratory conditions. The results show that the SHB method effectively measured total subsurface evaporation rates with only 0.01-0.03 mm h-1difference from mass balance estimates. The SHB approach also quantified millimeter-scale nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles over a drying event, which has not been previously possible. Thickness of the DSL was also examined using measured soil thermal conductivity distributions near the drying surface. Estimates of the DSL thickness were consistent with observed evaporation profile distributions from SHB. Estimated thickness of the DSL was further used to compute diffusive vapor flux. The diffusive vapor flux also closely matched both mass balance evaporation rates and subsurface evaporation rates estimated from SHB.

Deol, Pukhraj; Heitman, Josh; Amoozegar, Aziz; Ren, Tusheng; Horton, Robert

2012-11-01

140

78 FR 23101 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...8957--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...2013 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...prosperity. As we celebrate those ties this week, we recognize the Pan American...

2013-04-17

141

Evaporation and potential evapotranspiration in India under conditions of recent and future climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term changes in evaporation and potential evapotranspiration can have profound implications for hydrologic processes as well as for agricultural crop performance. This paper analyses evaporation time series data for different stations in India, and for the country as a whole, for different seasons on both a short-term (15 years) and long-term (32 years) basis for pan evaporation and on a

N. Chattopadhyay; M. Hulme

1997-01-01

142

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

PubMed Central

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

143

Estimation of evaporation from open water - A review of selected studies, summary of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers data collection and methods, and evaluation of two methods for estimation of evaporation from five reservoirs in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organizations responsible for the management of water resources, such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), are tasked with estimation of evaporation for water-budgeting and planning purposes. The USACE has historically used Class A pan evaporation data (pan data) to estimate evaporation from reservoirs but many USACE Districts have been experimenting with other techniques for an alternative to collecting pan data. The energy-budget method generally is considered the preferred method for accurate estimation of open-water evaporation from lakes and reservoirs. Complex equations to estimate evaporation, such as the Penman, DeBruin-Keijman, and Priestley-Taylor, perform well when compared with energy-budget method estimates when all of the important energy terms are included in the equations and ideal data are collected. However, sometimes nonideal data are collected and energy terms, such as the change in the amount of stored energy and advected energy, are not included in the equations. When this is done, the corresponding errors in evaporation estimates are not quantifiable. Much simpler methods, such as the Hamon method and a method developed by the U.S. Weather Bureau (USWB) (renamed the National Weather Service in 1970), have been shown to provide reasonable estimates of evaporation when compared to energy-budget method estimates. Data requirements for the Hamon and USWB methods are minimal and sometimes perform well with remotely collected data. The Hamon method requires average daily air temperature, and the USWB method requires daily averages of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. Estimates of annual lake evaporation from pan data are frequently within 20 percent of energy-budget method estimates. Results of evaporation estimates from the Hamon method and the USWB method were compared against historical pan data at five selected reservoirs in Texas (Benbrook Lake, Canyon Lake, Granger Lake, Hords Creek Lake, and Sam Rayburn Lake) to evaluate their performance and to develop coefficients to minimize bias for the purpose of estimating reservoir evaporation with accuracies similar to estimates of evaporation obtained from pan data. The modified Hamon method estimates of reservoir evaporation were similar to estimates of reservoir evaporation from pan data for daily, monthly, and annual time periods. The modified Hamon method estimates of annual reservoir evaporation were always within 20 percent of annual reservoir evaporation from pan data. Unmodified and modified USWB method estimates of annual reservoir evaporation were within 20 percent of annual reservoir evaporation from pan data for about 91 percent of the years compared. Average daily differences between modified USWB method estimates and estimates from pan data as a percentage of the average amount of daily evaporation from pan data were within 20 percent for 98 percent of the months. Without any modification to the USWB method, average daily differences as a percentage of the average amount of daily evaporation from pan data were within 20 percent for 73 percent of the months. Use of the unmodified USWB method is appealing because it means estimates of average daily reservoir evaporation can be made from air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation data collected from remote weather stations without the need to develop site-specific coefficients from historical pan data. Site-specific coefficients would need to be developed for the modified version of the Hamon method.

Harwell, Glenn R.

2012-01-01

144

The Effect of Nitrogen Gas Flow Rate on the Properties of TiN-COATED High-Speed Steel (hss) Using Cathodic Arc Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (pvd) Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) is a widely-used technique for generating highly ionized plasma from which hard and wear resistant physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings can be deposited. A major drawback of this technique is the emission of micrometer-sized droplets of cathode material from the arc spot, which are commonly referred to as "macroparticles." In present study, titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on high-speed steel (HSS) coupons were produced with a cathodic arc evaporation technique. We studied and discussed the effect of various nitrogen gas flow rates on microstructural and mechanical properties of TiN-coated HSS coupons. The coating properties investigated in this work included the surface morphology, thickness of deposited coating, adhesion between the coating and substrate, coating composition, coating crystallography, hardness and surface characterization using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) with glazing incidence angle (GIA) technique, scratch tester, hardness testing machine, surface roughness tester, and atomic force microscope (AFM). An increase in the nitrogen gas flow rate showed decrease in the formation of macro-droplets in CAE PVD technique. During XRD-GIA studies, it was observed that by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate, the main peak [1,1,1] shifted toward the lower angular position. Surface roughness decreased with an increase in nitrogen gas flow rate but was higher than the uncoated polished sample. Microhardness of TiN-coated HSS coupons showed more than two times increase in hardness than the uncoated one. Scratch tester results showed good adhesion between the coating material and substrate. Considerable improvement in the properties of TiN-deposited thin films was achieved by the strict control of all operational steps.

Mubarak, Ali; Hamzah, Esah Binti; Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi Hj.; Hashim, Abdul Hakim Bin

145

Consider mechanical recompression evaporation  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical recompression is a technique for improving latent heat management by recycling the latent heat of evaporation. The product vapor is isotropically compressed to a higher temperature and pressure so that it can be used as the heating medium that drives the evaporation. The mechanical recompression evaporator typically requires no main process steam, cooling water, or process steam condenser. The economy is in the range of what could be achieved by a 10- to 20-effect evaporator. The technique of mechanical recompression evaporation is not wet. The chemical process industries (CPI) in North American and Europe began using it extensively in the 1970s, probably as a results of the oil crisis. And, it will continue to play a major role in the removal of water for process applications. This article explains what mechanical recompression evaporation is, its advantages and disadvantages, and where it can be used. It also provides guidance on selecting the evaporator and compressor--the most important components of a mechanical recompression evaporation system.

Ward, A.

1994-04-01

146

THE ROLE OF AQUEOUS THIN FILM EVAPORATIVE COOLING ON RATES OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR-WATER EXCHANGE UNDER TEMPERATURE DISEQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The technical conununity has only recently addressed the role of atmospheric temperature variations on rates of air-water vapor phase toxicant exchange. The technical literature has documented that: 1) day time rates of elemental mercury vapor phase air-water exchange can exceed ...

147

PanSNPdb: The Pan-Asian SNP Genotyping Database Chumpol Ngamphiw1,2  

E-print Network

PanSNPdb: The Pan-Asian SNP Genotyping Database Chumpol Ngamphiw1,2 , Anunchai Assawamakin1 *, the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium" 1 National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC, South Korea, 7 Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Abstract The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP

Xu, Shuhua

148

Evaporative Deposition in Receding Drops  

E-print Network

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a constant evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as $\\eta(r) \\propto \\left(\\left(r/a_0\\right)^{-1/2}-r/a_0\\right)$, where $r$ is the radius from the drop center and $a_0$ is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops.

Julian Freed-Brown

2014-10-02

149

Evaporative deposition in receding drops.  

PubMed

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a uniform evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as ?(r) ? ((r/a0)(-1/2)-r/a0), where r is the radius from the drop center and a0 is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops. PMID:25350152

Freed-Brown, Julian

2014-12-21

150

Protein antifouling mechanisms of PAN UF membranes incorporating PAN g-PEO additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifouling mechanism of a novel polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive, polyacrylonitrile-graft-polyethylene oxide (PAN-g-PEO), has been investigated using a laboratory-scale cross-flow test unit and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In fouling tests with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, PAN UF membranes incorporating 20% PAN-g-PEO possessed excellent antifouling characteristics, whereas a commercial PAN UF membrane

Seoktae Kang; Ayse Asatekin; Anne M. Mayes; Menachem Elimelech

2007-01-01

151

Optical runaway evaporation for multi-BEC production  

E-print Network

We report on parallel production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in steerable, multi-plexed crossed optical dipole traps. Using a trap-weakening evaporation scheme, where the optical trapping power is lowered, we obtain an array of up to four independent similarly sized BECs. In the weakening scheme the elastic collision rate decreases with time, leading to inefficient evaporation. As an efficient alternative, we demonstrate an all-optical evaporation scheme, where a ghost tweezer beam near a trapping site establishes an escape route for hot atoms, without compromising trap stiffness. The ghost beam scheme leads to runaway evaporation and is particularly suited for simultaneous evaporative cooling at multiple trap sites.

Deb, Amita; Kjærgaard, Niels

2014-01-01

152

CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

153

Evaporation of Lennard-Jones Fluids  

E-print Network

Evaporation and condensation at a liquid/vapor interface are ubiquitous interphase mass and energy transfer phenomena that are still not well understood. We have carried out large scale molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids composed of monomers, dimers, or trimers to investigate these processes with molecular detail. For LJ monomers in contact with a vacuum, the evaporation rate is found to be very high with significant evaporative cooling and an accompanying density gradient in the liquid domain near the liquid/vapor interface. Increasing the chain length to just dimers significantly reduces the evaporation rate. We confirm that mechanical equilibrium plays a key role in determining the evaporation rate and the density and temperature profiles across the liquid/vapor interface. The velocity distributions of evaporated molecules and the evaporation and condensation coefficients are measured and compared to the predictions of an existing model based on kinetic theory of gases. Our results indicate that for both monatomic and polyatomic molecules, the evaporation and condensation coefficients are equal when systems are not far from equilibrium and smaller than one, and decrease with increasing temperature. For the same reduced temperature $T/T_c$, where $T_c$ is the critical temperature, these two coefficients are higher for LJ dimers and trimers than for monomers, in contrast to the traditional viewpoint that they are close to unity for monatomic molecules and decrease for polyatomic molecules. Furthermore, data for the two coefficients collapse onto a master curve when plotted against a translational length ratio between the liquid and vapor phase.

Shengfeng Cheng; Jeremy B. Lechman; Steven J. Plimpton; Gary S. Grest

2011-01-27

154

Mixed feed evaporator  

DOEpatents

In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

Vakil, Himanshu B. (Schenectady, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1982-01-01

155

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01

156

Panning for Gold and Magnetite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students can learn to pan for gold and magnetite. They will learn skills such as making observations under field conditions and watching out for poison ivy. They will see the effects of stream flow on sediments and observe sedimentary structures such as stream bars and islands, observe that different sizes of sediment are located in different parts of the stream, distinguish between different sizes of sediment, and recognize that different minerals are different colors. In addition, they can estimate and weigh the content of magnetite and nonmagnetite, observe crystal shapes of some of the mineral grains, and discuss why magnets pick up magnetite but not nonmagnetic grains. Choose desired title from main listing of activities to access individual exercises.

Robbins, Eleanora

157

Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch  

E-print Network

Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch J. Tanny a covariance Footprint model Evaporation measurements Evaporation models Wind Radiation s u m m a r y- tions in inflow and outflow rates, thereby complicating the measurement and modeling of evaporation

Katul, Gabriel

158

WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any fouling of reboiler or other loop piping. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator will be used in the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant tests. Additionally, the Pilot-Scale design can easily accommodate hardware changes that result from the development of the full-scale evaporator to resolve any issues arising from the startup or operation of the full-scale facility.

QURESHI, ZAFAR

2004-03-01

159

Relationships between PAN and ozone at sites in eastern North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of ozone and PAN (peroxyacetic nitric anhydride) were made at four sites in eastern North America; Bondville, Illinois, Egbert, Ontario, Scotia, Pennsylvania, and Whitetop Mountain, Virginia., in July and August of 1988 as part of a study of regional oxidant photochemistry. The concentrations of PAN ranged from <0.010 to 9.2 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) and those of O3 ranged from <2 to 139 ppbv. Diurnal concentration profiles showed PAN and O3 to be removed within nocturnal boundary layers, especially if nitric oxide was present, and that O3 was, for most sites, more rapidly removed than PAN. The only mountain top site at which PAN was measured showed distinctly different diurnal profiles in which O3 was actually higher at night, suggesting that convective flow driven by surface cooling served to transport air down from higher in the mixed layer at night. The afternoon production of PAN and O3 was also apparent and led to an overall linear correlation of O3 and PAN between the hours of 1300 and 1800. The comparison of this result with other measurements, estimates of PAN formation rates, and model calculations indicates that the production of PAN relative to ozone is far greater (x3) than can be accounted for by acetaldehyde reactions with OH, there is a wide disparity in model descriptions of PAN production, and confirms the non-linear dependence of O3 production on NOx.

Roberts, J. M.; Tanner, R. L.; Newman, L.; Bowersox, V. C.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Anlauf, K. G.; Brice, K. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Buhr, M. P.; Meagher, J. F.; Bailey, E. M.

1995-11-01

160

Interaction of Nonequilibrium Plasma with an Evaporating Metal Drop1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical model of process of metal drop evaporation in plasma vacuum arc was cre- ated. The model predicts a new mode of drop heat- ing when the drop temperature and its evaporation rate increase as a result of ionization of the evapo- rated material. It is shown, that the given mode exists for substances with high melting tempera- ture

A. G. Sitnikov; A. V. Kozyrev

161

A new approach to separate local vs. global climate change effects - the example of Dead-Sea evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural evaporation in the Dead-Sea is a very important meteorological parameter to the local industries at Sdom. It was found that the pan evaporation in Sdom has recently increased by 20-25%. We explore the reasons for this increase. It is found that both large-scale and local climatic changes have contributed to the evaporation increase in the Dead Sea, Sdom.

M. Shafir; Alpert

2009-01-01

162

3 CFR 8957 - Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013  

...false Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013 8957 Proclamation 8957 Presidential...Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013 Proc. 8957 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013By the...

2014-01-01

163

Effects of Evaporation and Thermocapillary Convection on Spreading and Contact Angle of Volatile Liquid Droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an experimental investigation of evaporating sessile drops on a glass-slide surface for three volatile liquids show that both evaporation and thermocapillary convection in the sessile drop strongly affect the drop spreading and contact angle. The evolution of contact diameter of the drops can be divided into four stages: (1) initial spreading; (2) spreading-evaporation balance; (3) evaporation-dominating contraction; and (4) final rapid contraction. Molecular-kinetic spreading always occurs in the early first stage and is rapidly restrained and then taken over by the effects of evaporation. Thermocapillary convection, induced by the evaporation, promotes the competition of evaporation over the spreading and shortens the spreading-evaporation balance stage to become undetectable. Evaporation may increase or decrease the contact angle of the evaporating sessile drops, depending on the evaporation rate.

Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

2000-01-01

164

Evaporation in equilibrium, in vacuum, and in hydrogen gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporation experiments were conducted for SiO2 in three different conditions: in equilibrium, in vacuum, and in hydrogen gas. Evaporation rate in vacuum is about two orders of magnitude smaller than that in equilibrium, which is consistent with previous works. The rate in hydrogen gas changes depending on hydrogen pressure. The rate at 10 exp -7 bar of hydrogen pressure is as small as that of free evaporation, but at 10 exp -5 bar of hydrogen pressure it is larger than that in equilibrium. In equilibrium and in vacuum, the evaporation rate is limited by decomposition of SiO2 on the crystal surface, but it is limited by a diffusion process for evaporation in hydrogen gas. Therefore, evaporation rate of minerals in the solar nebula can be shown neither by that in equilibrium nor by that in vacuum. The maximum temperature of the solar nebula at the midplane at 2-3 AU where chondrites are believed to have originated is calculated to be as low as 150 K, 1500 K, or in between them. The temperature is, in any case, not high enough for total evaporation of the interstellar materials. Therefore, evaporation of interstellar materials is one of the most important processes for the origin and fractionation of solid materials. The fundamental process of evaporation of minerals has been intensively studied for these several years. Those experiments were carried out either in equilibrium or in vacuum; however, evaporation in the solar nebula is in hydrogen (and much smaller amount of helium) gas. In order to investigate evaporation rate and compositional (including isotopic) fractionation during evaporation, vaporization experiments for various minerals in various conditions are conducted. At first, SiO2 was adopted for a starting material, because thermochemical data and its nature of congruent vaporization are well known. Experiments were carried out in a vacuum furnace system.

Nagahara, Hiroko

1993-01-01

165

Mobile evaporator corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

1997-05-01

166

Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): Determination of its deposition velocity at night from measurements of the atmospheric PAN and 222Radon concentration gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the field campaign POPCORN (Photooxidant Formation by Plant Emitted Compounds and OH-Radicals in North-Eastern Germany) in August 1994 we measured the nighttime deposition velocities of PAN above a corn field. These are the first absolute measurements of PAN deposition velocities in the field. The deposition velocities were derived using a novel method, which uses measurements of the gradients of PAN and 222Rn and of the emission rates of 222Rn from the soil. A unique data set of about 250 field measurements of the PAN deposition velocity at night was thus obtained. The deposition velocity at night proved to be highly variable with an average of 0.54 cm/s and a standard deviation of 0.94 cm/s. Recent presumptions by Shepson et al. [1992] that the PAN deposition velocity is strongly reduced with increasing relative humidity could not be confirmed by our measurements.

Schrimpf, Wolfram; Lienaerts, Karlheinz; Müller, Klaus Peter; Rudolph, Jochen; Neubert, Rolf; Schüßler, Wolfram; Levin, Ingeborg

167

Internal dynamics of evaporating droplets  

SciTech Connect

The full Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation are solved for the fluid inside and outside of a droplet using a front tracking/finite difference method. The boundaries of the domain are taken periodic in the horizontal direction and wall bounded in the vertical direction. The behavior of a two-dimensional deformable liquid drop in zero gravity is studied and the dynamics of the flow is analyzed. The effects of governing nondimensional parameters on the evaporation rate are also discussed.

Esmaeeli, A.; Arpaci, V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics; Chai, A.T. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

168

Surface energy partitioning during evaporation from drying porous media (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of incoming radiative energy over evaporating natural surfaces affects mass and energy exchange rates with the atmosphere, and surface temperature often used for remote estimation of fluxes. The coupling between evaporation flux and surface temperature is modeled in a representative unit cell composed of a pore and surrounding dry surface. An analytical solution for the surface temperature was derived based on pore scale diffusion model for the evaporative flux coupled with surface energy balance including heat exchange across pore walls. Model predictions for evaporative flux and thermal field during drying were in good agreement with experimental results. The analysis shows that commonly assumed isothermal evaporation conditions (where surface and air temperatures are similar) may yield 15 to 40% overestimation in evaporation rates relative to non-isothermal conditions (where evaporation rates affect surface temperature). Theoretical results suggest that for high shortwave radiation values, most evaporating surfaces will gradually warm up and enhance evaporation rates relative to isothermal conditions. The model was used to predict the evolution of surface energy partitioning and concurrent changes in the Bowen ratio and ? parameter of the Priestley-Taylor relations for a range of surfaces and climatic conditions. Applications for remote sensing and large scale inferences will be discussed.

Or, D.; Aminzadeh, M.

2013-12-01

169

Thermal signatures help deduce evaporative fluxes into turbulent airflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporative fluxes and energy balance of terrestrial surfaces are affected by interplay between water availability, energy input, and exchange across the air boundary layer. Commonly occurring turbulent airflows impose complex and highly dynamic boundary conditions that challenge prediction of surface evaporation rates. During stage-I evaporation where the vaporization plane is at the surface, intermittent turbulent interactions with the surface give rise to distinct thermal signatures that could be recorded using infrared thermography (IRT). The study links measured thermal signatures with spatio-temporal distribution of eddy-induced localized evaporation rates towards characterization of turbulent momentum field and estimation of overall evaporative fluxes. Results highlight potential of the approach for remote quantification of interactions between turbulent eddies and evaporating surfaces. Surface thermal inertia present a challenge to high resolution implementation, and strategies for overcoming these are presented including applications to plant canopies (low thermal inertia surfaces). Applications for larger scales will be discussed.

Haghighi, E.; Or, D.

2013-12-01

170

TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer.

Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

2009-01-27

171

The continuous similarity model of bulk soil-water evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuous similarity model of evaporation is described. In it, evaporation is conceptualized as a two stage process. For an initially moist soil, evaporation is first climate limited, but later it becomes soil limited. During the latter stage, the evaporation rate is termed evaporability, and mathematically it is inversely proportional to the evaporation deficit. A functional approximation of the moisture distribution within the soil column is also included in the model. The model was tested using data from four experiments conducted near Phoenix, Arizona; and there was excellent agreement between the simulated and observed evaporation. The model also predicted the time of transition to the soil limited stage reasonably well. For one of the experiments, a third stage of evaporation, when vapor diffusion predominates, was observed. The occurrence of this stage was related to the decrease in moisture at the surface of the soil. The continuous similarity model does not account for vapor flow. The results show that climate, through the potential evaporation rate, has a strong influence on the time of transition to the soil limited stage. After this transition, however, bulk evaporation is independent of climate until the effects of vapor flow within the soil predominate.

Clapp, R. B.

1983-01-01

172

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOEpatents

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01

173

A Hundred Years of Peter Pan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centenary of the first performance of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan was celebrated in December 2004. Taking account of the various events in Britain to mark the occasion--newspaper articles, radio and television programmes, retrospects in the original theatre--this article examines the status and popularity of Peter Pan after a hundred years. The…

Hollindale, Peter

2005-01-01

174

Peroxyacetyl Nitrates: Ozone in the cooling PAN  

E-print Network

mentioned in the Clean Air Act of 1970 along with hydrogen peroxide and NO2 because there were difficu this damage. · This area was notorious for its air pollution · A Perfumery chemist, Arie Haagen- Smit of PAN · Trajectories of "Asian air" indicate that PAN, as well as other atmospheric chemicals were

Toohey, Darin W.

175

Indianapolis: Union Station and Pan America Plaza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thomas Rodd’s design of Indianapolis Union Station shows influence of noted architect Henry Hobson Richardson. Also shown here is the Pan American Plaza, built in 1987 to commemorate the Pan American Games held in town. The Union Station still serves light rail service to Washington, DC and Chicago, but has been mostly reinvented as retail space, a hotel, and other

Chet Smolski; Thomas Rodd

1993-01-01

176

Spectroscopic Atmospheric Calibration for Pan-STARRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project, as part of a National Science Foundation REU summer program, explores the feasibility of a new atmospheric calibration system that would involve mounting a small, Spectroscopic Sky Probe (SSP) on the side of the Pan-STARRS telescope in order to use its measurements for atmospheric calibration purposes. The Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System) will use the

Kimberly DeRose

2007-01-01

177

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the urban atmosphere.  

