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1

Differences in evaporation between a floating pan and class a pan on land  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Research was conducted to develop a method for obtaining floating pan evaporation rates in a small (less than 10,000 m2) wetland, lagoon, or pond. Floating pan and land pan evaporation data were collected from March 1 to August 31, 2005, at a small natural wetland located in the alluvium of the Canadian River near Norman, Oklahoma, at the U.S. Geological Survey Norman Landfill Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site. Floating pan evaporation rates were compared with evaporation rates from a nearby standard Class A evaporation pan on land. Floating pan evaporation rates were significantly less than land pan evaporation rates for the entire period and on a monthly basis. Results indicated that the use of a floating evaporation pan in a small free-water surface better simulates actual physical conditions on the water surface that control evaporation. Floating pan to land pan ratios were 0.82 for March, 0.87 for April, 0.85 for May, 0.85 for June, 0.79 for July, and 0.69 for August. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Masoner, J.R.; Stannard, D.I.; Christenson, S.C.

2008-01-01

2

A New Equation for the Aerodynamics of Pan Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is a response to worldwide observations reporting a decline in pan evaporation over the last 30 to 50 years. We constructed an instrumented US Class A pan that replicates an operational pan at Canberra Airport in Australia. The aim of the experimental setup was to investigate the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. We monitored the water level (to determine the evaporation rate), (short- and long-wave) radiation, temperature (air, water surface, bulk water, inner and outer pan wall), atmospheric pressure, air vapour pressure and the wind speed at a standard reference height (2 m above ground level). All these measurements are recorded at five-minute intervals for a 3-year period (2007-2010). Here, we present a framework for quantifying vapour transfer by coupling Fick's First Law of Diffusion with boundary layer theory (assuming that water surface temperature measurements are available). This approach adequately represented pan evaporation measurements over short time intervals (half-hourly) under non-steady state conditions. It involved estimating the boundary layer thickness and other properties of air above the evaporating surface for a pan. Our results are consistent with the "envelope of theoretical curves" concept for the wind function proposed by Thom et al. (1981). Reference: Thom, A. S., J. L. Thony, and M. Vauclin (1981), On the proper employment of evaporation of evaporation pans and atmometers in estimating potential transpiration, Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 107(453), 711-736, doi: 10.1002/qj.49710745316.

Lim, W.; Roderick, M. L.; Hobbins, M. T.; Wong, S.; Groeneveld, P. J.; Sun, F.; Farquhar, G. D.

2011-12-01

3

Evaporation Rate on Tungsten  

E-print Network

Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes Ameerah Jabr-Hamdan Introduction Motivation Research Objective Experiments Results Conclusions Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes supported by IREAP, with funding from NSF and ONR #12;Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes

Anlage, Steven

4

Early Pan-African evolution of the basement around Elat, Israel, and the Sinai Peninsula revealed by single-zircon evaporation dating, and implications for crustal accretion rates  

SciTech Connect

The authors report {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb single-zircon evaporation ages for early Pan-African rocks from southern Israel and the northeastern Sinai Peninsula, the northernmost extension of the Arabian-Nubian shield. The oldest rocks are metamorphic schists of presumed island-arc derivation; detrital zircons date the source terrain at ca. 800-820 Ma. A major phase of tonalite-trondhjemite plutonism occurred at ca. 760-780 Ma; more evolved granitic rocks were emplaced at about 745 Ma. A metagabbro-metadiorite complex reflects the youngest igneous phase at ca. 640 Ma. We find no evidence for pre-Pan-African crust, and our data document important crust-forming events that correlate with similar episodes elsewhere in the shield. The widespread presence of early Pan-African juvenile rocks (i.e., ca. 760-850 Ma) in many parts of the Arabian-Nubian shield makes this period the most important in the magmatic history of the shield and supports earlier suggestions for unusually high crust-production rates.

Kroener, A. (Universitaet Mainz, Postfach (West Germany)); Eyal, M.; Eyal, Y. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer Sheva (Israel))

1990-06-01

5

Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes Ameerah Jabr-Hamdan, Dr. Eric Montgomery, Dr. Patrick O' Shea, Blake Riddick, and Peter Zhigang Pan  

E-print Network

Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes Ameerah Jabr-Hamdan, Dr. Eric Montgomery, Dr into a vacuum chamber. Experimentally found the evaporation rate of Cesium on a Tungsten Photocathode Photocathode) More accurate model of Cesium evaporation. The Free Electron Laser and Needed Improvements

Anlage, Steven

6

Evaporation from the shallow Lake Massaciuccoli (Tuscany, Italy) studied using stable isotopes and evaporation pan data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope variations monitored in Lake Massaciuccoli (7 km2, 2 m deep, seasonally variable water level) during summer 2008, were compared with those observed in a Class A evaporation pan (diameter 120.6 cm, depth 25.4 cm) placed on the lake eastern shore. Air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation, water temperature in the lake and the pan were also measured. The pluviometer indicated that no precipitation occurred during the study period. The pan was initially filled with groundwater up to the level of 19.2 cm (219 L), depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to tha lake water. Sodium chloride was added up to the concentration of 1 g×L-1, which is assumed do not affect significantly the evaporation rate till the water volume is reduced to less than 10 %. The Cl- concentration was used to provide an estimation of the evaporated water fraction, in addition to the micrometer measuring the water level variations. The pan water was sampled every 2-3 days and Cl- and stable isotopes determined. The set of stable isotope and evaporation data enabled us to compute the parameters governing the evaporation process and the isotopic exchanges with the atmospheric moisture, according to the procedure proposed by Gonfiantini (1986). The values were applied to test three working hypotheses of water balance of Lake Massaciuccoli: (i) surface inflow and outflow of liquid water are negligible and only evaporation is important; (ii) the inflow is negligible and outflow and evaporation are both significant; (iii) the three terms of balance are all important but the losses by evaporation and outflow exceed inflow (as the lake water level was decreasing). Water exchanges with groundwater are considered negligible. The best agreement between lake and pan data was obtained with the second hypothesis, for which the fraction of water removed by evaporation was estimated to be about 40 % ot he total water losses. This residual 60 % of losses consists essentially of water pumped from the lake for irrigation, in rough agreement with independent estimations. In the final stages of pan water evaporation, the well known hook trend of heavy isotope delta values versus residual water fraction was observed. The data elaboration is being continued and refined. Correction factors for the so called pan effect will also be applied. Collection of atmospheric vapour samples has been started. R. Gonfiantini, 1986. Isotopes in lake studies, in Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry (P. Fritz and J-Ch. Fontes, Eds.), Vol. 2, pp.113-168.

Baneschi, I.; Gonfiantini, R.; Guidi, M.

2009-04-01

7

Complementary relationship between daily evaporation in the environment and pan evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily actual evaporation observed locally is compared to daily pan evaporation to clarify and test the validity of the complementary relationship at this timescale. For this purpose, use was made of actual evaporation measurements at two sites, namely, in the Konza Prairie, Kansas, during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment, and in the Little Washita River Basin, Oklahoma, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. The corresponding pan evaporation data were obtained from nearby class A pan stations. The results of the analyses confirm the complementary relationship at this shorter timescale and lead to a procedure to estimate actual landscape evaporation by means of net radiation and pan evaporation data; they also provide support for the notion that even under conditions of decreasing incoming radiation, a negative trend in pan evaporation may still indicate a positive trend in landscape evapotranspiration.

Kahler, David M.; Brutsaert, Wilfried

2006-05-01

8

On the theory relating changes in area-average and pan evaporation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory relating changes in area-average evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify area-average evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in area-average evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and area-average evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on average, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.

Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.

2009-12-01

9

From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The name of the original inventor of irrigated agriculture is lost to antiquity. Nevertheless, one can perhaps imagine an inquisitive desert inhabitant noting the greener vegetation along a watercourse and putting two and two together. Once water was being supplied and food was being produced it would be natural to ask a further question: how much water can we put on? No doubt much experience was gained down through the ages, but again, one can readily imagine someone inverting a rain gauge, filling it with water and measuring how fast the water evaporated. The inverted rain gauge measures the demand for water by the atmosphere. We call it the evaporative demand. I do not know if this is what actually happened but it sure makes an interesting start to a talk. Evaporation pans are basically inverted rain gauges. The rain gauge and evaporation pan measure the supply and demand respectively and these instruments are the workhorses of agricultural meteorology. Rain gauges are well known. Evaporation pans are lesser known but are in widespread use and are a key part of several national standardized meteorological networks. Many more pans are used for things like scheduling irrigation on farms or estimating evaporation from lakes. Analysis of the long records now available from standardized networks has revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., pan evaporation has increased in some places and decreased in other but when averaged over large numbers of pans there has been a steady decline. These independent reports from, for example, the US, Russia, China, India, Thailand, are replicated in the southern hemisphere in, for example, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. One often hears the statement that because the earth is expected to warm with increasing greenhouse gas emissions then it follows that water will evaporate faster. The pan evaporation observations show that this widely held expectation is wrong. When expectations disagree with observations, it is the observations that win. That is the basis of science. In this Dalton Medal lecture we first examine pan evaporation observations and show why pan evaporation has declined. Armed with that knowledge we then investigate the consequences for plant water use and how this is directly coupled to the catchment water balance.

Roderick, Michael

2013-04-01

10

Monthly pan evaporation modeling using linear genetic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the accuracy of linear genetic programming (LGP), fuzzy genetic (FG), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in modeling pan evaporations. Monthly climatic data including solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation from Antalya and Mersin stations, in Turkey are used in the study. The study composed of two parts. First part of the study focuses the comparison of LGP models with those of the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. From the comparison results, the LGP models are found to be better than the other models. Comparison of LGP models with the other models in estimating pan evaporations of the Mersin Station by using both stations' inputs is focused in the second part of the study. The results indicate that the LGP models better accuracy than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. It is seen that the pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the LGP method.

Guven, Aytac; Kisi, Ozgur

2013-10-01

11

Application of thermal model for pan evaporation to the hydrology of a defined medium, the sponge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented which estimates pan evaporation from the commonly observed values of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. These two variables are transformed to saturation vapor pressure equivalents which are used in a simple linear regression model. The model provides reasonably accurate estimates of pan evaporation rates over a large geographic area. The derived evaporation algorithm is combined with precipitation to obtain a simple moisture variable. A hypothetical medium with a capacity of 8 inches of water is initialized at 4 inches. The medium behaves like a sponge: it absorbs all incident precipitation, with runoff or drainage occurring only after it is saturated. Water is lost from this simple system through evaporation just as from a Class A pan, but at a rate proportional to its degree of saturation. The contents of the sponge is a moisture index calculated from only the maximum and minium temperatures and precipitation.

Trenchard, M. H.; Artley, J. A. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

12

Trends in pan evaporation and actual evapotranspiration across the conterminous U.S.: Paradoxical or complementary?  

E-print Network

Trends in pan evaporation and actual evapotranspiration across the conterminous U.S.: Paradoxical evaporation (ETpan) has decreased at 64% of pans in the conterminous U.S. over the past half-called ``Pan Evaporation Paradox,'' which we confirm is no more than a manifestation of the complementarity

Ramírez, Jorge A.

13

Utility of PenmanMonteith, PriestleyTaylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation methods to estimate  

E-print Network

Utility of Penman­Monteith, Priestley­Taylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation (ET0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) were related to measured ETa using regression methods to estimate PM of LAI and Ep. Historical or future meteorological, LAI, and pan evaporation data from the study site

14

Early Pan-African evolution of the basement around Elat, Israel,and the Sinai Peninsula revealed by single-zircon evaporation dating, and implications for crustal accretion rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 207Pb/206Pb single-zircon evaporation ages for early Pan-African rocks from southern Israel and the northeastern Sinai Peninsula, the northernmost extension of the Arabian-Nubian shield. The oldest rocks are metamorphic schists of presumed island-arc derivation; detrital zircons date the source terrain at ca. 800-820 Ma. A major phase of tonalite-trondhjemite plutonism occurred at ca. 760-780 Ma; more evolved granitic rocks were emplaced at about 745 Ma. A metagabbro-metadiorite complex reflects the youngest igneous phase at ca. 640 Ma. We find no evidence for pre-Pan-African crust, and our data document important crust-forming events that correlate with similar episodes elsewhere in the Shield. The widespread presence of early Pan-African juvenile rocks (i.e., ca. 760-850 Ma) in many parts of the Arabian-Nubian shield makes this period the most important in the magmatic history of the shield and supports earlier suggestions for unusually high crust-production rates.

Kröner, A.; Eyal, M.; Eyal, Y.

1990-06-01

15

Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement  

E-print Network

Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement Sumit Sharma and Pablo G. Debenedetti1, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydro- phobic surfaces separated to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes

16

Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

Canpolat, Nurtac

2006-01-01

17

Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor, and discussions of reference crop evaporation and then Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i) open-surface water and (ii) landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models). The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues (i) hard-wired evaporation estimates, (ii) evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii) at-site meteorological data, (iv) dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v) 24-h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi) uncertainty in evaporation estimates. This paper is supported by supplementary material that includes 21 appendices enhancing the material in the text, worked examples of many procedures discussed in the paper, a program listing (Fortran 90) of Morton's WREVAP evaporation models along with tables of monthly Class-A pan coefficients for 68 locations across Australia and other information.

McMahon, T. A.; Peel, M. C.; Lowe, L.; Srikanthan, R.; McVicar, T. R.

2012-10-01

18

Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of the conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor, as well as discussions of reference crop evapotranspiration and Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i) open-surface water and (ii) landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models). The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues: (i) automatic (hard wired) calculation of evaporation estimates in commercial weather stations, (ii) evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii) at-site meteorological data, (iv) dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v) 24 h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi) uncertainty in evaporation estimates. This paper is supported by a Supplement that includes 21 sections enhancing the material in the text, worked examples of many procedures discussed in the paper, a program listing (Fortran 90) of Morton's WREVAP evaporation models along with tables of monthly Class-A pan coefficients for 68 locations across Australia and other information.

McMahon, T. A.; Peel, M. C.; Lowe, L.; Srikanthan, R.; McVicar, T. R.

2013-04-01

19

Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement  

PubMed Central

The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size, and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 ? and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm2), the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a 10 order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 ?. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50kT and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm2) than by the smaller (1 nm2) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this rate enhancement is a consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning vapor tube. PMID:22392972

Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

2012-01-01

20

Evaporation Rate of Water in Hydrophobic Confinement  

E-print Network

The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 {\\AA} and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm^2) the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a ten order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 {\\AA}. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50kT, and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm^2) than by the smaller (1nm^2) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this is a direct consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning cylindrical vapor tube.

Sumit Sharma; Pablo G. Debenedetti

2011-12-29

21

Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime.  

PubMed

Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem. PMID:21902381

Braunstein, Samuel L; Patra, Manas K

2011-08-12

22

Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime  

E-print Network

Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem.

Samuel L. Braunstein; Manas K. Patra

2011-08-10

23

PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for predicting evaporation rates and evaporation times for spills (and constrained baths) of chemical mixtures. Steady-state and time-varying predictions of evaporation rates can be made for six-component mixtures, includ...

24

Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three-part activity consists of an activity that groups of learners develop themselves, a given procedure, and an optional demonstration. First, learners discuss examples of evaporation and then design and conduct their own test to find out whether heating water has an effect on the rate of evaporation. While waiting for their results, learners conduct another evaporation activity using single drops of water on 2 paper towels, one of which is heated. The optional demonstration compares the rate of evaporation of hot and cold water using a sensitive scale or balance. In each of these experiences with evaporation, learners will identify variables, consider how to best control them, and use their observations to conclude that heating water increases the rate of evaporation.

2012-04-06

25

Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

2004-01-01

26

Vapor-based interferometric measurement of local evaporation rate and interfacial temperature of evaporating droplets.  

PubMed

The local evaporation rate and interfacial temperature are two quintessential characteristics for the study of evaporating droplets. Here, it is shown how one can extract these quantities by measuring the vapor concentration field around the droplet with digital holographic interferometry. As a concrete example, an evaporating freely receding pending droplet of 3M Novec HFE-7000 is analyzed at ambient conditions. The measured vapor cloud is shown to deviate significantly from a pure-diffusion regime calculation, but it compares favorably to a new boundary-layer theory accounting for a buoyancy-induced convection in the gas and the influence upon it of a thermal Marangoni flow. By integration of the measured local evaporation rate over the interface, the global evaporation rate is obtained and validated by a side-view measurement of the droplet shape. Advective effects are found to boost the global evaporation rate by a factor of 4 as compared to the diffusion-limited theory. PMID:24506092

Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

2014-03-01

27

Evaluation of pan evaporation modeling with two different neural networks and weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates neural networks models for estimating daily pan evaporation for inland and coastal stations in Republic of Korea. A multilayer perceptron neural networks model (MLP-NNM) and a cascade correlation neural networks model (CCNNM) are developed for local implementation. Five-input models (MLP 5 and CCNNM 5) are generally found to be the best for local implementation. The optimal neural networks models, including MLP 4, MLP 5, CCNNM 4, and CCNNM 5, perform well for homogeneous (cross-stations 1 and 2) and nonhomogeneous (cross-stations 3 and 4) weather stations. Statistical results of CCNNM are better than those of MLP-NNM during the test period for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous weather stations except for MLP 4 being better in BUS-DAE and POH-DAE, and MLP 5 being better in POH-DAE. Applying the conventional models for the test period, it is found that neural networks models perform better than the conventional models for local, homogeneous, and nonhomogeneous weather stations.

Kim, Sungwon; Singh, Vijay P.; Seo, Youngmin

2014-07-01

28

Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

Gardos, M. N.

1973-01-01

29

Instructions for measuring the rate of evaporation from water surfaces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ·rate of evaporation from water surfaces varies with the temperature of the water, the velocity of the wind at the water surface, and the dryness of the air. Consequently, the rate of evaporation from rivers, lakes, canals, or reservoirs varies widely in different localities and for the same locality in different seasons.

U.S. Geological Survey

1898-01-01

30

Fuzzy logic model approaches to daily pan evaporation estimation in western Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation is one of the fundamental elements in the hydrological cycle, which affects the yield of river basins, the capacity of reservoirs, the consumptive use of water by crops and the yield of underground supplies. In general, there are two approaches in the evaporation estimation, namely, direct and indirect. The indirect methods such as the Penman and Priestley-Taylor methods are

M. EROL

31

Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation methods to estimate pasture evapotranspiration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was measured at 30-min resolution over a 19-month period (September 28, 2000-April 23, 2002) from a nonirrigated pasture site in Florida, USA, using eddy correlation methods. The relative magnitude of measured ETa (about 66% of long-term annual precipitation at the study site) indicates the importance of accurate ET a estimates for water resources planning. The time and cost associated with direct measurements of ETa and the rarity of historical measurements of ETa make the use of methods relying on more easily obtainable data desirable. Several such methods (Penman-Monteith (PM), modified Priestley-Taylor (PT), reference evapotranspiration (ET 0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) were related to measured ETa using regression methods to estimate PM bulk surface conductance, PT ??, ET0 vegetation coefficient, and Ep pan coefficient. The PT method, where the PT ?? is a function of green-leaf area index (LAI) and solar radiation, provided the best relation with ET a (standard error (SE) for daily ETa of 0.11 mm). The PM method, in which the bulk surface conductance was a function of net radiation and vapor-pressure deficit, was slightly less effective (SE=0.15 mm) than the PT method. Vegetation coefficients for the ET0 method (SE=0.29 mm) were found to be a simple function of LAI. Pan coefficients for the Ep method (SE=0.40 mm) were found to be a function of LAI and Ep. Historical or future meteorological, LAI, and pan evaporation data from the study site could be used, along with the relations developed within this study, to provide estimates of ETa in the absence of direct measurements of ETa. Additionally, relations among PM, PT, and ET0 methods and ETa can provide estimates of ETa in other, environmentally similar, pasture settings for which meteorological and LAI data can be obtained or estimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sumner, D.M.; Jacobs, J.M.

2005-01-01

32

Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of a field study of open water evaporation carried out on three small lakes in Western and Northern Canada. In this case small lakes are defined as those for which the temperature above the water surface is governed by the upwind land surface conditions; that is, a continuous boundary layer exists over the lake, and large-scale atmospheric effects such as entrainment do not come into play. Lake evaporation was measured directly using eddy covariance equipment; profiles of wind speed, air temperature and humidity were also obtained over the water surfaces. Observations were made as well over the upwind land surface. The major factors controlling open water evaporation were examined. The study showed that for time periods shorter than daily, the open water evaporation bears no relationship to the net radiation; the wind speed is the most significant factor governing the evaporation rates, followed by the land-water temperature contrast and the land-water vapour pressure contrast. The effect of the stability on the wind field was demonstrated; relationships were developed relating the land-water wind speed contrast to the land-water temperature contrast. The open water period can be separated into two distinct evaporative regimes: the warming period in the Spring, when the land is warmer than the water, the turbulent fluxes over water are suppressed; and the cooling period, when the water is warmer than the land, the turbulent fluxes over water are enhanced. Relationships were developed between the hourly rates of lake evaporation and the following significant variables and parameters (wind speed, land-lake temperature and humidity contrasts, and the downwind distance from shore). The result is a relatively simple versatile model for estimating the hourly lake evaporation rates. The model was tested using two independent data sets. Results show that the modelled evaporation follows the observed values very well; the model follows the diurnal trends and responds to changes in environmental conditions.

Granger, R. J.; Hedstrom, N.

2011-01-01

33

Urban evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements.  

PubMed

In urban areas the natural water balance is disturbed. Infiltration and evaporation are reduced, resulting in a high surface runoff and a typical city climate, which can lead to floods and damages. Water-permeable pavements have a high infiltration rate that reduces surface runoff by increasing the groundwater recharge. The high water retention capacity of the street body of up to 51 l/m(2) and its connection via pores to the surface lead to higher evaporation rates than impermeable surfaces. A comparison of these two kinds of pavements shows a 16% increase in evaporation levels of water-permeable pavements. Furthermore, the evaporation from impermeable pavements is linked directly to rain events due to fast-drying surfaces. Water-permeable pavements show a more evenly distributed evaporation after a rain event. Cooling effects by evaporative heat loss can improve the city climate even several days after rain events. On a large scale use, uncomfortable weather like sultriness or dry heat can be prevented and the urban water balance can be attenuated towards the natural. PMID:20818060

Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

2010-01-01

34

Characterization of the LGFSTF wind tunnel in preparation for the DOE/EPA hazardous chemical evaporation rate experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy are conducting chemical evaporation rate experiments in the DOE`s Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) wind tunnel to determine the effect on evaporation rate of pool temperature and wind speed. Evaporation rates measured in these tests will be used to verify mathematical models used to define the source (gas) rate inputs to dispersion models. In preparation for the experiments the LGFSTF tunnel has been modified to provide for the simulation of an atmospheric boundary layer flow on the tunnel floor. This report describes work performed by the DOE Modeling Support Center at the University of Arkansas to define (characterize) the turbulence properties in the boundary layer of the (modified) wind tunnel test section. Hot wire anemometry measurements were made to characterize the boundary layer flow over the evaporation test pan. Mean velocity and turbulence statistics were measured along a verticle line (extending from 0.5 cm to 60 cm above the tunnel floor) located on the tunnel centerline immediately upwind of the evaporation pan. The x-direction mean velocity data were analyzed to estimate the applicable values of the surface roughness and friction velocity for four tunnel (variable frequency controller) speed settings: 15 Hz, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, and 60 Hz.

Havens, J.; Walker, H.; Spicer, T.

1995-03-01

35

Effect of pressure on the rate of evaporation from capillaries: statistical rate theory approach  

E-print Network

- dictions was also good, but the test was not as rigorous, since the internal vibrational frequenciesEffect of pressure on the rate of evaporation from capillaries: statistical rate theory approach P from studies of evaporation and condensation, crystal dissolution, gas­solid surface kinetics on single

Ward, Charles A.

36

A Mass Function Constraint on Extrasolar Giant Planet Evaporation Rates  

E-print Network

The observed mass function for all known extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) varies approximately as M^{-1} for mass M between 0.2 Jupiter masses (M_J) and 5 M_J. In order to study evaporation effects for highly-irradiated EGPs in this mass range, we have constructed an observational mass function for a subset of EGPs in the same mass range but with orbital radii evaporation, this result places a constraint on orbital migration models and rules out the most extreme mass loss rates in the literature. A theory that predicts more moderate mass loss gives a mass function that is closer to observed statistics but still disagrees for M < 1 M_J.

W. B Hubbard; M. Hattori; A. Burrows; I. Hubeny

2007-02-09

37

Studying biofuel aerosol evaporation rates with single particle manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significant increase in the air pollution, and the impact on climate change due to the burning of fossil fuel has led to the research of alternative energies. Bio-ethanol obtained from a variety of feedstocks can provide a feasible solution. Mixing bio-ethanol with gasoline leads to a reduction in CO emission and in NOx emissions compared with the use of gasoline alone. However, adding ethanol leads to a change in the fuel evaporation. Here we present a preliminary investigation of evaporation times of single ethanol-gasoline droplets. In particular, we investigated the different evaporation rate of the droplets depending on the variation in the percentage of ethanol inside them. Two different techniques have been used to trap the droplets. One makes use of a 532nm optical tweezers set up, the other of an electrodynamics balance (EDB). The droplets decreasing size was measured using video analysis and elastic light scattering respectively. In the first case measurements were conducted at 293.15 K and ambient humidity. In the second case at 280.5 K and a controlled environment has been preserved by flowing nitrogen into the chamber. Binary phase droplets with a higher percentage of ethanol resulted in longer droplet lifetimes. Our work also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each technique for such studies. In particular it is challenging to trap droplets with low ethanol content (such as pure gasoline) by the use of EDB. Conversely such droplets are trivial to trap using optical tweezers.

Corsetti, S.; Miles, R. E. H.; Reid, J. P.; Kiefer, J.; McGloin, D.

2014-09-01

38

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy  

E-print Network

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy 27 March 1996 Measurement of the rates of evaporation of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K Institute of Physics. S0021-9606 96 50525-8 INTRODUCTION We report measurements of the rates of evaporation

39

Modelling framework The evaporation rate of a fuel droplet depends on the its diameter,  

E-print Network

Modelling framework · The evaporation rate of a fuel droplet depends on the its diameter. · CFD simulations for a combustor rely on models for the mean evaporation rate of all the droplets in a computational cell. To compute the mean evaporation rate we need to estimate the joint-probability (PDF) of all

Sóbester, András

40

INLINE HIGH-RATE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM FOR NOVEL INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CELL METALLIZATION  

E-print Network

INLINE HIGH-RATE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM FOR NOVEL INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CELL METALLIZATION F, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover, Germany ABSTRACT: We evaluate a novel high-throughput thermal evaporation deposition rates of up to 5 µm � m/min. By adjusting the individual aluminium evaporation rate for each

41

Black Hole Evaporation Rates without Spacetime Samuel L. Braunstein and Manas K. Patra  

E-print Network

Black Hole Evaporation Rates without Spacetime Samuel L. Braunstein and Manas K. Patra Computer tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes

Braunstein, Samuel L.

42

On the remote measurement of evaporation rates from bare wet soil under variable cloud cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporation rates from a natural wet soil surface are calculated from an energy balance equation at 0.1-hour intervals. A procedure is developed for calculating the heat flux through the soil surface from a harmonic analysis of the surface temperature curve. The evaporation integrated over an entire 24-hour period is compared with daily evaporation rates obtained from published models.

Auer, S.

1976-01-01

43

Evaporation rates of pasture-mesquite vegetation in central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiarid highlands of Queretaro, in central Mexico, are characterized by booming urban and industrial developments with increasing demand for water. Agriculture takes place in the valleys and the surrounding hills have different types of xeric to subtropical rangeland. Hills are unfit for agriculture and usually are managed for cattle production and fuelwood. However, recent studies suggest that some hill areas are important for groundwater recharge and if they are not protected, important water shortages are envisioned. A critical question involves the effects of land management practices on rangeland hydrologic processes. Evaporation (E), which includes plant and soil evaporation is the largest water loss from rangelands and few data are available for central Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate E from a mesquite (Prosopis sp.) dominated vegetation using the eddy correlation and the Pennman-Monteith models. Measurements were made during 24 summer days of 2004 at a piedmont site at Amascala, Queretaro (1919 m, 20° 41' N, 100° 16' W). Long term annual rainfall is 568 ± 137 mm. Shrub density was 770 plants per hectare and mean height was 1.8 m. The understory was composed by a mixture of annual and perennial grasses but their biomass was negligible. Agroforestry was the current land use of the site. Shrubs were pruned every 2 or 3 years to maintain its height and promote leafty regrowth. Goats usually browsed the mesquite canopy, but during the time of the study they were excluded from the area.The rainy season started on 15 May and measurements initiated on 1 June, five days after a severe hail storm. Although the mesquite canopy had a full developed canopy with leaf area index of 3.2 by this time, they lost approximately 70% of leaf area. May and June rainfall was 146 mm and 46 mm occurred during the measuring period. Throughout the measurement period E was coupled to global radiation and total evaporation was 73.8 mm. On cloudy days E ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 mm d-1, maximum E was 4.3 mm d-1 on sunny days and the average E was 3.1 mm d-1. Average daily E increased during the measuring period at a rate of 0.05 mm d-1 (r2=0.2, p<0.05). Data suggest that evaporation from a pasture-mesquite vegetation is an important component in the water balance considering the limited rainfall occurring.

Sosa, E. G.; Escobar, A. G.

2004-12-01

44

Re: Fw: Evaporation rates Victor F Labson a Marcja K McNutt  

E-print Network

History: Marcia, Re: Fw: Evaporation rates t Victor F Labson a Marcja K McNutt This message has% evaporation, 10% dissolution in their reporting, compared to our undifferentiated 38-40%. We were both comforted by the fact that we were consistent. I will adapt our description to read evaporation

Fleskes, Joe

45

Effects on evaporation rates from different water-permeable pavement designs.  

PubMed

The urban water balance can be attenuated to the natural by water-permeable pavements (WPPs). Furthermore, WPPs have a 16% higher evaporation rate than impermeable pavements, which can lead to a better urban climate. Evaporation rates from pavements are influenced by the pavement surface and by the deeper layers. By a compared evaporation measurement between different WPP designs, the grain size distribution of the sub-base shows no influence on the evaporation rates in a significant way. On the contrary, a sub-base made of a twin-layer decreases the evaporation by 16% compared to a homogeneous sub-base. By a change in the colour of the paving stone, 19% higher evaporation rates could be achieved. A further comparison shows that the transpiration-effect of the grass in grass pavers increases the evaporation rates more than threefold to pervious concrete pavements. These high evapotranspiration rates can not be achieved with a pervious concrete paving stone. In spite of this, the broad field of application of the pervious concrete paving stone increases the importance in regard to the urban climate. PMID:22049757

Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

2011-01-01

46

Physically modeling operative temperatures and evaporation rates in amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

(1) We designed a physical model that simulates the thermal and evaporative properties of live Western toads (Bufo boreas). (2) In controlled tests, the model tracked the body temperature of live toads with an average error of 0.3??0.03??C (test range=4-30??C). (3) It estimated the evaporative water loss of live toads with an average error of 0.35-0.65 g/h, or about 14% (test range=0.7-9 g/h). (4) Data collected with this physical model should provide an effective way for biologists to better understand habitat selection in toads and other amphibians. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bartelt, P.E.; Peterson, C.R.

2005-01-01

47

A comparison of methods for estimating open-water evaporation in small wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared evaporation measurements from a floating pan, land pan, chamber, and the Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation. Floating pan, land pan, and meteorological data were collected from June 6 to July 21, 2005, at a small wetland in the Canadian River alluvium in central Oklahoma, USA. Evaporation measured with the floating pan compared favorably to 12 h chamber measurements. Differences between chamber and floating pan rates ranged from ?0.2 to 0.3 mm, mean of 0.1 mm. The difference between chamber and land pan rates ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 mm, mean of 1.5 mm. The mean chamber-to-floating pan ratio was 0.97 and the mean chamber-to-land pan ratio was 0.73. The chamber-to-floating pan ratio of 0.97 indicates the use of a floating pan to measure evaporation in small limited-fetch water bodies is an appropriate and accurate method for the site investigated. One-sided Paired t-Tests indicate daily floating pan rates were significantly less than land pan and PT rates. A two-sided Paired t-Test indicated there was no significant difference between land pan and PT values. The PT equation tends to overestimate evaporation during times when the air is of low drying power and tends to underestimate as drying power increases.

Masoner, Jason R.; Stannard, David I.

2010-01-01

48

Witnessing Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The engineers at Splash Engineering (the students) have been commissioned by Thirsty County to conduct a study of evaporation and transpiration in their region. During one week, students observe and measure (by weight) the ongoing evaporation of water in pans set up with different variables, and then assess what factors may affect evaporation. Variables include adding to the water an amount of soil and an amount of soil with growing plants.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

49

The use of thermogravimetry to follow the rate of evaporation of an ingredient used in perfumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingredients used in the manufacture of perfumes can be investigated by thermogravimetry. In this study the evaporation of\\u000a methyl benzoate was investigated using a simultaneous TG-DTA unit. A rising temperature method of thermal analysis was used\\u000a for the study. The rate of evaporation of the ingredient was calculated from a simple plot of percentage mass lossvs. time. A derivative plot

P. Aggarwal; D. Dollimore; K. Alexander

1997-01-01

50

Surface composition and barium evaporation rate of ``pedigreed'' impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes during accelerated life testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of the surface composition and barium evaporation rate of "pedigreed" impregnated tungsten dispenser cathodes. The effect of air exposure on coated cathodes was examined and was found to have no significant effect on barium evaporation rate although in some cases longer reactivation times were required. No changes in surface topography were apparent following air exposure and reactivation. Life testing was done at 100°C above the typical operating temperature for the cathode, where the typical operating temperature was taken to be 950°C for coated cathodes and 1050°C for uncoated cathodes. The cathodes were examined at different stages of life testing, up to 1200 h. Significant decreases in barium evaporation rates were found after as few as 500 h of life testing. After 1000 h the evaporation rate had decreased more than an order of magnitude. Changes in surface composition were also found. The effects of tungsten particle size, used in manufacture of the billet, on barium evaporation rate were also studied but no correlation was found.

Tomich, D. H.; Mescher, J. A.; Grant, J. T.

1987-03-01

51

Numerical Evaluation of Heat Pulse Technology for Estimation of Evaporation Rates from a Subsurface Drying Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water evaporation plays a crucial role for both the soil surface energy balance and the hydrologic cycle. Recently introduced heat pulse probes (HPP) allow in-situ measurements of subsurface soil water evaporation. The sensible heat component is calculated from soil heat flux densities measured at two depths and the change in sensible heat storage between these depths is measured by the HPP. The latent heat component detectable during stage 2 evaporation is then estimated from the heat balance residual. Although the accuracy of the estimated evaporation rate depends on many factors (i.e., location of sensor needles, soil texture), the theoretical limits of the HPP method have not been thoroughly evaluated. In the study presented, numerical simulations of the soil water evaporation process were conducted for a heat pulse line source to evaluate the capabilities of the HPP method using a high resolution grid (i.e., mm scale). Calculated temperatures at the depths of virtual sensor needles were used for the HPP method and measured subsurface evaporation rates were compared with simulated ones. The impacts of sensor needle depths were also evaluated for tri-needle (THPP) and penta-needle (PHPP) heat pulse probe configurations. Furthermore, the impact of soil texture was evaluated using coarse- and fine-textured soils. Numerical simulations including liquid water, soil water vapor flux and heat transport were conducted using the HYDRUS-1D code.

Sakai, M.; Jones, S. B.; Tuller, M.

