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Sample records for pancreas preoperative diagnosis

  1. Preoperative chemoradiation for marginally resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Mehta, V K; Fisher, G; Ford, J A; Poen, J C; Vierra, M A; Oberhelman, H; Niederhuber, J; Bastidas, J A

    2001-01-01

    Only 10% to 20% of patients with pancreatic cancer are considered candidates for curative resection at the time of diagnosis. We postulated that preoperative chemoradiation therapy might promote tumor regression, eradicate nodal metastases, and allow for definitive surgical resection in marginally resectable patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preoperative chemoradiation therapy regimen on tumor response, resectability, and local control among patients with marginally resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and to report potential treatment-related toxicity. Patients with marginally resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (defined as portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, or artery involvement) were eligible for this protocol. Patients received 50.4 to 56 Gy in 1.8 to 2.0 Gy/day fractions with concurrent protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (250 mg/m2/day). Reevaluation for surgical resection occurred 4 to 6 weeks after therapy. Fifteen patients (9 men and 6 women) completed preoperative chemoradiation without interruption. One patient required a reduction in the dosage of 5-fluorouracil because of stomatitis. Acute toxicity from chemoradiation consisted of grade 1 or 2 nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, palmar and plantar erythrodysesthesia, and hematologic suppression. CA 19-9 levels declined in all nine of the patients with elevated pretreatment levels. Nine of the 15 patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, and all had uninvolved surgical margins. Two of these patients had a complete pathologic response, and two had microscopic involvement of a single lymph node. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the median survival for resected patients was 30 months, whereas in the unresected group median survival was 8 months. Six of the nine patients who underwent resection remain alive and disease free with follow-up of 12, 30, 30, 34, 39, and 72 months, respectively. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is well tolerated. It may downstage tumors, sterilize regional lymph nodes, and improve resectability in patients with marginally resectable pancreatic cancer. Greater patient accrual and longer follow-up are needed to more accurately assess its future role in therapy. PMID:11309645

  2. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a review of preoperative diagnosis and management*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue-li; Zhang, Qi; Masood, Noman; Masood, Waqas; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Ting-bo

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a diverse group of neoplasms in the pancreas, and are more increasingly encountered with widespread abdominal screening and improved imaging techniques. The most common types of PCNs are serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Clinicians frequently feel bewildered in the differential diagnosis and subsequent management among the various types of lesions in the pancreas, which may lead to overtreatment or delayed treatment. The current review provides recent developments in the understanding of the three most common types of PCNs, the latest modalities used in preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as the most up to date management. Suggestions for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCNs, MCNs, and IPMNs are also provided for young surgeons. Better understanding of these neoplasms is essential for clinicians to make accurate diagnosis and to provide the best management for patients. PMID:23463761

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Manrai, Manish; Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Alfadda, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important component in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma pancreas. With the advent of advanced imaging techniques and tissue acquisition methods the role of EUS is becoming increasingly important. Small pancreatic tumors can be reliably diagnosed with EUS. EUS guided fine needle aspiration establishes diagnosis in some cases. EUS plays an important role in staging of carcinoma pancreas and in some important therapeutic methods that include celiac plexus neurolysis, EUS guided biliary drainage and drug delivery. In this review we attempt to review the role of EUS in diagnosis and management of carcinoma pancreas. PMID:26839647

  4. Errors and mistakes in the ultrasound diagnosis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gierbli?ski, Ireneusz W.

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of the focal lesions in the region of the pancreas is difficult due to the similarity of clinical and radiological pictures of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. This paper presents the most common causes of errors in ultrasound diagnosis of pancreatic pathologies. Attention was paid to the errors resulting from the structural variants of the pancreas and those caused by the neighborhood of intestine, stomach and other organs or vessels. Moreover, the article presents mistakes in the interpretation of ultrasound images of normal pancreas as well as its inflammatory and neoplastic lesions. The errors and mistakes in question were divided into three categories: 1) mistakes related to the anatomical structure of the pancreas (anatomical variants, echostructure and echogenicity, course of the splenic artery); 2) mistakes related to anatomical structures localized in the vicinity of the pancreas (caudate lobe of the liver, other organs and intestinal loops surrounding the head of the pancreas, vessels and bile ducts, lymph nodes in the region of the pancreas or duodenal diverticula and tumors); 3) mistakes related to the pathologies of the pancreas (inflammatory and neoplastic lesions including differentiation between inflammatory tumors and malignant masses). In spite of the progress of imaging techniques, the differential diagnosis of focal solid lesions remains the prime problem of imaging examinations of the pancreas. The major aim of the ultrasound examination is early detection of pancreatic neoplasm. Improper performance of the examination or a failure to perform a repeated scan when the conditions for the assessment of the pancreas are not favorable or, what is worse, description of normal pancreas when it is not clearly and entirely visible, constitute errors. PMID:26674270

  5. Hemolymphangioma: A rare differential diagnosis of cystic-solid or cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fei; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Jian-Jun; Fu, Yan-Biao; Jin, Kai; Chao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of pancreatic hemolymphangioma. Hemolymphangioma is a malformation of both lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The incidence of this disease in the pancreas is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported worldwide (PubMed). A 39-year-old woman with a one-day history of abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. There was no obvious precipitating factor. The preoperative examination, including ultrasonography and computed tomography, showed a cystic-solid tumor in the pancreas, and it was considered to be a mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Pancreatic body-tail resection combined with splenectomy was performed. After the operation, the tumor was pathologically demonstrated to be a pancreatic hemolymphangioma. Although pancreatic hemolymphangioma is rare, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic-solid tumors of the pancreas, particularly when there is no sufficient evidence for diagnosing cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma or some other relatively common disease of the pancreas. PMID:23801850

  6. Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, R; Skeans, M A; Gustafson, S K; Carrico, R J; Prentice, M A; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Even though pancreas transplant numbers have steadily declined over the past decade, new listings increased in 2014 compared with the previous year, notably for pancreas transplant alone (PTA) and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant. The number of new PTAs also increased over the past two years. Whether this is a sustainable trend remains to be seen. Significant events in 2014 included implementation of a new pancreas allocation system and development of a proposed uniform definition of pancreas graft failure. Meanwhile, overall pancreas transplant rates and outcomes continued to improve. Substantial decline in pancreas after kidney transplants remains a serious concern. SRTR has not published pancreas graft failure data in the program-specific reports for the past two years. While this will not change in the near future, the acceptance of a uniform definition of graft failure is a crucial first step toward resuming graft failure reporting. Continued improvements and innovation, both surgical and immunological, will be critical to keep pancreas transplant as a viable option for treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. As alternative therapies for diabetes such as islet transplant and artificial pancreas are evolving, improved outcomes with minimizations of complications are more important than ever. PMID:26755263

  7. Non-functional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: Advances in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Jordan M; Poultsides, George A

    2015-01-01

    Nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Although rare, the incidence of NF-PNETs is increasing significantly. The classification of PNETs has evolved over the past decades and is now based on a proliferation grading system. While most NF-PNETs are slow growing, tumors with more aggressive biology may become incurable once they progress to unresectable metastatic disease. Tumors of higher grade can be suspected preoperatively based on the presence of calcifications, hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography, positron emission technology avidity and lack of octreotide scan uptake. Surgery is the only curative treatment and is recommended for most patients for whom complete resection is possible. Liver-directed therapies (thermal ablation, transarterial embolization) can be useful in controlling unresectable hepatic metastatic disease. In the presence of unresectable progressive disease, somatostatin analogues, everolimus and sunitinib can prolong progression-free survival. This article provides a comprehensive review of NF-PNETs with special emphasis on recent advances in diagnosis and management. PMID:26327759

  8. Biochemical Diagnosis and Preoperative Imaging of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jessica E; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Howe, James R

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are a group of neoplasms that can arise in a variety of locations throughout the body and often metastasize early. A patient's only chance for cure is surgical removal of the primary tumor and all associated metastases, although even when surgical cure is unlikely, patients can benefit from surgical debulking. A thorough preoperative workup will often require multiple clinical tests and imaging studies to locate the primary tumor, delineate the extent of the disease, and assess tumor functionality. This review discusses the biomarkers important for the diagnosis of these tumors and the imaging modalities needed. PMID:26610781

  9. [Diagnosis and surgical treatment for endocrine tumors of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Isaji, S; Kato, K; Tanigawa, K

    1994-02-01

    Clinical features, diagnostic accuracy of imaging study, and the outcome of surgical treatment for endocrine tumors of the pancreas were analyzed in 12 patients who underwent surgery for the past 16 years and 11 months. The 12 cases were classified into two groups: functioning tumors in 8 (insulinoma in 7 including one malignant case, and malignant glucagonoma in one), and nonfunctioning tumors in 4 including 3 malignant cases. In functioning tumors, tumor size was 2 cm or less in 6 benign cases, but 5 cm or more in 2 malignant cases. In nonfunctioning tumors, tumor size was larger, ranging from 3.5 to 8.0 cm. Diagnostic accuracy for localization of functioning tumors was 66.7% for US, 75.0% for CT, 66.7% for endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), and 50.0% for selective angiography, while all nonfunctioning tumors could be detected by any diagnostic imagings. Percutaneous transhepatic portal venous sampling for immunoreactive insulin was very helpful to localize insulinoma. Stenosis or obstruction of the main pancreatic duct on ERP and arterial encasement on angiography highly suggested a malignant tumor. Even for malignant cases with liver metastasis, resection of the primary tumor with debulking of metastatic disease or intraarterial infusion chemotherapy was considered to prolong patient prognosis. PMID:8139124

  10. Diagnosis and management of cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) are being increasingly identified in recent years. They show a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical features. The diagnosis and discrimination of these lesions are very important because of the risk for concurrent or later development of malignancy. PCLs are usually first diagnosed and characterized by conventional imaging modalities such as trans-abdominal ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their ability to differentiate the benign and malignant lesions remains limited. Endoscopic US may be more helpful for the diagnosis and differentiation of PCLs because of its high resolution and better imaging characteristics than cross-sectional imaging modalities. It also allows for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of cystic lesions for biochemical, cytological and DNA analysis that might be further helpful for diagnosis and differentiation. The management options of PCLs are to observe, endoscopic treatment or surgical resection. However, the decision for management is sometimes hampered by limitations in current diagnostic and tissue sampling techniques. As further diagnostic and non-invasive management options become available, clinical decision-making will become much easier for these lesions. PMID:26261724

  11. Dermoid cyst of the pancreas: A rare cystic neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Yoo Shin; Hong, Soon Uk; Oh, Hyoung-Chul; Lee, Eun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dermoid cyst of the pancreas, also called cystic teratoma, is a benign, well-differentiated, and extremely rare germ cell neoplasm. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging since there are no definitive preoperative diagnostic tests or pathognomonic findings. Presentation of case We report a case of a 54-year-old male who presented with an incidentally detected pancreatic cystic mass at the tail of the pancreas. Computerized tomography revealed a benign cystic mass such as oligocystic serous cystadenoma or a hemorrhagic cyst. However, a high CEA level from EUS guided aspirated fluid suggested mucinous cystic neoplasm. After laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, the final diagnosis was confirmed as a dermoid cyst of the pancreas. Conclusion Despite the benign nature of the dermoid cyst, complete surgical resection is mostly inevitable due to the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis as in the present case. PMID:26555061

  12. Gastric-Type Extremely Well-Differentiated Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach: A Challenge for Preoperative Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Mee; Han, Song Hee

    2016-01-01

    Gastric-type extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA) is a rare type of gastric adenocarcinoma characterized by infiltration of well-formed mucinous glands with little or no nuclear atypia, which resemble foveolar epithelium or pyloric glands. Because of its high degree of differentiation, preoperative biopsy diagnosis of gastric-type EWDA is very difficult. We encountered a case of gastric-type EWDA, manifesting as a Borrmann type 4 lesion, in a 47-year-old man. Despite four repeated biopsies, the preoperative biopsy diagnosis was not conclusive due to the scarcity of diagnostic tumor cells and lack of knowledge regarding the unusual histologic findings of gastric-type EWDA. We herein describe the histologic findings of gastric-type EWDA in detail, with the aim of facilitating a preoperative biopsy diagnosis and understanding of this rare type of gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:26420250

  13. Pathological features and diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Megas, Vctor M; Andrs, Carolina Ibarrola-de; Lpez-Alonso, Guadalupe; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a noninvasive epithelial neoplasm of mucin-producing cells arising in the main duct (MD) and/or branch ducts (BD) of the pancreas. Involved ducts are dilated and filled with neoplastic papillae and mucus in variable intensity. IPMN lacks ovarian-type stroma, unlike mucinous cystic neoplasm, and is defined as a grossly visible entity (? 5 mm), unlike pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm. With the use of high-resolution imaging techniques, very small IPMNs are increasingly being identified. Most IPMNs are solitary and located in the pancreatic head, although 20%-40% are multifocal. Macroscopic classification in MD type, BD type and mixed or combined type reflects biological differences with important prognostic and preoperative clinical management implications. Based on cytoarchitectural atypia, IPMN is classified into low-grade, intermediate-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Based on histological features and mucin (MUC) immunophenotype, IPMNs are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic types. These different phenotypes can be observed together, with the IPMN classified according to the predominant type. Two pathways have been suggested: gastric phenotype corresponds to less aggressive uncommitted cells (MUC1 -, MUC2 -, MUC5AC +, MUC6 +) with the capacity to evolve to intestinal phenotype (intestinal pathway) (MUC1 -, MUC2 +, MUC5AC +, MUC6 - or weak +) or pancreatobiliary /oncocytic phenotypes (pyloropancreatic pathway) (MUC1 +, MUC 2-, MUC5AC +, MUC 6 +) becoming more aggressive. Prognosis of IPMN is excellent but critically worsens when invasive carcinoma arises (about 40% of IPMNs), except in some cases of minimal invasion. The clinical challenge is to establish which IPMNs should be removed because of their higher risk of developing invasive cancer. Once resected, they must be extensively sampled or, much better, submitted in its entirety for microscopic study to completely rule out associated invasive carcinoma. PMID:25232456

  14. Utility of preoperative dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas in diagnosing tumor-forming pancreatitis that mimics pancreatic cancer: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Tamotsu; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Tsuneoka, Noritsugu; Adachi, Tomohiko; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and tumor-forming pancreatitis remains difficult, and this situation can cause serious problems because the management and prognosis of these two focal pancreatic masses are entirely different. We herein report a case of tumor-forming pancreatitis that mimics pancreatic carcinoma in an 80-year-old woman. Computed tomography showed a solid mass in the head of the pancreas, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a complete obstruction of the main pancreatic duct in the head of the pancreas. Dynamic contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a time-signal intensity curve (TIC) with a slow rise to a peak (1 min after the administration of the contrast material), followed by a slow decline at the pancreatic mass, indicating a fibrotic pancreas. Under the diagnosis of tumor-forming pancreatitis, the patient underwent a segmental pancreatectomy instead of a pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathology of the pancreatic mass was chronic pancreatitis without malignancy. The pancreatic TIC obtained from dynamiccontrast MRI can be helpful to differentiate tumor-forming pancreatitis from pancreatic carcinoma and to avoid any unnecessary major pancreatic surgery. PMID:20037846

  15. Intra-arterial calcium stimulation test with hepatic venous sampling for preoperative diagnosis of a large insulinoma in an obese young man

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Yu, Chih-Yung; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the case of a large benign insulinoma in an obese young man with a three-year history of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia. He presented to our outpatient department with a two-week history of dizziness and morning cold sweats. A random serum glucose test revealed hypoglycaemia. Upon admission, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen with intravenous contrast media showed an enhancing mass lesion in the uncinate process of the pancreas. To confirm the diagnosis, an intra-arterial calcium stimulation test with hepatic venous sampling was performed for preoperative localisation and to exclude the presence of occult insulinomas. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy, with successful resection of the pancreatic head tumour. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of insulinoma. The patients postoperative recovery was uneventful, and he has not developed further episodes of hypoglycaemia three years post surgery. PMID:25189314

  16. Diverticulitis of the appendix, a distinctive entity: preoperative diagnosis by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Manickam; Chawla, Ashish; Chokkappan, Kabilan; Liu, Huimin

    2015-10-01

    Diverticular disease of the appendix is rare and is usually diagnosed during surgery. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with right lower quadrant pain of 1-day duration. A preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal diverticulitis was made by computed tomography of the abdomen. The patient underwent emergency laparoscopic appendectomy, which confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:26041371

  17. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of high grade adenoid cystic carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas.

    PubMed

    David, Doina; Masineni, Sreeharsha N; Giorgadze, Tamar

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic tumors are mostly primary tumors, with only rare metastatic tumors described in the literature. Here we report an unusual case of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of high grade adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland metastatic to the pancreas. The aspirate smears were moderately cellular and revealed numerous basaloid neoplastic cells. The cytomorphologic differential diagnosis included primary pancreatic tumor with small cell morphology as well as metastatic tumors. By immunocytochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, and CK7), and CD117 (C-KIT), and negative for CD45, WT1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56, TTF-1, and CK20. The cytomorphologic features and immunoprofile in our case were consistent with high-grade carcinoma metastases from patient's known salivary gland primary. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first reported encounter of FNA diagnosis of pancreatic metastasis with small cell morphology from a salivary gland neoplasm as primary site. PMID:24554389

  18. [Usefulness of imaging examinations in preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Nitoń, Tomasz; Górecka-Nitoń, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is the cause one of most operations perform in department of general surgery on emergency ward. Frequency of acute appendicitis range from 6-8% of population. Clinical presentation is frequently unspecified and despite common occurence leads to many difficulties in diagnosis. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis includes clinical examination, laboratory tests, diagnostic scoring systems, computer programs as physisian aids and imaging examinations. About 30-45% patients suspected of acute appendicitis have untypical clinical presentation and here use of US or CT is very helpful. Longstanding use of US resulted in high AA evaluation accuracy with high sensitivity (75-90%) and specificity (84-100%). CT demonstrates above 95% ratio of correct diagnoses, reduces negative appendectomy rates and perforation rates as well as unnecessary observations. CT sensitivity and specificity CT is estimated between 83-100% among different authors. Expedited AA diagnosis, surgery and reduced hospitalization time are possible advantages of imaging tests. Additionally these tests can detect alternative deseases imitating acute appnedicitis. Use of imaging tests especially CT is beneficial in fertile women because of frequent genito-urinary disorders leading to the most diagnostic errors. However thera are contraindications in use of CT, for example it can not be performed in early pregnancy etc... PMID:26030962

  19. Preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors, including magnifying endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Doyama, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Tsuyama, Sho; Tominaga, Kei; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Niwa, Hideki; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi; Okada, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumor (SNADET) is defined as a sporadic tumor that is confined to the mucosa or submucosa that does not arise from Vaters papilla, and it includes adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Recent developments in endoscopic technology, such as high-resolution endoscopy and image-enhanced endoscopy, may increase the chances of detecting SNADET lesions. However, because SNADET is rare, little is known about its preoperative endoscopic diagnosis. The use of endoscopic resection for SNADET, which has no risk of metastasis, is increasing, but the incidence of complications, such as perforation, is significantly higher than in any other part of the digestive tract. A preoperative diagnosis is required to distinguish between lesions that should be followed up and those that require treatment. Retrospective studies have revealed certain endoscopic findings that suggest malignancy. In recent years, several new imaging modalities have been developed and explored for real-time diagnosis of these lesion types. Establishing an endoscopic diagnostic tool to differentiate between adenoma and adenocarcinoma in SNADET lesions is required to select the most appropriate treatment. This review describes the current state of knowledge about preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of SNADETs, such as duodenal adenoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma. Newer endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy, may help to guide these diagnostics, but their additional advantages remain unclear, and further studies are required to clarify these issues. PMID:26557007

  20. Preoperative diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma presenting with melena using wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Yu; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Kazuto; Naito, Tatsushi; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akio; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Primary neoplasms of the small intestine are relatively rare in all age groups, accounting for about 5 % of all gastrointestinal tumors 1. Cavernous hemangiomas of the small intestine are also rare, can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, and are extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively 2. We present a patient who presented with melena and iron deficiency anemia, for whom wireless capsule endoscopy and single-balloon enteroscopy facilitated the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:27004239

  1. [The significance of beta2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of the carcinoma of the pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fateh-Moghadam, A; Mantel, W; Neumeier, D; Hannig, Ch; Kristin, H; Otte, M

    1978-03-15

    The concentration of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was measured radioimmunologically in the sera of 79 patients with malignant disorders and 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Elevated levels of beta2m and CEA were found in 11 out of 22 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas, which sets off this malignancy from chronic pancreatitis and other malignant tumors. Only 3 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas exhibited serum levels within the normal range for both parameters and none of the patients with chronic pancreatitis was shown to have elevated levels of beta2m. The simultaneous determination of beta2m and CEA suggests itself for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy especially in the case of a tentative diagnosis of a pancreatic tumor. PMID:76694

  2. Preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative protection of nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve: A review of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ping; He, Liang; Dong, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) is a risk factor for nerve injury during thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy. It is usually associated with abnormal vasculature that can be identified by several imaging methods. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative protection of NRLN. Material/Methods Of the 7169 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at our hospital between August 2008 and January 2013, 5 patients with NRLN were identified. Preoperative chest X-rays, neck ultrasonography (US), and computed tomography (CT) findings were reviewed. NRLNs were carefully and systematically searched for in surgery. Results Preoperative CT predicted NRLN in all 5 cases (100% accuracy). The detection rate of NRLN by CT was 0.4% (5/1170). NRLNs were confirmed in surgery. All of them were right-sided NRLN with type IIA variant. The CT scans clearly revealed the vascular anomalies. The review of US images suggested that vascular anomalies could be identified on the images in 1 patient. No postoperative complications occurred in any patient. Conclusions The preoperative CT scan was a reliable and effective method for identifying abnormal vasculature to indirectly predict NRLN. Combining the CT and US findings with adequate surgical technique may help to reduce the risk of nerve damage, in addition to preventing nerve palsy. PMID:24518037

  3. Preoperative diagnosis of the Mirizzi syndrome: limitations of sonography and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.; Hassler, H.; Terrier, F.

    1984-09-01

    Preoperative recognition of the Mirizzi syndrome permits avoidance of several serious pitfalls at surgery. The typical diagnostic signs of the Mirizzi syndrome are 1) dilatation of the common hepatic duct above the level of 2) a gallstone impacted in the cystic duct, with 3) normal duct width below the stone. Since jaundice is the leading clinical symptom, sonography and computed tomography (CT) are now the primary radiologic tests. The syndrome does not regularly have typical features, however, and therefore cannot be detected routinely on sonography or CT. Direct cholangiography is often necessary. On the other hand, direct cholangiography should follow either sonography or CT because these imagining methods are superior for demonstrating extraluminal signs of malignancy, which is the most important differential diagnosis. The findings at preoperative examinations in seven patients with surgically confirmed Mirizzi syndrome are analyzed retrospectively.

  4. Challenge in preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal mucinous cyst in a pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Jin; Feng, Chuan; Yang, Chunjiang; Wu, Shengde; Liu, Junhong; Hua, Yi; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Mucinous cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum can be either neoplastic or non-neoplastic. It is very important to make a correct diagnosis, or at least, an accurate classification, to proceed with an optimal treatment strategy. In spite of advantage of ultrasound and X-ray image examinations, it is still a challenge to make differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal mucinous cyst from gangliocytoma because both tumors have similar density under the image assessment. In this article, we reported an asymptomatic 8-year-old boy with multiple bronchogenic cysts in both lung and adrenal area on the left side, the latter was considered to be a gangliocytoma preoperatively by ultrasound and computed tomography, but confirmed as bronchogenic cyst by histopathology post laparoscopic resection. The differential diagnosis, imaging features and treatment of bronchogenic cyst are discussed and the relative literatures are reviewed. PMID:26770607

  5. Recent development of optical coherence tomography for preoperative diagnosis of esophageal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kaname; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic diagnosis with histological evidence is necessary to decide the best strategy for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett’s-associated neoplasia, and the recent development of endoscopic technologies have made possible real-time information of malignant hallmarks. We focused on the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT), the only technology that can depict real-time cross-sectional images with high resolution. With the improvements in image resolution, acquisition rate and demonstrable area of three-dimensional devices with Doppler capability, OCT imaging was shown to enable visualization of structural/functional alterations in the mucosal/submucosal tissue of the esophagus, resulting in more accurate preoperative diagnosis of such malignancies. Moreover, it approved to be useful for targeting malignant areas for biopsy and treatment as well as for predicting the treatment effects. Therefore, further development of this technology is expected to overcome the current clinical issues in management strategies of esophageal malignancies. PMID:26240688

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of secondary tumors involving the pancreas: An institution's experience

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Almed K.; Ustun, Berrin; Aslanian, Harry R.; Ge, Xinquan; Chhieng, David; Cai, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic masses may seldom represent a metastasis or secondary involvement by lymphoproliferative disorders. Recognition of this uncommon occurrence may help render an accurate diagnosis and avoid diagnostic pitfalls during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). In this study, we review our experience in diagnosing secondary tumors involving the pancreas. Materials and Methods: The electronic database of cytopathology archives was searched for cases of secondary tumors involving the pancreas at our institution and a total of 31 cases were identified. The corresponding clinical presentations, imaging study findings, cytological diagnoses, the results of ancillary studies, and surgical follow-up, if available, were reviewed. Results: Nineteen of the patients were male and 12 female, with a mean age of 66 years. Twenty-three patients (74%) had a prior history of malignancy, with the latency ranging from 6 months to 19 years. The secondary tumors involving the pancreas included metastatic carcinoma (24 cases), metastatic sarcoma (3 cases), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2 cases), and plasma cell neoplasm (2 cases). The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell carcinoma (8 cases) and lung carcinoma (7 cases). Correct diagnoses were rendered in 29 cases (94%). The remaining two cases were misclassified as primary pancreatic carcinoma. In both cases, the patients had no known history of malignancy, and no ancillary studies were performed. Conclusions: Secondary tumors involving the pancreas can be accurately diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Recognizing uncommon cytomorphologic features, knowing prior history of malignancy, and performing ancillary studies are the keys to improve diagnostic performance and avoid diagnostic pitfalls.

  7. [Delayed and fortuitous diagnosis of right diaphragmatic rupture during preoperative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ould-Ahmed, M; Choplain, J-N; Andre, M; Mondine, P; Potier, L

    2005-04-01

    Although diaphragmatic rupture occurs after violent blunt trauma, its diagnosis is often delayed. The intra-thoracic displacement of abdominal organs through diaphragmatic rupture may lead to early or delayed complications because of compression of heart and lungs or strangulation of the abdominal viscera. A 49-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo elective lumbar disc surgery in prone position. The preoperative chest radiograph revealed an abnormally elevated right hemi diaphragm with loops of colon filling the right costophrenic angle. The CT-scan confirmed right chronic diaphragmatic rupture with colon and liver herniations. Fifteen months previously, this woman had been involved in a traffic accident, with blunt right trauma resulting in right pelvic fractures. Perianaesthetic course increase the pre-existing mechanical risk of complications of chronic diaphragmatic rupture. Primary repair of right chronic diaphragmatic rupture through thoracotomy must be recommended. When another surgery must be done in emergency, the feasibility of regional anaesthesia should be considered. PMID:15826792

  8. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  9. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-12-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan.

  10. Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas: The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zamil; Walker, Blair; Lam, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions that can appear as a complex cyst or a mass in the pancreas. Cytology from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be helpful in making a diagnosis with the aim of avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. A case involving a 51-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain who was found to have a multiloculated cystic lesion at the junction of the pancreatic body and tail is described. Cytology from EUS-FNA was consistent with a pancreatic LEC. The lesion was managed conservatively and follow-up imaging of the cyst over the following two years was unchanged. The patient remains clinically well. Cytology from EUS-FNA can help distinguish LECs from cystic neoplasms, thus preventing radical surgical resection of this benign pancreatic cyst. PMID:20559575

  11. [The possibilities of early diagnosis of tumorous lesions of colon patency and their preoperative correction].

    PubMed

    Vorobe?, A V; Khulup, G Ia; Grishin, I N; Khadzhi-Ismail, I A; Kirkovski?, V V; Rummo, O O

    2005-01-01

    Experiments in white rats were used in order 1) to create a model of obturative colon obstruction (OCO) and to prove a staged character of its development depending on the tone of the Bauhin's valve (the normotonic phase, spasm of the Bauhin's valve, dilatation of the Bauhin's valve) and 2) to study specific features of healing primary anastomoses after emergency resections of the colon. An analysis of clinical and rentgenological findings has confirmed the staged character of tumor lesions of the colon patency (TLCP). A working classification of them is proposed: stages of compensation (conventionally chronic); subcompensation (subacute) with three degrees of stages according to the experimental scheme of pathogenesis; decompensated (acute obturative colon obstruction). Typical rentgenological symptoms are first described and systematized for the stages of sub- and decompensation. In combination with the classification they make the basis for early diagnosis of TLCP, establishment of absolute indications for urgent operations and decision for the early intraoperative strategy. An original three-lumen probe for preoperative decompression and monitory purgation of the intestine, the method of intra- and postoperative decompression, correction of the intraintestinal status allowed to form primary anastomoses after urgent resections of the colon in 170 (63.7%) out of 317 patients with OCO. A scheme of control with the help of thermo-transducer is proposed for prognosis of a possible failure of the anastomosis. PMID:16768335

  12. A case of lymphoepithelial cyst of pancreas with unique "cheerios-like" appearance in EUS.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Takenaka, Mamoru; Matsuki, Nobuyuki; Funatsu, Eiji; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Hayakumo, Takanobu; Hara, Shigeo; Ku, Yonson; Azuma, Takeshi; Kutsumi, Hiromu

    2012-12-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is a rare benign lesion, which is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We describe a case of a 60-year-old male, incidentally diagnosed as having LEC of the pancreas, which was managed by laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Most of the reported cases of LEC were asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. A high index of suspicion under EUS may help in making a diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary surgery in asymptomatic patients. In particular, the unique "cheerios-like" appearance of the lesion in EUS, which was also found in this case, might be helpful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions. PMID:26181319

  13. Multifocal Insulinoma in Pancreas and Effect of Intraoperative Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Borazan, Ersin; Aytekin, Alper; Yilmaz, Latif; Elci, Muhsin; Karaca, Mehmet Salih; Kervancioglu, Selim; Balik, Ahmet Abdulhalik

    2015-01-01

    Insulinoma is the most frequently seen functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The incidence of multifocal insulinoma is lower than 10%. Its treatment is direct or laparoscopic excision. The present case was examined with the findings of hypoglycemia and hypercalcemia, and as there was high insulin and C-peptide levels the initial diagnosis was insulinoma. The case was investigated in terms of MEN 1. During preoperative screening for localization, there was one focus in the head of the pancreas in the abdominal tomography and two foci in endoscopic ultrasonography. No other focus was detected through intraoperative visual or manual palpation. However, five foci were detected during operation by intraoperative ultrasonography. The relation of masses with the main pancreatic canal was evaluated and they were excised by enucleation method. There was no recurrence during the postoperative 18-month follow-up of the patient. As a result, during treatment for insulinoma, it should be kept in mind that there might be multifocal foci. In all insulinomas, the whole pancreas should be evaluated with intraoperative ultrasonography because none of the current preoperative diagnostic methods are as sensitive as manual palpation of pancreas and intraoperative ultrasonography. The intraoperative detection of synchronous five foci in pancreas is quite a rare condition. PMID:26295000

  14. Diagnosis and preoperative predictive value of serum HE4 concentrations for optimal debulking in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZHIJUN; LUO, ZHAOQIN; ZHAO, BINGBING; ZHANG, WEI; ZHANG, JIEQING; LI, ZHUANG; LI, LI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) concentrations for the diagnosis and preoperative prediction of optimal debulking in epithelial ovarian cancer. The concentrations of serum HE4 and CA125 in 180 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, 40 benign ovarian tumor patients and 40 healthy female subjects were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The value of determining the serum HE4 concentrations for the diagnosis and preoperative prediction of optimal debulking in epithelial ovarian cancer was also analyzed. The concentration of serum HE4 was 355.2221.29 pmol/l in ovarian cancer, 43.8620.87 pmol/l in benign ovarian tumors and 30.229.64 pmol/l in healthy individuals, respectively. The serum HE4 levels of patients with ovarian cancer were significantly higher compared with those in the other two groups (P<0.01), although there were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between the benign ovarian tumors and healthy individuals. The maximum diagnostic value was identified at an HE4 serum concentration of 67.52 pmol/l and the sensitivity and specificity were 84 and 96%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.944 (95% CI, 0.9120.976; P<0.001) and the ? value of the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer according to HE4 was 0.814 (P=0.000). The demarcation criterion was 600 pmol/l, where a value >600 mol/l indicates a lower possibility of optimal debulking. HE4 predicted that the sensitivity of the incomplete cytoreductive surgery was 77% and specificity was 32%. The concentration of serum HE4 is a useful marker for diagnosis and preoperative prediction for the ideal tumor cytoreductive surgery in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23946773

  15. What Is the Pancreas?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pancreas Function of the Pancreas What is the pancreas? The pancreas is a long flattened gland located ... controller of blood sugar levels. Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. ...

  16. [Pheochromocytoma: role of preoperative diagnosis in the assessment of malignancy risk and in the choice of surgical approach].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C P; Raffaelli, M; De Crea, C; Traini, E; D'Amore, A M; Bellantone, R

    2005-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are malignant in 5-26% of the cases. Differential diagnosis with benign lesions can be difficult even on a pathological basis. Local invasion and distant metastasis are the only well established indicators of malignancy. It has been reported that the risk of malignancy increases with the lesion size. Despite safe laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has been reported for lesions up to 10 cm, it is considered hazardous for pheochromocytoma larger than 6 cm, because of the risk of malignancy and iatrogenic pheochromocytomatosis. We evaluated the possibility to pre-operatively recognize pheochromocytomas at risk of being malignant that should not be selected for LA. The medical records of all the patients who underwent adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma were reviewed. All the preoperatively available data (demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiological) were recorded as well as final pathological diagnosis. Comparative analysis of patients with benign and malignant pheochromocytomas was performed. Sixty-three adrenalectomies for pheochromocytoma were performed in 60 patients. Fifty-seven benign and 6 malignant pheochromocytomas were identified. No significant difference was found between patients with malignant and benign lesions concerning age, gender, family history, symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings. In particular, no significant difference was found for lesion size between the benign (63.3 +/- 30.6 mm, range, 20-150) and the malignant group (48.6 +/- 16.5 mm; range, 30-70). The largest diameter recorded for a malignant lesion was 70 mm. No preoperatively available data can reliably differentiate between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas. All malignant lesions in this series were smaller than 7 cm. Thus, pheochromocytoma size does not seem a reliable predictor of malignancy. In absence of the evidence of gross local invasion or metastatic disease, LA can be safely proposed also for large lesions. Conversion is mandatory in presence of local invasion or difficult dissection that could involve inadequate resection. PMID:16437995

  17. [Papillary solid tumor of the pancreas in a child: a case report].