PubMed

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in air has been well known as the indicator of photochemical smog due to its frequent occurrences in Seoul metropolitan area. This study was implemented to assess the distribution characteristics of atmospheric PAN in association with relevant parameters measured concurrently. During a full year period in 2011, PAN was continuously measured at hourly intervals at two monitoring sites, Gwang Jin (GJ) and Gang Seo (GS) in the megacity of Seoul, South Korea. The annual mean concentrations of PAN during the study period were 0.64±0.49 and 0.57±0.46 ppb, respectively. The seasonal trends of PAN generally exhibited dual peaks in both early spring and fall, regardless of sites. Their diurnal trends were fairly comparable to each other. There was a slight time lag (e.g., 1 h) in the peak occurrence pattern between O3 and PAN, as the latter trended to peak after the maximum UV irradiance period (16:00 (GJ) and 17:00 (GS)). The concentrations of PAN generally exhibited strong correlations with particulates. The results of this study suggest that PAN concentrations were affected sensitively by atmospheric stability, the wet deposition of NO2, wind direction, and other factors. PMID:23838043

Lee, Jun-Bok; Yoon, Joong-Sup; Jung, Kweon; Eom, Seok-Won; Chae, Young-Zoo; Cho, Seog-Ju; Kim, Shin-Do; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2013-11-01

178

Dry deposition of pan to grassland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN (CH{sub 3}C(O)OONO{sub 2}) is formed in the lower troposphere via photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). PAN has a lifetime in the free troposphere of about three months and is removed by photolysis or reaction with OH. Dry deposition will decrease its lifetime, although the few measurements that have been made indicate that this process is slow. Measurements of the uptake of PAN by alfalfa in growth chambers indicated that the dry deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration at a specified height) was 0.75 cm s{sup {minus}1}. Garland and Penkett measured a dry deposition velocity of 0.25 cm s{sup {minus}1} for PAN to grass and soil in a return-flow wind tunnel. Shepson et al. (1992) analyzed trends of PAN and O{sub 3} concentrations in the stable nocturnal boundary layer over mixed deciduous/coniferous forests at night, when leaf stomata were closed, and concluded that the deposition velocity for PAN was at least 0.5 cm s{sup {minus}1}. We measured the dry deposition velocity of PAN to a grassland site in the midwestern United States with a modified Bowen ratio technique. Experiments were conducted on selected days during September, October, and November of 1990. An energy balance Bowen ratio station was used to observe the differences in air temperature and water vapor content between heights of 3.0 and 0.92 m and to evaluate the surface energy balance. Air samples collected at the same two heights in Teflon {reg_sign} bags were analyzed for PAN by a gas chromatographic technique. We present an example of the variations of PAN concentrations and gradients observed during the day and compare measurements of the dry deposition velocity to expectations based on the physicochemical properties of PAN.

Doskey, P.V.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Gao, W.

1994-01-01

179

Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

2013-04-01

180

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

E-print Network

Atomic hydrogen escaping from the extrasolar giant planet HD209458b provides the largest observational signature ever detected for an extrasolar planet atmosphere. In fact, the upper atmosphere of this planet is evaporating. Observational evidences and interpretations coming from various models are reviewed. Implications for exoplanetology are discussed.

David Ehrenreich

2008-07-11

181

3, 12151248, 2006 Evaporation  

E-print Network

flow through the column which compensates the latent heat of evaporation. 1 Introduction Movement primarily operate in this range, including groundwater recharge and solute transport through soils phase of an experiment are10 thought to be well-understood and are attributed to the onset of the heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Pan coefficient ( K p) estimation under uncertainty on fetch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FAO Penman-Monteith (F-PM) method is a frequently applied approach for calculating the daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0). This method requires long records of meteorological data, which makes it quite hard to employ in locations with no or limited available data. Evaporation pans are widely used to estimate the reference ET0, but this method requires reliable estimates of the pan coefficient ( K p). The objectives of this study were to determine the proper values of monthly and annual K p, as well as the best method among those available for the estimation of K p values in the study area. Measured weather data from 1992 to 2006 were obtained from 18 stations in the North and Northwest of Iran. Daily ET0 calculated using methods by Bernardo et al. and Pereira et al. were compared with those calculated by the F-PM method. The employed methods at all stations, except those located in the north of the study area with high relative humidity, overestimated the ET0 compared to the F-PM method. The constant parameters of these methods were optimized by a trial and error scheme to minimize the root mean square error. The results indicated that modified K p coefficients from Bernardo et al.'s method ranged between 0.41 and 0.87 and the optimal coefficient of Pereira et al.'s method ranged between 0.49 and 0.95. Modified monthly K p from Bernardo et al.'s method ranged between 0.3 and 1.07 and those from Pereira et al.'s method ranged between 0.4 and 1.18. Modified K p of the methods by Bernardo et al. and Pereira et al. showed the higher estimation accuracy of daily ET0 values. In general, the performance of the modified K p of Bernardo et al.'s method was higher than Pereira et al.'s method for all stations. Thus, in the study region and under the same climatic conditions [in areas with only pan evaporation ( E p) records], the use of climatic monthly modified K p to calculate ET0 based on class A E p is recommended.

Mohammadi, M.; Ghahraman, B.; Davary, K.; Liaghat, A. M.; Bannayan, M.

2012-07-01

183

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky  

E-print Network

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky rates of pump oil and several alkanes, which have a wide range of applications. Both static and dynamic the evaporation rate). The alkanes were compared using the activation energy required for evaporation as model

Volinsky, Alex A.

184

Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.

Silveira, D. M.; Cesar, C. L. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom) and Cockroft Institute, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Friesen, T.; Hydomako, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); and others

2013-03-19

185

Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power

1976-01-01

186

Experimental study on water evaporation from sand using environmental chamber  

E-print Network

and various drying durations were imposed on the soil sample. Atmospheric parameters (air flow rate, relative. The results show that the air and soil temperatures depend on the evaporation process and atmosphericARTICLE Experimental study on water evaporation from sand using environmental chamber Wei-Kang Song

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

On the motion of an intensely heated evaporating boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In deep penetration welding and cutting (by a laser or an electron beam) the surface of a metal is strongly evaporated and a hole develops. The maximum rate of penetration into a given material is simply shown to be proportional to beam power density. There is an initial pre-heating time before the surface starts to evaporate which for any given

J. G. Andrews; D. R. Atthey

1975-01-01

188

Evaporation determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation was determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake during the open water periods of 1982-1987. For all years, evaporation rates were low in spring and fall and highest during the summer. However, the times of highest evaporation rates varied during the 6 yr. Evaporation reached maximum rates in July for three of the years, in June for two of the years, and in August for one of the years. The highest evaporation rate during the 6-yr study was 0.46 cm d-1 during 27 May-4 June 1986 and 15-21 July 1987. Solar radiation and atmospheric radiation input to the lake and long-wave radiation emitted from the lake were by far the largest energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water, and ground water had little effect on evaporation rates. In the energy-budget method, average evaporation rates are determined for energy-budget periods, which are bounded by the dates of thermal surveys of the lake. Our study compared evaporation rates calculated for short periods, usually ???1 week, with evaporation rates calculated for longer periods, usually ???2 weeks. The results indicated that the shorter periods showed more variability in evaporation rates, but seasonal patterns, with few exceptions, were similar.

Winter, T. C.; Buso, D. C.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Likens, G. E.; Sturrock, Jr. , A. M.; Mau, D. P.

2003-01-01

189

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9 K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise CPT test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Wilding, D. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)

2010-07-02

190

Hybrid Evaporative - Condenser Cooling Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to save energy in power producing and power consuming systems and the fact that evaporative cooling is the most efficient method for heat rejection led to the design and testing of a model of a special cooling tower, fn this hybrid system an evaporative condenser is being built into the cooling tower and the advantages of evaporative cooling

Uriyel Fisher; Wolfgang Leidenfrost; Jiashang Li

1981-01-01

191

From Paresis to PANDAS and PANS  

MedlinePLUS

... to PANDAS and PANS Subscribe to Blog Recent Posts Depression, Daughters, and Cellular Aging October 23, 2014 ... Beyond - Services Research for ASD September 11, 2014 Posts by Year 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 ...

192

Eddy covariance fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN, and MPAN) above a Ponderosa pine forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2007 (BEARPEX-2007), we observed eddy covariance (EC) fluxes of speciated acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs), including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) and peroxymethacryloyl nitrate (MPAN), above a Ponderosa pine forest in the western Sierra Nevada. All APN fluxes are net downward during the day, with a median midday PAN exchange velocity of -0.3 cm s-1; nighttime storage-corrected APN EC fluxes are smaller than daytime fluxes but still downward. Analysis with a standard resistance model shows that loss of PAN to the canopy is not controlled by turbulent or molecular diffusion. Stomatal uptake contributes to 25 50% of the observed downward PAN flux. Vertical gradients in the PAN thermal decomposition (TD) rate explain a similar fraction of the flux, suggesting that a significant portion of the PAN flux into the forest results from chemical processes in the canopy. The remaining "unidentified" portion of the net PAN flux (~15%) is ascribed to deposition or reactive uptake on non-stomatal surfaces (e.g. leaf cuticles or soil). Shifts in temperature, moisture and ecosystem activity during the summer fall transition alter the relative contribution of stomatal uptake, non-stomatal uptake and thermochemical gradients to the net PAN flux. Daytime PAN and MPAN exchange velocities are a factor of 3 smaller than those of PPN during the first two weeks of the measurement period, consistent with strong intra-canopy chemical production of PAN and MPAN during this period. The depositional loss of APNs can be 3 21% of the gross gas-phase TD loss depending on temperature. As a source of nitrogen to the biosphere, PAN deposition is approximately 4 19% of that due to dry deposition of nitric acid at this site.

Wolfe, G. M.; Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Thornton, J. A.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Lafranchi, B.; Min, K.-E.; Cohen, R. C.

2008-09-01

193

Eddy covariance fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN and MPAN) above a Ponderosa pine forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2007 (BEARPEX-2007), we observed eddy covariance (EC) fluxes of speciated acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs), including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) and peroxymethacryloyl nitrate (MPAN), above a Ponderosa pine forest in the western Sierra Nevada. All APN fluxes are net downward during the day, with a median midday PAN exchange velocity of -0.3 cm s-1; nighttime storage-corrected APN EC fluxes are smaller than daytime fluxes but still downward. Analysis with a standard resistance model shows that loss of PAN to the canopy is not controlled by turbulent or molecular diffusion. Stomatal uptake can account for 25 to 50% of the observed downward PAN flux. Vertical gradients in the PAN thermal decomposition (TD) rate explain a similar fraction of the flux, suggesting that a significant portion of the PAN flux into the forest results from chemical processes in the canopy. The remaining "unidentified" portion of the net PAN flux (~15%) is ascribed to deposition or reactive uptake on non-stomatal surfaces (e.g. leaf cuticles or soil). Shifts in temperature, moisture and ecosystem activity during the summer - fall transition alter the relative contribution of stomatal uptake, non-stomatal uptake and thermochemical gradients to the net PAN flux. Daytime PAN and MPAN exchange velocities are a factor of 3 smaller than those of PPN during the first two weeks of the measurement period, consistent with strong intra-canopy chemical production of PAN and MPAN during this period. Depositional loss of APNs can be 3-21% of the gross gas-phase TD loss depending on temperature. As a source of nitrogen to the biosphere, PAN deposition represents approximately 4-19% of that due to dry deposition of nitric acid at this site.

Wolfe, G. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Yatavelli, R. L. N.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Lafranchi, B.; Min, K.-E.; Cohen, R. C.

2009-01-01

194

Disk-Evaporation Fed Corona: Structure and Evaporation Feature with Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

The disk-corona evaporation model naturally interprets many observational phenomena in black hole X-ray binaries, such as the truncation of an accretion disk and the spectral state transitions. On the other hand, magnetic field is known to play an important role in transporting angular momentum and producing viscosity in accretion flows. In this work, we explicitly take the magnetic field in the accretion disk corona into account and numerically calculate the coronal structure on the basis of our two-temperature evaporation code. We show that the magnetic field influences the coronal structure by its contribution to the pressure, energy and radiative cooling in the corona and by decreasing the vertical heat conduction. We found that the maximal evaporation rate keeps more or less constant ($\\sim 0.03$ Eddington rate) while the strength of magnetic fields changes, but that the radius corresponding to the maximal evaporation rate decreases with increasing magnetic field. This predicts that the spectral state transition always occurs at a few percent of Eddington accretion rate, while the inner edge of thin disk can be at $\\sim 100 R_{\\rm S} $ or even less in the hard state before the transition to the soft state. These results alleviate the problem that previous evaporation models predict too large a truncation radius, and are in better agreement with the observational results of several black hole X-ray binaries, though discrepancies remain.

Lei Qian; B. F. Liu; Xue-Bing Wu

2007-07-03

195

Formation and Evaporation of Charged Black Holes  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamical formation and evaporation of a spherically symmetric charged black hole. We study the self-consistent one loop order semiclassical back-reaction problem. To this end the mass-evaporation is modeled by an expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of a neutral massless scalar field, while the charge is not radiated away. We observe the formation of an initially non extremal black hole which tends toward the extremal black hole $M=Q$, emitting Hawking radiation. If also the discharge due to the instability of vacuum to pair creation in strong electric fields occurs, then the black hole discharges and evaporates simultaneously and decays regularly until the scale where the semiclassical approximation breaks down. We calculate the rates of the mass and the charge loss and estimate the life-time of the decaying black holes.

Evgeny Sorkin; Tsvi Piran

2001-03-25

196

The Pan-STARRS discovery machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-STARRS System has proven to be a remarkable machine for discovery. The PS1 Science Mission has drawn to a close, and the second Pan-STARRS survey, optimized for NEO's has begun. PS2 is in the commissioning stages and will eventually support NEO discovery as well. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. Science results related to planetary studies and the dust will be presented. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

Chambers, Kenneth C.

2014-11-01

197

Infrared thermography of evaporative fluxes and dynamics of salt deposition on heterogeneous porous surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation of saline solutions from porous media, common in arid areas, involves complex interactions between mass transport, energy exchange and phase transitions. We quantified evaporation of saline solutions from heterogeneous sand columns under constant hydraulic boundary conditions to focus on effects of salt precipitation on evaporation dynamics. Mass loss measurements and infrared thermography were used to quantify evaporation rates. The latter method enables quantification of spatial and temporal variability of salt precipitation to identify its dynamic effects on evaporation. Evaporation from columns filled with texturally-contrasting sand using different salt solutions revealed preferential salt precipitation within the fine textured domains. Salt precipitation reduced evaporation rates from the fine textured regions by nearly an order of magnitude. In contrast, low evaporation rates from coarse-textured regions (due to low capillary drive) exhibited less salt precipitation and consequently less evaporation rate suppression. Experiments provided insights into two new phenomena: (1) a distinct increase in evaporation rate at the onset of evaporation; and (2) a vapor pumping mechanism related to the presence of a salt crust over semidry media. Both phenomena are related to local vapor pressure gradients established between pore water and the surface salt crust. Comparison of two salts: NaCl and NaI, which tend to precipitate above the matrix surface and within matrix pores, respectively, shows a much stronger influence of NaCl on evaporation rate suppression. This disparity reflects the limited effect of NaI precipitation on matrix resistivity for solution and vapor flows.

Nachshon, Uri; Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani; Dragila, Maria; Weisbrod, Noam

2011-12-01

198

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-print Network

/Calculations · T, %RH of input air (Control to 95°F) · Capacity of the cooling coils · hot water flow rate water tank Evaporator coil #12;Measurements/Calculations · T, %RH of input air (control to 95°F) · Capacity of the system · hot water flow rate · T · Total Power · COP (by division) · Air pressure

California at Davis, University of

199

Tried and True: Evaporating is cool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students hold misconceptions about evaporation. In this short exercise, students will apply the kinetic molecular theory to explain how cold water can evaporate and to observe the cooling effect of evaporation, and develop their own evaporation experiments.

Hand, Richard

2006-03-01

200

PAN-on-Demand: leveraging multiple radios to build self-organizing, energy-efficient pans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present PAN-on-Demand, a self-organizing wireless pers onal- area network (PAN) that balances performance and energy con - cerns by scaling the structure of the network to match the dem ands of applications. PAN-on-Demand autonomously organizes co -located mobile devices with one or more commodity radios such as Blue - tooth and Wi-Fi to form a network that enables data

Manish Anand; Jason Flinn

2008-01-01

201

Normal evaporation of binary alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study of normal evaporation, it is assumed that the evaporating alloy is homogeneous, that the vapor is instantly removed, and that the alloy follows Raoult's law. The differential equation of normal evaporation relating the evaporating time to the final solute concentration is given and solved for several important special cases. Uses of the derived equations are exemplified with a Ni-Al alloy and some binary iron alloys. The accuracy of the predicted results are checked by analyses of actual experimental data on Fe-Ni and Ni-Cr alloys evaporated at 1600 C, and also on the vacuum purification of beryllium. These analyses suggest that the normal evaporation equations presented here give satisfactory results that are accurate to within an order of magnitude of the correct values, even for some highly concentrated solutions. Limited diffusion and the resultant surface solute depletion or enrichment appear important in the extension of this normal evaporation approach.

Li, C. H.

1972-01-01

202

[Measurement and estimation methods and research progress of snow evaporation in forests].  

PubMed

Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future. PMID:24697085

Li, Hui-Dong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wu, Jia-Bing

2013-12-01

203

KEPLER PLANETS: A TALE OF EVAPORATION  

SciTech Connect

Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ?0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R{sub ?}. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ?0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M{sub ?} and the majority of them should have core masses of a few Earth masses.

Owen, James E. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Wu, Yanqin, E-mail: jowen@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: wu@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2013-10-01

204

Kepler Planets: A Tale of Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ~0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R ?. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ~0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M ? and the majority of them should have core masses of a few Earth masses.

Owen, James E.; Wu, Yanqin

2013-10-01

205

Catastrophic evaporation of rocky planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses ? 0.1 M? (less than twice the mass of Mercury) and surface temperatures ?2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in ?10 Gyr. When our model is applied to Kepler planet candidate KIC 12557548b - which is believed to be a rocky body evaporating at a rate of dot{M} gtrsim 0.1 M_{{{oplus }}} Gyr-1 - our model yields a present-day planet mass of ? 0.02 M? or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass-loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyr with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass-loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few per cent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10-100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-day periods whose hard-surface transits may be detectable by Kepler - if the progenitors are as large as their maximal, Mercury-like sizes (alternatively, the progenitors could be smaller and more numerous). According to our calculations, KIC 12557548b may have lost ˜70 per cent of its formation mass; today we may be observing its naked iron core.

Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

2013-08-01

206

The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

2014-08-01

207

Characteristic lengths for evaporation suppression from patchy porous surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For non-uniformly wet porous surfaces, evaporation rates vary nonlinearly with mean surface water content and with the areal fraction of wet patches. The nonlinearity stems from the complex vapor field forming over individual pores and patches that could enhance vapor fluxes from pores surrounded by dry area (relative to fluxes from the same area of free water surface). The resulting evaporation rates from such a surface are similar to free water surface evaporation despite considerably lower evaporating area (low surface water content). Theoretically, such flux compensation could be suppressed by lumping isolated pores into clusters with equal mean water content. The resulting arrangement in wet patches ensures nearly 1D conditions within the patch and some flux enhancement at the periphery. The interplay between patch water content, patch size, and mean surface water content within a prescribed air flow boundary layer was modeled analytically using single pore diffusion as a building block. Results show existence of a characteristic cluster size that yields the largest evaporation suppression for a given boundary layer thickness and spacing between patches. For patches larger than this size, the relative evaporation rate from patchy surface (relative to free water surface evaporation) reaches a predictable rate equal to the fractional area of clusters. Model predictions for the relation between pore cluster size and evaporation suppression were evaluated numerically and in a series of wind tunnel experiments using porous surfaces with different pore clusters. The findings could be used for the design of optimal porous covers for suppressing evaporation losses from water reservoirs, or for controlling evaporative drying from engineered porous surfaces.

Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

2014-05-01

208

Determining the Inception and Magnitude of Subsurface Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation from an initially wet soil occurs at the soil surface but further drying of surface soil with time results in the formation of a dry surface layer. At this stage, the evaporation front moves from the surface to the subsurface. This phenomenon occurs in a highly dynamic near-surface zone making it very challenging to know the location/depth of the evaporation front and to quantify the subsurface evaporation rate. Recent studies show that subsurface evaporation can be measured using a sensible heat balance approach by accounting for the latent heat flux originating below soil surface which is not taken into account in the traditional surface energy balance equation. The soil sensible energy balance approach has been successfully tested against mass balance for estimating evaporation under steady-state controlled lab conditions, as well as to a limited extent in the field. Limitations of the approach for field conditions include inability of instrumentation to quantify evaporation during the initial shift between surface and subsurface evaporation (i.e. when evaporation occurs at depths shallower than approximately 3 mm). The objectives of this study are to 1) find indicators of the change in the location of the evaporation front from surface to subsurface, and 2) test the sensible heat balance approach for quantifying evaporation from the inception of the subsurface evaporation zone. Recently introduced multi-needle heat pulse probes were used to make continuous soil temperature and thermal property measurements in the near-surface zone at the mm scale in a bare surface soil. Preliminary results from this investigation will be presented.

Deol, P. K.; Heitman, J.; Amoozegar, A.; Clayton Field Study Team

2011-12-01

209

Convective flows in evaporating sessile droplets.  

PubMed

The evaporation rate and internal convective flows of a sessile droplet with a pinned contact line were formulated and investigated numerically. We developed and analyzed a unified numerical model that includes the effects of temperature, droplet volume, and contact angle on evaporation rate and internal flows. The temperature gradient on the air/liquid interface causes an internal flow due to Marangoni stress, which provides good convective mixing within the droplet, depending upon Marangoni number. As the droplet volume decreases, the thermal gradient becomes smaller and the Marangoni flow becomes negligible. Simultaneously, as the droplet height decreases, evaporation-induced flow creates a large jet-like flow radially toward the contact line. For a droplet containing suspended particles, this jet-like convective flow carries particles toward the contact line and deposits them on the surface, forming the so-called "coffee ring stain". In addition, we reported a simple polynomial correlation for dimensionless evaporation time as a function of initial contact angle of the pinned sessile droplet which agrees well with the previous experimental and numerical results. PMID:24512008

Barmi, Meysam R; Meinhart, Carl D

2014-03-01

210

An evaporation model of colloidal suspension droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal suspensions of polymers in water or other solvents are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat tablets with different agents. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or physical appearance. The coating is performed by simultaneously spraying and drying the tablets with the colloidal suspension at moderately high temperatures. The spreading of the coating on the pills surface depends on the droplet Webber and Reynolds numbers, angle of impact, but more importantly on the rheological properties of the drop. We present a model for the evaporation of a colloidal suspension droplet in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the carrier fluid. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface, a compacting front advances into the droplet faster than the liquid surface regresses, forming a shell of a porous medium where the particles reach their maximum packing density. While the surface regresses, the evaporation rate is determined by both the rate at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and the rate at which liquid vapor is diffused away from it. This regime continues until the compacting front reaches the center of the droplet, at which point the evaporation rate is drastically reduced.

Sartori, Silvana; Li\\ Nán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

2009-11-01

211

Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

1995-11-01

212

PANs measurements on board theNOAA P-3 during TexAQS-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs, i.e. PAN, PPN, PiBN, APAN, MPAN, and MoPAN) were made using the NCAR PAN-CIGARette chemical ionization mass spectrometer on board the NOAA P-3 aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS-II). In this poster, we present the PANs measurements made during the flight on September 27th as a case study. Two separate plumes from Downtown Houston and the Houston Ship Channel were transported in parallel to the north on that day. The flight track crossed these plumes 8 times at increasing distances downwind, and according to the CO distribution, dilution with surrounding air masses was very slow. These conditions make this very nice case for a pollutant transport and chemistry study. The PAN/PPN ratio increased about 18% as the air mass moved away from the pollution source to the furthest leg which is about 130 km north of downtown Houston. As the photolysis rates for PAN and PPN are similar to each other and the thermal decomposition of PAN is faster than PPN, this ratio change is most likely owing to the difference in the chemistry of the source hydrocarbons for these two PAN species, and indicates a faster depletion of PPN precursors (mainly propanal and 1-butene) as the air masses get older. Also, the relative production of ozone and PANs for the Houston city plume and the ship channel plume are analyzed and compared for this flight, demonstrating the difference in the photochemical processes for urban pollution vs. petroleum industry emissions.

Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M. K.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Donnelly, S.; Holloway, J. S.

2007-12-01

213

75 FR 19181 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the enduring strength of Pan American solidarity. As we mourn these...expressed at the 1936 Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance...from our ancestors a great dream. We here offer it back as...proclaim April 14, 2010, as Pan American Day and April 11 through...