2009-12-01

52

The evaporative requirement for heat balance determines whole-body sweat rate during exercise under conditions permitting full evaporation  

PubMed Central

Although the requirements for heat dissipation during exercise are determined by the necessity for heat balance, few studies have considered them when examining sweat production and its potential modulators. Rather, the majority of studies have used an experimental protocol based on a fixed percentage of maximum oxygen uptake (%). Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the independent contribution of the evaporative requirement for heat balance (Ereq) and % to whole-body sweat rate (WBSR) during exercise. We hypothesised that WBSR would be determined by Ereq and not by %. A total of 23 males performed two separate experiments during which they exercised for 90 min at different rates of metabolic heat production (200, 350, 500 W) at a fixed air temperature (30°C, n= 8), or at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (290 W) at different air temperatures (30, 35, 40°C, n= 15 and 45°C, n= 7). Whole-body evaporative heat loss was measured by direct calorimetry and used to calculate absolute WBSR in grams per minute. The conditions employed resulted in a wide range of Ereq (131–487 W) and % (15–55%). The individual variation in non-steady-state (0–30 min) and steady-state (30–90 min) WBSR correlated significantly with Ereq (P < 0.001). In contrast, % correlated negatively with the residual variation in WBSR not explained by Ereq, and marginally increased (?2%) the amount of total variability in WBSR described by Ereq alone (non-steady state: R2= 0.885; steady state: R2= 0.930). These data provide clear evidence that absolute WBSR during exercise is determined by Ereq, not by %. Future studies should therefore use an experimental protocol which ensures a fixed Ereq when examining absolute WBSR between individuals, irrespective of potential differences in relative exercise intensity. PMID:23459754

Gagnon, Daniel; Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

2013-01-01

53

Influence of a wick lining on the evaporation rate of lithium from a charge exchange canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wick lining is used with a lithium charge exchange canal for reducing the consumption of lithium. The wick helps to condense the lithium vapour more effectively and to make it flow back to the main oven. For its efficient functioning, the temperature gradient along the wick has to be properly maintained. The present studies were carried out to assess the extent of reduction in lithium loss when using the wick and to determine the optimum temperature settings. The evaporation rate of lithium vapour from a charge exchange canal (General Ionex Model-712) has been investigated in the temperature range from 470 to 575° C. The measurements were carried out with and without a stainless steel wire mesh wick lining, inside the canal. A quartz crystal oscillator type rate meter was used for monitoring the evaporation rate. The results indicate that, when the wick lining is inserted, the reduction in evaporation rate of lithium is only 20%. This differs much from the result of Greenway [Report 85/11, Oxford University, Nuclear Physics Laboratory (1985)] who reported a reduction by a factor of 8. The evaporation rate is also found to depend on the canal end heater temperature, maintained high enough to keep the condensing vapour in liquid state. The optimum temperature settings for the end heaters have been found to be 300 ° C. The experimental arrangements and results are presented in this paper.

Thampi, N. S.; Berger, S.; Dworschak, F.

1992-02-01

54

EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON EVAPORATIVE HEAT LOSS IN THE MICROWAVE-EXPOSED MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Male CBA/J mice were administered heat loads of 0-28 J. per g at specific absorption rates (SARs) of either 47 or 93 W. per kg by exposure to 2,450-MHz microwave radiation at an ambient temperature of 30 C while evaporative heat loss (EHL) was continuously monitored with dew-poin...

55

PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-0988 Smith*, R.L. Predicting Evaporation Rates and Times for Spills of Chemical Mixtures. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene (Ogden, T. (Ed.), Elsevier) 45 (6):437-445 (2001). EPA/600/J-00/125. 03/16/2000 Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for p...

56

Estimating steady-state evaporation rates from bare soils under conditions of high water table  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure that combines meteorological and soil equations of water transfer makes it possible to estimate approximately the steady-state evaporation from bare soils under conditions of high water table. Field data required include soil-water retention curves, water table depth and a record of air temperature, air humidity and wind velocity at one elevation. The procedure takes into account the relevant atmospheric factors and the soil's capability to conduct 'water in liquid and vapor forms. It neglects the effects of thermal transfer (except in the vapor case) and of salt accumulation. Homogeneous as well as layered soils can be treated. Results obtained with the method demonstrate how the soil evaporation rates·depend on potential evaporation, water table depth, vapor transfer and certain soil parameters.

Ripple, C.D.; Rubin, J.; Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

1970-01-01

57

METABOLIC RATE AND EVAPORATIVE WATER LOSS OF MEXICAN SPOTTED AND GREAT HORNED OWLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

AaSraAcr. -We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Homed (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO,gl .h-' for the Spotted Owl and 0.59 cc0, .g- I h- ' for the Great Homed Owl, with apparent thermoneutral zones extending from 17.0-25.2\\

JOSEPH L. GANIZY; RUSSELL P. BALDA; RUDY M. KINGS

1993-01-01

58

Combining the Penman-Monteith equation with measurements of surface temperature and reflectance to estimate evaporation rates of semiarid grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penman-Monteith equation is useful for computing evaporation rates of uniform surfaces, such as dense vegetation or bare soil. This equation becomes less useful for evaluation of evaporation rates at the regional scale, where surfaces are generally characterized by a patchy combination of vegetation and soil. This is particularly true in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The

M. S. Moran; A. F. Rahman; J. C. Washburne; D. C. Goodrich; M. A. Weltz; W. P. Kustas

1996-01-01

59

Evaporation rates across a convective air boundary layer are dominated by diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative contributions of advection and diffusion to isothermal mass transfer from drying porous surfaces across a constant air boundary layer have been quantified. Analysis has shown that neglecting diffusion in longitudinal direction (often justified by large Peclet number) may lead to underestimation of evaporative mass losses from porous surfaces. Considering diffusion only from individual pores across a constant boundary layer accounts for most of the evaporation rates predicted by the full advection-diffusion equation (ADE). The apparent decoupling between diffusion and advection, and the relatively small role of advection in flux generation (other than defining boundary layer thickness) greatly simplifies analytical description of drying surfaces. Consequently, evaporation rates from porous surfaces may be represented by superposition of readily-available analytical diffusion solutions from discrete pores considering different patterns and spacing between surface pores. Results have been used to formulate a generalized top boundary condition for effective resistance to evaporation linking soil type, surface water content and boundary layer characteristic into a simple and physically based analytical expression.

Haghighi, E.; Shahraeeni, E.; Lehmann, P.; Or, D.

2013-03-01

60

Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a closed body or a duct envelope moves through the atmosphere, air pressure and temperature rises occur ahead of the body or, under ram conditions, within the duct. If cloud water droplets are encountered, droplet evaporation will result because of the air-temperature rise and the relative velocity between the droplet and stagnating air. It is shown that the solution of the steady-state psychrometric equation provides evaporation rates which are the maximum possible when droplets are entrained in air moving along stagnation lines under such conditions. Calculations are made for a wide variety of water droplet diameters, ambient conditions, and flight Mach numbers. Droplet diameter, body size, and Mach number effects are found to predominate, whereas wide variation in ambient conditions are of relatively small significance in the determination of evaporation rates. The results are essentially exact for the case of movement of droplets having diameters smaller than about 30 microns along relatively long ducts (length at least several feet) or toward large obstacles (wings), since disequilibrium effects are then of little significance. Mass losses in the case of movement within ducts will often be significant fractions (one-fifth to one-half) of original droplet masses, while very small droplets within ducts will often disappear even though the entraining air is not fully stagnated. Wing-approach evaporation losses will usually be of the order of several percent of original droplet masses. Two numerical examples are given of the determination of local evaporation rates and total mass losses in cases involving cloud droplets approaching circular cylinders along stagnation lines. The cylinders chosen were of 3.95-inch (10.0+ cm) diameter and 39.5-inch 100+ cm) diameter. The smaller is representative of icing-rate measurement cylinders, while with the larger will be associated an air-flow field similar to that ahead of an airfoil having a leading-edge radius comparable with that of the cylinder. It is found that the losses are less than 5 percent. It is concluded that such losses are, in general, very small (less than 1 percent) in the case of smaller obstacles (of icing-rate measurement- cylinder size); the motional dynamics are such, however, that exceptions will occur by reason of failure of very small droplets (moving along stagnation lines) to impinge upon obstacle surfaces. In such cases, the droplets will evaporate completely.

Lowell, H. H.

1953-01-01

61

Reservoir evaporation in central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation losses from seven reservoirs operated by the Denver Water Department in central Colorado were determined during various periods from 1974 to 1980. The reservoirs studies were Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, Williams Fork, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross. Energy-budget and mass-transfer methods were used to determine evaporation. Class-A pan data also were collected at each reservoir. The energy-budget method was the most accurate of the methods used to determine evaporation. At Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, and Williams Fork Reservoirs the energy-budget method was used to calibrate the mass-transfer coefficients. Calibrated coefficients already were available for Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross Reservoirs. Using the calibrated coefficients, long-term mass-transfer evaporation rates were determined. Annual evaporation values were not determined because the instrumentation was not operated for the entire open-water season. Class-A pan data were used to determine pan coefficients for each season at each reservoir. The coefficients varied from season to season and between reservoirs, and the seasonal values ranged from 0.29 to 1.05. (USGS)

Spahr, N.E.; Ruddy, B.C.

1983-01-01

62

Mechanical tuning of the evaporation rate of liquid on crossed fibers  

E-print Network

We investigate experimentally the drying of a small volume of perfectly wetting liquid on two crossed fibers. We characterize the drying dynamics for the three liquid morphologies that are encountered in this geometry: drop, column and a mixed morphology, in which a drop and a column coexist. For each morphology, we rationalize our findings with theoretical models that capture the drying kinetics. We find that the evaporation rate depends significantly on the liquid morphology and that the drying of liquid column is faster than the evaporation of the drop and the mixed morphology for a given liquid volume. Finally, we illustrate that shearing a network of fibers reduces the angle between them, changes the morphology towards the column state, and so enhances the drying rate of a volatile liquid deposited on it.

François Boulogne; Alban Sauret; Beatrice Soh; Emilie Dressaire; Howard A. Stone

2015-01-07

63

Exploring Evaporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn what evaporation is and how various factors--time, heat, surface area, and wind--affect it. They also discover that water does not always evaporate at the same rate and saltwater leaves something behind when it evaporates. Finally, students a

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

64

Effect of Thickness of a Water Repellent Soil Layer on Soil Evaporation Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water repellent soil layer overlying wettable soil is known to affect soil evaporation. This effect can be beneficial for water conservation in areas where water is scarce. Little is known, however, about the effect of the thickness of the water repellent layer. The thickness of this layer can vary widely, and particularly after wildfire, with the soil temperature reached and the duration of the fire. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of thickness of a top layer of water repellent soil on soil evaporation rate. In order to isolate the thickness from other possible factors, fully wettable standard sand (300~600 microns) was used. Extreme water repellency (WDPT > 24 hours) was generated by 'baking' the sand mixed with oven-dried pine needles (fresh needles of Pinus densiflora) at the mass ratio of 1:13 (needle:soil) at 185°C for 18 hours. The thicknesses of water repellent layers were 1, 2, 3 and 7 cm on top of wettable soil. Fully wettable soil columns were prepared as a control. Soil columns (8 cm diameter, 10 cm height) were covered with nylon mesh. Tap water (50 ml, saturating 3 cm of a soil column) was injected with hypoderm syringes from three different directions at the bottom level. The injection holes were sealed with hot-melt adhesive immediately after injection. The rate of soil evaporation through the soil surface was measured by weight change under isothermal condition of 40°C. Five replications were made for each. A trend of negative correlation between the thickness of water repellent top layer and soil evaporation rate is discussed in this contribution.

Ahn, S.; Im, S.; Doerr, S.

2012-04-01

65

Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome; and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide; and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

Bolgar, A. S.; Verkhoglyadova, T. S.; Samsonov, G. V.

1985-01-01

66

In situ measurement and dynamic control of the evaporation rate in vapor diffusion crystallization of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special device with a weight-sensitive facility was designed for monitoring and controlling the water evaporation in vapor diffusion protein crystallization. The device made it possible to measure the weight of the drop in real time while the crystallization experiment was going on normally. The precise water equilibration curves under different crystallization conditions could be obtained automatically. By monitoring and controlling the evaporation rate, the crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme and trichosanthin, a plant protein from Chinese herb, was optimized by regulating the reservoir solution dynamically. The experimental results of these two proteins indicate both the feasibility of the device and the usefulness of dynamic control technique. Compared with traditional crystallization experiments, dynamically controlled crystallization can reduce the number of nuclei, increase the crystal size and save experimental time effectively.

Shu, Zhan-Yong; Gong, Hai-Yun; Bi, Ru-Chang

1998-08-01

67

Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating Primordial Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ?5.0 × 1014 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Christopher, G. E.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Cruz, L.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kolterman, B. E.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-GarcIa, R.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Mincer, A. I.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Morgan, T.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Nemethy, P.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sandoval, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Stump, D.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vasileiou, V.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

2015-04-01

68

Simulation of lake ice and its effect on the late-Pleistocene evaporation rate of Lake Lahontan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model of lake ice was coupled with a model of lake temperature and evaporation to assess the possible effect of ice cover on the late-Pleistocene evaporation rate of Lake Lahontan. The simulations were done using a data set based on proxy temperature indicators and features of the simulated late-Pleistocene atmospheric circulation over western North America. When a data set based on a mean-annual air temperature of 3?? C (7?? C colder than present) and reduced solar radiation from jet-stream induced cloud cover was used as input to the model, ice cover lasting ??? 4 months was simulated. Simulated evaporation rates (490-527 mm a-1) were ??? 60% lower than the present-day evaporation rate (1300 mm a-1) of Pyramid Lake. With this reduced rate of evaporation, water inputs similar to the 1983 historical maxima that occurred in the Lahontan basin would have been sufficient to maintain the 13.5 ka BP high stand of Lake Lahontan. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

Hostetler, S.W.

1991-01-01

69

Investigations to predict and reduce the evaporation rate of the residual brine is salt caverns used for gas storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensides were tested for their ability to reduce the evaporation rate of residual brine in salt caverns used for gas storage. Fatty alcohols with more than 20 CH2 groups and perfluorinated alcohols with more than 12 CF 2 groups prove especially useful. The formation of a solid salt crust on the initially free brine surface is due to the incorporation of alkaline Earth ions. After its completion, the solid salt crust enormously reduces the evaporation rate of the underlying brine. It is found that by the use of different tensides, crust formation can be either enhanced of retarded at will.

Petrick, H. J.; Cammenga, H. K.; Herz, D.

1981-12-01

70

Pan-Svalbard growth rate variability and environmental regulation in the Arctic bivalve Serripes groenlandicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth histories contained in the shells of bivalves provide continuous records of environmental and biological information over lifetimes spanning decades to centuries, thereby linking ecosystem responses to both natural and anthropogenic climatic variations over a range of scales. We examined growth rates and temporal growth patterns of 260 individuals of the circumpolar Greenland Smooth Cockle ( Serripes groenlandicus) collected between 1997 and 2009 from 11 sites around the Svalbard Archipelago. These sites encompass a range of oceanographic and environmental conditions, from strongly Atlantic-influenced conditions on the west coast to high-Arctic conditions in northeast Svalbard. Absolute growth was up to three times greater at the most strongly Atlantic-influenced locations compared to the most Arctic-influenced areas, and growth performance was highest at sites closest to the West Spitsbergen Current. We also developed growth chronologies up to 34 years in length extending back to 1974. Standardized growth indices (SGI) exhibited substantial inter-site variability, but there were also common temporal features including steadily increasing growth from the late 1980's to the mid-1990's followed by a marked shift from relatively greater to poorer growth in the mid-1990's and from 2004 to 2008. This pattern was consistent with phase-shifts in large-scale climatic drivers. Interannual variability in SGI was also related to local manifestations of the large-scale drivers, including sea temperature and sea ice extent. The temporal growth pattern at Rijpfjorden, on northeast Svalbard, was broadly representative (R = 0.81) of the entire dataset. While there were site-related differences in the specific relationships between growth and environmental parameters, the aggregated dataset indicated an overriding regional driver of bivalve growth: the Arctic Climate Regime Index (ACRI). These results demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing baselines of ecosystem variability and for identifying key ecosystem drivers across spatial and temporal scales.

Carroll, Michael L.; Ambrose, William G.; Levin, Benjamin S.; Locke V, William L.; Henkes, Gregory A.; Hop, Haakon; Renaud, Paul E.

2011-11-01

71

Surface structure and composition of flat titanium thin films as a function of film thickness and evaporation rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To correlate flat titanium film surface properties with deposition parameters, titanium flat thin films were systematically deposited on glass substrates with various thicknesses and evaporation rates by electron-beam evaporation. The chemical compositions, crystal structure, surface topographies as well as wettability were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The films consisted mainly of TiO 2. Small percentages of Ti 2O 3 and metallic Ti were also found at the film surface using high-resolution XPS analysis. Quantitative XPS showed little differences regarding elemental compositions among different groups of films. The films were obtained by varying the deposition rate and the film thickness, respectively. XRD data showed consistent reflection patterns of the different titanium samples deposited using different film thicknesses. Without exception measurements of all samples exhibited contact angles of 80° ± 5°. Quantitative AFM characterization demonstrated good correlation tendency between surface roughness and film thickness or evaporation rate, respectively. It is important to notice that titanium films with different sizes of grains on their surfaces but having the same chemistry and film bulk structure can be obtained in a controllable way. By increasing the film thickness and evaporation rate, the surface roughness increased. The surface morphology and grain size growth displayed a corresponding trend. Therefore, the control of these parameters allows us to prepare titanium films with desired surface properties in a controllable and reproducible way for further biological investigations of these materials.

Cai, Kaiyong; Müller, Michael; Bossert, Jörg; Rechtenbach, Annett; Jandt, Klaus D.

2005-08-01

72

A Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Rate of Evaporation of Large Water Drops Falling at Terminal Velocity in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the effect of ventilation on the rate of evaporation of millimeter sized water drops failing at terminal velocity in air has been carried out in a wind tunnel where drops were suspended freely in the tunnel air stream. It was found that for drops in the size range 1150 µma02500 µm, the mean ventilation coefficient vh

H. R. Pruppacher; R. Rasmussen

1979-01-01

73

Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data.  

PubMed

The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (C(surf)). C(surf) accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of C(surf) to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and C(surf) can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

Salvucci, Guido D; Gentine, Pierre

2013-04-16

74

Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land–atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid–humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

Salvucci, Guido D.; Gentine, Pierre

2013-01-01

75

Evaporation rate of water as a function of a magnetic field and field gradient.  

PubMed

The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air. PMID:23443127

Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng

2012-01-01

76

Effects of Carbonyl Bond and Metal Cluster Dissociation and Evaporation Rates on Predictions of Nanotube Production in HiPco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the co-formation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO due to its lower bond energy as compared with that ofNiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

2002-01-01

77

A New Approach to Measure Contact Angle and Evaporation Rate with Flow Visualization in a Sessile Drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contact angle and the spreading process of sessile droplet are very crucial in many technological processes, such as painting and coating, material processing, film-cooling applications, lubrication, and boiling. Additionally, as it is well known that the surface free energy of polymers cannot be directly, measured for their elastic and viscous restraints. The measurements of liquid contact angle on the polymer surfaces become extremely important to evaluate the surface free energy of polymers through indirect methods linked with the contact angle data. Due to the occurrence of liquid evaporation is inevitable, the effects of evaporation on the contact angle and the spreading become very important for more complete understanding of these processes. It is of interest to note that evaporation can induce Marangoni-Benard convection in sessile drops. However, the impacts of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes are not clear. The experimental methods used by previous investigators cannot simultaneously measure the spreading process and visualize the convection inside. Based on the laser shadowgraphic system used by the present author, a very simple optical procedure has been developed to measure the contact angle, the spreading speed, the evaporation rate, and to visualize inside convection of a sessile drop simultaneously. Two CCD cameras were used to synchronously record the real-time diameter of the sessile drop, which is essential for determination of both spreading speed and evaporation rate, and the shadowgraphic image magnified by the sessile drop acting as a thin plano-convex lens. From the shadowgraph, the inside convection of the drop can be observed if any and the image outer diameter, which linked to the drop profile, can be measured. Simple equations have been derived to calculate the drop profile, including the instantaneous contact angle, height, and volume of the sessile drop, as well as the evaporation rate. The influence of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes can be figured out through comparison of the drop profiles with and without inside convection when the sessile drop is placed at different evaporation conditions.

Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.

1999-01-01

78

A Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Rate of Evaporation of Small Water Drops Falling at Terminal Velocity in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the effect of ventilation on the rate of evaporation of small water drops falling at terminal velocity in air has been carried out in a wind tunnel where water drops could he suspended freely in the tunnel airstream. For Reynolds numbers NRe2 it was found that the Sherwood number NSh was linearly related to NRe1\\/2NI, in

K. V. Beard; H. R. Pruppacher

1971-01-01

79

Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a,b  

E-print Network

Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a2(PO4)3 High-power battery Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite (Li3V2(PO4)3/C) has been September 2010 Available online 22 September 2010 Keywords: Li-ion batteries Cathode Vanadium phosphate Li3V

Cao, Guozhong

80

Measuring forest evaporation and transpiration rates with fibre optic temperature sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is one of the most important fluxes of the water balance as it accounts for 55-80% of the precipitation. However, measuring evaporation remains difficult and requires sophisticated and expensive equipment. In this paper we propose a new measuring technique based on the existing Bowen ratio method. With a fibre optic cable a temperature and a vapour pressure profile can be measured by the principle of a psychrometer and combined with the net radiation (and ground heat flux) the latent heat can be calculated. Compared to the conventional Bowen ratio method the advantages of this method is that the profiles are measured with a single sensor (resulting in a smaller error), and contain more measuring points in the vertical and therefore give more insight into the developed profiles. The method also allows to measure through a forest canopy. Applying the Bowen ratio above and below the canopy an estimation of the transpiration flux can be obtained. As a first test, we compared in a pine forest in The Netherlands (Loobos) the transpiration estimates of the fibre optic cable with sapflow measurements, and eddy covariance measurements above and below the canopy. The experiment was carried out on three days in September 2013 and the preliminary results show reasonable correlation with the eddy covariance estimates, but not with the sapflow observations. To explain the differences further investigation is needed and a longer measuring period is required.

Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Luxemburg, Wim; Hessels, Tim; de Kloe, Arjan; Elbers, Jan

2014-05-01

81

Investigation of the effect of dissolved salts, soil layers, and wind on the evaporation rate of water on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory simulation experiments have been performed to study the stability of water under martian conditions. The first chapter of this thesis is a background introduction into the history of Mars and a description of the evidence for past and present water on Mars. The second chapter describes experiments that were performed on low concentration brine solutions, but were never published. The rest of the thesis is submitted in thesis by publication format. Chapters three and four were published in Geophysical Research Letters and chapter five has been submitted to Mars Polar Science Special Edition of Icarus . The experiments described in this thesis were performed in the planetary simulation chamber in the W.M. Keck Laboratory for Space Simulations at the Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences. By simulating the conditions on Mars, with the exception of the gravitational constant, we are able to accurately measure the evaporation and sublimation of water and water ice. We measured the evaporation rates of low concentrations of a sodium chloride brine solution, the effect of temperature on eutectic solutions of sodium chloride and calcium chloride brines, the effect of a soil layer on the sublimation rate of ice, and the effect of wind on the sublimation of ice. The results for the evaporation of brine solutions and the results for the sublimation of ice under a soil layer agree very well with theoretical calculations using Fick's Law of Diffusion, as put forth by A.P. Ingersoll and C.B. Farmer, respectively. In contrast, the sublimation rate of ice under varied wind velocities did not agree with previous theory. Therefore, a new theoretical model was developed in order to accurately describe the effect of increasing wind velocity on sublimation rates. The new theoretical model agreed extremely well with experimental data. In performing these experiments, we are better able to understand the behavior of water under martian condition and can be used to determine under what conditions liquid water could exist and how long it would survive under the current environment on Mars. The implications relate to the formation of geologic features such as gullies and the possibility of life on Mars.

Chittenden, Julie Diane

2007-08-01

82

Improved rate control for electron-beam evaporation and evaluation of optical performance improvements.  

PubMed

A new deposition-rate-control and electron-beam-gun (e-gun) strategy was developed that significantly reduces the growth-rate variations for e-beam-deposited SiO2 coatings. The resulting improvements in optical performance are evaluated for multilayer bandpass filters. The adverse effect of uneven silica-source depletion on coating spectral performances during long deposition runs is discussed. PMID:16539249

Gevelber, Michael; Xu, Bing; Smith, Douglas

2006-03-01

83

Group evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

Shen, Hayley H.

1991-01-01

84

On Maximum Evaporation Rates of Liquid Droplets in Rocket Motors 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper lilllits have been estimated for the rate of evapo­ ration of slllall liquid droplets in representative rocket cOlllbustion challlbers. The droplets are assullled to be isotherlllal at all tillles. The droplet telllperature as a function of tillle is deterlllined by an appropriate heat balance. The calculations are useful in deterlllining the significance of inelastic collisions between liquid droplets for

S. S. PENNER

1953-01-01

85

Condensation/evaporation of insoluble organic vapor as functions of source rate and saturation vapor pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condensation growth of atmospheric particles by insoluble organic vapors was studied by a monodisperse aerosol dynamics model MONO32 including atmospheric chemistry mechanism. The source rate of the vapor and its saturation vapor density at a particle surface were varied. The initial particle number size distribution was assumed to be bimodal, and aerosol was initially an internal mixture of particles consisting of soluble sulphuric acid and insoluble organic material in a ratio of 1:1. Model simulations predicted that if the ratio of the vapor source rate and the condensation sink of particles, Q/CS, exceeded 108 cm-3 and the vapor was nonvolatile or low volatile, the 10 nm nuclei grew with the growth rates of 2.5-3 nm h-1 and could act as cloud condensation nuclei in supersaturations of 1.6% or lower after 24 h simulation. Then the vapors must have saturation vapor pressures less than 7 × 106 cm-3. However, the higher the ratio of Q/CS, the higher the saturation vapor pressure could be. When the vapor was highly volatile, i.e., the saturation vapor density was high enough, in our simulations greater than 6 × 107 cm-3 the Ostwald ripening was observed. Then the nucleation mode particles were not able to grow but coagulated with larger particles without causing any significant impact on climate. An analytical expression for the saturation vapor density for the Ostwald ripening (cOst) was derived as a function of the ratio of Q/CS. Sensitivity tests for the accommodation coefficient and thermodynamic parameters as well as their effects on cOst were investigated.

Pirjola, Liisa; Korhonen, Hannele; Kulmala, Markku

2002-06-01

86

Global distribution of moisture, evaporation-precipitation, and diabatic heating rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global archives were established for ECMWF 12-hour, multilevel analysis beginning 1 January 1985; day and night IR temperatures, and solar incoming and solar absorbed. Routines were written to access these data conveniently from NASA/MSFC MASSTOR facility for diagnostic analysis. Calculations of diabatic heating rates were performed from the ECMWF data using 4-day intervals. Calculations of precipitable water (W) from 1 May 1985 were carried out using the ECMWF data. Because a major operational change on 1 May 1985 had a significant impact on the moisture field, values prior to that date are incompatible with subsequent analyses.

Christy, John R.

1989-01-01

87

Combination of a Knudsen effusion cell with a quartz crystal microbalance: In situ measurement of molecular evaporation rates with a fully functional deposition source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a straightforward, reliable, and inexpensive design of a Knudsen type molecular effusion cell capable of measuring molecular evaporation rates in situ. This is accomplished by means of a quartz crystal microbalance integrated into the shutter of the effusion cell. The presented layout facilitates both the measurement of effusion rates under ultrahigh vacuum conditions without the need for a separate experimental setup and the growth of surface supported molecular layers and nanostructures. As an important prerequisite for reproducible deposition of molecular films with defined coverages ranging from submonolayers up to multilayers, the Knudsen cell features a stable deposition rate for crucible temperatures between 50 and 500 °C. Experimental determination of deposition rates for different crucible temperatures allows to approximate sublimation enthalpies of the evaporant based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

Gutzler, Rico; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Lackinger, Markus

2010-01-01

88

file:///U|/FOIA/Web%20Site%20-/Fw_%2520Evaporation%2520rates.txt[9/23/2010 1:04:32 PM] Received: from localhost (speclab1.cr.usgs.gov [136.177.81.5])  

E-print Network

file:///U|/FOIA/Web%20Site%20-/Fw_%2520Evaporation%2520rates.txt[9/23/2010 1:04:32 PM] Received MIME-Version: 1.0 Subject: Fw: Evaporation rates X-KeepSent: 57572ECB:E3B2A34C-8725772D to evaporation and dissolution in the seawater upon release from the well. Geoff Geoffrey S. Plumlee, Ph

Fleskes, Joe

89

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous  

E-print Network

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous media: A multi-domain approach et al., 2011 c #12;Stages of saline water evaporation ­ Stages of evaporation: · SS1: High evaporation rate · SS2: Evaporation rate falls subsequently · SS3: Constant low evaporation rate Salinization

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

90

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous-  

E-print Network

Evaporation-driven transport and precipitation of salt in porous- media: A multi-domain approach., 2011 (WRR) c #12;Stages of saline water evaporation ­ Stages of evaporation: · SS1: High evaporation rate · SS2: Evaporation rate falls subsequently · SS3: Constant low evaporation rate Salinization

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

91

Effects of carbonyl bond, metal cluster dissociation, and evaporation rates on predictions of nanotube production in high-pressure carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the conformation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO because of its lower bond energy as compared with that of NiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

2003-01-01

92

Phase, Viscosity, Morphology, and Room Temperature Evaporation Rates of SOA Particles Generated from Different Precursors, at Low and High Relative Humidities, and their Interaction with Hydrophobic Organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation, properties, transformations, and temporal evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles strongly depend on particle phase. Semi-volatile molecules that comprise SOA particles were assumed to form a low viscosity solution that maintains equilibrium with the evolving gas phase by rapid evaporation condensation. However, studies by our group indicate that laboratory-generated alpha-pinene SOA particles and ambient SOA characterized in a recent field campaign are in a semi-solid, highly viscous phase, and their evaporation rates are orders of magnitude slower than predicted. We present the results of recent studies in which we have extended our work to include SOA particles generated by oxidation of a number of precursors including limonene, n-alkenes, cyclo-alkenes and isoprene. The resulting particles are characterized by their phase, morphology and room temperature evaporation rates. We conclude that, while the detailed properties of SOA particles depend of their precursor, all studied SOA particles are highly viscous semi-solids that exhibit very slow evaporation rates. Given that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) can change particle phase, it is important to investigate the effect of RH on the phase and evaporation kinetics of SOA particles. To this end SOA particles were generated at low and high (~90%) RH, and their evaporation kinetics and phase were characterized as a function of RH. In the ambient atmosphere SOA particles form in the presence of a mixture of different organic compounds, which are present at or below their equilibrium vapor pressure, and thus have been ignored. However, our data show that these compounds can adsorb to the surface of particles during SOA formation, becoming trapped in the highly viscous SOA, and affect particle properties. We examine the interaction between SOA particles and different hydrophobic organics representing typical anthropogenic emissions by making SOA in the presence of the vapors of these hydrophobic organics and characterizing their properties. We find that the interaction between SOA and hydrophobic organics leads to a symbiotic relation, in which trapped hydrophobic organics are protected from evaporation and the oxidizing atmosphere, and the presence of hydrophobic organics virtually stops SOA evaporation. We also demonstrate that it is possible to directly measure the diffusion rates of these molecules in SOA, and use them to calculate a reasonably accurate value for the SOA viscosity, from which particle coalescence rates are calculated. Similar measurements were conducted on aged SOA particles, including those 'doped'with hydrophobic organics. The data indicate that aging further slows evaporation rates and results in increased viscosity, indicating that hardening occurs with time, which is consistent with observed decrease in water uptake. These findings demonstrate that SOA particles are not at equilibrium with the gas phase and cannot be modeled using Raoult's law. The heterogeneous chemistry, temporal evolution and fate of highly viscous, nearly non-volatile SOA particles are clearly different from those of liquid droplets at equilibrium with the gas phase.

Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D. G.; Beranek, J.; Abramson, E.; Shrivastava, M.

2012-12-01

93

Evaporation estimates from the Dead Sea and their implications on its water balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea (DS) is a terminal hypersaline water body situated in the deepest part of the Jordan Valley. There is a growing interest in linking the DS to the open seas due to severe water shortages in the area and the serious geological and environmental hazards to its vicinity caused by the rapid level drop of the DS. A key issue in linking the DS with the open seas would be an accurate determination of evaporation rates. There exist large uncertainties of evaporation estimates from the DS due to the complex feedback mechanisms between meteorological forcings and thermophysical properties of hypersaline solutions. Numerous methods have been used to estimate current and historical (pre-1960) evaporation rates, with estimates differing by ˜100%. Evaporation from the DS is usually deduced indirectly using energy, water balance, or pan methods with uncertainty in many parameters. Accumulated errors resulting from these uncertainties are usually pooled into the estimates of evaporation rates. In this paper, a physically based method with minimum empirical parameters is used to evaluate historical and current evaporation estimates from the DS. The more likely figures for historical and current evaporation rates from the DS were 1,500-1,600 and 1,200-1,250 mm per annum, respectively. Results obtained are congruent with field observations and with more elaborate procedures.

Oroud, Ibrahim M.

2011-12-01

94

PANS IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

The types of PANs and PBzN's present or possibly present in the ambient atmosphere are discussed. iological activities of the PAN's and PBzN's are briefly considered. he concentration and composition of PANs in the atmosphere are discussed and calculations made of the production ...

95

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

96

Comparison of energy-budget evaporation losses from two morphometrically different Florida seepage lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation was computed by the energy-budget method for two north Florida lakes with similar surface areas but different depths, for the period May 1989 to December 1990. Lake Barco, in north-central Florida, is shallow, with an average depth of 3 m; Lake Five-O, in the Florida panhandle, is considerably deeper, with an average depth of 9.5 m. As a result, the thermal regime and seasonal evaporation rates of the lakes are different. Evaporation from the shallower lake was higher than that from the deeper lake in the winter and spring. In the late summer and autumn, however, the situation is reversed. Evaporation from the shallow lake is directly related to the amount of incoming shortwave radiation because of its limited ability to store energy. The lag in evaporation at the deeper lake is a function of the greater amount of heat that it seasonally stores and releases. The difference in annual evaporation between Lake Barco (151 cm year-1) and Lake Five-O (128 cm year-1) is related to differences in regional climatic conditions between the two sites. Additionally, higher than normal evaporation rates at the two lakes are probably related to drought conditions experienced in north Florida during 1990, which resulted in higher temperatures and more incoming radiation. Monthly evaporation at Lake Barco could usually be estimated within 10% of the energy-budget evaporation using a constant pan coefficient. This lake may be representative of other shallow lakes that do not store considerable heat. Monthly evaporation at Lake Five-O, however, could not be estimated accurately by using an annual pan coefficient because of the large seasonal influence of change in stored heat. Monthly mass-transfer evaporation compared well with energy-budget evaporation at Lake Barco, but did not compare well at Lake Five-O. These errors may also be associated with changes in heat storage. Thus, the thermal regime of the lake must be considered to estimate accurately the seasonal evaporation rates from a deep lake. ?? 1994.

Sacks, L.A.; Lee, T.M.; Radell, M.J.

1994-01-01

97

Urban Signatures: Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Big cities influence the environment around them. For example, urban areas are typically warmer than their surroundings. Cities are strikingly visible in computer models that simulate the Earths land surface. This visualization shows evaporation rates predicted by the Land Information System (LIS) for a day in June 2001. Evaporation is lower in the cities because water tends to run off pavement and into drains, rather than being absorbed by soil and plants from which it later evaporates. Only part of the global computation is shown, focusing on the highly urbanized northeast corridor in the United States, including the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff

2005-05-27

98

Pan Balance-Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java tool is used to strengthen student understanding of equality and computation of numerical expressions. The applet also helps students understand that equality is a relationship, not an operation. After entering an expression in both the red and blue pan, the pans will move up and down depending on which expression is greater. When the expressions are equivalent, the pans will balance and the full equation will be entered into the Balanced Equations table. Instructions and exploration directions and questions are included.

2011-01-01

99

Effect of argon gas flow rate on properties of film electrodes prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} source  

SciTech Connect

This work describes a new technique to enhance photoresponse of metal chalcogenide-based semiconductor film electrodes deposited by thermal vacuum evaporation under argon gas flow from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} sources. SnSe formation with Cu-doped was obtained under higher argon gas flow rate (V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min). Higher value of photoresponse was observed for films deposited under V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min which was 9.1%. This finding indicates that Cu atoms inside the SnSe film were important to increase carrier concentrations that promote higher photoresponse.