    PubMed

    Danon, O; Mofredj, A; Morsli, F; Duval-Arnould, M; Pariente, D; Waguet, J; Fabre, M; Chardot, C; Nocton, F

    2000-11-01

    We present a case of a papillary solid neoplasm of the head of the pancreas incidentally diagnosed after an abdominal trauma in a thirteen year old boy. Imaging features (US, CT) of the lesion were not specific enough to permit a precise diagnosis with certainty. Preoperative percutaneous needle biopsy can give presumptive evidence which may guide the treatment. Prognosis is fairly better than other pancreatic neoplasms in children (particularly pancreatoblastoma). Treatment relies only on surgery. PMID:11139664

  18. Preoperative diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to a GIST of the jejunum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kotoulas, Dimitrios; Aloizos, Stavros; Kolovou, Aikaterini; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Kantounakis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are rare mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the digestive tract or nearby structures within the abdomen. We present a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent exploratory laparotomy during which a large gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the small intestine was discovered. Examining the preoperative results of video capsule endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography and comparing them with the operative findings we discuss which of these investigations plays the most important role in the detection and localization of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. A sort review of the literature is also conducted on these rare mesenchymal tumours. PMID:19918463

  19. Preoperative diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to a GIST of the jejunum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the digestive tract or nearby structures within the abdomen. We present a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent exploratory laparotomy during which a large GIST of the small intestine was discovered. Examining the preoperative results of video capsule endoscopy, computed tomography, and angiography and comparing them with the operative findings we discuss which of these investigations plays the most important role in the detection and localization of GIST. A sort review of the literature is also conducted on these rare mesenchymal tumours. PMID:20062725

  20. Prevalence of Co-existing Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with Preoperative Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kadirogullari, Pinar; Atalay, Cemal Resat; Sari, Mustafa Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has been associated with the presence of concomitant endometrial carcinoma. In this study, patients who were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and had hysterectomy, determination of the incidence of endometrial cancer accompanying postoperatively and clinical parameters associated with cancer are aimed. Materials and Methods Endometrial biopsies were taken from patients for various reasons and among them 158 patients diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia from pathologic examination results were retrospectively evaluated. All of the patients age, parity, weight, transvaginal ultrasound measured by endometrial thickness, concomitant systemic disease (diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism), tamoxifen use, hormone use and whether in reproductive age or menopause were all questioned. Patients who applied with endometrial cancer, their cervical stromal involvement, lymph node involvement, cytology positivity and omental metastases were examined. Patients were classified according to their stage and grade. Patients who had intraoperative frozen were re-evaluated. Results Fifteen cases with preoperative endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively, 2 cases had complex hyperplasia without atypia and 13 cases had complex atypical hyperplasia. The rate of preoperative hyperplasia with postoperative endometrial cancer was found to be 10.8% where by 15 cases of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively 11 cases were in postmenopausal period. In patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer according to their histologic types 14 cases had endometrioid adenocarcinoma while one patient with preoperative complex hyperplasia without atypia was diagnosed with serous papillary carcinoma postoperatively. Evaluation of stages in patients diagnosed with cancer, 7 cases of patients had stage IA, 7 cases of patients had stage IB, and 7 cases cases of patients with serous papillary carcinoma were evaluated as stage 3C. Conclusion The risk of endometrial cancer in patients diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia especially endometrial hyperplasia ranges between 15% to 45% and among them 7.9%51% are found to have myometrial inversion. Therefore, preoperative ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging should be perfomed in patients diagnosed with complex atypical hyperplasia. Even intraoperative frozen section examination can provide useful information in selected cases. PMID:26557570

  1. Localization of occult insulin secreting tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallio, H; Suoranta, H

    1979-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic portal venography (PTP) and selective portal blood sample collection for immunoreactive insulin (IRI) analyses was done in four patients who had clinical evidence of the presence of an insulin secreting tumor, but selective arteriogrphy of the pancreas did not visualize any insulinomas. In all patients the clinical diagnosis was confirmed and the localization of the tumors could be calculated with the aid of the PTP and the IRI values detected in different parts of the portal trees. Because no tumor was found at the operation in two patients, despite careful exploration of the pancreas, blind distal pancreatectomy was performed to the point suggested with the help of the investigations, and insulinomas were found close to the resection lines. In the two other patients the proposed localization of the tumor preoperatively was confirmed. There have been no postoperative hypoglycemic symptoms. PMID:215092

  2. Evaluation of surgical outcome, complications, and mortality in dogs undergoing preoperative computed tomography angiography for diagnosis of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt: 124 cases (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    Brunson, Benjamin W; Case, J Brad; Ellison, Gary W; Fox-Alvarez, W Alexander; Kim, Stanley E; Winter, Matthew; Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L; Farina, Lisa L

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety of preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) and its effect on surgical time and clinical outcomes in dogs that underwent surgical correction of a single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPSS). Patient data were retrospectively collected from medical records and owner communications for 124 dogs with single CEPSS, undergoing preoperative CTA (n = 43) or not (n = 81) which were surgically treated from 2005 to 2014. The frequency of major postoperative complications was 4.7% and 9.9% for the CTA and no CTA groups, respectively (P = 0.49). Mean standard deviation (SD) surgical time for the preoperative CTA group was 84 40 min and 81 31 min for the no CTA group (P = 0.28). We conclude that anesthetized preoperative CTA appears to be a safe method for diagnosis and surgical planning in dogs with single CEPSS, and does not appear to affect surgical procedure time, complication rate, or clinical outcome. PMID:26740699

  3. Artifical Pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  4. Pancreas transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It is almost always done when someone with type 1 diabetes also needs a kidney transplant. Pancreas transplant surgery is not usually done in people who also have: A history of cancer HIV Infections such as hepatitis , which ...

  5. Preoperative Assessment of TERT Promoter Mutation on Thyroid Core Needle Biopsies Supports Diagnosis of Malignancy and Addresses Surgical Strategy.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, A; Trimboli, P; Modica, D C; Taffon, C; Guidobaldi, L; Taccogna, S; Rainer, A; Trombetta, M; Papini, E; Zelano, G

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, several molecular markers have been proposed to improve the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Among these, mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter have been correlated to malignant tumors, characterized by highest recurrence and decreased patients' survival. This suggests an important role of TERT mutational analysis in the clinical diagnosis and management of thyroid cancer patients. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the adequacy of core needle biopsy (CNB) for the preoperative assessment of TERT mutational status, to reach a more accurate definition of malignancy and a more appropriate surgical planning. Indeed, CNB is gaining momentum for improving diagnosis of thyroid nodules deemed inconclusive by fine needle aspirate (FNA). The study included 50 patients submitted to CNB due to inconclusive FNA report. TERT mutational status was correlated with BRAF mutation, definitive histology, and post-operative TNM staging of the neoplasia. C228T mutation of the TERT promoter was reported in 10% of the papillary carcinomas (PTC) series. When compared with final histology, all cases harboring TERT mutation resulted as locally invasive PTCs. The prevalence of TERT mutated cases was 17.6% among locally advanced PTCs. TERT analysis on CNB allows the assessment of the pathological population on paraffin sections before DNA isolation, minimizing the risk of false negatives due to poor sampling that affects FNA, and gathering aggregate information about morphology and TERT mutational status. Data indicating a worse outcome of the tumor might be used to individualize treatment decision, surgical option, and follow-up design. PMID:25951319

  6. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Pancreas Facts The pancreas is a five to six inch ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  7. Difficult preoperative diagnosis in a case of rapidly progressive carcinomatous pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Shuto, Takashi; Okamoto, Keitaro; Kawano, Madoka; Kozaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Jun; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman initially diagnosed with stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. After 8 months, she developed dyspnea, leg edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and liver congestion. Her cardiac ejection fraction was normal and cardiomegaly was not evident. Metastatic carcinomatous pericarditis or pleurisy was suspected, but laboratory findings, including tumor markers, were normal. She was transferred to our hospital for the repair a cardiac injury caused by a pericardial drainage procedure. Emergency surgery was performed for the misplaced drainage catheter in the right atrium and for an abnormal mass in her right and left atria. The clinical diagnosis of carcinomatous pericarditis was made; however, her condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died 6 days postoperatively. At autopsy, metastasis was identified in a large area of the pericardium and myocardium. PMID:24980145

  8. Molecular Analyses of Aspirated Cystic Fluid for the Differential Diagnosis of Cystic Lesions of the Pancreas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaorong; Zhan, Xianbao; Li, Zhaoshen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Researchers have evaluated various molecular tests for improving the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the pancreas. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched for articles on molecular tests for the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Measures of accuracy were extracted from selected articles and pooled by the random-effects model. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the overall accuracy of the molecular tests. Pooled sensitivity and specificity values [95% confidence intervals] are reported. Results. The systematic review included eight studies of 428 patients in total. We determined the sensitivities and specificities of tests for KRAS mutations (0.47 [0.39–0.54], 0.98 [0.93–0.99]) and loss of heterozygosity (0.63 [0.54–0.71], 0.76 [0.63–0.87]) for distinguishing mucinous from nonmucinous cysts, as well as the sensitivities and specificities of tests for KRAS mutations (0.59 [0.46–0.71], 0.78 [0.71–0.85]) and loss of heterozygosity (0.89 [0.78–0.96], 0.69 [0.60–0.76]) for differentiating malignant from benign cysts. Conclusion. Tests of KRAS mutations could confirm but not exclude a diagnosis of a mucinous or malignant pancreatic cyst. PMID:26819604

  9. Accuracy of diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas on fine needle aspiration: A multi-institution experience of ten cases

    PubMed Central

    Jahangir, Sidra; Loya, Asif; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Akhter, Noreen; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a neoplasm of uncertain origin and indolent biologic behavior with distinctive morphological features occurring predominantly in young women. This tumor has an excellent prognosis compared to neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinoma, which are close differential diagnoses based on morphology, hence making it crucial to diagnose SPTP correctly. Objectives: To discuss the cytomorphological features of 10 cases of SPTP reported in two institutions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in establishing the diagnosis of SPTP. Methods: Ten diagnosed cases of SPTP were retrieved from the computerized endoscopy and pathology databases of our two tertiary care institutions. Nine patients had subsequent histological follow-up available. Eight patients underwent EUS-FNA while one patient each had ultrasound and computed tomography-guided FNA. The rapid on-site evaluation was carried out in all 10 cases, and additional material was retained for cell block preparation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains ranging from synaptophysin, progesterone receptor, chromogranin, β-catenin, CD10, and NSE were applied on cell blocks. Histological sections of all resected specimens were reviewed, and findings were correlated with those obtained by FNA. Results: Adequate material was obtained in all ten cases. IHC stains helped to confirm the cytological impression of SPTP. Histological examination of resection specimens, available in 9/10 cases, confirmed the cytological diagnosis. Conclusions: FNA particularly that obtained with EUS guidance is an effective tool in the accurate diagnosis of SPTP. PMID:26884802

  10. Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis of liver and pancreas: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Hermann; Bchler, Markus W; Frhlich, Boris; Strbel, Philipp; Bergmann, Frank; Neff, Wolfgang; Singer, Manfred V

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin, which can involve nearly all organs. In the case of an infrequent gastrointestinal tract involvement in systemic sarcoidosis, granulomas of the liver are most commonly described while isolated pancreatic sarcoid lesions are rarely seen. We report a case of systemic sarcoidosis with exclusive extrapulmonal involvement of the liver and the pancreas in a 71-year-old white man. The diagnosis of liver involvement was confirmed by biopsy. Pancreatic surgery was needed because preoperative evaluation could not exclude pancreatic cancer and for biliary decompression. An extensive literature review of systemic sarcoidosis, focusing on reported cases with unusual presentation of sarcoidosis in the liver and the pancreas, its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis was made. PMID:17552036

  11. The "Endothelialized Muscularis Mucosae": A Case Report Describing a Large Cavernous Hemangioma at the Terminal Ileum and a New Histologic Clue for Preoperative Diagnosis from Endoscopic Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Purdy-Payne, Erin K; Miner, Jean F; Foles, Brandon; Tran, Tien-Anh N

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract are quite rare and, until now, have been difficult to diagnose preoperatively due their nonspecific presentations and imaging features, as well as a lack of histologic description pertaining to small superficial biopsies such as those obtained endoscopically. We report a unique case of a 4 cm transmural cavernous hemangioma in the terminal ileum with literature review and describe a new histologic finding-the "endothelialized muscularis mucosae," which was discovered upon review of the endoscopic biopsy and could potentially facilitate preoperative diagnosis of these lesions from endoscopic biopsies in the future. These lesions have classically required surgical resection in order to make a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy, with which they share many historical and radiographic features. Due to their potential to cause bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, and hemorrhage, these lesions may ultimately require surgical resection to relieve symptoms or prevent or treat complications-however, surgical planning and patient counseling could be greatly improved by a preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, gastroenterologists, pathologists, and surgeons should be aware of the "endothelialized muscularis mucosae" which can be very helpful in diagnosing GI cavernous hemangiomas from endoscopic biopsies. PMID:26442160

  12. Arteriovenous malformation of the pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Haga, Junichirou; Azami, Ayaka; Todate, Yukitoshi; Waragai, Mitsuru; Sato, Atai; Takano, Yoshinao; Kawakura, Kenji; Imai, Shigeki; Sakuma, Hideo; Teranishi, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is uncommon in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of AVM of the pancreatic head in a 59-year-old male. He was admitted to a hospital with hematemesis and tarry stool and referred to our hospital in March 2014 on the diagnosis of pancreatic artery pseudoaneurysm. A computed tomography scan showed the presence of irregular dilated and/or stenotic vessels with meandering in the pancreatic head. Magnetic resonance imaging showed strong enhancement of the conglomeration in the pancreatic head. Selective angiography showed the proliferation of a vascular network in the pancreatic head and an early visualization of the portal vein at the arterial phase. The patient qualified for surgery with a preoperative diagnosis of AVM of the pancreatic head. We performed pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histological results confirmed the presence of irregular dilated tortuous arteries and veins in the pancreatic head. Surgical treatment may represent definitive management of symptomatic AVM. PMID:26943682

  13. Polysplenia syndrome with congenital agenesis of dorsal pancreas presenting as acute pancreatitis and the role of endoscopic ultrasonography in its diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Ha; Song, Geun Am; Lee, Dong Gun; Moon, Ji Yoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Suk

    2012-07-01

    A 49-year-old female was admitted to our hospital for acute pancreatitis. The abdomen CT scan incidentally showed midline liver with hepatomegaly, centrally located gallbladder, pancreas truncation, right sided small bowel, left sided large bowel, interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, preduodenal portal vein, and multiple spleens in the left upper quadrant. In MRCP, the head of pancreas was enlarged and short main pancreatic duct without accessory duct was showed. EUS revealed enlarged ventral pancreas with a main pancreatic duct of normal caliber, absence of the accessory pancreatic duct and the dorsal pancreas. She was diagnosed as polysplenia syndrome with agenesis of dorsal pancreas. It is a rare congenital anomaly frequently associated with various visceral anomalies including multiple spleens, impaired visceral lateralization, congenital heart diseases, gastrointestinal abnormalities and azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava. We report a case of polysplenia syndrome with agenesis of dorsal pancreas presenting acute pancreatitis. PMID:22832800

  14. Dermoid Cyst of the Pancreas: A Report of an Unusual Case and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Aynur; Yildirim, Umran; Aydin, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic dermoid cysts are a rare entity. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The diagnosis is generally taking intraoperative. A 20-year-old female presented with epigastric pain without nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, jaundice, and weight loss of one-month duration. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a smooth borders, solid, hyperechoic tumor within midline abdomen, without any connection to the stomach or spleen. At surgery, the entire mass was excised off of the head and inferior part of pancreas. Histopathologic evaluation revealed the rare diagnosis of a dermoid cyst. The diagnosis is difficult preoperatively in evaluating cystic pancreatic lesions by imaging. Therefore, we want to summarize the literature on this rare entity knowledge. PMID:24349815

  15. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Pancreas Anatomy View/Download: Small: 761x736 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis and Risk Factors for Preoperative Death in Neonates with Single Right Ventricle and Systemic Outflow Obstruction: Screening Data from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atz, Andrew M.; Travison, Thomas G.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Laussen, Peter C.; Mahle, William T.; Cook, Amanda L.; Kirsh, Joel A.; Sklansky, Mark; Khaikin, Svetlana; Goldberg, Caren; Frommelt, Michele; Krawczeski, Catherine; Puchalski, Michael D.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Baffa, Jeanne M.; Rychik, Jack; Ohye, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this analysis was to assess preoperative risk factors prior to the first-stage Norwood surgery in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single ventricle lesions, and to evaluate practice patterns in prenatal diagnosis as well as the role of prenatal diagnosis in outcome. Methods Data from all live births with morphologic single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction screened for the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial were used to investigate prenatal diagnosis and preoperative risk factors. Demographics, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis status, presence of major extracardiac congenital abnormalities and preoperative mortality rates were recorded. Results Of 906 infants, 677 (75%) had prenatal diagnosis, 15% were preterm (<37 weeks), and 16% were low birth weight (<2500 g). Rates of prenatal diagnosis varied by study site (59%-85%, p<0.0001). Major extracardiac congenital abnormalities were less prevalent in those born after prenatal diagnosis (6% vs. 10%, p=0.03). There were 26 (3%) deaths prior to Norwood palliation; preoperative mortality did not differ by prenatal diagnosis status (p=0.49). In multiple logistic regression models, preterm birth (p=0.02), major extracardiac congenital abnormalities (p<0.0001), and obstructed pulmonary venous return (p=0.02) were independently associated with preoperative mortality. Conclusions Prenatal diagnosis occurred in 75%. Preoperative death was independently associated with preterm birth, obstructed pulmonary venous return and major extracardiac congenital abnormalities. Adjusted for gestational age and the presence of obstructed pulmonary venous return, the estimated odds of preoperative mortality were 10 times greater for subjects with a major extracardiac congenital abnormality. PMID:20561642

  17. Castleman's disease in the head of the pancreas: report of a rare clinical entity and current perspective on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbei; Wieczorek, Rosemary L; Zenilman, Michael E; Desoto-Lapaix, Fidelina; Ghosh, Bimal C; Bowne, Wilbur B

    2007-01-01

    Background Castleman's disease of the pancreas is a very rare condition that may resemble more common disease entities as well as pancreatic cancer. Case presentation Here we report the case of a 58-year-old African American male with an incidentally discovered lesion in the head of the pancreas. The specimen from his pancreaticoduodectomy contained a protuberant, encapsulated mass, exhibiting microscopic features most consistent with localized/unicentric Castleman's disease. These included florid follicular hyperplasia with mantle/marginal zone hyperplasia along with focal progressive transformation of germinal centers admixed with involuted germinal centers. Conclusion To date, eight cases of Castleman's disease associated with the pancreas have been described in the world literature. We report the first case of unicentric disease situated within the head of the pancreas. In addition, we discuss the diagnostic dilemma Castleman's disease may present to the pancreatic surgeon and review current data on pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome. PMID:18028547

  18. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  19. Preoperative Consultations.

    PubMed

    Thilen, Stephan R; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Treggiari, Miriam M

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative consultation is an important intervention that likely has most benefits for intermediate-risk to high-risk patients undergoing major surgery. Consultation rates are likely increasing and there is significant practice variation in the use of consultation. Consultations should be available within a well-organized and coordinated process of preoperative assessment. Preoperative consults should be accessible to anesthesia and surgical teams involved in the procedure and to the providers involved in postoperative care. The role of preoperative consultation should evolve as a rational approach and emerge as a value-based service. New payment methodologies are likely to facilitate appropriate use of this important resource. PMID:26927736

  20. Preoperative Clinics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Angela F; Slawski, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative evaluation clinics have been shown to enhance operating room efficiency, decrease day-of-surgery cancellations, reduce hospital costs, and improve the quality of patient care. Although programs differ in staffing, structure, financial support, and daily operations, they share the common goal of preoperative risk reduction in order for patients to proceed safely through the perioperative period. Effective preoperative evaluation occurs if processes are standardized to ensure clinical, regulatory, and accreditation guidelines are met while keeping medical optimization and patient satisfaction at the forefront. Although no universally accepted standard model exists, there are key components to a successful preoperative process. PMID:26927735

  1. Pancreas transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It functions to produce digestive enzymes which are delivered to ... of the most important hormones produced by the pancreas is insulin. Insulin is produced by specialized cells ...

  2. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  3. Serous Microcystadenoma of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Malaichamy, Vinuta; Chithambaram, Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    Cystic tumours of the pancreas are less common, representing 5% to 10% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They constitute an important subset because many cystic tumour are either benign or low-grade (indolent) malignant neoplasm. Cystic lesions are also detected more commonly owing to the increased use of sensitive imaging techniques. A female patient 48-year-old, presented with upper abdominal symptoms. CT abdomen reveals a large multicystic mass with central scar shows no communication with pancreatic duct. Resected specimen, show a large lobulated mass with central scar and many small cysts. Microscopic examination confirms the diagnosis of serous adenoma. PAS positivity is used to demonstrate the glycogen content of the lining epithelium. PMID:26557530

  4. Preoperative Prediction of Ki-67 Labeling Index By Three-dimensional CT Image Parameters for Differential Diagnosis Of Ground-Glass Opacity (GGO)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mingzheng; Peng, Fei; Zhang, Chengzhong; Wang, Qingguo; Li, Zhao; Hu, Haiyang; Liu, Sida; Xu, Binbin; Zhu, Wenzhuo; Han, Yudong; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict Ki-67 labeling index (LI) preoperatively by three-dimensional (3D) CT image parameters for pathologic assessment of GGO nodules. Diameter, total volume (TV), the maximum CT number (MAX), average CT number (AVG) and standard deviation of CT number within the whole GGO nodule (STD) were measured by 3D CT workstation. By detection of immunohistochemistry and Image Software Pro Plus 6.0, different Ki-67 LI were measured and statistically analyzed among preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis with cross-validation were performed to further research a quantitative correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and radiological parameters. Diameter, TV, MAX, AVG and STD increased along with PIA, MIA and IAC significantly and consecutively. In the multiple linear regression model by a stepwise way, we obtained an equation: prediction of Ki-67 LI=0.022*STD+0.001* TV+2.137 (R=0.595, R’s square=0.354, p<0.001), which can predict Ki-67 LI as a proliferative marker preoperatively. Diameter, TV, MAX, AVG and STD could discriminate pathologic categories of GGO nodules significantly. Ki-67 LI of early lung adenocarcinoma presenting GGO can be predicted by radiologic parameters based on 3D CT for differential diagnosis. PMID:26061252

  5. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  6. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Morana, Giovanni; Guarise, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than solid lesions and are often detected incidentally, as many of these lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, they may be associated with pancreatitis or have malignant potential. With advancements in diagnostic imaging, cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Many lesions can cause a pancreatic cyst, most being non-neoplastic while approximately 10% are cystic tumors, ranging from benign to highly malignant tumors. With increasing experience it is becoming clear that the prevalence of pseudocyst among cystic lesions of the pancreas is lower than usually presumed. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst based on imaging appearance alone can cause a diagnostic error, and neoplastic cysts of the pancreas are particularly susceptible to this misdiagnosis, which can result in inappropriate treatment. Cystic tumors of the pancreas are formed by serous or mucinous structures showing all stages of cellular differentiation. According to the WHO classification, they can be subdivided on the basis of their histological type and biological behavior into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors. Cystic pancreatic tumors can be subdivided into peripheral (serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic tumors, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms, cystic islet cell tumors), which do not communicate with the main pancreatic duct, and ductal tumors (mucinous tumor), according to their site of origin. On the basis of imaging criteria alone, it can be very difficult to differentiate non-tumoral cystic lesions from neoplastic ones. The management of these patients is complex, and it is important to correlate imaging findings with knowledge of the patients symptoms and of the natural history and predictors of malignancy in pancreatic cysts. PMID:16861136

  7. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Domen, Hiromitsu; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Takahashi, Mizuna; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu; Ishizaka, Masanori

    2012-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be divided into true cysts, pseudocysts, and cystic neoplasms. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. LECs are rare lesions; fewer than 90 cases have been reported in the English language literature. The case of a 60-year-old man with an LEC of the pancreas is reported. He was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 64 × 39 mm cystic mass in the retroperitoneum behind the duodenum and inferior caval vein. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right-sided mass on T1-weighted imaging, with a clear boundary between the mass and its surroundings, except for the pancreas. The mass had an inhomogeneous intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Within the mass, small floating nodules with low intensity were seen. Endoscopic ultrasound showed many high-echoic nodules and smaller grains scattered everywhere in the mass. Fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination were performed. Characteristic chylaceous fluid was obtained in which anucleate squamous cells were found. There were also a few atypical large cells with irregularly shaped marked nucleoli and degenerative cytoplasm. Cytologic diagnosis was suspicious for malignancy. The lesion was diagnosed as a retroperitoneal cyst, probably of pancreatic origin. Since a neoplastic lesion could not be ruled out, surgery was performed. The lesion was palpable on the dorsal side of the second portion of the duodenum. The mass was completely resected. Macroscopically, the lesion was a multilocular cyst with a thin septal wall. The cyst was filled with cottage cheese-like substance. Microscopically, the cyst wall was composed of stratified squamous epithelium and dense subepithelial lymphatic tissue with developed lymph follicles. The epithelial cells had no atypia. The histopathologic diagnosis was LEC of the pancreas. The patient's postoperative course was good. PMID:23139650

  8. Use of radionuclide method in preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of the spine. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Israeli, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Horoszowski, H.; Farine, I.

    1983-05-01

    A 24-year-old man with persistent low back pain and right sciatica, was found to have an osteoid osteoma of the right pedicle of the second lumbar vertebra. /sup 99m/Tc-MDP bone scan and CAT scan produced an early diagnosis of the lesion. Intraoperative /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in vitro combined with imaging and quantitative activity measurements were useful for accurate localization and complete removal. The method is simple and can be performed in every nuclear medicine department, with no need for special operating room facilities.

  9. Gastric heterotopic pancreas masquerading as a stromal tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIN, MAOSONG; FU, YIWEI; YU, HONG; HUANG, JUNXING

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas (HP), a rare condition that is generally asymptomatic, is an aberration in the developmental profile of the pancreas. While it can occur in any location in the gastrointestinal tract, it is most typically found in the antrum of the stomach and is usually wrongly considered to be a submucosal tumor (SMT). Despite advances in diagnostic modalities, a HP still poses a diagnostic dilemma to clinicians. Invasive surgery or endoscopic resection have often been inappropriately applied in cases of an ectopic pancreas due to the difficulty in distinguishing it from neoplastic SMTs, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The present study reports the unusual case of a middle-aged female with an SMT at the lesser curve of the mid-body of the stomach, which was initially diagnosed as a GIST through endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography. However, following removal by endoscopic submucosal dissection, this lesion was finally histopathologically confirmed as an HP. Therefore, although it is rare, the possibility of an HP should always be considered when diagnosing an extramucosal gastric mass. The precise pre-operative diagnosis of this entity may avoid unnecessary extensive treatment intervention. PMID:26622851

  10. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the Pancreas test Common Disorders of the Pancreas There are a variety of disorders of the ... the NPF Shop at our eStore The National Pancreas Foundation 3 Bethesda Metro Center Suite 700 Bethesda, ...

  11. Pancreatic Islet Cell Amyloidosis Manifesting as a Large Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yaln?z, Mehmet; Poyraz, Ahmet Kursad; zercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with epigastric pain lasting for two months. Laboratory results showed impaired glucose tolerance. Ultrasonography of the patient showed a hypoechoic, diffusely enlarged pancreas. CT revealed a large pancreas, with multiple calcifications. On MRI, a diffusely enlarged pancreas was seen hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration. A biopsy of the pancreas revealed primary amyloidosis of islet cells. Decreased signal on T1-weighted images without inflammation findings on CT and MRI were clues for the diagnosis. PMID:22247642

  12. Ectopic pancreas presenting with pancreatitis and a mesenteric mass.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Michael; Ahmed, Osman; Rana, Kuntal A; Boumendjel, Redouane; Dachman, Abraham H; Zaritzky, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is defined by the presence of abnormally situated pancreatic tissue that lacks contact with normal pancreas and possesses its own duct system and vascular supply. Ectopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Moreover, there are several reported cases of adult ectopic pancreatitis in the literature, but to date, only two cases of pediatric ectopic pancreatitis have been reported. We describe a 15-year-old female with acute right upper quadrant pain and elevated serum lipase and amylase, in whom the radiological diagnosis was mesenteric soft tissue mass with adjacent inflammatory changes. The surgical pathology diagnosis, however, was mesenteric ectopic pancreas complicated by pancreatitis. We advocate for ectopic pancreatitis to be considered in a pediatric patient with acute abdominal pain, laboratory findings consistent with pancreatitis, and imaging findings of a mesenteric mass and normal orthotopic pancreas. PMID:23331836

  13. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  14. The “Endothelialized Muscularis Mucosae”: A Case Report Describing a Large Cavernous Hemangioma at the Terminal Ileum and a New Histologic Clue for Preoperative Diagnosis from Endoscopic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Purdy-Payne, Erin K.; Miner, Jean F.; Foles, Brandon; Tran, Tien-Anh N.

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract are quite rare and, until now, have been difficult to diagnose preoperatively due their nonspecific presentations and imaging features, as well as a lack of histologic description pertaining to small superficial biopsies such as those obtained endoscopically. We report a unique case of a 4 cm transmural cavernous hemangioma in the terminal ileum with literature review and describe a new histologic finding—the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae,” which was discovered upon review of the endoscopic biopsy and could potentially facilitate preoperative diagnosis of these lesions from endoscopic biopsies in the future. These lesions have classically required surgical resection in order to make a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy, with which they share many historical and radiographic features. Due to their potential to cause bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, and hemorrhage, these lesions may ultimately require surgical resection to relieve symptoms or prevent or treat complications—however, surgical planning and patient counseling could be greatly improved by a preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, gastroenterologists, pathologists, and surgeons should be aware of the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae” which can be very helpful in diagnosing GI cavernous hemangiomas from endoscopic biopsies. PMID:26442160

  15. Metastatic Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma to the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.; Pannala, Rahul; Faigel, Douglas O.; Haakinson, Danielle J.; Katariya, Nitin; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Jaroszewski, Dawn; Lidner, Thomas K.; Byrne, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, usually presenting in the younger population (<40 years) without underlying liver disease. Although it has a better prognosis than hepatocellular carcinoma, it has a high rate of recurrence months to years after primary resection. While sites of recurrence usually involve the liver, regional lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung, metastasis to the pancreas is extremely rare, with only 2 other cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 46-year-old patient with metastatic FL-HCC to the pancreas 30 years after diagnosis and 26 years since his last resected liver recurrence. PMID:26351415

  16. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the kidneys is to remove waste from the body through the production of urine. They also help to regulate blood pressure, blood volume and the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five ...

  17. [Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Davies, Nestor R; Kasparian, Andres C; Viotto, Lucas E; Moreno, Walter A; Gramtica, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas represents around 6-36% of mucinous cystic neoplasm. The lesions are usually found in the body and tail of the pancreas and are generally solitary with a size range of 6-36 cm. We present a clinical case of a 63 years old patient with abdominal pain and weight loss. We used radiographic imaging studies. It was treated with surgery by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and transverse colectomy. Patient was not post operative complications. PMID:21138674

  18. [The endocrine pancreas].

    PubMed

    Corteso, L; Saraiva, A M; Guerreiro, L

    1995-06-01

    The islets of Langerhans provide energy storage and disposal, and protection from plasma glucose excursions, especially hypoglycemia. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) results from autoimmune beta-cell damage. Prevention of IDDM has already been achieved in animal investigation and some centers are now screening and treating individuals at high risk for developing IDDM. Immunosuppressive drugs can induce transient remission of recent-onset IDDM. Intensive insulin treatment of IDDM delays the onset and slows the progression of long-term complications. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is the result of beta-cell malfunction and is strongly associated with X syndrome. Diet and exercise are of undoubted importance in NIDDM prevention and treatment. Functional endocrine tumors of the pancreas (FET) are rare hormone and peptide-secreting neoplasms. These peptides may or may not occur naturally in the islets. FETs often occur with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) so that MEN-1 screening should always be performed, and extended to family members whenever diagnosed. Drugs--alcohol, insulin and sulfonilureas--are the main cause of hypoglycemia. Insulinoma is the main cause of post-absorptive organic hypoglycemia. Non islet-cell tumors seldom cause hypoglycemia. Insulinoma often is a solitary tumor, but it may be multicentric and may coexist with cell hyperplasia and nesidioblastosis. Symptoms of neuroglycopenia may be mistaken for neuropsychiatric disease. The diagnosis is based on confirmation of post absorptive hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinism. Gastrinoma causes Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) which is characterized by fulminating peptic ulcer disease. The tumor is often malignant, and it may be multicentric and may occur with cell hyperplasia and nesidioblastosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7653306

  19. [Experimental pancreas transplantation].