2010-04-14

214

Evaporation of a thin droplet on a thin substrate with a high thermal resistance  

E-print Network

Evaporation of a thin droplet on a thin substrate with a high thermal resistance G. J. Dunn1 , S. K, 5th February and 26th March 2009) Abstract A mathematical model for the quasi-steady evaporation uniform, the total evaporation rate is proportional to the surface area of the droplet, and the droplet

Mottram, Nigel

215

An evaporation estimation method based on the coupled 2-D turbulent heat and vapor transport equations  

E-print Network

An evaporation estimation method based on the coupled 2-D turbulent heat and vapor transport conditions and constant energy available at the evaporating surface yields a simple equation (i.e., the wet data, monthly, warm-season evaporation rates were estimated for five rectangular regions across

Szilagyi, Jozsef

216

On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation  

E-print Network

On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation Jozsef Szilagyi1. [1] New theoretical considerations indicate that the complementary relationship (CR) of evaporation is inherently asymmetric when the time rate of change between actual and apparent potential evaporations

Szilagyi, Jozsef

217

Estimation of Free Water Evaporation from Hamun Wetlands Using Satellite Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the application of satellite remote sensing to estimate free water surface evaporation a research was carried out in southeast of Iran, Sistan area and Hamun wetlands. An energy balance algorithm called HRSE (Hamun Remotely Sensed Evaporation) was used to estimate the evaporation rate using NOAA-AVHRR images. Energy balance components including net radiation and heat storage in water body

Peyman Daneshkar Arasteh; Massoud Tajrishy

218

Evaporation and canopy characteristics of coniferous forests and grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy-scale evaporation rate (E) and derived surface and aerodynamic conductances for the transfer of water vapour (gs and ga, respectively) are reviewed for coniferous forests and grasslands. Despite the extremes of canopy structure, the two vegetation types have similar maximum hourly evaporation rates (Emax) and maximum surface conductances (gsmax) (medians = 0.46 mm h-1 and 22 mm s-1). However, on

F. M. Kelliher; R. Leuning; E. D. Schulze

1993-01-01

219

Pattern formation in evaporating drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redistribution of organic solutes during drop evaporation is a nanoscale self assembly process with relevance to technologies ranging from inkjet printing of organic displays to synthesis of bio-smart interfaces for sensing and screening. Atomic force microscopy studies comparing the behavior of different generation dendrimers with different surface chemistry in two solvent alcohols on mica substrates confirm that the detailed morphologies of condensed dendrimer ring structures resulting from micro-droplet evaporation sensitively depend on the surface chemistry, the solute evaporation rate and the dendrimer generation. For the dilute concentration studied here the presence of periodically 'scalloped' molecular rings is ubiquitous. The instability wavelength of the scalloped rings is found to be proportional to the width of the ring, similar to observations of the rim instability in dewetting holes. The effect of the surface chemistry of the dendrimer molecules is obvious in the detailed structure of the self assembled rings. Varying the chain length of solvent alcohol leads to modification of ring patterns. The influence of dendrimer generation on ring structure primarily reflects the increase in dendrimer density with generation number. The evolution of G2-50%C12 -pentanol rings as a function of dendrimer concentration is also described. High surface mobility and phase transformation phenomena in condensed, micro-scale dendrimer structures are documented, again using atomic force microscopy. Stratified dendrimer rings undergo dramatic temperature, time and dendrimer generation dependent morphological changes associated with large-scale molecular rearrangements and partial melting. These transformations produce ring structures consisting of a highly stable first monolayer of the scalloped structure in equilibrium with spherical cap shaped dendrimer islands that form at the center of each pre-existing scallop (creating a 'pearl necklace' structure). Analysis of the dendrimer island shapes reveals a dependence of island contact angle on contact line curvature (island size) that varies systematically with dendrimer generation. The morphological transformations in this system indicate the potential for creating complex, dendrimer-based multilevel structures and macroscopic scale arrays using, for example, droplet-on-demand or dip pen nanolithography techniques, coupled with appropriate annealing and stabilizing treatments.

Li, Fang-I.

220

The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-STARRS1 is approaching the completion of the PS1 Science Mission. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. The PS1 3pi Survey has now covered the sky north of dec=-30 with more than 12 visits in five bands: g,r,i,z and y or over ~60 epochs per 0.25 arcsec resolution element on the sky. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

Chambers, Kenneth C.

2014-01-01

221

Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

Hixon, C. W.

1978-01-01

222

Optimization of evaporative fluid coolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper the optimization of geometrical and operating parameters for evaporative fluid coolers has been presented. The algorithm of optimizational calculations contains:•the mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in evaporative fluid coolers;•model of operating costs based, among others, on the Zalewski–Gryglaszewski relations developed by the authors for evaluation of air pressure drops in the heat exchanger;•model of evaporative

Wojciech Zalewski; Beata Niezgoda-?elasko; Marek Litwin

2000-01-01

223

The Pan-STARRS Large Survey Telescope Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical/near IR survey telescope system; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. The Pan-STARRS project is funded by the US Air Force and will consist of an array of four 1.8m telescopes with very large (7 square degree) field of view, giving it an etendue larger than all existing survey instruments combined. Each telescope will be equipped with a 1.4 billion pixel CCD camera with low noise and rapid read-out, and the data will be reduced in near real time to produce both cumulative static sky and difference images, from which transient, moving and variable objects can be detected. Pan-STARRS will be able to scan the entire visible sky to a detection limit of approximately 24th magnitude in less than a week. This unique combination of sensitivity and cadence will dramatically increase the discovery rate for moving objects and will thereby enable a wide range of solar system science goals. In particular, a major goal for the project is to survey potentially dangerous asteroids, where Pan-STARRS will be able to detect most objects down to 300m size, much smaller than the km size objects accessible to existing search programs. A single telescope system will be deployed on Haleakala, with first light early in 2006, and the full 4 telescope system will become operational towards the end of the decade.

Kaiser, N.; Pan-STARRS Project Team

2005-08-01

224

Isothermal evaporation of ethanol in a dynamic gas atmosphere.  

PubMed

Optimization of evaporation and pyrolysis conditions for ethanol are important in carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis. The activation enthalpy (?H(‡)), the activation entropy (?S(‡)), and the free energy barrier (?G(‡)) to evaporation have been determined by measuring the molar coefficient of evaporation, k(evap), at nine different temperatures (30-70 °C) and four gas flow rates (25-200 mL/min) using nitrogen and argon as carrier gases. At 70 °C in argon, the effect of the gas flow rate on k(evap) and ?G(‡) is small. However, this is not true at temperatures as low as 30 °C, where the increase of the gas flow rate from 25 to 200 mL/min results in a nearly 6 times increase of k(evap) and decrease of ?G(‡) by ~5 kJ/mol. Therefore, at 30 °C, the effect of the gas flow rate on the ethanol evaporation rate is attributed to interactions of ethanol with argon molecules. This is supported by simultaneous infrared spectroscopic analysis of the evolved vapors, which demonstrates the presence of different amounts of linear and cyclic hydrogen bonded ethanol aggregates. While the amount of these aggregates at 30 °C depends upon the gas flow rate, no such dependence was observed during evaporation at 70 °C. When the evaporation was carried out in nitrogen, ?G(‡) was almost independent of the evaporation temperature (30-70 °C) and the gas flow rate (25-200 mL/min). Thus the evaporation of ethanol in a dynamic gas atmosphere at different temperatures may go via different mechanisms depending on the nature of the carrier gas. PMID:22136647

Milev, Adriyan S; Wilson, Michael A; Kannangara, G S Kamali; Feng, Hai; Newman, Phillip A

2012-01-12

225

Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations  

SciTech Connect

Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss.

Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.

1989-03-01

226

Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical.  

PubMed

Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling, which led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed-matter phenomena. More recently, substantial progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases. Their permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate systems with varied and controllable phases, dynamics and chemistry. However, although advances have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not been achieved so far. This is due to unfavourable ratios of elastic to inelastic scattering and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. Here we report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH(•)) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least one order of magnitude in temperature, and a corresponding increase in phase-space density by three orders of magnitude, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and a sufficiently large initial population, much colder temperatures are possible; even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical (or anything else it can sympathetically cool) may be within reach. PMID:23257881

Stuhl, Benjamin K; Hummon, Matthew T; Yeo, Mark; Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John L; Ye, Jun

2012-12-20

227

Handedness in Captive Bonobos (Pan paniscus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species level right-handedness is often considered to be unique to humans. Handedness is held to be interrelated to our language ability and has been used as a means of tracing the evolution of language. Here we examine handedness in 3 captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus) comprising 22 individuals. We found no evidence for species level handedness. Conclusions that can

Rebecca M. Harrison; Pia Nystrom

2008-01-01

228

The Pan-STARRS Survey Telescope Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical/near IR survey telescope system; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. Pan-STARRS will consist of an array of four 1.8m telescopes with very large (7 square degree) field of view, giving it an etendue larger than all existing survey instruments combined. Each telescope will be equipped with a 1.4 billion pixel CCD camera with low noise and rapid read-out, and the data will be reduced in near real time to produce both cumulative static sky and difference images, from which transient, moving and variable objects can be detected. Pan-STARRS will be able to scan the entire visible sky to approximately 24th magnitude in less than a week, and this unique combination of sensitivity and cadence will open up many new possibilities in time domain astronomy. A major goal for the project is to survey potentially dangerous asteroids, where Pan-STARRS will be able to detect most objects down to 300m size, much smaller than the km size objects accessible to existing search programs. In addition, the Pan-STARRS data will used to address a wide range of astronomical problems in the Solar System, the Galaxy, and the Cosmos at large.

Kaiser, N.; Pan-STARRS Team

2005-12-01

229

Pan-STARRS1 3Pi transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-STARRS1 telescope has been carrying out the "3Pi" survey of the whole sky north of -30 degrees since 2010 in grizy (PS1 specific filters). Each region on the sky is typically visited four times a year in each filter.

Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Young, D. R.; Kotak, R.; Nicholl, M.; Polshaw, J.; Inserra, C.; Chen, T.-W.; Terreran, G.; Gall, E.; Fraser, M.; McCrum, M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R.; Lawrence, A.; Gezari, S.; Burgett, W.; Chambers, K.; Huber, M.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E.; Morgan, J.; Tonry, J.; Sweeney, W.; Stubbs, C. Waters C.; Kirshner, R.; Metcalfe, N.; Rest, P. Draper A.

2014-02-01

230

Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (˜160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (˜1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ˜10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60 °C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V.

2014-04-01

231

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

232

Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (?160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (?1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ?10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60?°C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24827255

Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

2014-04-01

233

Constraints on the Number Density of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes for the Chromospheric Evaporation Models  

E-print Network

Cosmic gamma-ray bursts with primary-photon energies > 10 GeV are sought in the data from the Andyrchy array obtained in the mode of detection of a single cosmic-ray component during a net observation period of 2005.4 d. The distribution of fluctuations of the detector counting rate agrees with the expected cosmic-ray background, the only exception being an event with a deviation of 7.9 sigma. Constraints on the number density of evaporating primordial black holes in a local region of the Galaxy are obtained for the chromospheric evaporation models.

V. B. Petkov; E. V. Bugaev; P. A. Klimai; D. V. Smirnov

2008-03-15

234

Evaporation of intercepted snow: measurement and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow storage on a coniferous forest canopy was measured using ?-ray attenuation and tree weighing systems, along with measurements of throughfall, using two plastic sheet net rainfall gauges. Meteorological parameters were measured with an automatic weather station. Estimates of evaporation of intercepted snow show an average rate of 0.24 mm h?1 and a maximum cumulative total of 3.9 mm in

Angela Lundberg; Ian Calder; Richard Harding

1998-01-01

235

The Pan-STARRS Survey Telescope Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical/near-IR survey telescope system; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. Pan-STARRS will employ 1.8m optical imagers very large (7 square degree) field of view and revolutionary 1.4 billion pixel CCD cameras with low noise and rapid read-out to provide broad band imaging from 400-1000nm wavelength. The project is proceeding in two phases: PS1 is a single aperture system that has been deployed on Haleakala on Maui and the full 4-aperture system PS4 will be sited on Mauna Kea and is scheduled to become operational in late 2010. The data from Pan-STARRS will be reduced in near real time to produce both a cumulative image of the static sky and difference images, from which transient, moving and variable objects can be detected. Pan-STARRS will be able to scan the entire visible sky to approximately 24th magnitude in less than a week, and this unique combination of sensitivity and cadence will open up many new possibilities in time domain astronomy. A major goal for the project is to survey potentially dangerous asteroids, where Pan-STARRS will be able to detect most objects down to 300m size, much smaller than the km size objects accessible to existing search programs. In addition, the Pan-STARRS data will provide a dramatic leap in data quality and extent over existing wide-field image durvey data that will be used to advance our understanding of the formation of the Solar System, the Galaxy, and the Cosmos at large. In this talk I will describe the science drivers for the project; review the technical design and performance metrics for various scientific gols; and give an update on the current status and future time-line of the project.

Kaiser, N.

236

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

237

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

1997-01-01

238

Thermal analysis of evaporative coolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop the conceptual design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of HOPE (Japanese orbiting plane planned to be launched by H2 rocket), the thermal model of the evaporative cooling system of the U.S. Space Shuttle was analyzed. This consists of Flash Evaporator Subsystem (FES) at high altitude and Ammonia Boiler Subsystem (ABS) at low altitude, both of

Masatoshi Ohuchi; Masao Furukawa; Koichi Oshima

1991-01-01

239

An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

2010-11-01

240

A simple method for evaluating the mixing efficiency of a new type of pan coater.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate some important process parameters on the mixing behavior of a new coater type. The coater used in this study, the Bohle BLC pan coater, differs from other coaters in its high length to diameter ratio. The pan coater can be divided into two zones: drying and spraying zone. The temperature difference between two points in the pan (one in each zone) was used to explore the influence of some process parameters, i.e. the pan speed and the inclination of the rotation axis on the mixing behavior. In addition, the effect of the spray rate on the temperature difference was studied. The results of the current study demonstrated the possibility to characterize the mixing behavior in a pan coater by a simple temperature measurement. The temperature difference method resulted in a model, which was comparable to the model from a conventional mixture experiment. It was shown that the pan speed and the spray rate influenced the temperature difference and, consequently, the mixing efficiency. However, the inclination of the rotation axis did not show an important effect. PMID:11472823

Tobiska, S; Kleinebudde, P

2001-08-14

241

Evaporation from groundwater discharge playas, Estancia Basin, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bowen ratio meteorological stations have been deployed to measure rates of evaporation from groundwater discharge playas and from an adjacent vegetated bench in the Estancia Basin, in central New Mexico. The playas are remnants of late Pleistocene pluvial Lake Estancia and are discharge areas for groundwater originating as precipitation in the adjacent Manzano Mts. They also accumulate water during local precipitation events. Evaporation is calculated from measured values of net radiation, soil heat flux, atmospheric temperature, and relative humidity. Evaporation rates are strongly dependent on the presence or absence of standing water in the playas, with rates increasing more than 600% after individual rainstorms. Evaporation at site E-12, in the southeastern part of the playa Complex, measured 74 cm over a yearlong period from mid-1997 through mid-1998. This value compares favorably to earlier estimates from northern Estancia playas, but is nearly three times greater than evaporation at a similar playa in western Utah. Differences in geographical position, salt crust composition, and physical properties may explain some of the difference in evaporation rates in these two geographic regions.

Menking, Kirsten M.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Allen, Bruce D.; Ellwein, Amy L.; Loveland, Thomas A.; Hostetler, Steven W.

2000-01-01

242

Externally Induced Evaporation of Young Stellar Disks in Orion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we propose a model for the evaporation of disks around young low-mass stars by external sources of high energy photons. Two evaporation techniques are possible. Lyman continuum radiation can ionize hydrogen at the disk surface powering a steady thermal ionized disk-wind, or FUV radiation can heat the disk through photo-electric grain processes powering a slower thermal neutral disk-wind. Applying these two models to the evaporating objects in the Trapezium produces a satisfactory solution to both the mass-loss rate and size of the ionized envelopes.

Johnstone, D.; Hollenbach, D.; Shu, F.

1996-01-01

243

Evaporation and Thermal Balance of Tiny HI Clouds  

E-print Network

We discuss the thermal evaporation of tiny HI clouds in the interstellar medium. Cold neutral clouds will take ~10^6 - 10^7 yr to evaporate if they are embedded in warm neutral gas and about half as long if embedded in hot gas. Heat flux saturation effects severely reduce the evaporation rate of tiny cold neutral medium (CNM) clouds into hot gas. For CNM clouds embedded in warm neutral medium (WNM) the much lower conductivity results in slower evaporation. This mass loss rate could still be significant, however, if the environment is relatively quiescent. Partial ionization of the WNM gas would substantially reduce the conductivity and lengthen the lifetime of the tiny HI clouds. The ultimate importance of thermal conduction to cloud evolution will depend on the role of turbulence and the characteristics of the medium in which the clouds are embedded.

Jonathan D. Slavin

2006-10-10

244

ENSO and multi-decadal 'trends' in continental evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the hydrological cycle is expected to intensify in response to global warming, little unequivocal evidence of such an acceleration has yet been found on a global scale. This holds in particular for terrestrial evaporation, the crucial return flow of water from continents to atmosphere. Counterintuitively, the few studies that have applied satellite and in situ observations to evaluate multi-decadal trends have uncovered prolonged declines in global average continental evaporation. A priori, these reductions contradict the expectations of an intensifying water cycle. Up to date, the question of whether these declines in evaporation reflect a more permanent feature of global warming or they result from internal climate variability, has been left unanswered. Here, we attempt to answer that question by analyzing global satellite-based datasets of evaporative fluxes, soil moisture and NDVI. Our findings reveal that the reported recent declines in global continental evaporation are not a consequence of a persistent reorganization of the water cycle, but a consequence of internal climate variability. During El Niño, limitations in the supply of moisture in central Australia, southern Africa and eastern South America cause vegetation water-stress and reduced terrestrial evaporation. These regional terrestrial evaporation declines are so pronounced that that determine the total annual volumes of water vapour from continental land surfaces into the atmosphere. Meanwhile, in northern latitudes (where the effects of ENSO are weaker) continental evaporation has raised since the '80s at rates that are consistent with the expectations calculated from air temperature trends. Future changes in continental evaporation will be determined by the response of ENSO to changes in global radiative forcing, which still remains highly uncertain. Opportunely, the increasing timespan of satellite observation records will enable a more significant assessment of the trends in global evaporation in coming years.

Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Ryan; van den Berg, Martinus; Gash, John; Parinussa, Robert; De Jeu, Richard; Beck, Hylke; Holmes, Thomas; Jiménez, Carlos; Verhoest, Niko; Dorigo, Wouter; Dolman, Han

2014-05-01

245

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

246

BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of salt pan regolith samples are presented in this study in an effort to understand the role of spatial and spectral variability of the natural biome. The samples were obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20 deg S, 15.93 deg E, alt. 1100 m). It is shown how the BRDF depends on the measurement geometry - incident and scatter angles and on the sample particle sizes. As a demonstration of the application of the results, airborne BRDF measurements acquires with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the regolith samples were collected are compared with the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory measured and field measured BRDF is reported.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

2008-01-01

247

Impact of ambient conditions on evaporation from porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

complexity of soil evaporation, depending on the atmospheric conditions, emphasizes the importance of its quantification under potential changes in ambient air temperature, Ta, and relative humidity, RH. Mass loss, soil matric tension, and meteorological measurements, carried out in a climate-controlled laboratory, were used to study the effect of ambient conditions on the drying rates of a porous medium. A set of evaporation experiments from initially saturated sand columns were carried out under constant Ta of 6, 15, 25, and 35°C and related RH (0.66, 0.83, 1.08, and 1.41 kPa, respectively). The results show that the expected increase of the stage 1 (S1) evaporation rate with Ta but also revealed an exponential-like reduction in the duration of S1, which decreased from 29 to 2.3 days (at Ta of 6 and 35°C, respectively). The evaporation rate, e(t), was equal to the potential evaporation, ep(t), under Ta = 6°C, while it was always smaller than ep(t) under higher Ta. The cumulative evaporation during S1 was higher under Ta = 6°C than under the higher temperatures. Evaporation rates during S2 were practically unaffected by ambient conditions. The results were analyzed using a mass transfer formulation linking e(t) with the vapor pressure deficit through a resistance coefficient r. It was shown that rS1 (the resistance during S1) is constant, indicating that the application of such an approach is straightforward during S1. However, for evaporation from a free water surface and S2, the resistances, rBL and rS2, were temperature-dependent, introducing some complexity for these cases.

Ben Neriah, Asaf; Assouline, Shmuel; Shavit, Uri; Weisbrod, Noam

2014-08-01

248

Influence of surface wettability on transport mechanisms governing water droplet evaporation.  

PubMed

Prediction and manipulation of the evaporation of small droplets is a fundamental problem with importance in a variety of microfluidic, microfabrication, and biomedical applications. A vapor-diffusion-based model has been widely employed to predict the interfacial evaporation rate; however, its scope of applicability is limited due to incorporation of a number of simplifying assumptions of the physical behavior. Two key transport mechanisms besides vapor diffusion-evaporative cooling and natural convection in the surrounding gas-are investigated here as a function of the substrate wettability using an augmented droplet evaporation model. Three regimes are distinguished by the instantaneous contact angle (CA). In Regime I (CA ? 60°), the flat droplet shape results in a small thermal resistance between the liquid-vapor interface and substrate, which mitigates the effect of evaporative cooling; upward gas-phase natural convection enhances evaporation. In Regime II (60 ? CA ? 90°), evaporative cooling at the interface suppresses evaporation with increasing contact angle and counterbalances the gas-phase convection enhancement. Because effects of the evaporative cooling and gas-phase convection mechanisms largely neutralize each other, the vapor-diffusion-based model can predict the overall evaporation rates in this regime. In Regime III (CA ? 90°), evaporative cooling suppresses the evaporation rate significantly and reverses entirely the direction of natural convection induced by vapor concentration gradients in the gas phase. Delineation of these counteracting mechanisms reconciles previous debate (founded on single-surface experiments or models that consider only a subset of the governing transport mechanisms) regarding the applicability of the classic vapor-diffusion model. The vapor diffusion-based model cannot predict the local evaporation flux along the interface for high contact angle (CA ? 90°) when evaporative cooling is strong and the temperature gradient along the interface determines the peak local evaporation flux. PMID:25105726

Pan, Zhenhai; Weibel, Justin A; Garimella, Suresh V

2014-08-19

249

Assessment of water droplet evaporation mechanisms on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic substrates.  

PubMed

Evaporation rates are predicted and important transport mechanisms identified for evaporation of water droplets on hydrophobic (contact angle ~110°) and superhydrophobic (contact angle ~160°) substrates. Analytical models for droplet evaporation in the literature are usually simplified to include only vapor diffusion in the gas domain, and the system is assumed to be isothermal. In the comprehensive model developed in this study, evaporative cooling of the interface is accounted for, and vapor concentration is coupled to local temperature at the interface. Conjugate heat and mass transfer are solved in the solid substrate, liquid droplet, and surrounding gas. Buoyancy-driven convective flows in the droplet and vapor domains are also simulated. The influences of evaporative cooling and convection on the evaporation characteristics are determined quantitatively. The liquid-vapor interface temperature drop induced by evaporative cooling suppresses evaporation, while gas-phase natural convection acts to enhance evaporation. While the effects of these competing transport mechanisms are observed to counterbalance for evaporation on a hydrophobic surface, the stronger influence of evaporative cooling on a superhydrophobic surface accounts for an overprediction of experimental evaporation rates by ~20% with vapor diffusion-based models. The local evaporation fluxes along the liquid-vapor interface for both hydrophobic and superhydrophobic substrates are investigated. The highest local evaporation flux occurs at the three-phase contact line region due to proximity to the higher temperature substrate, rather than at the relatively colder droplet top; vapor diffusion-based models predict the opposite. The numerically calculated evaporation rates agree with experimental results to within 2% for superhydrophobic substrates and 3% for hydrophobic substrates. The large deviations between past analytical models and the experimental data are therefore reconciled with the comprehensive model developed here. PMID:24320680

Pan, Zhenhai; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A; Garimella, Suresh V

2013-12-23

250

Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

1982-01-01

251

CHEMISTRY IN EVAPORATING ICES-UNEXPLORED TERRITORY  

SciTech Connect

We suggest that three-body chemistry may occur in warm high-density gas evaporating in transient co-desorption events on interstellar ices. Using a highly idealized computational model we explore the chemical conversion from simple species of the ice to more complex species containing several heavy atoms, as a function of density and of adopted three-body rate coefficients. We predict that there is a wide range of densities and rate coefficients in which a significant chemical conversion may occur. We discuss the implications of this idea for the astrochemistry of hot cores.

Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Strada n.54, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, 09012 Capoterra (Italy); Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.; Viti, Serena; Williams, David A., E-mail: ccp@ca.astro.i, E-mail: jcr@star.ucl.ac.u, E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.u, E-mail: daw@star.ucl.ac.u [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2010-12-20

252

Evaporative cooling of flare plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional loop model for the evaporative cooling of the coronal flare plasma was investigated. Conductive losses dominated radiative cooling, and the evaporative velocities were small compared to the sound speed. The profile and evolution of the temperature were calculated. The model was in agreement with soft X-ray observations on the evolution of flare temperatures and emission measures. The effect of evaporation was to greatly reduce the conductive heat flux into the chromosphere and to enhance the EUV emission from the coronal flare plasma.

Antiochos, S. K.; Sturrock, P. A.

1976-01-01

253

Control of black hole evaporation?  

E-print Network

Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and string theory on the evaporation of black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that original Hawking effect can be also regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly.

Doyeol Ahn

2006-04-26

254

Experimental simulations of CH4 evaporation on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first experimental results on the evaporation of liquid CH4 under simulated Titan surface conditions similar to those observed at the Huygens landing site. An average evaporation rate of (3.1 ± 0.6) × 10-4 kg s-1 m-2 at 94 K and 1.5 bar was measured. While our results are generally higher than previous models based on energy balance, they show an excellent match with a theoretical mass transfer approach. Indeed, we find that evaporation in the Titan environmental chamber is predominantly diffusion driven and affected by the buoyancy of lighter CH4 in the heavier N2 atmosphere. After correcting for the difference in gravity of Earth and Titan, the resulting evaporation rate is (1.6 ± 0.3) × 10-4 kg s-1m-2 (or 1.13 ± 0.3 mm hr-1). Using our experimental evaporation rates, we determine that the low-latitude storm recently observed by Cassini ISS would have resulted in a maximum evaporated mass of (5.4 ± 1.2) × 1010 kg of CH4 equivalent to a 2.4 ± 0.5 m thick layer over 80 days. Based on our results, a sufficient amount of CH4 can accumulate in the otherwise arid equatorial regions to produce transient ponds and liquid flows.

Luspay-Kuti, A.; Chevrier, V. F.; Wasiak, F. C.; Roe, L. A.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Cornet, T.; Singh, S.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.

2012-12-01

255

The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned. It will initially supplement the PS1 search by targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) candidates from PS1. As its efficiency grows, PS2 also will search for NEOs, and will increase the sky coverage and cadence.PS1 is cooperating with the G96 telescope of the Catalina Sky Survey in terms of field selection. Between declinations of -30 and +40 degrees, the telescopes alternate 1 hour-wide RA stripes each night. This strategy has led to increased productivity, and eliminated accidental repeats of fields. The PS1 survey area has been extended south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep south sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 has discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014 to date, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The present discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.

Wainscoat, Richard J.; Bolin, Bryce; Chambers, Kenneth; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco; Schunova, Eva; Veres, Peter

2014-11-01

256

Explosive evaporation in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

Fisher, George H.

1987-01-01

257

Evaporation from a semi-infinite porous medium: The role of capillary flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid evaporation from the semi-infinite porous medium is solved numerically using the dynamic capillary network model in which the interface shape and multiphase flow front thickness between dry and fully wet parts of porous medium are tracked in time. Both convective and diffusion mass transport limited regimes are identified and liquid pseudo-velocity due to the evaporation is calculated. The numerical analysis is extended for in-parallel capillary flow and evaporation liquid transport, and again, the changes of the interface shape and multiphase flow front thickness are investigated. It turns out that the convective evaporation is prolonged due to the capillary flow as evaporated liquid close to the evaporating boundary is replenished by capillary flow. However, the evaporation curve has an elongated ``tail'' for longer evaporation times as capillarity tends to transport the liquid deeper into the porous medium. The contributions of the capillary flow and the mass transport on the overall evaporation dynamics is best visible by comparing the liquid pseudo-velocity for pure evaporation and evaporation with capillary flow. Two pseudo-velocities are equal for time for which there is a transition from convection to diffusion controlled evaporation. In this point, the remaining liquid is always distributed in the multiphase pattern, where the thickness of the multiphase region depends on capillary flow and mass transport rates.

Navaz, H. K.; Markicevic, B.; Paikoff, S. J.

2011-11-01

258

Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) Measurements During the POPCORN Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the POPCORN campaign between 3 and 24 August 1994 we measured peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in a rural area of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany) above a corn field. A total of about 5000 PAN measurements were carried out within the three weeks of the campaign. Measured PAN mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit of 10 ppt up to an

W. Schrimpf; K. Linaerts; K. P. Müller; R. Koppmann; J. Rudolph

1998-01-01

259

The Educational Approach within Colombia's Nutrition Plan (PAN).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1976, the Columbian Government set up PAN to combat the country's serious malnutrition through coordination of the public and private production, distribution, health, sanitation, and education sectors. After describing PAN, this report considers its problems and approaches relating to nutrition education for both PAN professionals and its…

DePizano, Julia Mejia

1980-01-01

260

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

2012-10-01

261

EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect

We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2013-02-20

262

Evaporative Emission Model (EVAP 3. 0) (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The potential role of automotive evaporative emissions in the formation of photochemical smog has underscored the need for an accurate evaluation of real-world motor vehicle evaporative emission rates. Two general categories of information are needed to predict evaporative emissions for vehicles in actual use. The first category defines the environment that a vehicle experiences in the real world. This includes conditions such as driving pattern, ambient temperature, refueling behavior, and gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP). The second category describes how the vehicle responds to these conditions. This includes weathering of the fuel in the fuel tank and how evaporative emissions vary as a function of RVP, ambient temperature, and fuel tank level.

Not Available

1993-02-01

263

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: 1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; 2) suppression of ELMs; 3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; 4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; 5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; 6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; 7) reduced SOL plasma density; and 8) reduced edge neutral density.

Kugel, H. W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

2009-04-09

264

Microdroplet evaporation with a forced pinned contact line.  

PubMed

Experimental and numerical investigations of water microdroplet evaporation on heated, laser patterned polymer substrates are reported. The study is focused on both (i) controlling a droplet's contact line dynamics during evaporation to identifying how the contact line influences evaporative heat transfer and (ii) validating numerical simulations with experimental data. Droplets are formed on the polymer surface using a bottom-up methodology, where a computer-controlled syringe pump feeds water through a 200 ?m diameter fluid channel within the heated polymer substrate. This methodology facilitates precise control of the droplet's growth rate, size, and inlet temperature. In addition to this microchannel supply line, the substrate surfaces are laser patterned with a moatlike trench around the fluid-channel outlet, adding additional control of the droplet's contact line motion, area, and contact angle. In comparison to evaporation on a nonpatterned polymer surface, the laser patterned trench increases contact line pinning time by ?60% of the droplet's lifetime. Numerical simulations of diffusion controlled evaporation are compared the experimental data with a pinned contact line. These diffusion based simulations consistently over predict the droplet's evaporation rate. In efforts to improve this model, a temperature distribution along the droplet's liquid-vapor interface is imposed to account for the concentration distribution of saturated vapor along the interface, which yields improved predictions within 2-4% of the experimental data throughout the droplet's lifetime on heated substrates. PMID:25102248

Gleason, Kevin; Putnam, Shawn A

2014-09-01

265

A model of the biogeographical journey from Proto-pan to Pan paniscus.  

PubMed

Pan paniscus is unique in the group of African apes because of its range south of the Congo River. Examination of the bio-geographical journey of the genus Pan to the species P. paniscus is important when discussing the evolution of African apes. This paper is a review of the paleo-geographic events, the zoogeography, and faunal sorting which influenced P. paniscus divergence from the Proto-pan ancestor within the recent Miocene through Pliocene Epochs, approximately 10-2 MYA. Finally, by elucidating modern day evidence of food plant forms in the southern periphery exploited by P. paniscus in the forest/savanna mosaic habitat, we are able to conclude with those extrinsic events that most influenced the occurrence and distribution of P. paniscus. PMID:12687485

Myers Thompson, Jo A

2003-04-01

266

PanCanadian Frog Lake project detailed  

SciTech Connect

PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd applied early this year for approval of Phase I of a proposed three phase commercial bitumen recovery project in the Cold Lake Deposit. The company announced later that it was reducing its capital budget by 50%, and would be delaying the project schedule. Details of the original plans and the new development schedule are given. The project involves the production of 500 cubic meters of bitumen per day over the 20-year project life using cyclic steam stimulation. An additional 165 directional wells will be drilled. The existing 113 wells are included in the project. 1 figure.

Not Available

1986-12-01

267

Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media.  

PubMed

Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length L_{C} combining the gravity characteristic length L_{G} and viscous dissipation characteristic length L_{V} . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm ("fine") and 0.3-0.9 mm ("coarse") to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of L_{G} determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted L_{G} value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and L_{C} approximately L_{G} ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere. PMID:18643163

Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

2008-05-01

268

Effects of Evaporation/Condensation on Spreading and Contact Angle of a Volatile Liquid Drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of evaporation/condensation on spreading and contact angle were experimentally studied. A sessile drop of R-113 was tested at different vapor environments to determine the effects of evaporation/condensation on the evolution of contact diameter and contact angle of the drop. Condensation on the drop surface occurs at both the saturated and a nonsaturated vapor environments and promotes the spreading. When the drop is placed in the saturated vapor environment it tends to completely wetting and spreads rapidly. In a nonsaturated vapor environment, the evolution of the sessile drop is divided three stages: condensation-spreading stage, evaporation-retracting stage and rapid contracting stage. In the first stage the drop behaves as in the saturated environment. In the evaporation -retracting stage, the competition between spreading and evaporation of the drop determines the evolution characteristics of the contact diameter and the contact angle. A lower evaporation rate struggles against the spreading power to turn the drop from spreading to retracting with a continuous increase of the contact angle. The drop placed in open air has a much higher evaporation rate. The strong evaporation suppresses the spreading and accelerates the retraction of the drop with a linear decrease of the contact diameter. The contraction of the evaporating drops is gradually accelerated when the contact diameter decreases to 3 min and less till drying up, though the evaporation rate is gradually slowing down.

Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

269

Evaporation of pure liquid sessile and spherical suspended drops: a review.  

PubMed

A sessile drop is an isolated drop which has been deposited on a solid substrate where the wetted area is limited by a contact line and characterized by contact angle, contact radius and drop height. Diffusion-controlled evaporation of a sessile drop in an ambient gas is an important topic of interest because it plays a crucial role in many scientific applications such as controlling the deposition of particles on solid surfaces, in ink-jet printing, spraying of pesticides, micro/nano material fabrication, thin film coatings, biochemical assays, drop wise cooling, deposition of DNA/RNA micro-arrays, and manufacture of novel optical and electronic materials in the last decades. This paper presents a review of the published articles for a period of approximately 120 years related to the evaporation of both sessile drops and nearly spherical droplets suspended from thin fibers. After presenting a brief history of the subject, we discuss the basic theory comprising evaporation of micrometer and millimeter sized spherical drops, self cooling on the drop surface and evaporation rate of sessile drops on solids. The effects of drop cooling, resultant lateral evaporative flux and Marangoni flows on evaporation rate are also discussed. This review also has some special topics such as drop evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces, determination of the receding contact angle from drop evaporation, substrate thermal conductivity effect on drop evaporation and the rate evaporation of water in liquid marbles. PMID:22277832

Erbil, H Yildirim

2012-01-15

270

Evaporation of volatile organic compounds from human skin in vitro.  

PubMed

The specific evaporation rates of 21 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from either human skin or a glass substrate mounted in modified Franz diffusion cells were determined gravimetrically. The diffusion cells were positioned either on a laboratory bench top or in a controlled position in a fume hood, simulating indoor and outdoor environments, respectively. A data set of 54 observations (34 skin and 20 glass) was assembled and subjected to a correlation analysis employing 5 evaporative mass transfer relationships drawn from the literature. Models developed by Nielsen et al. (Prediction of isothermal evaporation rates of pure volatile organic compounds in occupational environments: a theoretical approach based on laminar boundary layer theory. Ann Occup Hyg 1995;39:497-511.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Peress, Estimate evaporative losses from spills. Chem Eng Prog 2003; April: 32-34.) were found to be the most effective at correlating observed and calculated evaporation rates under the various conditions. The U.S. EPA model was selected for further use based on its simplicity. This is a turbulent flow model based only on vapor pressure and molecular weight of the VOC and the effective air flow rate u. Optimum values of u for the two laboratory environments studied were 0.23 m s(-1) (bench top) and 0.92 m s(-1) (fume hood). PMID:23609116

Gajjar, Rachna M; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B

2013-08-01

271

PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

2014-08-01

272

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA) measurements by iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometry: first analysis of results in the boreal forest and implications for the measurement of PAN fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3C(O)O2NO2, PAN) and peroxyacetic acid (CH3C(O)OOH, PAA) in the Boreal forest using iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS). The measurements were made during the Hyytiälä United Measurement of Photochemistry and Particles - Comprehensive Organic Particle and Environmental Chemistry (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010) measurement intensive. Mixing ratios of PAN and PAA were determined by measuring the acetate ion signal (CH3C(O)O-, m/z = 59) resulting from reaction of CH3C(O)O2 (from the thermal dissociation of PAN) or CH3C(O)OOH with iodide ions using alternatively heated and ambient temperature inlet lines. During some periods of high temperature (~ 30 °C) and low NOx (< 1 ppbv), PAA mixing ratios were similar to, or exceeded those of PAN and thus contributed a significant fraction of the total acetate signal. PAA is thus a potential interference for ICIMS measurements of PAN, and especially eddy covariance flux measurements in environments where the PAA flux is likely to be a significant proportion of the (short timescale) acetate ion variability. Within the range of mixing ratios of NOx measured during HUMPPA-COPEC, the modelled ratio of PAA-to-PAN was found to be sensitive to temperature (through the thermal decomposition rate of PAN) and the HO2 mixing ratio, thus providing some constraint to estimates of photochemical activity and oxidation rates in the Boreal environment.

Phillips, G. J.; Pouvesle, N.; Thieser, J.; Schuster, G.; Axinte, R.; Fischer, H.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Crowley, J. N.

2013-02-01

273

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA) measurements by iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometry: first analysis of results in the boreal forest and implications for the measurement of PAN fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3C(O)O2NO2, PAN) and peroxyacetic acid (CH3C(O)OOH, PAA) in the Boreal forest using iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS). The measurements were made during the Hyytiälä United Measurement of Photochemistry and Particles - Comprehensive Organic Particle and Environmental Chemistry (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010) measurement intensive. Mixing ratios of PAN and PAA were determined by measuring the acetate ion signal (CH3C(O)O2-, m/z 59) resulting from reaction of CH3C(O)O2 (from the thermal dissociation of PAN) or CH3C(O)OOH with iodide ions using alternatively heated and ambient temperature inlet lines. During conditions of high temperature and low NOx, PAA mixing ratios were similar to, or exceeded those of PAN and thus contributed a significant fraction of the total acetate signal. PAA is thus a potential interference for ICIMS measurements of PAN, and especially eddy covariance flux measurements in environments where the PAA flux is likely to be a significant proportion of the short timescale acetate ion variability. Within the range of mixing ratios of NOx measured during HUMPPA-COPEC, the ratio of PAA-to-PAN was found to be sensitive to temperature (through the thermal decomposition rate of PAN) and the HO2 mixing ratio, thus providing some constraint to estimates of photochemical activity and oxidation rates in the Boreal environment.

Phillips, G. J.; Pouvesle, N.; Thieser, J.; Schuster, G.; Axinte, R.; Fischer, H.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Crowley, J. N.

2012-08-01

274

A unified approach to predict evaporation losses in evaporative heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the rules of thumb used to predict evaporation losses in different evaporative heat exchangers are unified. The accurate prediction of all aspects of evaporative heat exchanger behavior is very important. Accurately predicting evaporation losses is significant since water, in this class of heat exchangers, is cooled primarily by evaporation of a portion of the circulating water that

Bilal Ahmed Qureshi; Syed M. Zubair

2011-01-01

275

Insights into the Maize Pan-Genome and Pan-Transcriptome[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Genomes at the species level are dynamic, with genes present in every individual (core) and genes in a subset of individuals (dispensable) that collectively constitute the pan-genome. Using transcriptome sequencing of seedling RNA from 503 maize (Zea mays) inbred lines to characterize the maize pan-genome, we identified 8681 representative transcript assemblies (RTAs) with 16.4% expressed in all lines and 82.7% expressed in subsets of the lines. Interestingly, with linkage disequilibrium mapping, 76.7% of the RTAs with at least one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could be mapped to a single genetic position, distributed primarily throughout the nonpericentromeric portion of the genome. Stepwise iterative clustering of RTAs suggests, within the context of the genotypes used in this study, that the maize genome is restricted and further sampling of seedling RNA within this germplasm base will result in minimal discovery. Genome-wide association studies based on SNPs and transcript abundance in the pan-genome revealed loci associated with the timing of the juvenile-to-adult vegetative and vegetative-to-reproductive developmental transitions, two traits important for fitness and adaptation. This study revealed the dynamic nature of the maize pan-genome and demonstrated that a substantial portion of variation may lie outside the single reference genome for a species. PMID:24488960

Hirsch, Candice N.; Foerster, Jillian M.; Johnson, James M.; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Muttoni, German; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Penagaricano, Francisco; Lindquist, Erika; Pedraza, Mary Ann; Barry, Kerrie; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buell, C. Robin

2014-01-01

276

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in hypersaline coastal pans: Activity across a salinity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of salinity on the metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in five highly saline to hypersaline coastal pans was studied using a radioactive tracer (35SO42-) technique. We recorded sulfate reduction at in situ porewater salinities of up to 422. Furthermore, enumeration of sulfate reduction rates in whole core incubations conducted under in situ conditions suggested a high variability in

Donovan Porter; Alakendra N. Roychoudhury; Donald Cowan

2007-01-01

277

Evaporation control research, 1959-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hundred and forty-five dispersions of long-chain alkanols were formulated by using various emulsifiers and alkanols. The dispensing and spreading ability of each of these formulations was tested. The most promising emulsifier that could be used with any of the alkanols was glyceryl monostearate (self-emulsifying). However, the concentration of the alkanol in the dispersion form varied somewhat: with the length of the carbon chain. A maximum concentration of 16 percent was obtained using the longer chain alkanols in the dispersion form without losing any of the properties of a fluid. Nine field tests were undertaken on small stock tanks. The retardant materials used in these tests were dodecanol, hexadecanol, and octadecanol. These materials were applied in either liquid or dispersion form. Four types of dispensing equipment were tested. The first type used a pressure system which sprayed a liquid onto the surface of the water. An anemometer and wind-controlled vane, operated by an electrical system, determined the length End frequency of application. The second type was similar to the first except that gravity was utilized to force the liquid onto the surface. The third type. used a drip system with rates of about 10 drops per minute. The fourth type used a gravity feed and a wind-controlled valve which allowed the dispersion material to flow onto the surface of the water when the wind was in the proper direction. In the field tests, the best reduction in evaporation was obtained using octadecanol in dispersion form and dispensed with the wind-controlled valve and gravity feed system. The maximum reduction in evaporation for a 2-week period was 27 percent. However, the economics of suppressing evaporation from stock tanks is questionable because of the short travel time across the tank by the film. There are still many problems unsolved. Some of these can be resolved in the laboratory whereas others can be resolved only in the field. Some of the more serious problems are the effect of impurities in the alkanols; the rate of cooling of the alkanol from a liquid to a solid state ; the effect of the film on the exchange of water molecules between the air and water; whether the film remains effective in suppressing evaporation for any rate of movement downwind; and the possible use of dodecanol and eicosanol as suppressants.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1963-01-01

278

Estimation of the diurnal variation of potential evaporation from a wet bare soil surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parlange, M.B. and Katul, G.G., 1992. Estimation of the diurnal variation of potential evaporation from a wet bare soil surface. J. Hydrol., 132: 71-89. Potential evaporation from a wet bare soil field was measured with a large sensitive weighing lysimeter on a 20 min time step for 5 days at Davis, California. The diurnal evaporation rate modeled with the Penman-Brutsaert

Marc B. Parlange; Gabriel G. Katul

1992-01-01

279

On-board Processing to Advance the PanFTS Imaging System for GEO-CAPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging instrument designed to record atmospheric spectra of the Earth from the vantage point of a geosynchronous orbit. Each observation covers a scene of 128x128 pixels. In order to retrieve multiple chemical families and perform passive vertical profiling, the recorded spectra will cover a wide wavelength range, from the thermal infrared to the near ultraviolet. The small size of the nadir ground-sampling distance and the desire to re-visit each scene hourly result in a PanFTS design that challenges the downlink capabilities of current radio communication. The PanFTS on-board processing will reduce downlink rates by converting time-domain interferograms to band-limited spectra, hence achieving a factor 20 in data reduction. In this paper, we report on the first year progress of this NASA AIST-11 task and on the adaptation of existing Virtex-5 FPGA designs to support the PanFTS Focal Plane Array control and data interfaces. We have produced a software demonstration of the current PanFTS data reduction algorithms. The real-time processing of the interferometer metrology laser signal is the first step required for the conversion of time-domain interferograms to path difference. This laser processing is now performed entirely as digital signal processing inside the Virtex-5 FPGA and also allows for tip/tilt correction of the interferometer mirrors, a task that was previously performed only with complicated and inflexible analog electronics.

Sander, S. P.; Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Bryk, M.; Franklin, B.; Hayden, J.; Ryan, M.; Werne, T. A.

2013-12-01

280

Fast algorithm for intra-prediction mode selection in H.264/AVC based on pan algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H.264/AVC video coding standard aims to enable to significantly improve compression performance compared to all existing video coding standards. In order to achieve that, a robust rate-distortion optimization (RDO) technique is employ to select the best coding mode. As a result, the complexity of computation increase drastically, which makes it difficult for practical applications such as real time video compression. This paper presents a fast mode selection for intra-prediction based on Pan Algorithm to reduce mode decision complexity. Pan's fast algorithm is effectively to reduce the complexity, however, such method exists some drawbacks. In this paper, Pan's fast algorithm based on edge direction histogram is improved; meanwhile, joining the relation of chroma predictive mode and luminance predictive mode, blocks. Experiment result shows that the algorithm increases the speed of intra-prediction with negligible loss of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

Cao, Yan; Liu, Ningzhong

2007-11-01

281

An investigation on the estimation of evaporation by combining artificial neural network and dynamic factor analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is a substantial factor in hydrological circle, moreover a significant reference to the management of both water resources and agricultural irrigation. In general, evaporation can be directly measured by evaporation pan. As for its estimation, the accuracy of traditional empirical equation is not very precise. Therefore, in this study the Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA) is first applied to investigating the interaction and the tendency of each gauging station. Additionally, the analysis can effectively establish the common trend at each gauging station by evaluating the corresponding AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) values. Furthermore, the meteorological factors such as relative humidity and temperature are also conducted to identify the explanatory variables which have higher relation to evaporation. These variables are further used as inputs to the Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and are expected to provide meaningful information for successfully estimating evaporation. The applicability and reliability of the BPNN was demonstrated by comparing its performance with that of empirical formula. Keywords: Evaporation, Dynamic Factor Analysis, Artificial Neural Network.

Sun, W.; Chiang, Y.; Chang, F.

2010-12-01

282

Correlations for Saturation Efficiency of Evaporative Cooling Pads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents some experimental investigations to obtain correlations for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling pads. Two commonly used materials namely aspen and khus fibers along with new materials namely coconut fibers and palash fibers were tested in a laboratory using suitably fabricated test setup. Simple mathematical correlations have been developed for calculating saturation efficiency of evaporating cooling pads which can be used to predict their performance at any desired mass flow rate. Performances of four different pad materials were also compared using developed correlations. An attempt was made to test two new materials (i.e. fibers of palash wood and coconut) to check their suitability as wetted media for evaporative cooling pads. It was found that Palash wood fibers offered highest saturation efficiency compared to that of other existing materials such as aspen and khus fibers at different mass flow rate of air.