Sabli, Nordin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Hilal, Hikmat S. [SSERL, Department of Chemistry An-Najah N. University, PO Box 7, Nablus, West Bank (Country Unknown); Fujii, Masatoshi [Department of Molecular Science, School of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane, 693-8501 (Japan)

2014-03-05

100

EFFECTS OF ADDITION RATE AND ACID MATRIX ON THE DESTRUCTION OF AMMONIUM BY THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF SODIUM NITRITE DURING EVAPORATION  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of ammonium by the semi-continuous addition of sodium nitrite during acidic evaporation can be achieved with a wide range of waste compositions. The efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction was observed to vary from less than 20% to 60% depending on operating conditions. The effects of nitric acid concentration and nitrite addition rate are dominant factors that affect the efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction. Reducing the acid concentration by performing acid recovery via steam stripping prior to performing nitrite destruction of ammonium will require more nitrite due to the low destruction efficiency. The scale-up of the baseline rate nitrite addition rate from the 100 mL to the 1600 gallon batch size has significant uncertainty and poses the risk of lower efficiency at the plant scale. Experience with plant scale processing will improve confidence in the application of nitrite destruction of ammonium to different waste streams.

Kyser, E

2007-08-27

101

Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry.  

PubMed

The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm(-2) was 0.41 kWh m(-3) for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m(-3) for the removal of TKN. PMID:23770619

Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2013-09-15

102

II. EvaporationII. Evaporation Vaporization  

E-print Network

II. EvaporationII. Evaporation Vaporization (mtorr) cm Line-of-sight transport Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2011, NanoFab #12;Evaporation SourceEvaporation Source & compatibility #12;Evaporation SourceEvaporation Source Electron-beamInduction Electron-beamInduction Liu, UCD

Liu, Kai

103

Evaporation from seven reservoirs in the Denver water-supply system, central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven reservoirs in central Colorado, operated by the Denver Board of Water Commissioners, were studied during 1967-73 to determine evaporation losses. These reservoirs, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, Gross, Antero, Cheesman, Williams Fork, and Ralston, are located on both sides of the Continental Divide. Methods for computing evaporation include energy-budget, mass-transfer, and pan relationships. Three reservoirs, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross, had mass-transfer coefficients calibrated by energy-budget studies. At the remaining reservoirs, an empirical technique was used to estimate the mass-transfer coefficient. The enery-budget-calibrated methods give the most accurate evaporation values; the empirical coefficients give only a best estimate of evaporation. All reservoirs should be calibrated by energy-budget studies. The pan method of computing evaporation is the least reliable method because of problems of advected energy through the sides of the pan, representative pan exposure , and the irregularity of ratios of reservoir to pan evaporation. (Woodard-USGS)

Ficke, John F.; Adams, D. Briane; Danielson, T.W.

1977-01-01

104

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

105

Analysis of energy use in tomato evaporation  

SciTech Connect

Field performance data for four tomato product evaporators are presented and analyzed. Steam and feed flow rates along with steam economies were measured and are compared to steady state theoretical evaporator models.

Rumsey, T.; Conant, T.

1980-01-01

106

Evaporative Cooler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the concept of evaporative cooling through a hands-on experiment. Use a wet cloth and fan to model an air-conditioner and use temperature and relative humidity sensors to collect data. Then digitally plot the data using graphs in the activity. In an optional extension, make your own modifications to improve the cooler's efficiency.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-12

107

Evaporating firewalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note, we begin by presenting an argument suggesting that large AdS black holes dual to typical high-energy pure states of a single holographic CFT must have some structure at the horizon, i.e. a fuzzball/firewall, unless the procedure to probe physics behind the horizon is state-dependent. By weakly coupling the CFT to an auxiliary system, such a black hole can be made to evaporate. In a case where the auxiliary system is a second identical CFT, it is possible (for specific initial states) that the system evolves to precisely the thermofield double state as the original black hole evaporates. In this case, the dual geometry should include the "late-time" part of the eternal AdS black hole spacetime which includes smooth spacetime behind the horizon of the original black hole. Thus, if a firewall is present initially, it evaporates. This provides a specific realization of the recent ideas of Maldacena and Susskind that the existence of smooth spacetime behind the horizon of an evaporating black hole can be enabled by maximal entanglement with a Hawking radiation system (in our case the second CFT) rather than prevented by it. For initial states which are not finely-tuned to produce the thermofield double state, the question of whether a late-time infalling observer experiences a firewall translates to a question about the gravity dual of a typical high-energy state of a two-CFT system.

Van Raamsdonk, Mark

2014-11-01

108

Substate and evaporation rate dependent orientation and crystalline organization of sexithiophene films vacuum deposited onto Au and HOPG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation and the crystalline organization of the films depend largely on the nature of the substrate and the deposition rate. The substrate effect is related to its interactions with the oligomers and also to the molecular mobility at the surface. It depends also largely on the deposition rate. L'orientation et l'organisation structurale des films de sexithiophène évaporés sous vide sont fortement liées à la nature du substrat (Au, HOPG) et à la vitesse de dépôt. L'effet du substrat est lié aux interactions avec les oligomères ainsi qu'à la mobilité de ces derniers sur la surface. Cet effet dépend largement de la vitesse d'évaporation.

El Ardhaoui, M.; Lang, P.; Garnier, F.; Roger, J. P.

1998-06-01

109

Photoluminescence and anti-deliquesce of cesium iodide and its sodium-doped films deposited by thermal evaporation at high deposition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cesium iodide (CsI) and sodium iodide (NaI) are good scintillators due to their high luminescence efficiency. These alkali halides can be excited by ultra-violet or by ionizing radiation. In this study, CsI and its Na-doped films about 8 ?m thick were deposited by thermal evaporation boat without heating substrates at high deposition rates of 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 nm/sec, respectively. The as-deposited films were sequentially deposited a silicon dioxide film to protect from deliquesce. And, the films were also post-annealed in vacuum at 150, 200, 250, and 300 °C, respectively. We calculated the packing densities of the samples according to the measurements of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and observed the luminescence properties by photoluminescence (PL) system. The surfaces and cross sections of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the above measurements we can find the optimal deposition rate of 90 nm/sec and post-annealing temperature of 250 °C in vacuum for the asdeposited cesium iodide and its sodium-doped films.

Hsu, Jin-Cherng; Chiang, Yueh-Sheng; Ma, Yu-Sheng

2013-03-01

110

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

111

Digital Audio Compression By Davis Yen Pan  

E-print Network

Digital Audio Compression By Davis Yen Pan Abstract Compared to most digital data types, with the exception of digital video, the data rates associ- ated with uncompressed digital audio are substan- tial. Digital audio compression enables more effi- cient storage and transmission of audio data. The many forms

Lazar, Aurel A.

112

Forest evaporation models: relationships between stand growth and evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation on the water regime. The basis for this approach is (a) that growth rates are determined by water availability and limited by the maximum water extraction potential, and (b) that stand evaporation is proportional to biomass and biomass increment. The relationships between stand growth and evaporation were modelled for a set of catchment experiments where estimates of both growth and evaporation were available. The predicted mean evaporation, over periods of several years, was generally within 10% of the measured mean annual evaporation (rainfall minus streamflow) when the model from one catchment was applied to other catchments planted with the same species. The residual evaporation, after fitting the models, was correlated with rainfall: above-average rainfall resulted in above-average evaporation. This relationship could be used to derive estimates for dry and wet years. Analyses using the models provide additional evidence that Eucalyptus grandis may be depleting groundwater reserves in catchments where its roots can reach the water table. The models are designed to be integrated into a plantation management system which uses a geographic information system for spatial analysis and modelling. The use of readily available growth parameters as predictor variables may reduce our dependence on intricate process-based models. This is seen as an efficient way of extrapolating existing catchment data — reflecting the impacts of forestry on water supplies across a range of sites, climatic zones and species. This approach has the potential for further development, especially in dealing with low flows and faster growing species.

Le Maitre, D. C.; Versfeld, D. B.

1997-06-01

113

Actual and Apparent Evapotranspiration in the Environment: A Study Toward the Resolution of the Evaporation Paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 50 years evaporation from pans has been shown to be decreasing. Until recently, pan evaporation was widely accepted to be proportional to landscape evapotranspiration. This decrease stands out against data that show an increase in global precipitation. This paradox can be explained using Bouchet's complimentary relationship. At the root of the paradox is that evaporation pans measure apparent potential evaporation. Apparent potential evaporation is only equal to the actual potential evapotranspiration (and actual evapotranspiration) under moist conditions. According to the complimentary relationship, evapotranspiration from a landscape will decrease if the conditions drop below the potential level (i.e. the land dries out). This decrease will liberate available energy that will accelerate evapotranspiration from an evaporation pan (or any other moist surface). We present a comparison of actual evapotranspiration measured at the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) in the Konza Prairie, Kansas and at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program in the Washita River Basin, Oklahoma with apparent potential evaporation data from nearby evaporation pans compiled by the National Climactic Data Center (NCDC). The data generally support the theory underlying the complimentary relationship.

Kahler, D. M.; Brutsaert, W.

2005-05-01

114

Tear film dynamics with evaporation and osmolarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a model problem for the evaporation and breakup up of tear film. The model includes the effects of surface tension, Marangoni stresses, insoluble surfactant transport, evaporation, osmolarity transport, osmosis and wetting of corneal surface. Evaporation is made dependent on surface concentration in order to mimic the lipid layer of the tear film when there is a single fluid layer in the model. In many cases for a single layer, the Marangoni effect seems to eliminate a localized area of increased evaporation due to reduced surfactant concentration. In this model the osmolarity in the tear film increases because of average evaporation rate rather than by a locally increased evaporation rate. If time permits, the effect of having a second fluid layer, representing the lipid layer, will be explored as well.

Siddique, Javed; Braun, Richard

2011-11-01

115

The Relation of External Evaporative Conditions to the Drying of Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation from laboratory soil columns was studied as a function of potential evaporative conditions. The length of time a given evaporation rate could be maintained by the soil was in good agreement with an approximate solution of the isothermal equation for unsatu- rated flow. During the falling-rate period of drying, the evaporation rate was found to approach very nearly a

W. R. Gardner; D. I. Hillel

1962-01-01

116

Pan paniscus and human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed comparisons of the postcranium, cranium, and den- tition of Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, and Homo reveal that except for slight differences in fore- and hindlimb proportions and the morphology of the shoulder, the postcranium of the two species of Pun are allometrically scaled variants of the same animal and one does not resemble Homo more than the other. Nor

Henry M. McHenry; Robert S. Corruccini

1981-01-01

117

Micro loop heat pipe evaporator coherent pore structures  

E-print Network

energy from a high heat flux source, the heat removal performance of heat pipes cannot be predicted well since a first principles of evaporation has not been established. An evaporation model based on statistical rate theory has been recently suggested...

Alexseev, Alexandre Viktorovich

2005-02-17

118

Evaporation of charged bosonic condensate in cosmology  

E-print Network

Cosmological evolution of equilibrium plasma with a condensate of U(1)-charged bosonic field is considered. It is shown that the evaporation of the condensate is very much different from naive expectations, discussed in the literature, as well as from evaporation of non-equilibrium neutral condensate. The charged condensate evaporates much slower than the decay of the corresponding bosons. The evaporation rate is close to that of the cosmological expansion. The plasma temperature, in contrast, drops much faster than usually, namely as the third power of the cosmological scale factor. As a result the universe becomes very cold and the cosmological charge asymmetry reaches a huge value.

A. D. Dolgov; F. R. Urban

2005-05-30

119

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-print Network

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

120

Evaporator Cleaning Studies  

SciTech Connect

Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning.

Wilmarth, W.R.

1999-04-15

121

Mapping the Amazon: Mosaic pan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pan across Amazon rainforest mosaic showing low water season (blue) and high water season (yellow). Together, these snapshots reveal conditions on the ground. Scientists listed worked as a team on Mosaicking Software and Mosaic Production.

Stuart Snodgrass

2002-03-14

122

Evaporation from Arctic sea ice in summer during the International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of pan evaporation were made during the summers of 1957 and 1958 on an ice station drifting between 80° and 86°N. Using weather reports, measurements were either screened for absence of precipitation (to obtain evaporation, E) or not screened (to obtain P-E). Applying the screened data either to the entire month or only to the days without precipitation results

Hugo K. Froyland; Norbert Untersteiner; Michael S. Town; Stephen G. Warren

2010-01-01

123

Evaporation from Arctic sea ice in summer during the International Geophysical Year, 1957–1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of pan evaporation were made during the summers of 1957 and 1958 on an ice station drifting between 80° and 86°N. Using weather reports, measurements were either screened for absence of precipitation (to obtain evaporation, E) or not screened (to obtain P-E). Applying the screened data either to the entire month or only to the days without precipitation results

Hugo K. Froyland; Norbert Untersteiner; Michael S. Town; Stephen G. Warren

2010-01-01

124

NISTIR 5873 INTRACYCLE EVAPORATIVE  

E-print Network

NISTIR 5873 INTRACYCLE EVAPORATIVE COOLING INA VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE Byung Soon Kim Piotr A INTRACYCLE EVAPORATIVE COOLING IN A VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE Elyung Soon Kim Piotr A. Domanski September 1996 the opportunity to limit throttling losses of the refrigeration cycle by intracycle evaporative cooling

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

125

The Imager for Mars Pathfinder Insurance Pan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) obtained a full panorama of the Sagan Memorial Station landing site on Sol 2, before the IMP mast was deployed. The images in this panorama were taken in 4 filters (including stereo) and losslessly compressed to provide a high-quality multispectral survey of the landing site even if the IMP mast did not successfully deploy; this data set was therefore called the Insurance Pan. It was completed late in the afternoon of Sol 2, just before the IMP mast was (successfully) deployed. The data were stored in memory and returned to Earth after it became clear that downlink rates were higher than expected. The Insurance Pan horizontal (azimuth) coverage is nearly complete, with gaps caused by pointing errors and data packet losses. Stereo data were acquired in the blue (445 nm) filter, as well as right-eye green (531 nm), orange (600 nm), and near-infrared (752 nm) data.

Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Weller, L. A.

2003-01-01

126

Evaporation in space manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Normal evaporation' equations for predicting the compositional changes with time and temperature have been developed and correlated with actual experimental data. An evaporative congruent temperature is defined and used to explain, predict, or plan space experiments on anomalous constitutional melting (on cooling) or solidification (on heating). Uneven evaporation causes reactive jetting forces capable of initiating new convection currents, nongravitational accelerations, surface vibrations, or other disturbances. Applications of evaporation to space manufacturing are described concerning evaporative purification, surface cooling, specimen selection, particles splitting, freezing data interpretation, material loss and dimensional control, and surface contamination or compositional changes.

Li, C. H.

1974-01-01

127

PanSNPdb: The Pan-Asian SNP Genotyping Database  

PubMed Central

The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP consortium conducted the largest survey to date of human genetic diversity among Asians by sampling 1,719 unrelated individuals among 71 populations from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. We have constructed a database (PanSNPdb), which contains these data and various new analyses of them. PanSNPdb is a research resource in the analysis of the population structure of Asian peoples, including linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype distributions, and copy number variations. Furthermore, PanSNPdb provides an interactive comparison with other SNP and CNV databases, including HapMap3, JSNP, dbSNP and DGV and thus provides a comprehensive resource of human genetic diversity. The information is accessible via a widely accepted graphical interface used in many genetic variation databases. Unrestricted access to PanSNPdb and any associated files is available at: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/PASNP. PMID:21731755

Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Xu, Shuhua; Shaw, Philip J.; Yang, Jin Ok; Ghang, Ho; Bhak, Jong; Liu, Edison; Tongsima, Sissades

2011-01-01

128

Evaporation and potential evapotranspiration in India under conditions of recent and future climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term changes in evaporation and potential evapotranspiration can have profound implications for hydrologic processes as well as for agricultural crop performance. This paper analyses evaporation time series data for different stations in India, and for the country as a whole, for different seasons on both a short-term (15 years) and long-term (32 years) basis for pan evaporation and on a

N. Chattopadhyay; M. Hulme

1997-01-01

129

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-07-16

130

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

PubMed Central

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

131

PanAmAir.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, 1928, seven passengers riding aboard a Fokker-7 inaugurated Pan American World Airlines passenger services as they flew from Key West to Havana. Over the next six decades, PanAm would grow and prosper, as it created an extensive system of routes that took early jet-setters all around the world. While the airline did experience a rebirth in the mid-1990s, its demise was hastened after the tragedy onboard Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988.Created by Beth Cozzi-Stewart, this site provides interested parties with access to a great deal of colorful material on the history of the company. Some of the offerings include a detailed history spanning PanAm's years, a chronology of the aircraft they utilized, and information about the various accidents that befell the company. Perhaps the most enjoyable part of the site is the "Multimedia" section, which includes the PanAm jingles "Just Say Hello to PanAm" and "We Fly the Way the World Wants to Fly".

Cozzi-Stewart, Beth

2004-01-01

132

Estimation of evaporation from open water - A review of selected studies, summary of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers data collection and methods, and evaluation of two methods for estimation of evaporation from five reservoirs in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organizations responsible for the management of water resources, such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), are tasked with estimation of evaporation for water-budgeting and planning purposes. The USACE has historically used Class A pan evaporation data (pan data) to estimate evaporation from reservoirs but many USACE Districts have been experimenting with other techniques for an alternative to collecting pan data. The energy-budget method generally is considered the preferred method for accurate estimation of open-water evaporation from lakes and reservoirs. Complex equations to estimate evaporation, such as the Penman, DeBruin-Keijman, and Priestley-Taylor, perform well when compared with energy-budget method estimates when all of the important energy terms are included in the equations and ideal data are collected. However, sometimes nonideal data are collected and energy terms, such as the change in the amount of stored energy and advected energy, are not included in the equations. When this is done, the corresponding errors in evaporation estimates are not quantifiable. Much simpler methods, such as the Hamon method and a method developed by the U.S. Weather Bureau (USWB) (renamed the National Weather Service in 1970), have been shown to provide reasonable estimates of evaporation when compared to energy-budget method estimates. Data requirements for the Hamon and USWB methods are minimal and sometimes perform well with remotely collected data. The Hamon method requires average daily air temperature, and the USWB method requires daily averages of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. Estimates of annual lake evaporation from pan data are frequently within 20 percent of energy-budget method estimates. Results of evaporation estimates from the Hamon method and the USWB method were compared against historical pan data at five selected reservoirs in Texas (Benbrook Lake, Canyon Lake, Granger Lake, Hords Creek Lake, and Sam Rayburn Lake) to evaluate their performance and to develop coefficients to minimize bias for the purpose of estimating reservoir evaporation with accuracies similar to estimates of evaporation obtained from pan data. The modified Hamon method estimates of reservoir evaporation were similar to estimates of reservoir evaporation from pan data for daily, monthly, and annual time periods. The modified Hamon method estimates of annual reservoir evaporation were always within 20 percent of annual reservoir evaporation from pan data. Unmodified and modified USWB method estimates of annual reservoir evaporation were within 20 percent of annual reservoir evaporation from pan data for about 91 percent of the years compared. Average daily differences between modified USWB method estimates and estimates from pan data as a percentage of the average amount of daily evaporation from pan data were within 20 percent for 98 percent of the months. Without any modification to the USWB method, average daily differences as a percentage of the average amount of daily evaporation from pan data were within 20 percent for 73 percent of the months. Use of the unmodified USWB method is appealing because it means estimates of average daily reservoir evaporation can be made from air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation data collected from remote weather stations without the need to develop site-specific coefficients from historical pan data. Site-specific coefficients would need to be developed for the modified version of the Hamon method.

Harwell, Glenn R.

2012-01-01

133

49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported...

2010-10-01

134

Laboratory prototype flash evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory prototype flash evaporator that is being developed as a candidate for the space shuttle environmental control system expendable heat sink is described. The single evaporator configuration uses water as an evaporant to accommodate reentry and on-orbit peak heat loads, and Freon 22 for terrestrial flight phases below 120,000 feet altitude. The design features, fabrication techniques used for the prototype unit, redundancy considerations, and the fluid temperature control arrangement are reported in detail. The results of an extensive test program to determine the evaporator operational characteristics under a wide variety of conditions are presented.

Gaddis, J. L.

1972-01-01

135

78 FR 23101 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...8957--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013 Presidential Documents Federal Register...2013 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...prosperity. As we celebrate those ties this week, we recognize the Pan American...

2013-04-17

136

Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning  

E-print Network

Drying suspensions often leave behind complex patterns of particulates, as might be seen in the coffee stains on a table. Here we consider the dynamics of periodic band or uniform solid film formation on a vertical plate suspended partially in a drying colloidal solution. Direct observations allow us to visualize the dynamics of the band and film deposition, and the transition in between when the colloidal concentration is varied. A minimal theory of the liquid meniscus motion along the plate reveals the dynamics of the banding and its transition to the filming as a function of the ratio of deposition and evaporation rates. We also provide a complementary multiphase model of colloids dissolved in the liquid, which couples the inhomogeneous evaporation at the evolving meniscus to the fluid and particulate flows and the transition from a dilute suspension to a porous plug. This allows us to determine the concentration dependence of the bandwidth and the deposition rate. Together, our findings allow for the control of drying-induced patterning as a function of the colloidal concentration and evaporation rate.

C. Nadir Kaplan; Ning Wu; Shreyas Mandre; Joanna Aizenberg; L. Mahadevan

2014-12-04

137

Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

Goodwin, Alan

2012-01-01

138

DRIP AND EVAPORATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Loss of water from the soil profile through evaporation from the soil surface is an important contributor to inefficiency in irrigated crop production. Residue management systems may reduce this evaporative loss, but cannot be used in all cropping systems. Choice of the irrigation system and its m...

139

Evaporative Deposition in Receding Drops  

E-print Network

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a constant evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as $\\eta(r) \\propto \\left(\\left(r/a_0\\right)^{-1/2}-r/a_0\\right)$, where $r$ is the radius from the drop center and $a_0$ is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops.

Julian Freed-Brown

2014-10-02

140

Evaporative deposition in receding drops.  

PubMed

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a uniform evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as ?(r) ? ((r/a0)(-1/2)-r/a0), where r is the radius from the drop center and a0 is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops. PMID:25350152

Freed-Brown, Julian

2014-12-21

141

A study of the Sherwood–Rayleigh relation for water undergoing natural convection-driven evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is presented of evaporative free-surface natural convection. A power law relationship is developed between the Sherwood number for evaporation (Sh) and the Rayleigh number for air-side natural convection (Ra). Evaporation of water was investigated in sixteen different tanks having four depths and four widths. Evaporation rates and the relevant temperatures and relative humidity were measured, from which

S. M. Bower; J. R. Saylor

2009-01-01

142

Evaporation characteristics of fuel droplets with the addition of nanoparticles under natural and forced convections  

E-print Network

Evaporation characteristics of fuel droplets with the addition of nanoparticles under natural Fuel droplet Evaporation rate D2 -law Particle aggregation a b s t r a c t Evaporation characteristics temperatures droplet evaporation follows the classical D2 -law. Under low forced convection temperatures

Qiao, Li

143

Particle evaporation from semiclassical dynamics G. F. Bertsch, P.-G. Reinhard,* and E. Suraud  

E-print Network

Particle evaporation from semiclassical dynamics G. F. Bertsch, P.-G. Reinhard,* and E. Suraud Particle evaporation from excited nuclei is calculated with the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, which state of evaporative decay. The evaporation rate is found to be consistent with the Weisskopf

Bertsch George F.

144

Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch  

E-print Network

Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch J. Tanny a covariance Footprint model Evaporation measurements Evaporation models Wind Radiation s u m m a r y- tions in inflow and outflow rates, thereby complicating the measurement and modeling of evaporation

Katul, Gabriel

145

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is the World Health Organization's regional office for Latin America and the Caribbean. The PAHO Gopher offers a wealth of information specific to health in the 37 member nations of PAHO. Currently, the gopher contains data files on PAHO publications, news and press releases, emergency preparedness and disaster relief, and human resources development, as well as pointers to a variety of health resources.

1997-01-01

146

Pan-Canadian Study of Reading Volumes  

Cancer.gov

Pan Pan - -Canadian Study of Canadian Study of Reading Volumes Reading Volumes Andrew J. Coldman Diane Major Gregory Doyle Yulia D’yachkova Norm Phillips Jay Onysko Rene Shumak Norah Smith Nancy Wadden Measuring Radiologist Skill Measuring Radiologist

147

Evaporation of Lennard-Jones Fluids  

E-print Network

Evaporation and condensation at a liquid/vapor interface are ubiquitous interphase mass and energy transfer phenomena that are still not well understood. We have carried out large scale molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids composed of monomers, dimers, or trimers to investigate these processes with molecular detail. For LJ monomers in contact with a vacuum, the evaporation rate is found to be very high with significant evaporative cooling and an accompanying density gradient in the liquid domain near the liquid/vapor interface. Increasing the chain length to just dimers significantly reduces the evaporation rate. We confirm that mechanical equilibrium plays a key role in determining the evaporation rate and the density and temperature profiles across the liquid/vapor interface. The velocity distributions of evaporated molecules and the evaporation and condensation coefficients are measured and compared to the predictions of an existing model based on kinetic theory of gases. Our results indicate that for both monatomic and polyatomic molecules, the evaporation and condensation coefficients are equal when systems are not far from equilibrium and smaller than one, and decrease with increasing temperature. For the same reduced temperature $T/T_c$, where $T_c$ is the critical temperature, these two coefficients are higher for LJ dimers and trimers than for monomers, in contrast to the traditional viewpoint that they are close to unity for monatomic molecules and decrease for polyatomic molecules. Furthermore, data for the two coefficients collapse onto a master curve when plotted against a translational length ratio between the liquid and vapor phase.

Shengfeng Cheng; Jeremy B. Lechman; Steven J. Plimpton; Gary S. Grest

2011-05-09

148

Fabrication of CeO 2 buffer layer with high deposition rate on biaxially textured Ni-3%W substrate by electron beam evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CeO 2 has been used as a buffer layer of a coated conductor because of good chemical and structural compatibility with YBCO. But cracks were often observed at the surface for films thicker than 100 nm deposited at a high temperature because of a large difference in a thermal expansion coefficient between metal and CeO 2. The deposition rate was limited to be slow for getting good epitaxy. In order to increase the film deposition rate, while maintaining the epitaxy till a final thickness, two-step deposition process was tested. The thin seed layer with a thickness less than 10 nm was deposited with a deposition rate of 3 Å/s, and the homo-epitaxial layer at a thickness more than 240 nm was deposited at a deposition rate of 30 Å/s. The resulting CeO 2 films deposited at 600 °C showed a good texture with a ? ? of 5.3°, ? ? of 4.2° and Ra of 2.2 nm. The two-step process may be option for a low cost buffer layer for Ni-3%W metal substrates for the coated conductor.

Lee, J. B.; Park, S. K.; Kim, B. J.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. S.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, H. G.; Hong, G. W.

2011-11-01

149

Evaporation, Condensation, and Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completion of this project students should have an understanding of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle. Use the websites provided to answer the questions. Record your answers on the spreadsheet provided. Do you understand how the water cycle works? Begin by watching this short video about the water cycle.water cycle video Use the website to define condensation, precipitation, and evaporation?water cycle List the different types of precipitation from the site.types of precipitation Follow the directions to the experiment on this website to get a better understanding of how evaporation takes ...

Brown, Miss

2009-10-21

150

Flash evaporator systems test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

Dietz, J. B.

1976-01-01

151

A parameterization of the evaporation of rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general theoretical expression for the rainfall rate and the total evaporation rate as a function of the distance below cloud base is developed, and is then specialized to the gamma raindrop size distribution. The theoretical framework is used to analyze the data of Rosenfeld and Mintz (1988) on the radar observations of the rainfall rate as a function of the distance below cloud base, for rain falling from continental convective cells in central South Africa, obtaining a parameterization for the evaporation of rainfall.

Schlesinger, Michael E.; Oh, Jai-Ho; Rosenfeld, Daniel

1988-01-01

152

Visualization of an Evaporating Thin Layer during the Evaporation of a Nanofluid Droplet.  

PubMed

During the evaporation of a droplet, there exists an evaporating thin layer that is difficult to visualize because of optical restrictions. The present study visualized this thin layer by using a reflective-mode, confocal microscope that can provide improved signal-to-noise focal plane imaging over traditional optical microscopy while simultaneously serving as an interferometer when imaging thin liquid films. The spatial distribution of the evaporating thin layer thickness was determined from interferometric fringe analysis. Three distinct fringe patterns, or regions, were observed depending on the nanoparticle concentration. These regions are referred to as uniform, slow extension, and rapid extension. The formation of the three regions is closely associated with the variation of the evaporating thin layer thickness of a nanofluid droplet. The nanoparticle bank formed near the contact line region substantially affects the rate of change in the evaporating thin layer thickness that increases with the nanoparticle concentration. PMID:25586137

Shin, Dong Hwan; Allen, Jeffrey S; Choi, Chang Kyoung; Lee, Seong Hyuk

2015-02-01

153

Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

2013-01-01

154

CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

155

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01

156

Mixed feed evaporator  

DOEpatents

In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

Vakil, Himanshu B. (Schenectady, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1982-01-01

157

77 FR 22181 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...April 9, 2012 Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012...community of nations that would one day become the Organization of...innovation across our hemisphere. One year ago, we announced the...progress. During Pan American Day and Pan American Week,...

2012-04-12

158

Mobile evaporator corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

1997-05-01

159

Thermal signatures help deduce evaporative fluxes into turbulent airflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporative fluxes and energy balance of terrestrial surfaces are affected by interplay between water availability, energy input, and exchange across the air boundary layer. Commonly occurring turbulent airflows impose complex and highly dynamic boundary conditions that challenge prediction of surface evaporation rates. During stage-I evaporation where the vaporization plane is at the surface, intermittent turbulent interactions with the surface give rise to distinct thermal signatures that could be recorded using infrared thermography (IRT). The study links measured thermal signatures with spatio-temporal distribution of eddy-induced localized evaporation rates towards characterization of turbulent momentum field and estimation of overall evaporative fluxes. Results highlight potential of the approach for remote quantification of interactions between turbulent eddies and evaporating surfaces. Surface thermal inertia present a challenge to high resolution implementation, and strategies for overcoming these are presented including applications to plant canopies (low thermal inertia surfaces). Applications for larger scales will be discussed.

Haghighi, E.; Or, D.

2013-12-01

160

Combined Evaporation and Salt Precipitation in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vadose zone pore water contains dissolved salts and minerals; therefore, evaporation results in high rates of salt accumulation that may change the physical and chemical properties of the porous media. Here, a series of experiments, together with a mathematical model, are presented to shed new light on these processes. Experiments included: (1) long-term column evaporation experiments to quantify changes in evaporation rates due to salt precipitation; (2) CT scans of evaporated porous media samples saturated with salt solutions, to observe salt precipitation from micro to macro scales; and (3) Infrared thermography analysis to quantify evaporation rates from porous media surfaces for homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions and constant water table, in the presence of salt precipitation. As expected, the majority of salt crystallization occurs in the upper parts of the matrix, near the evaporation front. For heterogeneous porous matrices, salt precipitation will occur mainly in the fine pore regions as preferential evaporation takes place in these locations. In addition, it was found that the precipitated NaCl salt crust diffusion coefficient for water vapor is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the vapor diffusion coefficient in free air, depending on environmental conditions and salt crystallization rates. Three new stages of evaporation were defined for saline solutions: SS1, SS2 and SS3. SS1 exhibits a low and gradual decrease in the evaporation rate due to osmotic pressure. During SS2, the evaporation rate falls progressively due to salt precipitation; SS3 is characterized by a constant low evaporation rate and determined by the diffusion rate of water vapor through the precipitated salt layer. Even though phenomenologically similar to the classical evaporation stages of pure water, these stages correspond to different mechanisms and the transition between stages can occur regardless the hydraulic conditions. As well, it was shown that matrix heterogeneity lessens the salt effect on evaporation as coarse pore regions are relatively free of salt crystals, facilitating vapor transport towards the atmosphere. This was verified by the thermography analysis that enabled independent quantification of evaporation rates from coarse and fine sections of the media during salt precipitation. This is in contrast to homogeneous conditions, where the salt is distributed homogeneously in the matrix's upper parts, resulting in an increase in matrix resistivity to vapor flow. This research sheds new light on the dynamics of the evaporation process of a saline solution and the importance of considering that natural pore solutions typically include electrolytes.

Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.; Nachshon, U.; Or, D.; Shaharani, E.; Grader, A.

2012-12-01

161

Revisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effects of two different parameterizations of potential evaporation on long-term trends in soil moisture, evaporative flux and runoff simulated by the water balance model underlying the Palmer Drought Severity Index. The first, traditional parameterization is based on air temperature alone. The second parameterization is derived from observations of evaporation from class-A pans. Trends in potential evaporation from the two parameterizations are opposite in sign (+/-) at almost half the stations tested over Australia and New Zealand. The sign of trends in the modelled soil moisture, evaporative flux and runoff depends on the parameterization used and on the prevailing climatic regime: trends in water-limited regions are driven by precipitation trends, but the choice of parameterization for potential evaporation is shown to be critical in energy-limited regions.

Hobbins, Michael T.; Dai, Aiguo; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

2008-06-01

162

The continuous similarity model of bulk soil-water evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuous similarity model of evaporation is described. In it, evaporation is conceptualized as a two stage process. For an initially moist soil, evaporation is first climate limited, but later it becomes soil limited. During the latter stage, the evaporation rate is termed evaporability, and mathematically it is inversely proportional to the evaporation deficit. A functional approximation of the moisture distribution within the soil column is also included in the model. The model was tested using data from four experiments conducted near Phoenix, Arizona; and there was excellent agreement between the simulated and observed evaporation. The model also predicted the time of transition to the soil limited stage reasonably well. For one of the experiments, a third stage of evaporation, when vapor diffusion predominates, was observed. The occurrence of this stage was related to the decrease in moisture at the surface of the soil. The continuous similarity model does not account for vapor flow. The results show that climate, through the potential evaporation rate, has a strong influence on the time of transition to the soil limited stage. After this transition, however, bulk evaporation is independent of climate until the effects of vapor flow within the soil predominate.

Clapp, R. B.

1983-01-01

163

Laser evaporation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a pulsed laser to evaporate dielectric materials for optical thin film deposition was investigated. The electrical properties of the laser induced plasma in the evaporant plume were studied. High flux (20A/sq cm) of high velocity (1 to 10 million) cm/s) ionic species were observed in the TEA-CO2 laser evaporation of many refractory oxides, chalcogenides and fluorides. Thin films of ZrO2 were deposited out of a plasma described above. These films were dense, oriented polycrystalline and had bulk refractive index values (2,15), low absorption (K about 0.001) and low particulate density for a range of laser fluence values. In the next and final phase of this project, thin film studies will be extended to a wider array of materials, with emphasis on obtaining high quality films with low particulate densities.

Sankur, H.

1986-10-01

164

Evaporatively driven morphological instability  

E-print Network

Simple observations of evaporating solutions reveal a complex hierarchy of spatio-temporal instabilities. We analyze one such instability suggested by the qualitative observations of Du and Stone and find that it is driven by a novel variant of the classical {\\em morphological instability} in alloy solidification. In the latter case a moving solid-liquid interface is accompanied by a solutally enriched boundary layer that is thermodynamically metastable due to {\\em constitutional supercooling}. Here, we consider the evaporation of an impure film adjacent to a solid composed of the nonvolatile species. In this case, constitutional supercooling within the film is created by evaporation at the solution-vapor interface and this drives the corrugation of the solid--solution interface across the thickness of the film. The principal points of this simple theoretical study are to suggest an instability mechanism that is likely operative across a broad range of technological and natural systems and to focus future quantitative experimental searches.