    PubMed

    Meyer, W

    1979-08-01

    Pancreatic auto- and allotransplantation of the pancreas tail were successfully performed in dogs. Malnutrition related to pancreatic exocrine hypofunction occurs initially in pancreatic-autotransplantation but gradual recovery by 3 months is normal. Tolbutamide showed a significant prolongation of hypoglycemia, glucose tolerance curves were normal in pancreatic autotransplantation. Denervation and lymphatic interruption of the pancreas may cause a transient but not definitive influence on pancreatic functions. In pancreatic allotransplantations there was a slight extension of survival time in the immunosuppressive treated group (Imuran 6 mg/kg). The results suggest that hyperglycemia, a poor response of the islets after glucose stimulation and a low circulating plasma-insulin level along with a low amylase level indicated the end point of rejection. The canine pancreas has been perfused for 3 hours with a membrane oxygenator, a pulsatile pump and a heat exchanger at a temperature of 37 degrees C. Among the criteria used in this study the insulin output into the venous blood in response to glucose administration as well as a pancreas secretion after secretin stimulation were found to be the most reliable indicators as to the viability of the pancreas. This is further supported by an average oxygen consumption of 0,77 ml O2/100 g/min at a constant flow of 80 ml/min and a pressure of 75 mmHg. PMID:378802

  20. A stubborn anemia caused by ectopic pancreas bleeding in the jejunum revealed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is extremely rare in clinical setting. Meanwhile, a stubborn anemia without obvious dark bloody stool due to ectopic pancreas diagnosed by capsule endoscopy has not been reported. We reported a case of an ectopic pancreas inducing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a 70-year-old woman presenting as stubborn anemia, which was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. The patient recovered well after resection the lesion. Diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is extremely difficult with conventional techniques. Endoscopists should pay more attention to the ectopic pancreas as a rare differential consideration for occult intestinal bleeding. PMID:26682148

  1. Imaging of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Ming; Sethi, Amrita

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of pancreatic lesions, from solid pancreatic masses to pancreatic cysts, remains a clinical challenge. Although cross-sectional imaging remains the cornerstone of the initial evaluation of an indeterminate pancreatic lesion, advances in imaging with the advent of endoscopic ultrasound scan, elastography, contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound scan, and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy have allowed us to visualize the pancreas in even higher resolution and diagnose premalignant and malignant lesions of the pancreas with improved accuracy. This report reviews the range of imaging tools currently available to evaluate pancreatic lesions, from solid tumors to pancreatic cysts. PMID:26895683

  2. Tuberculosis of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, S.; Johnson, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the pancreas is extremely rare. We report a case which demonstrates the diagnostic confusion which may arise in this condition. A 55-year-old alcoholic caucasian man presented with loss of weight and obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography showed a mass lesion in the head of the pancreas, diagnosed as probably malignant. He underwent a Whipple's pancreatoduodencetomy and made a good recovery. Histological examination showed typical features of tuberculosis. In the absence of other foci of active disease chemotherapy was not given. He remains well 12 months after operation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7479475

  3. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  4. Pancreas development in humans

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fong Cheng; Brissova, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We highlight some of the major recent advances in characterizing human pancreas development and endocrine cell differentiation. Recent findings Extensive research efforts have helped to define crucial events in the mouse pancreas organogenesis. Information gained from these studies was used to develop human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation protocols with the goal of generating functional glucose-responsive, insulin-producing human ?-cells. In spite of remarkable progress in hESC differentiation, current protocols based on mouse developmental biology can produce human ?-cells only in vivo. New differentiation markers and recently generated reagents may provide an unprecedented opportunity to develop a high-density expression map of human fetal pancreas and pancreatic islets that could serve as a reference point for in vitro hESC differentiation. Summary Integrating an increased knowledge of human pancreas development into hESC differentiation protocols has the potential to greatly advance our ability to generate functional insulin-producing cells for ?-cell replacement therapy. PMID:24569548

  5. Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Diagnostic Dilemma of Intraoperative Diagnosis: Could Preoperative He4 Assay and ROMA Score Assessment Increase the Frozen Section Accuracy? A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Berretta, Roberto; Di Gangi, Stefania; Guido, Maria; Zanni, Giuliano Carlo; Franceschetti, Ilaria; Quaranta, Michela; Plebani, Mario; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Patrelli, Tito Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the value of a preoperative He4-serum-assay and ROMA-score assessment in improving the accuracy of frozen section histology in the diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). 113 women presenting with a unilateral ovarian mass diagnosed as serous/mucinous BOT at frozen-section-histology (FS) and/or confirmed on final pathology were recruited. Pathologists were informed of the results of preoperative clinical/instrumental assessment of all patients. For Group_A patients, additional information regarding He4, CA125, and ROMA score was available (in Group_B only CA125 was known). The comparison between Group A and Group B in terms of FS accuracy, demonstrated a consensual diagnosis in 62.8% versus 58.6% (P: n.s.), underdiagnosis in 25.6% versus 41.4% (P < 0.05), and overdiagnosis in 11.6% versus 0% (P < 0.01). Low FS diagnostic accuracy was associated with menopausal status (OR: 2.13), laparoscopic approach (OR: 2.18), mucinous histotype (OR: 2.23), low grading (OR: 1.30), and FIGO stage I (OR: 2.53). Ultrasound detection of papillae (OR: 0.29), septa (OR: 0.39), atypical vascularization (OR: 0.34), serum He4 assay (OR: 0.39), and ROMA score assessment (OR: 0.44) decreased the probability of underdiagnosis. A combined preoperative assessment through serum markers and ultrasonographic features may potentially reduce the risk of underdiagnosis of BOTs on FS while likely increasing the concomitant incidence of false-positive events. PMID:25431767

  6. Pediatric pancreas: an overview.

    PubMed

    Enrquez, G; Vzquez, E; Aso, C; Castellote, A; Garca-Pea, P; Lucaya, J

    1998-01-01

    Pancreatic disorders are not rare in children. Modern imaging equipment allows recognition of many pancreatic diseases that were difficult to identify in the past and therefore were considered to be unusual. Within the scope of this article we include information on imaging modalities for studying the pancreas and a description of the radiologic manifestations of the most common congenital, inflammatory, tumoral, traumatic and systemic disorders. PMID:9724445

  7. Retinoids in the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn

    2016-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its natural and synthetic analogs) are required by most tissues for maintaining the normal health of the tissue. This is certainly true for the pancreas. The recent literature is convincing that retinoids are needed by the adult to assure normal pancreatic endocrine functions, especially those of the α- and β-cells. It is also well established that retinoids are required to insure normal pancreas development in utero, including the development of the endocrine pancreas. The actions of retinoids for maintaining normal pancreatic islet functions has drawn considerable research interest from investigators interested in understanding and treating metabolic disease. Pancreatic retinoids are also of interest to investigators studying the origins of pancreatic disease, including the development of pancreatic fibrosis and its sequelae. This research interest is focused on pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) which store retinoids and possess the metabolic machinery needed to metabolize retinoids. The literature on pancreatic disease and retinoids suggests that there is an association between impairments in pancreatic retinoid storage and metabolism and the development of pancreatic disease. These topics will be considered in this review. PMID:26904552

  8. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (158). Duodenal ectopic pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Wee, Eric; Desai, Vijayadwaja; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man presented with right loin tenderness following a road traffic accident. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, smooth, enhancing oval lesion in the wall of the first part of the duodenum. The lesion was seen separately from the normal pancreas. It showed attenuation, intensity and enhancement similar to that of normal pancreas. Based on the imaging appearance, a diagnosis of ectopic pancreas was made. The patient underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the lesion, which confirmed ectopic pancreatic tissue. Since the patient was asymptomatic, surgical resection was deferred. The embryologic origin, various locations, imaging appearance and clinical significance of ectopic pancreas are discussed. PMID:25630315

  9. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  10. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting ?-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. PMID:26395141

  11. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7397%) and 85% (95% CI, 7592%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 8598%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with AUS/FLUS or FN/SFN cytology. PMID:25965083

  12. [Diseases of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Zildzi?, Muharem

    2003-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis occur after autodigestion of pancreatic tissue with pancreatic enzymes followed by necrosis and secondary infection. Two most common causes are biliary stones and alcoholism. Other causes are rare. Computerised tomography and abdominal ultrasonography are of basic diagnostic value. In early phase of pancreatitis ultrasound of biliary three is important. Urgent intervention with stone extraction can prevent severe forms of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis with its etiology is related to alcohol consumption (70-80%). Other causes are common to acute pancreatitis. Long lasting papillar obstruction could cause chronic inflammatory changes on pancreas. Natural course of disease reduce tissue of gland significantly with maldigestion and malabsorption symptoms. Most common tumor of pancreas is ductal adenocarcinoma with increasing incidence of 10/100,000 per year. Risk factors are: smoking, diabetes mellitus, 65% of cancers are in the head of gland. Treatment is surgical but rarely in early phase that allows radical resectability. Endoscopic palliation is placing of biliary stents. Biliodigestive anastomoses are performed surgically. PMID:15137243

  13. Choledochocele: A Case Report and Discussion of Diagnosis Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linlin; Lv, Zhibao; Liu, Jiangbin; Xu, Weijue

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with intermittent abdominal pain, without jaundice and a palpable mass in the epigastrium. Preoperative imaging and upper endoscopy suggested duodenal duplication. During surgery, the patient was diagnosed with a rare type of choledochal cystcholedochocele (type 3b). The authors emphasize that, in children, choledochocele should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions located in the duodenal area and the head of the pancreas area, regardless of jaundice or abnormal liver function. Since mucosal histology showing duodenal mucosa did not match the final diagnosis, we suggest that three criteria should be met for the diagnosis of a choledochocele to be diagnosed: (1) a cyst protruding into the duodenal lumen; (2) filling with contrast during cholangiography and (3) a filling defect on X-ray barium meal. PMID:26788455

  14. Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Tran Cao, Hop S.; Kellogg, Benjamin; Lowy, Andrew M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whereas pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a well-studied (but still poorly understood) disease with a dismal prognosis, cystic neoplasms of the pancreas form a more recently recognized group of pancreatic tumors. They are diverse and variable in their pathologic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes,13 although all portend a better overall prognosis than PDA. In recent years, with the improved sensitivity and increasing use of cross-sectional imaging in clinical practice, these lesions are more commonly identified,4 with many being discovered incidentally. Indeed, large radiological series using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have reported detection rates of pancreatic cystic lesions between 1.2% and almost 20%,5,6 approaching the 24.3% prevalence rate in an autopsy series by Kimura and colleagues.7 Although most of these lesions are pseudocysts, a significant portion consist of cystic neoplasms, which are estimated to represent 10% to 15% of all primary pancreatic cystic lesions.8 Given the growing clinical relevance of these tumors, a keen understanding of their natural history and pathophysiology is needed. This article reviews pancreatic cystic neoplasms, with a focus on the challenges encountered in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20159515

  15. Automatic segmentation of abdominal vessels for improved pancreas localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Amal; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal organs from CT images is important for quantitative and qualitative organ tissue analysis as well as computer-aided diagnosis. The large variability of organ locations, the spatial interaction between organs that appear similar in medical scans and orientation and size variations are among the major challenges making the task very difficult. The pancreas poses these challenges in addition to its flexibility which allows for the shape of the tissue to vastly change. Due to the close proximity of the pancreas to numerous surrounding organs within the abdominal cavity the organ shifts according to the conditions of the organs within the abdomen, as such the pancreas is constantly changing. Combining these challenges with typically found patient-to-patient variations and scanning conditions the pancreas becomes harder to localize. In this paper we focus on three abdominal vessels that almost always abut the pancreas tissue and as such useful landmarks to identify the relative location of the pancreas. The splenic and portal veins extend from the hila of the spleen and liver, respectively, travel through the abdominal cavity and join at a position close to the head of the pancreas known as the portal confluence. A third vein, the superior mesenteric vein, anastomoses with the other two veins at the portal confluence. An automatic segmentation framework for obtaining the splenic vein, portal confluence and superior mesenteric vein is proposed using 17 contrast enhanced computed-tomography datasets. The proposed method uses outputs from the multi-organ multi-atlas label fusion and Frangi vesselness filter to obtain automatic seed points for vessel tracking and generation of statistical models of the desired vessels. The approach shows ability to identify the vessels and improve localization of the pancreas within the abdomen.

  16. Pancreas transplantation in type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Phillip; Cooper, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Although the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus was once considered a contraindication to simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, a growing body of evidence has revealed that similar graft and patient survival can be achieved when compared to type 1 diabetes mellitus recipients. A cautious strategy regarding candidate selection may limit appropriate candidates from additional benefits in terms of quality of life and potential amelioration of secondary side effects of the disease process. Although our current understanding of the disease has changed, uniform listing characteristics to better define and study this population have limited available data and must be established. PMID:25540731

  17. Cystic lesions of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Volkan Adsay, N

    2007-02-01

    Although cystic tumors of the pancreas are relatively rare, they constitute an increasingly important category. Advances in imaging and interventional techniques and the sharp drop in the mortality rate of pancreatic surgery have rendered pancreatic biopsies and resections commonplace specimens. Consequently, in the past two decades, the nature of many cystic tumors in this organ has been better characterized. The names of some existing entities were revised; for example, what was known as papillary-cystic tumor is now regarded as solid-pseudopapillary tumor. New entities, in particular, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and its variants, such as oncocytic and intestinal subtypes were recognized. The importance of clinical and pathologic correlation in the evaluation of these lesions was appreciated, in particular, with regards to the multifocality of these lesions, their association with invasive carcinomas, and thus their 'preinvasive' nature. Consensus criteria for the distinction of these from the ordinary precursors of adenocarcinoma, the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, were established. The definition of mucinous cystic neoplasms was refined; ovarian-like stroma has now become almost a requirement for the diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasia, and defined as such, the propensity of these tumors to occur in perimenopausal women became even more striking. The validity and clinical value of classifying the pancreatic cysts of mucinous type as adenoma, borderline, CIS and invasive have been established. Related to this, the importance of thorough sampling in accurate classification of these mucinous lesions was recognized. Greater accessibility of the pancreas afforded by improved invasive as well as noninvasive modalities has also increased the detection of otherwise clinically silent cystic tumors, which has led to the recognition of more innocuous entities such as acinar cell cystadenoma and squamoid cyst of pancreatic ducts. As the significance of the cystic lesions emerged, cystic forms of otherwise typically solid tumors were also better characterized. Thus, significant developments have taken place in the classification and our understanding of pancreatic cystic tumors in the past few years, and experience with these lesions is likely to grow exponentially in the coming years. PMID:17486054

  18. MDCT evaluation of the pancreas: nuts and bolts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mustafa R; Gupta, Rajan T

    2012-05-01

    Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) imaging of the pancreas has important roles in diagnosis, staging, and treatment monitoring of a vast array of pancreatic diseases. Optimizing MDCT protocols not only requires an understanding of expected pathologies but also must take into account cumulative radiation dose considerations. PMID:22560686

  19. Tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kircher, C H; Nielsen, S W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the pancreas occur most commonly in dogs and cats and only rarely in other domestic species. The incidence of neoplasms, both exocrine and endocrine, increases with age. Exocrine adenocarcinomas are the most common malignant tumours and have three fairly distinct morphological patterns: small tubular, large tubular, and acinar cell (rare). They readily metastasize, usually before clinical signs are apparent. A "starry sky" pattern with clear histiocytes scattered among tumour cells is a regular feature of poorly differentiated areas of small tubular adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Islet cell tumours occur in a significant number only in dogs. Metastases are found in about half of the tumours, but malignancy cannot always be predicted by the morphological appearance. Slightly more than half of the islet cell tumours reported in the dog have been associated with clinical signs of hypoglycaemia. Nodular hyperplasia and exocrine adenomas are sometimes difficult to differentiate. Adenomas are considered rare while nodular hyperplasia is common in old animals. PMID:1086150

  20. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nerves, or heart. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1. This is also ... the pancreas does not make insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin shots. About 1.7 ...

  1. Quantification of the Iodine Content of Perigastric Adipose Tissue by Dual-Energy CT: A Novel Method for Preoperative Diagnosis of T4-Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Gaofeng; Li, Yang; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of quantifying iodine concentration (IC) in perigastric adipose tissue, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), for the detection of T4a-stage gastric cancer. Fifty-four patients with gastric cancer were enrolled at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January and June 2013. Patients were imaged preoperatively with conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and DECT, and the IC in perigastric fat adjacent to the tumor calculated from arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) images. The patients subsequently received surgical treatment (gastrectomy), and histologic analysis of resected specimens was used as a gold standard reference for cancer staging. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to assess the utility of DECT for identifying T4a-stage gastric cancer, with optimal IC thresholds determined from the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Postoperative histology revealed that 32 patients had serosal invasion (group A), and 22 did not (group B). The accuracy of conventional CT for distinguishing stage T4 from non-T4 stages was 68.5% (37/54). IC was significantly higher in group A than in group B (AP: 0.600.34 vs. 0.090.19 mg/mL, p<0.001; PVP: 0.830.41 vs. 0.270.21 mg/mL, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and AUC for detecting serosal invasion were 77.1%, 79.2% and 0.89 at an IC threshold of 0.25 mg/mL for AP images; and 80.0%, 79.2% and 0.90 at an IC threshold of 0.45 mg/mL for PVP images. These results indicated that Iodine quantification in perigastric fat using DECT is an accurate method for detecting serosal invasion by gastric cancer. PMID:26372042

  2. Generating new pancreas from old.

    PubMed

    Hardikar, Anandwardhan A

    2004-07-01

    Pancreas regeneration after tissue damage is a key response to pancreatic injury, involving pancreatic duct progenitor cells and intra-islet precursor cells. Surgical removal of the pancreas, duct obstruction by cellophane wrapping and bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation act as inductive stimuli, leading to pancreas regeneration. The exact role of growth and differentiation factors regulating pancreatic beta-cell mass remains unknown. Here, I will attempt to integrate recent findings and speculate on the factors that trigger this fascinating response, wherein the pancreas responds to a deficit in cell mass and undergoes new islet formation, leading to restoration of normal beta-cell mass. I will also discuss recent advances in regenerating endocrine pancreatic cells, which could affect stem cell-based approaches to treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:15223048

  3. Current status of pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D W; Sasaki, T

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus is being done with increasing frequency. Refined operative techniques, an improved immunosuppression regimen, and an earlier recognition of rejection have led to dramatic increases in both graft and patient survival rates. Preliminary data suggest that a functioning pancreatic allograft may arrest or reverse most of the complications of diabetes, although the effects on retinopathy remain controversial. Patients also acquire a strong sense of well-being after successful pancreas transplantation. PMID:2660412

  4. Pancreas Acinar Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Masako; Parsa, Ismail; Marsh, Walton H.; Fitzgerald, Patrick J.

    1972-01-01

    After rat pancreas anlagen were grown in an organ culture medium for 9 days and further incubated for 15, 30 or 60 minutes in media to which C3H3-Sadenosyl-L-methionine (C3H3-SAM) was added, autoradiography demonstrated radioactivity in the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the acinar cell. Under similar circumstances, except that the anlagen were grown in a methionine-deficient (CD-MD) medium prior to incubation with C3H3-SAM, much greater concentrations of radioactivity were present in the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the acinar cell than in the respective compartments of anlagen grown in control medium. The nucleolus showed the highest concentration of radioactivity in anlagen grown in either control or methionine-deficient medium. The nucleolus of the acinar cell of anlagen grown in CD-MD medium appeared to be the most undermethylated cellular compartment and was larger than the nucleolus of the acinar cell grown in the control CD medium, so it is possible that a deficient methylation of ribosomal RNA precursors led to a piling up of RNA in the nucleolus and a decrease in the flow of ribosomal precursors to the cytoplasm. Other substance might have been undermethylated and thereby have inhibited differentiation. ImagesFig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 1 PMID:4634737

  5. [Pancreas transplantation: who and when?].

    PubMed

    Saudek, F; Boucek, P; Adamec, M

    2001-04-12

    Hyperglycemia is an important factor in the development and progression of the complications of diabetes. Pancreas transplantation is currently the only method able to achieve sustained normoglycemia in type I diabetes. By now, this procedure has become an accepted treatment option combined with kidney transplantation for selected patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy. The definite benefits of pancreas transplantation comprise relieve from insulin administration, superb glycemic control, improved quality of life and long-term survival of patient with severe autonomic neuropathy. Presumed benefits represent stabilization or slowing of progression of microvascular complications. Definite disadvantages are the risk of the surgical procedure, graft rejection and the necessity of permanent immunosuppression. Isolated pancreas transplantation in nonuremic type-1 diabetic patients is still controversial. Diabetic complications of the potential recipient have to be potentially correctable by the transplantation and their significance must exceed all risks of the operation and life-long immunosuppression. Currently, approx. 25 combined transplants are performed per year in IKEM with the results comparable to those reported by the International Pancreas Transplant Registry. Seven nonuremic type-1 diabetic recipients of 8 operated in IKEM by June 2000 have been insulin-independent for 1-33 months. The main indication for isolated pancreas transplantation is brittle diabetes with hypoglycemia unawareness syndrome and labile diabetes with severe autonomic neuropathy and rapid progression of microangiopathy despite appropriate intensified insulin therapy. PMID:11374222

  6. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  7. [Total pancreas sampling and transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gaudez, F; Meria, P; Desgrandchamps, F; Roussin, F; Roussin, O; Teillac, P

    2006-02-01

    Pancreas removal and transplantation consists in three main steps: sampling, preparation of the transplant with reconstruction of vessels and finally transplantation. Sampling requires good anatomical knowledge and perfect synchronization between hepatic surgeons so as to ensure adequate dissection of liver and pancreas vessels: portal vein, splenic, upper mesenteric and hepatic arteries. Washing and conservation of organs require the use of University of Wisconsin solution. The preparation of the pancreatic graft consists in reconstructing the unique arterial axis using an iliac arterial fork sutured with upper mesenteric and splenic arteries. The portal vein is lengthened step by step, avoiding venous patch source of thrombosis. The transplantation is realized in the right flank, on the aorta and the vena cava near the iliac crossroads. The digestive anastomosis is performed between duodenum of the transplant and first bowel hail of the recipient. It must be done carefully to avoid any risk of pancreas fistula. PMID:16552905

  8. Clinical imaging of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    May, G.; Gardiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Featuring more than 300 high-quality radiographs and scan images, clinical imaging of the pancreas systematically reviews all appropriate imaging modalities for diagnosing and evaluating a variety of commonly encountered pancreatic disorders. After presenting a succinct overview of pancreatic embryology, anatomy, and physiology, the authors establish the clinical indications-including postoperative patient evaluation-for radiologic examination of the pancreas. The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of currently available imaging techniques for the pancreas are thoroughly assessed, with carefully selected illustrations depicting the types of images and data obtained using these different techniques. The review of acute and chronic pancreatitis considers the clinical features and possible complications of their variant forms and offers guidance in selecting appropriate imaging studies.

  9. Nodular Elastosis of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Whitney; Talmon, Geoffrey; Sasson, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Elastofibromatous change is a benign process that has been increasingly recognized in the tubular gastrointestinal tract. These changes can present as a colonic polyp or be seen in conjunction with inflammatory changes. Similar lesions have been noted in the liver, apparently associated with vascular injury. We describe a case in which multiple circumscribed nodules of elastofibromatous change within the pancreas had a similar morphology to nodular elastosis of the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a finding occurring within the pancreas. PMID:26346767

  10. Gemcitabine and AMG 479 in Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Advanced Solid Tumors; Cancer; Cancer of Pancreas; Cancer of the Pancreas; Metastases; Metastatic Cancer; Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Bone Metastases; Endocrine Cancer; Oncology; Oncology Patients; Solid Tumors; Advanced Malignancy

  11. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas mimicking malignant cystic tumor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dong Hee; Sung, Ro Hyun; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jae Woon

    2015-08-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. They are very rare, non-malignant lesions that are unilocular or multilocular cystic lesions lined predominantly by mature squamous epithelium and surrounded by non-neoplastic lymphoid elements. We, herein, present a patient with a cystic pancreas tumor mimicking a malignant cystic neoplasm. The patient was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 6439 mm cystic mass in the pancreas tail. She underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. In the fluid analysis of the pancreas cystic mass, the CEA and CA19-9 were 618 ng/ml and 3.9 U/ml, respectively. The resected pancreas specimen showed a 6.5 cm-sized cyst the pancreas tail. The cyst was well circumscribed and multilocular. The final pathology report of the resected pancreas specimen noted that the cyst was multilocular, and the cyst lining was showing stratified squamous epithelium covering the lymphoid tissue (containing lymphoid follicles), which was consistent with a lymphoepithelial cyst. The patient recovered uneventfully from surgery and has been doing well for the past 3 months. A differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions is important. We suggest that lymphoepithelial cysts, although very rare, may be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic tumors. PMID:26379736

  12. Artificial Pancreas Works Well in Home Trial

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154683.html Artificial Pancreas Works Well in Home Trial Study found ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The latest trial of an artificial pancreas system offers good news for people with ...

  13. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Uirá; Goldoni, Marcos; Unterleider, Michelle; Diedrich, João; Balbinot, Diogo; Rodrigues, Pablo; Monteiro, Rodolfo; Gomes, Daniel; Sampaio, José; Fontes, Paulo; Waechter, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are presented as rare malignant neoplasms. In unusual cases, those neoplasms may arise in solid organs containing neuroendocrine cells, such as the pancreas. Herein the case of a 28-year-old patient that underwent gastroduodenopancreatectomy after the diagnosis of a huge mass (PNET) located in both head and body of the pancreas is reported. This is the 19th case of pancreatic PNET reported in literature. PMID:26101685

  14. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Munshi , Imtiaz A.; Parra-Davila, Eduardo; Casillas, Victor J.; Levi, Jo U.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are relatively uncommon. We describe the case of a young man with a complex cystic mass located within the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent exploration with resection of the mass. Pathology revealed a ciliated epithelial cyst, a rare cystic lesion of the pancreas. PMID:9893242

  15. [Preoperative structured patient education].

    PubMed

    Lamarche, D

    1993-04-01

    This article describes the factors that motivated the nursing staff of the cardiac surgery unit at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, to revise their preoperative teaching program. The motivating factors described are the length of the preoperative waiting period; the level of preoperative anxiety; the decreased length of hospital stay; the dissatisfaction of the nursing staff with current patient teaching practices; and the lack of available resources. The reorganization of the teaching program was based upon the previously described factors combined with a review of the literature that demonstrated the impact of preoperative anxiety, emotional support and psycho-educational interventions upon the client's recovery. The goals of the new teaching program are to provide the client and the family with cognitive and sensory information about the client's impending hospitalization, chronic illness and necessary lifestyle modifications. The program consists of a system of telephone calls during the preoperative waiting period; a videotape viewing; a tour of the cardiac surgery unit; informal discussion groups; and the availability of nursing consultation to decrease preoperative anxiety. The end result of these interventions is more time for client support and integration of necessary information by the client and family. This kind of program has the potential to provide satisfaction at many levels by identifying client's at risk; increasing client knowledge; increasing support; decreasing anxiety during the preoperative waiting period; and decreasing the length of hospital stay. The nursing staff gained a heightened sense of accomplishment because the program was developed according to the nursing department's philosophy, which includes primary nursing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8472243

  16. [Preoperative hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, B E; Johnsen, R L

    1994-11-30

    At Telemark Central Hospital we decided to change the procedure for preoperative disinfection of the hands in order to improve antimicrobial efficacy and to minimize skin problems for the personnel. Previously, preoperative disinfection of hands was performed by scrubbing the hand with a detergent containing chlorohexidine (Hibiscrub) which often caused dryness, fissures and dermatitis. In the recent years it has been amply shown that alcoholic solutions have a very good and immediate antibacterial effect on the skin flora, while chlorohexidine has a prolonged effect. In this paper we describe our new procedures for preoperative disinfection of hands and the necessary planning and preparation we undertook to obtain acceptance for these procedures among the personnel. PMID:7998055

  17. [The diagnosis and treatment of insulinoma and gastrinoma].

    PubMed

    Honda, Munehiro; Ishibashi, Miyuki

    2004-03-01

    The gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumor is relatively rare tumor that originate from pancreas, duodenum, and a variety of neuroendocrine cells. The differential diagnosis and preoperative localization of the tumor are important, because surgical resection of the tumor is the first choice of treatment. Of these tumors, insulinomas and gastrinomas are usually small in size (less than 2.0 cm), and methods of preoperative localization such as ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging often fail to identify them. These tumors often malignant, and tumors as small as 1 to 2 mm might develop lymph node metastases especially in gastrinomas. Recent studies have shown that selective arterial calcium stimulation test and hepatic venous sampling using intraarterial calcium injection as the insulin secretagogue are useful for detection of small insulinomas, and the selective intraarterial injection of secretin test combined with venous sampling (Imamura technique), for detection of small gastrinomas. In addition, somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy is widely used in Western countries. Moreover, detection of the tumor during operation using ultrasonography delivered much better results than preoperative diagnoses. These tumors may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and MEN1 gene mutation analysis is necessary in those patients. PMID:15045936

  18. [Preoperative analysis in rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Levet, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Preoperative analysis in rhinoplasty consists in analyzing individual anatomical and functional characteristics without losing sight of the initial requirements of the patient to which priority should be given. The examination is primarily clinical but it also uses preoperative photographs taken at specific accurate angles. Detecting functional disorders or associated general pathologies, which will reduce the risk of complications. All of these factors taken into account, the surgeon can work out a rhinoplasty plan which he or she will subsequently explain to the patient and obtain his or her approbation. PMID:25154314

  19. The Preoperative Neurological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Probasco, John; Sahin, Bogachan; Tran, Tung; Chung, Tae Hwan; Rosenthal, Liana Shapiro; Mari, Zoltan; Levy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases are prevalent in the general population, and the neurohospitalist has an important role to play in the preoperative planning for patients with and at risk for developing neurological disease. The neurohospitalist can provide patients and their families as well as anesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitalists, and other providers guidance in particular to the patient’s neurological disease and those he or she is at risk for. Here we present considerations and guidance for the neurohospitalist providing preoperative consultation for the neurological patient with or at risk of disturbances of consciousness, cerebrovascular and carotid disease, epilepsy, neuromuscular disease, and Parkinson disease. PMID:24198903

  20. Pancreas and islet cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Balamurugan, A. N.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, for the patient with type 1 diabetes, a definitive treatment without resorting to the use of exogenous insulin can be achieved only with pancreas or islet cell transplantation. These means of restoring ?-cell mass can completely maintain essentially normal long-term glucose homeostasis, although the need for powerful immunosuppressive regimens limits their application to only a subgroup of adult patients. Apart from the shortage of donors that has limited all kinds of transplantation, however, the widespread use of ?-cell replacement has been precluded until recently by the drawbacks associated with both organ and islet cell transplantation. Although the study of recurrence of diabetes has generated attention, the fundamental obstacle to pancreas and islet transplantation has been, and remains, the alloimmune response. With a better elucidation of the mechanisms of alloengraftment achieved during the last 3 years, the stage has been set for further advances. PMID:12079269

  1. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, George; Shukla, Parul J.; Ramadwar, Mukta; Arya, Supreeta

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma accounts for the most dismal survival among all malignancies with 5-year survival rates approaching 5%. The reason for this, besides the inherent biologic nature of the disease, is the fact that the patients tend to present late in the disease. We present a review of the current published data on cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, which though rare, constitute an important subgroup of pancreatic neoplasms that have a better prognosis and are potentially curable lesions. PMID:18345301

  2. Cavernous hemangioma of adult pancreas: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Henkes, David; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic hemangioma is a rare type of benign vascular tumor. Low clinical suspicion and inability of current cross sectional imaging techniques to differentiate it from other pancreatic lesions, contribute to the difficulty in making the correct diagnosis. Without a definitive diagnosis, and due to concern for malignancy, in many instances, surgery is performed. We report a case of pancreas cavernous hemangioma in an 18-year-old female. The patient presented with three-month history of epigastric pain. Physical examination and routine blood tests were normal. Abdominal Computed Tomography scan revealed a 5 cm 6 cm complex non-enhancing cystic mass in the head of pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS guided fine needle aspiration cytology were non-diagnostic. Because of uncontrolled symptoms, the patient underwent surgical resection. Histopathology and Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of pancreas. PMID:26361427

  3. Deep convolutional networks for pancreas segmentation in CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Holger R.; Farag, Amal; Lu, Le; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Automatic organ segmentation is an important prerequisite for many computer-aided diagnosis systems. The high anatomical variability of organs in the abdomen, such as the pancreas, prevents many segmentation methods from achieving high accuracies when compared to state-of-the-art segmentation of organs like the liver, heart or kidneys. Recently, the availability of large annotated training sets and the accessibility of affordable parallel computing resources via GPUs have made it feasible for "deep learning" methods such as convolutional networks (ConvNets) to succeed in image classification tasks. These methods have the advantage that used classification features are trained directly from the imaging data. We present a fully-automated bottom-up method for pancreas segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen. The method is based on hierarchical coarse-to-fine classification of local image regions (superpixels). Superpixels are extracted from the abdominal region using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC). An initial probability response map is generated, using patch-level confidences and a two-level cascade of random forest classifiers, from which superpixel regions with probabilities larger 0.5 are retained. These retained superpixels serve as a highly sensitive initial input of the pancreas and its surroundings to a ConvNet that samples a bounding box around each superpixel at different scales (and random non-rigid deformations at training time) in order to assign a more distinct probability of each superpixel region being pancreas or not. We evaluate our method on CT images of 82 patients (60 for training, 2 for validation, and 20 for testing). Using ConvNets we achieve maximum Dice scores of an average 68% +/- 10% (range, 43-80%) in testing. This shows promise for accurate pancreas segmentation, using a deep learning approach and compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society update. Pancreas examination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the pancreas constitutes an integral part of the abdominal ultrasound. It is mostly indicated to diagnose pain in the epigastrium, discomfort and jaundice as well as to monitor the patients with acute pancreatitis. The assessment of this organ in an ultrasound examination may be problematic due to its anatomical location and the fact that it might be covered by gastric and duodenal contents as well as due to a number of possible pathological changes, including inflammation and benign or malignant neoplasms, which require differentiation. The basis for establishing a correct diagnosis is the knowledge of the examination technique, correct pancreas structure and images of individual pathologies. This paper presents the standards of ultrasound examination published in 2011 and updated with the current knowledge. The following are discussed: preparation of the patient for the examination, abnormal lesions in the pancreas, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, cystic lesions (benign and malignant cysts) and solid focal lesions. Ultrasound is also used to guide the drainage of fluid cisterns, abscesses and cysts. The prime role in the diagnosis and treatment of selected diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract and parenchymal organs of the abdomen belongs to endosonography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the possibility to conduct a fine needle aspiration biopsy, and intraoperative or laparoscopic ultrasound. PMID:26676070

  5. Metastases to the Pancreas Encountered on Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided, Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Judy C; Roh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Metastatic lesions in the pancreas are very uncommon and may be difficult to differentiate from the more commonly encountered primary neoplasms derived from the exocrine and endocrine pancreas because of the significant overlap in clinical presentation, imaging, and cytologic features. Metastasis to the pancreas may occur years after treatment of the primary neoplasm and is often not considered on initial evaluation because of the rarity of such events. The possibility of a metastasis to the pancreas should be entertained in patients with any prior history of malignancy because a proper diagnosis is essential in identifying surgical candidates, or avoiding potentially unnecessary surgery and facilitating triage to more appropriate nonoperative therapy. Herein, we describe intrapancreatic metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung carcinoma, as documented by cytologic examination of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic masses. PMID:26414469

  6. Breast cancer characteristics-comparison of preoperative and postoperative values.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Dusan; Pecha, Vaclav; Skovajsova, Miroslava; Zahumensky, Jozef; Trnkova, Marketa; Petruzelka, Lubos; Halaska, Michael; Sottner, Oldrich; Otcenasek, Michal; Kolarova, Hana

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer characteristics obtained at the time of diagnosis are important for setting the basic strategy of the treatment. Reliability of preoperative investigation differs for various features of the disease. The aim of this study was to ascertain the agreements and differences between preoperative and postoperative values. This retrospective study analyzed the results of 617 women with primary surgery of the breast and axilla. Cohen's kappa coefficient has been employed to measure the degree of agreement between preoperative and postoperative values. Substantial or "almost perfect" agreement has been documented for the histological type of the tumors, their histopathological grade, proliferation index Ki67, as well as for estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2/neu receptors. Substantial differences exist between preoperative and postoperative diagnoses of invasiveness of the tumor, determination of the size of the tumors, and the number of tumor foci. Preoperative imaging and clinical examination of lymph nodes exhibited unacceptably high false negative rates. Heterogeneity of breast cancer cell population, methodology of histology examinations, and insufficient imaging of lymph nodes are the major limitations precluding satisfactory accuracy of preoperative diagnosis. Preoperatively diagnosed in situ carcinomas, as well as multifocal lesions, were the most often sources of diagnostic failures. PMID:23726929

  7. A case of epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen mimicking pancreas neoplasms: MRI with DWI.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min Kyu; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Han, Ga Jin; Seo, Hyung Il; Park, Do Youn; Lee, So Jeong; Kim, Tae Un

    2016-01-01

    We report on a rare case of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS) that presented as a cystic lesion in the tail of the pancreas, in a 21-year-old woman. ECIAS is very rare; thus, accurate diagnosis before surgery is difficult. When a wall within the lesion presents with similar imaging features to accessory splenic tissues on magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging, ECIAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in the tail of the pancreas. PMID:26422768

  8. Subselective angiography in localizing insulinomas of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Clouse, M E; Costello, P; Legg, M A; Soeldner, S J; Cady, B

    1977-05-01

    Preoperative angiography was performed on 10 patients who had insulin-producing islet cell adenomas. Eight of the 10 islet cell tumors were localized. Seven of the eight adenomas were demonstrated only on subselective injections into the small intrapancreatic arteries, and one was demonstrated by a selective injection into a large artery. Failure to localize two islet cell adenomas was probably caused by the inability to subselect the small intrapancreatic arteries supplying the tumor. One tumor was seen only with subtraction techniques, which were used in all cases. Localization was not related to vascularity, size of tumor, or location within the pancreas. Vasoconstrictive pharmacoangiography was not helpful; magnification was helpful but not essential. The most important factor in localizing islet cell tumors is demonstrating the complete pancreatic blood supply with subselective injections into the small intrapancreatic arteries supplying the tumor (inferior and superior pancreaticoduodenal and dorsal arteries). PMID:193410

  9. Pancreas Transplantation in the Modern Era.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Robert R; Rickels, Michael R; Naji, Ali; Odorico, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    The field of pancreas transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure in the 1980s to become a routine transplant in the modern era. With short- and long-term outcomes continuing to improve and the significant mortality, quality-of-life, and end-organ disease benefits, pancreas transplantation should be offered to more patients. In this article, we review current indications, patient selection, surgical considerations, complications, and outcomes in the modern era of pancreas transplantation. PMID:26895686

  10. [Injuries to the duodenum and pancreas in 42 operated cases].