Jain, J. K.; Hindoliya, D. A.

2014-01-01

283

Trends in evaporation and surface cooling in the Mississippi River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synthesis of available data for the Mississippi River basin (area 3 ?? 106 km2) reveals an upward trend in evaporation during recent decades, driven primarily by increases in precipitation and secondarily by human water use. A cloud-related decrease in surface net radiation appears to have accompanied the precipitation trend. Resultant evaporative and radiative cooling of the land and lower atmosphere quantitatively explains downward trends in observed pan evaporation. These cooling tendencies also reconcile the observed regional atmospheric cooling with the anticipated regional "greenhouse warming." If recent high levels of precipitation (which correlate with the North Atlantic Oscillation) are mainly caused by an internal climatic fluctuation, an eventual return to normal precipitation could reveal heretofore-unrealized warming in the basin. If, instead, they are caused by some unidentified forcing that will continue to grow in the future, then continued intensification of water cycling and suppression of warming in the basin could result.

Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.

2001-01-01

284

8, 85658583, 2008 The evaporation  

E-print Network

@berkeley.edu) Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 8565 #12;ACPD 8, 8565 of a ki- netic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory to scattering of solar radiation, al- though some aerosols (black carbon) have a warming effect (IPCC, 2007

Boyer, Edmond

285

Evaporating Drops of Alkane Mixtures  

E-print Network

Alkane mixtures are model systems where the influence of surface tension gradients during the spreading and the evaporation of wetting drops can be easily studied. The surface tension gradients are mainly induced by concentration gradients, mass diffusion being a stabilising process. Depending on the relative concentration of the mixture, a rich pattern of behaviours is obtained.

Gu'ena, G; Poulard, C; Cazabat, Anne-Marie; Gu\\'{e}na, Geoffroy; Poulard, Christophe

2005-01-01

286

Color Evaporation Induced Rapidity Gaps  

E-print Network

We show that soft color rearrangement of final states can account for the appearance of rapidity gaps between jets. In the color evaporation model the probability to form a gap is simply determined by the color multiplicity of the final state. This model has no free parameters and reproduces all data obtained by the ZEUS, H1, D0, and CDF collaborations.

O. J. P. Eboli; E. M. Gregores; F. Halzen

1999-08-16

287

Evaporation by mechanical vapor recompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the development of a study of the application of the technologies of mechanical vapor recompression and falling film evaporation as applied to the beet sugar industry is reported. Progress is reported in the following areas: technical literature search; report on visit to European factories using these technologies; energy balance studies of factories offered by the industry as candidates

C. H. Iverson; G. E. Coury

1980-01-01

288

Evaporation by mechanical vapor compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of existing technology and application of the mechanical vapor recompression and falling film evaporation in both the sugar and nonsugar industries, and the potential of application to the domestic beet sugar industry is made. Upon assimilating the information gathered, certain design guidelines were established, possible candidate factories for a demonstration project were identified, and a preliminary technical and

C. H. Iverson; G. E. Coury; J. H. Fischer

1980-01-01

289

Leachate evaporation using landfill gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a century-old technology with a new twist of using landfill gas as a fuel in an evaporation system. The system is designed to help landfills reduce the cost of leachate disposal while also destroying VOC emissions in an enclosed flare.

T. M. White; V. M. Grace; W. Freivald

1996-01-01

290

Membrane evaporator/sublimator investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on a new evaporator/sublimator concept using a hollow fiber membrane unit with a high permeability to liquid water. The aim of the program was to obtain a more reliable, lightweight and simpler Extra Vehicular Life Support System (EVLSS) cooling concept than is currently being used.

Elam, J.; Ruder, J.; Strumpf, H.

1974-01-01

291

Evaporative heat transfer in mesoscale heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

An application for an integrated array of small (mesoscale) cooling devices is introduced and a survey of related research is provided. A test apparatus appropriate for experiments with small-scale, low-capacity evaporators is described. Two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer data are presented for R-134a in a heat exchanger consisting of an inlet manifold, 52 parallel channels, and an exit manifold. Each individual channel has a cross-sectional flow area 800 {micro}m by 800 {micro}m and 74 {micro}m long. Experiments are conducted over a range of conditions, with flow rates up to 0.48 g/s, inlet qualities from 7% to 15%, and an evaporating temperature of approximately 10 C. The heat exchanger operated with a pressure drop of less than about 8 kPa and provided a heat transfer coefficient greater than 8,000 W/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}K). The heat transfer data suggest that nucleate boiling dominates for flow rates below an equivalent Reynolds number (Re{sub eq}) of about 40 in a channel. A comparison of the pressure drop and heat transfer results to related data from the literature shows general agreement and supports these promising results for mesoscale heat exchangers.

Mehendale, S.S.; Jacobi, A.M.

2000-07-01

292

Rapid Evaporation of Binary Mixture Injections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a fuel under pressure is heated above its normal boiling point and expanded through a nozzle into atmospheric conditions, rapid evaporation can occur. The resulting sprays typically exhibit increased atomization and shorter liquid penetration lengths. When heavy fuels with high specific heats are used, complete evaporation is theoretically possible. This is a continuation of work done by Sloss and McCahan (APS/DFD meeting 1996), in which dodecane, fuel oil, kerosene, and diesel oil were studied, and McCahan and Kessler (APS/DFD meeting 1997), in which preliminary results were presented on decane and tetradecane. At a pressure of 10 bar, the working fluid (decane/tetradecane mixture) is preheated to temperatures ranging from room temperature to the decane saturation temperature and then expanded through a simple converging nozzle into a chamber at 1 bar. From the photographic and mass flow rate data, the effect of degree of superheat on the spray cone angle and mass flow rate is observed. Results show that the addition of a heavier hydrocarbon has the expected damping effects on the spray characteristics.

McCahan, S.; Kessler, C.

1998-11-01

293

Evaporation from Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Mead is one of a series of large Colorado River reservoirs operated and maintained by the Bureau of Reclamation. The Colorado River system of reservoirs and diversions is an important source of water for millions of people in seven Western States and Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study from 1997 to 1999 to estimate evaporation from Lake Mead. For this study, micrometeorological and hydrologic data were collected continually from instrumented platforms deployed at four locations on the lake, open-water areas of Boulder Basin, Virgin Basin, and Overton Arm and a protected cove in Boulder Basin. Data collected at the platforms were used to estimate Lake Mead evaporation by solving an energy-budget equation. The average annual evaporation rate at open-water stations from January 1998 to December 1999 was 7.5 feet. Because the spatial variation of monthly and annual evaporation rates was minimal for the open-water stations, a single open-water station in Boulder Basin would provide data that are adequate to estimate evaporation from Lake Mead.

Westenburg, Craig L.; DeMeo, Guy A.; Tanko, Daron J.

2006-01-01

294

Detection and Behavior of Pan Wakes in Saturn's A Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six previously unseen Pan wakes are found interior and exterior to the Encke gap in Saturn's A ring, one in the Voyager 2 photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultation data and five in the Voyager 1 radio science (RSS) Earth occultation data. Pan orbits at the center of the Encke gap and maintains it...The detection of Pan wakes at longitudes greater than 360(deg) demonstrates that wakes persist for much longer than originally hypothesized and may interact with one another.

Horn, L. J.; Showalter, M. R.; Russell, C. T.

1996-01-01

295

22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. View looking toward east end of sorghum pan and interior of east end of the boiling house. Walls and final compartment of the sorghum pan are still intact. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

296

Dispersion Of Evaporating Drops In A Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents theoretical study of behavior of evaporating liquid drops entrained in annular cross section of long, coherent gas vortex. Dynamic and thermodynamic interactions described. Study contributes to understanding of evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1992-01-01

297

Experimental and computational study of copper-gadolinium alloy evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experimental study of the expansion of a gadolinium-copper atomic vapor mixture in vacuum and the comparison with a test-particle Monte Carlo simulation. This simulation gives a description of collision relaxation in the binary case, taking account of excited metastable levels. The metal alloy was evaporated by a focused electron gun. We measured the net mass flow rate,

S. Chatain; C. Gonella; P. Roblin

1998-01-01

298

Effect of Rapid Evaporation on Fuel Injection Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pursuit of developing more efficient fuel oil burners, ways of improving combustion efficiency through increased fuel atomization are being studied. By preheating the fuel prior to injection it may be possible to induce a superheated state in the l iquid during expansion through the nozzle. This increases the evaporation rate and improves atomization of the fluid. With enough

Clayton A. Sloss; Susan McCahan

1996-01-01

299

Evaporation of thorium from carburized thoriated tungsten cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaporation of thorium from carburized thoriated tungsten cathodes is shown experimentally to be approximately the same as that from similar uncarburized cathodes at the same temperature. The thorium in a carburized cathode is, however, produced continuously at an adequate rate at the operating temperature of 2000° K by reduction of the thoria by the tungsten carbide. The uncarburized cathode

R O Jenkins; W G Trodden

1959-01-01

300

Studies on Simultaneous Effluent Evaporation and Water Recovery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leather tanning industry uses large quantity of water for processing which results in copious quantity of liquid effluent. Disposal of tannery effluent has become a major environmental concern. A new technique has been developed to augment the water evaporation rate from the tannery effluent (soak liquor) and to recover fresh water. In this work, water in the tannery effluent (soak

S. SATHISH KUMAR; A. MANI

301

Dynamics of complete wetting liquid under evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a contact line under evaporation and total-wetting conditions is studied taking into account van der Waals interactions and the divergent nature of evaporation near the border of the liquid . The existence of a precursor film at the edge of the liquid is shown analytically and numerically. Its length is controlled by the Hamacker constant and evaporative flux. Past the precursor film, Tanner's law is generalized accounting for evaporative effects.

Pham, C.-T.; Berteloot, G.; Lequeux, F.; Limat, L.

2010-12-01

302

Dynamics of complete wetting liquid under evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamics of a contact line under evaporation and complete wetting conditions taking into account the divergent nature of evaporation near the border of the liquid, as evidenced by Deegan et al. [Nature 389, 827]. The model we propose shows the existence of a precursor film at the edge of the liquid. The length of the precursor film is controlled by Hamacker constant and evaporative flux. Past the precursor film, Tanner's law is generalized accounting for evaporative effects.

Pham, Chi-Tuong; Berteloot, Guillaume; Lequeux, FranC.{C.}Ois; Limat, Laurent

2009-11-01

303

Evaporation characteristics of kerosine sprays injected into a flowing air stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was conducted on the evaporation characteristics of aviation kerosene fuel sprays when injected into flowing airstreams at atmospheric pressure. A continuous sampling probe technique was used to determine the rate of spray evaporation. The fuel was injected in a downstream direction from a series of swirl atomizers which were located in turn at the center of a

K. V. L. Rao; A. H. Lefebvre

1976-01-01

304

CRC-Radian evaporative emissions model: EVAP 2. 0 annual report, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, Radian initiated development of an improved vehicle evaporative emissions model -- a model that expands upon the present EPA MOBILE4 to incorporate key factors affecting evaporative emissions rates. The 1988 annual report describes model improvements, including: the relationship between tank temperature and ambient temperature; a user interface to allow the input of user-selected multiple driving patterns; improved estimates

S. Kishan; T. H. DeFries; R. Klausmeier

1989-01-01

305

Dynamics of Soil Water Evaporation during Soil Drying: Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68?cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71?cm during stage 3. PMID:24489492

Han, Jiangbo; Zhou, Zhifang

2013-01-01

306

Evaporation characteristics of fuel droplets with the addition of nanoparticles under natural and forced convections  

E-print Network

or natural convection, however, a departure from the classical D2 -law was observed and the evaporation rateEvaporation characteristics of fuel droplets with the addition of nanoparticles under natural and forced convections Yanan Gan, Li Qiao School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West

Qiao, Li

307

Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed

Ray D. Jackson; M. Susan Moran; Lloyd W. Gay; Lee H. Raymond

1987-01-01

308

A note on estimating the effect of a limited fetch on micrometeorological evaporation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formula for the effective fetch of micrometeorological evaporation measurements is derived by application of diffusion theory, using Calder's approximation of a uniform wind field and neutral atmospheric stability. This simplification allows estimation of the likely sampling error, which would result from an upwind step-change in evaporation rate, without change in roughness.

J. H. C. Gash

1986-01-01

309

Nanoparticle enhanced evaporation of liquids: A case study of silicone oil and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is a fundamental physical phenomenon, of which many challenging questions remain unanswered. Enhanced evaporation of liquids in some occasions is of enormous practical significance. Here we report the enhanced evaporation of the nearly permanently stable silicone oil by dispersing with nanopariticles including CaTiO3, anatase and rutile TiO2. An evaporation rate as high as 1.33 mg/h.cm2 was measured in silicone oil when dispersed with 100 nm-sized CaTiO3 particles. Dependence of evaporation rate on the chemistry, size and structure of the particles suggests that some weak absorption sites on the particles half floating on the liquid surface are responsible for the facilitated evaporation of liquid molecules. Enhanced evaporation is also observed for water when dispersed with anatase TiO2 particles. The results can inspire the research of atomistic mechanism for nanoparticle enhanced evaporation and exploration of evaporation control techniques for treatment of oil pollution and restoration of dirty water.

Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Rong; Lu, Kunquan; Ji, Ailing; Cao, Zexian

2012-12-01

310

The Pan-STARRS Project in 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-STARRS telescopes are a distributed aperture approach to rapid, multi-color wide-field surveys. The first of these telescopes, a prototype designated PS1, has been in operation now for over three years and has already obtained complete sky coverage of the full 3-? steradians visible from Haleakala in 5 broad passband filters at multiple epochs. On average the PS1 survey has obtained approximately 12 epochs though each filter. The second telescope, designated PS2, has been in its commissioning phase since August 2013 and will begin science operations in the second half of 2014. Several design and fabrication changes in both the telescope and the camera have been implemented in PS2. This talk will describe the science results that have been coming out of the PS1 survey, the design changes implemented on PS2, and the current performance of the PS2 telescope and camera. We will also describe the future missions for the PS1 and PS2 telescopes as of the current year.

Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Burgett, William; Onaka, Peter

2014-07-01

311

A pan-African Flood Forecasting System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African Flood Forecasting System (AFFS) is a probabilistic flood forecast system for medium- to large-scale African river basins, with lead times of up to 15 days. The key components are the hydrological model LISFLOOD, the African GIS database, the meteorological ensemble predictions of the ECMWF and critical hydrological thresholds. In this paper the predictive capability is investigated in a hindcast mode, by reproducing hydrological predictions for the year 2003 where important floods were observed. Results were verified with ground measurements of 36 subcatchments as well as with reports of various flood archives. Results showed that AFFS detected around 70% of the reported flood events correctly. In particular, the system showed good performance in predicting riverine flood events of long duration (>1 week) and large affected areas (>10 000 km2) well in advance, whereas AFFS showed limitations for small-scale and short duration flood events. The case study for "Save flooding" illustrated the good performance of AFFS in forecasting timing and severity of the floods, gave an example of the clear and concise output products, and showed that the system is capable of producing flood warnings even in ungauged river basins. Hence, from a technical perspective, AFFS shows a large potential as an operational pan-African flood forecasting system, although issues related to the practical implication will still need to be investigated.

Thiemig, V.; Bisselink, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Thielen, J.

2014-05-01

312

Clogging of Manifolds with Evaporatively Frozen Propellants. Part 2; Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanisms of evaporative freezing of leaking propellant and the creation of flow stoppages within injector manifolds is discussed. A quantitative analysis of the conditions, including the existence of minimum and maximum leak rates, for the accumulation of evaporatively frozen propellant is presented. Clogging of the injector manifolds of the Apollo SPS and the Gemini OAMS engines by the freezing of leaking propellant is predicted and the seriousness of the consequences are discussed. Based on the analysis a realistic evaluation of selected techniques to eliminate flow stoppages by frozen propellant is made.

Simmon, J. A.; Gift, R. D.; Spurlock, J. M.

1966-01-01

313

SEWAGE DISPOSAL BY EVAPORATION-TRANSPIRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the methods for on-site disposal of wastewater from individual homes is by evaporation. Two types of evaporative disposal systems have been investigated in this study; evapo-transpiration (ET) beds and mechanical evaporation units. Twenty nine test lysimeters of 0.22 cubic...

314

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-print Network

be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01

315

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow

Hiromi Saida

2008-01-01

316

Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons  

E-print Network

We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the loop quantum gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of quantum dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. This discrete quantum hair structure associated to the horizon geometry produces a deviation from thermality in the radiation spectrum. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how the dynamics leads to the formation of a massive remnant, which can eventually decay. Implications for the information paradox are discussed.

Daniele Pranzetti

2012-11-12

317

Thermal analysis of evaporative coolers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop the conceptual design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of HOPE (Japanese orbiting plane planned to be launched by H2 rocket), the thermal model of the evaporative cooling system of the U.S. Space Shuttle was analyzed. This consists of Flash Evaporator Subsystem (FES) at high altitude and Ammonia Boiler Subsystem (ABS) at low altitude, both of which are for cooling of the freon loops, and Water Spray Boiler Subsystem (WSB), for cooling of the oil loops. Simplified thermal models of these devices were constructed based in the reported data such as the geometries and the design requirements. The simulated results based on these thermal models were compared with the Shuttle postflight data. Integration of these subsystem models into the total TCS model is underway.

Ohuchi, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Masao; Oshima, Koichi

1991-12-01

318

Pan-STARRS: a wide-field optical survey telescope array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical synoptic survey telescope system; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. Pan-STARRS will consist of an array of four 1.8m telescopes with very large (7 square degree) field of view, giving it an etendue larger than all existing survey instruments combined. Each telescope will be equipped with a 1 billion pixel CCD camera with low noise and rapid read-out, and the data will be reduced in near real time to produce both cumulative static sky and difference images, from which transient, moving and variable objects can be detected. Pan-STARRS will be able to survey up to ?6,000 square degrees per night to a detection limit of approximately 24th magnitude. This unique combination of sensitivity and rate of area coverage will open up many new possibilities in time domain astronomy. A major goal for the project is to survey potentially dangerous asteroids, where Pan-STARRS will be able to detect most objects down to 300m size, much smaller than the km size objects accessible to existing search programs. In addition, the Pan-STARRS data products will used to address a wide range of astronomical problems in the Solar System, the Galaxy, and the Cosmos at large. Here, we first outline the Pan-STARRS science goals and describe the survey modes needed to support these. We then describe the design and performance goals, the data processing pipeline, and we review the basic data products. Finally, we present results from simulations that demonstrate Pan-STARRS' capability for detecting potentially hazardous asteroids.

Kaiser, Nicholas

2004-10-01

319

Evaporation by mechanical vapor recompression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the development of a study of the application of the technologies of mechanical vapor recompression and falling film evaporation as applied to the beet sugar industry is reported. Progress is reported in the following areas: technical literature search; report on visit to European factories using these technologies; energy balance studies of factories offered by the industry as candidates for the demonstration plants; and report on energy balance studies and the recommendations as to the site for the demonstration plant.

Iverson, C. H.; Coury, G. E.

1980-04-01

320

Soil, Water and Atmospheric Processes 2h Tutorial Evaporation Simulation of Evaporation.  

E-print Network

Soil, Water and Atmospheric Processes 2h Tutorial ­ Evaporation 1 of 4 Simulation of Evaporation. This tutorial will help reinforce some of the lecture material on water vapour, evaporation and turbulent transfer processes. You will use a simulation model of the evaporation process (essentially the Penman

Moncrieff, John B.

321

Gel polymer electrolyte based on LiBOB and PAN for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated using metal complex N3 dye coupled with LiBOB and PAN-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). Conductivity of the GPE at room temperature was 1.2 × 10-2 S cm-1. The deconvoluted vibration spectra at different temperatures between 1000 and 970 cm-1 show the existence of ion pairs and free ions. Overall efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE system is 0.65% and 48% respectively. The cell with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE system appears to be stable under varied light intensity attributed to the presence of redox couple mediator in the GPE. Impedance measurements show that the DSSC with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE has longer electron lifetime which suggests a lower electron recombination rate.

Arof, A. K.; Jun, H. K.; Sim, L. N.; Kufian, M. Z.; Sahraoui, B.

2013-11-01

322

Pan-Sharpening Using Induction Muhammad Murtaza Khan, Jocelyn Chanussot  

E-print Network

-Lab­Department of Images and Signal Processing (DIS), ENSIEG, Grenoble, France E-mail: firstname-spectral (MS) satellite images using the spatial details of a high resolution Panchromatic (PAN) image. Pan), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and SFIM fusion techniques is presented for IKONOS satellite images. I

Condat, Laurent

323

Development of a Pan-Arctic Database for River Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10% of all continental runoff flows into the Arctic Ocean. This runoff is a dominant feature of the Arctic Ocean with respect to water column structure and circulation. Yet understanding of the chemical characteristics of runoff from the pan-Arctic watershed is surprisingly limited. The Pan-Arctic River Transport of Nutrients, Organic Matter, and Suspended Sediments (PARTNERS) project was initiated

James W. McClelland; R. Max Holmes; Bruce J. Peterson; Rainer Amon; Tim Brabets; Lee Cooper; John Gibson; Viacheslav V. Gordeev; Christopher Guay; David Milburn; Robin Staples; Peter A. Raymond; Igor Shiklomanov; Robert Striegl; Alexander Zhulidov; Tanya Gurtovaya; Sergey Zimov

2008-01-01

324

Understanding the Pan Asian Client: A Handbook for Helping Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides background information and suggestions to those who find themselves providing human care services to Pan Asian clients (Cambodians, Chinese, Guamanians, Hawaiians, Japanese, Koreans, Laotians, Pilipinos, Samoans, Thais, Vietnamese). Included is historical, cultural, and social information about the various Pan Asian groups in…

Union of Pan Asian Communities, San Diego, CA.

325

FACTS: Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre Opening: September 2014  

E-print Network

of the community and high performance athletes. The Canadian Sport Institute Ontario is an anchor tenant to move components of their high performance teams and training programs to TPASC. Academic Focus: HealthFACTS: Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre Opening: September 2014 What it is The Toronto Pan Am Sports

Boonstra, Rudy

326

Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

Choudhury, B. J.

1990-01-01

327

Comparison of Evaporation From Wet Grassland and Reed Beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following years of wetland destruction, which involved drainage of fields and peat extraction, many areas across Europe are being restored. Restoration includes raising of water levels in drainage ditches in wet grassland areas and planting of reeds in peat "quarries". The consequent increase in evaporation is thought to have a significant impact on catchment water resources. A hydrological investigation and modelling study was conducted on the Somerset Levels and Moors, in the UK. This indicated that wet grasslands are evaporating around 10% more water than "normal" fields of grass and reeds some 25% more in the summer, though less in the winter. The evaporation rates are shown to be related to soil water status and phenological stage of the plants.

Acreman, M.; Harding, R.; Lloyd, C.; McNeil, D.

328

Influence of electron evaporative cooling on ultracold plasma expansion  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCP) is driven primarily by the thermal pressure of the electron component and is therefore sensitive to the electron temperature. For typical UCP spatial extents, evaporative cooling has a significant influence on the UCP expansion rate at lower densities (less than 10{sup 8}/cm{sup 3}). We studied the effect of electron evaporation in this density range. Owing to the low density, the effects of three-body recombination were negligible. We modeled the expansion by taking into account the change in electron temperature owing to evaporation as well as adiabatic expansion and found good agreement with our data. We also developed a simple model for initial evaporation over a range of ultracold plasma densities, sizes, and electron temperatures to determine over what parameter range electron evaporation is expected to have a significant effect. We also report on a signal calibration technique, which relates the signal at our detector to the total number of ions and electrons in the ultracold plasma.

Wilson, Truman; Chen, Wei-Ting; Roberts, Jacob [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2013-07-15

329

Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions.  