Robert W. Style; John. S. Wettlaufer

2012-01-12

165

How do drops evaporate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of evaporating drops with non-pinned contact line, although seemingly trivial, so far lacks satisfactory theoretical description. In particular, there has been much discussion regarding appropriate evaporative mass flux model. We make an attempt to resolve this issue by comparing our experimental data with the results of several mathematical models for evaporating drops. After describing experimental procedure, we propose several models for mass flux and develop a governing equation for evolution of drop's thickness. Two-dimensional numerical results are then compared to the experimental results, and the most appropriate mass flux model is identified. Finally, we propose the governing equation for the full 3D system and present some new numerical results related to curious phenomena, where so-called ``octopus-shaped'' instabilities appear ahead of the contact line of volatile dropsootnotetextY. Gotkis, I. Ivanov, N. Murisic, L. Kondic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 186101 (2006)..

Murisic, Nebojsa; Kondic, Lou

2007-11-01

166

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky  

E-print Network

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky rates of pump oil and several alkanes, which have a wide range of applications. Both static and dynamic the evaporation rate). The alkanes were compared using the activation energy required for evaporation as model

Volinsky, Alex A.

167

Evaporation over fresh and saline water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation over large water bodies has a crucial role in the global hydrological cycle. Evaporation occurs whenever there is a vapor pressure deficit between a water surface and the atmosphere, and the available energy is sufficient. Salinity affects the density and latent heat of vaporization of the water body, which reflects on the evaporation rate. Different models have been developed to estimate the evaporation process over water surfaces using earth observation data. Most of these models are concerned with the atmospheric parameters. However these models do not take into account the influence of salinity on the evaporation rate; they do not consider the difference in the energy needed for vaporization. For this purpose an energy balance model is required. Several energy balance models that calculate daily evapotranspiration exist, such as the surface energy balance system (SEBS). They estimate the heat fluxes by integration of satellite data and hydro-meteorological field data. SEBS has the advantage that it can be applied over a large scale because it incorporates the physical state of the surface and the aerodynamic resistances in the daily evapotranspiration estimation. Nevertheless this model has not used over water surfaces. The goal of this research is to adapt SEBS to estimate the daily evaporation over fresh and saline water bodies. In particular, 1) water heat flux and roughness of momentum and heat transfer estimation need to be updated, 2) upscaling to daily evaporation needs to be investigated and finally 3) integration of the salinity factor to estimate the evaporation over saline water needs to be performed. Eddy covariance measurements over the Ijsselmeer Lake (The Netherlands) were used to estimate the roughness of momentum and heat transfer at respectively 0.0002 and 0.0001 m. Application of these values over Tana Lake (freshwater), in Ethiopia showed latent heat to be in a good agreement with the measurements, with RMSE of 35.5 Wm-2and rRMSE of 4.7 %. Afterwards the validity of salinity adapted model was tested over different study areas using ECMWF data. It was found that for the original SEBS model and salinity-adapted model over Great Salt Lake, the RMSE were 0.62 and 0.24 mm respectively and the rRMSE 19% and 24%. The evaporation reduction of the Great Salt Lake and the oceans are 27% and 1 %, respectively. In conclusion, SEBS model is adapted to calculate the daily evaporation over fresh water and salt water by integration the salinity factor in the model.

Abdelrady, Ahmed; Timmermans, Joris; Vekerdy, Zoltan

2013-04-01

168

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOEpatents

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01

169

Evaporation-induced self-assembled silica colloidal particle-assisted nanoporous structural evolution of poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwoven composite separators for high-safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile approach to the fabrication of nanoporous structure-tuned nonwoven composite separators is demonstrated for application in high-safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries. This strategy is based on the construction of silica (SiO2) colloidal particle-assisted nanoporous structure in a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven substrate. The nanoparticle arrangement arising from evaporation-induced self-assembly of SiO2 colloidal particles allows the evolution of the unusual nanoporous structure, i.e. well-connected interstitial voids formed between close-packed SiO2 particles adhered by styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) binders. Meanwhile, the PET nonwoven serves as a mechanical support that contributes to suppressing thermal shrinkage of the nonwoven composite separator. The aforementioned structural novelty of the nonwoven composite separator plays a key role in providing the separator with advantageous characteristics (specifically, good electrolyte wettability, high ionic conductivity, and benign compatibility with electrodes), which leads to the better cell performance than a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator.

Lee, Jung-Ran; Won, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Sang-Young

2012-10-01

170

Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust non-venting system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's lithium chloride Heat Pump Radiator (HPR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. The SEAR is evacuated at the onset of operations and thereafter, the water vapor absorption rate of the HPR maintains a low pressure environment for the SWME to evaporate effectively. This water vapor captured by solid LiCl in the HPR with a high enthalpy of absorption, results in sufficient temperature lift to reject most of the heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the HPR would be heated up in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A one-fourth scale prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The HPR was able to stably reject 60 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenso, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Cupples, Scott

2011-01-01

171

Evaporation determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation was determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake during the open water periods of 1982-1987. For all years, evaporation rates were low in spring and fall and highest during the summer. However, the times of highest evaporation rates varied during the 6 yr. Evaporation reached maximum rates in July for three of the years, in June for two of the years, and in August for one of the years. The highest evaporation rate during the 6-yr study was 0.46 cm d-1 during 27 May-4 June 1986 and 15-21 July 1987. Solar radiation and atmospheric radiation input to the lake and long-wave radiation emitted from the lake were by far the largest energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water, and ground water had little effect on evaporation rates. In the energy-budget method, average evaporation rates are determined for energy-budget periods, which are bounded by the dates of thermal surveys of the lake. Our study compared evaporation rates calculated for short periods, usually ???1 week, with evaporation rates calculated for longer periods, usually ???2 weeks. The results indicated that the shorter periods showed more variability in evaporation rates, but seasonal patterns, with few exceptions, were similar.

Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Likens, G.E.; Sturrock, A.M., Jr.; Mau, D.P.

2003-01-01

172

Physiological adjustments of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to a boom-or-bust economy: standard fasting metabolic rate, total evaporative water loss, and changes in the sizes of organs during food and water restriction.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that desert ungulates adjust their physiology in response to long-term food and water restriction, we established three groups of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa): one that was provided food and water (n = 6; CTRL) ad lib. for 4 mo, one that received ad lib. food and water for the same period but was deprived of food and water for the last 4.5 d (n = 6; EXPT(1)), and one that was exposed to 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, an experimental regime designed to mimic conditions in a natural desert setting (n = 6; EXPT(2)). At the end of the 4-mo experiment, we measured standard fasting metabolic rate (SFMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of all sand gazelles and determined lean dry mass of organs of gazelles in CTRL and EXPT(2). Gazelles in CTRL had a mean SFMR of 2,524 +/- 194 kJ d(-1), whereas gazelles in EXPT(1) and EXPT(2) had SFMRs of 2,101+/- 232 and 1,365 +/- 182 kJ d(-1), respectively, values that differed significantly when we controlled for differences in body mass. Gazelles had TEWLs of 151.1 +/- 18.2, 138.5 +/- 17.53, and 98.4 +/- 27.2 g H(2)O d(-1) in CTRL, EXPT(1), and EXPT(2), respectively. For the latter group, mass-independent TEWL was 27.1% of the value for CTRL. We found that normally hydrated sand gazelles had a low mass-adjusted TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates: 13.6 g H(2)O kg(-0.898) d(-1), only 17.1% of allometric predictions, the lowest ever measured in an arid-zone ungulate. After 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, dry lean mass of liver, heart, and muscle of gazelles in EXPT(2) was significantly less than that of these same organs in CTRL, even when we controlled for body mass decrease. Decreases in the dry lean mass of liver explained 70.4% of the variance of SFMR in food- and water-restricted gazelles. As oxygen demands decreased because of reduced organ sizes, gazelles lost less evaporative water, probably because of a decreased respiratory water loss. PMID:16826507

Ostrowski, Stephane; Mesochina, Pascal; Williams, Joseph B

2006-01-01

173

Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.

Silveira, D. M.; Cesar, C. L. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom) and Cockroft Institute, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Friesen, T.; Hydomako, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); and others

2013-03-19

174

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

E-print Network

Atomic hydrogen escaping from the extrasolar giant planet HD209458b provides the largest observational signature ever detected for an extrasolar planet atmosphere. In fact, the upper atmosphere of this planet is evaporating. Observational evidences and interpretations coming from various models are reviewed. Implications for exoplanetology are discussed.

David Ehrenreich

2008-07-11

175

Rate of Water Evaporation in Texas.  

E-print Network

, President STATION STAFF? Administration : Veterinary Science : Chief - lent ement ment A. B. Conner, M. S., Director *M. Francis, D. V. M., R. E. Karper, M. S., Vice-Director H. Schmidt, D. V. M., Veterinarian Clarice Mixson, B. A., Secretary **F. P.... Mathews, D.V.M., M.S., Veterinarian M. P. Holleman, Chief Clerk J. B. Mims, D. V. M., Asst. Veterinarian J. K. Francklow, Asst. Chief Clerk Plant Pathology and Physiology: Chester Higgs, Executive Assistant J. J. Taubenhaus, Ph. D., Chief Howard Berry...

Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

1933-01-01

176

Evaporation of stationary alcohol layer in minichannel under air flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents experimental investigation of effect of the gas flow rate moving parallel to the stationary liquid layer on the evaporation rate under the conditions of formation of a stable plane "liquid-gas" interface. The average evaporation flow rate of liquid layer (ethanol) by the gas flow (air) has been calculated using two independent methods. Obtained results have been compared with previously published data.

Afanasyev, Ilya; Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

2015-01-01

177

Evaporative cooling of antiprotons to cryogenic temperatures.  

PubMed

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9 K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise CPT test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal. PMID:20867439

Andresen, G B; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

2010-07-01

178

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-print Network

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9~K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise \\emph{CPT} test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

ALPHA Collaboration; G. B. Andresen; M. D. Ashkezari; M. Baquero-Ruiz; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; T. Friesen; M. C. Fujiwara; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; A. Humphries; R. Hydomako; S. Jonsell; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; S. Menary; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; D. M. Silveira; C. So; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; D. Wilding; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

2010-09-23

179

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9 K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise CPT test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Wilding, D. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)

2010-07-02

180

Infrared thermography of evaporative fluxes and dynamics of salt deposition on heterogeneous porous surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation of saline solutions from porous media, common in arid areas, involves complex interactions between mass transport, energy exchange and phase transitions. We quantified evaporation of saline solutions from heterogeneous sand columns under constant hydraulic boundary conditions to focus on effects of salt precipitation on evaporation dynamics. Mass loss measurements and infrared thermography were used to quantify evaporation rates. The latter method enables quantification of spatial and temporal variability of salt precipitation to identify its dynamic effects on evaporation. Evaporation from columns filled with texturally-contrasting sand using different salt solutions revealed preferential salt precipitation within the fine textured domains. Salt precipitation reduced evaporation rates from the fine textured regions by nearly an order of magnitude. In contrast, low evaporation rates from coarse-textured regions (due to low capillary drive) exhibited less salt precipitation and consequently less evaporation rate suppression. Experiments provided insights into two new phenomena: (1) a distinct increase in evaporation rate at the onset of evaporation; and (2) a vapor pumping mechanism related to the presence of a salt crust over semidry media. Both phenomena are related to local vapor pressure gradients established between pore water and the surface salt crust. Comparison of two salts: NaCl and NaI, which tend to precipitate above the matrix surface and within matrix pores, respectively, shows a much stronger influence of NaCl on evaporation rate suppression. This disparity reflects the limited effect of NaI precipitation on matrix resistivity for solution and vapor flows.

Nachshon, Uri; Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani; Dragila, Maria; Weisbrod, Noam

2011-12-01

181

Disk-Evaporation Fed Corona: Structure and Evaporation Feature with Magnetic Field  

E-print Network

The disk-corona evaporation model naturally interprets many observational phenomena in black hole X-ray binaries, such as the truncation of an accretion disk and the spectral state transitions. On the other hand, magnetic field is known to play an important role in transporting angular momentum and producing viscosity in accretion flows. In this work, we explicitly take the magnetic field in the accretion disk corona into account and numerically calculate the coronal structure on the basis of our two-temperature evaporation code. We show that the magnetic field influences the coronal structure by its contribution to the pressure, energy and radiative cooling in the corona and by decreasing the vertical heat conduction. We found that the maximal evaporation rate keeps more or less constant ($\\sim 0.03$ Eddington rate) while the strength of magnetic fields changes, but that the radius corresponding to the maximal evaporation rate decreases with increasing magnetic field. This predicts that the spectral state transition always occurs at a few percent of Eddington accretion rate, while the inner edge of thin disk can be at $\\sim 100 R_{\\rm S} $ or even less in the hard state before the transition to the soft state. These results alleviate the problem that previous evaporation models predict too large a truncation radius, and are in better agreement with the observational results of several black hole X-ray binaries, though discrepancies remain.

Lei Qian; B. F. Liu; Xue-Bing Wu

2007-07-03

182

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the urban atmosphere.  

PubMed

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in air has been well known as the indicator of photochemical smog due to its frequent occurrences in Seoul metropolitan area. This study was implemented to assess the distribution characteristics of atmospheric PAN in association with relevant parameters measured concurrently. During a full year period in 2011, PAN was continuously measured at hourly intervals at two monitoring sites, Gwang Jin (GJ) and Gang Seo (GS) in the megacity of Seoul, South Korea. The annual mean concentrations of PAN during the study period were 0.64±0.49 and 0.57±0.46 ppb, respectively. The seasonal trends of PAN generally exhibited dual peaks in both early spring and fall, regardless of sites. Their diurnal trends were fairly comparable to each other. There was a slight time lag (e.g., 1 h) in the peak occurrence pattern between O3 and PAN, as the latter trended to peak after the maximum UV irradiance period (16:00 (GJ) and 17:00 (GS)). The concentrations of PAN generally exhibited strong correlations with particulates. The results of this study suggest that PAN concentrations were affected sensitively by atmospheric stability, the wet deposition of NO2, wind direction, and other factors. PMID:23838043

Lee, Jun-Bok; Yoon, Joong-Sup; Jung, Kweon; Eom, Seok-Won; Chae, Young-Zoo; Cho, Seog-Ju; Kim, Shin-Do; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2013-11-01

183

A Hundred Years of Peter Pan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centenary of the first performance of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan was celebrated in December 2004. Taking account of the various events in Britain to mark the occasion--newspaper articles, radio and television programmes, retrospects in the original theatre--this article examines the status and popularity of Peter Pan after a hundred years. The…

Hollindale, Peter

2005-01-01

184

8, 85658583, 2008 The evaporation  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 8565­8583, 2008 The evaporation coefficient of D2O W. S. Drisdell et al. Title Page.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O­8583, 2008 The evaporation coefficient of D2O W. S. Drisdell et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

185

Dry deposition of pan to grassland vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN (CH{sub 3}C(O)OONO{sub 2}) is formed in the lower troposphere via photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). PAN has a lifetime in the free troposphere of about three months and is removed by photolysis or reaction with OH. Dry deposition will decrease its lifetime, although the few measurements that have been made indicate that this process is slow. Measurements of the uptake of PAN by alfalfa in growth chambers indicated that the dry deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration at a specified height) was 0.75 cm s{sup {minus}1}. Garland and Penkett measured a dry deposition velocity of 0.25 cm s{sup {minus}1} for PAN to grass and soil in a return-flow wind tunnel. Shepson et al. (1992) analyzed trends of PAN and O{sub 3} concentrations in the stable nocturnal boundary layer over mixed deciduous/coniferous forests at night, when leaf stomata were closed, and concluded that the deposition velocity for PAN was at least 0.5 cm s{sup {minus}1}. We measured the dry deposition velocity of PAN to a grassland site in the midwestern United States with a modified Bowen ratio technique. Experiments were conducted on selected days during September, October, and November of 1990. An energy balance Bowen ratio station was used to observe the differences in air temperature and water vapor content between heights of 3.0 and 0.92 m and to evaluate the surface energy balance. Air samples collected at the same two heights in Teflon {reg_sign} bags were analyzed for PAN by a gas chromatographic technique. We present an example of the variations of PAN concentrations and gradients observed during the day and compare measurements of the dry deposition velocity to expectations based on the physicochemical properties of PAN.

Doskey, P.V.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Gao, W.

1994-01-01

186

Water Membrane Evaporator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

2010-01-01

187

Tried and True: Evaporating is cool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students hold misconceptions about evaporation. In this short exercise, students will apply the kinetic molecular theory to explain how cold water can evaporate and to observe the cooling effect of evaporation, and develop their own evaporation experiments.

Hand, Richard

2006-03-01

188

KEPLER PLANETS: A TALE OF EVAPORATION  

SciTech Connect

Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ?0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R{sub ?}. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ?0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M{sub ?} and the majority of them should have core masses of a few Earth masses.

Owen, James E. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Wu, Yanqin, E-mail: jowen@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: wu@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2013-10-01

189

Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the evaporation would peak immediately following wetting of the surface but the skin temperatures responded by decreasing 20 minutes later. This study shows the evaporation dynamics of moss and bare ground, which will be incorporated into a hydrology model evaluating freshwater generation from the boreal forest.

Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

2013-12-01

190

Catastrophic evaporation of rocky planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses ? 0.1 M? (less than twice the mass of Mercury) and surface temperatures ?2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in ?10 Gyr. When our model is applied to Kepler planet candidate KIC 12557548b - which is believed to be a rocky body evaporating at a rate of dot{M} gtrsim 0.1 M_{{{oplus }}} Gyr-1 - our model yields a present-day planet mass of ? 0.02 M? or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass-loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyr with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass-loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few per cent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10-100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-day periods whose hard-surface transits may be detectable by Kepler - if the progenitors are as large as their maximal, Mercury-like sizes (alternatively, the progenitors could be smaller and more numerous). According to our calculations, KIC 12557548b may have lost ˜70 per cent of its formation mass; today we may be observing its naked iron core.

Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

2013-08-01

191

On the Effect of the Atmosphere on the Evaporation of Sessile Droplets of Water  

E-print Network

On the Effect of the Atmosphere on the Evaporation of Sessile Droplets of Water K. Sefiane1 , S. K into the effect of the atmosphere on the evaporation of pinned sessile droplets of water is described. The experimental work investigated the evaporation rates of sessile droplets in atmospheres of three different

Mottram, Nigel

192

Evaporation of a thin droplet on a thin substrate with a high thermal resistance  

E-print Network

Evaporation of a thin droplet on a thin substrate with a high thermal resistance G. J. Dunn1 , S. K, 5th February and 26th March 2009) Abstract A mathematical model for the quasi-steady evaporation uniform, the total evaporation rate is proportional to the surface area of the droplet, and the droplet

Mottram, Nigel

193

An evaporation estimation method based on the coupled 2-D turbulent heat and vapor transport equations  

E-print Network

An evaporation estimation method based on the coupled 2-D turbulent heat and vapor transport conditions and constant energy available at the evaporating surface yields a simple equation (i.e., the wet data, monthly, warm-season evaporation rates were estimated for five rectangular regions across

Szilagyi, Jozsef

194

On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation  

E-print Network

On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation Jozsef Szilagyi1. [1] New theoretical considerations indicate that the complementary relationship (CR) of evaporation is inherently asymmetric when the time rate of change between actual and apparent potential evaporations

Szilagyi, Jozsef

195

Thermocapillary transport of energy during water evaporation V. K. Badam,2  

E-print Network

Thermocapillary transport of energy during water evaporation Fei Duan,1 V. K. Badam,2 F. Durst,2 manuscript received 21 March 2005; published 2 November 2005 When evaporation occurs at a spherical water that thermal conduction alone does not provide enough energy to evaporate the liquid at the observed rate

Ward, Charles A.

196

Experimental analysis of a transfer function for an air cooled evaporator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transfer function to model a direct expansion air cooled evaporator, inserted in a vapor compression refrigeration plant, is deduced by means of experimental analysis. For inlet air temperatures onto the evaporator and refrigerant mass flow rate variable in appropriate ranges, the evaporator dynamic behavior is simulated by a linear model with delay. The results of transfer function are compared

C. Aprea; C. Renno

2001-01-01

197

Control of solvent evaporation in hen egg white lysozyme crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the role of solvent evaporation in tetragonal lysozyme crystallization was preformed with a device that employs N2(g) to control the evaporation of solvent from a micro-volume crystallization hanging drop. The number of crystals was found to vary with the rate at which the final supersaturation level was achieved. It was found that the more rapid the approach to supersaturation the larger the number of crystals. Accordingly, the crystals reached a smaller terminal size. Elongation of the (110) face parallel to the four-fold axis was observed with the slower evaporation rates.

Wilson, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.

1992-01-01

198

Control of solvent evaporation in hen egg white lysozyme crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the role of solvent evaporation in tetragonal lysozyme crystallization was preformed with a device that employs N 2(g) to control the evaporation of solvent from a micro-volume crystallization hanging drop. The number of crystals was found to vary with the rate at which the final supersaturation level was achieved. It was found that the more rapid the approach to supersaturation the larger the number of crystals. Accordingly, the crystals reached a smaller terminal size. Elongation of the (110) face parallel to the four-fold axis was observed with the slower evaporation rates.

Wilson, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.

1992-02-01

199

Evaporation and canopy characteristics of coniferous forests and grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy-scale evaporation rate (E) and derived surface and aerodynamic conductances for the transfer of water vapour (gs and ga, respectively) are reviewed for coniferous forests and grasslands. Despite the extremes of canopy structure, the two vegetation types have similar maximum hourly evaporation rates (Emax) and maximum surface conductances (gsmax) (medians = 0.46 mm h-1 and 22 mm s-1). However, on

F. M. Kelliher; R. Leuning; E. D. Schulze

1993-01-01

200

Method of evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquids, such as juices, milk, molten metal and the like are concentrated by forming uniformly-sized, small droplets in a precision droplet forming assembly and deploying the droplets in free fall downwardly as a central column within an evacuated column with cool walls. A portion of the solvent evaporates. The vapor flows to the wall, condenses, and usually flows down the wall as a film to condensate collector and drain. The vertical column of freely falling droplets enters the splash guard. The condensate can be collected, sent to other towers or recycled.

Dufresne, Eugene R.

1987-01-01

201

The Pan-STARRS discovery machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-STARRS System has proven to be a remarkable machine for discovery. The PS1 Science Mission has drawn to a close, and the second Pan-STARRS survey, optimized for NEO's has begun. PS2 is in the commissioning stages and will eventually support NEO discovery as well. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. Science results related to planetary studies and the dust will be presented. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

Chambers, Kenneth C.

2014-11-01

202

Crystallization of proteins by dynamic control of evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is expected that the kinetics of supersaturation, which is directly related to the evaporation of solvent from a crystallization solution, will greatly affect both nucleation and crystal growth processes. Therefore, a novel device has been developed which allows computer regulation of the flow of N 2(g) over a hanging drop to dynamically control the evaporation of solvent. A thermal conductivity detector is used to monitor the amount of water vapor transferred from the drop to the gas stream and provides closed loop control of the evaporation process. Data acquisition and control are accomplished using a custom program written with LabVIEW software (National Instruments) on a Macintosh II microcomputer. Quantitation of several evaporation protocols has been accomplished using both the thermal conductivity detector and a novel conductance cell that allows continuous measurement of solution analyte concentrations. Crystals of hen egg white lysozyme have been grown at different evaporation rates and analyzed according to size and number of single crystals.

Wilson, L. G.; Bray, T. L.; Suddath, F. L.

1991-03-01

203

Nanoparticle-mediated evaporation at liquid-vapor interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution-processed electronic materials for printed electronics frequently take the form of nano-colloidal dispersions of inorganic materials. In standard printing processes, evaporation of the solvent plays a critical role in the deposition of the dispersed nanoparticles. To date, there is no quantitative study of the effects of particles on the interface on the evaporative flux. We provide experimental evidence that nanoparticles present at the interface attenuate evaporation relative to the pure solvent case. To avoid the effects of the complex interfacial shapes attending patterned deposition by printing, we regularize the interface by conducting evaporation experiments in circular-bore cylindrical glass crucibles. The crucible was initially charged with water, and the silica particles were placed on the interface using a modified Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Evaporation rates were measured as a function of surface coverage, contact angle, and surface properties of the nanoparticles.

Fan, Wenxiong

204

Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

1995-11-01

205

Droplet evaporation on heated hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

The evaporation characteristics of sessile water droplets on smooth hydrophobic and structured superhydrophobic heated surfaces are experimentally investigated. Droplets placed on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface subtend a very high contact angle (?160°) and demonstrate low roll-off angle (?1°), while the hydrophobic substrate supports corresponding values of 120° and ?10°. The substrates are heated to different constant temperatures in the range of 40-60?°C, which causes the droplet to evaporate much faster than in the case of natural evaporation without heating. The geometric parameters of the droplet, such as contact angle, contact radius, and volume evolution over time, are experimentally tracked. The droplets are observed to evaporate primarily in a constant-contact-angle mode where the contact line slides along the surface. The measurements are compared with predictions from a model based on diffusion of vapor into the ambient that assumes isothermal conditions. This vapor-diffusion-only model captures the qualitative evaporation characteristics on both test substrates, but reasonable quantitative agreement is achieved only for the hydrophobic surface. The superhydrophobic surface demonstrates significant deviation between the measured evaporation rate and that obtained using the vapor-diffusion-only model, with the difference being amplified as the substrate temperature is increased. A simple model considering thermal diffusion through the droplet is used to highlight the important role of evaporative cooling at the droplet interface in determining the droplet evaporation characteristics on superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24827255

Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

2014-04-01

206

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

207

Evaporative cooling of the dipolar radical OH  

E-print Network

Atomic physics was revolutionized by the development of forced evaporative cooling: it led directly to the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum-degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold optical lattice simulations of condensed matter phenomena. More recently, great progress has been made in the production of cold molecular gases, whose permanent electric dipole moment is expected to generate rich, novel, and controllable phases, dynamics, and chemistry in these ultracold systems. However, while many strides have been made in both direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not yet been achieved due to unfavorable elastic-to-inelastic ratios and impractically slow thermalization rates in the available trapped species. We now report the observation of microwave-forced evaporative cooling of hydroxyl (OH) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high-gradient magnetic quadrupole trap. We demonstrate cooling by at least an order of magnitude in temperature and three orders in phase-space density, limited only by the low-temperature sensitivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evaporative cooling and sufficiently large initial populations, much colder temperatures are possible, and even a quantum-degenerate gas of this dipolar radical -- or anything else it can sympathetically cool -- may now be in reach.

Benjamin K. Stuhl; Matthew T. Hummon; Mark Yeo; Goulven Quéméner; John L. Bohn; Jun Ye

2012-09-27

208

Point process with last-arrival-time dependent intensity and 1-dimensional incompressible fluid system with evaporation.  

E-print Network

system with evaporation. Tetsuya Hattori Laboratory of Mathematics, Faculty of Economics, Keio by unbounded and space-time dependent evaporation rates. We prove unique existence of the solution occurs at y = 1. Each fluid component, say , evaporates with rate w which may vary among different

Hattori, Tetsuya

209

Laser evaporation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of vaporization of matter under pulsed CO2 laser evaporation was studied. Analysis of the nature of the vapor plume in several materials indicated the presence of numerous excited species, neutral as well as ionized species, and ions with high kinetic energies. High quality films of refractory metal oxides and epitaxial films of Ge were deposited. The oxide materials were dense and crystalline and had high refractive index values, even when deposited on room temperature substrates. Ge films were epitaxial and single crystalline when deposited on Si substrates at 300 C. Study of the relationship of deposition conditions and film properties clearly indicated the beneficial role of the energetic ions in the film deposition. Special emphasis was given to the solution of the problem of particulates in the films.

Sankur, H. O.

1987-10-01

210

The desorptivity model of bulk soil-water evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available models of bulk evaporation from a bare-surfaced soil are difficult to apply to field conditions where evaporation is complicated by two main factors: rate-limiting climatic conditions and redistribution of soil moisture following infiltration. Both factors are included in the "desorptivity model', wherein the evaporation rate during the second stage (the soil-limiting stage) of evaporation is related to the desorptivity parameter, A. Analytical approximations for A are presented. The approximations are independent of the surface soil moisture. However, calculations using the approximations indicate that both soil texture and soil moisture content at depth significantly affect A. Because the moisture content at depth decreases in time during redistribution, it follows that the A parameter also changes with time. Consequently, a method to calculate a representative value of A was developed. When applied to field data, the desorptivity model estimated cumulative evaporation well. The model is easy to calculate, but its usefulness is limited because it requires an independent estimate of the time of transition between the first and second stages of evaporation. The model shows that bulk evaporation after the transition to the second stage is largely independent of climatic conditions.

Clapp, R. B.

1983-01-01

211

Modeling of the Cryogenic Liquid Pool Evaporation and the Effect of the Convective Heat Transfer from Atmosphere  

E-print Network

on the role of evaporation and convection phenomena on the cryogenic pool temperature and its vaporization rate. Various models describing heat transfer by evaporation were compared. The models differ from each other in terms of mass transfer coefficient...

Nawaz, Waqas

2014-04-25

212

Evaporation from groundwater discharge playas, Estancia Basin, central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bowen ratio meteorological stations have been deployed to measure rates of evaporation from groundwater discharge playas and from an adjacent vegetated bench in the Estancia Basin, in central New Mexico. The playas are remnants of late Pleistocene pluvial Lake Estancia and are discharge areas for groundwater originating as precipitation in the adjacent Manzano Mts. They also accumulate water during local precipitation events. Evaporation is calculated from measured values of net radiation, soil heat flux, atmospheric temperature, and relative humidity. Evaporation rates are strongly dependent on the presence or absence of standing water in the playas, with rates increasing more than 600% after individual rainstorms. Evaporation at site E-12, in the southeastern part of the playa Complex, measured 74 cm over a yearlong period from mid-1997 through mid-1998. This value compares favorably to earlier estimates from northern Estancia playas, but is nearly three times greater than evaporation at a similar playa in western Utah. Differences in geographical position, salt crust composition, and physical properties may explain some of the difference in evaporation rates in these two geographic regions.

Menking, Kirsten M.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Allen, Bruce D.; Ellwein, Amy L.; Loveland, Thomas A.; Hostetler, Steven W.

2000-01-01

213

Evaporative attachment of slow electrons to alkali nanoclusters  

E-print Network

We have measured the abundance mass spectra of Na^-_{n~7-140} ions formed by low energy electron attachment to free nanoclusters. The distribution of anions is considerably restructured with respect to the neutral precursor beam. This restructuring can be understood quantitatively based on the evaporation cascade picture, whereby energy deposited by the captured electron is dissipated by the evaporative cooling of clusters. In addition, since the evaporation rates are sensitive to the cluster binding energies, the experimental data supplied an adjustment to the prior values of these quantities.

Rabinovitch, Roman; Kresin, Vitaly V

2008-01-01

214

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

215

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-print Network

Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By spraying a light film of water in the form of a mist for thirty seconds, then turning the sprays off for five minutes while evaporation takes place, the roof temperature can be reduced from 1650o to 880o...

Patterson, G. V.

1980-01-01

216

76 FR 20831 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...with an Inter-American Democratic Charter...Organization of American States' designation...Year for People of African Descent, an opportunity...men and women of African descent have strengthened...our region live in poverty or lack access to...we celebrate Pan American Day and Pan...

2011-04-13

217

Evaporation and Thermal Balance of Tiny HI Clouds  

E-print Network

We discuss the thermal evaporation of tiny HI clouds in the interstellar medium. Cold neutral clouds will take ~10^6 - 10^7 yr to evaporate if they are embedded in warm neutral gas and about half as long if embedded in hot gas. Heat flux saturation effects severely reduce the evaporation rate of tiny cold neutral medium (CNM) clouds into hot gas. For CNM clouds embedded in warm neutral medium (WNM) the much lower conductivity results in slower evaporation. This mass loss rate could still be significant, however, if the environment is relatively quiescent. Partial ionization of the WNM gas would substantially reduce the conductivity and lengthen the lifetime of the tiny HI clouds. The ultimate importance of thermal conduction to cloud evolution will depend on the role of turbulence and the characteristics of the medium in which the clouds are embedded.

Jonathan D. Slavin

2006-10-10

218

Kinetic approach to the evaporation and condensation problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the paper, the Boltzmann equation governing the evaporation and condensation phenomena is solved by the Monte Carlo method. Based on the kinetic theory of gas the role of the non-equilibrium Knudsen layer and the growth of the hydrodynamic region outside the layer as time proceeds are simulated. Results show two possible types of transient developments in the vapor phase. The effects of the molecular absorption coefficient of the phase surface are examined. Except in the case of very strong evaporation the kinematic effects of binary collisions among vapor molecules on the mass flux rate are not serious. The limiting case of the quasi-steady evaporation and the maximal value of the evaporation rate are obtained.

Murakami, M.; Oshima, K.

1974-01-01

219

The Evaporative Function of Cockroach Hygroreceptors  

PubMed Central

Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures). The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach’s moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell’s response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell’s response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air (absolutely) and the higher the temperature, the greater the evaporative temperature depression and the power to desiccate. PMID:23342058

Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

220

Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation  

SciTech Connect

This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

DANIEL, WE

2004-07-08

221

The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-STARRS1 is approaching the completion of the PS1 Science Mission. Operations of the PS1 System include the Observatory, Telescope, 1.4 Gigapixel Camera, Image Processing Pipeline , PSPS relational database and reduced science product software servers. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) A 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) A Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey optimized for Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey; and (5) a Deep Survey of M31. The PS1 3pi Survey has now covered the sky north of dec=-30 with more than 12 visits in five bands: g,r,i,z and y or over ~60 epochs per 0.25 arcsec resolution element on the sky. The performance of the PS1 system, sky coverage, cadence, and data quality of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented as well as progress in reprocessing of the data taken to date and the plans for the public release of all Pan-STARRS1 data products in the spring of 2015. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE).

Chambers, Kenneth C.

2014-01-01

222

Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.  

PubMed

Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912

Woodward, John L

2007-02-20

223

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS  

E-print Network

OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÃ?ON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources ..........................................................................................4 3.0 EVAPORATION POND DESIGN....................................................................14 5.0 EVAPORATION PONDS OPERATING AND MONITORING PROCEDURES ....17 5.1 Standard Operating Procedures

224

Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

1982-01-01

225

Pan American Health Organization: Country Health Profiles and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Pan American Health Organization (see the September 8, 1995 Scout Report) offers data and analysis on health and related sociological factors in the nations of the Americas. Users can click on the country of their choice via a map or list to access statistics on demographics, socioeconomic data, health risk factors, health care access, and mortality rates as well as an analysis of these and other data. Also available from this site is the text of Health in the Americas, a quadrennial publication that exhaustively "assesses the evolving health situation of the Americas-diseases, services, resources-at the regional and country levels" (free registration required).

226

Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

2008-11-01

227

Catastrophic Evaporation of Rocky Planets  

E-print Network

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative-hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses 2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in 0.1 M_Earth/Gyr --- our model yields a present-day planet mass of < 0.02 M_Earth or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyrs with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few percent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10--100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-da...

Perez-Becker, Daniel

2013-01-01

228

Rotatable prism for pan and tilt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, inexpensive, motor-driven prisms change field of view of TV camera. Camera and prism rotate about lens axis to produce pan effect. Rotating prism around axis parallel to lens produces tilt. Size of drive unit and required clearance are little more than size of camera.

Ball, W. B.

1980-01-01

229

Peroxyacetyl Nitrates: Ozone in the cooling PAN  

E-print Network

, at Caltech noticed that the smog smelled like the terpenes (a type of hydrocarbon usually produced by plants in photochemical smog · Very stable in colder temperatures ­ Life of PAN 1.7 hrs at 20 C ­ 50 hrs at O C ­ 105 days

Toohey, Darin W.

230

*** How PAN based Carbon Fibers are  

E-print Network

*** How PAN based Carbon Fibers are Manufactured *** How Carbon Fiber Material Properties are Achieved *** Carbon Fiber Markets/Applications CarbonFiber AerospaceEngineeringGuestLecture: Friday as a Business Development Manager for Amoco's carbon fiber business unit (manufacturers of T-300 carbon fiber

Hu, Hui

231

Control of black hole evaporation?  

E-print Network

Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and string theory on the evaporation of black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that original Hawking effect can be also regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly.