    PubMed

    Kiss, L; Remescu, A

    2001-01-01

    42 consecutive patients who sustained injuries to the duodenum or/and pancreas were admitted to our hospital. Over a twenty year period 32 blunt injuries and 10 penetrating injuries were encountered. Penetrating injuries were always suspected and treated by time: following blunt injury diagnostic delay was encountered in 14 patients and insufficient surgical procedure because of intra-operative misinterpretation in 2 patients. Most of the patients had associated intra-abdominal organ injuries. Adjusts to diagnosis such as abdominal roentgenograms, serum amylase levels and gastroduodenography was not helpful. CT scan and ultrasound allowed to confirm the suspected diagnosis in 3 cases only. Intraoperative diagnosis was also challenging. Complete mobilization of the strictures surrounding the duodenum and the pancreas to provide entire exposure was necessary in 12 patients treated first in a peripheral hospital, diagnosis of the injury have been missed at first laparotomy and reoperation was necessary in all of them. Suture closure of the duodenum and drainage of the pancreatic region wee the most common reparative techniques used. More complicated procedures with pancreatic and/or duodenal resection were performed in 12 patients. Overall mortality in patients surviving more than 24 hours was 14%. Suture live dehiscence after delayed operation (4) and 2 deaths due to brain injury. PMID:12731164

  11. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  12. Pressure, volume and the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, C P; Taylor, T V; Torrance, H B

    1985-01-01

    The effects of injection volume and pressure on the rat pancreas have been investigated. An experimental model using transduodenal cannulation of the rat bile-pancreatic duct was used. Injection volumes of 100 microliter or above produced gross ductal extravasation regardless of pressure. With a 50 microliter volume leakage from the ducts occurred via intercellular clefts at a pressure of 20 cmH2O and via duct ruptures at 50 cmH2O. Survival experiments (24 hours) were carried out using the 50 microliter volume. Infusion of 50 microliter saline at increasing pressures produced rises in amylase concentrations, pancreatic gland weights and water content of the gland at pressures of 20 cmH2O or above. These changes were maximal when 50 cmH2O of pressure was maintained for 60 minutes. The changes correlated with extravasation shown by Indian ink. Histological oedema related closely to pressure (r = 0.92), and was the most pronounced histological change observed. In experiments using intraduct injection into the rat pancreas a volume of 50 microliter or less should be used with careful consideration given to pressure. Unless these prerequisites are followed the results of experimental investigation cannot be extrapolated to acute gall stone pancreatitis in man. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 9 PMID:2408971

  13. Imaging preoperatively for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pietryga, Jason Alan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy which is increasing in incidence and mortality. The fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S., pancreatic cancer is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2020. Patients with pancreatic cancer have an abysmal 5-year survival of 6%, and 90% of these patients eventually die from the disease. This is in large part due to the commonly advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Currently, the only potentially curative therapy for pancreatic carcinoma is complete surgical resection. Patients who undergo incomplete resection with residual disease have similar survival rates to those patients with metastatic disease and should be spared this relatively morbid surgery. Thus, the key to impacting prognosis is the detection of smaller and earlier stage lesions, and the key to optimal management is accurately determining which patients have potentially resectable surgery and which patients would not benefit from surgery. Cross-sectional imaging plays an essential role in both the diagnosis and appropriate staging of pancreatic carcinoma. The diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is performed with cross-sectional imaging. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is the most commonly used, best-validated imaging modality for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. Modern contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated to be equivalent to MDCT in detection and staging of pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is very sensitive for detecting pancreatic masses; however, due to limitations in adequate overall abdominal staging, it is generally used in addition to or after MDCT. Transabdominal ultrasound and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have limited roles in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. Preoperative imaging is used to characterize patients as having resectable disease, borderline resectable disease, locally advanced disease (unresectable) and metastatic disease (unresectable). As the definitions of borderline resectable and unresectable may vary from institution to institution and within institutions, it is essential to accurately assess and describe the factors relevant to staging including: local extent of tumor, vascular involvement, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease. To facilitate this, standardized reporting templates for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have been created and published. Structured reporting for pancreatic cancer has been reported to provide superior evaluation of pancreatic cancer, facilitate surgical planning, and increase surgeons confidence about tumor resectability. PMID:26261722

  14. Accurate localization of an insulinoma by preoperative selective intra-arterial calcium injection and intraoperative glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iwanaka, T; Matsumoto, M; Yoshikawa, Y; Koda, N; Mochizuki, H; Aihara, T; Imaizumi, S

    2000-01-01

    The role of pre- and intraoperative procedures for the localization of insulinomas has been extensively debated. We report a case of successful treatment using preoperative selective intra-arterial calcium injection and intraoperative glucose monitoring. A 12-year-old boy with hypoglycemic attacks had a large insulinoma in the head of the pancreas on computed tomography. Preoperative selective angiography combined with arterial stimulation-venous sampling (ASVS) by intra-arterial injection of calcium revealed no other insulinomas in the body and tail of the pancreas. Elevation of serum glucose on intraoperative monitoring confirmed complete enucleation of the insulinoma. Preoperative ASVS can accurately localize an insulinoma, and may help to increase the success rate of surgery and avoid blind pancreatectomy. PMID:10663858

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Andrew R.; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  17. Pre-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated. PMID:25440391

  18. Pancreas-Preserving Approach to Paraduodenal Pancreatitis Treatment: Why, When, and How? Experience of Treatment of 62 Patients with Duodenal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, V. I.; Vankovich, A. N.; Petrov, R. V.; Starostina, N. S.; Butkevich, A. Ts.; Sazhin, A. V.; Stepanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP) was proposed as a synonym for duodenal dystrophy (DD) and groove pancreatitis, but it is still unclear what organ PP originates from and how to treat it properly. Objective. To assess the results of different types of treatment for PP. Method. Prospective analysis of 62 cases of PP (20042013) with histopathology of 40 specimens was performed; clinical presentation was assessed and the results of treatment were recorded.??Results. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in all the cases except one (1.9%). Patients presented with abdominal pain (100%), weight loss (76%), vomiting (30%), and jaundice (18%). CT, MRI, and endoUS were the most useful diagnostic modalities. Ten patients were treated conservatively, 24 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD), pancreatico- and cystoenterostomies (8), Nakao procedures (5), duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections (5), and 10 pancreas-preserving duodenal resections (PPDR) without mortality. Full pain control was achieved after PPRDs in 83%, after PDs in 85%, and after PPPH resections and draining procedures in 18% of cases. Diabetes mellitus developed thrice after PD. Conclusions. PD is the main surgical option for PP treatment at present; early diagnosis makes PPDR the treatment of choice for PP; efficacy of PPDR for DD treatment provides proof that so-called PP is an entity of duodenal, but not paraduodenal, origin. PMID:24995273

  19. The cause and treatment of pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed Central

    Warshaw, A L; Richter, J M; Schapiro, R H

    1983-01-01

    Recurrent pancreatitis is more prevalent in the 4% of people with pancreas divisum (nonfused dorsal and ventral ducts), and it has been proposed that the pancreatitis is caused by stenosis at the orifice of the dorsal duct. We have treated 40 patients with pancreas divisum and proven or probable pancreatitis. The diagnoses were made by endoscopic pancreatography showing a foreshortened (less than 6 cm) ventral duct (Wirsung) and confirmed by postoperative pancreatograms showing the separate main duct (Santorini) emptying via the accessory papilla. Of these, 32 patients (25 men, 7 women, median age 30) had recurrent acute pancreatitis (22) or persistent pain (10) without chronic inflammation or fibrosis. Twenty-nine have been treated by transduodenal sphincteroplasty of the accessory papilla; 22 were stenotic (0.75 mm or less) and 7 nonstenotic. Among 25 patients observed for longer than 6 months after surgery, the relief of pain and pancreatitis has been good in 17, fair in 1, and poor in 7. There was no difference between accessory papillotomy alone (10-0-3) v papillotomies of both accessory and major papillae (7-1-4). Patients with stenosis (16-1-1) fared better (p less than 0.001) than those without stenosis (1-0-6). Those presenting with discrete attacks (12-1-2) also fared better (p less than 0.05) than those presenting with chronic pain (5-0-5). The other eight patients (two women, six men, median age 28) had chronic pancreatitis proven by pancreatography and surgical biopsy. In this group, treatment by sphincteroplasty of the accessory papilla failed, and seven patients eventually required a pancreaticojejunostomy (3), distal pancreatectomy (2), or total pancreatectomy (2). In pancreas divisum, pancreatitis is caused by stenosis at the accessory papilla of Santorini. There may be progression from recurrent acute pancreatitis to irreversible fibrosis in some cases. Sphincteroplasty is effective for recurrent acute pancreatitis, but ductal drainage or resection becomes necessary once chronic pancreatitis is established. A preoperative test for stenosis of the accessory papilla is needed to identify patients whose symptoms are genuinely caused by their pancreas divisum. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6625715

  20. Duodenal leaks after pancreas transplantation with enteric drainage - characteristics and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Marquez, Max A; Singh, Sunita K; Norgate, Andrea; McGilvray, Ian D; Schiff, Jeffrey; Greig, Paul D; Cattral, Mark S; Selzner, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Pancreas-kidney transplantation with enteric drainage has become a standard treatment in diabetic patients with renal failure. Leaks of the graft duodenum (DL) remain a significant complication after transplantation. We studied incidence and predisposing factors of DLs in both simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) and pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation. Between January 2002 and April 2013, 284 pancreas transplantations were performed including 191 SPK (67.3%) and 93 PAK (32.7%). Patient data were analyzed for occurrence of DLs, risk factors, leak etiology, and graft survival. Of 18 DLs (incidence 6.3%), 12 (67%) occurred within the first 100 days after transplantation. Six grafts (33%) were rescued by duodenal segment resection. Risk factors for a DL were PAK transplantation sequence (odds ratio 3.526, P = 0.008) and preoperative immunosuppression (odds ratio 3.328, P = 0.012). In the SPK subgroup, postoperative peak amylase as marker of preservation/reperfusion injury and recipient pretransplantation cardiovascular interventions as marker of atherosclerosis severity were associated with an increased incidence of DLs. CMV-mismatch constellations showed an increased incidence in the SPK subgroup, however without significance probability. Long-term immunosuppression in PAK transplantation is a major risk factor for DLs. Early surgical revision offers the chance of graft rescue. PMID:25647150

  1. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  2. Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chandwani, Rohit; Allen, Peter J

    2016-01-14

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are being identified at an increasing frequency largely due to the increased use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging. These neoplasms represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with various genetic alterations, molecular features, and risks of malignancy. Despite the use of high-resolution radiographic studies, endoscopic evaluation, cyst fluid analysis, and novel molecular diagnostics, many of these lesions remain difficult to classify without operative resection. These diagnostic challenges are coupled with an improving but limited understanding of the natural history of these neoplasms. Treatment of pancreatic cystic neoplasms therefore remains controversial but consists largely of a selective tumor-specific approach to surgical resection. Future research remains necessary to better discriminate the biological behavior of these tumors in order to more appropriately select patients for operative intervention. PMID:26565675

  3. Glucagon in the Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  4. Glutathione synthesis in the exocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Neuschwander-Tetri, B A; Presti, M E; Wells, L D

    1997-05-01

    Glutathione is essential for cellular cytoprotection, and in the exocrine pancreas, it is required for digestive enzyme synthesis. The purpose of these studies was to measure the capacity of the exocrine pancreas to synthesize glutathione, determine whether the pancreatic transsulfuration pathway has a role in providing cysteine needed for glutathione synthesis, and determine whether the glutathione synthetic capacity of the pancreas responds to pathologically relevant stresses. The activity of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the key regulatory enzyme for glutathione synthesis, was 3.56 +/- 0.29 mU/mg protein in the pancreas of fed rats, compared to 31 +/- 4 in the liver and 116 +/- 5 in the kidney. Studies using dispersed rat pancreatic acinar cells showed that the exocrine pancreas synthesizes glutathione from precursor amino acids and that the transsulfuration pathway is functionally intact in the pancreas and may serve as an important source of pancreatic cysteine. In mice, pancreatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity was induced 37% by corn oil, 77% by ethanol, and 88% by both treatments. Thus, the glutathione synthetic capacity of the pancreas is quantitatively less than that of the kidney or liver, but its key regulatory enzyme responds dynamically to pathologically relevant metabolic stresses, suggesting that glutathione is a key pancreatic cytoprotectant. PMID:9163779

  5. Cystadenoma and Cystadenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Muzac, Eddy S.

    1979-01-01

    Cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas of the pancreas are rare, with few cases encountered by any one surgeon or institution. Cystadenomas account for less than ten percent of all cystic lesions of the pancreas with less than 300 examples reported in the literature. Cystadenocarcinomas represent one percent of all pancreatic cancers with very few cases reported. This report is a presentation of a 48-year-old black female who was treated at Meharry Medical College for cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas, and is followed by a review of the world literature. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:448761

  6. Preoperative assessment of retroperitoneal pathology by magnetic resonance imaging. Primary leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Bretan, P N; Williams, R D; Hricak, H

    1986-09-01

    A woman with a retroperitoneal mass was found to have a leiomyosarcoma arising in the wall of the inferior vena cava. The extensive preoperative radiologic findings were compared with those of magnetic resonance imaging. The latter allowed a more precise preoperative diagnosis and determination of tumor origin and extent than any of the other diagnostic techniques. PMID:3750612

  7. Preoperative Safety Briefing Project

    PubMed Central

    DeFontes, James; Surbida, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Context: Increased media attention on surgical procedures that were performed on the wrong anatomic site or wrong patient has prompted the health care industry to identify and address human factors that lead to medical errors. Objective: To increase patient safety in the perioperative setting, our objective was to create a climate of improved communication, collaboration, team-work, and situational awareness while the surgical team reviewed pertinent information about the patient and the pending procedure. Methods: A team of doctors, nurses, and technicians used human factors principles to develop the Preoperative Safety Briefing for use by surgical teams, a briefing similar to the preflight checklist used by the airline industry. A six-month pilot of the briefing began in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) Anaheim Medical Center in February 2002. Four indicators of safety culture were used to measure success of the pilot: occurrence of wrong-site/wrong procedures, attitudinal survey data, near-miss reports, and nursing personnel turnover data. Results: Wrong-site surgeries decreased from 3 to 0 (300%) per year; employee satisfaction increased 19%; nursing personnel turnover decreased 16%; and perception of the safety climate in the operating room improved from good to outstanding. Operating suite personnel perception of teamwork quality improved substantially. Operating suite personnel perception of patient safety as a priority, of personnel communication, of their taking responsibility for patient safety, of nurse input being well received, of overall morale, and of medical errors being handled appropriately also improved substantially. Conclusions: Team members who work together and communicate well can quickly detect and more easily avoid errors. The Preoperative Safety Briefing is now standard in many operating suites in the KP Orange County Service Area. The concepts and design of this project are transferable, and similar projects are underway in the Departments of Radiology and of Labor and Delivery at KP Anaheim Medical Center. PMID:26704913

  8. What You Need to Know about Cancer of the Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Pancreas This booklet is about cancer of the pancreas, also called pancreatic cancer. There are two main ... care. This booklet covers: The anatomy of the pancreas and basics about cancer of the pancreas Treatments ...

  9. [Pancreas transplantation: status of the problem in experimental and clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Florack, G

    1985-10-01

    Transplantations of pancreas grafts are performed in patients with juvenile onset of diabetes to halt the progression of secondary microangiopathic organ lesions. The treatment of the exocrine secretion of pancreas grafts remains problematic. Duct occlusion seems to be the safest approach but results in fibrosis of the gland. Therefore more recently drainage is directed to a hollow organ, generally performed as pancreaticojejunostomy. New immunosuppressive therapies improved the transplant results. The diagnosis of occurring rejection is difficult since monitoring of plasma glucoses is not very sensitive. Cold storage of grafts in SGF-solution is a reliable preservation procedure. Islet cell transplantation might be a promising alternative technique in the future. PMID:3936292

  10. A compound heterozygous mutation of ABCC8 gene causing a diazoxide-unresponsive congenital hyperinsulinism with an atypical form: Not a focal lesion in the pancreas reported by ?F-DOPA-PET/CT scan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Li; Wen, Zhe; Cheng, Jing; Li, Cuiling; Li, Xiuzhen; Niu, Huilin; Wang, Fenghua; Sheng, Huiying; Liu, Hongsheng

    2015-11-10

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a severe heterogeneous disorder due to dysregulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic ?-cells leading to severe hypoglycemia in infancy. 18-fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography ((18)F?DOPA?PET)/CT is a useful tool in distinguishing between focal and diffuse disease preoperatively. But recent studies have suggested that the scanning may not be accurate as initially estimated. In this study we characterize a case of CHI with a compound heterozygous mutation of ABCC8 gene. The results of clinical investigation, gene mutation analysis, (18)F?DOPA?PET/CT scan, and pathological examination showed some new characteristics that have never been reported. The patient was unresponsive to medical therapy with diazoxide and received pancreatectomy twice. Genetic analysis identified a compound heterozygous mutation in ABCC8 genes. Imaging with (18)F?DOPA?PET/CT indicated a focal lesion in the head of the pancreas. The pathological diagnosis was an atypical form of CHI. The patient presented with a phenotype of atypical CHI unresponsive to diazoxide. It is considered that a relationship existed between the compound heterozygous mutation and the atypical form. (18)F?DOPA?PET/CT is a useful tool in distinguishing between focal and diffuse forms preoperatively but the accuracy is not 100%. The scan result is best combined with genetic analysis and intra-operative biopsy to confirm the histological subtypes. The combination will provide the optimal strategy for the surgical treatment of patients with CHI. PMID:26162674

  11. Hydatid cyst of the pancreas: Report of an undiagnosed case of pancreatic hydatid cyst and brief literature review

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Yavuz, Ridvan; Sogutcu, Nilgun; Kaya, Bulent; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Senol, Ayhan; Demircan, Firat

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To overview the literature on pancreatic hydatid cyst (PHC) disease, a disease frequently misdiagnosed during preoperative radiologic investigation. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched to identify articles related to PHC using the following keywords: hydatid cyst, hydatid disease, unusual location of hydatid cyst, hydatid cyst and pancreas, pancreatic hydatid cyst, and pancreatic echinococcosis. The search included letters to the editor, case reports, review articles, original articles, meeting presentations and abstracts that had been published between January 2010 and April 2014 without any restrictions on language, journal, or country. All articles identified and retrieved which contained adequate information on the study population (including patient age and sex) and disease and treatment related data (such as cyst size, cyst location, and clinical management) were included in the study; articles with insufficient demographic and clinical data were excluded. In addition, we evaluated a case of a 48-year-old female patient with PHC who was treated in our clinic. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients, including our one new case, (age range: 4 to 70 years, mean SD: 31.4 15.9 years) were included in the analysis. Twenty-nine of the patients were female, and 29 were male. The information about cyst location was available from studies involving 54 patients and indicated the following distribution of locations: pancreatic head (n = 21), pancreatic tail (n = 18), pancreatic body and tail (n = 8), pancreatic body (n = 5), pancreatic head and body (n = 1), and pancreatic neck (n = 1). Extra-pancreatic locations of hydatid cysts were reported in the studies involving 44 of the patients. Among these, no other focus than pancreas was detected in 32 of the patients (isolated cases) while 12 of the patients had hydatid cysts in extra-pancreatic sites (liver: n = 6, liver + spleen + peritoneum: n = 2, kidney: n = 1, liver + kidney: n = 1, kidney + peritoneum: n = 1 and liver + lung: n = 1). Serological information was available in the studies involving 40 patients, and 21 of those patients were serologically positive and 15 were serologically negative; the remaining 4 patients underwent no serological testing. Information about pancreatic cyst size was available in the studies involving 42 patients; the smallest cyst diameter reported was 26 mm and the largest cyst diameter reported was 180 mm (mean SD: 71.3 36.1 mm). Complications were available in the studies of 16 patients and showed the following distribution: cystobiliary fistula (n = 4), cysto-pancreatic fistula (n = 4), pancreatitis (n = 6), and portal hypertension (n = 2). Postoperative follow-up data were available in the studies involving 48 patients and postoperative recurrence data in the studies of 51 patients; no cases of recurrence occurred in any patient for an average follow-up duration of 22.5 23.1 (range: 2-120) mo. Only two cases were reported as having died on fourth (our new case) and fifteenth days respectively. CONCLUSION: PHC is a parasitic infestation that is rare but can cause serious pancreato-biliary complications. Its preoperative diagnosis is challenging, as its radiologic findings are often mistaken for other cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:25346801

  12. The current state of pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, Rainer W G; Gruessner, Angelika C

    2013-09-01

    For many patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a successful pancreas transplant is the only definitive long-term treatment that both restores euglycaemia without the risk of severe hypoglycaemia and prevents, halts or reverses secondary complications. These benefits come at the cost of major surgery and lifelong immunosuppression. Nevertheless, pancreas transplants are safe and effective, with patient survival rates currently >95% at 1 year and >88% at 5 years; graft survival rates are almost 85% at 1 year and >60% at 5 years. The estimated half-life of a pancreas graft is now 7-14 years. The improvements in graft survival are attributable to considerable reductions in technical failures and in immunologic graft losses. Pancreas recipients have reduced mortality compared with waiting candidates or patients with diabetes mellitus who undergo a kidney transplant alone. Pancreas transplants should be more frequently offered to nonuraemic patients with brittle diabetes mellitus to prevent the development of secondary diabetic complications and to avoid the need for a kidney transplant. Although the results of islet transplantation have also improved, islet recipients rarely maintain long-term insulin independence despite the use of multiple organ donor pancreases. Pancreas transplants and islet transplants should be considered complementary, not mutually exclusive, procedures that are chosen on the basis of the individual patient's surgical risk. PMID:23897173

  13. Solid Pseudo-Papillary Tumor of the Pancreas in a 10 Year Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzipour, K; Jenabzadeh, A; Mirzaei Ilali, H; Behnam, B; Tavassol, H

    2015-01-01

    Background Solid pseudo-papillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare disease with a low malignant potential. Though it shows low malignant potential 10% to 15% of the cases show aggressive behavior with metastatic involvement of the liver. The symptoms include abdominal discomfort and abdominal pain. It is very rare in early years of age. This is the case of a 10 year old girl with abdominal pain and her evaluation revealed solid pseudo papillary tumor of pancreas. In family history, her grandmother died because of pancreas cancer. The mass was excised and in her 6-month follow up she didnt have any problems. This case is presented to point out physicians that more attention to pseudo- papillary tumor can bring us significant improvement in the diagnosis of this pathology, though pseudo- papillary tumor is a rare pathologic condition in children. PMID:26705457

  14. The Pancreas: Causes for Malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, Thilo; Schtte, Kerstin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The pancreas has a central function in digestion and glucose homeostasis. With regard to the exocrine function, which is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients and vitamins, the most important disturbances of these physiological processes are based on deficiencies in enzyme production and secretion, either due to impaired excretion caused by obstruction of the pancreatic duct or due to loss of pancreatic tissue. Both conditions result in maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Methods Systematic literature review. Results Symptoms associated with pancreatic exocrine failure are gastrointestinal discomfort, steatorrhea, and weight loss. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency caused by ductal obstruction occurs in chronic pancreatitis or with neoplasia of the pancreatic head. Loss of functional parenchyma can be caused either by chronic pancreatitis resulting in fibrotic replacement of the destroyed parenchyma or by a postoperative state of pancreatic resection. Conclusion In patients with chronic pancreatitis, a stage-adapted and timely therapy including conservative as well as surgical measures is essential to prevent functional deterioration and to preserve residual function. In the case of pancreatic resection for chronic pancreatitis, this can be achieved with modern organ-sparing surgery such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection. In patients requiring more extended pancreatic resections and even total duodenopancreatectomy, regardless of the underlying indication, adequate enzyme replacement and monitoring of the nutritional status is critical to prevent impairment of quality of life as well as detrimental malnutrition in the long term. PMID:26288593

  15. Solid cystic pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas with splenic metastasis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Yigit, Ebral; Gumus, Serdar; Babur, Mehmet; Can, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solid-cystic pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas is rare and most commonly seen in young women. We present a young women with solid-cystic pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas and discuss the literature. Presentation of case Thirty nine years old female patient with a mass about 12 cm in the pancreas with splenic invasion seen in our clinic. After having CT and PET-CT view, patient underwent surgery. Distal pancreatectomy with mass excision and splenectomy was performed. Microscopic examination result was solid cystic pseudopapillary tumor with spleen invasion. Discussion Solid-cystic pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas has cystic solid pseudopapillary structures. Prognosis of tumor is better than other pancreatic tumor. Complete resection of tumor with splenic inclusion is surgical treatment. Conclusion In case of large slow growing pancreatic tumor with splenic metastasis, solid-cystic pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas should be considered in the diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is associated with long-term survival even in the presence of metastatic disease. Close follow-up is necessary after surgery. PMID:26225837

  16. Long-term pancreas allograft survival in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation by era.

    PubMed

    Waki, Kayo; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Data collected by UNOS from all approved US transplant programs were analyzed. The analysis was based on data for 22,075 diabetic patients who received a pancreas transplant between January 1995 and December 2011. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation was the major therapeutic option for diabetes patients. SPK had better survival than pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or pancreas-after-kidney (PAK) transplantation. The 5-year pancreas graft survival rate for SPK, PAK, and PTA was 71.3%, 56.6%, and 53.0%, respectively. When long-term SPK pancreas graft survival was examined by transplant era, there was no survival improvement after 1995. The effect of year of transplant was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. The 5-year pancreas graft survival rate in the eras 1995-1998, 1999-2002 and 2003-2006 were 69.2%, 69.8%, and 72.4%, respectively. For those whose graft survived over one year, the 5-year graft survival rate in those eras was 83.5%, 83.4%, and 85.2%, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for overall graft loss by year of transplant for the grafts that survived more than one year in the eras 1999-2002 and 2003-2006 was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.24) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.82-1.11), respectively. The survival rate of long-term pancreas grafts remained almost unchanged over time. PMID:23721007

  17. Porcine pancreas extracellular matrix as a platform for endocrine pancreas bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Orlando, Giuseppe; McQuilling, John; Pareta, Rajesh; Mack, David; Salvatori, Marcus; Farney, Alan C; Stratta, Robert J; Atala, Anthony; Opara, Emmanuel C; Soker, Shay

    2013-01-01

    Emergent technologies of regenerative medicine have the potential to overcome the limitations of organ transplantation by supplying tissues and organs bioengineered in the laboratory. Pancreas bioengineering requires a scaffold that approximates the biochemical, spatial and vascular relationships of the native extracellular matrix (ECM). We describe the generation of a whole organ, three-dimensional pancreas scaffold using acellular porcine pancreas. Imaging studies confirm that our protocol effectively removes cellular material while preserving ECM proteins and the native vascular tree. The scaffold was seeded with human stem cells and porcine pancreatic islets, demonstrating that the decellularized pancreas can support cellular adhesion and maintenance of cell functions. These findings advance the field of regenerative medicine towards the development of a fully functional, bioengineered pancreas capable of establishing and sustaining euglycemia and may be used for transplantation to cure diabetes mellitus. PMID:23583038

  18. Is there a case for selective, rather than routine, preoperative laryngoscopy in thyroid surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez-Snchez, Carmen; Aguilera-Molina, Yari Yuritzi; Rozo-Coronel, Orlando; Estvez-Alonso, Jos Santiago; Muoz-Herrera, ngel

    2015-01-01

    Background According to some authors, routine preoperative laryngoscopy should be the standard of care in all patients undergoing thyroid surgery. The rationale for this approach is (I) the risk that a patient has a preoperative vocal cord palsy (VCP) without symptoms; (II) the presence of VCP preoperatively is suggestive of invasive malignancy; (III) it is relevant for the use of intraoperative nerve monitoring; and (IV) surgical strategy may be better defined if a paralysed vocal cord is detected preoperatively. Methods This is a review of studies of patients who underwent routine preoperative laryngoscopy to anticipate preoperative VCP and that evaluated related risk factors, including previous surgery, voice function complaints, and a diagnosis of malignancy. The estimated risk of sustaining preoperative VCF in the absence of these factors was determined. The relevant current guidelines from different professional bodies are also addressed. Results The level of evidence that supports routine preoperative laryngoscopy is weak. The risk of harboring preoperative VCP in the absence of previous neck or other risk-related surgery, advanced malignancy or voice symptoms is very low (0.5% of cases). Conclusions Selective rather than routine use of preoperative laryngoscopy may be acceptable provided that the risk of undetected paralysis is as low as can be reasonably ascertained from the available literature. PMID:25713775

  19. Pancreas transplantation. An initial experience with systemic and portal drainage of pancreatic allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenlof, L K; Earnhardt, R C; Pruett, T L; Stevenson, W C; Douglas, M T; Cornett, G C; Hanks, J B

    1992-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation has evolved dramatically since its introduction in 1966. As new centers for transplantation have developed, the evaluation of complications associated with pancreas transplantation has led to advances in surgical technique. Furthermore, surgical alterations of the pancreas resulting from transplantation (systemic release of insulin and denervation) are of unproven consequence on glucose metabolism. Since 1988, the authors have performed 21 transplants (16 combined pancreas/kidney, 3 pancreas alone, which includes 1 retransplantation, 1 pancreas after previous kidney transplant, and 1 "cluster") in 20 patients aged 18 to 49 years; mean, 35 +/- 1 years. Overall patient survival is 95%. Three pancreatic grafts failed within the first year because of technical failure; one additional pancreas was lost to an immunologic event on postoperative day 449, for an overall pancreatic graft survival of 81%. No renal grafts were lost. To evaluate causes of graft failure, demographic data were compared, which included age and sex of the donor and the recipient, operative time, intraoperative blood transfusion, and ischemic time of the graft. No statistically significant differences were found between groups except for ischemic time (11.7 +/- 6.4 hours for the technical success group versus 19.8 +/- 3.7 hours for the technical failure group; p less than 0.05 by unpaired Student's t test). Quadruple immunosuppression was used, which included prednisone, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and antilymphoblast globulin. A mean of 1.2 (range, 0 to 3) rejection episodes per patient occurred. Mean hospital stay was 24 +/- 11 days. Surgical and infectious complications were evaluated by comparing the technical success (TS) group (n = 17) with the technical failure (TF) group. Surgical complications in the TS group revealed a mean of 1.3 episodes per patient, whereas the TF group had 3.7 episodes per patient. The TS also had a reduced incidence of infectious complications compared with the TF (1.7 versus 4.3 episodes per patient). Cytomegalovirus was common in both groups, accounting for 11 infectious episodes, and occurred on a mean postoperative day of 38. Mean postoperative HbA1C levels dropped to 5 +/- 1% from 11 +/- 3%. The authors developed a new technique that incorporates portal drainage of the pancreatic venous effluent in three recipients. Preoperative metabolic studies disclosed a mean fasting glucose of 211 +/- 27 mg/dL and a mean stimulated glucose value of 434 +/- 41 mg/dL for all patients; the mean fasting insulin was 23 +/- 4 microU/mL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIG. 5. PMID:1632680

  20. Premalignant lesion of heterotopic pancreas combined with gastritis cystica profunda in gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Cho, Byung Sun; Park, Joo-Seung; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Han, Hyun-Young; Kang, Dong-Wook

    2013-09-01

    Heterotopic pancreas, also known as ectopic pancreas, is found mainly in the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is the non-invasive precursor of pancreatic cancer and gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is considered a precursor of gastric cancer. As with most putative cancer precursor lesions, the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions has been controversial. A patient with no history of gastric surgery visited our institution for a regular evaluation. Endoscopy showed a 2 x 2 cm sized, protruding mass lesion with overlying normal mucosa on the fundus of stomach. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT) led to the possible diagnosis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with cystic change. Laparoscopic gastric wedge resection was performed with intra-operative endoscopic guidance. Microscopic examination identified the mass as pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, it demonstrated PanIN, grade 3 (PanIN-3) mixed pancreatobiliary and intestinal type, arising in the heterotopic pancreas and associated with GCP. This report describes a rare case of a PanIN lesion combined with GCP as precursors of precancerous lesions in heterotopic pancreas and stomach. PMID:24078993

  1. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine β-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed β-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  2. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-12-26

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine ?-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed ?-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  3. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ?10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as worrisome features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of IPMN has evolved over the years. The recent guidelines have played a role in this regard. PMID:26110127

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Cancer of the Pancreas?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... smoke that enter the blood and damage the pancreas. About 20% to 30% of exocrine pancreatic cancer ...