PubMed

Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high evaporation rates in arid regions, groundwater quality is not threatened and all soil contamination issues tend to be overlooked. But if soil contamination happens, where do contaminants go? This study tests the hypothesis of upward metal movement in soils when evaporation is the main transport mechanism. Laboratory evaporation tests were carried out with heavy metal spiked Saudi soil, using circulation of air as the driving force (Fig. 1). Main results show that loamy soil retains heavy metals quite well while evaporation drives heavy metals to the surface of a sandy soil. Evaporation transports heavy metals upward in sandy soils of arid regions, making them accumulate at the soil surface. Sand being the dominating type of soil in arid regions, soils can then be a potential source of contaminated aerosols and atmospheric pollution - a transboundary problem. Some other repercussions for this problem are foreseen, such as the public ingestion or inhalation of dust. PMID:24997976

Lima, Ana T; Safar, Zeinab; Loch, J P Gustav

2014-09-01

330

Evaporation Mechanism of Sn and SnS from Liquid Fe: Part II: Residual Site and Evaporation Kinetics via Sn(g) and SnS(g)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation of Sn from molten steel was experimentally investigated for Fe-Sn-S alloy with low initial S (0.0007 < [pct S]0 < 0.05) or with high initial S (0.55 < [pct S]0 < 0.894) at 1873 K (1600 °C) using an electromagnetic levitation melting technique, in order to clarify the role of S on the evaporation mechanism of Sn. It was found that increasing initial S concentration, [pct S]0, decreased the second-order evaporation rate constant of Sn (k SnS), but there was a residual rate for the evaporation even at high [pct S]0. The obtained residual rate constant, k_{{SnS}}^{{r}} , was 1.4 × 10-9 m4 mol-1 s-1 at 1873 K (1600 °C). Evaporation of Sn under virtually no S condition ([pct S]0 = 0.0007) was also measured and corresponding first-order rate constant was determined to be 3.49 × 10-7 m s-1 at 1873 K (1600 °C). A comprehensive model for the Sn evaporation from molten Fe-Sn-S alloy was developed in the present study, under the condition where mass transfer in gas and liquid phases were fast and interfacial chemical reaction controlled the evaporation of Sn. The model equation is able to represent the evaporation of Sn in the forms of Sn(g) and SnS(g) simultaneously, from very low S melt (when there is no S) to very high S melt investigated in the present study up to 0.9 mass pct. Gradual transition of major evaporation species from SnS(g) to Sn(g) was well accounted for by the developed model.

Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae; Seo, Jeong-Do; Park, Joong-Kil; Choi, Joo

2014-09-01

331

Dynamics of transition from stage-1 to stage-2 evaporation from porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early stages of evaporation from porous media are marked by a relatively high and constant evaporation rate (the so-called stage-1 evaporation) sustained by capillary liquid flow from the porous medium interior. Following interruption of hydraulic connections at a certain drying front depth, the vaporization plane migrates below the surface leading to transition to stage-2 evaporation limited by vapour diffusion through the porous medium. The nature of the transition and the wide range of transition dynamics from stage-1 to stage-2 were studied using evaporation experiments from sand-filled Hele-Shaw cells (172x81x4 mm) with three mean particle sizes of 0.27, 0.46, and 0.84 mm. The initially water saturated cells were placed on digital balances (cell top exposed to air) to record evaporation rates. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber where the relative humidity and temperature could be varied and controlled accurately. The effects of grains size, ambient temperature and relative humidity (both affecting potential evaporation rates) on transition dynamics were systematically evaluated. The results illustrate the role of potential evaporation rate on transition duration and shape transcending the expected scaling with cumulative mass loss that defines the evaporative characteristic length. The transition becomes more abrupt at higher atmospheric demand perhaps due to enhanced role of viscous effects that accelerate pore disconnection. Pore size did not affect the shape of transition much except for the medium sand with prolonged transition (the exact pore size distribution needs to be examined). Interestingly the evaporation rate at the onset of stage 2 was not affected by atmospheric conditions (Shokri and Or, 2011).

Shokri, Nima; Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Shahabdeen, Rumeena; Or, Dani

2014-05-01

332

PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEP725 is a 5 years project with the main object to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. PEP725 is funded by EUMETNET (the network of European meteorological services), ZAMG and the Austrian ministry for science & research bm:w_f. So far 16 European national meteorological services and 7 partners from different nati-onal phenological network operators have joined PEP725. The data access is very easy via web-access from the homepage www.pep725.eu. Ha-ving accepted the PEP725 data policy and registry the data download can be done by different criteria as for instance the selection of a specific plant or all data from one country. At present more than 300 000 new records are available in the PEP725 data-base coming from 31 European countries and from 8150 stations. For some more sta-tions (154) META data (location and data holder) are provided. Links to the network operators and data owners are also on the webpage in case you have more sophisticated questions about the data. Another objective of PEP725 is to bring together network-operators and scientists by organizing workshops. In April 2012 the second of these workshops will take place on the premises of ZAMG. Invited speakers will give presentations spanning the whole study area of phenology starting from observations to modelling. Quality checking is also a big issue. At the moment we study the literature to find ap-propriate methods.

Koch, E.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

2012-04-01

333

Inferences About the Location of Food in the Great Apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bonobos (Pan paniscus; n = 4), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 12), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla; n = 8), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; n = 6) were presented with 2 cups (1 baited) and given visual or auditory information about their contents. Visual information consisted of letting subjects look inside the cups. Auditory information consisted of shaking the cup so that

Josep Call

2004-01-01

334

Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

2009-07-01

335

Evaporation estimation of rift valley lakes: comparison of models.  

PubMed

Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux. PMID:22303142

Melesse, Assefa M; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

2009-01-01

336

Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models  

PubMed Central

Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux. PMID:22303142

Melesse, Assefa M.; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

2009-01-01

337

Putting the "vap" into evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spirit of the Special Issue of HESS to which it contributes, this paper documents the origin and development of the science of natural evaporation from land surfaces over the last 30-35 years, since the symposium A View from the Watershed was held to commemorate the opening of the new Institute of Hydrology (IH) building in 1973. Important subsequent technical progress includes the ability to measure routinely the diurnal cycle of near-surface meteorological variables using automatic weather stations, and of surface energy and momentum exchanges using automated implementations of the Bowen Ratio/Energy Budget technique and the Eddy Correlation technique, along with the capability to estimate the "fetch" for which these measurements apply. These improvements have been complemented by new methods to measure the separate components of evaporation, including: the interception process using randomly relocated below-canopy gauges, transpiration fluxes from individual leaves/shoots using porometers and from plants/plant components using stem-flow gauges and soil evaporation using micro-lysimeters and soil moisture depletion methods. In recent years progress has been made in making theory-based area-average estimates of evaporation using scintillometers, and model-based area-average estimates by assembling many streams of relevant data into Land Data Assimilation Systems. Theoretical progress has been made in extending near-surface turbulence theory to accommodate the effect of the "excess" boundary layer resistance to leaf-to-air transfer of energy and mass fluxes relative to that for momentum, and to allow for observed shortcoming in stability factors in the transition layer immediately above vegetation. Controversy regarding the relative merits of multi-layer model and "big leaf" representations of whole-canopy exchanges has been resolved in favour of the latter approach. Important gaps in the theory of canopy-atmosphere interactions have been filled, including recognising the need, separately, to represent dry-canopy and wet-canopy evaporation in models and the capability to describe wet-to-dry canopy transitions as well as the ability to describe sparse vegetation canopies which only partly cover the underlying soil. There is progress in methods of estimating crop water requirements, but an important recommendation of this paper is that this progress should continue by introducing use of an effective stomatal resistance rather than crop factors. The paper draws attention to relevant theoretical insight on this issue. Progress in theoretical understanding of evaporation processes has been used in the creation of numerous Land Surface Parameterisations (LSPs), the models used to represent land-surface interaction in climate and weather forecast models, and there have been important advances in describing the behaviour of plant stomata in LSPs. A major investment over the last 25 years in conducting Large-Scale Field Experiments, the better to measure, understand and model coupled land-surface/atmosphere interactions, has resulted in improvements in the capabilities of global climate models and the ability of mesoscale meteorological models to describe the enhanced circulation resulting from different forms of land-surface heterogeneity. Progress in understanding why early equations for potential evapotranspiration can be adequate in certain conditions is reviewed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research.

Shuttleworth, W. J.

2007-01-01

338

Summertime PAN on boundary layer over the Northern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of SHIPPO ( Shipborne Pole to Pole Observation), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 have been measured at aboard the R/V Araon during the ship track from Inchon, South Korea to Norm, Alaska, USA from July 14th to 30th, 2012. PAN and NO2 were sampled every 2 minute by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. In order to assure their detections in remote background airs, we successfully reduced random noise mainly from PMT using ensemble averaging from the 2 min chromatograms in each one hour time interval. With this post-processing analysis, we were able to lower detection limits to 0.01 ppbv and 0.04 ppbv for PAN and NO2, respectively. The preliminary results indicate that the background values ranged from the below the detection limit to 0.37 ppbv (average of 0.06 ppbv) for PAN and 2.05 ppbv (average of 0.24 ppbv) for NO2. It was confirmed that PAN was significant portions of reactive nitrogens in remote marine boundary airs. Occasional enhancements of PAN and NO2 were mainly attributed to the air masses originated from nearby source regions in the Northestern Asia and influenced by ships exhausts. We were able to observe the shifting of equilibrium between PAN and NO2 according to air temperature changes in very clean air masses.

Song, D.; Lee, S.; Lee, G.; Rhee, T. S.

2012-12-01

339

Pan1 is an intrinsically disordered protein with homotypic interactions  

PubMed Central

The yeast scaffold protein Pan1 contains two EH domains at its N-terminus, a predicted coiled-coil central region, and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Pan1 is also predicted to contain regions of intrinsic disorder, characteristic of proteins that have many binding partners. In vitro biochemical data suggest that Pan1 exists as a dimer, and we have identified amino acids 705–848 as critical for this homotypic interaction. Tryptophan fluorescence was used to further characterize Pan1 conformational states. Pan1 contains four endogenous tryptophans, each in a distinct region of the protein: Trp312 and Trp642 are each in an EH domain, Trp957 is in the central region, and Trp1280 is a critical residue in the Arp2/3 activation domain. To examine the local environment of each of these tryptophans, three of the four tryptophans were mutagenized to phenylalanine to create four proteins, each with only one tryptophan residue. When quenched with acrylamide, these single tryptophan mutants appeared to undergo collisional quenching exclusively and were moderately accessible to the acrylamide molecule. Quenching with iodide or cesium, however, revealed different Stern-Volmer constants due to unique electrostatic environments of the tryptophan residues. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy data confirmed structural and disorder predictions of Pan1. Further experimentation to fully develop a model of Pan1 conformational dynamics will assist in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of endocytosis. PMID:23801378

Pierce, B. D.; Toptygin, D.; Wendland, B.

2013-01-01

340

Evaporative oxidation treatability test report  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

NONE

1995-04-01

341

Chemical and isotopic fractionations by evaporation and their cosmochemical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic model for evaporation of a multi-component condensed phase with a fixed rate constant of the reaction is developed. A binary system with two isotopes for one of the components undergoing simple thermal histories (e.g., isothermal heating) is investigated in order to evaluate the extent of isotopic and chemical fractionations during evaporation. Diffusion in the condensed phase and the effect of back reaction from ambient gas are taken into consideration. Chemical and isotopic fractionation factors and the Péclet number for evaporation are the three main parameters that control the fractionation. Dust enrichment factor (?), the ratio of the initial dust quantity to that required for attainment of gas-dust equilibrium, is critical when back reactions become significant. Dust does not reach equilibrium with gas at ? < 1. Notable chemical and isotopic fractionations usually take place under these conditions. There are two circumstances in which isotopic fractionation of a very volatile element does not accompany chemical fractionation during isothermal heating. One is free evaporation when diffusion in the condensed phase is very slow (? = 0), and the other is evaporation in the presence of ambient gas (? > 0). In the former case, a quasi-steady state in the diffusion boundary layer is maintained for isotopic fractionation but not for chemical fractionation. In the latter case, the back reaction brings the strong isotopic fractionation generated in the earlier stage of evaporation back to a negligibly small value in the later stage before complete evaporation. The model results are applied to cosmochemical fractionation of volatile elements during evaporation from a condensed phase that can be regarded as a binary solution phase. The wide range of potassium depletion without isotopic fractionation in various types of chondrules (Alexander et al., 2000) is explained by instantaneous heating followed by cooling in a closed system with various degrees of dust enrichment (? = 0.001-10) and cooling rates of less than ˜5°C/min. The extent of decoupling between isotopic and chemical fractionations of various elements in chondrules and matrix minerals may constrain the time scale and the conditions of heating and cooling processes in the early solar nebula.

Ozawa, Kazuhito; Nagahara, Hiroko

2001-07-01

342

Chemical evolution of multicomponent aerosol particles during evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol particles have an important but not well quantified effect on climate and human health. Despite the efforts made in the last decades, the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not fully understood. The uncertainty is partly due to the complex chemical composition of the particles which comprise inorganic and organic compounds. Many organics (like dicarboxylic acids) can be present both in the gas and in the condensed phase due to their low vapor pressure. Clearly, an understanding of this partition is crucial to address any other issue in atmospheric physics and chemistry. Moreover, many organics are water soluble, and their influence on the properties of aqueous solution droplets is still poorly characterized. The solid and sub-cooled liquid state vapor pressures of some organic compounds have been previously determined by measuring the evaporation rate of single-compound crystals [1-3] or binary aqueous droplets [4-6]. In this work, we deploy the HTDMA technique (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) coupled with a 3.5m laminar flow-tube and an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for determining the chemical evolution during evaporation of ternary droplets made of one dicarboxylic acid (succinic acid, commonly found in atmospheric samples) and one inorganic compound (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) in different mixing ratios, in equilibrium with water vapor at a fixed relative humidity. In addition, we investigate the evaporation of multicomponent droplets and crystals made of three organic species (dicarboxylic acids and sugars), of which one or two are semi-volatile. 1. Bilde M. and Pandis, S.N.: Evaporation Rates and Vapor Pressures of Individual Aerosol Species Formed in the Atmospheric Oxidation of alpha- and beta-Pinene. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2001. 2. Bilde M., et al.: Even-Odd Alternation of Evaporation Rates and Vapor Pressures of C3-C9 Dicarboxylic Acid Aerosols, Environmental. Science and Technology, 37, 2003. 5. Koponen I.K., et al.: Thermodynamic properties of malonic, succinic, and glutaric acids: Evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 2007. 4. Zardini A.A., et al.: White light Mie resonance spectroscopy used to measure very low vapor pressures of substances in aqueous solution aerosol particles. Optics Express, 14, 2006. 3. Zardini A.A. and Krieger, U.K.: Evaporation kinetics of a non-spherical, levitated aerosol particle using optical resonance spectroscopy for precision sizing. Optics Express, 17, 2009. 6. Riipinen, I., et al.: Adipic and Malonic Acid Aqueous Solutions: Surface Tensions and Saturation Vapor Pressures, J. Phys. Chem., 111, 2007.

Zardini, Alessandro; Riipinen, Ilona; Pagels, Joakim; Eriksson, Axel; Worsnop, Douglas; Switieckli, Erik; Kulmala, Markku; Bilde, Merete

2010-05-01

343

Organic Evaporator steam valve failure  

SciTech Connect

DWPF Technical has requested an analysis of the capacity of the organic Evaporator (OE) condenser (OEC) be performed to determine its capability in the case where the OE steam flow control valve fails open. Calculations of the OE boilup and the OEC heat transfer coefficient indicate the OEC will have more than enough capacity to remove the heat at maximum OE boilup. In fact, the Salt Cell Vent Condenser (SCVC) should also have sufficient capacity to handle the maximum OE boilup. Therefore it would require simultaneous loss of OEC and/or SCVC condensing capacity for the steam valve failure to cause high benzene in the Process Vessel Vent System (PVVS).

Jacobs, R. A.

1992-09-29

344

Evaporation from Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, March 2010 through February 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation from Lake Mead was measured using the eddy-covariance method for the 2-year period starting March 2010 and ending February 2012. When corrected for energy imbalances, annual eddy-covariance evaporation was 2,074 and 1,881 millimeters (81.65 and 74.07 inches), within the range of previous estimates. There was a 9-percent decrease in the evaporation rate and a 10-percent increase in the lake surface area during the second year of the study compared to the first. These offsetting factors resulted in a nearly identical 720 million cubic meters (584,000 acre feet) evaporation volume for both years. Monthly evaporation rates were best correlated with wind speed, vapor pressure difference, and atmospheric stability. Differences between individual monthly evaporation and mean monthly evaporation were as much as 20 percent. Net radiation provided most of the energy available for evaporative processes; however, advected heat from the Colorado River was an important energy source during the second year of the study. Peak evaporation lagged peak net radiation by 2 months because a larger proportion of the net radiation that reaches the lake goes to heating up the water column during the spring and summer months. As most of this stored energy is released, higher evaporation rates are sustained during fall months even though net radiation declines. The release of stored heat also fueled nighttime evaporation, which accounted for 37 percent of total evaporation. The annual energy-balance ratio was 0.90 on average and varied only 0.01 between the 2 years, thus implying that 90 percent of estimated available energy was accounted for by turbulent energy measured using the eddy-covariance method. More than 90 percent of the turbulent-flux source area represented the open-water surface, and 94 percent of 30-minute turbulent-flux measurements originated from wind directions where the fetch ranged from 2,000 to 16,000 meters. Evaporation uncertainties were estimated to be 5 to 7 percent. A secondary evaporation method, the Bowen ratio energy budget method, also was employed to measure evaporation from Lake Mead primarily as a validation of eddy-covariance evaporation measurements at annual timescales. There was good agreement between annual corrected eddy-covariance and Bowen ratio energy budget evaporation estimates, providing strong validation of these two largely independent methods. Annual Bowen ratio energy budget evaporation was 6 and 8 percent greater than eddy-covariance evaporation for the 2 study years, and both methods indicated there was a similar decrease in evaporation from the first to the second year. Both methods produced negative sensible heat fluxes during the same months, and there was a strong correlation between monthly Bowen ratios (R2 = 0.94). The correlation between monthly evaporation (R2 = 0.65), however, was not as strong. Monthly differences in evaporation were attributed primarily to heat storage estimate uncertainty.

Moreo, Michael T.;Swancar, Amy

2013-01-01

345

Testing of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Engineering Development Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamilton Sundstrand is under contract with the NASA Johnson Space Center to develop a scalable, evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It is being designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. The current Shuttle configuration utilizes an ammonia boiler and flash evaporator system to achieve cooling at all altitudes. The MFE system combines both functions into a single compact package with significant weight reduction and improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. The full scale MFE prototype will be constructed with four core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A sub-scale MFE engineering development unit (EDU) has been built, and is identical to one of the four sections of a full scale prototype. The EDU has completed testing at Hamilton Sundstrand. The overall test objective was to determine the thermal performance of the EDU. The first set of tests simulated how each of the four sections of the prototype would perform by varying the chamber pressure, evaporant flow rate, coolant flow rate and coolant temperature. A second set of tests was conducted with an outlet steam header in place to verify that the outlet steam orifices prevent freeze-up in the core while also allowing the desired thermal turn-down ratio. This paper discusses the EDU tests and results.

Quinn, Gregory; O'Connor, Ed; Riga, Ken; Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

2007-01-01

346

Evaporation of sessile droplets affected by graphite nanoparticles and binary base fluids.  

PubMed

The effects of ethanol component and nanoparticle concentration on evaporation dynamics of graphite-water nanofluid droplets have been studied experimentally. The results show that the formed deposition patterns vary greatly with an increase in ethanol concentration from 0 to 50 vol %. Nanoparticles have been observed to be carried to the droplet surface and form a large piece of aggregate. The volume evaporation rate on average increases as the ethanol concentration increases from 0 to 50 vol % in the binary mixture nanofluid droplets. The evaporation rate at the initial stage is more rapid than that at the late stage to dry, revealing a deviation from a linear fitting line, standing for a constant evaporation rate. The deviation is more intense with a higher ethanol concentration. The ethanol-induced smaller liquid-vapor surface tension leads to higher wettability of the nanofluid droplets. The graphite nanoparticles in ethanol-water droplets reinforce the pinning effect in the drying process, and the droplets with more ethanol demonstrate the depinning behavior only at the late stage. The addition of graphite nanoparticles in water enhances a droplet baseline spreading at the beginning of evaporation, a pinning effect during evaporation, and the evaporation rate. However, with a relatively high nanoparticle concentration, the enhancement is attenuated. PMID:25372453

Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

2014-11-26

347

Assessment of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used as a heat sink from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. The current shuttle configuration utilizes an ammonia boiler and water based flash evaporator system to achieve cooling at all altitudes. This system combines both functions into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale system uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A single-core MFE engineering development unit (EDU) was built in 2006, followed by a full scale, four-core prototype in 2007. The EDU underwent extensive thermal testing while the prototype was being built. Lessons learned from the EDU were incorporated into the prototype and proven out in check-out testing. The EDU and prototype testing proved out the MFE's ability to passively control back-pressure, avoid unwanted icing, tolerate icing if it should occur, provide a three-to-one turn down ratio in heat load and scale up efficiently. Some issues with these first designs of the MFE have limited its ability to reject heat without liquid evaporant carry-over. However, they are due to the implementation of the design rather than the fundamentals of the technology. This paper discusses the background, development and present state of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator technology and concludes with efforts underway to advance the state-of-the-art.

Quinn, Gregory; O'Connor, Edward

2008-01-01

348

Towards a Pan-European property index : methodological opportunities  

E-print Network

This study examines the methodological opportunities of index construction for the Pan-European property index, whose release is planned by the company Investment Property Databank (IPD). To address the question of temporal ...

Helfer, Friederike, 1976-

2004-01-01

349

PAN and the NOx budget of the troposphere. [Peroxyacylnitrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation has the objective to examine the interaction of NOx with the nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) photochemistry. Attention is given to the influence of temperature, transport, and hydrocarbon radical reactions on the profiles of peroxyacylnitrates (PANs) and NO2. A lumped NMHC chemical reaction scheme was used in a one-dimensional photochemical model of the global troposphere. Model calculations were performed with various temperature profiles and the corresponding solar zenith angles to examine seasonal variations in the profiles of PAN and NOx. A study of the effects of changing temperature and solar zenith angle on the profiles of PAN and NOx showed that the amount of NO2 tied up in PAN increased as temperature decreased.

Brewer, D. A.; Augustsson, T. R.; Levine, J. S.

1982-01-01

350

PAN’s Labyrinth: Molecular Biology of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) PAN RNA, a Multifunctional Long Noncoding RNA  

PubMed Central

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic ?-herpesivrus, the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma and body cavity lymphomas. During infection KSHV produces a highly abundant long non-coding polyadenylated RNA that is retained in the nucleus known as PAN RNA. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are key regulators of gene expression and are known to interact with specific chromatin modification complexes, working in cis and trans to regulate gene expression. Data strongly supports a model where PAN RNA is a multifunctional regulatory transcript that controls KSHV gene expression by mediating the modification of chromatin by targeting the KSHV repressed genome. PMID:25375885

Rossetto, Cyprian C.; Pari, Gregory S.

2014-01-01

351

Water Purification by Evaporation and Condensation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration illustrates how the water cycle helps to purify water. Students are introduced to the key terms, which are evaporation and condensation. They discover that evaporation is defined as the process through which a liquid becomes a vapor, while condensation is simply the reverse. Students also learn that in the case of water, the main mechanisms for evaporation and condensation are heating and cooling, respectively.

352

Spatially Resolved Evaporative Patterns from Water  

E-print Network

Unexpectedly distinct patterns in evaporation were observed over heated water. Although the patterns had chaotic aspects, they often showed geometric patterns. These patterns bore strong resemblance to the infrared emission patterns observable with a mid-infrared camera focused on the water surface. This similarity puts constraints on the mechanism of evaporation, and leads to a general hypothesis as to the nature of the evaporative process.

Ienna, Federico; Pollack, Gerald H

2011-01-01

353

Liquid-phase continuity and solute concentration dynamics during evaporation from porous media: pore-scale processes near vaporization surface.  