Doyeol Ahn

2007-02-24

232

Thermal modeling of flow in the San Diego Aqueduct, California, and its relation to evaporation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermal balance of the 26-kilometer long concrete-lined San Diego Aqueduct, a canal in southern California, was studied to determine the coefficients in a Dalton type evaporation formula. Meteorologic and hydraulic variables, as well as water temperature, were monitored continuously for a 1-year period. A thermal model was calibrated by use of data obtained during a 28-day period to determine the coefficients which best described the thermal balance of the canal. The coefficients applicable to the San Diego Aqueduct are similar to those commonly obtained from lake evaporation studies except that a greater evaporation at low windspeeds is indicated. The model was verified by use of data obtained during 113 days which did not include the calibration data. These data verified that the derived wind function realistically represents the canal evaporation. An annual evaporation of 2.08 meters was computed which is about 91 percent of the amount of water evaporated annually from nearby class A evaporation pans. (Kosco-USGS)

Jobson, Harvey E.

1980-01-01

233

Evaporation of ice in planetary atmospheres - Ice-covered rivers on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of ice covered rivers on Mars is considered. It is noted that the evaporation rate of water ice on the surface of a planet with an atmosphere involves an equilibrium between solar heating and radiative and evaporative cooling of the ice layer. It is determined that even with a mean Martian insolation rate above the ice of approximately

D. Wallace; C. Sagan

1979-01-01

234

Evaporative cooling: effective latent heat of evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin.  

PubMed

Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available, which has found little use in recent literature. In this experiment a thermal manikin, (MTNW, Seattle, WA) was used to determine the effective cooling power of moisture evaporation. The manikin measures both heat loss and mass loss independently, allowing a direct calculation of an effective latent heat of evaporation (?eff). The location of the evaporation was varied: from the skin or from the underwear or from the outerwear. Outerwear of different permeabilities was used, and different numbers of layers were used. Tests took place in 20°C, 0.5 m/s at different humidities and were performed both dry and with a wet layer, allowing the breakdown of heat loss in dry and evaporative components. For evaporation from the skin, ?eff is close to the theoretical value (2,430 J/g) but starts to drop when more clothing is worn, e.g., by 11% for underwear and permeable coverall. When evaporation is from the underwear, ?eff reduction is 28% wearing a permeable outer. When evaporation is from the outermost layer only, the reduction exceeds 62% (no base layer), increasing toward 80% with more layers between skin and wet outerwear. In semi- and impermeable outerwear, the added effect of condensation in the clothing opposes this effect. A general formula for the calculation of ?eff was developed. PMID:23329814

Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; den Hartog, Emiel; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmer, Ingvar; Rossi, Rene M; Richards, Mark; Farnworth, Brian; Wang, Xiaoxin

2013-03-15

235

Microdroplet evaporation with a forced pinned contact line.  

PubMed

Experimental and numerical investigations of water microdroplet evaporation on heated, laser patterned polymer substrates are reported. The study is focused on both (i) controlling a droplet's contact line dynamics during evaporation to identifying how the contact line influences evaporative heat transfer and (ii) validating numerical simulations with experimental data. Droplets are formed on the polymer surface using a bottom-up methodology, where a computer-controlled syringe pump feeds water through a 200 ?m diameter fluid channel within the heated polymer substrate. This methodology facilitates precise control of the droplet's growth rate, size, and inlet temperature. In addition to this microchannel supply line, the substrate surfaces are laser patterned with a moatlike trench around the fluid-channel outlet, adding additional control of the droplet's contact line motion, area, and contact angle. In comparison to evaporation on a nonpatterned polymer surface, the laser patterned trench increases contact line pinning time by ?60% of the droplet's lifetime. Numerical simulations of diffusion controlled evaporation are compared the experimental data with a pinned contact line. These diffusion based simulations consistently over predict the droplet's evaporation rate. In efforts to improve this model, a temperature distribution along the droplet's liquid-vapor interface is imposed to account for the concentration distribution of saturated vapor along the interface, which yields improved predictions within 2-4% of the experimental data throughout the droplet's lifetime on heated substrates. PMID:25102248

Gleason, Kevin; Putnam, Shawn A

2014-09-01

236

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOEpatents

An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-01-04

237

Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1984-01-01

238

Explosive evaporation in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

Fisher, George H.

1987-01-01

239

How do Black Holes evaporate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of a two dimensional model suggests the possibility that Black Hole evaporation may become a dynamically driven process even before Planck era is reached. On leave from the Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Italy.

Balbinot, Roberto

1984-03-01

240

Evaporative Emission Model (EVAP 3. 0) (for microcomputers). Software  

SciTech Connect

The potential role of automotive evaporative emissions in the formation of photochemical smog has underscored the need for an accurate evaluation of real-world motor vehicle evaporative emission rates. Two general categories of information are needed to predict evaporative emissions for vehicles in actual use. The first category defines the environment that a vehicle experiences in the real world. This includes conditions such as driving pattern, ambient temperature, refueling behavior, and gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP). The second category describes how the vehicle responds to these conditions. This includes weathering of the fuel in the fuel tank and how evaporative emissions vary as a function of RVP, ambient temperature, and fuel tank level.

Not Available

1993-02-01

241

EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect

We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2013-02-20

242

Effects of Evaporation/Condensation on Spreading and Contact Angle of a Volatile Liquid Drop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of evaporation/condensation on spreading and contact angle were experimentally studied. A sessile drop of R-113 was tested at different vapor environments to determine the effects of evaporation/condensation on the evolution of contact diameter and contact angle of the drop. Condensation on the drop surface occurs at both the saturated and a nonsaturated vapor environments and promotes the spreading. When the drop is placed in the saturated vapor environment it tends to completely wetting and spreads rapidly. In a nonsaturated vapor environment, the evolution of the sessile drop is divided three stages: condensation-spreading stage, evaporation-retracting stage and rapid contracting stage. In the first stage the drop behaves as in the saturated environment. In the evaporation -retracting stage, the competition between spreading and evaporation of the drop determines the evolution characteristics of the contact diameter and the contact angle. A lower evaporation rate struggles against the spreading power to turn the drop from spreading to retracting with a continuous increase of the contact angle. The drop placed in open air has a much higher evaporation rate. The strong evaporation suppresses the spreading and accelerates the retraction of the drop with a linear decrease of the contact diameter. The contraction of the evaporating drops is gradually accelerated when the contact diameter decreases to 3 min and less till drying up, though the evaporation rate is gradually slowing down.

Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

243

The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures.  

PubMed

Abstract Environmental temperatures that exceed body temperature (Tb) force endothermic animals to rely solely on evaporative cooling to dissipate heat. However, evaporative heat dissipation can be drastically reduced by environmental humidity, imposing a thermoregulatory challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of humidity on the thermoregulation of desert birds and to compare the sensitivity of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation to reduced vapor density gradients. Rates of evaporative water loss, metabolic rate, and Tb were measured in birds exposed to humidities ranging from ?2 to 30 g H2O m(-3) (0%-100% relative humidity at 30°C) at air temperatures between 44° and 56°C. In sociable weavers, a species that dissipates heat primarily through panting, rates of evaporative water loss were inhibited by as much as 36% by high humidity at 48°C, and these birds showed a high degree of hyperthermia. At lower temperatures (40°-44°C), evaporative water loss was largely unaffected by humidity in this species. In Namaqua doves, which primarily use cutaneous evaporation, increasing humidity reduced rates of evaporative water loss, but overall rates of water loss were lower than those observed in sociable weavers. Our data suggest that cutaneous evaporation is more efficient than panting, requiring less water to maintain Tb at a given temperature, but panting appears less sensitive to humidity over the air temperature range investigated here. PMID:25461643

Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

2014-01-01

244

Deposit Growth in the Wetting of an Angular Region with Uniform Evaporation  

E-print Network

Solvent loss due to evaporation in a drying drop can drive capillary flows and solute migration. The flow is controlled by the evaporation profile and the geometry of the drop. We predict the flow and solute migration near a sharp corner of the perimeter under the conditions of uniform evaporation. This extends the study of Ref. 6, which considered a singular evaporation profile, characteristic of a dry surrounding surface. We find the rate of the deposit growth along contact lines in early and intermediate time regimes. Compared to the dry-surface evaporation profile of Ref. 6, uniform evaporation yields more singular deposition in the early time regime, and nearly uniform deposition profile is obtained for a wide range of opening angles in the intermediate time regime. Uniform evaporation also shows a more pronounced contrast between acute opening angles and obtuse opening angles.

Rui Zheng; Yuri O. Popov; Thomas A. Witten

2005-06-01

245

The Performance of Refrigeration Cycle with Vapor Re-circulation Evaporator Using an Ejector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed new method that re-circulates vapor refrigerant into the evaporator using an ejector to enhance the evaporating heat transfer in the refrigeration cycle. It makes the evaporating heat transfer coefficient higher by increase of the dryness-quality at the inlet of evaporator. We investigated experimentally the coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigeration cycle and the evaporating heat transfer coefficient with a proposal means, under various evaporating and condensing temperatures and heat loads. As a result, the COP of proposed cycle is 5-13% higher than the conventional cycle with a D.C. inverter compressor by re-circulation of refrigerant. Furthermore, we investigated the dry-out length in the evaporator by authorized empirical equation and evaluated the optimum flow rate of re-circulation.

Man'o, Tatsunori; Tanino, Masayuki; Okazaki, Takashi; Koyama, Shigeru

246

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: 1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; 2) suppression of ELMs; 3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; 4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; 5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; 6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; 7) reduced SOL plasma density; and 8) reduced edge neutral density.

Kugel, H. W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

2009-04-09

247

Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX.  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

Zakharov, L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gates, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Menard, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Schneider, H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mueller, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kallman, Jeffrey K. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Sabbagh, S. (Columbia University, New York, NY); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Ono, M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wilgren, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Allain, J.P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Timberlake, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Ross, P. W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kugel, Henry W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gerhardt, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Paul, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Bell, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Soukhanovskii, V. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mansfield, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

2008-08-01

248

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Gates, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Paul, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ross, P. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Stevenson, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Timberlake, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wampler, W. R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2009-01-01

249

DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to aluminum oxide during the evaporation process. The following recommendations were made: Recycle from the DWTT should be metered in slowly to the ''typical'' recycle streams to avoid spikes in solids content to allow consistent processing and avoid process upsets. Additional studies should be conducted to determine acceptable volume ratios for the HEME dissolution and decontamination solutions in the evaporator feed. Dow Corning 2210 antifoam should be evaluated for use to control foaming. Additional tests are required to determine the concentration of antifoam required to prevent foaming during startup, the frequency of antifoam additions required to control foaming during steady state processing, and the ability of the antifoam to control foam over a range of potential feed compositions. This evaluation should also include evaluation of the degradation of the antifoam and impact on the silicon and TOC content of the condensate. The caustic HEME dissolution recycle stream should be neutralized to at least pH of 7 prior to blending with the acidic recycle streams. Dow Corning 2210 should be used during the evaporation testing using the radioactive recycle samples received from DWPF. Evaluation of additional antifoam candidates should be conducted as a backup for Dow Corning 2210. A camera and/or foam detection instrument should be included in the evaporator design to allow monitoring of the foaming behavior during operation. The potential for foam formation and high solids content should be considered during the design of the evaporator vessel.

Stone, M

2005-04-05

250

A theoretical study of the spheroidal droplet evaporation in forced convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, the shape of a droplet may be assumed to be an oblate spheroid. A theoretical study is conducted on the evaporation of an oblate spheroidal droplet under forced convection conditions. Closed-form analytical expressions of the mass evaporation rate for an oblate spheroid are derived, in the regime of controlled mass-transfer and heat-transfer, respectively. The variation of droplet size during the evaporation process is presented in the regime of shrinking dynamic model. Comparing with the droplets having the same surface area, an increase in the aspect ratio enhances the mass evaporation rate and prolongs the burnout time.

Li, Jie; Zhang, Jian

2014-11-01

251

The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned. It will initially supplement the PS1 search by targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) candidates from PS1. As its efficiency grows, PS2 also will search for NEOs, and will increase the sky coverage and cadence.PS1 is cooperating with the G96 telescope of the Catalina Sky Survey in terms of field selection. Between declinations of -30 and +40 degrees, the telescopes alternate 1 hour-wide RA stripes each night. This strategy has led to increased productivity, and eliminated accidental repeats of fields. The PS1 survey area has been extended south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep south sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 has discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014 to date, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The present discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.

Wainscoat, Richard J.; Bolin, Bryce; Chambers, Kenneth; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco; Schunova, Eva; Veres, Peter

2014-11-01

252

Evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols at elevated relative humidity.  

PubMed

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semisolid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of ?-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on ?-pinene SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at <5%, 50 and 90% RH, and on limonene SOA particles at <5% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30-70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 h, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at <5% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses; with aging at elevated RH leading to a more significant effect. In all cases, the observed SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent. PMID:25494490

Wilson, Jacqueline; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

2015-01-01

253

Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing at trans-national level. The creation of a European flood hazard map would currently imply a collection of scattered regional maps, often lacking mutual consistency due to the variety of adopted approaches and quality of the underlying input data. In this work, we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100m resolution. The proposed approach is based on expanding a literature cascade model through a physically based approach. A combination of distributed hydrological and hydraulic models was set up for the European domain. Then, an observed meteorological data set is used to derive a long-term streamflow simulation and subsequently coherent design flood hydrographs for a return period of 100years along the pan-European river network. Flood hydrographs are used to simulate areas at risk of flooding and output maps are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas in Germany and United Kingdom against national/regional hazard maps. Despite inherent limitations and model resolution issues, simulated maps are in good agreement with reference maps (hit rate between 59% and 78%, critical success index between 43% and 65%), suggesting strong potential for a number of applications at the European scale

Bates, P. D.; Alfieri, L.; Salamon, P.; Bianchi, A.; Neal, J. C.; Feyen, L.

2013-12-01

254

Purification of E. coli-synthesized Pan proteins and development of a Pan-specific monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed

The helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, Pan-1 (E47) and Pan-2 (E12), are produced by the mechanism of alternative transcript splicing. Pan-1 and Pan-2 were expressed in Escherichia coli, and a purification scheme was developed. Purified Pan-2 was used to immunize Smith-Webster mice and a hybridoma was generated that produced a monoclonal antibody (Yae) that specifically recognized both native and denatured Pan-1 and Pan-2. Deletion mapping and sequence transfer studies have localized the determinant recognized by the Yae antibody to the region 195-208 of Pan-2. This region is conserved in Pan-1 and Pan-2. The Yae antibody recognized in vitro-synthesized ITF-1, a third E2A (Pan) gene product also produced by the mechanism of alternative RNA splicing, but did not recognize the related HLH proteins, ITF-2, REB alpha, or REB beta. By Western blot assay of pancreatic acinar cells, the Yae antibody detected a single protein species of 72 kD that comigrated with in vitro-synthesized Pan-1 and Pan-2. PMID:7523277

Vierra, C A; Xin, X Q; Jacobs, Y T; Campbell, J M; Shen, L P; Rutter, W J; Nelson, C

1994-06-01

255

Low-Volatility Compound Evaporation from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in April-August 2010 provided an unusual opportunity to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation on a large scale. Chemicals with differing volatility, evaporating at different rates, were spatially separated and released to the atmosphere at different locations. The resulting distribution of vapor and aerosol phase organic compounds were measured during research flights of the NOAA WP-3D aircraft over the Gulf in June 2010 (de Gouw et al., 2011). Known volatile SOA precursors (C8 to C11 hydrocarbons) were measured in a thin plume downwind of DWH. SOA was measured in a much wider plume, indicating contributions from less volatile compounds evaporating further from the source. Estimates of semi- and intermediate- volatile compound evaporation rates from the oil spill have been improved using a component-wise first-order kinetics model in which the evaporation rate of a compound is proportional to both its vapor pressure and mole fraction. The model was validated through proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer measurements of evaporating South Louisiana crude oil and calibration mixtures of aromatic compounds. These new evaporation rate estimates highlight several concepts important to a revised interpretation of the June 2010 aerosol measurements. The rates of evaporation (and thus atmospheric concentrations) of low-volatility compounds did not necessarily reflect surface distribution. Low volatility compounds reached peak evaporation rates at appreciable distances from the source, and the area from which significant amounts of chemical were emitted was larger than previously thought.

Koss, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.

2011-12-01

256

Evaporation control research, 1959-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two hundred and forty-five dispersions of long-chain alkanols were formulated by using various emulsifiers and alkanols. The dispensing and spreading ability of each of these formulations was tested. The most promising emulsifier that could be used with any of the alkanols was glyceryl monostearate (self-emulsifying). However, the concentration of the alkanol in the dispersion form varied somewhat: with the length of the carbon chain. A maximum concentration of 16 percent was obtained using the longer chain alkanols in the dispersion form without losing any of the properties of a fluid. Nine field tests were undertaken on small stock tanks. The retardant materials used in these tests were dodecanol, hexadecanol, and octadecanol. These materials were applied in either liquid or dispersion form. Four types of dispensing equipment were tested. The first type used a pressure system which sprayed a liquid onto the surface of the water. An anemometer and wind-controlled vane, operated by an electrical system, determined the length End frequency of application. The second type was similar to the first except that gravity was utilized to force the liquid onto the surface. The third type. used a drip system with rates of about 10 drops per minute. The fourth type used a gravity feed and a wind-controlled valve which allowed the dispersion material to flow onto the surface of the water when the wind was in the proper direction. In the field tests, the best reduction in evaporation was obtained using octadecanol in dispersion form and dispensed with the wind-controlled valve and gravity feed system. The maximum reduction in evaporation for a 2-week period was 27 percent. However, the economics of suppressing evaporation from stock tanks is questionable because of the short travel time across the tank by the film. There are still many problems unsolved. Some of these can be resolved in the laboratory whereas others can be resolved only in the field. Some of the more serious problems are the effect of impurities in the alkanols; the rate of cooling of the alkanol from a liquid to a solid state ; the effect of the film on the exchange of water molecules between the air and water; whether the film remains effective in suppressing evaporation for any rate of movement downwind; and the possible use of dodecanol and eicosanol as suppressants.

U.S. Geological Survey

1963-01-01

257

Tubular sublimatory evaporator heat sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaporative refrigerator or cooler comprising a bundle of spaced, porous walled tubes closed at one of their ends and vented to a vacuum at the other end is disclosed. The tube bundle is surrounded by a water jacket having a hot water inlet distribution manifold and a cooled water outlet through a plenum chamber. Hot water is pumped into the jacket to circulate around the tubes, and when this water meets the vacuum existing inside the tubes, it evaporates thereby cooling the water in the jacket. If cooling proceeds to the point where water penetrating or surrounding all or part of the tubes freezes, operation continues with local sublimation of the ice on the tubes while the circulating water attempts to melt the ice. Both sublimation and evaporation may take place simultaneously in different regions of the device.

Webbon, B. W. (inventor)

1977-01-01

258

Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of evaporation on precipitation measurements have been understood to bias total precipitation lower. For automated weighing-bucket gauges, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) suggests the use of evaporative suppressants with frequent observations. However, the use of evaporation suppressants is not always feasible due to environmental hazards and the added cost of maintenance, transport, and disposal of the gauge additive. In addition, research has suggested that evaporation prior to precipitation may affect precipitation measurements from auto-recording gauges operating at sub-hourly frequencies. For further evaluation, a field campaign was conducted to monitor evaporation and its impacts on the quality of precipitation measurements from gauges used at US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations. Collocated Geonor gauges with (nonEvap) and without (evap) an evaporative suppressant were compared to evaluate evaporative losses and evaporation biases on precipitation measurements. From June to August, evaporative losses from the evap gauge exceeded accumulated precipitation, with an average loss of 0.12 mm h-1. However, the impact of evaporation on precipitation measurements was sensitive to calculation methods. In general, methods that utilized a longer time series to smooth out sensor noise were more sensitive to gauge (-4.6% bias with respect to control) evaporation than methods computing depth change without smoothing (< +1% bias). These results indicate that while climate and gauge design affect gauge evaporation rates computational methods can influence the magnitude of evaporation bias on precipitation measurements. It is hoped this study will advance QA techniques that mitigate the impact of evaporation biases on precipitation measurements from other automated networks.

Leeper, R. D.; Kochendorfer, J.

2014-12-01

259

Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12-15 µm diameter) injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr). The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (?e) of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09) using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST) model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

Drisdell, W. S.; Cappa, C. D.; Smith, J. D.; Saykally, R. J.; Cohen, R. C.

2008-05-01

260

Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12 15 ?m diameter) injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr). The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (?e) of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09) using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST) model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

Drisdell, W. S.; Cappa, C. D.; Smith, J. D.; Saykally, R. J.; Cohen, R. C.

2008-11-01

261

Correlations for Saturation Efficiency of Evaporative Cooling Pads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents some experimental investigations to obtain correlations for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling pads. Two commonly used materials namely aspen and khus fibers along with new materials namely coconut fibers and palash fibers were tested in a laboratory using suitably fabricated test setup. Simple mathematical correlations have been developed for calculating saturation efficiency of evaporating cooling pads which can be used to predict their performance at any desired mass flow rate. Performances of four different pad materials were also compared using developed correlations. An attempt was made to test two new materials (i.e. fibers of palash wood and coconut) to check their suitability as wetted media for evaporative cooling pads. It was found that Palash wood fibers offered highest saturation efficiency compared to that of other existing materials such as aspen and khus fibers at different mass flow rate of air.

Jain, J. K.; Hindoliya, D. A.

2014-01-01

262

Mesoscale Dynamics of Solvent Evaporation in Block Copolymer Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymer thin films are being investigated for a wide variety of applications ranging from separation membranes, organic photovoltaics, and lithographic masks. In order to accelerate defect annihilation in the periodic structures that develop within these films, solvent annealing techniques are often employed that exploit control over solvent atmosphere to modify the free surface thermodynamics and evaporation rate in an attempt to influence the alignment of ordered domains. The inherently non-equilibrium nature of this problem complicates standard theoretical treatments based on relative free energy calculations, so we have employed a dynamical extension of Self-Consistent Field Theory coupled with a solvent evaporation mechanism to gain insights into the interplay between component-surface interactions, evaporation rate, and observed film morphology. The effects of these factors on the micro-phase separation trajectory of the film will be discussed.

Paradiso, Sean; Hur, Su-Mi; Delaney, Kris; Ceniceros, Hector; Garcia-Cervera, Carlos; Fredrickson, Glenn

2012-02-01

263

Trends in evaporation and surface cooling in the Mississippi River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A synthesis of available data for the Mississippi River basin (area 3 ?? 106 km2) reveals an upward trend in evaporation during recent decades, driven primarily by increases in precipitation and secondarily by human water use. A cloud-related decrease in surface net radiation appears to have accompanied the precipitation trend. Resultant evaporative and radiative cooling of the land and lower atmosphere quantitatively explains downward trends in observed pan evaporation. These cooling tendencies also reconcile the observed regional atmospheric cooling with the anticipated regional "greenhouse warming." If recent high levels of precipitation (which correlate with the North Atlantic Oscillation) are mainly caused by an internal climatic fluctuation, an eventual return to normal precipitation could reveal heretofore-unrealized warming in the basin. If, instead, they are caused by some unidentified forcing that will continue to grow in the future, then continued intensification of water cycling and suppression of warming in the basin could result.

Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

2001-01-01

264

Evaporation in stratiform rain and its radar measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the total rainfall received on earth's surface, a large amount is stratiform, which has a long lifespan, light to moderate intensity, and is horizontally widespread. Steady state solutions have been sought using both one- and two-dimensional numerical models to simulate rain evaporation in the lower levels of stratiform regions. Two 1-D models are developed. The first one does not consider the vertical air velocity and uses prescribed steady temperature and moisture profiles. An analytical approximation of rain evaporation is derived for this case. Another more realistic 1-D model solves for the steady state vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and raindrop size distribution (RDSD) explicitly for a prescribed, steady, vertical air velocity profile. Both of the 1-D models show that the RDSD changes systematically due to evaporation, especially at the small size end. The variations of RDSDs due to evaporation are applied to radar rainfall measurement. It is shown that the detection of the rain evaporation using the vertical profile of radar reflectivity (Z) is possible. However, when the environment is moist and/or rainfall rate (R) is high, vertical variations of radar reflectivity may fall below the detection threshold of the radar. Furthermore, the empirical Z-R relation used to estimate rainfall rate changes systematically with height because of the variation of RDSD. Significant errors may result if a fixed Z-R relation is used to estimate rainfall rate or rain evaporation amount. The dynamical interactions between rain evaporation and mesoscale downdraft are studied using a 2-D model. The simulated magnitudes of downdraft and cooling rate due to rain evaporation agree well with observations. The 2-D simulations also reveal the details of the 2-D structures of the buoyancy force and pressure gradient force, which are not easily observable. Sensitivity tests with the 2-D model show that rainfall rate is the most important parameter which determines the cooling and downdraft strength in stratiform region. The cooling and downward mass transport in stratiform regions over the tropical areas may be estimated fairly accurately from the knowledge of the duration, coverage, and rainfall rate of the stratiform rain. These can be easily observed by, for example, a space-borne radar.

Li, Xiaowen

2002-01-01

265

A model of the biogeographical journey from Proto-pan to Pan paniscus.  

PubMed

Pan paniscus is unique in the group of African apes because of its range south of the Congo River. Examination of the bio-geographical journey of the genus Pan to the species P. paniscus is important when discussing the evolution of African apes. This paper is a review of the paleo-geographic events, the zoogeography, and faunal sorting which influenced P. paniscus divergence from the Proto-pan ancestor within the recent Miocene through Pliocene Epochs, approximately 10-2 MYA. Finally, by elucidating modern day evidence of food plant forms in the southern periphery exploited by P. paniscus in the forest/savanna mosaic habitat, we are able to conclude with those extrinsic events that most influenced the occurrence and distribution of P. paniscus. PMID:12687485

Myers Thompson, Jo A

2003-04-01

266

Pan Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences, 2001 Paper FP-1025  

E-print Network

2nd Pan Pacific Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences, 2001 Paper FP-1025 THE CQ EXPERIMENT could not be made close to Tc(Q). The CQ experiment will make use of the microgravity environment Basin Workshop on Microgravity Sciences, 2001 2 rate, and hence must be out-of-equilibrium at some level

Goodstein, David

267

DETECTING IMAGE REGION DUPLICATION USING SIFT FEATURES Xunyu Pan and Siwei Lyu  

E-print Network

DETECTING IMAGE REGION DUPLICATION USING SIFT FEATURES Xunyu Pan and Siwei Lyu Computer Science in terms of the detection accuracy and the false positive rate. Index Terms-- image forensics, region). In recent years, several methods have been proposed to detect region duplication for the purpose of image

Lyu, Siwei

268

Instability of Evaporation Fronts in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral component of the interstellar medium is segregated into the cold neutral medium (CNM) and warm neutral medium (WNM) as a result of thermal instability. It was found that a plane-parallel CNM-WNM evaporation interface, across which the CNM undergoes thermal expansion, is linearly unstable to corrugational disturbances, in complete analogy with the Darrieus-Landau instability (DLI) of terrestrial flames. We perform a full linear stability analysis as well as nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations of the DLI of such evaporation fronts in the presence of thermal conduction. We find that the DLI is suppressed at short length scales by conduction. The length and time scales of the fastest growing mode are inversely proportional to the evaporation flow speed of the CNM and its square, respectively. In the nonlinear stage, the DLI saturates to a steady state where the front deforms to a finger-like shape protruding toward the WNM, without generating turbulence. The evaporation rate at nonlinear saturation is larger than the initial plane-parallel value by a factor of ~2.4 when the equilibrium thermal pressure is 1800 k B cm-3 K. The degrees of front deformation and evaporation-rate enhancement at nonlinear saturation are determined primarily by the density ratio between the CNM and WNM. We demonstrate that the Field length in the thermally unstable medium should be resolved by at least four grid points to obtain reliable numerical outcomes involving thermal instability.

Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae

2013-12-01

269

Evaporation from Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, 1997-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Mead is one of a series of large Colorado River reservoirs operated and maintained by the Bureau of Reclamation. The Colorado River system of reservoirs and diversions is an important source of water for millions of people in seven Western States and Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study from 1997 to 1999 to estimate evaporation from Lake Mead. For this study, micrometeorological and hydrologic data were collected continually from instrumented platforms deployed at four locations on the lake, open-water areas of Boulder Basin, Virgin Basin, and Overton Arm and a protected cove in Boulder Basin. Data collected at the platforms were used to estimate Lake Mead evaporation by solving an energy-budget equation. The average annual evaporation rate at open-water stations from January 1998 to December 1999 was 7.5 feet. Because the spatial variation of monthly and annual evaporation rates was minimal for the open-water stations, a single open-water station in Boulder Basin would provide data that are adequate to estimate evaporation from Lake Mead.

Westenburg, Craig L.; DeMeo, Guy A.; Tanko, Daron J.

2006-01-01

270

Slow-blue PanSTARRS transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 50 blue, nuclear "transients" in PanSTARRS-1 has revealed different types of extremely variable AGN. The majority show a gradual brightening by ~2 mag from the SDSS observation a decade ago and may represent a new class of AGN microlensed by foreground galaxies. Spectra from the William Herschel Telescope identify these as z~1 AGN with atypical spectroscopic properties. We present an analysis of their photometric and spectroscopic variability in an effort to constrain the detailed structure of the source AGN.

MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Bruce, Alastair; Lawrence, Andy; Ward, Martin; Collinson, James; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Smartt, Steven; Smith, Ken; Wright, Darryl; Fraser, Morgan

2015-01-01

271

PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

2014-08-01

272

Microdisk fabrication by emulsion evaporation  

E-print Network

the resulted microdisk size and the initial concentration of �±-eicosene in chloroform before evaporation. The smectic liquid crystalline phase inside the wax particles controls the coin-like disk shape below the melting temperature of waxâ��s rotator...

Wong, Susanna Wing Man

2007-09-17

273

4. Terminology 7. Evaporation Results  

E-print Network

as the trees leafed out Microlysimeters · 15 cm steel tube · buried in soil, in PVC sleeve · pulled and weighed the dry season into the rainy season as the trees were leafing out within a sprinkler- irrigated pecan Irrigation July 18th Irrigation · Evaporation was lower later the season as the trees were leafing out

Papuga, Shirley A.

274

Operational estimates of lake evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morton, F.I., 1983. Operational estimates of lake evaporation. J. Hydrol., 66: 77-- 100. The complementary relationship between areal and potential evapotranspiration takes into account the changes in the temperature and humidity of the air as it passes from a land environment to a lake environment. Minor changes convert the latest version of the complementary relationship areal evapotranspiration (CRAE) models to

F. I. MORTON

1983-01-01

275

Dynamics of Soil Water Evaporation during Soil Drying: Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68?cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71?cm during stage 3. PMID:24489492

Han, Jiangbo; Zhou, Zhifang

2013-01-01

276

Evaporative Water Loss in Box Turtles: Effects of Rostral Brainstem and Other Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Box turtles were implanted with thermodes astride the preoptic tissue of the brainstem. The rate of evaporative water loss could be transiently increased by heating the rostral brainstem. Heating tissue in the anterior hypothalamus affected evaporative water loss only at high ambient temperatures. The magnitude of the response was proportional both to the change in hypothalamic temperature and to the

K. R. Morgareidge; H. T. Hammel

1975-01-01

277

A note on estimating the effect of a limited fetch on micrometeorological evaporation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formula for the effective fetch of micrometeorological evaporation measurements is derived by application of diffusion theory, using Calder's approximation of a uniform wind field and neutral atmospheric stability. This simplification allows estimation of the likely sampling error, which would result from an upwind step-change in evaporation rate, without change in roughness.

J. H. C. Gash

1986-01-01

278

Spent-fuel pool thermal hydraulics: The evaporation question  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many nuclear power plants are currently using dense fuel arrangements that increase the number of spent fuel elements stored in their spent-fuel pools (SFPs). The denser spent-fuel storage results in higher water temperatures, especially when certain event scenarios are analyzed. In some of these event scenarios, it is conservative to maximize the evaporation rate, while in other circumstances it is

T. P. Yilmaz; J. C. Lai

1996-01-01

279

Evaporative cooling of speleothem drip water  

PubMed Central

This study describes the first use of concurrent high-precision temperature and drip rate monitoring to explore what controls the temperature of speleothem forming drip water. Two contrasting sites, one with fast transient and one with slow constant dripping, in a temperate semi-arid location (Wellington, NSW, Australia), exhibit drip water temperatures which deviate significantly from the cave air temperature. We confirm the hypothesis that evaporative cooling is the dominant, but so far unattributed, control causing significant disequilibrium between drip water and host rock/air temperatures. The amount of cooling is dependent on the drip rate, relative humidity and ventilation. Our results have implications for the interpretation of temperature-sensitive, speleothem climate proxies such as ?18O, cave microecology and the use of heat as a tracer in karst. Understanding the processes controlling the temperature of speleothem-forming cave drip waters is vital for assessing the reliability of such deposits as archives of climate change. PMID:24895139

Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C. E.; Markowska, M.; Jex, C. N.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.; Acworth, R. I.; Baker, A.

2014-01-01

280

On-board Processing to Advance the PanFTS Imaging System for GEO-CAPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging instrument designed to record atmospheric spectra of the Earth from the vantage point of a geosynchronous orbit. Each observation covers a scene of 128x128 pixels. In order to retrieve multiple chemical families and perform passive vertical profiling, the recorded spectra will cover a wide wavelength range, from the thermal infrared to the near ultraviolet. The small size of the nadir ground-sampling distance and the desire to re-visit each scene hourly result in a PanFTS design that challenges the downlink capabilities of current radio communication. The PanFTS on-board processing will reduce downlink rates by converting time-domain interferograms to band-limited spectra, hence achieving a factor 20 in data reduction. In this paper, we report on the first year progress of this NASA AIST-11 task and on the adaptation of existing Virtex-5 FPGA designs to support the PanFTS Focal Plane Array control and data interfaces. We have produced a software demonstration of the current PanFTS data reduction algorithms. The real-time processing of the interferometer metrology laser signal is the first step required for the conversion of time-domain interferograms to path difference. This laser processing is now performed entirely as digital signal processing inside the Virtex-5 FPGA and also allows for tip/tilt correction of the interferometer mirrors, a task that was previously performed only with complicated and inflexible analog electronics.

Sander, S. P.; Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Bryk, M.; Franklin, B.; Hayden, J.; Ryan, M.; Werne, T. A.

2013-12-01

281

Simultaneously Maintaining the Complementary Relationship and the Conservation of Evaporative Fraction During the Daytime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Complementary Relationship CR between actual and potential evaporation and the self-preservation of the evaporative fraction EF during the daytime have both been extensively explored and applied. The CR says that increases in potential evaporation Ep (e.g., pan evaporation or evaporation from Penman's equation) above the wet surface value E0, indicate decreases in actual regional evaporation E. That is, as the regional surface dries, regional evaporation E decreases, leading to drier, warmer air and higher potential evaporation Ep. This fact can be used (e.g., in the Advection-Aridity approach, AA) to estimate regional evaporation E knowing only available energy (Rn-G, where Rn is net radiation and G is ground heat flux) and measurements at one height of wind speed, temperature and humidity. Self-preservation of EF means that EF [LE/(Rn-G), where LE is the latent heat flux] tends to remain relatively constant during much of the daytime on a single day. Thus a single daytime estimate of EF can be used to estimate daily or daytime total evaporation if daytime available energy is known. CR and self-preservation of EF are both supported by substantial empirical evidence under a range of 'typical' conditions. Yet, no definitive proof of either concept has been found--they remain intuitive concepts. Their usefulness as concepts is that they help researchers to develop a mental framework of the evaporation process, at the same time providing a powerful way to leverage sparse data. To explore how the two concepts work together on a single day, a 3-dimensional surface representing dimensionless E is developed based on the Penman-Monteith equation. Lines corresponding to constant EF and to the AA equation can be traced along the evaporation surface. Since these two lines do not follow the same trajectory, simultaneously following the AA trajectory and maintaining a constant EF during a day on which weather conditions are constantly changing seems problematic. However, a slightly different graph shows that trajectories exist for which EF is constant and the AA equation is maintained, even as weather conditions change. Thus, conservation of EF and the CR are compatible concepts. A case study using field data illustrates these concepts.