  5. Review of Preoperative Carbohydrate Loading.

    PubMed

    Pogatschnik, Cassandra; Steiger, Ezra

    2015-10-01

    Preoperative carbohydrate-containing clear liquids (usually composed of approximately 12% carbohydrate predominantly in maltodextrin form) have provided benefits for the surgical population and further have been included in the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society's recommendations as part of a multimodal approach to reduce surgical patients' length of stay and complication rates. Carbohydrate metabolism is greatly affected by the fed state, which is activated by preoperative carbohydrate fluids given up to 2 hours prior to surgery in contrast to the traditional midnight preoperative fast. Carbohydrate-rich fluids have been proven to enhance patient comfort prior to surgery and have been theorized to reduce insulin resistance, reducing patient catabolism, with a positive impact on perioperative glucose control and muscle preservation. This practice is further hypothesized to support the ERAS goals of reducing both complication rate and length of stay. Preoperative carbohydrate fluid loading is difficult to prove, as the degree of surgical procedure and postoperative pathways are likely more reflective of patient outcome. The use of carbohydrate-loading protocols warrants further adequately blinded, placebo-controlled studies, including the use of variable surgical techniques, reproduction of the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic technique measurements, investigation of ideal carbohydrate fluid composition, and the use of similar surgeries in comparison. Preoperative carbohydrate loading is just one of the many strategies linked to the success of ERAS protocols. PMID:26197803

  6. [Persistent neonatal hypoglycemia in nesidioblastosis of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Reiterer, F; Gamillscheg, A; Ritschl, E; Mller, W D; Schwingshandl, J; Borkenstein, M; Klos, J; Ratschek, M; Fellbaum, C

    1990-01-01

    A now 10 month old female infant suffered from persistent non ketotic neonatal hypoglycemia despite continuous intravenous application of glucose (greater than 10 mg/kg/min). There was only a transient response of blood glucose after intravenous administration of glucagon and prednisolon. Biochemical findings indicated hyperinsulinismus (insulin level of 26 mE/ml during hypoglycemia). Oral diazoxid treatment in high doses (22 mg/kg) stopped hypoglycemia episodes for several days but the newborn remained glucose infusion depended. Finally the treatment had to be interrupted because of vomiting. At the age of 4 1/2 weeks a subtotal pancreatectomy was performed. The histological examination of the pancreas confirmed the clinically suspected diagnosis of nesidioblastosis. After pancreatectomy the infant required insulin therapy. Since six months the girl is without insulin in a good condition. Despite periods of arrested head growth before pancreatectomy the psychomotoric development is normal. PMID:2326089

  7. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, R; Skeans, M A; Gustafson, S K; Carrico, R J; Tyler, K H; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas listings and transplants decreased during the past decade, most notably pancreas after kidney transplants. Center-reported outcomes of pancreas transplant across all groups, short-term and long-term, improved during the same period. Changes to the pancreas allocation system creating an efficient, uniform national system will be implemented in late 2014. Pancreas-alone and simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) candidates will form a single match-run list with priority to most SPK candidates ahead of kidney-alone candidates to decrease waiting times for SPK candidates, given their higher waitlist mortality compared with nondiabetic kidney transplant candidates. The changes are expected to eliminate local variability, providing more consistent pancreas allocation nationwide. Outcomes after pancreas transplant are challenging to interpret due to lack of a uniform definition of graft failure. Consequently, SRTR has not published data on pancreas graft failure for the past 2 years. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Pancreas Transplantation Committee is working on a definition that could provide greater validity for future outcomes analyses. Challenges in pancreas transplantation include high risk of technical failures, rejection (early and late), and surgical complications. Continued outcome improvement and innovation has never been more critical, as alternatives such as islet transplant and artificial pancreas move closer to clinical application. PMID:25626343

  8. Pre-operative electrocardiograph examination.

    PubMed

    Nash, G F; Cunnick, G H; Allen, S; Cook, C; Turner, L F

    2001-11-01

    The leading cause of death following surgery is a cardiac event, and an electrocardiogram is the most common pre-operative test to investigate coronary artery disease. Fifty adults, who required an electrocardiogram, undergoing general surgical procedures, were recruited into this pilot study, which investigated the examination rate of electrocardiographs by doctors pre-operatively. Each tracing was folded in one corner and a paperclip prevented full pre-operative viewing without its removal. Results suggest that 30% of ECGs were not opened and the records of 58% patients overall had no mention of the ECG having been performed. Further analysis showed no correlation with the examination rate of the electrocardiograph with patient age or fitness. If this reflects normal clinical practice, it is sub-optimal use of resources and warrants further audit. PMID:11777129

  9. [Obstructive jaundice caused by metastasis to the head of the pancreas by a malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Stauch, S; Rsch, W

    We report on a 68-year-old patient who developed an obstructive jaundice 13 years after surgery of a malignant melanoma of the right ear. The initial sonographic and CT diagnosis of a benign pseudocyst of the head of the pancreas had to be revised based on ERCP, sonographically guided puncture and papillary biopsy. By Whipple's procedure, the solitary intrapancreatic metastasis could be successfully removed. PMID:3077069

  10. [Patient blood management--The preoperative patient].

    PubMed

    Mller, Markus M; Fischer, Dania; Stock, Ulrich; Geisen, Christof; Steffen, Bjrn; Nussbaumer, Judith; Meybohm, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Preoperative anaemia is an independent risk factor for an increase in perioperative morbidity and mortality. Patient Blood Management (PBM) aims for an early detection of anaemia in elective surgery patients. Reasons for anaemia should be detected and causally treated if possible. A multidisciplinary team of specialists aims for diagnosis and causative treatment of easily treatable and frequent causes of anaemia like iron deficiency, bleeding or (autoimmune) haemolysis using patients' specific history, examination, laboratory and technical methods. Such an outpatient PBM programme is only feasible, if anaesthesiologists, surgeons, haematologists, gastroenterologists, gynecologists, laboratory and transfusion medicine specialists work together in a PBM team using a common PBM plan. Communication within this team as well as with the patients' physicians in their private offices is key for a long lasting success of such a PBM programme. PMID:24792598

  11. [Leiomyosarcoma of pulmonary artery origin diagnosed preoperatively].

    PubMed

    Arai, Junichi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Miyazaki, Takurou; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Tagawa, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    A 59-year-old woman was pointed out isotope uptake at the right pulmonary hilum by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed for postoperative follow up of thyroid cancer. Chest enhanced CT showed a mass in the right pulmonary artery, which was diagnosed as sarcoma of pulmonary artery origin by a transcatheter biopsy. Chemotherapy by doxorubicin with anticoagulation therapy was started 1st due to the secondary pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was improved, but the size of the tumor enlarged. She underwent right pneumonectomy with mediastinal dissection. The tumor was completely resected, but brain metastases developed. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma. A rare case of preoperatively diagnosed pulmonary arterial sarcoma was reported. PMID:22647327

  12. Current practices of donor pancreas allocation in the UK: future implications for pancreas and islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Dan M; White, Steven A; Kimber, Rachel M; Nicholson, Michael L

    2005-07-01

    Recent refinements in technique mean islet cell transplantation offers the chance of a cure to an increasing patient cohort with diabetes. Such developments put pressure upon the scarce resource of donor organs, with potential competition between the modalities of cellular and solid organ transplantation. This questionnaire based study examines current patterns of donor pancreas procurement and use. Reasons for non procurement are studied together with the attitudes of transplant professionals to pancreas allocation. The minority of potentially useful pancreata are currently made available to either whole pancreas or islet transplant programs. Whilst professionals appreciate the role of each modality, there is a need to define criteria for pancreas allocation to avoid under use of donor organs. PMID:15948863

  13. Perioperative Computed Tomography Assessments of the Pancreas Predict Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ohgi, Katsuhisa; Okamura, Yukiyasu; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ashida, Ryo; Ito, Takaaki; Sugiura, Teiichi; Aramaki, Takeshi; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) has become a clinically important issue. Although pancreatic exocrine insufficiency has been reported to be a main cause of NAFLD after PD, a clinically practical examination to assess the pancreatic exocrine function has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for NAFLD after PD with a focus on perioperative computed tomography (CT) assessments of the pancreas. A retrospective review of 245 patients followed for more than 6 months after PD was conducted. We evaluated several pancreatic CT parameters, including the pancreatic parenchymal thickness, pancreatic duct-to-parenchymal ratio, pancreatic attenuation, and remnant pancreatic volume (RPV) on pre- and/or postoperative CT around 6 months after surgery. The variables, including the pancreatic CT parameters, were compared between the groups with and without NAFLD after PD. The incidence of NAFLD after PD was 19.2%. A multivariate analysis identified 5 independent risk factors for NAFLD after PD: a female gender (odds ratio [OR] 5.66, P < 0.001), RPV < 12 mL (OR 4.73, P = 0.001), preoperative pancreatic attenuation of <30 Hounsfield units (OR 4.50, P = 0.002), dissection of the right-sided nerve plexus around the superior mesenteric artery (OR 3.02, P = 0.017) and a preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen 19–9 level of ≥70 U/mL (OR 2.58, P = 0.029). Our results showed that 2 pancreatic CT parameters, the degree of preoperative pancreatic attenuation and RPV, significantly influence the development of NAFLD after PD. Perioperative CT assessments of the pancreas may be helpful for predicting NAFLD after PD. PMID:26871772

  14. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials. PMID:17957502

  15. [Cystic lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Buerke, B; Schlke, C

    2015-02-01

    Due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen, the incidence of cystic pancreatic lesions as an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients is increasing; however, most of these lesions are less than 2cm in size at the time of diagnosis making a correct classification difficult. A more differentiated understanding of the pathophysiology of these lesions has been developed during recent years. Technical improvements in imaging techniques have resulted in an increase in image resolution and has enabled radiologists to differentiate between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), serous cystic neoplasms (SCN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). A correct classification, including the differentiation from malignant pancreatic tumors, can only be achieved by combining the knowledge of lesion pathophysiology and basic epidemiological data, such as age and sex distribution with modern imaging techniques. In conjunction with the correct diagnosis, the radiologist has to decide on the further management of the newly found lesion. This differs greatly depending on the biological behavior, especially the potential for malignant transformation, e.g. in main duct IPMN. This review gives an overview of the different cystic pancreatic lesions, their underlying pathophysiology and imaging characteristics along with recommendations for the further clinical management. PMID:25646005

  16. CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

  17. Stenting of the Superior Mesenteric Artery as a Preoperative Treatment for Total Pancreatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Noboru Kariya, Shuji; Komemushi, Atsushi; Satoi, Sohei; Kamiyama, Yasuo; Sawada, Satoshi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Takai, Yuichirou

    2004-09-15

    The patient was a 58-year-old male with mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Prior to total pancreatectomy, preoperative CT and angiography showed a high-grade arteriosclerotic stenosis of about 1.0 cm in length in the ostium of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), as well as the development of collateral vessels in the area around the head of the pancreas. A stent was placed in the SMA stenosis to preserve the intestinal blood flow in the SMA region after total pancreatectomy, which was performed 25 days after stent placement. The postoperative SMA blood flow was favorable, with no postoperative intestinal ischemia, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course.

  18. Preoperative Anemia: Evaluation and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Ankit J; Stefan, Mihaela S

    2016-03-01

    Previously undiagnosed anemia is often identified during routine assessment of surgical patients. Although studies suggest that perioperative anemia is associated with worse outcomes and a strong predictor for postoperative red cell transfusions, anemia is frequently ignored. Preoperative optimization of patients undergoing elective surgical procedures associated with significant blood loss, along with strategies to minimize intraoperative blood loss, shows promise for reducing postoperative transfusions and improving outcomes. In most situations, anemia can be corrected prior to elective surgeries and interventions. Future research should assess the timing and methods of optimization of preoperative anemia in surgery and which patients are best candidates for therapy. PMID:26927743

  19. [Pancreatic insulinoma. Peroperative topographical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Deixonne, B; Baudin, G; Rodier, M; Pignodel, C; Rouanet, J P; Balmes, P; Baumel, H

    1988-09-24

    Difficult problems may arise and place the surgeon in an uncomfortable position in cases where neither pre-operative investigations nor palpation of the pancreas have enabled pancreatic insulinomas to be localized. However, 3 examinations performed during the operation should help solve these problems, as shown by the case presented here. These examinations are insulin assays in the peripancreatic venous blood, blood glucose measurements under constant rate glucose infusion, and intra-operative ultrasonography. Pre-operative radioimmunological assays of insulin have been used for about 10 years, but owing to technical advances and shortening of the incubation time these assays can now be performed during surgery and, above all, with immediate results. Blood glucose measurements are good pointers, and this method has long been used in this type of surgery. Intra-operative ultrasonography has recently been introduced; it is very effective in diagnosing endocrine tumours of the pancreas, since the images it provides are quite characteristic. These 3 examinations combined should be used to localize pancreatic insulinomas; they may replace most of the pre-operative examinations that are still carried out. PMID:2847138

  20. Mucin Hypersecreting Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Anthony W.; Ryan, Anna; Doolas, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Mucin Hypersecreting Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm is a rare neoplasm that arises from ductal epithelial cells. This entity is distinct from the more commonly known Mucinous Cystadenoma or Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma. Despite this distinction, it has been erroneously categorized with these more common cystic neoplasms. Characteristic clinical presentation, radiographic, and endoscopic findings help distinguish this neoplasm from the cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas. Histopathologic identification is not crucial to the preoperative diagnosis. This neoplasm is considered to represent a premalignant condition and, therefore, surgical resection is warranted. Prognosis, following resection, is felt to be curative for the majority of patients. We present two cases of Mucin Hypersecreting Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm and discuss their diagnosis and surgical therapy. PMID:10371063

  1. Pathophysiology of Hyperinsulinemia Following Pancreas Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Earnhardt, Richard C.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Cornett, Greg; Hanks, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the anatomical alterations of the pancreas required for transplantation on pulsatile insulin secretion. Summary Background Data Pancreas transplantation involves anatomical changes that have unknown consequences on glucose homeostasis. Pancreas transplant patients are free of exogenous insulin requirements, yet appear to have endogenous hyperinsulinemia. The effect of surgical alterations on posttransplant insulin release is not completely known, specifically with regards to possible alterations in patterns of pulsatile release. Methods Pulsatile and invariant basal insulin secretion was studied in normal dogs (n = 4) and three canine models of the anatomical alterations of pancreas transplantation: 70% partial pancreatectomy (PPX, n = 4), partial pancreatectomy with splenocaval venous diversion (SC, n = 4), and partial pancreatectomy with remnant autotransplantation (PAT, n = 4). Plasma insulin kinetics were determined for each dog, and then blood sampled at 1-minute intervals in a fasted and IV glucose-stimulated state twice to delineate the time structure of insulin secretion by multiple parameter deconvolution analysis utilizing dog-specific insulin half-lives. Results Fasting plasma glucose concentrations in each group were similar, but all surgical groups were hyperglycemic with IV glucose challenge. Secretory pulse amplitude was decreased with decreased ? cell mass (PPX), partially normalized with systemic insulin release (SC), and further normalized with denervation (PAT). Interpulse interval and pulse duration were increased in all surgical groups when stimulated. Denervation of PAT resulted in a threefold increase in fasting basal invariant insulin secretion. Stimulated basal insulin secretion is inconsequential. Conclusions Hyperinsulinemia and apparent insulin insensitivity after pancreas transplantation may be due to increased less potent basal secretion in the fasting state and less frequent, less discrete pulsatile insulin secretion in the simulated state. PMID:12368677

  2. Pancreas After Islet Transplantation: A First Report of the International Pancreas Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, R W G; Gruessner, A C

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas after islet (PAI) transplantation is a treatment option for patients seeking insulin independence through a whole-organ transplant after a failed cellular transplant. This report from the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR) and the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) studied PAI transplant outcomes over a 10-year time period. Forty recipients of a failed alloislet transplant subsequently underwent pancreas transplant alone (50%), pancreas after previous kidney transplant (22.5%), or simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant (27.5%). Graft and patient survival rates were not statistically significantly different compared with matched primary pancreas transplants. Regardless of the recipient category, overall 1- and 5-year PAI patient survival rates for all 40 cases were 97% and 83%, respectively; graft survival rates were 84% and 65%, respectively. A failed previous islet transplant had no negative impact on kidney graft survival in the SPK category: It was the same as for primary SPK transplants. According to this IPTR/UNOS analysis, a PAI transplant is a safe procedure with low recipient mortality, high graft-function rates in both the short and long term and excellent kidney graft outcomes. Patients with a failed islet transplant should know about this alternative in their quest for insulin independence through transplantation. PMID:26436323

  3. Laparoscopic removal of a needle from the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Nag, Hirdaya Hulas; Goel, Neeraj; Gupta, Nikhil; Agarwal, Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Foreign bodies inside the pancreas are rare and usually occur after the ingestion of sharp objects like fish bone, sewing needle and toothpick. Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the anus without being noticed but about 1% of them can perforate through the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organs like pancreas or liver. Once inside the pancreas they can produce complications like abscess, pseudoaneurysm or pancreatits. Foreign bodies of pancreas should be removed by endoscopic or surgical methods. We hereby report our experience of successful removal one a sewing needle from pancreas. PMID:23741114

  4. Assessment of the usefulness of the standardized uptake values and the radioactivity levels for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer measured by using 18F-FDG PET/CT dual-time-point imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Hong, Seong-Jong; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Ik-Han

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the SUV (standardized uptake value), the 18F-FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) uptake pattern, and the radioactivity level for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer via dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT (positron emission tomographycomputed tomography) imaging. Moreover, the study aimed to verify the usefulness and significance of SUV values and radioactivity levels to discriminate tumor malignancy. A retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients who received 18F-FDG PET/CT for thyroid cancer as a primary tumor. To set the background, we compared changes in values by calculating the dispersion of scattered rays in the neck area and the lung apex, and by comparing the mean and SD (standard deviation) values of the maxSUV and the radioactivity levels. According to the statistical analysis of the changes in 18F-FDG uptake for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, a high similarity was observed with the coefficient of determination being R2 = 0.939, in the SUVs and the radioactivity levels. Moreover, similar results were observed in the assessment of tumor malignancy using dual-time-point. The quantitative analysis method for assessing tumor malignancy using radioactivity levels was neither specific nor discriminative compared to the semi-quantitative analysis method.

  5. KP Northwest Preoperative Briefing Project.

    PubMed

    Wright, Maureen Ann

    2005-01-01

    In June 2001, members of the KP Northwest Region (KPNW) Patient Safety Team attending a Human Factors training program considered the patient safety challenges faced in the operating suite and identified pre-operative briefing as a necessary component of safe practice. After receiving the Human Factors training, the KPNW Patient Safety Team obtained sponsorship for a pilot project to develop preoperative briefing as a way to transform the patient safety culture in the KP Northwest Region's operating suites and to reduce the number of errors (especially burns). The project led to the KP Sunnyside Medical Center's current policy requiring preoperative briefing before each surgical intervention so that information regarding the patient's care is verified and shared.Since initiation of the preoperative briefings-which are increasingly being conducted on a routine basis-a trend of decreasing accidental injuries has been observed in the operating suite. In addition, recent questionnaire responses show an improved team culture of safety and an improved overall work climate (including such factors as teamwork, safety, perceptions of management, and working conditions). Measures reported by surgical teams in Orange County (California) and KPNW indicate the project can be transferred successfully. Staff are also expanding the briefings project to the ambulatory setting. PMID:21660158

  6. Preoperative Assessment of Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Nakhaie, Mariam; Tsai, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The preoperative assessment of geriatric patients provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate the patient for perioperative risk factors such as frailty, functional status, nutritional status, cardiovascular and pulmonary status, and substance dependence. It also provides an overall clinical picture on which health care providers can base a framework to reduce these risk factors. PMID:26315632

  7. Sub-branch and mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: 2 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Ozmen, Zafer; Aktas, Fatma; Okan, İsmail; Özsoy, Zeki; Arıcı, Akgül

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) is one of the cystic neoplasias of the pancreas. The imaging findings provide that these tumors are differentiated from the other cystic lesions of the pancreas, especially from the chronic pancreatitis, where the treatment protocol is completely different. Therefore, the correct diagnosis and classification of the IPMN ensures that the patient receives the correct approach and the appropriate surgery, if necessary. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the imaging findings of the different types of the IPMN and the changes in the management protocol of the patients according to these radiological findings.

  8. Cystic neoplasia of the pancreas: pathology and biology.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N Volkan

    2008-03-01

    In contrast with solid tumors, most of which are invasive ductal adenocarcinoma with dismal prognosis, cystic lesions of the pancreas are often either benign or low-grade indolent neoplasia. Those that are mucinous, namely, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), constitute the most important category, not only because they are the most common, but more importantly because they have well-established malignant potential, representing an adenomacarcinoma sequence. While many are innocuous adenomas--in particular, those that are small and less complex, and in the case of IPMN, those that are branch-duct type are more commonly benign, some harbor or progress into in situ or invasive carcinomas. For this reason, pancreatic cysts with mucinous differentiation ought to be evaluated carefully, preferably by experts familiar with subtle evidences of malignancy in these tumors. In the past few years, the definition of IPMNs and MCNs has become more refined. The presence of ovarian-type stroma has now almost become a requirement for the diagnosis of MCN, and when defined as such, MCN is seen almost exclusively in women of perimenopausal age group as thick-walled multilocular cystic mass in the tail of the pancreas in contrast with IPMN which afflicts an elder population, both genders in almost equal numbers, and occur predominantly in the head of the organ. While mucinous lesions have well-established pre-malignant properties, most of the entities that fall into the nonmucinous true cyst category such as serous tumors, lymphoepithelial cysts, congenital cysts, and squamoid cyst of ducts have virtually no malignant potential. In contrast, the rare cystic tumors that occur as a result of degenerative/necrotic changes in otherwise solid neoplasia such as the rare cystic ductal adenocarcinomas, cystic endocrine neoplasia, and most importantly, solid-pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) in which cystic change is so common that it used to be incorporated into its name ("solid-cystic," "papillary-cystic") are malignant neoplasia, albeit variable degrees of aggressiveness. SPT holds a distinctive place among pancreatic neoplasia because of its highly peculiar characteristics, undetermined cell lineage, occurrence almost exclusively in young females, association with beta-catenin pathway, and also by being a very low-grade curable malignancy. In conclusion, cystic lesions in the pancreas constitute a biologically and pathologically diverse category most (but not all) of which are either benign or treatable diseases; however, a substantial subset, especially mucinous ones, has malignant potential that requires careful analysis. PMID:17957438

  9. Pancreas transplants: Evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants.

  10. Wandering spleen with volvulus of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Karcaalt?ncaba, Musturay

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal location of the spleen, which is called wandering spleen, results from laxity or absence of the splenic pedicle. In the presence of an elongated splenic pedicle, torsion of the spleen or neighboring organs may occur, which results in acute or chronic abdominal pain. In this case report, we present imaging findings of a wandering spleen that manifested with volvulus of the pancreas. PMID:26576796

  11. Pancreas transplants: evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kuni, C C; du Cret, R P; Boudreau, R J

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants. PMID:2500016

  12. Pancreas Transplantation: Solid Organ and Islet

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Shruti; Johnson, Paul; Friend, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas, either as a solid organ or as isolated islets of Langerhans, is indicated in a small proportion of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes in whom severe complications develop, particularly severe glycemic instability and progressive secondary complications (usually renal failure). The potential to reverse diabetes has to be balanced against the morbidity of long-term immunosuppression. For a patient with renal failure, the treatment of choice is often a simultaneous transplant of the pancreas and kidney (SPK), whereas for a patient with glycemic instability, specifically hypoglycemic unawareness, the choice between a solid organ and an islet transplant has to be individual to the patient. Results of SPK transplantation are comparable to other solid-organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart) and there is evidence of improved quality of life and life expectancy, but the results of solitary pancreas transplantation and islets are inferior with respect to graft survival. There is some evidence of benefit with respect to the progression of secondary diabetic complications in patients with functioning transplants for several years. PMID:24616200

  13. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  14. Identifying patients with undetected pancreatic cancer in primary care: an independent and external validation of QCancer (Pancreas)

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gary S; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite its rarity, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer is very poor and it is a major cause of cancer mortality; being ranked fourth in the world, it has one of the worst survival rates of any cancer. Aim To evaluate the performance of QCancer (Pancreas) for predicting the absolute risk of pancreatic cancer in an independent UK cohort of patients, from general practice records. Design and setting Prospective cohort study to evaluate the performance QCancer (Pancreas) prediction models in 364 practices from the UK, contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Method Records were extracted from the THIN database for 2.15 million patients registered with a general practice surgery between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2008, aged 3084 years (3.74 million person-years), with 618 pancreatic cancer cases. Pancreatic cancer was defined as incident diagnosis of pancreatic cancer during the 2 years after study entry. Results The results from this independent and external validation of QCancer (Pancreas) demonstrated good performance data on a large cohort of general practice patients. QCancer (Pancreas) had very good discrimination properties, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 and 0.92 for females and males respectively. QCancer (Pancreas) explained 60% and 67% of the variation in females and males respectively. QCancer (Pancreas) over-predicted risk in both females and males, notably in older patients. Conclusion QCancer (Pancreas) is potentially useful for identifying undetected cases of pancreatic cancer in primary care in the UK. PMID:23998844

  15. Laparoscopic pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy in paediatric age for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of head of the pancreas - case report.

    PubMed

    Senthilnathan, P; Patel, Nikunj; Nalankilli, V P; Palanivelu, C; Parthasarthi, R; Praveenraj, P

    2014-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumour commonly seen in young women without significant clinical features. SPN is usually a lowgrade malignant neoplasm which warrants resection. Recurrence and metastasis is seen rarely after complete resection. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is indicated for SPN situated in head of the pancreas which is generally performed by open approach. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) is difficult to perform for this condition because of smaller size of pancreatic and hepatic ducts more so in paediatric population. We report a case of 12 years old girl having SPN arising from head of the pancreas. She underwent laparoscopic pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Post-operative period was uneventful. Histological examination of resected specimen confirmed diagnosis of SPN. At 6 months follow up, she was doing well without any recurrence. To best of our knowledge, no case of LPD in paediatric patients is reported in literature available to us. PMID:25459567

  16. Preoperative depression symptom severity and its impact on adherence to preoperative beta-blocker therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schonberger, Robert B.; Feinleib, Jessica; Holt, Natalie; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia; Burg, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To test the association among depression symptoms, distressed personality-type, and preoperative beta-blocker non-adherence. 2) To estimate the prevalence of untreated major depression in this population. Design Prospective Observational Study Setting A Veterans hospital Patients 120 subjects on outpatient beta-blocker therapy presenting for surgery. Interventions The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, the D-Scale-14 (DS14), and Modified Morisky Scale (MMS) questionnaires. Measurements and Main Results Of 99 participants who presented for surgery, the incidence of preoperative non-adherence was 14.1% (95% CI 7–21%), consistent with prior research. Non-adherence was 9.5% among those with no depression, 27.8% among those with mild depression, and 28.6% among those with moderate to severe depression (Cochrane-Armitage test for trend p=0.03). Distressed personality-type was found in 35% of the cohort (95% CI 26–45%) and was not associated with beta-blocker non-adherence (Fisher’s exact p=0.24). Among participants with symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (N=25, 25.3%), over half (N=14, 56%) had no indication of depression listed at their most recent primary care visit. Conclusions Patients with symptoms of depression on chronic beta-blocker therapy are prone to medication non-adherence on the day of surgery. The majority of surgical patients with symptoms of major depression lack a diagnosis of depression. Preoperative depression screening may thus 1) identify a population at increased risk of beta-blocker withdrawal and 2) identify patients who may benefit from anesthesiologist-initiated referral for this treatable condition. PMID:25263776

  17. Pancreas as delayed site of metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tunio, Mutahir A; Alasiri, Mushabbab; Riaz, Khalid; Alshakweer, Wafa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Follicular variant (FV) papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has aggressive biologic behavior as compared to classic variant (CV) of PTC and frequently metastasizes to the lungs and bones. However, metastasis to the pancreas is extremely rare manifestation of FV-PTC. To date, only 9 cases of PTC have been reported in the literature. Pancreatic metastases from PTC usually remain asymptomatic or manifest as repeated abdominal aches. Associated obstructive jaundice is rare. Prognosis is variable with reported median survival from 16 to 46 months. Case Presentation. Herein we present a 67-year-old Saudi woman, who developed pancreatic metastases seven years after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection followed by radioactive iodine ablation (RAI) for FV-PTC. Metastasectomy was performed by pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by sorafenib as genetic testing revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. She survived 32 months after the pancreatic metastasis diagnosis. Conclusion. Pancreatic metastases are rare manifestation of FV-PTC and are usually sign of extensive disease and conventional diagnostic tools may remain to reach the diagnosis. PMID:23607002

  18. Imaging of pancreas divisum by linear-array endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Pathak, Amit; Rameshbabu, Chittapuram Srinivasan; Rai, Praveer; Kirnake, Vijendra; Shoukat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) is the most common developmental anatomic variant of pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is often performed to evaluate idiopathic pancreatitis and has been shown to have high accuracy in diagnosis of PD. The different techniques to identify PD by linear EUS have been described differently by different authors. If EUS is done with a proper technique it can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of PD. The anatomical and technical background of different signs has not been described so far. This article summarizes the different techniques of imaging of pancreatic duct in a suspected case of PD and gives a technical explanation of various signs. The common signs seen during evaluation of pancreatic duct in PD are stack sign of linear EUS, crossed duct sign on linear EUS, the dominant duct and ventral dorsal duct (VD) transition. Few other signs are described which include duct above duct, short ventral duct /absent ventral duct, separate opening of ducts with no communication, separate opening of ducts with filamentous communication, stacking of duct of Santorini and indirect signs like santorinecele. The principles of the sign have been explained on an anatomical basis and the techniques and the principles described in the review will be helpful in technical evaluation of PD during EUS. PMID:26879163

  19. Detection of Circulating Pancreas Epithelial Cells in Patients with Pancreatic Cystic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Andrew D.; Thege, Fredrik I.; Santana, Steven M.; Lannin, Timothy B.; Saha, Trisha N.; Tsai, Shannon; Maggs, Lara R.; Kochman, Michael L.; Ginsberg, Gregory G.; Lieb, John G.; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Ahmad, Nuzhat; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Kirby, Brian J.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination is thought to be a late event in cancer progression. We showed recently that pancreas cells can be detected in the bloodstream before tumor formation, in a genetic model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To confirm these findings in humans, we used microfluidic geometrically enhanced immunocapture to detect circulating pancreas epithelial cells (CECs) in patient blood samples. We captured >3 CECs/ml in 7 of 21 (33%) of patients with cystic lesions and no clinical diagnosis of cancer (Sendai criteria negative), 8 of 11 (73%) with PDAC, and in 0 of 19 patients without cysts or cancer (controls). These findings indicate that cancer cells are present in the circulation of patients before tumors develop, which might be used in risk assessment. PMID:24333829