PubMed

Evaporation from porous media involves complex pore scale transport processes affecting liquid phase distribution and fluxes. Often, the initial evaporation rate is nearly constant and supplied by capillary flow from wetted zones below to the surface. Sustaining constant flow against gravity hinges on an upward capillary gradient and on liquid phase continuity with hydraulic conductivity sufficient for supplying evaporative flux. The pore scale liquid phase adjustments during evaporative displacement necessary for maintaining a constant flux have been postulated but rarely measured. In this study we employed detailed imaging using x-ray synchrotron radiation to study liquid phase distribution and dynamics at the most sensitive domain just below the surface of evaporating sand columns. Three-dimensional images at a resolution of 7 microns were obtained from sand column (mean particle size 0.6 mm) initially saturated with calcium iodide solution (4% by mass) to enhance image contrast. Detailed imaging of near-surface liquid phase distribution during evaporation confirmed phase continuity at micrometric scale and provided quantitative estimates of liquid conductance in agreement with values required to supply evaporative flux. Temporal variations in bulk salt concentrations determined from x-ray attenuation were proportional to evaporative water mass loss. Highly resolved salt concentration images revealed existence of evaporating chimneys that supply the bulk of evaporative demand. Delineated mass loss dynamics and salt distribution measured by the x-ray attenuation were in reasonable agreement with a simplified analytical convection-diffusion model for salt dynamics during evaporation from porous media. PMID:20481828

Shokri, N; Lehmann, P; Or, D

2010-04-01

354

Relationships between PAN and ozone at sites in eastern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ozone and PAN (peroxyacetic nitric anhydride) were made at four sites in eastern North America; Bondville, Illinois, Egbert, Ontario, Scotia, Pennsylvania, and Whitetop Mountain, Virginia., in July and August of 1988 as part of a study of regional oxidant photochemistry. The concentrations of PAN ranged from <0.010 to 9.2 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) and those of 03 ranged

J. M. Roberts; R. L. Tanner; L. Newman; V. C. Bowersox; J. W. Bottenheim; K. G. Anlauf; K. A. Brice; D. D. Parrish; F. C. Fehsenfeld; M. P. Buhr; J. F. Meagher; E. M. Bailey

1995-01-01

355

Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

356

Qubit Models of Black Hole Evaporation  

E-print Network

Recently, several simple quantum mechanical toy models of black hole evaporation have appeared in the literature attempting to illuminate the black hole information paradox. We present a general class of models that is large enough to describe both unitary and nonunitary evaporation, and study a few specific examples to clarify some potential confusions regarding recent results. We also generalize Mathur's bound on small corrections to black hole dynamics. Conclusions are then drawn about the requirements for unitary evaporation of black holes in this class of models. We present a one-parameter family of models that continuously deforms nonunitary Hawking evaporation into a unitary process. The required deformation is large.

Steven G. Avery

2011-09-13

357

Dynamics of complete wetting liquid under evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a contact line under evaporation and total wetting conditions is studied taking into account the divergent nature of evaporation near the border of the liquid, as evidenced by Deegan et al. [Nature 389, 827 (1997)]. Complete wetting is assumed to be due to Van der Waals interactions. The existence of a precursor film at the edge of the liquid is shown analytically and numerically. The length of the precursor film is controlled by Hamacker constant and evaporative flux. Past the precursor film, Tanner's law is generalized accounting for evaporative effects.

Pham, Chi-Tuong; Berteloot, Guillaume; Lequeux, François; Limat, Laurent

2008-11-01

358

Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; Emanuel De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; Wenaus, Torre

2010-04-01

359

Interpreting the H/D Isotope Fractionation of Liquid Water DuringEvaporation Without Condensation  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model of liquid water evaporation has been developed to interpret results from a recent experimental investigation of isotope fractionation during free evaporation. It is established that the free evaporation isotope fractionation factors ({alpha}{sub evap}) are primarily influenced by the nature of the intermolecular interactions between water molecules, namely, the condensed phase hindered translational and librational frequencies at the surface. The dependence of {alpha}{sub evap} on the isotopic composition of the liquid can be understood in terms of small variations in these frequencies with isotopic composition. This result suggests that the explicit nature of the solvation environment directly influences evaporation rates from liquids. The sensitivity of the calculated evaporation coefficient for liquid water to both temperature and isotope composition is also explored.

Cappa, Christopher D.; Smith, Jared D.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2007-03-15

360

Charge separation at evaporation and vapor growth of ice and water  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of the interface charging at evaporation and growth of ice and water phases from vapor is proposed. This model takes into account the competition between the two mechanisms of charge separation, one of which is based on protons and the other involves orientational defects. The first mechanism leads to the accumulation of a positive charge by ice and water during evaporation, while the second one provides negative charge accumulation. The protonic mechanism dominates at low velocities of the evaporation front with respect to the condensed phase material (lower than 10{sup -11}-10{sup -9} m/s). At high rates, the mechanism based on orientational defects is dominant. When vapor is condensed, and, correspondingly, the ice and water phases grow, the charge polarity is opposite to the polarity in the case of evaporation. The proposed model adequately describes the experimentally observed interface electric current and the signs of phase charges during evaporation and condensation.

Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Earth Cryosphere Institute, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2008-11-15

361

Congruent evaporation temperature of GaAs(001) controlled by As flux  

SciTech Connect

The congruent evaporation temperature T{sub c} is a fundamental surface characteristic of GaAs and similar compounds. Above T{sub c} the rate of As evaporation exceeds that of Ga during Langmuir (free) evaporation into a vacuum. However, during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) there is generally an external As flux F incident on the surface. Here we show that this flux directly controls T{sub c}. We introduce a sensitive approach to measure T{sub c} based on Ga droplet stability, and determine the dependence of T{sub c} on F. This dependence is explained by a simple model for evaporation in the presence of external flux. The capability of manipulating T{sub c} via changing F offers a means of controlling congruent evaporation with relevance to MBE, surface preparation methods, and droplet epitaxy.

Zhou, Z. Y.; Zheng, C. X.; Tang, W. X.; Jesson, D. E. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Tersoff, J. [IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2010-09-20

362

Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

Jackson, R.D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

1987-01-01

363

On the Resistance to Transpiration of the Sites of Evaporation within the Leaf 1  

PubMed Central

The rates of transpiration from the upper and lower surfaces of leaves of Gossypium hirsutum, Xanthium strumarium, and Zea mays were compared with the rates at which helium diffused across those leaves. There was no evidence for effects of CO2 concentration or rate of evaporation on the resistance to water loss from the evaporating surface (“resistance of the mesophyll wall to transpiration”) and no evidence for any significant wall resistance in turgid tissues. The possible existence of a wall resistance was also tested in leaves of Commelina communis and Tulipa gesneriana whose epidermis could be easily peeled. Only when an epidermis was removed from a leaf, evaporation from the mesophyll tissue declined. We conclude that under conditions relevant to studies of stomatal behavior, the water vapor pressure at the sites of evaporation is equal to the saturation vapor pressure. PMID:16660404

Farquhar, Graham D.; Raschke, Klaus

1978-01-01

364

Analytical solution of viscous microfluid flow inside an evaporating sessile drop: Cylindrical and spherical cap shape  

E-print Network

The 3D axisymmetric and 2D time-dependent flow field inside an evaporating sessile droplet whose contact line is pinned is studied analytically with a free-shear boundary condition on the surface of the droplet at low capillary and Bond numbers. Solutions are obtained for arbitrary contact angle and non uniform evaporation rate. Fourier sine transform and transform introduced in (H. Masoud, Physical Review E, in review (2008)) based on Gegenbauer function are used respectively for solving 2D and 3D axisymmetric problems. Published solutions of evaporation rate considered only diffusion as the transport mechanism. The analysis was corrected to allow for the actual convective-diffusive behavior. It is also shown that infinite evaporation rate predicted by solving Laplace equation for the vapor phase is not tolerable and needs to be modified.

Masoud, Hassan

2008-01-01

365

3 CFR 8495 - Proclamation 8495 of April 9, 2010. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of American States' headquarters, the Pan American Union Building; and the bicentennials of four of our fellow republics: Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, and Chile. These milestones remind us of our shared histories of independence and...

2011-01-01

366

Organic evaporator steam valve failure  

SciTech Connect

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Technical has requested an analysis of the capacity of the Organic Evaporator (OE) condenser (OEC) be performed to determine its capability in the case where the OE steam flow control valve fails open. Calculations of the OE boilup and the OEC heat transfer coefficient indicate the OEC will have more than enough capacity to remove the heat at maximum OE boilup. In fact, the Salt Cell Vent Condenser (SCVC) should also have sufficient capacity to handle the maximum OE boilup. Therefore, it would require simultaneous loss of OEC and/or SCVC condensing capacity for the steam valve failure to cause high benzene in the Process Vessel Vent System (PVVS).

Jacobs, R.A.

1992-09-29

367

Aircraft measured oil evaporating from Gulf oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in April 2010, some hydrocarbons dissolved in the ocean, while other leaked hydrocarbons that did not dissolve evaporated into the atmosphere. Ryerson et al. describe airborne in situ measurements of the hydrocarbons in the atmosphere after the oil spill, during initial cleanup operations. By comparing the amounts of chemicals in the atmosphere with those in crude oil, they determined which compounds dissolved in the ocean and which evaporated; by measuring the rate at which the compounds reached the atmosphere, they could estimate that oil and gas were leaking into the Gulf at a rate of at least 32,600-47,700 barrels of fluid per day.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-05-01

368

Evaluation of a locally homogeneous model of spray evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of spray evaporation which employs a second-order turbulence model in conjunction with the locally homogeneous flow approximation, which implies infinitely fast interphase transport rates is presented. Measurements to test the model were completed for single phase constant and variable density jets, as well as an evaporating spray in stagnant air. Profiles of mean velocity, composition, temperature and drop size distribution as well as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress, were measured within the spray. Predictions were in agreement with measurements in single phase flows and also with many characteristics of the spray, e.g. flow width, radial profiles of mean and turbulent quantities, and the axial rate of decay of mean velocity and mixture fraction.

Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

1979-01-01

369

Enhanced drug dissolution using evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution.  

PubMed

A new process, evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) has been developed to coat poorly water soluble drugs, in this case carbamazepine, with hydrophilic stabilizers to enhance dissolution rates. A heated organic solution of the drug in dichloromethane is sprayed though a fine nozzle into a heated aqueous solution. The rapid evaporation of the organic solvent produces high supersaturation and rapid precipitation of the drug in the form of a colloidal suspension that is stabilized by a variety of low molecular weight and polymeric surfactants. The stabilizer adsorbs to the drug surface and prevents particle growth and crystallization during the spray process. The suspensions are dried by spray drying or ultra-rapid freezing. The high dissolution rates are a consequence of the following advantages of the EPAS process: a small primary particle size, a hydrophilic coating on the particles that enhances wetting, and low crystallinity. PMID:12176292

Sarkari, Marazban; Brown, Judith; Chen, Xiaoxia; Swinnea, Steve; Williams, Robert O; Johnston, Keith P

2002-08-28

370

Thermal Evaporation of Gas from X-ray Clusters  

E-print Network

A fraction of the thermal protons in the outer envelope of an X-ray cluster have velocities that exceed the local escape speed from the cluster gravitational potential. The Coulomb mean-free-path of these protons is larger than the virial radius of the cluster at temperatures >2.5 keV. The resulting leakage of suprathermal particles generates a collisionless shock in neighboring voids and fills them with heat and magnetic fields. The momentum flux of suprathermal particles cannot be confined by magnetic tension at the typical field strength in the periphery of cluster halos (evaporation could drain up to a tenth of the cluster gas at its virial temperature. The evaporated fraction could increase dramatically if additional heat is deposited into the gas by cluster mergers, active galactic nuclei or supernovae. Thermal evaporation is not included in existing cosmological simulations since they are based on the fluid approximation. Measurements of the baryon mass fraction in the outer envelopes of hot clusters (through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or X-ray emission) can be used to empirically constrain their evaporation rate.

Abraham Loeb

2006-06-22

371

Night-time evaporation from a short-rotation willow stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to quantify and analyse the evaporation during night-time in a willow ( Salix viminalis L.) short-rotation stand. Evaporation measurements were made throughout the 24 h period on 76 days during the 1988 growing season using the energy-balance/Bowen-ratio method. Canopy conductance was estimated using a rearranged form of the Penman combination equation. The mean hourly evaporation rate during daytime was 0.18 mm h -1 and the corresponding value during night-time was 0.013 mm h -1, about 7% of the daytime rate. The mean cumulative night-time evaporation was 0.12 mm per night or 4.3% of the mean daytime evaporation. The highest night-time evaporation occurred in September and October with 0.21 mm and 0.36 mm per night, respectively, some 30-35% of the daytime evaporation during these periods. Total night-time evaporation for the growing season was estimated as 21 mm. Night-time evaporation was controlled mainly by vapour pressure deficit and ventilation whereas net radiation had only a minor influence. The night-time canopy resistance was estimated for a shorter period when the canopy was completely closed (leaf area index around 5) and the soil evaporation could be assumed negligible. The canopy resistance ranged between 10 and 220 s m -1 depending on vapour pressure deficit. The dependence on vapour pressure deficit during night-time was similar to the dependence during daytime but with a much larger sensitivity during the dark period.

Iritz, Zinaida; Lindroth, Anders

1994-05-01

372

Pan-S replication patterns and chromosomal domains defined by genome-tiling arrays of ENCODE genomic areas  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, accurate control of replication time is required for the efficient completion of S phase and maintenance of genome stability. We present a high-resolution genome-tiling array-based profile of replication timing for ?1% of the human genome studied by The ENCODE Project Consortium. Twenty percent of the investigated segments replicate asynchronously (pan-S). These areas are rich in genes and CpG islands, features they share with early-replicating loci. Interphase FISH showed that pan-S replication is a consequence of interallelic variation in replication time and is not an artifact derived from a specific cell cycle synchronization method or from aneuploidy. The interallelic variation in replication time is likely due to interallelic variation in chromatin environment, because while the early- or late-replicating areas were exclusively enriched in activating or repressing histone modifications, respectively, the pan-S areas had both types of histone modification. The replication profile of the chromosomes identified contiguous chromosomal segments of hundreds of kilobases separated by smaller segments where the replication time underwent an acute transition. Close examination of one such segment demonstrated that the delay of replication time was accompanied by a decrease in level of gene expression and appearance of repressive chromatin marks, suggesting that the transition segments are boundary elements separating chromosomal domains with different chromatin environments. PMID:17568004

Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher; Malhotra, Ankit; Dutta, Anindya

2007-01-01

373

Pan-S replication patterns and chromosomal domains defined by genome-tiling arrays of ENCODE genomic areas.  

PubMed

In eukaryotes, accurate control of replication time is required for the efficient completion of S phase and maintenance of genome stability. We present a high-resolution genome-tiling array-based profile of replication timing for approximately 1% of the human genome studied by The ENCODE Project Consortium. Twenty percent of the investigated segments replicate asynchronously (pan-S). These areas are rich in genes and CpG islands, features they share with early-replicating loci. Interphase FISH showed that pan-S replication is a consequence of interallelic variation in replication time and is not an artifact derived from a specific cell cycle synchronization method or from aneuploidy. The interallelic variation in replication time is likely due to interallelic variation in chromatin environment, because while the early- or late-replicating areas were exclusively enriched in activating or repressing histone modifications, respectively, the pan-S areas had both types of histone modification. The replication profile of the chromosomes identified contiguous chromosomal segments of hundreds of kilobases separated by smaller segments where the replication time underwent an acute transition. Close examination of one such segment demonstrated that the delay of replication time was accompanied by a decrease in level of gene expression and appearance of repressive chromatin marks, suggesting that the transition segments are boundary elements separating chromosomal domains with different chromatin environments. PMID:17568004

Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher; Malhotra, Ankit; Dutta, Anindya

2007-06-01

374

Radial Photon Trajectories Near an Evaporating Black Hole  

E-print Network

The radial motion of photons emitted near the horizon of a black hole that evaporates at a steady rate is examined. The space-time of the black hole is generated using non-orthogonal coordinates. It is shown that some photons that are initially drawn towards the singularity can escape falling into the horizon. The behaviors of various outgoing and ingoing photons are clearly demonstrated through the use of a Penrose diagram.

Beth A. Brown; James Lindesay

2008-02-12

375

Precursor Lesions for Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer: PanIN, IPMN, and MCN  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is still a dismal disease. The high mortality rate is mainly caused by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools, and most of the patients are diagnosed in an advanced and incurable stage. Knowledge about precursor lesions for pancreatic cancer has grown significantly over the last decade, and nowadays we know that mainly three lesions (PanIN, and IPMN, MCN) are responsible for the development of pancreatic cancer. The early detection of these lesions is still challenging but provides the chance to cure patients before they might get an invasive pancreatic carcinoma. This paper focuses on PanIN, IPMN, and MCN lesions and reviews the current level of knowledge and clinical measures. PMID:24783207

Distler, M.; Aust, D.; Weitz, J.; Pilarsky, C.; Grutzmann, Robert

2014-01-01

376

Rapid Evaporation of Binary Mixture Injections  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a fuel under pressure is heated above its normal boiling point and expanded through a nozzle into atmospheric conditions, rapid evaporation can occur. The resulting sprays typically exhibit increased atomization and shorter liquid penetration lengths. When heavy fuels with high specific heats are used, complete evaporation is theoretically possible. This is a continuation of work done by Sloss and

S. McCahan; C. Kessler

1998-01-01

377

Representational Issues in Students Learning about Evaporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws on recent research on the central role of representation in learning. While there has been considerable research on students' understanding of evaporation, the representational issues entailed in this understanding have not been investigated in depth. The study explored students' engagement with evaporation phenomena through…

Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan; Peterson, Suzanne

2007-01-01

378

Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study  

E-print Network

We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

2012-10-11

379

The dynamics of water evaporation from partially  

E-print Network

, or in electrospray ionization (ESI)1,2 experiments. Two models for the formation of solvent-free ions in ESI have from solutions of, for example, proteins. Then evaporation of the solvent leads to dry protein ions), whereas the CRM proposes solvent evaporation from even smaller droplets (

Elber, Ron

380

August 15, 1997 Density of Evaporated Milk  

E-print Network

August 15, 1997 1 Density of Evaporated Milk Report prepared by: Panickos N. Palettas, Director milk, given the milk's Percent Butterfat and Percent Milk Solids (other than fat). The standard for evaporated milk is 6.5% Fat and 23.0% Total Milk Solids (including fat). To facilitate the development

Santner, Thomas

381

Practical application of an evaporation duct model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an evaporation duct model in operational and climatological assessments of propagation and the sensitivity of the model to meteorological measurements are examined. The unexpectedly frequent occurrence of evaporation duct heights greater than 40 m is related to thermally stable conditions in the atmospheric surface layer. The existence of stable conditions over the ocean is analyzed in terms

R. A. Paulus

1985-01-01

382

More About Evaporation In Clusters Of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents theoretical study of evaporation in clusters of spray drops in liquid fuel. Related to reports described in "Turbulence and Evaporation in Clusters of Drops" (NPO-17323) and "Effects of Turbulence on Ignition" (NPO-17335). Purpose of study to improve theoretical description of transport of molecular species, mass, and heat between cluster and its surroundings.

Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

1990-01-01

383

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01

384

Numerical evaluation of subsurface soil water evaporation derived from sensible heat balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently introduced measurement approach allows in situ determination of subsurface soil water evaporation by means of heat-pulse probes (HPP). The latent heat component of subsurface evaporation is estimated from the residual of the sensible heat balance. This heat balance method requires measurement of vertical soil temperature and estimates of thermal properties for soil water evaporation determination. Our objective was to employ numerically simulated thermal and hydraulic processes using constant or diurnally cycled surface boundary conditions to evaluate and understand this technique. Three observation grid spacings, namely, 6 mm (tri-needle HPP), 3 mm (penta-needle HPP) and 1 mm, along with three soil textures (sand, silt, and silty clay) were used to test the heat balance method. The comparison of heat balance-based evaporation rate estimates with an independent soil profile water balance revealed substantial errors when thermal conductivity ? was averaged spatially across the evaporation front. Since the conduction component of heat flux is the dominant process at the evaporation front, the estimation of evaporation rate was significantly improved using depth-dependent ? instead of a space-averaged ?. A near-surface "undetectable zone" exists, where the heat balance calculation is irreconcilable, resulting in underestimation of total subsurface evaporation. The method performs better for medium- and coarse-textured soils than for fine-textured soils, where portions of the drying front may be maintained longer within the undetectable zone. Using smaller temperature sensor spacing near the soil surface minimized underestimation from the undetectable zone and improved accuracy of total subsurface evaporation rate estimates.

Sakai, Masaru; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus

2011-02-01

385

Contribution of impervious surfaces to urban evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

data and the Princeton urban canopy model, with its detailed representation of urban heterogeneity and hydrological processes, are combined to study evaporation and turbulent water vapor transport over urban areas. The analyses focus on periods before and after precipitation events, at two sites in the Northeastern United States. Our results indicate that while evaporation from concrete pavements, building rooftops, and asphalt surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall these surfaces accounted for nearly 18% of total latent heat fluxes (LE) during a relatively wet 10 day period. More importantly, these evaporative fluxes have a significant impact on the urban surface energy balance, particularly during the 48 h following a rain event when impervious evaporation is the highest. Thus, their accurate representation in urban models is critical. Impervious evaporation after rainfall is also shown to correlate the sources of heat and water at the earth surface, resulting in a conditional scalar transport similarity over urban terrain following rain events.

Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.

2014-04-01

386

Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (inventors)

1986-01-01

387

Possible roles of consolation in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  

PubMed

Empathy is a necessary prerequisite for the occurrence of consolation. The term "consolation" contains a hypothesis about function, which is distress alleviation. The present study aims to confirm the occurrence of consolation in captive chimpanzees via the post-conflict/matched-control method (PC-MC) and to suggest its possible roles. We collected 273 PC-MC pairs in the group of Pan troglodytes housed in the ZooParc de Beauval (France). We confirmed the presence of consolatory contacts (mean level of consolation, 49.5% +/- 22.3% SEM) in the colony. Consolation rates were significantly higher than reconciliation levels (mean level of reconciliation, 28.9% +/- 16.8% SEM). The level of consolation was greater in the absence of reconciliation than in the presence of it, suggesting that consolation might be an alternative behavior. As friendship and relatedness did not influence the occurrence of consolation, they did not seem to be the best prerequisites for this behavioral mechanism, at least in this chimpanzee colony. Affinitive contacts with third parties were significantly more frequent when the victim called attention to itself during severe aggressions by screaming. These high-pitched sounds seem to be useful in eliciting aid from conspecifics, as occurs in young humans. The occurrence of consolation reduced the likelihood of further attacks among group-members. From this perspective, both victims and consolers most likely gain potential advantages by interacting with each other when aggression is particularly severe, reconciliation is not immediate, and consequently social stress reaches high levels. PMID:16229027

Palagi, Elisabetta; Cordoni, Giada; Borgognini Tarli, Silvana

2006-01-01

388

Parameters of High-Temperature Diffusion and Evaporation of Alloying Elements of Thermal Emission Cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a joint statement, nonlinear thermal and diffusion problems are solved by a numerical method to analyze the processes of heat and mass transfer and evaporation of activators of thermal emission cathodes for high-current plasma systems. For the two-dimensional diffusion problem, the boundary conditions are strictly formulated and nonlinear temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients and evaporation rates of emissive and alloying elements are considered. Various mechanisms of activator diffusion are also studied together with the main regularities of heat and mass transfer and activator evaporation as functions of the system parameters.

Tsydypov, B. D.