Crago, R. D.; Qualls, R. J.

2013-12-01

282

Clogging of Manifolds with Evaporatively Frozen Propellants. Part 2; Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanisms of evaporative freezing of leaking propellant and the creation of flow stoppages within injector manifolds is discussed. A quantitative analysis of the conditions, including the existence of minimum and maximum leak rates, for the accumulation of evaporatively frozen propellant is presented. Clogging of the injector manifolds of the Apollo SPS and the Gemini OAMS engines by the freezing of leaking propellant is predicted and the seriousness of the consequences are discussed. Based on the analysis a realistic evaluation of selected techniques to eliminate flow stoppages by frozen propellant is made.

Simmon, J. A.; Gift, R. D.; Spurlock, J. M.

1966-01-01

283

21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated...

2010-04-01

284

21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated...

2011-04-01

285

21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated...

2014-04-01

286

21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated...

2013-04-01

287

21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated...

2012-04-01

288

Electrical activation of PAN-Pt artificial muscles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are known to elongate and contract when immersed in caustic and acidic solutions, respectively. The change in length for these pH activated fibers is greater than 100% and are comparable in strength to human muscle, yet need of strong acids and bases for actuation has limited the use of PAN fibers as linear actuators or artificial muscles. Increasing the conductivity of PAN by depositing platinum within the fibers has allowed for electrical activation of PAN artificial muscles when it is placed in an electrochemical cell. The electrolysis of water in such a cell produces hydrogen ions at a PAN anode, thus locally decreasing the pH and causing the PAN muscle to contract. Reversing the electric field allows the PAN muscle to elongate. A 40% change in PAN muscle length in less than 10 minutes is observed when it is placed as an electrode in a 10 mM NaCl electrolyte solution and connected to a 20 volt power supply. These initial results indicate potential in developing electrically activated PAN muscles and linear actuators, which would be much more applicable than chemically activated PAN.

Schreyer, H. Brett; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.

1999-05-01

289

Isotopic Compositions of Evaporative Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic fluxes of evaporation from a water surface are typically computed using a one-dimensional model, originally conceptualized by Craig and Gordon (1965) and further developed and adapted to different natural settings (such as transpiration, open surface evaporation, etc.) by various investigators. These models have two distinguishing characteristics. First, there exists a laminar layer where molecular diffusion away from the water-air interface causes kinetic isotopic fractionation. The magnitude of this fractionation is controlled by the diffusion/transport coefficient of each vapor isotopologue in air and their concentration gradients, the latter being controlled by relative humidity, isotopic ratios of ambient air, and turbulent conditions (such as wind and surface roughness). Second, the horizontal variations are ignored. In particular, the effect of horizontal advection on isotopic variations in the ambient air is not considered. The research reported here addresses the effects of relinquishing the simplifying assumptions in both of these areas. We developed a model, in which the simplification of a purely laminar layer is dropped. Instead, we express the vertical transport coefficient as the sum of the molecular diffusivity, that differs for each water isotopologue, and the turbulent diffusivity that increases linearly with height but does not vary among water isotopologues. With this model, the kinetic isotopic effect reduces with height in the vicinity of the water surface, and the net isotopic fractionation through the boundary layer can be integrated. The advantage of this conceptualization is that the magnitude of kinetic isotopic fractionation can be assessed directly with changing environmental conditions, such as humidity and wind speed, rather than approximated by discontinuous empirical functions of the environmental conditions, as in the conventional models mentioned above. To address the effect of lateral heterogeneity, we expanded the model to 2-D and incorporated horizontal advection. The effect of advection was tested and modeled with data collected at several lakes located near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. As predicted by the model, we observed both vertical as well as horizontal gradients as relatively dry and isotopically depleted air advects over a lake surface. Compared to the standard 1-D model, the 2-D model produced more realistic but significantly depleted isotopic fluxes of evaporation within 500 meters from the upwind shore. This is because of the time and/or distance needed for the dry air to equilibrate with vapor evaporated from the lake. The results suggest that the 1-D model is not adequate for simulating evaporation when the fetch over the water surface is small. This result is important for lake hydrological studies and for understanding and modeling isotopic fluxes of evaporation from sea ice leads that are of limited fetch.

Feng, X.; Lauder, A. M.; Kopec, B. G.; Dade, W. B.; Virginia, R. A.; Posmentier, E. S.

2013-12-01

290

Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

Choudhury, B. J.

1990-01-01

291

Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale.  

PubMed

This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two nano-channels filled with the same liquid. Evaporation is simulated in the meniscus by increasing the temperature of the platinum wall for two different cases. Non-evaporating films are obtained at the center of the meniscus. The liquid film in the non-evaporating and adjacent regions is found to be under high absolute negative pressures. Cavitation cannot occur in these regions as the capillary height is smaller than the critical cavitation radius. Factors which determine the critical film thickness for rupture are discussed. Thus, high negative liquid pressures can be stable at the nanoscale, and utilized to create passive pumping devices as well as significantly enhance heat transfer rates. PMID:21711621

Maroo, Shalabh C; Chung, Jn

2011-01-01

292

Evaporation from partially covered water surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporative losses from large water bodies may exceed 20% of water used in irrigated agriculture, with losses from reservoirs estimated at 50% of storage capacity. Prominent among proposed methods to curtail these evaporative losses are various forms of partial covers placed over water surfaces. Studies show that evaporation through perforated covers and from partially covered water surfaces exhibit nonlinear behavior,

S. Assouline; K. Narkis; D. Or

2010-01-01

293

Hierarchically Organized Structures Engineered from Controlled Evaporative  

E-print Network

Hierarchically Organized Structures Engineered from Controlled Evaporative Self-Assembly Myunghwan By constraining an asymmetric comb block copolymer (CBCP) toluene solution to evaporate in a wedge-on-Si geometry of CBCP at the microscopic scale were yielded as a direct consequence of controlled evaporative self

Lin, Zhiqun

294

4, 58075829, 2004 Evaporation of PSC  

E-print Network

ACPD 4, 5807­5829, 2004 Evaporation of PSC particles in a heated inlet T. Eidhammer and T. Deshler and Physics Discussions Technical Note: Evaporation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, in situ. Eidhammer (trude@uwyo.edu) 5807 #12;ACPD 4, 5807­5829, 2004 Evaporation of PSC particles in a heated inlet T

Boyer, Edmond

295

3, 67216732, 2003 Evaporation of high  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 6721­6732, 2003 Evaporation of high speed sporadic meteors E. Murad and C. Roth Title Page.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/3/6721/ © European Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaporation.murad@hanscom.af.mil) 6721 #12;ACPD 3, 6721­6732, 2003 Evaporation of high speed sporadic meteors E. Murad and C. Roth Title

Boyer, Edmond

296

TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of  

E-print Network

TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo-evaporation

Throop, Henry

297

THE POLARON EVAPORATION SYSTEM OPERATION MANUAL  

E-print Network

THE POLARON EVAPORATION SYSTEM OPERATION MANUAL Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering a smaller desktop version of the Veeco thermal evaporation system. Like the Veeco, the system consists for thermal evaporation of material using resistive heating. Unlike the Veeco, there is no cold trap

Wager, John F.

298

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation?  

E-print Network

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation? Henry Throop John Bally SWRI Univ.Colorado / CASA DPS 12-Oct-2004 #12;Orion Nebula Photo-evaporation by extr 4 O/B stars, UV-bright, 105 solar luminosities 2000 solar-type stars with disks Photo-evaporation (PE) by external O/B stars removes disks on 105

Throop, Henry

299

Interpolation of Makkink evaporation in the Netherlands  

E-print Network

Interpolation of Makkink evaporation in the Netherlands Paul Hiemstra and Raymond Sluiter De Bilt, 2011 | Technical report; TR-327 #12;#12;Interpolation of Makkink evaporation in the Netherlands Versie 1.0 Datum 25 oktober 2011 Status Definitief #12;#12;Interpolation of Makkink evaporation

Stoffelen, Ad

300

The dynamics of water evaporation from partially  

E-print Network

The dynamics of water evaporation from partially solvated Cytochrome c in the gas phase Michal Z of evaporation of water from biological macromolecules is important for the understanding of electrospray mass from solutions of, for example, proteins. Then evaporation of the solvent leads to dry protein ions

Elber, Ron

301

Evaporation Mechanism of Sn and SnS from Liquid Fe: Part II: Residual Site and Evaporation Kinetics via Sn(g) and SnS(g)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation of Sn from molten steel was experimentally investigated for Fe-Sn-S alloy with low initial S (0.0007 < [pct S]0 < 0.05) or with high initial S (0.55 < [pct S]0 < 0.894) at 1873 K (1600 °C) using an electromagnetic levitation melting technique, in order to clarify the role of S on the evaporation mechanism of Sn. It was found that increasing initial S concentration, [pct S]0, decreased the second-order evaporation rate constant of Sn ( k SnS), but there was a residual rate for the evaporation even at high [pct S]0. The obtained residual rate constant, , was 1.4 × 10-9 m4 mol-1 s-1 at 1873 K (1600 °C). Evaporation of Sn under virtually no S condition ([pct S]0 = 0.0007) was also measured and corresponding first-order rate constant was determined to be 3.49 × 10-7 m s-1 at 1873 K (1600 °C). A comprehensive model for the Sn evaporation from molten Fe-Sn-S alloy was developed in the present study, under the condition where mass transfer in gas and liquid phases were fast and interfacial chemical reaction controlled the evaporation of Sn. The model equation is able to represent the evaporation of Sn in the forms of Sn(g) and SnS(g) simultaneously, from very low S melt (when there is no S) to very high S melt investigated in the present study up to ~0.9 mass pct. Gradual transition of major evaporation species from SnS(g) to Sn(g) was well accounted for by the developed model.

Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae; Seo, Jeong-Do; Park, Joong-Kil; Choi, Joo

2015-02-01

302

Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the quantitative effect of the lubrication oil on the thermal and hydraulic evaporator performance, the detailed structure of two-phase refrigerant (R11) and lubrication oil (Suniso 5GS) flow has been investigated. Experiment has been performed using a transparent tube 20mm in inner diameter and 2600mm in total length as main test section, which was heated by surrounding hot water bath. This water bath also functioned as the visual observation section of the transition of two-phase flow pattern. Oil mass concentration was controlled initially, and circulated into the system. The void fraction at the main test section was measured by direct volume measurement using so-called "Quick Closing Valve" method. Since the effect of oil on the transition of two-phase flow pattern is emphasized at the low flow rate, operation was made at relatively low mass velocity, 50 and 100 kg/m2·s, five different oil concentrations were taken. Throughout the experiment, the evaporation pressure was kept at 105 kPa. In general, when contamination of the lubrication oil happened, the void fraction was decreasing due to the change of viscosity and surface tension and the occurence of the foaming. To correlate the void fraction as function of quality, Zivi's expression was modified to include the effect of oil concentration. The agreement between the data and this proposed correlation was favorable. Finally, to take into account the effect of lubrication oil, the new flow pattern diagram was proposed.

Jong-Soo, Kim; Nagata, Katsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

303

Influence of electron evaporative cooling on ultracold plasma expansion  

SciTech Connect

The expansion of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCP) is driven primarily by the thermal pressure of the electron component and is therefore sensitive to the electron temperature. For typical UCP spatial extents, evaporative cooling has a significant influence on the UCP expansion rate at lower densities (less than 10{sup 8}/cm{sup 3}). We studied the effect of electron evaporation in this density range. Owing to the low density, the effects of three-body recombination were negligible. We modeled the expansion by taking into account the change in electron temperature owing to evaporation as well as adiabatic expansion and found good agreement with our data. We also developed a simple model for initial evaporation over a range of ultracold plasma densities, sizes, and electron temperatures to determine over what parameter range electron evaporation is expected to have a significant effect. We also report on a signal calibration technique, which relates the signal at our detector to the total number of ions and electrons in the ultracold plasma.

Wilson, Truman; Chen, Wei-Ting; Roberts, Jacob [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2013-07-15

304

A spatially explicit model of runoff, evaporation, and lake extent: Application to modern and late Pleistocene lakes in the Great Basin region, western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatially explicit hydrological model was applied to the Great Basin in the western United States to predict runoff magnitude and lake distributions under modern and late Pleistocene conditions. The model iteratively routes runoff through depression to find a steady state solution and was calibrated with mean annual precipitation, pan evaporation, temperature, and stream runoff data. The predicted lake distribution

Yo Matsubara; Alan D. Howard

2009-01-01

305

Soil, Water and Atmospheric Processes 2h Tutorial Evaporation Simulation of Evaporation.  

E-print Network

Soil, Water and Atmospheric Processes 2h Tutorial ­ Evaporation 1 of 4 Simulation of Evaporation. This tutorial will help reinforce some of the lecture material on water vapour, evaporation and turbulent transfer processes. You will use a simulation model of the evaporation process (essentially the Penman

Moncrieff, John B.

306

Dynamical evaporation of quantum horizons  

E-print Network

We describe the black hole evaporation process driven by the dynamical evolution of the quantum gravitational degrees of freedom resident at the horizon, as identified by the loop quantum gravity kinematics. Using a parallel with the Brownian motion, we interpret the first law of quantum dynamical horizon in terms of a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In this way, the horizon evolution is described in terms of relaxation to an equilibrium state balanced by the excitation of Planck scale constituents of the horizon. This discrete quantum hair structure associated to the horizon geometry produces a deviation from thermality in the radiation spectrum. We investigate the final stage of the evaporation process and show how the dynamics leads to the formation of a massive remnant, which can eventually decay. Implications for the information paradox are discussed.

Daniele Pranzetti

2012-11-12

307

22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. View looking toward east end of sorghum pan and interior of east end of the boiling house. Walls and final compartment of the sorghum pan are still intact. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

308

Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics  

E-print Network

Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim*, Peter addresses how to incorporate meteo- rological statistics into evaporative duct estimation within a Bayesian framework. 1 Regional Statistics and Evaporation Duct Inversion Algorithm Evaporation duct refractivity

Gerstoft, Peter

309

On the role of physiochemical properties on evaporation behavior of DISI biofuel sprays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofuels and alternative fuels are increasingly being blended to conventional gasoline fuel to reduce the overall CO2 emissions. The effect on NOx and soot formation is still unclear as the atomization and evaporation of gasoline with biocomponents differ depending on fuel specific physiochemical properties. This work focuses on describing the biofuel evaporation behavior of gasoline sprays at homogeneous charge (early injection timing) and stratified-charge conditions (late injection timing mode) used in modern direct injection spark ignition engines (DISI). A spray plume of a 6-hole solenoid injector is analyzed in terms of liquid spray propagation, and local droplet sizes studied in an injection chamber. Depending on the operating conditions, different physiochemical properties are found to dominate the atomization and evaporation processes: For low and moderate ambient temperature and pressure, high-boiling point components show a strong influence on the spray droplet size distribution. However, at elevated temperature and pressure, the evaporation behavior changes completely. Due to a high degree of evaporation, the evaporation cooling effect dominates the local droplet sizes. Fuel mixtures owing a larger heat of vaporization show larger droplet sizes—even if these fuels have a lower boiling point. Depending on the local evaporation behavior, the different remaining droplet momentum in the spray controls the air entrainment and the subsequent progress of evaporation and mixing. Overall, it can be stated that the heat of vaporization is a dominating physiochemical property for the droplet evaporation rate at high-level supercharged conditions.

Knorsch, Tobias; Heldmann, Markus; Zigan, Lars; Wensing, Michael; Leipertz, Alfred

2013-06-01

310

Characterization of probiotic Escherichia coli isolates with a novel pan-genome microarray  

PubMed Central

Background Microarrays have recently emerged as a novel procedure to evaluate the genetic content of bacterial species. So far, microarrays have mostly covered single or few strains from the same species. However, with cheaper high-throughput sequencing techniques emerging, multiple strains of the same species are rapidly becoming available, allowing for the definition and characterization of a whole species as a population of genomes - the 'pan-genome'. Results Using 32 Escherichia coli and Shigella genome sequences we estimate the pan- and core genome of the species. We designed a high-density microarray in order to provide a tool for characterization of the E. coli pan-genome. Technical performance of this pan-genome microarray based on control strain samples (E. coli K-12 and O157:H7) demonstrated a high sensitivity and relatively low false positive rate. A single-channel analysis approach is robust while allowing the possibility for deriving presence/absence predictions for any gene included on our pan-genome microarray. Moreover, the array was highly sufficient to investigate the gene content of non-pathogenic isolates, despite the strong bias towards pathogenic E. coli strains that have been sequenced so far. Conclusion This high-density microarray provides an excellent tool for characterizing the genetic makeup of unknown E. coli strains and can also deliver insights into phylogenetic relationships. Its design poses a considerably larger challenge and involves different considerations than the design of single strain microarrays. Here, lessons learned and future directions will be discussed in order to optimize design of microarrays targeting entire pan-genomes. PMID:18088402

Willenbrock, Hanni; Hallin, Peter F; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

2007-01-01

311

Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models  

PubMed Central

Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux. PMID:22303142

Melesse, Assefa M.; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

2009-01-01

312

Evaporation estimation of rift valley lakes: comparison of models.  

PubMed

Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux. PMID:22303142

Melesse, Assefa M; Abtew, Wossenu; Dessalegne, Tibebe

2009-01-01

313

Evaporator Development for an Evaporative Heat Pipe System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As fossil fuel resources continue to deplete, research for alternate power sources continues to develop. One of these alternate technologies is fuel cells. They are a practical fuel source able to provide significant amounts of power for applications from laptops to automobiles and their only byproduct is water. However, although this technology is over a century old and NASA has been working with it since the early 1960 s there is still room for improvement. The research I am involved in at NASA's Glenn Research Center is focusing on what is called a regenerative fuel cell system. The unique characteristic of this type of system is that it used an outside power source to create electrolysis of the water it produces and it then reuses the hydrogen and oxygen to continue producing power. The advantage of this type of system is that, for example, on space missions it can use solar power to recharge its gas supplies between periods when the object being orbited blocks out the sun. This particular system however is far from completion. This is because of the many components that are required to make up a fuel cell that need to be tested individually. The specific part of the system that is being worked on this summer of 2004 is the cooling system. The fuel cell stack, that is the part that actually creates the power, also produces a lot of heat. When not properly cooled, it has been known to cause fires which, needless to say are not conducive to the type of power that is trying to be created. In order to cool the fuel cell stack in this system we are developing a heat pipe cooling system. One of the main components of a heat pipe cooling system is what is known as the evaporator, and that is what happens to be the part of the system we are developing this summer. In most heat pipe systems the evaporator is a tube in which the working fluid is cooled and then re-circulated through the system to absorb more heat energy from the fuel cell stack. For this system, instead of a tube, the evaporator is made up of a stack-up of screen material and absorbent membranes inside a stainless steel shell and held together by a film adhesive and epoxy. There is an initial design for this flat plate evaporator, however is has not yet been made. The components of the stack-up are known, so all testing is focused on how it will all go together. This includes finding an appropriate epoxy to make the evaporator conductive all the way through and finding a way to hold the required tight tolerances as the stainless steel outer shell is put together. By doing the tests on smaller samples of the stack-ups and then testing the fill size component, the final flat plate evaporator will reach its final design so that research can continue on other parts of the regenerative fue1 cell system, and another step in the improvement of fue1 cell technology can be made.

Peters, Leigh C.

2004-01-01

314

Patterns of Pan expression and role of Pan proteins in endocrine cell type-specific complex formation.  

PubMed

The Pan gene encodes at least two distinct transcripts, Pan-1 and Pan-2 (also known as E47 and E12, respectively), by the mechanism of alternative RNA splicing. Northern blot analyses performed on rat and mouse tissues have detected ubiquitously expressed Pan transcripts, but the abundance, distribution, and form of Pan proteins have not been clearly defined. Studies of cell lines representing endocrine, fibroblast, and lymphoid lineages using polyclonal antisera to detect E2A proteins have suggested that significant E2A protein expression is restricted to B-lymphocytes. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, Yae, which is specific for Pan/E2A proteins, and have used the Yae antibody to examine a variety of endocrine and nonendocrine cell lineages for differences in Pan/E2A protein expression, subcellular localization, and heteromeric complex formation. In contrast to previous results obtained using polyclonal antiseras to detect Pan/E2A proteins, we report comparable levels of Pan proteins in GH/PRL- and insulin-producing, B- and T-lymphocyte cells. IEF-1, a pancreatic beta-cell type-specific complex believed to regulate insulin expression, is demonstrated to consist of at least two distinct species, one of which does not contain Pan molecules. Although it has been postulated that pituitary endocrine cells and pancreatic endocrine beta-cells share identical Pan/E2A complexes, native-Western analyses of pituitary and endocrine beta-cells detect Pan proteins in distinct cell type-specific complexes. PMID:8170476

Vierra, C A; Jacobs, Y; Ly, L; Nelson, C

1994-02-01

315

Kinetics of evaporation of forsterite and Fe-Mg olivine in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation of forsterite, which plays an important role in chemical and isotope fractionation in the early solar nebula, is governed by surface kinetics strongly affected by surface conditions, such as surface roughness as well as density and orientation of dislocation outcrops. We have revealed anisotropies in evaporation rate and surface microstructure of forsterite and Fe-Mg olivine [1-3]. In order to better understand the kinetics of evaporation of forsteriete and olivine, we carried out experiments in a wider range of temperature and examined evaporation mode on the basis of temperature dependence of evaporation rates and surface microstructures. Experiments were carried out in a vacuum chamber internally heated by W mesh heater. Starting materials are single crystals of synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-Mg olivine (Fo~90), which are cut into crystallographically oriented rectangular parallelepipeds. The experimental temperature in the present and our previous studies ranged from 1300 to 1600 °C for Fe-Mg olivine and from 1500 to 1800 °C for forsterite. Surface microstructures of experimental residues were observed with SEM and EBSD, and face-specific evaporation rates were calculated from sample sizes and weight losses on at least three parallelepipeds with different [001]:[010]:[001] ratios. Development of Fe-Mg zoning due to preferential evaporation of Fe and Fe-Mg lattice diffusion in the sample was taken into consideration in rate estimation for olivine evaporation. The experimental results for both forsterite and olivine experiments demonstrated systematic temperature dependence of anisotropy in evaporation rate: (010)>(001)>(010) above ~1750°C, (001)>(100)>(010) at temperatures between ~1750 and ~1500°C, and (001)>(010)>(100) below ~1500°C. The maximum anistoropy in the evaporation rate is factor of 5 below ~1750°C, but the anisotropy is significantly suppressed above ~1750°C, where the differences among three evaporation rates are within 70% at ~1800°C. These crossovers in evaporation rate were intimately associated with changes in surface microstructures not directly related to surface morphologies originated from dislocation outcrops. Facets of (010) disappear on the (010) surface above ~1750°C, and (100) facets appear on the (100) surface below ~1500°C, which is consistently observed both for forsterite and olivine. The facets observed in SEM were confirmed to be atomistically flat consisting of stacking of layers with one or few unit-cells height through STM observations. On the contrary, non-facetted surfaces were confirmed to be atomistically rough. Therefore, the rate crossovers are attributed to rough-smooth transitions [4-5] at ~1500°C for (100) and at ~1750°C for (010). Such rough-smooth transition for the (001) surface is expected to exist below ~1500°C. The anisotropy in the rough-smooth transition temperature identified for forsterite and olivine cannot be explained solely by the differences in slice energy or attachment energy (anisotropy in bond stength) for the three crystallographic faces [6], which predicts that the transition temperture decreases in the order of (010), (001), and (100). The presence of Fe notably enhances stoichiometric evaporation of Fe-Mg olivine at 1500°C without forming any reaction product [3]. This suggests that stoichiometric evaporation from olivine or congruent evaporation from forsterite is controlled by removal of Mg2+ and Fe2+ from either the M1 or M2 site followed by spontaneous destruction of SiO4 tetrahedron at least above 1500°C, which is required not to result in incongruent evaporation forming enstatite layer. On the contrary, Fe-Mg olivine evaporates nonstoichiometrically to form enstatite at the forsterite surface at ~1300°C (Ozawa and Nagahara, 2002), where removal of Fe2+ or Mg2+ is not the rate-controlling process but Si removal or breaking Si-O bonds governs the overall reaction. The slow removal of Si results in nonstoichiometric evaporation via reaction with olivine residue to produce enstatite on the sur

Ozawa, K.; Nagahara, H.

2009-04-01

316

Evaporation from Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, March 2010 through February 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation from Lake Mead was measured using the eddy-covariance method for the 2-year period starting March 2010 and ending February 2012. When corrected for energy imbalances, annual eddy-covariance evaporation was 2,074 and 1,881 millimeters (81.65 and 74.07 inches), within the range of previous estimates. There was a 9-percent decrease in the evaporation rate and a 10-percent increase in the lake surface area during the second year of the study compared to the first. These offsetting factors resulted in a nearly identical 720 million cubic meters (584,000 acre feet) evaporation volume for both years. Monthly evaporation rates were best correlated with wind speed, vapor pressure difference, and atmospheric stability. Differences between individual monthly evaporation and mean monthly evaporation were as much as 20 percent. Net radiation provided most of the energy available for evaporative processes; however, advected heat from the Colorado River was an important energy source during the second year of the study. Peak evaporation lagged peak net radiation by 2 months because a larger proportion of the net radiation that reaches the lake goes to heating up the water column during the spring and summer months. As most of this stored energy is released, higher evaporation rates are sustained during fall months even though net radiation declines. The release of stored heat also fueled nighttime evaporation, which accounted for 37 percent of total evaporation. The annual energy-balance ratio was 0.90 on average and varied only 0.01 between the 2 years, thus implying that 90 percent of estimated available energy was accounted for by turbulent energy measured using the eddy-covariance method. More than 90 percent of the turbulent-flux source area represented the open-water surface, and 94 percent of 30-minute turbulent-flux measurements originated from wind directions where the fetch ranged from 2,000 to 16,000 meters. Evaporation uncertainties were estimated to be 5 to 7 percent. A secondary evaporation method, the Bowen ratio energy budget method, also was employed to measure evaporation from Lake Mead primarily as a validation of eddy-covariance evaporation measurements at annual timescales. There was good agreement between annual corrected eddy-covariance and Bowen ratio energy budget evaporation estimates, providing strong validation of these two largely independent methods. Annual Bowen ratio energy budget evaporation was 6 and 8 percent greater than eddy-covariance evaporation for the 2 study years, and both methods indicated there was a similar decrease in evaporation from the first to the second year. Both methods produced negative sensible heat fluxes during the same months, and there was a strong correlation between monthly Bowen ratios (R2 = 0.94). The correlation between monthly evaporation (R2 = 0.65), however, was not as strong. Monthly differences in evaporation were attributed primarily to heat storage estimate uncertainty.

Moreo, Michael T.; Swancar, Amy

2013-01-01

317

Testing of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Engineering Development Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamilton Sundstrand is under contract with the NASA Johnson Space Center to develop a scalable, evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It is being designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. The current Shuttle configuration utilizes an ammonia boiler and flash evaporator system to achieve cooling at all altitudes. The MFE system combines both functions into a single compact package with significant weight reduction and improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. The full scale MFE prototype will be constructed with four core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A sub-scale MFE engineering development unit (EDU) has been built, and is identical to one of the four sections of a full scale prototype. The EDU has completed testing at Hamilton Sundstrand. The overall test objective was to determine the thermal performance of the EDU. The first set of tests simulated how each of the four sections of the prototype would perform by varying the chamber pressure, evaporant flow rate, coolant flow rate and coolant temperature. A second set of tests was conducted with an outlet steam header in place to verify that the outlet steam orifices prevent freeze-up in the core while also allowing the desired thermal turn-down ratio. This paper discusses the EDU tests and results.

Quinn, Gregory; O'Connor, Ed; Riga, Ken; Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

2007-01-01

318

A simple technique for modulating the output of a cw e-beam evaporator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modulation of evaporation rate is desirable as it significantly increases the signal detection capability by making it possible to use phase sensitive techniques. An easy method for achieving modulation of evaporation rate via control of focus coil current is described. This method avoids the expense as well as complexities involved in doing the same by switching the e-gun acceleration voltage (>10 kV) or switching the grid bias on the e-gun (>2 kV).

Bhatia, M. S.; Joshi, A.; Patel, K.; Chatterjee, U. K.

1989-03-01

319

Assessment of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used as a heat sink from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. The current shuttle configuration utilizes an ammonia boiler and water based flash evaporator system to achieve cooling at all altitudes. This system combines both functions into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale system uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A single-core MFE engineering development unit (EDU) was built in 2006, followed by a full scale, four-core prototype in 2007. The EDU underwent extensive thermal testing while the prototype was being built. Lessons learned from the EDU were incorporated into the prototype and proven out in check-out testing. The EDU and prototype testing proved out the MFE's ability to passively control back-pressure, avoid unwanted icing, tolerate icing if it should occur, provide a three-to-one turn down ratio in heat load and scale up efficiently. Some issues with these first designs of the MFE have limited its ability to reject heat without liquid evaporant carry-over. However, they are due to the implementation of the design rather than the fundamentals of the technology. This paper discusses the background, development and present state of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator technology and concludes with efforts underway to advance the state-of-the-art.

Quinn, Gregory; O'Connor, Edward

2008-01-01

320

Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project reported here was conducted to demonstrate a skid-mounted, subatmospheric evaporator to concentrate liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is similar to wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River. A single-stage subatmospheric evaporator rated to produce 90 gallons of distillate per hour was procured from Delta Thermal, Inc., of Pensacola, Florida, and installed in an existing building. During the 8-day demonstration, 22,000 gal of LLLW was concentrated by 25% with the evaporator system. Decontamination factors achieved averaged 5 x 10{sup 6} (i.e., the distillate contained five million times less Cesium 137 than the feed). Evaporator performance substantially exceeded design requirements and expectations based on bench-scale surrogate test data. Out-of tank evaporator demonstration operations successfully addressed the feasibility of hands-on maintenance. Demonstration activities indicate that: (1) skid-mounted, mobile equipment is a viable alternative for the treatment of ORNL LLLW, and (2) hands-on maintenance and decontamination for movement to another site is achievable. Cost analysis show that 10% of the demonstration costs will be immediately recovered by elimination of solidification and disposal costs. The entire cost of the demonstration can be recovered by processing the inventory of Melton Valley Storage Tank waste and/or sluice water prior to solidifications. An additional savings of approximately $200,000 per year can be obtained by processing newly generated waste through the system. The results indicate that this type of evaporator system should be considered for application across the DOE complex. 25 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; VanEssen, D.C. [and others

1998-02-01

321

Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.-E.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

2013-10-01

322

Atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): a global budget and source attribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed in the atmospheric oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is the principal tropospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2). PAN enables the transport and release of NOx to the remote troposphere with major implications for the global distributions of ozone and OH, the main tropospheric oxidants. Simulation of PAN is a challenge for global models because of the dependence of PAN on vertical transport as well as complex and uncertain NMVOC sources and chemistry. Here we use an improved representation of NMVOCs in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and show that it can simulate PAN observations from aircraft campaigns worldwide. The immediate carbonyl precursors for PAN formation include acetaldehyde (44% of the global source), methylglyoxal (30%), acetone (7%), and a suite of other isoprene and terpene oxidation products (19%). A diversity of NMVOC emissions is responsible for PAN formation globally including isoprene (37%) and alkanes (14%). Anthropogenic sources are dominant in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere outside the growing season. Open fires appear to play little role except at high northern latitudes in spring, although results are very sensitive to plume chemistry and plume rise. Lightning NOx is the dominant contributor to the observed PAN maximum in the free troposphere over the South Atlantic.

Fischer, E. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Millet, D. B.; Mao, J.; Paulot, F.; Singh, H. B.; Roiger, A.; Ries, L.; Talbot, R. W.; Dzepina, K.; Pandey Deolal, S.

2014-03-01

323

Balance Pan Damping Using Rings of Tuned Sloshing Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method to damp out balance pan oscillations, even when the balance is operated in a vacuum. The key is to tune the wavelength of the damping liquid by adjusting the depth. The liquid is sealed in a vacuum-compatible container attached above the pan, and the time that the wave travels from one side of the

Edwin R. Williams; Darine Haddad; Gérard Genevès; Pierre Gournay; Christian Hauck; François Villar; Richard Steiner; Ruimin Liu

2009-01-01

324

Comparative study on the mechanical and thermal properties of two different modified PAN fibers and their Fe complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were modified with hydroxylamine and its mixture with hydrazine to prepared the amidoximated PAN fibers (denoted as AO-PAN) and mixing modified PAN fibers (denoted as M-PAN) respectively, and then both of which were reacted with Fe3+ ions to form two modified PAN fiber–Fe complexes (denoted as Fe–AO-PAN for AO-PAN and Fe–M-PAN for M-PAN). Their mechanical properties

Zhenbang Han; Yongchun Dong; Siming Dong

2010-01-01

325

An Investigation of Electrochemomechanical Actuation of Conductive Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofiber Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer-based nanofiber composite actuator designed for linear actuation was fabricated by electrospinning, actuated by electrolysis, and characterized by electrical and mechanical testing to address performance limitations and understand the activation processing effects on actuation performance. Currently, Electroactive polymers (EAPs) have provided uses in sensory and actuation technology, but have either low force output or expand rather than contract, falling short in capturing the natural motion and function of muscle desperately needed to provide breakthroughs in the bio-medical and robotic fields. Previous research has shown activated Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers having biomimetic functionalities similar to the sarcomere contraction responsible for muscle function. Activated PAN is also known to contract and expand by electrolysis when in close vicinity to the anode and cathode, respectively. PAN nanofibers especially show faster response to changes in environmental pH and improved mechanical properties over larger diameter fibers. Conductive additives were introduced to the electrospinning solution and activated in an attempt to create composite PAN nanofiber gel actuators with improved conductivity and eliminate the need of stiff electrodes. Tensile testing was conducted to examine changes in mechanical properties between annealing and hydrolysis processing. Introducing conductive additives did not show a significant increase in conductivity and created unusable samples, requiring alternative electrode materials. Electrochemical contraction rates up to 25%/ min were achieved. Strains of 58.8%, ultimate stresses up to 77.1 MPa, and moduli of 0.21 MPa were achieved with pure PAN nanofiber mats, surpassing mechanical properties of natural muscles. Improvements to contraction rates and young's moduli are necessary to capture the function and performance of skeletal muscles properly.

Gonzalez, Mark A.

326

Pan-STARRS-1 Medium Deep Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System-1 (Pan-STARRS-1, PS1) has been in full operation since Spring 2010 and concluded the PS1 Science Consortium (PS1SC) observational program in early 2014. The Medium Deep Survey (MDS) component of the program, allocated 25% of the time, regularly visited 10 fields (~7 sq. deg. each) with significant multi-wavelength overlap from previous and concurrent surveys (e.g. SDSS, DEEP2, CDFS, COSMOS, GALEX). The cadence generally includes the g,r,i,z filters for a MDS field every 3 days with a nightly stack depth of r,i~23.5 mag and the y filter primarily during bright time over the 6-8 month season the field is visible. While regularly producing data for the transient event discovery and science consortium programs, development work continued to improve the single exposures though production of deep stacks for reprocessing into the final and public release. The data products, to be publicly available after the post-observing proprietary period, will be summarized.For details on PS1 and the Science Collaboration, visit http://ps1sc.org/

Huber, Mark; PS1-IPP Team, PS1 Science Consortium

2015-01-01

327

Modeling the motion and orientation of various pharmaceutical tablet shapes in a film coating pan using DEM.  