  20. An atypically localized gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report of pancreas gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Kr?at Rahmi; Keskin, Metin; Gllo?lu, Mine; Emre, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They can arise from any part of the tract as well as the omentum, mesentery or retroperitoneum. In this study, we present a case of a GIST originating from an extraordinary site, the pancreas. Evaluation of 30-year-old man with complaints of abdominal distension revealed a cystic, distal pancreatic lesion 13 cm in diameter. There were no intra-abdominal or distant organ metastases. The patient was operated with a diagnosis of cystic pancreas tumor, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed. The lesion was diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor upon histopathological examination. He was discharged on the sixth postoperative day without any complications and is being followed up for 21 months without systemic or local recurrence. Extragastrointestinal GISTs are reported rarely. To our knowledge, only one pancreatic GIST has been reported previously in the English literature. PMID:25931843

  1. Arteriography with simultaneous gastric distention to detect insulin-secreting tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J S; Han, S Y; Henao, F

    1983-12-01

    Gaseous distention of the stomach at the time of arteriography enhances the contrast of densities within the pancreatic parenchyma, resulting in excellent visualization and therefore precise preoperative localization of insulin-secreting tumors of the pancreas. This relatively simple modification of selective arteriography was used in the last three consecutive patients we have seen with insulinomas. Apparently, the presence of air in the stomach makes the "tumor blush" that results from the uptake of the contrast dye by the vessels within the insulinoma and is clearer than in selective arteriography alone. The stomach was distended at the time of selective arteriography with carbonated soft drinks in two cases and by gas-producing pills in one. In all three cases, the location of the tumor shown by arteriography coincided exactly with the operative findings. Distal pancreatectomy was required in two; enucleation of the insulinoma was possible in one. All three patients recovered from operation uneventfully and were completely relieved of symptoms. PMID:6316560

  2. Preoperative cardiovascular investigations in liver transplant candidate: An update

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Lalit; Srivastava, Piyush; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Jha, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) undergoing liver transplantation. Identifying candidates at the highest risk of postoperative cardiovascular complications is the cornerstone for optimizing the outcome. Ischaemic heart disease contributes to major portion of cardiovascular complications and therefore warrants evaluation in the preoperative period. Patients of ESLD usually demonstrate increased cardiac output, compromised ventricular response to stress, low systemic vascular resistance and occasionally bradycardia. Despite various recommendations for preoperative evaluation of cardiovascular disease in liver transplant candidates, a considerable controversy on screening methodology persists. This review critically focuses on the rapidly expanding body of evidence for diagnosis and risk stratification of cardiovascular disorder in liver transplant candidates. PMID:26962249

  3. Preoperative Computed Tomography to Predict and Stratify the Risk of Severe Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sandini, Marta; Bernasconi, Davide Paolo; Ippolito, Davide; Nespoli, Luca; Baini, Melissa; Barbaro, Salvatore; Fior, Davide; Gianotti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article is to assess whether measures of abdominal fat distribution, visceral density, and antropometric parameters obtained from computed tomography (CT) may predict postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) occurrence. We analyzed 117 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and had a preoperative CT scan as staging in our center. CT images were processed to obtain measures of total fat volume (TFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), density of spleen, and pancreas, and diameter of pancreatic duct. The predictive ability of each parameter was investigated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves methodology and assessing optimal cutoff thresholds. A stepwise selection method was used to determine the best predictive model. Clinically relevant (grades B and C) POPF occurred in 24 patients (20.5%). Areas under ROC-curves showed that none of the parameters was per se significantly predictive. The multivariate analysis revealed that a VFV >2334?cm3, TFV >4408?cm3, pancreas/spleen density ratio <0.707, and pancreatic duct diameter <5?mm were predictive of POPF. The risk of POPF progressively increased with the number of factors involved and age. It is possible to deduce objective information on the risk of POPF from a simple and routine preoperative radiologic workup. PMID:26252274

  4. Preoperative Computed Tomography to Predict and Stratify the Risk of Severe Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Marta; Bernasconi, Davide Paolo; Ippolito, Davide; Nespoli, Luca; Baini, Melissa; Barbaro, Salvatore; Fior, Davide; Gianotti, Luca

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to assess whether measures of abdominal fat distribution, visceral density, and antropometric parameters obtained from computed tomography (CT) may predict postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) occurrence.We analyzed 117 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and had a preoperative CT scan as staging in our center. CT images were processed to obtain measures of total fat volume (TFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), density of spleen, and pancreas, and diameter of pancreatic duct. The predictive ability of each parameter was investigated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves methodology and assessing optimal cutoff thresholds. A stepwise selection method was used to determine the best predictive model.Clinically relevant (grades B and C) POPF occurred in 24 patients (20.5%). Areas under ROC-curves showed that none of the parameters was per se significantly predictive. The multivariate analysis revealed that a VFV >2334?cm, TFV >4408?cm, pancreas/spleen density ratio <0.707, and pancreatic duct diameter <5?mm were predictive of POPF. The risk of POPF progressively increased with the number of factors involved and age.It is possible to deduce objective information on the risk of POPF from a simple and routine preoperative radiologic workup. PMID:26252274

  5. The effect of systemic venous drainage of the pancreas on insulin sensitivity in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Radziuk, J; Barron, P; Najm, H; Davies, J

    1993-01-01

    To assess the metabolic consequences of the diversion of the pancreatic venous drainage to the systemic circulation, the pancreaticoduodenal and gastrosplenic veins were anastomosed to the inferior vena cava in nine normal dogs. This procedure maintained the integrity of the entire pancreas while shunting the hormonal output of the pancreas to the periphery. The metabolic effects were assessed from the sensitivity to insulin during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp using an insulin infusion of 800 microU/kg per min. The studies were controlled by their duplication in seven dogs identically treated but with the pancreatic veins reanastomosed to the portal vein. No differences in systemic insulin levels or insulin sensitivity before and after surgery were seen under these circumstances. After diversion, however, basal insulin levels rose from 4.5 +/- 1.0 to 11.5 +/- 2.5 microU/ml. Basal glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR) rose to 3.0 +/- 0.4 from 2.0 +/- 0.3 ml/kg per min. On insulin infusion, maximal stimulation of MCR within the 2-h infusion period was to 15.2 +/- 2.5 ml/kg per min preoperatively and to 7.2 +/- 0.8 ml/kg per min after diversion. Using ratios of MCR-to-insulin concentration as an index of insulin sensitivity, it was demonstrated that this index decreased by at least 50% after diversion. These data imply that portal venous drainage of the pancreas is an important factor in the determination of peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:8104957

  6. The molecular mechanisms, diagnosis and management of congenital hyperinsulinism

    PubMed Central

    Senniappan, Senthil; Arya, Ved Bhushan; Hussain, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the result of unregulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells leading to severe hypoglycaemia. In these patients it is important to make an accurate diagnosis and initiate the appropriate management so as to avoid hypoglycemic episodes and prevent the potentially associated complications like epilepsy, neurological impairment and cerebral palsy. At a genetic level abnormalities in eight different genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, GCK, HADH, SLC16A1, HNF4A and UCP2) have been reported with CHI. Loss of function mutations in ABCC8/KCNJ11 lead to the most severe forms of CHI which are usually medically unresponsive. At a histological level there are two major subgroups, diffuse and focal, each with a different genetic etiology. The focal form is sporadic in inheritance and is localized to a small region of the pancreas whereas the diffuse form is inherited in an autosomal recessive (or dominant) manner. Imaging using a specialized positron emission tomography scan with the isotope fluroine-18 L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyalanine (18F-DOPA-PET-CT) is used to accurately locate the focal lesion pre-operatively and if removed can cure the patient from hypoglycemia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms, the histological basis, improvements in imaging modalities and surgical techniques have all improved the management of patients with CHI. PMID:23776849

  7. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas?

    PubMed Central

    Temesgen, Wudneh M.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare, with an incidence of less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor (OGCT) of the pancreas is one of the three types of PGCT, which are now classified as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 57 year old woman who presented with a 3 week history of epigastric pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Imaging studies revealed an 18cmנ15cm soft tissue mass with cystic components which involved the pancreas, stomach and spleen. Exploratory laparotomy with distal pancreatectomy, partial gastrectomy and splenectomy was performed. Histology revealed undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells with production of osteoid and glandular elements. DISCUSSION OGCT of the pancreas resembles benign-appearing giant cell tumors of bone, and contain osteoclastic-like multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells. OGCTs display a less aggressive course with slow metastasis and lymph node spread compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Due to the rarity of the cancer, there is a lack of prospective studies on treatment options. Surgical en-bloc resection is currently considered first line treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not been established. CONCLUSION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare pancreatic neoplasms with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. Osteoclastic giant cell tumors are the most favorable sub-type. Surgical en bloc resection is the first line treatment. Long-term follow-up of patients with these tumors is essential to compile a body of literature to help guide treatment. PMID:24631915

  8. Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sunil; Kim, Michelle Kang

    2016-03-01

    Islet cell tumors of the pancreas, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, constitute less than 5% of pancreatic tumors, and 7% of all neuroendocrine tumors. Most are non-functional, and patients often present with metastatic disease. Functional tumors present with distinct clinical syndromes. Accurate staging is critical as surgery is both the cornerstone of treatment, and the only hope for cure. Medical management involves treating the manifestations of hormonal excess, and using somatastatin analogues when appropriate. Systemic chemotherapy, targeted molecular therapy, and peptide receptor radiotherapy may be used for refractory disease in lieu of or as an adjunct to surgery. PMID:26895682

  9. The Cystic Fibrosis of Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wilschanski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia, and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acinar cells to remain in a soluble state. This work will expound on the pathophysiology and pathology caused by the malfunctioning CFTR protein with special reference to ion transport and acid-base abnormalities both in humans and animal models. We will also discuss the relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas. PMID:23637307

  10. Preoperative Assessment of Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Justin G; Wildes, Troy S

    2016-03-01

    Geriatric patients are over-represented in hospitalizations, surgeries, and perioperative complications. Special consideration is required for this patient group in the perioperative period because of the prevalence of comorbid diseases, functional impairments, and other deficits. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation strategy is recommended to identify and address these issues. Systematic, multidomain assessments should be performed and paired with risk reduction efforts. A shared understanding of patient function and long-term health goals is also important for providing patient-centered care of the geriatric surgical patient. PMID:26927746

  11. Timing of preoperative patient teaching.

    PubMed

    Lepczyk, M; Raleigh, E H; Rowley, C

    1990-03-01

    With the increasing cost of health care and the growing constraints made by third party payers, in-hospital time for preoperative teaching is quickly being reduced. Seventy-two patients attended preoperative instruction either as an inpatient the day before surgery or as an outpatient 4-8 days before surgery. Anxiety and knowledge levels were measured before and after class and the evening before surgery. No differences were found between the groups on a measure of anxiety levels. Both groups demonstrated a moderate anxiety level with no significant change over the testing period. Using the knowledge pretest as a covariate, repeated measures analysis of variance suggested the knowledge gained with the class was significantly greater for the outpatient group than the inpatient group (P = 0.018). There was also a significant positive relationship between the knowledge score and knowing someone who had cardiac surgery (t = 2.34, d.f. = 66, P = 0.022). The results suggest that it makes little difference whether patients receive information up to a week before surgery or just the day before; therefore, the more economical preadmission teaching may be the path of choice. PMID:2332553

  12. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type1 diabetes and their families in the next decade. PMID:25819473

  13. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26166470

  14. Photosynthetic oxygen generator for bioartificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konstantin; Papismedov, Eli; Yavriyants, Karina; Vorobeychik, Marina; Beer, Sven; Vardi, Pnina

    2006-02-01

    Immunoisolation of pancreatic islets interrupts their vascular connections and results in severe cell hypoxia and dysfunction. This process is believed to be the major obstacle to a successful cure of diabetes by implantation of bioartificial pancreas. Here we describe a new technology for microalga-based, photosynthetic oxygen supply to encapsulated islets, in which a thermophylic strain of the unicellular alga Chlorella was used as a natural photosynthetic oxygen generator. Following determinations of the optimal number of alga cells required for compensation of islet respiration, an appropriate number of islets and algae were co-encapsulated in alginate and perifused with oxygen-free medium at increasing glucose concentrations. No insulin response to glucose was obtained in islets alone, or upon inactivation of photosynthesis by darkness. However, under illumination, photosynthetic- dependent oxygen generation induced higher glucose-stimulated insulin response when compared to normoxic perifusion. Such photosynthetic oxygen generation may have a potential application in development of various bioartificial tissues, in particular the endocrine pancreas. PMID:16548692

  15. Localization of TRAIL/TRAILR in fetal pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Hua; Liu, Xue-Song; Wang, Wen-Yong; Han, Wei-Ning; Pan, Bo-Rong; Jin, Bo-Quan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe the localization of TRAIL/TRAIR (DR4, DR5, DcR1, DcR2) in the fetal pancreas. METHODS: Fetal pancreas of 32 wk of pregnancy were obtained from induced abortions, embedded in paraffin, and 4-?m sections were prepared. The localization of TRAIL/TRAILR in fetal pancreas was investigated by fluorescence immunohistochemical method combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: TRAIL immunoreactive cells were mainly located on the periphery of the pancreas islets. There were a few DcR1 and DcR2 positive cells whereas there were no immunoreactive cells of DR4 and DR5 in the pancreas islets. In the acini and the ducts of the exocrine pancreas there were no TRAIL/TRAILR immunoreactive cells. CONCLUSION: This study not only describes the distribution of TRAIL/TRAILR in the fetal pancreas, but also provides a morphological basis for deducing the function of TRAIL/TRAILR in pancreas, suggesting that in normal pancreatic islets, the pancreatic cells are resistant towards apoptosis too. PMID:12532461

  16. Fluid collections in and around the pancreas in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brun, Alexander; Agarwal, Nanakram; Pitchumoni, C S

    2011-08-01

    The advent of computed tomographic scan with its wide use in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis has opened up a new topic in pancreatology i.e. fluid collections. Fluid collections in and around the pancreas occur often in acute pancreatitis and were defined by the Atlanta Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis in 1992. Two decades since the Atlanta Conference additional experience has brought to light the inadequacy and poor understanding of the terms used by different specialists involved in the care of patients with acute pancreatitis when interpreting imaging modalities and the need for a uniformly used classification system. The deficiencies of the Atlanta definitions and advances in medicine have led to a proposed revision of the Atlanta classification promulgated by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. The newly used terms "acute peripancreatic fluid collections," "pancreatic pseudocyst," "postnecrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections," and "walled-off pancreatic necrosis" are to be clearly understood in the interpretation of imaging studies. The current treatment methods for fluid collections are diverse and depend on accurate interpretations of radiologic tests. Management options include conservative treatment, percutaneous catheter drainage, open and laparoscopic surgery, and endoscopic drainage. The choice of treatment depends on a correct diagnosis of the type of fluid collection. In this study we have attempted to clarify the management and clinical features of different types of fluid collections as they have been initially defined under the 1992 Atlanta Classification and revised by the Working Group's proposed categorization. PMID:21750432

  17. Two synchronous solid and cystic tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kimura, T; Takabayashi, N; Sugimura, H

    1998-06-01

    We report a 17-year-old woman who had two synchronous solid and cystic tumors of the pancreas (SCTP) detected by abdominal echography and computed tomography. There was a 6 x 5 cm mass in the pancreatic body and a 3 x 3 cm mass in the tail, with the two lesions being separate. No distal metastases were detected. The resected tumors consisted of solid and cystic components and both were well demarcated with fibrous capsules. The larger tumor was predominantly solid and the smaller one was mostly hemorrhagic. On microscopy, the tumor cells were small, eosinophilic, and arranged, in part, like pseudorosettes. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for alpha-1 antitrypsin, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin. The final diagnosis was SCTP arising synchronously and independently at two sites. As far as we know, only one case of multicentric SCTP has been reported previously. Local recurrence of SCTP suggests the possibility of multicentric occurrence, and we believe that reports of such cases may increase in the future with advances in echography and computed tomography. PMID:9658328

  18. Agenesis of dorsal pancreas confirmed by three-dimensional reconstruction CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Chen, Munan; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas (ADP) is a rare congenital pancreatic malformation in which all or part of the dorsal pancreatic body is absent. ADP is usually confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), but these methods are undesirable to patients because of strict limitations or invasiveness. We propose abdominal contrast-enhanced and three-dimensional reconstruction CT images as an improved method for ADP diagnosis, and present a case study of ADP confirmed with these methods. PMID:25356189

  19. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Nishi, Yuji; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Mizuno, Akira; Kajikawa, Masaki; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A man in his thirties visited our hospital for an evaluation of a 1210-mm pancreatic solid tumor that was accidentally detected on computed tomography performed for follow-up of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We diagnosed the patient with a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) based on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, and he underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Small SPN tumors appear as solid tumors, without typical features of SPN, making the definitive diagnosis more difficult. The genetic background of FAP patients can predispose them to SPN, and imaging of the pancreas should be performed at prescribed intervals in FAP patients. PMID:26027985

  20. Pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas: computed-tomographic, sonographic, and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfman, N.T.; Karstaedt, N.; Kawamoto, E.H.

    1985-02-01

    The authors present a series of eight cases of pleomorphic carcinoma of the pancreas, an uncommon lesion that contains bizarre giant cells and resembles sarcoma histologically. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described in the radiological literature. Clinical symptoms are similar to those of the usual pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma, but at presentation the primary tumor mass is usually large, and widespread metastatic disease is present. The most striking finding is massive lymphadenopathy, which may mimic lymphoma. A combination of clinical history, imaging findings, and results of percutaneous biopsy should lead to the proper diagnosis and may help to differentiate this entity from others that may affect lymph nodes.

  1. Subtotal resection of the head of the pancreas combined with ductal obliteration of the distal pancreas in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kerremans, R P; Penninckx, F M; De Groote, J; Fevery, J

    1987-01-01

    Subtotal resection of the head of the pancreas combined with duct obliteration of the distal pancreas by prolamine was performed in 12 selected patients who had chronic alcohol-induced pancreatitis with most destruction in the proximal pancreas. The main indication for operation was intractable pain. There was no postoperative mortality but morbidity was high when no pancreaticojejunostomy was constructed. After a follow-up period of 32 months, lasting pain relief was obtained in 10 patients; pseudocyst formation occurred in three patients; calcification of the distal pancreas, absent before operation, was demonstrated in four of six patients; six of 11 nondiabetic patients became hyperglycemic either abruptly (1 patient) or progressively (5 patients); quality of life improved in most patients. This procedure preserves the stomach, duodenum, spleen, distal pancreas and common bile duct if possible. However, pancreatic ductal obliteration with prolamine does not prevent relapses of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:3827358

  2. [The endocrine pancreas. From the isolated islet to the "artificial pancreas" (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schatz, H; Pfeiffer, E F

    1976-04-16

    The endocrine function of the pancreas consists of the promotion of storage of nutritive substances after meals through the liberation of insulin and to guarantee the mobilization of this food energy through the secretion of glucagon during fasting. Increased hormone production may result from tumors of the islet cells (insulin: insulinoma; glucagon: glucagonoma; gastrin: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). An absolute or relative insulin deficiency is a characteristic of diabetes mellitus, in which a relative hyperglucagonemia is also of possible pathophysiological significance. This increased secretion of glucagon can be suppressed by somatostatin. While the clinical application of somatostatin in diabetes mellitus seems problematic at present, the use of a glucose-controlled system of insulin infusion ("artificial pancreas") makes possible a metabolic state approaching the healthy condition. PMID:818514

  3. Regeneration and Repair of the Exocrine Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Murtaugh, L. Charles; Keefe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is caused by inflammatory injury to the exocrine pancreas, from which both humans and animal models appear to recover via regeneration of digestive enzyme-producing acinar cells. This regenerative process involves transient phases of inflammation, metaplasia and redifferentiation, driven by cell-cell interactions between acinar cells, leukocytes and resident fibroblasts. The NF?B signaling pathway is a critical determinant of pancreatic inflammation and metaplasia, whereas a number of developmental signals and transcription factors are devoted to promoting acinar redifferentiation after injury. Imbalances between these pro-inflammatory and pro-differentiation pathways contribute to chronic pancreatitis, characterized by persistent inflammation, fibrosis and acinar dedifferentiation. Loss of acinar cell differentiation also drives pancreatic cancer initiation, providing a mechanistic link between pancreatitis and cancer risk. Unraveling the molecular bases of exocrine regeneration may identify new therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention of both of these deadly diseases. PMID:25386992

  4. Chromatin Regulators in Pancreas Development and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stephanie A; Hoffman, Brad G

    2016-03-01

    The chromatin landscape of a cell is dynamic and can be altered by chromatin regulators that control nucleosome placement and DNA or histone modifications. Together with transcription factors, these complexes help dictate the transcriptional output of a cell and, thus, balance cell proliferation and differentiation while restricting tissue-specific gene expression. In this review, we describe current research on chromatin regulators and their roles in pancreas development and the maintenance of mature ? cell function, which, once elucidated, will help us better understand how ? cell differentiation occurs and is maintained. These studies have so far implicated proteins from several complexes that regulate DNA methylation, nucleosome remodeling, and histone acetylation and methylation that could become promising targets for diabetes therapy and stem cell differentiation. PMID:26783078

  5. Guideline implementation: preoperative patient skin antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Performing preoperative skin antisepsis to remove soil and microorganisms at the surgical site may help prevent patients from developing a surgical site infection. The updated AORN "Guideline for preoperative skin antisepsis" addresses the topics of preoperative patient bathing and hair removal, selection and application of skin antiseptics, and safe handling, storage, and disposal of skin antiseptics. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel develop protocols for patient skin antisepsis. The key points include the need for the patient to take a preoperative bath or shower and the need for perioperative personnel to manage hair at the surgical site, select a safe and effective antiseptic for the individual patient, perform a safe preoperative surgical site prep, and appropriately store skin antiseptics. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25537328

  6. MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas System

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Eran; Nimri, Revital; Miller, Shahar; Grunberg, Eli A.; Phillip, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Current state-of-the-art artificial pancreas systems are either based on traditional linear control theory or rely on mathematical models of glucose-insulin dynamics. Blood glucose control using these methods is limited due to the complexity of the biological system. The aim of this study was to describe the principles and clinical performance of the novel MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas (MDLAP) System. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The MDLAP applies fuzzy logic theory to imitate lines of reasoning of diabetes caregivers. It uses a combination of control-to-range and control-to-target strategies to automatically regulate individual glucose levels. Feasibility clinical studies were conducted in seven adults with type 1 diabetes (aged 1930 years, mean diabetes duration 10 4 years, mean A1C 6.6 0.7%). All underwent 14 full, closed-loop control sessions of 8 h (fasting and meal challenge conditions) and 24 h. RESULTS The mean peak postprandial (overall sessions) glucose level was 224 22 mg/dl. Postprandial glucose levels returned to <180 mg/dl within 2.6 0.6 h and remained stable in the normal range for at least 1 h. During 24-h closed-loop control, 73% of the sensor values ranged between 70 and 180 mg/dl, 27% were >180 mg/dl, and none were <70 mg/dl. There were no events of symptomatic hypoglycemia during any of the trials. CONCLUSIONS The MDLAP system is a promising tool for individualized glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes. It is designed to minimize high glucose peaks while preventing hypoglycemia. Further studies are planned in the broad population under daily-life conditions. PMID:20150292

  7. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation. PMID:26319779

  8. Hippo signaling regulates pancreas development through inactivation of Yap.

    PubMed

    George, Nicholas M; Day, Caroline E; Boerner, Brian P; Johnson, Randy L; Sarvetnick, Nora E

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian pancreas is required for normal metabolism, with defects in this vital organ commonly observed in cancer and diabetes. Development must therefore be tightly controlled in order to produce a pancreas of correct size, cell type composition, and physiologic function. Through negative regulation of Yap-dependent proliferation, the Hippo kinase cascade is a critical regulator of organ growth. To investigate the role of Hippo signaling in pancreas biology, we deleted Hippo pathway components in the developing mouse pancreas. Unexpectedly, the pancreas from Hippo-deficient offspring was reduced in size, with defects evident throughout the organ. Increases in the dephosphorylated nuclear form of Yap are apparent throughout the exocrine compartment and correlate with increases in levels of cell proliferation. However, the mutant exocrine tissue displays extensive disorganization leading to pancreatitis-like autodigestion. Interestingly, our results suggest that Hippo signaling does not directly regulate the pancreas endocrine compartment as Yap expression is lost following endocrine specification through a Hippo-independent mechanism. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Hippo signaling plays a crucial role in pancreas development and provide novel routes to a better understanding of pathological conditions that affect this organ. PMID:23071096

  9. The monocarboxylate transporters exist in the cattle endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kirat, Doaa; Kato, Seiyu

    2015-02-01

    Extensive studies are published concerning the distribution of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in various animal issues including ruminants; nonetheless, nothing is known about their cellular expression and localization in the ruminant pancreas. The present study was carried out to examine the expression and cellular localization of all the fourteen MCT isoforms in cattle pancreas. RT-PCR verified the existence of mRNA transcripts for eight MCT isoforms, namely, MCT1, MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT5, MCT8, MCT13, and MCT14 in cattle pancreas. Western blotting analysis confirmed the protein expression of these eight MCTs in the cattle pancreatic tissue. Immunohistochemical study, within the whole pancreas, was conducted to localize the eight MCTs identified, and the results showed strong positive immunoreactive staining for MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, MCT13, and MCT14 on nearly all the islet cells of Langerhans, while we could not detect immunopositive signals in the acinar cells with any of MCTs antibodies used. This study, for the first time, showed the cellular localization and expression of MCT1-MCT5, MCT8, MCT13, and MCT14 within the ruminant pancreas. The distribution and expression pattern of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, and CD147 in the cattle pancreas are different from that previously published on monogastric pancreas. Our study suggested that MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, MCT13, and MCT14 may participate in the regulation of the pancreatic endocrine secretions in ruminants. PMID:25224143

  10. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic resection of ectopic pancreas in the posterior wall of gastric high body: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Sheng-Der; Wu, Hurng-Sheng; Kuo, Chien-Long; Lee, Yueh-Tsung

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Submucosal tumors of the stomach can be resected using laparoscopic techniques. We report here a case of ectopic pancreas tissue in the gastric wall that was removed using robotic-assisted laparoscopic resection. The patient was a 15-year-old female who presented with abdominal discomfort and tarry stools. Laboratory analysis showed iron deficiency anemia. Preoperative endoscopy revealed a submucosal lesion in the posterior wall of the gastric high body. Intraoperative upper endoscopy clearly located the lesion. A robotic-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection of the putative gastric submucosal tumor was performed. The pathology results showed an ectopic pancreas. The patient had an uneventful recovery and we believe that this is a valid treatment option for this benign condition. PMID:16437703

  11. Serous microcystic adenoma (glycogen-rich cystadenoma) of the pancreas: study of 11 cases showing clinicopathological and immunohistochemical correlations.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Yumiko; Sakaida, Noriko; Uemura, Yoshiko; Senzaki, Hideto; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2002-04-01

    Serous microcystic adenoma of the pancreas, also known as microcystic adenoma, glycogen-rich cystadenoma or serous cystadenoma, is an uncommon benign tumor. We have studied 11 cases involving eight women and three men. The average age at diagnosis was 61.7 years. Four tumors were discovered incidentally. Tumors varied from 1.2 to 20 cm in maximum diameter and all were multicystic. Within the pancreas, three were located in the pancreas head, one involved the head and body, one was located in the body, five were in the tail, and one occupied the whole pancreas. Central stellate scar was seen in five (45%) cases. Histologically, all tumors were composed of microglandular cysts lined by clear epithelial cells rich in glycogen, which were separated by fibrocollagenous stroma. The expression of keratin in clear epithelial cells resembled that in ductal and/or centroacinar cells, but not acinar cells. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoepithelial cells and stromal amyloid deposits were not detected. Ultrastructurally, fibrocollagenous stroma was composed of alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts and endothelial cells embedded in thick collagen bundles. Regardless of female propensity, estrogen and progesterone receptors were not detected. Therefore, female predominance in this tumor remains to be elucidated. PMID:12031087

  12. Quest for the artificial pancreas: combining technology with treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Rebecca A; Wang, Youqing; Grosman, Benyamin; Percival, Matthew W; Bevier, Wendy; Finan, Daniel A; Zisser, Howard; Seborg, Dale E; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Dassau, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The various components of the artificial pancreas puzzle are being put into place. Features such as communication, control, modeling, and learning are being realized presently. Steps have been set in motion to carry the conceptual design through simulation to clinical implementation. The challenging pieces still to be addressed include stress and exercise; as integral parts of the ultimate goal, effort has begun to shift toward overcoming the remaining hurdles to the full artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas is close to becoming a reality, driven by technology, and the expectation that lives will be improved. PMID:20659841

  13. Control of Cell Identity in Pancreas Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Ben Z.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The endocrine and exocrine cells in the adult pancreas are not static, but can change differentiation state in response to injury or stress. This concept of cells in flux means that there may be ways to generate certain types of cells (such as insulin-producing ?-cells) and prevent formation of others (such as transformed, neoplastic cells). We review different aspects of cell identity in the pancreas, discussing how cells achieve their identity during embryonic development and maturation, and how this identity remains plastic, even in the adult pancreas. PMID:23622126

  14. Cyst Features and Risk of Malignancy in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Imaging and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Grenacher, Lars; Strau, Albert; Bergmann, Frank; Birdsey, Matthew; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) display diverse macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics with typical morphological appearance in magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on those, IPMNs may show progression into invasive carcinomas with variable frequency. Overall, IPMN-associated invasive carcinomas are found in about 30% of all IPMNs, revealing phenotpyes comparable with conventional ductal adenocarcinomas or mucinous (colloid) carcinomas of the pancreas. In Sendai-negative side-branch IPMNs, however, the annual risk of the development of invasive cancer is 2%; thus, risk stratification with regard to imaging and preoperative biomarkers and cytology is mandatory. Methods and Results The present study addresses the radiological and interventional preoperative measures including histological features to determine the risk of malignancy and the prognosis of IPMNs. Conclusion While preoperative imaging largely relies on the detection of macroscopic features of IPMNs, which are associated with a divergent risk of malignant behavior, in resected specimens the determination of the grade of dysplasia and the detection of an invasive component are the most important features to estimate the prognosis of IPMNs. PMID:26288613

  15. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-01

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis. PMID:18060867

  16. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  17. [Endocrinological disorders in due to diseases of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Szczeblowska, Dorota; Grys, Iwon

    2009-05-01

    During diseases of the pancreas not only extrasecretory but also intrasecretory disorders are observed. The disturbances are dependent on excessive or insufficient releasing of hormones which are physiologically secreted by the pancreas. The most common endocrine disorder, which develops in pancreatic diseases, is insufficient insulin production which leads to carbohydrates balance disorders. The occurrence of endocrine pancreatic tumors (insulinoma, gastrinoma) is visibly less common--2-10% of neoplasmy of the organ. In group of endocrine tumors of the pancreas are also observed some changes which are able to release the vase-active intestinal peptide (VIP-oma), glucagon tumors, carcinoid released serotonine and somatostatinoma. More over, low-differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas consist about 1% of all pancreatic tumors and 2-3% of the all endocrine tumors. PMID:19606721

  18. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, F; Clavel, F

    1991-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed about the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas, especially concerning the effects of tobacco, coffee, alcohol, diet, and pancreatic pathology. Results of numerous epidemiological studies are, however, inconsistent. Chemical carcinogens have been implicated as possible risk factors. Animal studies have been carried out to determine the role of these chemical factors but, except for nitrosamines and their derivatives (components of tobacco), chemicals have not been proved carcinogenic for the pancreas. Many studies have also been conducted among occupational groups. Several of them showed an excess risk of cancer of the pancreas, especially in the chemical and petroleum industries. The lack of accuracy about the nature of products used, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion as to their carcinogenic role. This paper is a review of publications about occupational exposures and cancer of the pancreas. PMID:1911399

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handbook Glossary Resources Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Mitochondrial DNA Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic ... This process is called oxidative phosphorylation. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus (nuclear ...

  20. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  1. Massive haematemesis--presenting symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Y.; Levy, Y.; Goldsher, D.; Munichor, M.; Eidelman, S.

    1989-01-01

    A 43 year old woman presented with attacks of abdominal pain, haematemesis and hyperamylasaemia. Gastrointestinal X-rays and repeated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy failed to reveal the source of bleeding. Ultrasound and computed tomographic scan demonstrated a calcified mass in the tail of the pancreas. Surgical exploration revealed a solitary mass in the pancreas and histological examination showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient died 2 years later because of local recurrence, but haematemesis and melaena did not recur. This case presents an unusual manifestation of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas with massive bleeding from the tumour via the pancreatic duct and associated pancreatitis. Other possible reasons for bleeding with cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2780451

  2. [A Case of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease with Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated by Duodenum-Preserving Resection of the Head of the Pancreas and Spleen-Preserving Resection of the Tail of the Pancreas].

    PubMed

    Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Tokura, Tomohisa; Yachi, Takafumi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to our department with a diagnosis of multiple nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. She had a family history of pheochromocytoma and a medical history of bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma at the age of 25 years. During follow-up treatment for adrenal insufficiency after the surgery, highly enhanced tumors in the pancreas were detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Other examinations found that the patient did not satisfy the clinical criteria for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Considering her age and risk of developing multiple heterotopic and heterochronous tumors, we performed a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas and spleen-preserving resection of the tail of the pancreas with informed consent. The histopathological findings revealed that all of the tumors were NET G1. She underwent genetic testing postoperatively and was diagnosed with VHL disease. This diagnosis meant that we were able to create an optimal treatment plan for the patient. If a tumor predisposition syndrome is suspected, VHL disease should be borne in mind and genetic testing after genetic counseling should be duly considered. PMID:26489587

  3. Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia in a pancreas transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elizabeth A; Topal, Jeffrey E; Tichy, Eric M

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia in a patient 12 years after his pancreas transplant, during which time he received a steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases describing L monocytogenes bacteremia after pancreas transplant. In addition, although typically identified as a complication shortly after transplant or after treatment for organ rejection, this case demonstrates that it is still possible for a patient to develop a L monocytogenes infection far removed from transplant. PMID:26645926

  4. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  5. Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Janel L; Grompe, Markus; Sander, Maike

    2016-02-25

    Cell replacement in adult organs can be achieved through stem cell differentiation or the replication or transdifferentiation of existing cells. In the adult liver and pancreas, stem cells have been proposed to replace tissue cells, particularly following injury. Here we review how specialized cell types are produced in the adult liver and pancreas. Based on current evidence, we propose that the plasticity of differentiated cells, rather than stem cells, accounts for tissue repair in both organs. PMID:26911907

  6. Successful removal of a huge hypervascular tentorial cavernous angioma after preoperative endovascular embolization.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Sano, Masakazu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Nishino, Kazuhiko; Saito, Akihiko; Fukuda, Masafumi; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2014-07-01

    The authors report a rare case of a huge hypervascular tentorial cavernous angioma treated with preoperative endovascular embolization, followed by successful gross-total removal. A 15-year-old girl presented with scintillation, diplopia, and papilledema. Computed tomography and MRI studies revealed a huge irregularly shaped tumor located in the right occipital and suboccipital regions. The tumor, which had both intra- and extradural components, showed marked enhancement and invasion of the overlying occipital bone. Angiography revealed marked tumor stain, with blood supply mainly from a large branch of the left posterior meningeal artery. Therefore, this lesion was diagnosed as a tentorium-based extraaxial tumor. For differential diagnosis, meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, and malignant skull tumor were considered. Tumor feeders were endovascularly embolized with particles of polyvinyl alcohol. On the following day, the tumor was safely gross totally removed with minimum blood loss. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. To date, there have been no reports of tentorium-based cavernous angiomas endovascularly embolized preoperatively. A tentorial cavernous angioma is most likely to show massive intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, preoperative embolization appears to be quite useful for safe maximum resection. Hence, the authors assert that the differential diagnosis of tentorium-based tumors should include tentorial cavernous angioma, for which preoperative endovascular embolization should be considered. PMID:24866940

  7. Recognizing the distinct cytomorphologic features of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Robin; Perez, Mia C. N.