2014-07-01

389

Modeling evaporation from porous media influenced by atmospheric processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation from porous media into the ambient air involves varios interacting processes and depends on a multitude of properties of the fluids, of the porous medium and of the flow regime. It may be strongly influenced by atmospheric processes, such as an adjacent wind field with the prevailing conditions (wind velocity, temperature, humidity, ...). The evaporation rate can be limited from the porous-medium side, e.g. due to limited water supply by capillary forces or by diffusion through the tortuous porous medium, or from the free-flow side involving the transfer through a boundary layer. Modeling such complex system on the scale of representative elementary volumes (REVs) is a challenging task. In Mosthaf et al. (WRR 2011), we have developed a model for the coupled simulation of a two-phase porous medium flow (Darcy) and a laminar free flow (Stokes) under non-isothermal conditions. This is based on flux continuity across the interface and on a local thermodynamic equilibrium and has the evaporation rate as an output. The computed rates have been significantly lower as the ones which were obsereved in wind tunnel experiments performed in the group of Dani Or (ETH Zürich). One probable reason for that is that the ambient air flow is usually turbulent involving the formation of thin boundary layers with steep gradients and a dispersive mixing of vapor in the free flow, which has to be accounted for. Therefore, several simplified turbulence and boundary layer models with different complexity are being examined with respect to their ability to improve the representation of the flow and transport behavior especially in the vicinity of the interface between soil and atmosphere. Numerical examples illustrate the influence of certain processes and parameters on the computed evaporative fluxes. Possible extensions and simplifications to the developed laminar coupled model are discussed.

Helmig, R.; Mosthaf, K.; Baber, K.; Flemisch, B.

2012-12-01

390

Evaporation kinetics in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An engineering analysis of the rate of evaporation of solvent in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth is presented; these results are applied to 18 different drop and well arrangements commonly encountered in the laboratory, taking into account the chemical nature of the salt, the drop size and shape, the drop concentration, the well size, the well concentration, and the temperature. It is found that the rate of evaporation increases with temperature, drop size, and with the salt concentration difference between the drop and the well. The evaporation possesses no unique half-life. Once the salt in the drop achieves about 80 percent of its final concentration, further evaporation suffers from the law of diminishing returns.

Baird, James K.; Frieden, Richard W.; Meehan, E. J., Jr.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Howard, Sandra B.; Fowlis, William A.

1987-01-01

391

Evaporative losses from soils covered by physical and different types of biological soil crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation of soil moisture is one of the most important processes affecting water availability in semiarid ecosystems. Biological soil crusts, which are widely distributed ground cover in these ecosystems, play a recognized role on water processes. Where they roughen surfaces, water residence time and thus infiltration can be greatly enhanced, whereas their ability to clog soil pores or cap the soil surface when wetted can greatly decrease infiltration rate, thus affecting evaporative losses. In this work, we compared evaporation in soils covered by physical crusts, biological crusts in different developmental stages and in the soils underlying the different biological crust types. Our results show that during the time of the highest evaporation (Day 1), there was no difference among any of the crust types or the soils underlying them. On Day 2, when soil moisture was moderately low (11%), evaporation was slightly higher in well-developed biological soil crusts than in physical or poorly developed biological soil crusts. However, crust removal did not cause significant changes in evaporation compared with the respective soil crust type. These results suggest that the small differences we observed in evaporation among crust types could be caused by differences in the properties of the soil underneath the biological crusts. At low soil moisture (<6%), there was no difference in evaporation among crust types or the underlying soils. Water loss for the complete evaporative cycle (from saturation to dry soil) was similar in both crusted and scraped soils. Therefore, we conclude that for the specific crust and soil types tested, the presence or the type of biological soil crust did not greatly modify evaporation with respect to physical crusts or scraped soils.

Chamizo, S.; Cantón, Y.; Domingo, F.; Belnap, J.

2013-01-01

392

Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

1977-01-01

393

Characterising the distribution and morphology of creeks and pans on salt marshes in England and Wales using Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using Google Earth images and simple morphometric analyses, pan and creek characteristics of salt marshes across England and Wales have been mapped and related to key environmental variables, including tidal range, sea level change, coastal configuration, sediment type and erosion state. Pan density was found to be higher on the west coast or where there is a moderate tidal range and low sea level change. Pan density is also higher on back barrier and drowned valley marshes and when creek density is low. Maximum pan size is partly controlled by pan density. Creek density and sinuosity showed great variability between areas with marshes in the south having a higher creek density. Creek density is related to tidal prism and marshes undergoing high rates of sea level change usually have higher creek densities. Marshes with an upstream configuration (embayment, drowned valley and back barrier) have lower creek densities due to a lower tidal prism. Sediment type also plays a role with lower creek densities found on coarser sediment types. Creek sinuosity seems to be largely controlled by tidal range with higher sinuosities on meso- or macro-tidal marshes. This large-scale, Google Earth-based, analysis of the distribution and likely environmental controls on salt marsh morphometry illustrates the utility of Digital Globes as sources of freely-available, high resolution imagery for geomorphological research.

Goudie, Alice

2013-09-01

394

A particle transport study of vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition by the coffee-ring theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a theoretical discussion about colloidal particles transporting to a meniscus deposition region for the vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition by the coffee-ring theory. The vertically immersed substrate is gradually exposed with a low speed, and colloidal particles are deposited on the substrate as suspension surface descends. Due to a singular evaporation rate at the contact line,

J. J. Diao; M. G. Xia

2009-01-01

395

Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p<0.05), appearance (p<0.01), color (p<0.01), moistness (p<0.01), and overall quality (p<0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life. PMID:24471063

Lee, Heejeong; Joo, Nami

2012-01-01

396

Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

2009-02-11

397

Evaporation from Near-Drift Fractured Rock Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of water entering emplacement drifts from a fractured unsaturated rock is an important variable for performance evaluation of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water entering the drifts as liquid or gas may enhance waste package corrosion rates and transport released radionuclides. Liquid water in form of droplets may emerge from fractures, or flow along the drift wall and potentially evaporate and condense at other locations. Driven by pressure and temperature gradients, vapor may be transported along fractures, or liquid water may evaporate directly from the matrix. Within the drift, heat-driven convection may redistribute the moisture leading to condensation at other locations. The geometry of the evaporation front around the drift is not fully understood and this, in turn, influences processes related to reflux, rewetting as the thermal pulse dissipates. Existing models focus on processes in the porous media (e.g., two-phase dual-permeability models for matrix and fractures), or on processes in the drift (e.g., gas-phase computational fluid dynamics models). This study focuses on the boundary between these two domains, and the corresponding models, where evaporation at the solid rock/drift air interface appears to play an important role. Studies have shown that evaporation from porous media is a complex process sensitive to factors such as (i) hydrological properties of the porous media, (ii) pressure gradients in the porous media, (iii) texture of the interface or boundary, (iv) local vapor and temperature gradients, and (v) convective flow rate and boundary layer transfer. Experimental observations based on passive monitoring at Yucca Mountain have shown that the formation surrounding the drift is able to provide and transport large amounts of water vapor over a relatively short period. This study will examine the basic processes that govern evaporation in the unsaturated rock surrounding drifts for ambient and thermally-perturbed conditions, and illustrate the effect of the contrasting hydrologic properties of the matrix and fracture continua. Simple analyses to establish bounds on vapor flux into the drift are proposed. A more prominent role for gravity to evaluate potential seepage is proposed. Available models will be evaluated for their applicability for in situ conditions at Yucca Mountain. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the view or regulatory position of the NRC. The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgment or determination of the matters addressed or of the acceptability of a license application for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

Manepally, C.; Fedors, R. W.; Or, D.; Das, K.

2007-12-01

398

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-print Network

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11

399

Observation of chromospheric evaporation during the Solar Maximum Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented of the upward motions of part of the soft X-ray emitting plasma using data for flares collected in 1980 by the Bent Crystal Spectrometer and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Results show that upward motions of the soft X-ray plasma are temporally associated with the build up of the thermal phase of flares and with the period of energy deposition as indicated by the hard X-ray emission. In addition, it is found that the hardness of the hard X-ray spectrum, the evaporation velocity, and the rate of increase of the gradual phase are correlated. It is also possible that the total electron energy deposited in the chromosphere, the peak emission measure of the evaporating plasma, and the peak emission measure of the thermal coronal plasma may also be correlated.

Antonucci, E.; Dennis, B. R.

1983-01-01

400

Effects of Pressure on Spray Evaporation in a Planar Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study conducts two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of a planar spray jet to investigate the effects of pressure on droplet behavior, especially evaporation. For the gaseous phase, Eulerian mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation equations are solved. For the disperse phase, the fuel droplets are tracked individually in a Lagrangian manner. Gaseous properties and liquid/vapor equilibrium are estimated based on ideal gas assumption because of the pressure being less than 0.5 MPa. The results show that the lifetime of a droplet changes with changes in pressure. This is because the evaporation rate of each droplet is affected by the ambient pressure and the dispersion of droplets changes as the ambient pressure increases. Moreover, the trend of the change on droplet lifetime changes with change in the ambient temperature.

Nakamura, Mariko

2009-09-01

401

Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

402

Laser diagnostics of an evaporating electrospray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrospray atomizer generates monodisperse, dilute sprays when working in the cone-jet mode. Evolution of an electrospray with droplet diameter below 10 ?m is studied with phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and the exciplex-PLIF technique. The evaporation rate constant is determined from droplet velocity and diameter measured with a PDPA and is found to sharply increase with the velocity slip and the coflow temperature. Fluorescence around 400 nm, usually referred to as TMPD fluorescence, is calibrated with a heated, laminar, coflow vapor jet diluted with nitrogen. The TMPD fluorescence yield nonlinearly increases with temperature up to 538 K and then declines. Single-shot images show that fluorescence around 400 nm is mainly generated from TMPD vapor and that from droplets can be neglected as a first analysis; however, fluorescence around 490 nm, usually referred to as exciplex fluorescence, is generated from both droplets and fuel vapor immediately around droplets. Exciplex fluorescence is correlated with PDPA measurements and TMPD fluorescence. Effects of temperature, fuel composition, overlap of fluorescent spectra, and chemical equilibrium for exciplex formation are discussed. Technical challenges for quantitative exciplex-PLIF measurements are highlighted.

Yi, Tongxun

2014-01-01

403

Rapidly Evolving and Luminous Transients from Pan-STARRS1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, several rapidly evolving transients have been discovered whose timescales and luminosities are not easily explained by traditional supernovae (SNe) models. The sample size of these objects has remained small due, at least in part, to the challenges of detecting short timescale transients with traditional survey cadences. Here we present the results from a search within the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1-MDS) for rapidly evolving and luminous transients. We identify 10 new transients with a time above half-maximum (t 1/2) of less than 12 days and -16.5 > M > -20 mag. This increases the number of known events in this region of SN phase space by roughly a factor of three. The median redshift of the PS1-MDS sample is z = 0.275 and they all exploded in star-forming galaxies. In general, the transients possess faster rise than decline timescale and blue colors at maximum light (g P1 - r P1 lsim -0.2). Best-fit blackbodies reveal photospheric temperatures/radii that expand/cool with time and explosion spectra taken near maximum light are dominated by a blue continuum, consistent with a hot, optically thick, ejecta. We find it difficult to reconcile the short timescale, high peak luminosity (L > 1043 erg s-1), and lack of UV line blanketing observed in many of these transients with an explosion powered mainly by the radioactive decay of 56Ni. Rather, we find that many are consistent with either (1) cooling envelope emission from the explosion of a star with a low-mass extended envelope that ejected very little (<0.03 M ?) radioactive material, or (2) a shock breakout within a dense, optically thick, wind surrounding the progenitor star. After calculating the detection efficiency for objects with rapid timescales in the PS1-MDS we find a volumetric rate of 4800-8000 events yr-1 Gpc-3 (4%-7% of the core-collapse SN rate at z = 0.2).

Drout, M. R.; Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; McKinnon, R.; Rest, A.; Foley, R. J.; Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Berger, E.; Calkins, M.; Fong, W.; Gezari, S.; Huber, M. E.; Kankare, E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Leibler, C.; Lunnan, R.; Mattila, S.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Riess, A. G.; Roth, K. C.; Scolnic, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Waters, C.

2014-10-01

404

Measured and calculated evaporation losses of two petroleum hydrocarbon herbicide mixtures under laboratory and field conditions  

SciTech Connect

Evaporation rates of two weed oils were measured under laboratory and field conditions. Rates were also calculated by assuming first-order evaporation of the oil components (represented by hydrocarbon references). Beacon selective and Chevron nonselective weed oils exhibited evaporation rates 1.4-1.9 and 0.9 times the calculated rates, respectively, for 8-10 mg/cm/sup 2/ on inert surfaces in the laboratory. The relative rates were increased to 3-15 (Beacon) and 1.6 (Chevron) under a slight breeze (0.43 m/s) with turbulence. The half-life of Beacon oil applied at 6-7 mg/cm/sup 2/ to moist soil in an unplanted field was 51 min (10-20/sup 0/C), while the calculated half-life was 57 min. In an alfalfa field, 90% of the Chevron oil from a deposit of 0.15-0.22 mg/cm/sup 2/ (20-40/sup 0/C) evaporated in 26-45 and 53-127 min from glass plates and paper filters, respectively; average calculated time was 40 min. Evaporation rates from alfalfa foliage and glass plates compared well. 15 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Woodrow, J.E.; Seiber, J.N.; Kim, Y.

1986-08-01

405

Design and development of a split-evaporator heat-pump system  

SciTech Connect

The designs and experimental results of three types of multiple source heat pumps are presented. The three designs are the parallel evaporator, the series evaporator, and the parallel evaporator with active subcooling, with the parallel evaporator with the active subcooling showing the most promise for solving the problem of defrosting of air evaporators. Three design procedures for multiple source heat pumps were developed. One of these is a hand calculational procedure, the others are computer based. The models are based upon the refrigerant flow rate, rather than the refrigeration effect of the evaporator. The technical results of a detailed analytical and experimental model of the heat transfer rates on a flat plate ice maker are presented. It is shown, both analytically and experimentally, that the temperature of the air surrounding the flat plate ice maker can play a dominant role in the rate of ice formation. A detailed weather analysis for forty cities located throughout the nation was completed. These data were processed to allow easy computation of thermal storage requirements for full, partial, or minimum ACES systems, or upon other design requirements, such as off-peak air conditioning. The results of an innovative ice storage system that is thermally coupled to the earth are described. This system has the potential for meeting both the off-peak air conditioning needs and the thermal storage requirements for the heating cycle. An economic and energy comparison of multiple source heat pumps with ACES, and air-to-air heat pump systems is presented.

Somerville, M.H.; Penoncello, S.G.

1981-12-01

406

Evaporation loss from storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored in open tanks or in tanks with only fixed roof covers. The theory of storage tanks with floating roof was born in 1880. The initial concept was patented by William Birge of Franklin, Pennsylvania. Birge revealed his idea after the U.S.A. Petroleum industry suffered its first major industrial disaster. A tank with stored hydrocarbon liquid was struck directly by lightening. The results were catastrophic. After this incident a concept was revealed to the United States Patent office. The concept was noted as follows: {open_quotes}It is often the case that oil tanks are struck by lightning and when lightning stored beneath the roof is instantly ignited and explodes, the explosion either throwing the roof off from the tank or slivering it into pieces, thus exposing the oil and setting it afire. The result of such an accident is the loss of the tank itself which alone involves the loss of several thousand dollars. The object of my invention is to provide an oil tank such that the surface of oil in the tank will always be covered and protected regardless of the quantity of oil in the tank and no space be provided between the oil and cover for the accumulation of the escaping gases, and with these ends in view, my invention consists essentially, an oil tank with a floating cover{close_quotes}. Various concepts of floating roofs and seals have been presented over the last 100 years. Safety and conservation are still a primary concern for storage of hydrocarbon liquids. Environmental pollution from hydrocarbon emissions has become a major concern for the storage industry. This paper is an attempt to describe these devices and how to quantify the evaporation losses from stationary sources. The stationary losses from external floating roofs will primarily be addressed in this paper.

Wagoner, R.B. [Matrix Service, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-12-01

407

Evaporation Mechanism of Sn and SnS from Liquid Fe: Part I: Experiment and Adsorption of S on Reaction Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate feasibility of Sn-containing ferrous scrap recycling by evaporation of Sn, a number of liquid-gas experiments were carried out using an electromagnetic levitation melting technique. Rate of decrease of Sn concentration in liquid steel droplets by evaporation in Ar-H2 gas mixture was determined at 1873 K (1600 °C). Evaporation rate of the Sn under various conditions (various flow rates of the gas mixture, initial S concentration, [pct Sn]0) was examined using previously reported rate equations. Increasing flow rate increased the evaporation rate of Sn initially, but the rate became constant at higher flow rate, which indicates that the rate-controlling step is the chemical reaction at the liquid/gas interface. Increasing initial S concentration significantly increased the evaporation rate of Sn, which is in good agreement with previous understanding that Sn could be evaporated as SnS(g). It was found in the present study that neither a simple first-order reaction (rate proportional to [pct Sn]) nor a second-order reaction (rate proportional to [pct Sn] × [pct S]) could account for the Sn evaporation under a chemical-reaction-controlled regime. It is proposed in the present study that surface adsorption of S should be taken into account in order to interpret the evaporation rate of Sn in such a way that S blocks available sites for SnS evaporation on the liquid steel. The ideal Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to better represent evaporation rate constant k SnS as a function of [pct S] (0.06 < [pct S]0 < 0.29). The obtained rate constant of a reaction Sn i + S i = SnSi(g), k_{{SnS}}^{{R}} , is 2.57 × 10-8 m4 mol-1 s-1.

Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae; Seo, Jeong-Do; Park, Joong-Kil; Choi, Joo

2014-08-01

408

The Development of LITER - a Lithium Evaporator for Use in Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaporator to be used for the deposition of elemental lithium onto the plasma facing components of fusion devices has undergone several stages of design, evaluation and development. A 150 Watt prototype evaporator with a modest 10 gram reservoir was first tested in the laboratory before it was successfully employed on the CDX-U device in a horizontally-pointing geometry. Drawing on that experience, the prototype evaporator design then evolved through several stages as its reservoir capacity was increased to 50 to 100 grams, its power consumption increased to about 300 Watts and its pointing-orientation changed from horizontal to vertically-downward so that it could be used to coat the lower divertor in the NSTX device. These design changes were dictated from both laboratory experience and from practical experience on NSTX. The most challenging problems associated with the evaporator have been the need to achieve reasonable rates of evaporation (1 to 100 mg/ min) at operating temperatures in the range of 500 C to 700 C while avoiding the uncontrolled wetting of the lithium onto external regions of the evaporator. The design and performance of the evaporator at each stage of its development will be summarized and discussed in detail.

Mansfield, D. K.; Kugel, H. W.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P.; Zakharov, L.; Bell, M.; Bennet, T.; Guttadora, L.; Jurcyznski, S.; Provost, T.; Taylor, J.; Timberlake, J.

2006-10-01

409

Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants  

SciTech Connect

Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

1981-08-01

410

Evaporation analysis for Tank SX-104  

SciTech Connect

Decreases in historical interstitial liquid level measurements in tank SX-104 were compared to predictions of a numerical model based upon diffusion of water through a porous crust. The analysis showed that observed level decreases could be explained by evaporation.

Barrington, C.A.

1994-10-01

411

The Complete Evaporation Limit of Land Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planets with very little amount of water on their surface, called ``land planets'', have wider habitable zones than that of Earth-like ``aqua planets'' (Abe et al. 2011). We investigated complete evaporation of surface liquid water for land planets using 1D energy balance model (EBM). We found that complete evaporation occurs when the planetary flux at the dry edge, which is defined as the boundary between the dry zone and the wet zone, exceeds the critical radiation flux of water saturated atmosphere. We define ``complete evaporation limit'' as the minimum insolation for complete evaporation that a planet receives. This limit depends on latitude of the dry edge, efficiency of meridional heat transport, and atmospheric character that modify the value of the critical flux.

Takao, Yuya; Genda, Hidenori; Wakida, Miyuki; Abe, Yutaka

2014-04-01

412

Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation.  

PubMed

We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. PMID:25186667

Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; Vella, Dominic; Yeomans, Julia M

2014-11-01

413

Potential Evaporation in North America Through 2100  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation shows the projected increase in potential evaporation through the year 2100, relative to 1980, based on the combined results of multiple climate models. The maximum increase across N...

414

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation?  

E-print Network

, but leaves significant amount of dust at midplane (40 Earth masses outside 2 AU) · Dust has sufficient planetesimals to form from disk Timeline #12;Conclusions · Photo-evaporation may not be so hazardous to planet

Throop, Henry

415

48Pan's Highway -Saturn's Rings The Encke Gap is a  

E-print Network

48Pan's Highway - Saturn's Rings The Encke Gap is a prominent feature of Saturn's outer A-ring ring bands are about 0.1 mm wide, which is about 4 km. NASA/Cassini mages, top to bottom: Saturn Rings closeup showing Cassini Division and Encke Gap; Rings closeup showing detail; One of Saturn's outer

416

Dynamic Derivative Strategies Jun Liu and Jun Pan  

E-print Network

Dynamic Derivative Strategies Jun Liu and Jun Pan February 13, 2003 Abstract We study optimal investment strategies given investor access not only to bond and stock markets but also to the derivatives market. The problem is solved in closed form. Derivatives extend the risk and return tradeoffs associated

Gabrieli, John

417

An optimized method for airborne peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a gas-chromatographic method for PAN measurements in the background atmosphere, which has been adapted to the special requirements of aircraft based campaigns. The instrument is installed in a 1.21 m high, 19 inch rack which has a total weight of 70 kg and a power consumption of 750 VA. The gas chromatograph is equipped with

W. Schrimpf; K. P. Müller; F. J. Johnen; K. Lienaerts; J. Rudolph

1995-01-01

418

The Pan-STARRS Optical Survey Telescope Project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical synoptic survey telescope system; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. Pan-STARRS will consist of an array of four 1.8m telescopes with very large (7 square degree) field of view, giving it an etendue larger than all existing survey instruments combined. Each telescope will be equipped with a 1 billion pixel CCD camera with low noise and rapid read-out, and the data will be reduced in near real time a to produce both cumulative static sky and difference images, from which transient, moving and variable objects can be detected. Pan-STARRS will be able to scan the entire visible sky to approximately 24th magnitude in less than a week, and this unique combination of sensitivity and cadence will open up many new possibilities in time domain astronomy. A major goal for the project is to survey potentially dangerous asteroids, where Pan-STARRS will be able to detect most objects down to 300m size, much smaller than the km size objects accessible to existing search programs. In addition, the Pan-STARRS data will used to address a wide range of astronomical problems in the Solar System, the Galaxy, and the Cosmos at large.

Kaiser, N.; Pan-STARRS Project Team

2004-05-01

419

The Pan-STARRS Large Survey Telescope Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical/near IR survey telescope system; the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System. Pan-STARRS will consist of an array of four 1.8m telescopes with very large (7 square degree) field of view, giving it an etendue larger than all existing survey instruments combined. Each telescope will be equipped with a 1.4 billion pixel CCD camera with low noise and rapid read-out, and the data will be reduced in near real time a to produce both cumulative static sky and difference images, from which transient, moving and variable objects can be detected. Pan-STARRS will be able to scan the entire visible sky to approximately 24th magnitude in less than a week, and this unique combination of sensitivity and cadence will open up many new possibilities in time domain astronomy. A major goal for the project is to survey potentially dangerous asteroids, where Pan-STARRS will be able to detect most objects down to 300m size, much smaller than the km size objects accessible to existing search programs. In addition, the Pan-STARRS data will used to address a wide range of astronomical problems in the Solar System, the Galaxy, and the Cosmos at large.

Kaiser, N.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration

2005-05-01

420

Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for

Paul Ekman; E. Richard Sorenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1969-01-01

421

Second Pan American Geosynthetics Conference & Exhibition GeoAmericas 2012  

E-print Network

Second Pan American Geosynthetics Conference & Exhibition GeoAmericas 2012 Lima, Peru - May 2012 SOIL CONFINEMENT AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON GEOSYNTHETICS CREEP BEHAVIOR F.A.N. Franca, Department its elongation is registered. These tests present two main concerns: duration and lack of soil

Zornberg, Jorge G.

422

A PAN-CANADIAN SURVEY OF E-LEARNING FOR  

E-print Network

A PAN-CANADIAN SURVEY OF E-LEARNING FOR ABORIGINAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS April 2011 Dennis Sharpe into Aboriginal high school student e-learning. It presents a Canada wide perspective on the challenges inherent.................................................................................12 Aboriginal E-Learning in Canada...............................................................13

Oyet, Alwell