PubMed

Film coating uniformity is an important quality attribute of pharmaceutical tablets. Large variability in coating thickness can limit process efficiency or cause significant variation in the amount or delivery rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to the patient. In this work, the discrete element method (DEM) is used to computationally model the motion and orientation of several novel pharmaceutical tablet shapes in a film coating pan in order to predict coating uniformity. The model predictions are first confirmed with experimental data obtained from an equivalent film coating pan using a machine vision system. The model is then applied to predict coating uniformity for various tablet shapes, pan speeds, and pan loadings. The relative effects of these parameters on both inter- and intra-tablet film coating uniformity are assessed. The DEM results show intra-tablet coating uniformity is strongly influenced by tablet shape, and the extent of this can be predicted by a measure of the tablet shape. The tablet shape is shown to have little effect on the mixing of tablets, and thus, the inter-tablet coating uniformity. The pan rotation speed and pan loading are shown to have a small effect on intra-tablet coating uniformity but a more significant impact on inter-tablet uniformity. These results demonstrate the usefulness of modeling in guiding drug product development decisions such as selection of tablet shape and process operating conditions. PMID:21356296

Ketterhagen, William R

2011-05-16

328

Evaluating evaporation from field crops using airborne radiometry and ground-based meteorological data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne measurements of reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation were combined with ground-based measurements of incoming solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, and vapor pressure to calculate instantaneous evaporation (LE) rates using a form of the Penman equation. Estimates of evaporation over cotton, wheat, and alfalfa fields were obtained on 5 days during a one-year period. A Bowen ratio apparatus, employed simultaneously, provided ground-based measurements of evaporation. Comparison of the airborne and ground techniques showed good agreement, with the greatest difference being about 12% for the instantaneous values. Estimates of daily (24 h) evaporation were made from the instantaneous data. On three of the five days, the difference between the two techniques was less than 8%, with the greatest difference being 25%. The results demonstrate that airborne remote sensing techniques can be used to obtain spatially distributed values of evaporation over agricultural fields. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

Jackson, R.D.; Moran, M.S.; Gay, L.W.; Raymond, L.H.

1987-01-01

329

Congruent evaporation temperature of GaAs(001) controlled by As flux  

SciTech Connect

The congruent evaporation temperature T{sub c} is a fundamental surface characteristic of GaAs and similar compounds. Above T{sub c} the rate of As evaporation exceeds that of Ga during Langmuir (free) evaporation into a vacuum. However, during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) there is generally an external As flux F incident on the surface. Here we show that this flux directly controls T{sub c}. We introduce a sensitive approach to measure T{sub c} based on Ga droplet stability, and determine the dependence of T{sub c} on F. This dependence is explained by a simple model for evaporation in the presence of external flux. The capability of manipulating T{sub c} via changing F offers a means of controlling congruent evaporation with relevance to MBE, surface preparation methods, and droplet epitaxy.

Zhou, Z. Y.; Zheng, C. X.; Tang, W. X.; Jesson, D. E. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Tersoff, J. [IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2010-09-20

330

3 CFR 8957 - Proclamation 8957 of April 12, 2013. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2013  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... On Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, we renew the bonds of friendship that unite us across cultures and continents. Let us mark this week by reinvesting in the prosperity and dignity of our peoples, confident that the Americas' best...

2014-01-01

331

Inferences About the Location of Food in the Great Apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bonobos (Pan paniscus; n = 4), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 12), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla; n = 8), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; n = 6) were presented with 2 cups (1 baited) and given visual or auditory information about their contents. Visual information consisted of letting subjects look inside the cups. Auditory information consisted of shaking the cup so that

Josep Call

2004-01-01

332

Clinical Evaluation of Youth with Pediatric Acute Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference.  

PubMed

Abstract On May 23 and 24, 2013, the First PANS Consensus Conference was convened at Stanford University, calling together a geographically diverse group of clinicians and researchers from complementary fields of pediatrics: General and developmental pediatrics, infectious diseases, immunology, rheumatology, neurology, and child psychiatry. Participants were academicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) in youth, and the larger category of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). The goals were to clarify the diagnostic boundaries of PANS, to develop systematic strategies for evaluation of suspected PANS cases, and to set forth the most urgently needed studies in this field. Presented here is a consensus statement proposing recommendations for the diagnostic evaluation of youth presenting with PANS. PMID:25325534

Chang, Kiki; Frankovich, Jennifer; Cooperstock, Michael; Cunningham, Madeleine; Latimer, M Elizabeth; Murphy, Tanya K; Pasternack, Mark; Thienemann, Margo; Williams, Kyle; Walter, Jolan; Swedo, Susan E

2014-10-17

333

Spatially Resolved Evaporative Patterns from Water  

E-print Network

Unexpectedly distinct patterns in evaporation were observed over heated water. Although the patterns had chaotic aspects, they often showed geometric patterns. These patterns bore strong resemblance to the infrared emission patterns observable with a mid-infrared camera focused on the water surface. This similarity puts constraints on the mechanism of evaporation, and leads to a general hypothesis as to the nature of the evaporative process.

Ienna, Federico; Pollack, Gerald H

2011-01-01

334

Water Purification by Evaporation and Condensation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration illustrates how the water cycle helps to purify water. Students are introduced to the key terms, which are evaporation and condensation. They discover that evaporation is defined as the process through which a liquid becomes a vapor, while condensation is simply the reverse. Students also learn that in the case of water, the main mechanisms for evaporation and condensation are heating and cooling, respectively.

335

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-print Network

BYUNGSEON S. KIM PhD Candidate Department of Architecture Texas ALM University College Station, Texas ABSTRACT It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot.... Yellott , J. I., "Evaporative Cooling1', Proc. 5th National Passive Sola Conference, American Solar Energy Society, Portland, OR, 1981. 3. Kim, B.S., L.O. Degelman and H. Wu , "The Performance Calibration of the Evaporative Cooler due to Thermal...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01

336

PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEP725 is a 5 years project with the main object to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. PEP725 is funded by EUMETNET (the network of European meteorological services), ZAMG and the Austrian ministry for science & research bm:w_f. So far 16 European national meteorological services and 7 partners from different nati-onal phenological network operators have joined PEP725. The data access is very easy via web-access from the homepage www.pep725.eu. Ha-ving accepted the PEP725 data policy and registry the data download can be done by different criteria as for instance the selection of a specific plant or all data from one country. At present more than 300 000 new records are available in the PEP725 data-base coming from 31 European countries and from 8150 stations. For some more sta-tions (154) META data (location and data holder) are provided. Links to the network operators and data owners are also on the webpage in case you have more sophisticated questions about the data. Another objective of PEP725 is to bring together network-operators and scientists by organizing workshops. In April 2012 the second of these workshops will take place on the premises of ZAMG. Invited speakers will give presentations spanning the whole study area of phenology starting from observations to modelling. Quality checking is also a big issue. At the moment we study the literature to find ap-propriate methods.

Koch, E.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

2012-04-01

337

PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

2010-09-01

338

PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". The Societas Meteorologicae Palatinae at Mannheim well known for its first European wide meteorological network also established a phenological network which was active from 1781 to 1792. Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies, as one has to address many National Observations Programs (NOP) to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2005 the COST-action 725 was running with the main objective to establish a European reference data set of phenological observations that can be used for climatological purposes, especially climate monitoring, and detection of changes. So far the common database/reference data set of COST725 comprises 7687248 data from 7285 observation sites in 15 countries and International Phenological Gardens (IPG) spanning the timeframe from 1951 to 2000. ZAMG is hosting the database. In January 2010 PEP725 has started and will take over not only the part of maintaining, updating the database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

Koch, Elisabeth; Adler, Silke; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

2010-05-01

339

Evaluation of a locally homogeneous model of spray evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of spray evaporation which employs a second-order turbulence model in conjunction with the locally homogeneous flow approximation, which implies infinitely fast interphase transport rates is presented. Measurements to test the model were completed for single phase constant and variable density jets, as well as an evaporating spray in stagnant air. Profiles of mean velocity, composition, temperature and drop size distribution as well as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress, were measured within the spray. Predictions were in agreement with measurements in single phase flows and also with many characteristics of the spray, e.g. flow width, radial profiles of mean and turbulent quantities, and the axial rate of decay of mean velocity and mixture fraction.

Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

1979-01-01

340

Aircraft measured oil evaporating from Gulf oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in April 2010, some hydrocarbons dissolved in the ocean, while other leaked hydrocarbons that did not dissolve evaporated into the atmosphere. Ryerson et al. describe airborne in situ measurements of the hydrocarbons in the atmosphere after the oil spill, during initial cleanup operations. By comparing the amounts of chemicals in the atmosphere with those in crude oil, they determined which compounds dissolved in the ocean and which evaporated; by measuring the rate at which the compounds reached the atmosphere, they could estimate that oil and gas were leaking into the Gulf at a rate of at least 32,600-47,700 barrels of fluid per day.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-05-01

341

Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

342

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07

343

Qubit Models of Black Hole Evaporation  

E-print Network

Recently, several simple quantum mechanical toy models of black hole evaporation have appeared in the literature attempting to illuminate the black hole information paradox. We present a general class of models that is large enough to describe both unitary and nonunitary evaporation, and study a few specific examples to clarify some potential confusions regarding recent results. We also generalize Mathur's bound on small corrections to black hole dynamics. Conclusions are then drawn about the requirements for unitary evaporation of black holes in this class of models. We present a one-parameter family of models that continuously deforms nonunitary Hawking evaporation into a unitary process. The required deformation is large.

Steven G. Avery

2012-08-24

344

Thermal Evaporation of Gas from X-ray Clusters  

E-print Network

A fraction of the thermal protons in the outer envelope of an X-ray cluster have velocities that exceed the local escape speed from the cluster gravitational potential. The Coulomb mean-free-path of these protons is larger than the virial radius of the cluster at temperatures >2.5 keV. The resulting leakage of suprathermal particles generates a collisionless shock in neighboring voids and fills them with heat and magnetic fields. The momentum flux of suprathermal particles cannot be confined by magnetic tension at the typical field strength in the periphery of cluster halos (evaporation could drain up to a tenth of the cluster gas at its virial temperature. The evaporated fraction could increase dramatically if additional heat is deposited into the gas by cluster mergers, active galactic nuclei or supernovae. Thermal evaporation is not included in existing cosmological simulations since they are based on the fluid approximation. Measurements of the baryon mass fraction in the outer envelopes of hot clusters (through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or X-ray emission) can be used to empirically constrain their evaporation rate.

Abraham Loeb

2006-09-18

345

WEB-BASED PPS 9.3 WEB-BASED PAN  

E-print Network

WEB-BASED PPS 9.3 WEB-BASED PAN 9.3--1 Payroll/Personnel System Web-Based PAN January 2010, University of California, Santa Cruz PPS User Manual Post Authorization Notification Functions (Web PAN) Note: This section covers web PAN features, but not general background or information about PAN. For detailed

Lee, Herbie

346

Evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent air flows-On the coupling of momentum and thermal signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitous and energy intensive mass transfer between evaporating surfaces and convective air streams is of great interest for various natural and industrial applications. Turbulent air flows above surfaces are common and are associated with complex and highly dynamic boundary conditions that must be considered for prediction of surface evaporation rates. During a certain period in the drying process where phase change takes place primarily at the surface (the so called stage-1 evaporation), one may use thermal signatures associated with the complex evaporation filed using infrared thermography (IRT) to characterize instantaneous evaporation rates. The study explores quantifiable links between the spatio-temporal distribution of eddy-induced localized evaporation rates and associated thermal signatures to deduce overall evaporative losses and to quantify characteristics of turbulent airflow. Preliminary results suggest that the methodology offers unique opportunities for directly linking turbulent eddies interacting with the surface and the resulting evaporative fluxes thereby providing the essential building blocks for upscaling results to field and landscape scales for a range of turbulent flow regimes. Keywords: Evaporative Drying, Turbulence, Surface Renewal, Infrared Thermography.

Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

2013-04-01

347

A fundamental cause of an enormous amount of evaporation during rainfall by canopy interception: Evaporative force proposed by Makarieva and Gorshkov  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enormous amount of evaporation from forest canopy is observed during rainfall as canopy interception. The evaporation rate often exceeds well over 10 mm h-1 that requires latent heat of five times solar constant (6814 W m-2 at 20°C). On top of that, evaporation rate is proportional to the rainfall intensity. Namely, once the saturation of canopy is reached, the ratio of canopy interception to gross rainfall remains constant during the rainfall regardless of the intensity of the storm, e.g. approximately 20% of the rainfall in a Japanese cypress stand. This enigmatic phenomenon includes several cardinal problems to solve. As for the mechanism of a huge amount of evaporation, Murakami (2006, 2007; J. Hydrol.) proposed splash droplet evaporation, and is supported by Dunkerley (2009; J. Hydrol.). As the size and the number of raindrops increase with rainfall intensity (Marshall-Palmer distribution), so does the number of splash droplets produced by raindrops hitting the canopy. A host of small droplets with huge combined surface area highly boost evaporation, which means water evaporates from the splash droplets as well as the canopy. However, unless water vapor above canopy is removed and transported somewhere else, water vapor saturates and evaporation stops. Makarieva and Gorshkov (2007; HESS) advocated a new theory that can elucidate an enormous amount of evaporation and water vapor transport termed "evaporative force" or "the Biotic Pump Theory"(BPT). Though they do not deal with evaporation during rain events explicitly, it is applicable to the evaporation for the period of rainfall, i.e. canopy interception. Molecular weight of H2O, 18, is smaller than the average value of air 29 that works for water vapor as buoyancy. As a result, water vapor is removed since it goes up by itself and condenses at the bottom of cloud. In the cloud latent heat is released that will be transported down to the canopy being pulled down with raindrops or in exchange for water vapor ascending from the canopy. It is postulated that both latent heat and water circulate between the canopy and the cloud. Though Makarieva and Gorshkov (2007) claims that forest makes rain inland due to the strong evaporation from forest that "sucks in" water vapor from the ocean, they give canopy interception only a one-line mention. Canopy interception is a major component of evapotranspiration from forest that enables forest to evaporate larger amount of water than other surfaces on the earth, and the Biotic Pump does not function without canopy interception. Conversely, the mechanism of canopy interception is not explainable without evaporative force, and the fundamental cause of canopy interception is evaporative force. BPT is strongly supported by the observational facts of canopy interception and the splash droplet evaporation hypothesis. The study of canopy interception can be used as the tool to verify evaporative force that has the high potential of the development in the atmospheric boundary layer study.

Murakami, Shigeki

2010-05-01

348

Summertime PAN on boundary layer over the Northern Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of SHIPPO ( Shipborne Pole to Pole Observation), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2 have been measured at aboard the R/V Araon during the ship track from Inchon, South Korea to Norm, Alaska, USA from July 14th to 30th, 2012. PAN and NO2 were sampled every 2 minute by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. In order to assure their detections in remote background airs, we successfully reduced random noise mainly from PMT using ensemble averaging from the 2 min chromatograms in each one hour time interval. With this post-processing analysis, we were able to lower detection limits to 0.01 ppbv and 0.04 ppbv for PAN and NO2, respectively. The preliminary results indicate that the background values ranged from the below the detection limit to 0.37 ppbv (average of 0.06 ppbv) for PAN and 2.05 ppbv (average of 0.24 ppbv) for NO2. It was confirmed that PAN was significant portions of reactive nitrogens in remote marine boundary airs. Occasional enhancements of PAN and NO2 were mainly attributed to the air masses originated from nearby source regions in the Northestern Asia and influenced by ships exhausts. We were able to observe the shifting of equilibrium between PAN and NO2 according to air temperature changes in very clean air masses.

Song, D.; Lee, S.; Lee, G.; Rhee, T. S.

2012-12-01

349

The role of evaporation in spatiotemporal variability of beach surface moisture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surficial moisture is a critical control of aeolian sediment transport on sandy beaches. Several recent studies have monitored meso-scale spatiotemporal trends in beach surface moisture, but do not provide a strong basis for linking trends to underlying processes. Previous research has modeled tidal forcing on water table elevation in beaches, and some data are available on capillary moisture dynamics above the water table. Few data are available, however, on the relative role of atmospheric vs. groundwater processes in beach surface moisture variability. This paper presents results from two field studies designed to quantify evaporation from a fine-grained beach and model the surface energy budget. Atmospheric fluxes were measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance method and a modified Bowen ratio energy balance method (using sensible heat flux measurements from a sonic anemometer). Evaporation estimates were also made using a standard USDA evaporation pan and a series of pans (isolated from groundwater) containing saturated sediment samples (6 cm deep) in the beach face, and changes in the natural surface moisture were recorded from surface scrapings. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on soil water samples collected periodically in a profile from the water table to the surface. Results suggest that evaporation from the beach surface is a strong control on surface moisture when the water table is low, but high water tables maintain surface moisture by capillary rise. Thus, periodicity of water table fluctuations with respect to day/night energy availability is a key predictor of moisture at the surface, especially in the absence of significant precipitation.

Edwards, B. L.; Namikas, S. L.; Keim, R.

2013-12-01

350

Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs. Thus, salt pans are generated in this case by a set of biogeomorphic processes that include pure ecological interactions such as plant facilitation of crab settlement and also indirect negative effects of crabs on plant survival. Furthermore, crab bioturbation affects sediment structure due to concentration of burrowing activity under plant canopies promoting elevation loss and leading, after a few years, to salt pan formation in a previously vegetated substrate.

Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

2015-01-01

351

Hollow Fiber Ground Evaporator Unit Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A candidate technology for 1-atmosphere suited heat rejection was developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center. The concept is to use a collection of microporous hydrophobic tubes potted between inlet and outlet headers with water as coolant. A pump provides flow between headers through the tubes which are subjected to fan driven cross flow of relatively dry air. The forced ventilation would sweep out the water vapor from the evaporation of the coolant rejecting heat from the coolant stream. The hollow fibers are obtained commercially (X50-215 Celgard) which are arranged in a sheet containing 5 fibers per linear inch. Two engineering development units were produced that vary the fold direction of the fiber sheets relative to the ventilation. These units were tested at inlet water temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 30 deg C, coolant flow rates ranging from 10 to 90 kg/hr, and at three fan speeds. These results were used to size a system that could reject heat at a rate of 340 W.

Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus

2010-01-01

352

Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.  

PubMed

In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ?160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode. PMID:25460699

Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

2015-02-15

353

CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION VIA ALFVEN WAVES  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a scenario for the chromospheric evaporation during solar flares, which is inspired by the chain of events leading to the formation of auroral arcs and ionospheric evacuation during magnetospheric substorms. The plasma, ejected from high coronal altitudes during a flare reconnection event, accumulates at the tops of coronal loops by braking of the reconnection flow, possibly by fast shock formation. A high-beta layer forms and distorts the magnetic field. Energy contained in magnetic shear stresses is transported as Alfven waves from the loop-top toward the chromosphere. It is shown that under these conditions the Alfven waves carry enough energy to feed the chromospheric evaporation process. The second subject of this investigation is identification of the most effective energy dumping or wave dissipation process. Several processes are being analyzed: ion-neutral collisions, classical and anomalous field-aligned current dissipation, and critical velocity ionization. All of them are being discarded, either because they turn out to be insufficient or imply very unlikely physical properties of the wave modes. It is finally concluded that turbulent fragmentation of the Alfven waves entering the chromosphere can generate the required damping. The basic process would be phase mixing caused by a strongly inhomogeneous distribution of Alfvenic phase speed and laminar flow breakup by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability. The filamentary (fibril) structure of the chromosphere thus appears to be essential for the energy conversion, in which the K-H instability is the first step in a chain of processes leading to ion thermalization, electron heating, and neutral particle ionization. Quantitative estimates suggest that a transverse structure with scales not far below 100 km suffices to produce strong wave damping within a few seconds. Nonthermal broadening of some metallic ion lines observed during the pre-impulsive rise phase of a flare might be a residue of the turbulent breakup process.

Haerendel, Gerhard, E-mail: hae@mpe.mpg.d [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany)

2009-12-20

354

Portion of Enhanced 360-degree Gallery Pan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a sub-section of the 'geometrically improved, color enhanced' version of the 360-degree panorama heretofore known as the 'Gallery Pan', the first contiguous, uniform panorama taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) over the course of Sols 8, 9, and 10. Different regions were imaged at different times over the three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions for all areas of the panorama.

The IMP is a stereo imaging system that, in its fully deployed configuration, stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters. In this geometrically improved version of the panorama, distortion due to a 2.5 degree tilt in the IMP camera mast has been removed, effectively flattening the horizon.

The IMP has color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye'. Its red, green, and blue filters were used to take this image. The color was digitally balanced according to the color transmittance capability of a high-resolution TV at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and is dependent on that device. In this color enhanced version of the panorama, detail in surface features are brought out via changes to saturation and intensity, holding the original hue constant. A threshold was applied to avoid changes to the sky.

At left is a Lander petal and a metallic mast which is a portion of the low-gain antenna. Misregistration in the antenna and other Lander features is due to parallax in the extreme foreground. Another Lander petal is at the right, showing the fully deployed forward ramp.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

1997-01-01

355

Effect of relative humidity on contact angle and particle deposition morphology of an evaporating colloidal drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition behavior of inkjet-printed aqueous colloidal drops on a glass substrate has been investigated by using fluorescence microscopy and a high resolution goniometer. Real-time side-view images of a pinned colloidal drop show that the contact angle during evaporation is a function of the relative humidity (RH). The RH also affects the extent to which the drop is able to spread after impacting a substrate, the evaporation rate at the drop surface, and the evaporatively driven flow inside the drop that drives the suspended particles toward the contact line. Results show that the particle deposition area and pattern change significantly with the RH.

Chhasatia, Viral H.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Sun, Ying

2010-12-01

356

Parameters of High-Temperature Diffusion and Evaporation of Alloying Elements of Thermal Emission Cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a joint statement, nonlinear thermal and diffusion problems are solved by a numerical method to analyze the processes of heat and mass transfer and evaporation of activators of thermal emission cathodes for high-current plasma systems. For the two-dimensional diffusion problem, the boundary conditions are strictly formulated and nonlinear temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients and evaporation rates of emissive and alloying elements are considered. Various mechanisms of activator diffusion are also studied together with the main regularities of heat and mass transfer and activator evaporation as functions of the system parameters.

Tsydypov, B. D.

2014-07-01

357

75 FR 61698 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...with the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan American) has closed. No additional...

2010-10-06

358

Evaporation duct effects on sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing sea clutter models are in general agreement on the trends and magnitudes of sea reflectivity at low (1°-10°) grazing angles. However, at extremely low grazing angles (<1°), models, theory, and measurements show considerable differences. The effects of the oceanic evaporation duct on grazing angle are investigated. Significant changes in grazing angle due to the evaporation duct are found and

RICHARD A. PAULUS

1990-01-01

359

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01

360

August 15, 1997 Density of Evaporated Milk  

E-print Network

August 15, 1997 1 Density of Evaporated Milk Report prepared by: Panickos N. Palettas, Director milk, given the milk's Percent Butterfat and Percent Milk Solids (other than fat). The standard for evaporated milk is 6.5% Fat and 23.0% Total Milk Solids (including fat). To facilitate the development

Santner, Thomas

361

Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study  

E-print Network

We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

2012-12-12

362

Representational Issues in Students Learning about Evaporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws on recent research on the central role of representation in learning. While there has been considerable research on students' understanding of evaporation, the representational issues entailed in this understanding have not been investigated in depth. The study explored students' engagement with evaporation phenomena through…

Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan; Peterson, Suzanne

2007-01-01

363

Modeling evaporation from porous media influenced by atmospheric processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation from porous media into the ambient air involves varios interacting processes and depends on a multitude of properties of the fluids, of the porous medium and of the flow regime. It may be strongly influenced by atmospheric processes, such as an adjacent wind field with the prevailing conditions (wind velocity, temperature, humidity, ...). The evaporation rate can be limited from the porous-medium side, e.g. due to limited water supply by capillary forces or by diffusion through the tortuous porous medium, or from the free-flow side involving the transfer through a boundary layer. Modeling such complex system on the scale of representative elementary volumes (REVs) is a challenging task. In Mosthaf et al. (WRR 2011), we have developed a model for the coupled simulation of a two-phase porous medium flow (Darcy) and a laminar free flow (Stokes) under non-isothermal conditions. This is based on flux continuity across the interface and on a local thermodynamic equilibrium and has the evaporation rate as an output. The computed rates have been significantly lower as the ones which were obsereved in wind tunnel experiments performed in the group of Dani Or (ETH Zürich). One probable reason for that is that the ambient air flow is usually turbulent involving the formation of thin boundary layers with steep gradients and a dispersive mixing of vapor in the free flow, which has to be accounted for. Therefore, several simplified turbulence and boundary layer models with different complexity are being examined with respect to their ability to improve the representation of the flow and transport behavior especially in the vicinity of the interface between soil and atmosphere. Numerical examples illustrate the influence of certain processes and parameters on the computed evaporative fluxes. Possible extensions and simplifications to the developed laminar coupled model are discussed.

Helmig, R.; Mosthaf, K.; Baber, K.; Flemisch, B.

2012-12-01

364

STEREO Sees Comet Pan-STARRS - Duration: 0:33.  

NASA Video Gallery

In early March 2013, Comet PanSTARRS became visible to the naked eye in the night sky in the Northern Hemisphere, appearing with a similar shape and brightness as a star, albeit with a trailing tai...

365

Deep-sky photography - TMax or Technical Pan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baked Technical Pan 2415 film was compared with the new T-grain emulsions TMax 100, TMax 400 and TMax 3200 (untreated) in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the new materials for long exposure deep-sky photography.

Martys, C. R.

1991-08-01

366

Net-rainfall and wet-canopy evaporation in a small selectively-logged rainforest catchment, Sabah, Malaysia.  

E-print Network

Net-rainfall and wet-canopy evaporation in a small selectively-logged rainforest catchment, Sabah of the selective removal of trees from a tropical rainforest on the rate of wet-canopy evaporation for an area, themselves stratified according to the six canopy classes identified. The results showed that more rainfall

Chappell, Nick A

367

Calcium and titanium isotopic fractionations during evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotope fractionations associated with high temperature evaporation provide important constraints on the physicochemical processes that affected planetary materials at the birth of the solar system. Previous evaporation experiments have focused on isotopic fractionation of moderately to highly volatile elements. Here, we investigate the isotope fractionation behavior of two highly refractory elements, calcium and titanium, during evaporation of perovskite (CaTiO3) in a vacuum furnace. In our experiments, isotope fractionation during evaporation follows the Rayleigh law, but not the commonly used exponential law, with the dominant evaporating species being Ca(g) and TiO2(g). If isotope fractionations in early solar system materials did follow the Rayleigh law, the common practice of using an exponential fractionation law to correct for mass-dependent fractionation in the study of mass-independent fractionations may introduce significant artificial isotope anomalies.

Zhang, Junjun; Huang, Shichun; Davis, Andrew M.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Jacobsen, Stein B.

2014-09-01

368

Contribution of impervious surfaces to urban evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

data and the Princeton urban canopy model, with its detailed representation of urban heterogeneity and hydrological processes, are combined to study evaporation and turbulent water vapor transport over urban areas. The analyses focus on periods before and after precipitation events, at two sites in the Northeastern United States. Our results indicate that while evaporation from concrete pavements, building rooftops, and asphalt surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall these surfaces accounted for nearly 18% of total latent heat fluxes (LE) during a relatively wet 10 day period. More importantly, these evaporative fluxes have a significant impact on the urban surface energy balance, particularly during the 48 h following a rain event when impervious evaporation is the highest. Thus, their accurate representation in urban models is critical. Impervious evaporation after rainfall is also shown to correlate the sources of heat and water at the earth surface, resulting in a conditional scalar transport similarity over urban terrain following rain events.

Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.

2014-04-01

369

Evaporative losses from soils covered by physical and different types of biological soil crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaporation of soil moisture is one of the most important processes affecting water availability in semiarid ecosystems. Biological soil crusts, which are widely distributed ground cover in these ecosystems, play a recognized role on water processes. Where they roughen surfaces, water residence time and thus infiltration can be greatly enhanced, whereas their ability to clog soil pores or cap the soil surface when wetted can greatly decrease infiltration rate, thus affecting evaporative losses. In this work, we compared evaporation in soils covered by physical crusts, biological crusts in different developmental stages and in the soils underlying the different biological crust types. Our results show that during the time of the highest evaporation (Day 1), there was no difference among any of the crust types or the soils underlying them. On Day 2, when soil moisture was moderately low (11%), evaporation was slightly higher in well-developed biological soil crusts than in physical or poorly developed biological soil crusts. However, crust removal did not cause significant changes in evaporation compared with the respective soil crust type. These results suggest that the small differences we observed in evaporation among crust types could be caused by differences in the properties of the soil underneath the biological crusts. At low soil moisture (<6%), there was no difference in evaporation among crust types or the underlying soils. Water loss for the complete evaporative cycle (from saturation to dry soil) was similar in both crusted and scraped soils. Therefore, we conclude that for the specific crust and soil types tested, the presence or the type of biological soil crust did not greatly modify evaporation with respect to physical crusts or scraped soils.

Chamizo, S.; Cantón, Y.; Domingo, F.; Belnap, J.

2013-01-01

370

Deformation resistance effect of PAN-based carbon fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation resistance effect of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers was investigated, and the variatipn law of\\u000a electrical resistivity under tensile stress was analyzed. The results show that the gauge factor (fractional change in resistance\\u000a per unit strain) of PAN-based carbon fibers is 1.38, which is lower than that of the commonly-used resistance strain gauge.\\u000a These may due to that the

Lixia Zheng; Zhuoqiu Li; Xianhui Song; Yong Lu

2009-01-01

371

Simultaneous dynamic thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry of the evaporation of alkali metal nitrates and nitrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six alkali metal nitrates and nitrites were evaporated in vacuum at a constant heating rate in a combined mass spectrometric and thermogravimetric apparatus. Time resolved profiles of decomposition gases and kinetics were obtained for LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3, Na\\/KNO3, NaNO2 and KNO2. Activation energies for the evaporation of these salts were calculated and compared to previous results of isothermal experiments. In

C. M. Kramer; Z. A. Munir; J. V. Volponi

1983-01-01

372

Large-Eddy Simulation of Interactions Between a Reacting Jet and Evaporating Droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent reactive jet with and without evaporating droplets is performed to investigate the interactions\\u000a among turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and evaporation. A hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian approach is used for the gas–liquid\\u000a flow system. Arrhenius-type finite-rate chemistry is employed for the chemical reaction. To capture the highly local interactions,\\u000a dynamic procedures are used for all the subgrid-scale models,

Jun Xia; Kai H. Luo; Suresh Kumar

2008-01-01

373

Pan-Nitinol Occluder and Special Delivery Device for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate a new type of occluder for patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus was established in a canine model by anastomosing a length of autologous jugular vein to the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery in an end-to-side fashion. Transcatheter closure of each patent ductus arteriosus was performed on 10 dogs, which were then monitored for as long as 6 months with aortography, echocardiography, and histologic evaluation. Transcatheter closure with use of the novel pan-nitinol device was successful in all canine models. Postoperative echocardiography showed that the location and shape of the occluders were normal, without any residual shunting. Further histologic evaluation confirmed that the occluder surface was completely endothelialized 3 months after implantation. Transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure with the pan-nitinol occluder can be performed safely and successfully in a canine model and shows good biological compatibility and low mortality rates. PMID:23466429

Jiang, Hai-bin; Bai, Yuan; Zong, Gang-jun; Han, Lin; Li, Wei-ping; Lu, Yang; Qin, Yong-wen; Zhao, Xian-xian

2013-01-01

374

Precursor Lesions for Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer: PanIN, IPMN, and MCN  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is still a dismal disease. The high mortality rate is mainly caused by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools, and most of the patients are diagnosed in an advanced and incurable stage. Knowledge about precursor lesions for pancreatic cancer has grown significantly over the last decade, and nowadays we know that mainly three lesions (PanIN, and IPMN, MCN) are responsible for the development of pancreatic cancer. The early detection of these lesions is still challenging but provides the chance to cure patients before they might get an invasive pancreatic carcinoma. This paper focuses on PanIN, IPMN, and MCN lesions and reviews the current level of knowledge and clinical measures. PMID:24783207

Distler, M.; Aust, D.; Weitz, J.; Pilarsky, C.; Grützmann, Robert

2014-01-01

375

Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

1997-11-01

376

Evaporation Mechanism of Sn and SnS from Liquid Fe: Part I: Experiment and Adsorption of S on Reaction Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate feasibility of Sn-containing ferrous scrap recycling by evaporation of Sn, a number of liquid-gas experiments were carried out using an electromagnetic levitation melting technique. Rate of decrease of Sn concentration in liquid steel droplets by evaporation in Ar-H2 gas mixture was determined at 1873 K (1600 °C). Evaporation rate of the Sn under various conditions (various flow rates of the gas mixture, initial S concentration, [pct Sn]0) was examined using previously reported rate equations. Increasing flow rate increased the evaporation rate of Sn initially, but the rate became constant at higher flow rate, which indicates that the rate-controlling step is the chemical reaction at the liquid/gas interface. Increasing initial S concentration significantly increased the evaporation rate of Sn, which is in good agreement with previous understanding that Sn could be evaporated as SnS(g). It was found in the present study that neither a simple first-order reaction (rate proportional to [pct Sn]) nor a second-order reaction (rate proportional to [pct Sn] × [pct S]) could account for the Sn evaporation under a chemical-reaction-controlled regime. It is proposed in the present study that surface adsorption of S should be taken into account in order to interpret the evaporation rate of Sn in such a way that S blocks available sites for SnS evaporation on the liquid steel. The ideal Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to better represent evaporation rate constant k SnS as a function of [pct S] (0.06 < [pct S]0 < 0.29). The obtained rate constant of a reaction Sn i + S i = SnSi(g), , is 2.57 × 10-8 m4 mol-1 s-1.

Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae; Seo, Jeong-Do; Park, Joong-Kil; Choi, Joo

2015-02-01

377

Measured and calculated evaporation losses of two petroleum hydrocarbon herbicide mixtures under laboratory and field conditions  

SciTech Connect

Evaporation rates of two weed oils were measured under laboratory and field conditions. Rates were also calculated by assuming first-order evaporation of the oil components (represented by hydrocarbon references). Beacon selective and Chevron nonselective weed oils exhibited evaporation rates 1.4-1.9 and 0.9 times the calculated rates, respectively, for 8-10 mg/cm/sup 2/ on inert surfaces in the laboratory. The relative rates were increased to 3-15 (Beacon) and 1.6 (Chevron) under a slight breeze (0.43 m/s) with turbulence. The half-life of Beacon oil applied at 6-7 mg/cm/sup 2/ to moist soil in an unplanted field was 51 min (10-20/sup 0/C), while the calculated half-life was 57 min. In an alfalfa field, 90% of the Chevron oil from a deposit of 0.15-0.22 mg/cm/sup 2/ (20-40/sup 0/C) evaporated in 26-45 and 53-127 min from glass plates and paper filters, respectively; average calculated time was 40 min. Evaporation rates from alfalfa foliage and glass plates compared well. 15 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Woodrow, J.E.; Seiber, J.N.; Kim, Y.

1986-08-01

378

Measurement of barium evaporation from a dispenser cathode using laser-induced fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of evaporation of barium atoms from a thermionic dispenser cathode is measured as a function of cathode temperature and operating time using laser-induced fluorescence techniques. A continuous wave dye laser is tuned to the 5535 A barium I transition, the laser beam is aimed over an operating cathode, and the resulting fluorescence is measured using photon counting techniques. The evaporation rate is then calculated from the measured fluorescent intensity. The results indicate that for the Semicon type S cathode under test the evaporation rate increases until the cathode temperature reaches 1200 K, above which the rate decreases, possibly due to self absorption of the fluorescent photons inside the test cell. The lifetime data indicates that, after a high evaporation rate for the first 30 hours of operation, the evaporation rate decreases and becomes approximately constant at 7.11 x 10 to the 9th power atoms/sec for the 420 hour duration of the lifetime test. The cathode heater failed at 430 hours.

Kasper, E. F.

1982-12-01

379

Determination of the Evaporation Coefficient of D2O  

SciTech Connect

The evaporation rate of D{sub 2}O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12-15 {micro}m diameter) injected into vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} torr). The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient ({gamma}{sub e}) of 0.57 {+-} 0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H{sub 2}O (0.62 {+-} 0.09) using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition state theory (TST) model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

Drisdell, Walter S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2008-03-26

380

3 CFR 8495 - Proclamation 8495 of April 9, 2010. Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2010  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...partner with friends and neighbors across the Americas. Our combined response to this year's devastating earthquakes in Haiti and Chile demonstrates the enduring strength of Pan American solidarity. As we mourn these tragic losses of life, hope...