    2016-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare low-grade malignant tumor with an indolent clinical course and a favorable prognosis that is most commonly seen in young women of reproductive age. We present a case of SPN in a middle-aged man, diagnosed on a limited cytology specimen. Interestingly, this tumor has unique cytomorphologic findings in fine needle aspiration cytology smears, which help distinguish it from other pancreatic lesions. The presence of fibrovascular cores lined by loosely cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells is a reliable cytomorphologic feature on aspiration cytology. Recognition of this characteristic finding is crucial for the diagnosis of this entity, especially when it presents in unexpected patient populations or when faced with scant cytology specimens. This report focuses on the distinguishing characteristics of SPN and how they compare and contrast with other pancreatic lesions that are in the differential diagnosis of SPN.

  8. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that ? cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25029387

  9. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  10. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  11. Formation and regeneration of the endocrine pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Sangeeta; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil

    2009-01-01

    The elaboration of the pancreas from epithelial buds to the intricate organ requires complex patterning information that controls fundamental cellular processes such as differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells. During pancreatic organogenesis, endocrine cells are generated from a population of pancreatic progenitor cells. The progenitor cells during the early development simultaneously receive multiple signals, some mitogenic and some inducing differentiation. These extrinsic signals are interpreted through an intrinsic mechanism that either commits the progenitor cell to the mitotic cell cycle or lead to exit from the cell cycle in order to differentiate. The endocrine cells that differentiate from progenitor cells are postmitotic, and direct lineage tracing analyses indicate that a population of progenitor cells persists throughout embryogenesis to allow the differentiation of new endocrine cells. At the end of embryogenesis and early postnatal period is characterized by high rates of beta cell proliferation leading to massive increases in beta cell mass. The beta cell mass expansion considerably slows down in adult animals, though variations in insulin demand due to physiological and pathological states such as pregnancy and obesity can lead to adaptive changes in the beta cells that include hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and increased insulin synthesis and secretion. Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate the plasticity of beta cell mass can be important steps in developing effective strategies to treat diabetes PMID:18061427

  12. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  13. Stromal reengineering to treat pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stromnes, Ingunn M.; DelGiorno, Kathleen E.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Hingorani, Sunil R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma co-opts multiple cellular and extracellular mechanisms to create a complex cancer organ with an unusual proclivity for metastasis and resistance to therapy. Cell-autonomous events are essential for the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but recent studies have implicated critical non-cell autonomous processes within the robust desmoplastic stroma that promote disease pathogenesis and resistance. Thus, non-malignant cells and associated factors are culprits in tumor growth, immunosuppression and invasion. However, even this increasing awareness of non-cell autonomous contributions to disease progression is tempered by the conflicting roles stromal elements can play. A greater understanding of stromal complexity and complicity has been aided in part by studies in highly faithful genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Insights gleaned from such studies are spurring the development of therapies designed to reengineer the pancreas cancer stroma and render it permissive to agents targeting cell-autonomous events or to reinstate immunosurveillance. Integrating conventional and immunological treatments in the context of stromal targeting may provide the key to a durable clinical impact on this formidable disease. PMID:24908682

  14. [Prospects for standardization of surgical procedures for carcinoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Wataru, Kimura

    2003-05-01

    Since physicians need to guarantee the efficacy of medical therapy for patients, therapies for patients with cancer should be standardized to some extent. Carcinoma of the pancreas has the highest death rate of all cancers, with a resection rate as low as about 25% to 30% and a 5-year survival rate of around 9%. It is very difficult in such a situation to standardize the surgical strategy for carcinoma of the pancreas. Because pancreatic cancer is a general disease, the treatment strategy should include not only complete surgical resection but also local control methods with intraoperative radiation, prevention of liver metastasis, development of effective anti-cancer drugs, etc. Major progress in therapy for pancreatic carcinoma may be expected in the near future by with the cumulative use of effective therapies. Standard resection and extended resection: For carcinoma of the head of the pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy with regional lymph node dissection is performed in Japan, as is extended resection with thorough lymph node dissection of the retroperitoneal and paraaortic region. However, so far the prognosis of patients who undergo extended resection is not better than those who undergo standard resection. A randomized controlled trial of the two types of resection is now being conducted and its results are awaited. For carcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy with lymph node dissection is performed if hematogenous or massive lymph node metastasis or direct invasion of the large vessels has not occurred. The Appleby procedure is performed in some cases. Reconstruction and complications of surgical procedures of carcinoma of the pancreas: It appears that a decrease in complications and a lower death rate have been achieved due to pancreaticoduodenectomy rather than due to the extent of lymph node dissection. In particular, progress in anastomosis techniques of the pancreas and intestine and in perioperative control has been marked. For prevention of complications, it is important that absorbable synthetic sutures be used in the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis, that the cut end of the pancreas be sutured and covered by the jejunum without dead space, and that the stent tube be inserted into the main pancreatic duct. The pancreaticojejunal anastomosis should be bordered by the greater omentum. This technique will prevent both the spread of the pancreatic juice into the intraabdominal cavity and rupture of the blood vessels, which can cause fatal postoperative bleeding. Sufficient intraabdominal drains should be in place, especially around the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. Radiochemotherapy: There are no effective anticancer drugs for the treatment of carcinoma of the pancreas. It was reported that low-dose 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (5-FU and CDDP) and gemcitabine plus either 5-FU, epirubicin, or CDDP has some effect. The efficacy of intraoperative radiotherapy has not been confirmed. It is not apparent whether radiochemotherapy is superior to surgery. Curable pancreatic carcinoma: Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors of the pancreas (IPMT) take their name from the histological feature of mucin production and correspond to so-called mucin-producing tumors of the pancreas. This tumor is classified into two types, the main pancreatic duct type and the branch type. About 90% of the main pancreatic duct type and 20% of the branch type are malignant. The branch type of IPMT resembles a bunch of grasps in imaging procedures. Approximately 60% of cases with the branch type of IPMT can be followed up without surgery. Since the prognosis of IPMT is fairly good and the 5-year survival after surgery is about 70% to 80%, limited resection of the pancreas with organ preservation is under investigation. Mucinous cystic tumors of the pancreasin are characterized by development in the body and tail of the pancreas in middle-aged women, with histological ovarian-type stroma in the wall of the tumor, and round cystic lesions with a fibrous capsule containing multiple cystic components of various sizes, which resembles a Chinese citron upon imaging procedures. Surgery should be performed if such a diagnosis is made. PMID:12774526

  15. Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas: a report of 12 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N Volkan; Hasteh, Farnaz; Cheng, Jeanette D; Bejarano, Pablo A; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Batts, Kenneth P; Klppel, Gnter; Klimstra, David S

    2002-05-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is a rare lesion of undetermined pathogenesis that had been documented almost exclusively in males. The literature on this entity is limited to reports of single or small numbers of cases. Here is presented a clinicopathologic analysis of 12 patients with LEC, 4 of whom were female. The mean age of the patients was 56 years. Four patients presented with abdominal pain and nausea, but in two patients, the cysts were detected incidentally. Only one patient had a history of chronic pancreatitis, and another had a family member with pancreatic cancer. In one patient, a clinical diagnosis of pseudocyst was rendered, and the remaining patients were clinically thought to have cystic neoplasms. None of the patients had any identifiable immunosuppression, HIV positivity, autoimmune disorder (such as Sjogren syndrome) or lymphoma. Seven cysts were located in the head of the pancreas, and 5 were in the tail. The mean size was 4.8 cm (range, 1.2-17 cm). Five LECs were multilocular, three were unilocular; in others, the number of loculi was not recorded. All were "macrocystic" lesions. Two patients had two separate lesions, both in the tail of the pancreas. Histologically, all cases were characterized by cysts, some containing keratin, and lined by mature stratified squamous epithelium surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue, often with prominent follicles. In some areas, the lining epithelium had more cuboidal, flattened, or transitional appearance. Mucinous goblet-like cells were seen in one case. Acute inflammation was not seen. Four cases contained solid lymphoepithelial islands, a feature not previously described in LECs. No squamous metaplasia was identified in the uninvolved pancreatic tissue and no epithelial elements were identified in peripancreatic lymph nodes. In summary, LEC of the pancreas is a rare but distinctive lesion that may be seen in the tail of the organ where most cystic pancreatic neoplasms are encountered. In contrast to the impression from the literature, LECs may also develop in females and, therefore, should be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasms that affect a similar age group. LECs are not associated with the clinical syndromes that are seen with their analogues in the salivary glands. PMID:12011254

  16. Optimization of FNAC findings as a preoperative diagnostic aid for odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Garima; Shetty, Pushparaja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not a definitive preoperative diagnostic procedure done for all cases of odontogenic cysts. This is because of the inconsistent results obtained with it. Aims: This study was done to optimize FNAC findings and help in preoperative characterization of odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods: Cystic fluid was collected and centrifuged from 50 odontogenic cysts that were planned for excision. Three smears were prepared from the cell sediment obtained after centrifugation and stained. The stained sections were examined for presence and type of epithelial cells, to formulate a preopererative diagnosis. Results: Epithelial cells were detected in 46% cases in smear 1, 48% cases in smear 2, and 52% cases in smear 3. When all three smears from one case were studied, 86% cases showed epithelial cells for evaluation. Conclusion: Cystic aspirate should be centrifuged and the entire cell sediment should be examined by making multiple smears for evaluation of cystic epithelial lining cells.

  17. Activating mutations of GNAS and KRAS in cystic fluid can help detect intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Adam E; Stebbing, Justin; Gall, Tamara M H; Silver, Benjamin; Jiao, Long R; Krell, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas have a risk of malignant transformation following an adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Surgical resection is often required, especially for main pancreatic duct IPMNs (MD-IPMNs). There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers to reliably differentiate IPMNs from more benign pancreatic cysts and therefore avoid unnecessary surgery. DNA sequencing has demonstrated that guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha stimulating (GNAS) activity polypeptide 1 mutations play a driving role in IPMN development. GNAS mutations have been shown to be highly specific for IPMNs, whereas oncogenic KRAS mutations have been associated with mucinous differentiation. The evaluated article by Singhi et al. helps to define the role of these mutations as biomarkers in preoperative endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration samples for detecting IPMNs. They found that the presence of a GNAS and/or a KRAS mutation was highly specific and sensitive for IPMNs. PMID:25656048

  18. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fbrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice. PMID:25040217

  19. Clinical Evaluation of a Personalized Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard; Harvey, Rebecca A.; Percival, Matthew W.; Grosman, Benyamin; Bevier, Wendy; Atlas, Eran; Miller, Shahar; Nimri, Revital; Jovanovi?, Lois; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An artificial pancreas (AP) that automatically regulates blood glucose would greatly improve the lives of individuals with diabetes. Such a device would prevent hypo- and hyperglycemia along with associated long- and short-term complications as well as ease some of the day-to-day burden of frequent blood glucose measurements and insulin administration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a pilot clinical trial evaluating an individualized, fully automated AP using commercial devices. Two trials (n = 22, nsubjects = 17) were conducted using a multiparametric formulation of model predictive control and an insulin-on-board algorithm such that the control algorithm, or brain, can be embedded on a chip as part of a future mobile device. The protocol evaluated the control algorithm for three main challenges: 1) normalizing glycemia from various initial glucose levels, 2) maintaining euglycemia, and 3) overcoming an unannounced meal of 30 5 g carbohydrates. RESULTS Initial glucose values ranged from 84251 mg/dL. Blood glucose was kept in the near-normal range (80180 mg/dL) for an average of 70% of the trial time. The low and high blood glucose indices were 0.34 and 5.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These encouraging short-term results reveal the ability of a control algorithm tailored to an individuals glucose characteristics to successfully regulate glycemia, even when faced with unannounced meals or initial hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this represents the first truly fully automated multiparametric model predictive control algorithm with insulin-on-board that does not rely on user intervention to regulate blood glucose in individuals with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23193210

  20. Repurposed biological scaffolds: kidney to pancreas.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Bradley J; Oca-Cossio, Jose; Cai, Yunqing; Brown, Alicia R; Clapp, William L; Abrahamson, Dale R; Terada, Naohiro; Ellison, Gary W; Mathews, Clayton E; Batich, Christopher D; Ross, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Advances in organ regeneration have been facilitated by gentle decellularization protocols that maintain distinct tissue compartments, and thereby allow seeding of blood vessels with endothelial lineages separate from populations of the parenchyma with tissue-specific cells. We hypothesized that a reconstituted vasculature could serve as a novel platform for perfusing cells derived from a different organ: thus discordance of origin between the vascular and functional cells, leading to a hybrid repurposed organ. The need for a highly vascular bed is highlighted by tissue engineering approaches that involve transplantation of just cells, as attempted for insulin production to treat human diabetes. Those pancreatic islet cells present unique challenges since large numbers are needed to allow the cell-to-cell signaling required for viability and proper function; however, increasing their number is limited by inadequate perfusion and hypoxia. As proof of principle of the repurposed organ methodology we harnessed the vasculature of a kidney scaffold while seeding the collecting system with insulin-producing cells. Pig kidneys were decellularized by sequential detergent, enzymatic and rinsing steps. Maintenance of distinct vascular and collecting system compartments was demonstrated by both fluorescent 10 micron polystyrene microspheres and cell distributions in tissue sections. Sterilized acellular scaffolds underwent seeding separately via the artery (fibroblasts or endothelioma cells) and retrograde (murine βTC-tet cells) up the ureter. After three-day bioreactor incubation, histology confirmed separation of cells in the vasculature from those in the collecting system. βTC-tet clusters survived in tubules, glomerular Bowman's space, demonstrated insulin immunolabeling, and thereby supported the feasibility of kidney-to-pancreas repurposing. PMID:26252820

  1. Repurposed biological scaffolds: kidney to pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Willenberg, Bradley J; Oca-Cossio, Jose; Cai, Yunqing; Brown, Alicia R; Clapp, William L; Abrahamson, Dale R; Terada, Naohiro; Ellison, Gary W; Mathews, Clayton E; Batich, Christopher D; Ross, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Advances in organ regeneration have been facilitated by gentle decellularization protocols that maintain distinct tissue compartments, and thereby allow seeding of blood vessels with endothelial lineages separate from populations of the parenchyma with tissue-specific cells. We hypothesized that a reconstituted vasculature could serve as a novel platform for perfusing cells derived from a different organ: thus discordance of origin between the vascular and functional cells, leading to a hybrid repurposed organ. The need for a highly vascular bed is highlighted by tissue engineering approaches that involve transplantation of just cells, as attempted for insulin production to treat human diabetes. Those pancreatic islet cells present unique challenges since large numbers are needed to allow the cell-to-cell signaling required for viability and proper function; however, increasing their number is limited by inadequate perfusion and hypoxia. As proof of principle of the repurposed organ methodology we harnessed the vasculature of a kidney scaffold while seeding the collecting system with insulin-producing cells. Pig kidneys were decellularized by sequential detergent, enzymatic and rinsing steps. Maintenance of distinct vascular and collecting system compartments was demonstrated by both fluorescent 10 micron polystyrene microspheres and cell distributions in tissue sections. Sterilized acellular scaffolds underwent seeding separately via the artery (fibroblasts or endothelioma cells) and retrograde (murine βTC-tet cells) up the ureter. After three-day bioreactor incubation, histology confirmed separation of cells in the vasculature from those in the collecting system. βTC-tet clusters survived in tubules, glomerular Bowman's space, demonstrated insulin immunolabeling, and thereby supported the feasibility of kidney-to-pancreas repurposing. PMID:26252820

  2. Transepithelial Bicarbonate Secretion: Lessons from the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-01-01

    Many cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing epithelia secrete bicarbonate (HCO3−)-containing fluids. Recent evidence suggests that defects in epithelial bicarbonate secretion are directly involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis, in particular by building up hyperviscous mucus in the ductal structures of the lung and pancreas. Pancreatic juice is one of the representative fluids that contain a very high concentration of bicarbonate among bodily fluids that are secreted from CFTR-expressing epithelia. We introduce up-to-date knowledge on the basic principles of transepithelial bicarbonate transport by showing the mechanisms involved in pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. The model of pancreatic bicarbonate secretion described herein may also apply to other exocrine epithelia. As a central regulator of bicarbonate transport at the apical membrane, CFTR plays an essential role in both direct and indirect bicarbonate secretion. The major role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion would be variable depending on the tissue and cell type. For example, in epithelial cells that produce a low concentration of bicarbonate-containing fluid (up to 80 mm), either CFTR-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchange or CFTR anion channel with low bicarbonate permeability would be sufficient to generate such fluid. However, in cells that secrete high-bicarbonate-containing fluids, a highly selective CFTR bicarbonate channel activity is required. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of transepithelial bicarbonate transport and the role of CFTR in each specific epithelium will provide therapeutic strategies to recover from epithelial defects induced by hyposecretion of bicarbonate in cystic fibrosis. PMID:23028131

  3. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of ? and ? cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of ? cells but not ? cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with ?-cell loss. PMID:26113611

  4. [Contribution of ultrasonography for the preoperative assessment of gastric contents].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, L; Chassard, D

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents may be difficult in the preoperative period, apart from typical circumstances. The development of ultrasonography in anesthesia and critical care has led to consider ultrasonic imaging of gastric contents for preoperative risk assessment of "full" stomach in clinical practice. Ultrasonography of the body of the stomach allows direct visualization of the gastric contents. However, the stomach is often difficult to identify, particularly when it is empty. Moreover, quantitative assessment of gastric volume is delicate, and no standardized method of ultrasonography of the body of the stomach for preoperative assessment of gastric contents was described. On the contrary, ultrasonography of the antral cross-sectional area, which was initially described for the assessment of gastric emptying as an alternative method to repeated measurements of the variations of antropyloric volume after ingestion of a test meal, is easy to perform and is highly reproducible through using the aorta and the left lobe of the liver as internal landmarks. Qualitative assessment of the gastric antrum allows easily diagnosis of a "full" stomach. The measurement of antral area may allow a more accurate estimate of the presence or absence of gastric contents at risk of lung injury in the event of regurgitation and aspiration (gastric volume >0.8 ml/kg and/or with solid particles), defining the "risk" stomach. The use of antral ultrasonography may help the anesthesiologist to assess the risk of pulmonary aspiration according to clinical history of the patient, in order to choose an appropriate strategy minimizing the occurrence of this complication. PMID:24631006

  5. Gallbladder tuberculosis: False-positive PET diagnosis of gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramia, JM; Muffak, K; Fernández, A; Villar, J; Garrote, D; Ferron, JA

    2006-01-01

    Gallbladder tuberculosis (GT) is an extremely rare disease, and very few cases have been reported in the literature. The first case of GT was described in 1870 by Gaucher. A correct preoperative diagnosis of GT is unusual, and it is frequently confused with various gallbladder diseases. We present a new case of a patient who underwent surgery with the preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder cancer after a false positive positron emission tomography scan in the diagnostic work-up. PMID:17072992

  6. Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Stockland, Andrew H.; Willingham, Darrin L.; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; Grewal, Hani P.; McKinney, J. Mark; Hughes, Christopher B.; Walser, Eric M.

    2009-03-15

    Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

  7. Synchronous or metachronous double cancers of the pancreas and other organs: report on 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, N; Aoyagi, S; Hara, M; Okuda, K; Tamae, T; Fukuda, S; Hashino, K; Sato, S; Fujiki, K; Furukawa, S; Jimi, A

    2000-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma carries a poor prognosis, especially invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas. This retrospective study describes the results of the treatment and prognosis for double cancers in which cancer of the pancreas was associated with malignancies in other organs in 12 patients who were diagnosed and treated at Kurume University Hospital. The patients included 4 women and 8 men, with an average age of 67 years. Of the 12 tumors, 7 were metachronous pancreatic cancers which occurred after resections of other organ malignancies. Five patients had synchronous double cancers, one of whom was diagnosed to have gastric cancer on admission. Two other patients of this group were diagnosed to have lung cancer, while the remaining 2 patients suffered from colon cancer. By the time pancreatic cancer was diagnosed, gastrectomies had been performed in 7 patients for either gastric cancer or ulcers. In addition, one patient underwent a hysterectomy for uterine carcinoma and another received a low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma. Four of 5 patients in the synchronous group had nonresectable tumors and a palliative bypass operation was performed in 2 of these patients. Six patients who had metachronous double cancers died because of pancreatic cancer recurrence or metastases. We conclude that the prognosis of double cancers, where cancer of the pancreas is associated with other organ malignancies, primarily depends on the prognosis of the pancreatic carcinoma, and the present study suggests the necessity of long-term follow-up examinations for gastrectomy patients in order to make an early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:10955735

  8. 'Fit to fly': overcoming barriers to preoperative haemoglobin optimization in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Muoz, M; Gmez-Ramrez, S; Kozek-Langeneker, S; Shander, A; Richards, T; Pava, J; Kehlet, H; Acheson, A G; Evans, C; Raobaikady, R; Javidroozi, M; Auerbach, M

    2015-07-01

    In major surgery, the implementation of multidisciplinary, multimodal and individualized strategies, collectively termed Patient Blood Management, aims to identify modifiable risks and optimise patients' own physiology with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes. Among the various strategies utilized in Patient Blood Management, timely detection and management of preoperative anaemia is most important, as it is in itself a risk factor for worse clinical outcome, but also one of the strongest predisposing factors for perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, which in turn increases postoperative morbidity, mortality and costs. However, preoperative anaemia is still frequently ignored, with indiscriminate allogeneic blood transfusion used as a 'quick fix'. Consistent with reported evidence from other medical specialties, this imprudent practice continues to be endorsed by non-evidence based misconceptions, which constitute serious barriers for a wider implementation of preoperative haemoglobin optimisation. We have reviewed a number of these misconceptions, which we unanimously consider should be promptly abandoned by health care providers and replaced by evidence-based strategies such as detection, diagnosis and proper treatment of preoperative anaemia. We believe that this approach to preoperative anaemia management may be a viable, cost-effective strategy that is beneficial both for patients, with improved clinical outcomes, and for health systems, with more efficient use of finite health care resources. PMID:26089443

  9. Pancreas-preserving biliary amputation with pancreatic diversion: a new surgical technique for complete resection of the intrapancreatic biliary system.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hirano, Satoshi; Ambo, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Eiichi; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is not optimal for organ preservation in patients with mucosal carcinoma of the choledochus. When the lesion spreads near the papilla of Vater, pancreas-preserving biliary amputation may be indicated to achieve complete resection of the biliary system. The first successful case is reported here with technical considerations. First, the pancreatic neck was divided and a tube was inserted into the main pancreatic duct beyond the papilla. The choledochus was dissected downward with division of the posterior pancreatoduodenal vessels. The main pancreatic duct was isolated with the aid of palpation of the tube, and was then ligated and divided. Subsequent dissection was performed to the level of the duodenal mucosa, which was incised circularly. The duodenal defect was then closed. The elevated jejunum was interposed between the pancreatic stumps and bilateral pancreaticojejunostomies were created. The procedure was successfully performed in a patient with superficially spreading cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative bile leak and pancreatic fistula were controlled with medical management. The patient is currently well without tumor recurrence 19 months after surgery. Her glucose tolerance, which was moderately impaired preoperatively, has been maintained. Pancreas-preserving biliary amputation has been developed as an organ-preserving procedure alternative to pancreatoduodenectomy. Indications, methods of pancreatic reconstruction, and long-term results require further study. PMID:15362726

  10. Rare pancreas tumor mimicking adenocarcinoma: Extramedullary plasmacytoma

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Filiz; Şahin, Davut; Akyuz, Umit; Vatansever, Sezai

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells is called plasma cell dyscrasias, and these neoplasms can present as a solitary neoplasm or multiple myeloma. Extramedullary plasmacytoma, in particular pancreatic plasmacytoma, is a rare manifestation of multiple myeloma. Although computerized tomography is useful for the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma, there are no specific radiologic markers that distinguish it from adenocarcinoma. Histological confirmation by biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis and management of the tumor. Endosonography is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, and the use of fine needle aspiration by endosonography is associated with a lower risk for malignant seeding and complications. Here, we report a case of pancreatic plasmacytoma in newly identified multiple myeloma as diagnosed by endosonography. Endosonography is a reliable and rapid method for the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. Therefore, endosonographic fine needle aspiration should be the first choice for histological evaluation when pancreatic plasmacytoma is suspected. Ideally, the pathology would be performed at the same site as endosonographic biopsy. PMID:24634714

  11. Long term studies of pancreas transplantation in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, M J; Lee, S; Charters, A C; Grambort, D E; Storck, L G; Knox, D

    1975-01-01

    Alloxan diabetes was induced in inbred rats that then were divided into four groups consisting of unoperated diabetic controls, sham-operated diabetic controls, rats given pancreaticoduodenal isografts, and rats given duct-ligated pancreas isografts. The animals were studied for from 18 months (controls) to two years (transplants) and the following important results were obtained: 1) In striking contrast to the diabetic controls, pancreas transplants of both types produced immediate and permanent relief of hyperglycemia, immediate and lasting elevation of serum insulin levels, a normal weight and growth curve, and good health for two years. Removal of the graft was followed by recurrence of severe diabetes. 2) Pancreas transplants of both types prevented the widespread and severe renal, ophthalmic and neural lesions of diabetes that were found in the diabetic controls. 3) The duct-ligated pancreas graft and pancreaticoduodenal transplant were equally effective in controlling diabetes. Ligation of the pancreatic duct was not followed by significant morphologic or clinical evidence of pancreatitis or by loss of endocrine function. 4) Portal venous drainage of the pancreas transplant was unnecessary for good endocrine function. PMID:1099993

  12. RNA Isolation from Mouse Pancreas: A Ribonuclease-rich Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P.; Elgamal, Ola A.; Schmittgen, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of high-quality RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissue such as mouse pancreas presents a challenge. As a primary function of the pancreas is to aid in digestion, mouse pancreas may contain as much a 75 mg of ribonuclease. We report modifications of standard phenol/guanidine thiocyanate lysis reagent protocols to isolate RNA from mouse pancreas. Guanidine thiocyanate is a strong protein denaturant and will effectively disrupt the activity of ribonuclease under most conditions. However, critical modifications to standard protocols are necessary to successfully isolate RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissues. Key steps include a high lysis reagent to tissue ratio, removal of undigested tissue prior to phase separation and inclusion of a ribonuclease inhibitor to the RNA solution. Using these and other modifications, we routinely isolate RNA with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) greater than 7. The isolated RNA is of suitable quality for routine gene expression analysis. Adaptation of this protocol to isolate RNA from ribonuclease rich tissues besides the pancreas should be readily achievable. PMID:25145327

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Reirradiation for Recurrent Pancreas Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dagoglu, Nergiz; Callery, Mark; Moser, James; Tseng, Jennifer; Kent, Tara; Bullock, Andrea; Miksad, Rebecca; Mancias, Joseph D.; Mahadevan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: After adjuvant or definitive radiation for pancreas cancer, there are limited conventional treatment options for recurrent pancreas cancer. We explored the role of (Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy) SBRT for reirradiation of recurrent pancreas Cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients reirradiated with SBRT for recurrent pancreas cancer. All patients were deemed unresectable and treated with systemic therapy. Fiducial gold markers were used. CT simulation was performed with oral and IV contrast and patients were treated with respiratory motion tracking in the CyberknifeTM system. Results: 30 patients (17 men and 13 women) with a median age of 67 years were included in the study. The median target volume was 41.29cc. The median prescription dose was 25Gy (24-36Gy) in a median of 5 fractions prescribed to a mean 78% isodose line. The median overall survival was 14 months. The 1 and 2 year local control was 78%. The worst toxicity included 3/30(10%) Grade III acute toxicity for pain, bleeding and vomiting. There was 2/30 (7%) Grade III long-term bowel obstructions. Conclusions: SBRT can be a useful and tolerable option for patients with recurrent pancreas cancer after prior radiation. PMID:26918041

  14. Preoperative Biliary Drainage in Cases of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Tomofumi; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Shimizu, Akinori; Kurihara, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Yumiko; Miyaki, Eisuke; Kawamura, Ryota; Tsushima, Ken; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To elucidate the optimum preoperative biliary drainage method for patients with pancreatic cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Material and Methods. From January 2010 through December 2014, 20 patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer underwent preoperative biliary drainage and NAC with a plastic or metallic stent and received NAC at Hiroshima University Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed delayed NAC and complication rates due to biliary drainage, effect of stent type on perioperative factors, and hospitalization costs from diagnosis to surgery. Results. There were 11 cases of preoperative biliary drainage with plastic stents and nine metallic stents. The median age was 64.5 years; delayed NAC occurred in 9 cases with plastic stent and 1 case with metallic stent (p = 0.01). The complication rates due to biliary drainage were 0% (0/9) with metallic stents and 72.7% (8/11) with plastic stents (p = 0.01). Cumulative rates of complications determined with the Kaplan-Meier method on day 90 were 60% with plastic stents and 0% with metallic stents (log-rank test, p = 0.012). There were no significant differences between group in perioperative factors or hospitalization costs from diagnosis to surgery. Conclusions. Metallic stent implantation may be effective for preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer treated with NAC.

  15. INTESTINAL ATRESIA OR STENOSIS IN THE NEWBORN—Associated with Fibrocystic Disease of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Donnell, George N.; Cleland, Robert S.