2011-01-01

381

Design and development of a split-evaporator heat-pump system  

SciTech Connect

The designs and experimental results of three types of multiple source heat pumps are presented. The three designs are the parallel evaporator, the series evaporator, and the parallel evaporator with active subcooling, with the parallel evaporator with the active subcooling showing the most promise for solving the problem of defrosting of air evaporators. Three design procedures for multiple source heat pumps were developed. One of these is a hand calculational procedure, the others are computer based. The models are based upon the refrigerant flow rate, rather than the refrigeration effect of the evaporator. The technical results of a detailed analytical and experimental model of the heat transfer rates on a flat plate ice maker are presented. It is shown, both analytically and experimentally, that the temperature of the air surrounding the flat plate ice maker can play a dominant role in the rate of ice formation. A detailed weather analysis for forty cities located throughout the nation was completed. These data were processed to allow easy computation of thermal storage requirements for full, partial, or minimum ACES systems, or upon other design requirements, such as off-peak air conditioning. The results of an innovative ice storage system that is thermally coupled to the earth are described. This system has the potential for meeting both the off-peak air conditioning needs and the thermal storage requirements for the heating cycle. An economic and energy comparison of multiple source heat pumps with ACES, and air-to-air heat pump systems is presented.

Somerville, M.H.; Penoncello, S.G.

1981-12-01

382

[Mineral migration from stainless steel, cast iron and soapstone (steatite) Brazilian pans to food preparations].  

PubMed

Culinary utensils may release some inorganic elements during food preparation. Mineral migration can be beneficial for as long as it occurs in amounts adequate to the needs of the consumer or no toxicological implications are involved. In this study, the migrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Ni and Ca, along seven cooking cycles were evaluated for two food preparations (polished rice and commercial tomato sauce, the latter as an acid food), performed in unused stainless steel, cast iron and soapstone pans, taking refractory glass as a blank. Minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The utensils studied exhibited different rates, patterns and variability of migration depending on the type of food. Regression analysis of the data revealed that, as a function of the number of cycles, the iron pans released increasing amounts of iron when tomato sauce was cooked (y = 70.76x + 276.75; R2 = 0.77). The soapstone pans released calcium (35 and 26 mg/kg), magnesium (25 and 15 mg/kg) into the tomato sauce and rice preparations, respectively. Additionally, the commercial tomato sauce drew manganese (3.9 and 0.6 mg/kg) and some undesirable nickel (1.0 mg/kg) from the soapstone material, whereas the stainless steel pans released nickel at a lower rate than steatite and in a diminishing fashion with the number o cooking cycles, while still transferring some iron and chromium to the food. We conclude that while cast iron and glass could be best for the consumer's nutritional health, stainless steel and steatite can be used with relatively low risk, provided acid foods are not routinely prepared in those materials. PMID:17249489

Quintaes, Késia Diego; Farfan, Jaime Amaya; Tomazini, Fernanda Mariana; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio

2006-09-01

383

A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

Shen, Hayley H.

1990-01-01

384

Fundamental experiments on evaporation of cesium in ion sources.  

PubMed

Basic experiments are carried out to study the cesium evaporation and desorption from surfaces at different temperatures in an environment, which is very close to the conditions of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion applications: in a vacuum base pressure of 10(-5) mbar and in a hydrogen plasma in the Pa-range. Several diagnostic techniques such as emission and absorption spectroscopy, a surface ionization detector, and a quartz-microbalance have been utilized to determine the cesium densities, evaporation and desorption rates. The work function of a cesiated surface measured by the photoelectric effect degrades with increasing plasma-off time. Impurities and cesium compounds are detected by a residual mass analyzer. PMID:20192409

Fantz, U; Gutser, R; Wimmer, C

2010-02-01

385

Fundamental experiments on evaporation of cesium in ion sourcesa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic experiments are carried out to study the cesium evaporation and desorption from surfaces at different temperatures in an environment, which is very close to the conditions of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion applications: in a vacuum base pressure of 10-5 mbar and in a hydrogen plasma in the Pa-range. Several diagnostic techniques such as emission and absorption spectroscopy, a surface ionization detector, and a quartz-microbalance have been utilized to determine the cesium densities, evaporation and desorption rates. The work function of a cesiated surface measured by the photoelectric effect degrades with increasing plasma-off time. Impurities and cesium compounds are detected by a residual mass analyzer.

Fantz, U.; Gutser, R.; Wimmer, C.

2010-02-01

386

Mergers, cooling flows, and evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mergers (the capture of cold gas, especially) can have a profound influence on the hot coronal gas of early-type galaxies and clusters, potentially inducing symptoms hitherto attributed to a cooling flow, if thermal conduction is operative in the coronal plasma. Heat can be conducted from the hot phase into the cold phase, simultaneously ionizing the cold gas to make optical filaments, while locally cooling the coronal gas to mimic a cooling-flow. If there is heat conduction, though, there is no standard cooling-flow since radiative losses are balanced by conduction and not mass deposition. Amongst the strongest observational support for the existence of cooling-flows is the presence of intermediate temperature gas with x-ray emission-line strengths in agreement with cooling-flow models. Here, x-ray line strengths are calculated for this alternative model, in which mergers are responsible for the observed optical and x-ray properties. Since gas around 10(exp 4) K is thermally stable, the cold cloud need not necessarily evaporate and hydrostatic solutions exist. Good agreement with the x-ray data is obtained. The relative strengths of intermediate temperature x-ray emission lines are in significantly better agreement with a simple conduction model than with published cooling-flow models. The good agreement of the conduction model with optical, infrared and x-ray data indicates that significantly more theoretical effort into this type of solution would be profitable.

Sparks, W. B.

1993-01-01

387

RHESSI Observation of Chromospheric Evaporation  

E-print Network

We present analyses of the spatial and spectral evolution of hard X-ray emission observed by {\\it RHESSI} during the impulsive phase of an M1.7 flare on 2003 November 13. In general, as expected, the loop top (LT) source dominates at low energies while the footpoint (FP) sources dominate the high energy emission. At intermediate energies, both the LT and FPs may be seen, but during certain intervals emission from the legs of the loop dominates, in contrast to the commonly observed LT and FP emission. The hard X-ray emission tends to rise above the FPs and eventually merge into a single LT source. This evolution starts first at low energies and proceeds to higher energies. The spectrum of the resultant LT source becomes more and more dominated by a thermal component with an increasing emission measure as the flare proceeds. The soft and hard X-rays show a Neupert-type behavior. With a non-thermal bremsstrahlung model the brightness profile along the loop is used to determine the density profile and its evolution, which reveals a gradual increase of the gas density in the loop. These results are evidence for chromospheric evaporation and are consistent with the qualitative features of hydrodynamic simulations of this phenomenon. However, some observed source morphology and its evolution cannot be accounted for by previous simulations. Therefore simulations with more realistic physical conditions are required to explain the results and the particle acceleration and plasma heating processes.

Wei Liu; Siming Liu; Yan Wei Jiang; Vahe' Petrosian

2006-06-06

388

Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

2009-02-11

389

Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

390

Multiyear Estimates of Evaporation from a Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the evaporative losses from the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas were made with the parameterized subgrid scale (PASS) model and applied in an evaluation of the hydrological balance for the five-year period 1996-2000. The PASS model uses routine, spatially sparse surface meteorological data and satellite remote sensing data to calculate surface evapotranspiration rates over extended areas. The PASS model is observationally driven, makes use of extensive parameterizations of surface properties and processes, and does not rely on mesoscale meteorological models. Heteorogeneities in surface conditions are spatially resolved to an extent determined primarily by the satellite data pixel size. For the period of the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study field experiment at the Walnut River Watershed, estimates of vertical moisture fluxes from PASS agreed well with surface-based and aircraft-based eddy covariance measurements. Current work focuses on simulation of the water balance over the Watershed area of about 5000 square kilometers for a period of five years, in part to evaluate and study interannual variability. Surface vegetative conditions were described by analysis of biweekly, composite, 1-km-resolution NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data products. Radar-based estimates of precipitation estimates were obtained from the regional forecast center. Preliminary results indicate that estimates of accumulated soil moisture loss by evapotranspiration match fairly well with the soil moisture loss inferred roughly from precipitation and stream gauge measurements.

Wesely, M. L.; Song, J.

2002-12-01

391

Effect of Mg or Ag addition on the evaporation field of Al.  

PubMed

It is known that the distribution of the charge-states as well as the evaporation field shift to higher values as the specimen temperature is decreased at a constant rate of evaporation. This study has explored the effect of Mg or Ag addition on the evaporation field of Al in terms of the charge state distribution of the field evaporated Al ions. The fractional abundance of Al(2+) ions with respect to the total Al ions in Al-Mg alloy is lower than that in pure Al, whereas it shows higher level in the Al-Ag alloy at lower temperatures. The temperature dependence of the fractional abundance of Al(2+) ions has been also confirmed, suggesting that Al atoms in the Al-Mg alloy need lower evaporation field, while higher field is necessary to evaporate Al atoms in the Al-Ag alloy, compared with pure Al. This tendency is in agreement with that of the evaporation fields estimated theoretically by means of measurements of the work function and calculations of the binding energy of the pure Al, Al-Mg and Al-Ag alloys. PMID:23234834

Aruga, Yasuhiro; Nako, Hidenori; Tsuneishi, Hidemasa; Hasegawa, Yuki; Tao, Hiroaki; Ichihara, Chikara; Serizawa, Ai

2013-09-01

392

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-print Network

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11

393

Enhanced Evaporation and Condensation in Tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A state-of-the-art review of enhanced evaporation and condensation in horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels that are used for air-conditioning and refrigeration applications is presented. The review covers the effects of flow pattern and geometrical parameters of the tubes on the heat transfer performance. Attention is paid to the effect of surface tension which leads to enhanced evaporation and condensation in the microfin tubes and micro-channels. A review of prior efforts to develop empirical correlations of the heat transfer coefficient and theoretical models for evaporation and condensation in the horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels is also presented.

Honda, Hiroshi

394

Evaporation fronts in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and computational studies have been conducted to model the propagation of evaporating fronts through porous media. The results from the experiments are compared with a numerical model and the results agree qualitatively with the temperature distribution in the vapor and liquid regions obtained from the numerical solution. The condition for which a two-phase zone does not exist due to high heat flux is also examined. Results also confirm earlier analysis of the front stability. In this thesis an implicit finite difference scheme is utilized to simulate the propagation of an evaporating front in a porous medium saturated with water and undergoing the phase change process. The following three numerical models are developed: (1) a one-equation model that assumes local thermal equilibrium; (2) a two-equation model that utilizes the lumped capacitance assumption to predict the heat transfer to the solid phase; and (3) a two-equation model that utilizes a more precise quasi-analytical approach to more accurately characterize the conduction in the solid phase. Results illustrate that the one-equation model does not yield accurate results when the thermophysical properties characterized by the volume weighted ratio of thermal diffusivities, C, is greater than 10 (within 5% error). Hence a two-equation model is necessary depending on the level of accuracy desired. In addition, consistent with the established "rule of thumb", for Biot number, Biv, is less than 0.1, the traditional two-equation model which makes the lumped capacitance assumption for the solid phase compares well with a two-equation model that more accurately predicts the time dependent diffusion in the solid phase using Duhamel's theorem. High intensity drying is used to characterize those situations for which the drying medium is sufficiently above the saturation temperature of water to preclude the existence of a two-phase zone. High intensity drying is modeled numerically and the relationship between pressure, the drying conditions and material properties is examined since elevated pressure that can occur during high intensity drying is potentially destructive. A quasi two-dimensional numerical model of high intensity drying with specific application to underground coal gasification is presented. The anisotropy due to permeability of coal is considered and the results illustrate that a decrease in permeability, K (10-14 to 10-12 m2), results in faster front propagation. Front propagation for the same thick coal seam at two different depths indicated that it is faster when the depth increases. It was also found that as the thickness of coal seam decreases the front propagates faster. Decreasing the pressure or increasing the temperature in the cavity results in a faster front propagation. Groundwater contamination can be a potential problem when the pressure and temperature in the cavity are lowered.

Pakala, Venkata Krishna Chaitanya

395

The Potential of panHER Inhibition in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Hyper-activation of the HER (erbB) family receptors, HER 1-4, leads to up-regulation of the three vital signaling pathways: mitogen activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways. Blocking HER1/EGFR has a limited anticancer effect due to either secondary mutation e.g., T790M or by-pass signaling of other HER members. The emergence of an anti-panHER approach to blockade of these pathways as a cancer treatment may provide a solution to this resistance. This review aimed to provide an overview of the HER signaling pathways and their involvement in tumor progression and examine the current progress in panHER inhibition. Methods: Recent literature associated with HER signaling pathways and panHER inhibition was reviewed through PubMed and Medline database, followed by critical comparison and analysis. Results: Pre-clinical studies and clinical trials of panHER inhibitors show promising results, and the potential to improve patient outcomes in solid cancers. Conclusion:?The use of panHER inhibitors in cancers with HER-family hyper-activation, such as other epithelial cancers and sarcoma, is a new direction to research and has potential in clinical cancer therapy in the future.

Wang, Xiaochun; Batty, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Philip J.; Goldstein, David; Yang, Jia-Lin

2015-01-01

396

The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

2011-12-01

397

Effects of surface roughness on evaporation from porous surfaces into turbulent airflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitous and energy intensive mass transfer between wet porous surfaces and turbulent airflows is of great importance for various natural and industrial applications. The roughness of natural surfaces is likely to influence the structure of adjacent boundary layer and thus affecting heat and mass fluxes from surfaces. These links were formalized in a new model that considers the intermittent turbulence-induced boundary layer with local mass and energy exchange rates. We conducted experiments with regular surface roughness patterns subjected to constant turbulent airflows and monitored mass loss and thermal signatures of localized evaporative fluxes using infrared thermography. The resulting patterns were in good agreement with model predictions for local and surface averaged turbulent exchange rates. Preliminary results obtained for evaporation from sinusoidal wavy soil surfaces reveal that evaporative fluxes can be either enhanced or suppressed (relative to a flat surface) owing to relative contribution of downstream (separation zone) and rising (reattachment zone) surfaces of the wave with thick and thin viscous sublayer thicknesses, respectively. For isolated roughness elements (bluff bodies) over a flat evaporating surface, the resulting fluxes are enhanced (relative to a smooth surface) due to formation of vortices that induce thinner boundary layer. Potential benefits of the study for interpretation and upscaling of evaporative and heat fluxes from natural (rough) terrestrial surfaces will be discussed. Keywords: Turbulent Evaporation, Porous Media, Surface Roughness, Infrared Thermography.

Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

2014-05-01

398

Time-resolved interference unveils nanoscale surface dynamics in evaporating sessile droplet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a simple optical technique to measure time-resolved nanoscale surface profile of an evaporating sessile fluid droplet. By analyzing the high contrast Newton-ring like dynamical fringes formed by interfering Fresnel reflections, we demonstrated ?/100 ? 5 nm sensitivity in surface height (at 0.01-160 nm/s rate) of an evaporating water drop. The remarkably high sensitivity allowed us to precisely measure its transient surface dynamics during contact-line slips, weak perturbations on the evaporation due to external magnetic field and partial confinement of the drop. Further, we measured evaporation dynamics of a sessile water drop on soft deformable surface to demonstrate wide applicability of this technique.

Verma, Gopal; Singh, Kamal P.

2014-06-01

399

Origin of positive charging of nanometer-sized clusters generated during thermal evaporation of copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, charged copper clusters of a few nanometers were shown to be generated spontaneously during the thermal evaporation of copper at 1573 K, and were shown to be the major flux for the film growth. In order to identify the charging mechanism at low temperatures, the activation energy for positive charging was estimated based on the temperature dependence of the current generated during thermal evaporation. The activation energy was ˜ 2.81 eV at 1573 K. This low activation energy could be explained by a Saha-Langmuir equation if the copper clusters are formed and undergo surface ionization on the oxidized tungsten. According to this mechanism, the activation energy for charging decreases with increasing cluster size and with increasing work function of the related surface. Based on this charging mechanism, some puzzling phenomena in the thermal evaporation of metals such as the irreproducibility of the process and the degraded film quality with decreasing evaporation rate could be explained.

Jeon, In-D.; Barnes, M. C.; Kim, Doh-Y.; Hwang, Nong M.

2003-01-01

400

The Evaporation of Atoms, Ions and Electrons from Caesium Films on Tungsten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision methods for measuring the number of caesium atoms adsorbed on tungsten are described. With these methods for determining theta (the fraction of the tungsten surface covered with Cs), the rates of atom, ion and electron emission are measured as functions of theta and T, the filament temperature. The rate of atom evaporation, nua, increases rapidly with theta and with

John Bradshaw Taylor; Irving Langmuir

1933-01-01

401

Non-equilibrium phase diagram for a model with coalescence, evaporation and deposition  

E-print Network

. Deposition. At rate q, independently at each site x Zd, particles of mass one, often called monomers-dimensional lattice model of diffusing coalescing massive particles, with two parameters controlling deposition deposition rates. Keywords: Phase diagram, coalescence, aggregation, deposition, evaporation. 1 Introduction

Ravindran, Rajesh

402

Evaporation from an eastern Siberian larch forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total forest evaporation (?E), understorey evaporation, and environmental variables were measured on nine summer days under different weather conditions in a 130-year-old stand of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. trees located 160 km south of Yakutsk in eastern Siberia, Russia (61°N, 128°E, 300m above sea-level (a.s.l.)). Tree and broad-leaved understorey vegetation one-sided leaf area indices were 1.5 and 1.0, respectively. Agreement

F. M. Kelliher; D. Y. Hollinger; E.-D. Schulze; N. N. Vygodskaya; J. N. Byers; J. E. Hunt; T. M. McSeveny; I. Milukova; A. Sogatchev; A. Varlargin; W. Ziegler; A. Arneth; G. Bauer

1997-01-01

403

75 FR 47262 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Consistency Appeal by Pan American Grain Co. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...administrative appeal filed by Pan American Grain Co. (Pan American). DATES: The decision...INFORMATION: On January 27, 2010, Pan American Grain Co. filed notice of an appeal with...

2010-08-05

404

KINETIC DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF EVAPORATION, BIOSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN THE SUSPENSION OF PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI. (R826652)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Kinetics of distribution of PCBs in an active bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas stutzeri was studied by monitoring the evaporated amounts and the concentration remaining in the liquid medium with the biomass. To determine the biodegradation rate const...

405

Heavy quark production in the black hole evaporation at LHC  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Quantum Gravity are currently two of the main open questions in Physics. In order to understand these problems some authors proposed the existence of extra dimensions in the Nature. These extra dimensions would be compacted and not visible on the macroscopic world, but the effects would be manifest in ultrarelativistic colision process. In particular, black holes (BH) could be produced in proton-proton colisions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and in future colliders. The BH is an object characterized by its mass and temperature wich also characterizes the evaporation process. All kind of particle should be produced in this process. Our goal in this contribution is to study the BH production in proton - proton collisions at LHC and its evaporation rate in heavy quarks. We present our estimate considering two scenarios (with and without trapped energy corrections) and compare our predictions with those obtained using perturbative QCD. Our results demonstrate that in both scenarios the charm and bottom production in the BH evaporation are smaller than the QCD prediction at LHC. In contrast, the top production is similar or larger than the QCD prediction, if the trapped energy corrections are disregarded.

Thiel, M.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Brazil)

2013-03-25

406

Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

1988-01-01

407

TANK 26 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth.

Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2008-09-30

408

Evaporation and Accompanying Isotopic Fractionation of Sulfur from FE-S Melt During Shock Wave Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondrules probably formed by melting and subsequent cooling of solid precursors. Evaporation during chondrule melting may have resulted in depletion of volatile elements in chondrules. It is known that kinetic evaporation, especially evaporation from a melt, often leads to enrichment of heavy isotopes in an evaporation residue. However, no evidence for a large degree of heavy-isotope enrichment has been reported in chondrules for K, Mg, Si, and Fe (as FeO). The lack of isotopic fractionation has also been found for sulfur in troilites (FeS) within Bishunpur (LL3.1) and Semarkona (LL3.0) chondrules by an ion microprobe study. The largest fractionation, found in only one grain, was 2.7 +/- 1.4 %/amu, while all other troilite grains showed isotopic fractionations of <1 %/amu. The suppressed isotopic fractionation has been interpreted as results of (i) rapid heating of precursors at temperatures below the silicate solidus and (ii) diffusion-controlled evaporation through a surrounding silicate melt at temperatures above the silicate solidus. The kinetic evaporation model suggests that a rapid heating rate of >10(exp 4)-10(exp 6) K/h for a temperature range of 1000-1300 C is required to explain observed isotopic fractionations. Such a rapid heating rate seems to be difficult to be achieved in the X-wind model, but can be achieved in shock wave heating models. In this study, we have applied the sulfur evaporation model to the shock wave heating conditions of to evaluate evaporation of sulfur and accompanying isotopic fractionation during shock wave heating at temperatures below the silicate solidus.

Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.; Miura, H.; Nakamoto, T.

2004-01-01

409

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOEpatents

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09

410

Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p<0.05), appearance (p<0.01), color (p<0.01), moistness (p<0.01), and overall quality (p<0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life. PMID:24471063

Lee, Heejeong; Joo, Nami

2012-01-01

411

Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p<0.05), appearance (p<0.01), color (p<0.01), moistness (p<0.01), and overall quality (p<0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life. PMID:24471063

Lee, Heejeong; Joo, Nami

2012-03-01

412

Fast evaporation of spreading droplets of colloidal suspensions.  

PubMed

When a coffee droplet dries on a countertop, a dark ring of coffee solute is left behind, a phenomenon often referred to as the coffee-ring effect. A closely related yet less-well-explored phenomenon is the formation of a layer of particles, or skin, at the surface of the droplet during drying. In this work, we explore the behavior of a mathematical model that can qualitatively describe both phenomena. We consider a thin axisymmetric droplet of a colloidal suspension on a horizontal substrate undergoing spreading and evaporation. In contrast to prior work, precursor films (rather than pinned contact lines) are present at the droplet edge, and evaporation is assumed to be limited by how quickly molecules can transfer out of the liquid phase (rather than by how quickly they can diffuse through the gas phase). The lubrication approximation is applied to simplify the mass and momentum conservation equations, and the colloidal particles are allowed to influence the droplet rheology through their effect on the viscosity. By describing the transport of the colloidal particles with the full convection-diffusion equation, we are able to capture depthwise gradients in particle concentration and thus describe skin formation, a feature neglected in prior models of droplet evaporation. The highly coupled model equations are solved for a range of problem parameters using a finite-difference scheme based on a moving overset grid. The presence of evaporation and a large particle Peclet number leads to the accumulation of particles at the liquid-air interface. Whereas capillarity creates a flow that drives particles to the droplet edge to produce a coffee ring, Marangoni flows can compete with this and promote skin formation. Increases in viscosity due to particle concentration slow down droplet dynamics and can lead to a reduction in the spreading rate. PMID:21834573

Maki, Kara L; Kumar, Satish

2011-09-20

413

Stability characteristics of solutocapillary Marangoni motion in evaporating thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of solutocapillary Marangoni instability in evaporating thin films are analyzed by linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations. As predicted by de Gennes [Eur. Phys. J. E 6, 421 (2001), 10.1007/s10189-001-8055-3] when the surface tension increases with increasing concentration of a non-volatile solute the Marangoni stresses can sustain motion in the film and lead to the development of cellular patterns with small interfacial deformation, similar to the well-known hexagons of the thermally driven Marangoni motion. The critical Marangoni number is found to be proportional to the inverse square root of a dimensionless evaporation rate. There exists an additional mode of instability analogous to the deformational mode of thermocapillary instability. This mode is due to the coordinated action of capillary pressure and Marangoni stresses and is manifested as a long-wave oscillatory behavior leading to fast leveling of film thickness disturbances and subsequent reversal, as explained by Overdiep [Prog. Org. Coat. 14, 159 (1986), 10.1016/0033-0655(86)80010-3]. This type of instability appears over a range of wavenumbers determined by the evaporation parameter and the capillary number and is likely to be observed at relatively small Marangoni numbers because otherwise it is overwhelmed by the cellular mode. Systems where the surface tension decreases with increasing solute concentration are not immune to instabilities either but there exists a long-wave deformational mode leading to monotonic growth of thickness disturbances. The above characteristics of evaporating film behavior are supported by experimental observations in the literature, where thin films of dried polymer solutions are found to have short-wave patterns and small roughness or long-wave patterns and significant roughness, depending on whether surface tension of the solvents increases or decreases by the polymer solutes.

Serpetsi, Stefania K.; Yiantsios, Stergios G.

2012-12-01

414

Age-related decline in ovarian follicle stocks differ between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans.  

PubMed

Similarity in oldest parturitions in humans and great apes suggests that we maintain ancestral rates of ovarian aging. Consistent with that hypothesis, previous counts of primordial follicles in postmortem ovarian sections from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed follicle stock decline at the same rate that human stocks decline across the same ages. Here, we correct that finding with a chimpanzee sample more than three times larger than the previous one, which also allows comparison into older ages. Analyses show depletion rates similar until about age 35, but after 35, the human counts continue to fall with age, while the change is much less steep in chimpanzees. This difference implicates likely effects on ovarian dynamics from other physiological systems that are senescing at different rates, and, potentially, different perimenopausal experience for chimpanzees and humans. PMID:25651885

Cloutier, Christina T; Coxworth, James E; Hawkes, Kristen

2015-02-01

415

Chemical Modification for PAN Fibers during Heat-treatment Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical modification for Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers during heat-treatment process were systematically studied by DSC, FT-IR, EA, XPS, etal. Comparing with original PAN fibers, chemical reactions, structures and elemental compositions of fibers modified with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solutions were totally changed at a certain extent. KMnO4 had reduced the activation energy of cyclization, decreased the area and widened the peak of exothermic curve, decreased the velocity of cyclization reaction, increased the oxygen content about 67%, hence increased C-O-C and C=O groups and the core/shell ratio.

Wang, Yi; Yin, Wenyan

416

The optimal use of PAN membrane in RDT.  

PubMed

In order to compare the efficiency of PAN (Biospal 3000S) for small molecules, Cr, BUN, UA and Pi clearances were determined during hemodiafiltration with both pre and postdilution fluid (PreHDF, PostHDF) and during biofiltration in 3 regular dialysis treatment patients. The highest clearances were obtained during PostHDF. Therefore, since the small molecules are still considered the most important toxins in chronic renal failure, these findings indicate that optimal use of PAN is with PostHDF, in which high diffusion and convection are combined, in order to obtain best dialytic efficiency. PMID:3557657

Gonella, M; Pratesi, G; Vagelli, G; Mazzotta, A; Calabrese, G

1986-12-01

417

Rapidly Evolving and Luminous Transients from Pan-STARRS1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, several rapidly evolving transients have been discovered whose timescales and luminosities are not easily explained by traditional supernovae (SNe) models. The sample size of these objects has remained small due, at least in part, to the challenges of detecting short timescale transients with traditional survey cadences. Here we present the results from a search within the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1-MDS) for rapidly evolving and luminous transients. We identify 10 new transients with a time above half-maximum (t 1/2) of less than 12 days and -16.5 > M > -20 mag. This increases the number of known events in this region of SN phase space by roughly a factor of three. The median redshift of the PS1-MDS sample is z = 0.275 and they all exploded in star-forming galaxies. In general, the transients possess faster rise than decline timescale and blue colors at maximum light (g P1 - r P1 lsim -0.2). Best-fit blackbodies reveal photospheric temperatures/radii that expand/cool with time and explosion spectra taken near maximum light are dominated by a blue continuum, consistent with a hot, optically thick, ejecta. We find it difficult to reconcile the short timescale, high peak luminosity (L > 1043 erg s-1), and lack of UV line blanketing observed in many of these transients with an explosion powered mainly by the radioactive decay of 56Ni. Rather, we find that many are consistent with either (1) cooling envelope emission from the explosion of a star with a low-mass extended envelope that ejected very little (<0.03 M ?) radioactive material, or (2) a shock breakout within a dense, optically thick, wind surrounding the progenitor star. After calculating the detection efficiency for objects with rapid timescales in the PS1-MDS we find a volumetric rate of 4800-8000 events yr-1 Gpc-3 (4%-7% of the core-collapse SN rate at z = 0.2).

Drout, M. R.; Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; McKinnon, R.; Rest, A.; Foley, R. J.; Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Berger, E.; Calkins, M.; Fong, W.; Gezari, S.; Huber, M. E.; Kankare, E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Leibler, C.; Lunnan, R.; Mattila, S.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Riess, A. G.; Roth, K. C.; Scolnic, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Waters, C.

2014-10-01

418

Evaporation and ignition of droplets in combustion chambers modeling and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulation of liquid fuel jet injection into heated atmosphere of combustion chamber, mixture formation, ignition and combustion need adequate modeling of evaporation, which is extremely important for the curved surfaces in the presence of strong heat and mass diffusion fluxes. Combustion of most widely spread hydrocarbon fuels takes place in a gas-phase regime. Thus, evaporation of fuel from the surface of droplets turns to be one of the limiting factors of the process as well. The problems of fuel droplets atomization, evaporation being the key factors for heterogeneous reacting mixtures, the non-equilibrium effects in droplets atomization and phase transitions will be taken into account in describing thermal and mechanical interaction of droplets with streaming flows. In the present paper processes of non-equilibrium evaporation of small droplets will be discussed. As it was shown before, accounting for non-equilibrium effects in evaporation for many types of widely used liquids is crucial for droplet diameters less than 100 ?m, while the surface tension effects essentially manifest only for droplets below 0.1 ?m. Investigating the behavior of individual droplets in a heated air flow allowed to distinguish two scenarios for droplet heating and evaporation. Small droplets undergo successively heating, then cooling due to heat losses for evaporation, and then rapid heating till the end of their lifetime. Larger droplets could directly be heated up to a critical temperature and then evaporate rapidly. Droplet atomization interferes the heating, evaporation and combustion scenario. The scenario of fuel spray injection and self-ignition in a heated air inside combustion chamber has three characteristic stages. At first stage of jet injection droplets evaporate very rapidly thus cooling the gas at injection point, the liquid jet is very short and changes for a vapor jet. At second stage liquid jet is becoming longer, because evaporation rate decreases due to decrease of temperature. But combustion of fuel vapor begins which brings to increase of heat flux to droplets and accelerates evaporation. The length of the liquid jet decreases again and remains constant slightly oscillating.

Betelin, V. B.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Dushin, V. R.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Nerchenko, V. A.

2012-01-01

419

Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

1977-01-01

420

Determination of infiltration and percolation rates along a reach of the Santa Fe River near La Bajada, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two methods, one a surface-water method and the second a ground-water method, were used to determine infiltration and percolation rates along a 2.5-kilometer reach of the Santa Fe River near La Bajada, New Mexico. The surface-water method uses streamflow measurements and their differences along a stream reach, streamflow-loss rates, stream surface area, and evaporation rates to determine infiltration rates. The ground-water method uses heat as a tracer to monitor percolation through shallow streambed sediments. Data collection began in October 1996 and continued through December 1997. During that period the stream reach was instrumented with three streamflow gages, and temperature profiles were monitored from the stream-sediment interface to about 3 meters below the streambed at four sites along the reach. Infiltration is the downward flow of water through the stream- sediment interface. Infiltration rates ranged from 92 to 267 millimeters per day for an intense measurement period during June 26- 28, 1997, and from 69 to 256 millimeters per day during September 27-October 6, 1997. Investigators calculated infiltration rates from streamflow loss, stream surface-area measurements, and evaporation-rate estimates. Infiltration rates may be affected by unmeasured irrigation-return flow in the study reach. Although the amount of irrigation-return flow was none to very small, it may result in underestimation of infiltration rates. The infiltration portion of streamflow loss was much greater than the evaporation portion. Infiltration accounted for about 92 to 98 percent of streamflow loss. Evaporation-rate estimates ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 millimeters per day based on pan-evaporation data collected at Cochiti Dam, New Mexico, and accounted for about 2 to 8 percent of streamflow loss. Percolation is the movement of water through saturated or unsaturated sediments below the stream-sediment interface. Percolation rates ranged from 40 to 109 millimeters per day during June 26-28, 1997. Percolation rates were not calculated for the September 27-October 6, 1997, period because a late summer flood removed the temperature sensors from the streambed. Investigators used a heat-and-water flow model, VS2DH (variably saturated, two- dimensional heat), to calculate near-surface streambed infiltration and percolation rates from temperatures measured in the stream and streambed. Near the stream-sediment interface, infiltration and percolation rates are comparable. Comparison of infiltration and percolation rates showed that infiltration rates were greater than percolation rates. The method used to calculate infiltration rates accounted for net loss or gain over the entire stream reach, whereas the method used to calculate percolation was dependent on point measurements and, as applied in this study, neglected the nonvertical component of heat and water fluxes. In general, using the ground-water method was less labor intensive than making a series of streamflow measurements and relied on temperature, an easily measured property. The ground-water method also eliminated the difficulty of measuring or estimating evaporation from the water surface and was therefore more direct. Both methods are difficult to use during periods of flood flow. The ground-water method has problems with the thermocouple-wire temperature sensors washing out during flood events. The surface- water method often cannot be used because of safety concerns for personnel making wading streamflow measurements.

Thomas, Carole L.; Stewart, Amy E.; Constantz, Jim E.

2000-01-01

421

Chapter [6.14] Edwards EB3 Electron Beam Evaporator  

E-print Network

Chapter [6.14] Edwards EB3 Electron Beam Evaporator (edwardseb3) (582) 1.0 Equipment Purpose 1.1 The Edwards e-beam evaporator is a high vacuum e-beam evaporation system. One mechanical pump is installed to allow multiple and sequential evaporations. There are three 6-inch wafer holders. If you are going

Healy, Kevin Edward

422

Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-print Network

Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 10-1 CHAPTER 10: EVAPORATION. Nelson M. Sawan D.K. Sze #12;Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 10-2 10. EVAPORATION COOLING CONCEPT, EVOLVE 10.1. Introduction, motivation for selecting the concept

California at Los Angeles, University of

423

Inelastic J -Photoproduction at HERA and the Color Evaporation Model  

E-print Network

Inelastic J -Photoproduction at HERA and the Color Evaporation Model Diplomarbeit vorgelegt von Jan An investigation of the color evaporation model is presented. The color evaporation model describes the production cross sections as predicted by the color evaporation model. Cross sections are calculated as functions

424

Ultra-small droplet generation via volatile component evaporation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel method to generate ultra-small droplets via volatile component evaporation. By regulating the composition of the binary solvent, the volume ratio of the high saturated vapor pressure component, and the flow rate ratio of the two phases, monodisperse ultra-small water or nonvolatile organic droplets can be formed. This method is flexible, versatile, and compatible with tip-streaming or nanofluidics, and may have potential applications in single molecule assay, colloid synthesis, and block copolymer assembly. PMID:24584363

Zhang, Qingquan; Liu, Xiaojun; Liu, Dayu; Gai, Hongwei

2014-04-21

425

New findings about the complementary relationship-based evaporation estimation methods  

E-print Network

New findings about the complementary relationship- based evaporation estimation methods Jozsef KEYWORDS Complementary relationship; Advection­Aridity model; Areal evaporation; Potential evaporation; Apparent potential evaporation; Wet environment evaporation; Evapotranspiration Summary A novel approach

Szilagyi, Jozsef

426

Evaporation kinetics of Mg2SiO4 crystals and melts from molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulations based on the molecular dynamics (MD) technique were used to study the mechanisms and kinetics of free evaporation from crystalline and molten forsterite (i.e., Mg2SiO4) on an atomic level. The interatomic potential employed for these simulations reproduces the energetics of bonding in forsterite and in gas-phase MgO and SiO2 reasonably accurately. Results of the simulation include predicted evaporation rates, diffusion rates, and reaction mechanisms for Mg2SiO4(s or l) yields 2Mg(g) + 20(g) + SiO2(g).

Kubicki, J. D.; Stolper, E. M.

1993-01-01

427

Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or comparable procedures. It will prove a basis for the long-term continuation o