    1961-01-01

    In a review of cases of intestinal atresia or stenosis in the newborn at Children's Hospital of Los Angeles it was noted that in approximately 10 per cent there was clinical or anatomic evidence of fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. Histologic sections of the bowel in all these cases showed the alterations of the mucosa commonly found in fibrocystic disease. Extensive ulceration, foreign body reaction and calcium deposition in the bowel wall were observed in five cases. Sections through the site of obstruction in one patient showed narrowing of the diameter of the bowel with preservation of muscular layers, but replacement of the central portion by a vascular, fibrous diaphragm in which giant cells, hemosiderin and calcium were prominent. This suggested that in certain instances obstruction of the intestine may be caused by fibrosis secondary to injury of the mucosa by abnormal meconium. Awareness of the common association of intestinal obstruction and fibrocystic disease of the pancreas and recognition of the histologic change in the bowel in fibrocystic disease may lead to early diagnosis of this disorder in some infants with intestinal obstruction. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:13723755

  16. Specialist pre-operative assessment clinics.

    PubMed

    Dhesi, J K; Swart, M

    2016-01-01

    While specialist pre-operative assessment is not new, its focus has evolved in response to more operations and changes in the surgical population. Patients are older and have more long-term medical comorbidities. At the same time, there has been a move from paternalistic medical decision-making to shared decision-making, based on an individual patient's choice or preference. Specialist pre-operative consultations have had to adapt to these changes by broadening their scope. Pre-operative clinics have a central role in shared decision-making, coordinating and planning care before, during and after surgery, including rehabilitation and discharge planning. Multiple specialties need to work together to deliver quality patient-centred care. PMID:26620141

  17. Knowledge retention from preoperative patient information.

    PubMed

    Stern, Cindy; Lockwood, Craig

    2005-04-01

    Background  Preoperative education is a common feature of the preoperative preparation for many surgical procedures. It is anticipated that this education will result in beneficial outcomes for the patient. Many studies have evaluated the effectiveness of different formats used to deliver the information, and the effect of this information on a variety of outcomes. While there has been substantial research and several meta-analyses undertaken on different aspects of preoperative education, there has been no previous attempt to summarise this body of research to evaluate its impact on knowledge and understanding of patients. Objective  The objective of this review was to present the best available evidence related to knowledge retention and/or correct performance of postoperative activities after preoperative patient education. Review method  This review considered all studies that included adults in a hospital setting, either as inpatients or same day surgical patients, and who received some form of information and/or instruction before an operative procedure. Interventions were the methods of preoperative patient education, instruction or teaching, and included evaluations of the effectiveness of different presentations such as: •  written information; •  audio-visual aids; •  computer-assisted instruction; •  learning packages in either group or individual formats, at either pre-admission or post-admission. The primary outcomes were those associated with the understanding of the information related to the operative or postoperative period that were provided in the intervention and included: 1 increased knowledge; 2 ability to perform postoperative activities; 3 time to teach skills. This review considered randomised controlled trials that evaluated forms of preoperative patient education and their effect on patient understanding, knowledge and ability to perform postoperative activities. Results  The findings of this review support the use of pamphlets to inform patients and to improve their skills. The role of videos as a preoperative instruction tool has not been rigorously evaluated. However, existing studies support the use of preoperative videos to improve patient knowledge and skill. The data suggest that the instructional method, the act of educating a patient by delivering directions for actions or behaviour is useful for improving patients' knowledge of their treatment and their ability to perform and comply with required exercises. However, instruction is likely to be more effective if provided before admission. If teaching is to be done after admission, using a group format has been shown to be equally as effective as individual instruction. Conclusions  Although numerous studies have been performed on many aspects of preoperative education, little high-quality research has assessed the effectiveness of this information on patient knowledge and ability to perform specific skills such as exercises. Further research is required to examine: (i) the effectiveness of pamphlets and other written material for people with English as a second language or limited literary skills; (ii) the accuracy of information provided in preoperative pamphlets; (iii) the effectiveness of pamphlets on general populations; (iv) the role of videos and learning packages; (v) the effectiveness of preoperative instruction; and (vi) the changes in patient misconceptions with the provision of preoperative information. PMID:21631744

  18. Routine preoperative medical testing for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Keay, Lisa; Lindsley, Kristina; Tielsch, James; Katz, Joanne; Schein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract surgery is practiced widely and substantial resources are committed to an increasing cataract surgical rate in developing countries. With the current volume of cataract surgery and the increases in the future, it is critical to optimize the safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure. Most cataracts are performed on older individuals with correspondingly high systemic and ocular comorbidities. It is likely that routine preoperative medical testing will detect medical conditions, but it is questionable whether these conditions should preclude individuals from cataract surgery or change their perioperative management. Objectives (1) To investigate the evidence for reductions in adverse events through preoperative medical testing, and (2) to estimate the average cost of performing routine medical testing. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 December 2011. We used reference lists and the Science Citation Index to search for additional studies. Selection criteria We included randomized clinical trials in which routine preoperative medical testing was compared to no preoperative or selective preoperative testing prior to age-related cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed abstracts to identify possible trials for inclusion. For each included study, two review authors independently documented study characteristics, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Main results The three randomized clinical trials included in this review reported results for 21,531 total cataract surgeries with 707 total surgery-associated medical adverse events, including 61 hospitalizations and three deaths. Of the 707 medical adverse events reported, 353 occurred in the pretesting group and 354 occurred in the no testing group. Most events were cardiovascular and occurred during the intraoperative period. Routine preoperative medical testing did not reduce the risk of intraoperative (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.22) or postoperative medical adverse events (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.24) when compared to selective or no testing. Cost savings were evaluated in one study which estimated the costs to be 2.55 times higher in those with preoperative medical testing compared to those without preoperative medical testing. There was no difference in cancellation of surgery between those with preoperative medical testing and those with no or limited preoperative testing, reported by two studies. Authors' conclusions This review has shown that routine pre-operative testing does not increase the safety of cataract surgery. Alternatives to routine preoperative medical testing have been proposed, including self-administered health questionnaires, which could substitute for health provider histories and physical examinations. Such avenues may lead to cost-effective means of identifying those at increased risk of medical adverse events due to cataract surgery. However, despite the rare occurrence, adverse medical events precipitated by cataract surgery remain a concern because of the large number of elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities who have cataract surgery in various settings. The studies summarized in this review should assist recommendations for the standard of care of cataract surgery, at least in developed settings. Unfortunately, in developing country settings, medical history questionnaires would be useless to screen for risk since few people have ever been to a physician, let alone been diagnosed with any chronic disease. PMID:22419323

  19. Routine preoperative medical testing for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Keay, Lisa; Lindsley, Kristina; Tielsch, James; Katz, Joanne; Schein, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Background Cataract surgery is practiced widely and substantial resources are committed to an increasing cataract surgical rate in developing countries. With the current volume of cataract surgery and the increases in the future, it is critical to optimize the safety and cost-effectiveness of this procedure. Most cataracts are performed on older individuals with correspondingly high systemic and ocular comorbidities. It is likely that routine preoperative medical testing will detect medical conditions, but it is questionable whether these conditions should preclude individuals from cataract surgery or change their perioperative management. Objectives (1) To investigate the evidence for reductions in adverse events through preoperative medical testing, and (2) to estimate the average cost of performing routine medical testing. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS using no date or language restrictions. We used reference lists and the Science Citation Index to search for additional studies. Selection criteria We included randomized clinical trials in which routine preoperative medical testing was compared to no preoperative or selective preoperative testing prior to age-related cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed abstracts to identify possible trials for inclusion. For each included study, two review authors independently documented study characteristics, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Main results The three randomized clinical trials included in this review reported results for 21,531 total cataract surgeries with 707 total surgery-associated medical adverse events, including 61 hospitalizations and three deaths. Of the 707 medical adverse events reported, 353 occurred in the pretesting group and 354 occurred in the no testing group. Most events were cardiovascular and occurred during the intraoperative period. Routine preoperative medical testing did not reduce the risk of intraoperative (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.22) or postoperative medical adverse events (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.24) when compared to selective or no testing. Cost savings were evaluated in one study which estimated the costs to be 2.55 times higher in those with preoperative medical testing compared to those without preoperative medical testing. There was no difference in cancellation of surgery between those with preoperative medical testing and those with no or limited preoperative testing, reported by two studies. Authors’ conclusions This review has shown that routine pre-operative testing does not increase the safety of cataract surgery. Alternatives to routine preoperative medical testing have been proposed, including self-administered health questionnaires, which could substitute for health provider histories and physical examinations. Such avenues may lead to cost-effective means of identifying those at increased risk of medical adverse events due to cataract surgery. However, despite the rare occurrence, adverse medical events precipitated by cataract surgery remain a concern because of the large number of elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities who have cataract surgery in various settings. The studies summarized in this review should assist recommendations for the standard of care of cataract surgery, at least in developed settings. Unfortunately, in developing country settings, medical history questionnaires would be useless to screen for risk since few people have ever been to a physician, let alone been diagnosed with any chronic disease. PMID:19370681

  20. Tissue-specific deletion of c-Jun in the pancreas has limited effects on pancreas formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ayako; Toyoda, Shuichi; Kato, Ken; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2007-11-30

    It is well known that activating protein-1 (AP-1) is involved in a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. AP-1 is a dimer complex consisting of different subunits, and c-Jun is known to be one of its major components. In addition, it has been shown that mice lacking c-Jun are embryonic lethal and that c-Jun is essential for liver and heart development. However, the role of c-Jun in the pancreas is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of c-Jun in the pancreas. First, c-Jun was strongly expressed in pancreatic duct-like structures at an embryonic stage, while a lower level of expression was observed in some part of the adult pancreas, implying that c-Jun might play a role during pancreas development. Second, to address this point, we generated pancreas-specific c-Jun knock-out mice (Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} mice) by crossing Ptf1a-Cre knock-in mice with c-Jun floxed mice. Ptf1a is a pancreatic transcription factor and its expression is confined to pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, which give rise to all three types of pancreatic tissue: endocrine, exocrine, and duct. Contrary to our expectation, however, there was no morphological difference in the pancreas between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. In addition, there was no difference in body weight, pancreas weight, and the expression of various pancreas-related factors (insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin, and amylase) between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose tolerance between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. Taken together, although we cannot exclude the possibility that c-Jun ablation is compensated by some unknown factors, c-Jun appears to be dispensable for pancreas development at least after ptf1a gene promoter is activated.

  1. Endoscopic resection of invasive glomangiopericytoma following preoperative embolisation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vitor Manuel; Almeida, Gonalo Neto; Silva, Deodato Rego; Escada, Pedro Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-year history of nasal obstruction and unilateral recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy identified a unilateral hypervascular lobular mass occupying the entire left nasal cavity. Imaging studies documented an extensive soft tissue density lesion in the left nasal cavity with complete infiltration of the anterior ethmoid, limited indentation of the medial wall of the orbit, bone demineralisation of the cribriform plate and involvement of the anterior cranial fossa. The diagnosis of locally invasive glomangiopericytoma was obtained preoperatively through biopsy of the lesion, which resulted in a self-limited epistaxis that was easily controlled by nasal packing, confirming the vascular nature of the lesion. We discuss the diagnostic work up, imaging and surgical approach of this tumour, and review the recent literature on endoscopic treatment of these lesions. PMID:26888045

  2. Minimizing the Risk of Preoperative Brain Injury in Neonates with Aortic Arch Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Algra, Selma O.; Haas, Felix; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Groenendaal, Floris; Schouten, Antonius N. J.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Azakie, Anthony; Gandhi, Sanjiv; Campbell, Andrew; Miller, Steven P.; McQuillen, Patrick S.; de Vries, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether prenatal diagnosis lowers the risk of preoperative brain injury by assessing differences in the incidence of preoperative brain injury across centers. Study design From 2 prospective cohorts of newborns with complex congenital heart disease studied by preoperative cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, one cohort from the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) and a combined cohort from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) and University of British Columbia (UBC), patients with aortic arch obstruction were selected and their imaging and clinical course reviewed. Results Birth characteristics were comparable between UMCU (n = 33) and UCSF/UBC (n = 54). Patients had a hypoplastic aortic arch with either coarctation/interruption or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In subjects with prenatal diagnosis, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of white matter injury (WMI) between centers (11 of 22 [50%] at UMCU vs 4 of 30 [13%] at UCSF/UBC; P < .01). Prenatal diagnosis was protective for WMI at UCSF/UBC (13% prenatal diagnoses vs 50% postnatal diagnoses; P < .01), but not at UMCU (50% vs 46%, respectively; P > .99). Differences in clinical practice between prenatally diagnosed subjects at UMCU vs UCSF/UBC included older age at surgery, less time spent in the intensive care unit, greater use of diuretics, less use of total parenteral nutrition (P < .01), and a greater incidence of infections (P = .01). In patients diagnosed postnatally, the prevalence of WMI was similar in the 2 centers (46%at UMCU vs 50% at UCSF/UBC; P > .99). Stroke prevalence was similar in the 2 centers regardless of prenatal diagnosis (prenatal diagnosis: 4.5% at Utrecht vs 6.7% at UCSF/UBC, P = .75; postnatal diagnosis: 9.1% vs 13%, respectively, P > .99). Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis can be protective for WMI, but this protection may be dependent on specific clinical management practices that differ across centers. PMID:25306190

  3. A new indication for pancreas transplantation: high grade pancreatic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Kevin P; Brentnall, Teresa A; Bronner, Mary P; Byrd, David; Marsh, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    A 42-yr-old male presented with a family history of pancreatic carcinoma inherited an autosomal dominant pattern. The development of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency served as early markers for neoplastic transformation. Screening endoscopic ultrasound and ERCP showed abnormalities suggestive of pancreatic dysplasia. Total pancreatectomy was performed and pathology confirmed carcinoma in situ, also known as high-grade pancreatic ductal dysplasia or Pan IN-3. The patient's post-operative course was complicated by life threatening, brittle diabetes. Pancreas transplantation was successfully performed. One year following transplantation, the patient has excellent pancreas graft function. He remains insulin free and has no signs of malignancy. Total pancreatectomy followed by pancreas transplantation is a viable therapeutic option for patients in the dysplastic but still pre-malignant phase of familial pancreatic adenocarcinoma who develop hypoglycemic unawareness following total pancreatectomy. PMID:15108779

  4. [Interrelation of the endocrine and exocrine portions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Rasulev, N I; Gokhberg, S L

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural organization of cells and functional activity of the rat pancreas was studied under peroral administration of 80% glucose solution (4 times, 20 ml every 15 min) and a single subcutaneous administration of insulin (5 units). When glucose was administered, both the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas responded with an increased insulin production, revealed by means of the immunoreactive method, with an intensified synthesis of the digestive enzymes (amilase, protease). Ultrastructural organization of beta-cells demonstrated their sharp functional strain resulting in exhaustion, and in the acinar cells--in an increased secret formation. On the contrary, insulin administration resulted in a sharp decrease of the functional activity in the exocrine part of the pancreas, that was reflected correspondingly in the ultrastructural organization of the acinar cells, while the structure of beta-cells demonstrated a delayed excretion of insulin-containing granules from their cytoplasm. PMID:7039558

  5. Mucinous cystic tumour of the pancreas presenting with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pope, I; Garden, OJ

    2001-01-01

    Background The optimal therapy for mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas is surgical resection because these tumours are either premalignant (cystadenoma) or malignant. Case outline A 44-year-old previously fit woman presented with sudden onset of epigastric pain. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with acute pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound scan demonstrated a mature 6-cm cyst in the tail of pancreas and no findings suggestive of cholelithiasis. These findings were confirmed by a CT scan, which also demonstrated splenic infarction and evidence of recent haemorrhage into the cyst. The patient's abdominal pain persisted after amylase levels returned to normal. Results Splenic infarction, a mature cyst in the tail of the pancreas, and peripancreatic inflammation consistent with recent pancreatitis were found at laparotomy. Enbloc distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. Histological examination of the cyst wall demonstrated a focus of mucinous cystadenoma. Discussion This case demonstrates that acute pancreatitis may be the first presentation of a cystic neoplasm. PMID:18333030

  6. The Changing Spectrum of Surgically Treated Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Plichta, Jennifer K.; Brosius, Jacqueline A.; Pappas, Sam G.; Abood, Gerard J.; Aranha, Gerard V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. While the incidence of pancreatic cystic lesions has steadily increased, we sought to evaluate the changes in their surgical management. Methods. Patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013 were identified. Clinicopathologic factors were analyzed and compared to a similar cohort from 1992 to 2002. Results. There were 134 patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013, compared to 73 from 1992 to 2002. The most common preoperative imaging was a CT scan, although 66% underwent EUS and 63% underwent biopsy. Pathology included 18 serous, 47 mucinous, 11 pseudopapillary, and 58 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). In comparing cohorts, there were significantly fewer serous lesions and more IPMN. Postoperative complication rates were similar, and perioperative mortality rates were comparable. Conclusion. There has been a dramatic change in surgically treated pancreatic cystic tumors over the past two decades. Our data suggests that the incorporation of new imaging and diagnostic tests has led to greater detection of cystic tumors and a decreased rate of potentially unnecessary resections. Therefore, all patients with cystic pancreatic lesions should undergo a focused CT-pancreas, and an EUS biopsy should be considered, in order to best select those that would benefit from surgical resection. PMID:25918455

  7. Preoperative simulation of outcomes using adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Bille, J F

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the wavefront of light reflected from the retina of the human eye can be used to determine optical aberrations of the human eye for large pupils. An instrument based on the Hartmann-Shack principle was developed. The wavefront is refracted by a microlens array and detected by a CCD camera. In first clinical studies human volunteer eyes and preoperative and postoperative refractive surgical patient eyes have been examined. An adaptive optical closed loop system has been devised for preoperative simulation of refractive outcomes of aberration free refractive surgical procedures. PMID:11019883

  8. [Present status of preoperative staging and contemplation on preoperative precision staging for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-02-25

    The aim of the preoperative staging of gastric cancer was to evaluate the depth of tumor infiltration (T-stage), the extent or number of metastasized lymph nodes (N-stage), and distant metastasis (M-stage) before surgery, to develop an optimal therapeutic scheme for the patients with gastric cancer. Traditional methods of preoperative staging for gastric cancer are usually imaging diagnostic techniques, such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laparoscopic exploration. At present, the accuracy of preoperative TNM staging of gastric cancer can generally reach 70% to 85% with significant clinical benefit. The accurate preoperative staging for cancer patients can have a major role in determining the final clinical outcome and in predicting the prognosis. According to the concept of "precision medicine", to achieve "preoperative precision staging of gastric cancer", the application of imaging diagnostic techniques must be combined with the analysis of individual genetic information or tumor molecular pathological classification, which should be based on research of the disease genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. In this article, we provide a review of results on preoperative staging of gastric cancer in recent years, and we also discuss how to think about the "preoperative precision staging of gastric cancer", with special emphasis on the potential of molecular imaging techniques, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), molecular targets for tumor targeting therapy and molecular pathological classification, etc. in judging bio-molecular behavior of gastric cancer before surgery. PMID:26831874

  9. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  10. Microencapsulation of Pancreatic Islets for Use in a Bioartificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Opara, Emmanuel C.; McQuilling, John P.; Farney, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is the most exciting treatment option for individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles for the routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets with biopolymers for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process. PMID:23494435

  11. Intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with transhiatal herniation of the pancreas and duodenum: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Tarkan; Neureiter, Daniel; Nawara, Clemens; Dinnewitzer, Adam; Öfner, Dietmar; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is an extremely rare condition. In the published literature we found only eleven cases reported in the period of 1958 to 2011. A coincidental hiatal herniation of the duodenum is described in two cases only. To our knowledge, we report the first case with a hiatal herniation of the complete duodenum and proximal pancreas presenting an intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with consecutive intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis. A 72-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our department with a hiatal hernia grade IV for further evaluation. According to our recommendation of surgical hernia repair soon after the diagnosis of a transhiatal herniation of the proximal pancreas and entire duodenum, we had to respect the declared intention of the patient for a conservative procedure. So we were forced to wait for surgical repair within an emergency situation complicated by a myocardial infarction and reduced general condition. We discuss the therapeutic decision making process and a complete literature review of this rare entity. PMID:23805366

  12. Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells arising in a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiroshi; Morita, Keiichi; Tachibana, Shiro; Okimura, Akira; Fujisawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Sachiko; Nakasho, Keiji; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Nishigami, Takashi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, for which pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed, with total gross excision of a mass. A tumor measuring 11 x 9 cm was found in the pancreas. On cut surface there were two cysts filled with a necrotic substance and hemorrhagic content. Spindle or ovoid-shaped cells, in the sarcomatous component, had diffusely infiltrated along the inner side of the walls of one cyst. Osteoclast-like giant cells (OGC) were also contained in the sarcomatous component. Adenoma components of mucinous epithelium with foci of borderline and adenocarcinomatous components were seen on the inner side of the other cyst. An ovarian-type stroma beneath the epithelial component was seen in the cyst wall. A diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma with OGC arising in a mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas, was made. Seven months after the initial operation the patient had a local recurrence, and the tumor was removed. One month after the second operation, the patient was free of symptoms. Only four cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with OGC arising in MCN, involving an ovarian-type stroma of the pancreas, have been reported. PMID:18477218

  13. Artificial Pancreas to Get Long-Term 'Real-Life' Trial

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156528.html Artificial Pancreas to Get Long-Term 'Real-Life' Trial ... News) -- A long-term clinical trial of an artificial pancreas designed to control blood sugar levels in ...

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN THE MUMMICHOG, FUNDULUS HETEROLCLITUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultrastructure of normal exocrine pancreas and exocrine pancreatic neoplasms in Fundulus heteroclitus from a creosote-contaminated environment in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, is described. he normal exocrine pancreas in this species was an anastomosing tubular rather than a...

  15. An unusual neoplasm of the pancreas: Pancreatic metastasis of a Merkel cell carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Cock, E; Remery, M; De Vuyst, M; Lecluyse, K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic metastases are rare. The differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms can be difficult, especially it can be troublesome to obtain tissue diagnosis. However, pancreatic lesions in patients with a history of a malignancy must be considered to be metastases. We present a case of a patient with a history of a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in the neck. Twelve months after this diagnosis a follow-up CT shows a large isolated tumor in the head of the pancreas. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of specimen obtained through ultrasound-guided transabdominal biopsy, show similar characteristics as the primary MCC. To our knowledge twelve cases of a pancreatic metastasis of a MCC have been reported in English literature. A review of the literature was performed. PMID:26448416

  16. Acinar cell carcinoma versus solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in children: a comparison of two rare and overlapping entities with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Beatriz; Ahrens, William; Kenney, Barton; Touloukian, Robert; Reyes-Mgica, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Primary epithelial tumors of the pancreas are extremely uncommon in children, and among these, acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is the most rare. Here we describe our recent observations in the case of a 10-year-old boy with one of these exceptional examples. The histologic diagnosis of ACC was supported by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Despite its rarity, ACC should be kept in the differential diagnosis of pediatric pancreatic exocrine tumors. We also provide a comparison with an example of solid pseudopapillary tumor, another relatively infrequent epithelial tumor of the pancreas in the young. We review the relevant literature addressing the clinical and pathologic features of ACC and its distinction from other pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:19006424

  17. [Heterotopic pancreas as a cause of intussusception: first case reported in Peru].

    PubMed

    Bazn Zender, Carlos; Reyes Coloma, Luis; Len Cueto, Jos Luis; Revoredo Palacios, Giancarlo; Arias Stella Castillo, Javier; Pezo, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    The heterotopic pancreas (HP) is a rare condition in the pediatric population. HP cases involving an ileal intussusception are rare in children and very rarely reported, usually presenting with symptoms of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a one year old male patient with a chronic history of anorexia, irritability, abdominal pain, accompanied by intermittent episodes of "currant jelly" stools that evolved to rectal bleeding. The patient presented a concomitant diagnosis of allergic colitis, which prolonged the effective surgical treatment at an external health center. In the abdominal CT scan, the classic "target" sign was found. In the exploratory laparotomy an ileoileal intussusception was confirmed, a mass was found that the histopathology laboratory confirmed as HP. To our knowledge, it is the first case of pediatric intussusception by HP reported in Peru. PMID:26580946

  18. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Overview of Clinicopathologic Features and Insights into the Molecular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for about 12% of pancreatic tumors in adults and about 15% in pediatric subjects. They show different clinical symptoms at presentation, different morphological features, different outcomes, and different molecular alterations. This heterogeneous clinicopathological spectrum may give rise to difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis with consequential therapeutic and prognostic implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of ACCs are still not completely understood, although in recent years, several attempts have been made to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in ACC biology. In this paper, we will review the main clinicopathological and molecular features of pancreatic ACCs of both adult and pediatric subjects to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this rare tumor type. PMID:26137463

  19. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  20. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  1. Merkel cell carcinoma of unknown primary with lymph node and mesenteric metastasis involving the pancreas and duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Brian S.; Flannery, Christopher M.; Koh, Stephen S.; Yaghsezian, Harout

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of skin is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy of neuroendocrine origin. MCC predominantly affects elderly Caucasians and has high predilection for sun exposed areas. Histologic exam and immunohistochemical profile is required to establish the diagnosis. It has high propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, and carries poor prognosis. However, metastasis to mesentery involving the duodenum is very uncommon and rarely reported in literature. We hereby describe a patient with lymph node and mesenteric metastasis invading duodenum and pancreas with unknown primary origin of MCC.

  2. Stimulus-secretion coupling in the developing exocrine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.Y.S.

    1986-01-01

    Acinar cells of the embryonic pancreas are filled with zymogen granules containing, among others, the secretory protein, cholecystokinin (CCK) ..cap alpha..-amylase, the rate of amylase secretion from pancreatic lobules incubated in vitro was not increased in response to CCK. In contrast, the rate of CCK-stimulated amylase discharge from the neonatal pancreas was increased 4- to 8-fold above that seen in the embryonic gland. The postnatal amplification of secretory responsiveness was not associated with an increase in the level of /sup 125/I-CCK octapeptide specifically bound/cell equivalent or a change in the affinity of binding. Light microscopic autoradiography revealed a similar /sup 125/I-CCK-33 labeling pattern in pancreatic lobules from both ages with autoradiographic grains specifically localized at the periphery of acinar cells. In order to determine whether CCK binding is coupled to a rise in the cytosolic Ca/sup + +/concentration, (Ca/sup + +/)c, in the embryonic pancreas, /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ efflux from tracer-loaded lobules was measured. Efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ from both embryonic and neonatal pancreas was comparably increased in the presence of CCK.

  3. Pancreas ? cell regeneration and type 1 diabetes (Review)

    PubMed Central

    WU, JINXIAO; YANG, XIYAN; CHEN, BIN; XU, XIUPING

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, which may cause hyperglycemia and a number of complications, mostly results from a deficiency of ? cell mass (type 1 diabetes) or a limitation of ? cell function (type 2 diabetes). Currently, enhancing ? cell regeneration and increasing cell proliferation have not only been described in experimental diabetes models, but have also been proven to improve outcomes for patients with diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms controlling the development and regeneration of ? cells in the human pancreas may be helpful for the treatment of ? cell-deficient disease. In this review, we first introduce the various cell types in the adult pancreas and thereby clarify their functions and origins. Then, the known mechanisms of ? cell development and expansion in the normal human pancreas are described. The potential mechanisms of ? cell regeneration, including ? cell self-replication, neogenesis from non-? cell precursors and transdifferentiation from ? cells, are discussed in the next part. Finally, the ability of the pancreas to regenerate mature ? cells is explored in pathological conditions, including type 1 diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. PMID:25667609

  4. Preoperative Chemotherapy Versus Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III (N2) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Kristin; Chino, Junzo P.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Ready, Neal; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Clough, Robert W.; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To compare preoperative chemotherapy (ChT) and preoperative chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) in operable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed all patients with pathologically confirmed Stage III (N2) non-small-cell lung cancer who initiated preoperative ChT or ChT-RT at Duke University between 1995 and 2006. Mediastinal pathologic complete response (pCR) rates were compared using a chi-square test. The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 101 patients who initiated preoperative therapy with planned resection were identified. The median follow-up was 20 months for all patients and 38 months for survivors. The mediastinal lymph nodes were reassessed after preoperative therapy in 88 patients (87%). Within this group, a mediastinal pCR was achieved in 35% after preoperative ChT vs. 65% after preoperative ChT-RT (p = 0.01). Resection was performed in 69% after ChT and 84% after ChT-RT (p = 0.1). For all patients, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rate at 3 years was 40%, 27%, and 66%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical endpoints between the ChT and ChT-RT subgroups. On multivariate analysis, a mediastinal pCR was associated with improved disease-free survival (p = 0.03) and local control (p = 0.03), but not overall survival (p = 0.86). Conclusion: Preoperative ChT-RT was associated with higher mediastinal pCR rates but not improved survival.

  5. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor that was preoperatively diagnosed using selective renal venous sampling.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Saeko; Hosokawa, Yoshiya; Soda, Tetsuji; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Kozawa, Junji; Otsuki, Michio; Imagawa, Akihisa; Okumi, Masayoshi; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    We herein report the case of a patient with a juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JCT). Dynamic enhanced computed tomography revealed a small nodule on the surface of the lower pole of the right kidney. Selective renal venous sampling showed an elevated level of plasma renin activity (PRA) in the right lower pole renal vein only. We performed right partial nephrectomy and diagnosed the patient with JCT. Making a diagnosis of JCT is often difficult due to the small size of the tumor and the lack of lateralization of the PRA on renal venous sampling. This case highlights the importance of performing selective renal venous sampling for the preoperative diagnosis of JCT. PMID:23994987

  6. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  7. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors arising in the pancreas: the first case report in Asia and a review of the 14 total reported cases in the world

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xinting; Liang, Naixin; Yang, Huayu; Lu, Xin; Yang, Zhiying; Du, Shunda; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Zhong, Shouxian; Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pancreas based on our case and all the cases in the world. Methods The first case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pancreas in Asia was preliminarily reported by our group in 2006. The patient underwent three operations for the primary tumor and recurrences over 41 months prior to the patients death in November 2007. All 14 reported cases of pancreatic PNETs in the world were analyzed. The corresponding literatures on its diagnosis and treatment of were reviewed. Results A 13 year-old female patient was diagnosed with pancreatic PNETs by the clinical, microscopic, immunohistochemical features, and cytogenetic analysis after the resection of the tumor located in the uncinate process of the pancreas at PUMC Hospital. During the follow-up course, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were given after the first operation. Two additional operations were performed 10 months and 25 months after the first one, respectively, because of tumor recurrence. The patient died 41 months after the initial diagnosis with the recurrence and metastasis that were not suitable for a further surgery. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pancreas are extremely rare. A review of the worlds literature on this tumor identified fourteen cases with a mean survival time of 12 months (ranging from 6 to 50 months). These patients often have no specific clinical symptoms, but most do present with abdominal pain and/or jaundice. The diagnosis is established by small round tumor cells seen on light microscopy, immunohistochemical features of positive P30/32MIC2 with at least two positive neuronal markers., and cytogenetic analysis showing characteristic translocation of t[11;22][q24;q12]. Since pancreatic PNETs are highly aggressive, early diagnosis, immediate surgical resection and re-resection if possible, early radiotherapy and chemotherapy and close follow-up are required. Conclusions Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors can arise in pancreas. The diagnosis and treatment should be made as early as possible, aggressive surgeries for the primary and recurrences may help to improve the prognosis. PMID:24570916

  8. Primary pancreatic hydatid cyst: an unexpected differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Bharati; Subramaniam, Narayana; Boggavarapu, Manobhiram

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease, caused by the cystic stage of Echinococcus granulosus, most commonly involves the liver (59-75%) and lung (27%), and rarely involves the kidney (3%), bone (1-4%) and brain (1-2%). Even rarer sites include the heart and spleen, and skeletal muscle, with virtually no site being immune. The pancreas is an exceedingly rare site for primary disease (without concomitant involvement of the liver or peritoneum), with less than 20 reported cases in the literature. This case report describes a 48-year-old woman presenting with a solitary cystic lesion arising from the neck of the pancreas, which was ultimately determined to be a hydatid cyst on histopathological examination. It also discusses the difficulties in preoperative and postoperative management and includes a review of the literature. PMID:26336187

  9. Relationship of preoperative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio with prognosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kargın, Süleyman; Çakır, Murat; Gündeş, Ebubekir; Yavuz, Yusuf; Esen, Hacı Hasan; Sinan İyisoy, M.; Kökbudak, Naile; Küçükkartallar, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are believed to play a role in immunosuppression with their local effect. In some cancers with associated inflammation, an increased pretreatment neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is considered as an indicator of poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship of increased blood neutrophil lymphocyte ratio with disease prognosis in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Material and Methods: The data of 78 patients who underwent surgery with the diagnosis of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor in our clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The preoperative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in the peripheral blood was determined. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and its relationship with tumor risk and prognosis were compared. The data were evaluated by Pearson’s correlation analysis and the Welch ANOVA test. Results: The preoperative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased in the high-risk groups (p<0.05). An increased preoperative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was associated with shorter survival (r=−0.32, p=0.009). In addition, an increase in the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was associated with an increase in the mitotic activity of the tumor (r=−0.364, p=0.025). Conclusion: The preoperative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be used as an indicator of high-risk tumors and poor prognosis. PMID:26170750

  10. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  11. Preoperative candidate evaluations for retinal prosthesis trials.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yu; Ren, Qiushi

    2010-12-01

    With the development of retinal prostheses, the first clinical trials for these devices are being planned or are already underway. Yet the candidate selection criteria and the preparation of early recipients have received very little attention. As clinical trials grow in scope, the need for such issues will become increasingly important. Especially in preliminary stages of clinical trials, it is absolutely vital to develop the preoperative evaluations of candidates in identifying the suitable candidate for retinal prosthesis implants. This paper addresses the preoperative evaluations of candidates that may provide insight into selecting potential candidates for retinal prosthetic devices. Screening an ideal candidate is complex and, at the minimum, should include medical evaluations, visual function tests, assessments of psychological status, motivation, expectations, as well as rehabilitation capabilities. This will ensure that appropriate candidates are selected, candidate expectations are managed, and success with the retinal prosthetic devices is maximized. PMID:21186465

  12. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  13. Preoperative Evaluation: Estimation of Pulmonary Risk.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarasimhachar, Anand; Smetana, Gerald W

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are common after major non-thoracic surgery and associated with significant morbidity and high cost of care. A number of risk factors are strong predictors of PPCs. The overall goal of the preoperative pulmonary evaluation is to identify these potential, patient and procedure-related risks and optimize the health of the patients before surgery. A thorough clinical examination supported by appropriate laboratory tests will help guide the clinician to provide optimal perioperative care. PMID:26927740

  14. At your convenience: preoperative assessment by telephone.

    PubMed

    Digner, Marie

    2007-07-01

    This article describes how practitioners in one trust have worked in partnership with colleagues at NHS Direct to develop a telephone preoperative assessment service for elective day case surgery patients. The service has improved theatre utilisation by reducing the numbers of 'did not attends' (DNAs) and ensures the safe preparation of appropriately selected patients for day case surgery. It has reduced the number of trips to hospital patients need to make and, more recently, the length of time spent there. PMID:17702201

  15. Preoperative Delays in the US Medicare Population With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bleicher, Richard J.; Ruth, Karen; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Ross, Eric; Wong, Yu-Ning; Patel, Sameer A.; Boraas, Marcia; Topham, Neal S.; Egleston, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Although no specific delay threshold after diagnosis of breast cancer has been demonstrated to affect outcome, delays can cause anxiety, and surgical waiting time has been suggested as a quality measure. This study was performed to determine the interval from presentation to surgery in Medicare patients with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and factors associated with a longer time to surgery. Methods Medicare claims linked to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data were reviewed for factors associated with delay between the first physician claim for a breast problem and first therapeutic surgery. Results Between 1992 and 2005, 72,586 Medicare patients with breast cancer had a median interval (delay) between first physician visit and surgery of 29 days, increasing from 21 days in 1992 to 32 days in 2005. Women (29 days v 24 days for men; P < .001), younger patients (29 days; P < .001), blacks and Hispanics (each 37 days; P < .001), patients in the northeast (33 days; P < .001), and patients in large metropolitan areas (32 days; P < .001) had longer delays. Patients having breast conservation and mastectomies had adjusted median delays of 28 and 30 days, respectively, with simultaneous reconstruction adding 12 days. Preoperative components, including imaging modalities, biopsy type, and clinician visits, were also each associated with a specific additional delay. Conclusion Waiting times for breast cancer surgery have increased in Medicare patients, and measurable delays are associated with demographics and preoperative evaluation components. If such increases continue, periodic assessment may be required to rule out detrimental effects on outcomes. PMID:23169513

  16. Preoperative measurement of ACL insertion sites.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Snyder, Kevin; Reuss, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate preoperative predictions of the femoral and tibial ACL insertion lengths. Intraoperative measurements were made of the femoral and tibial ACL insertion lengths with an arthroscopic ruler. A musculoskeletal radiologist and a sports medicine orthopedic surgeon measured the ACL insertions from preoperative magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) in a blinded fashion. Correlations between height, weight, body mass index, and gender with intraoperative ACL insertion length measures were also evaluated. Patient height and male gender demonstrated strong correlations with intraoperative ACL insertion measures. A moderate correlation was seen between patient weight and intraoperative ACL insertion measures. When evaluating the frequency with which the raters' respective MRI measures were exactly the same as the intraoperative measures, moderate correlations were seen. The radiologist and orthopedic surgeons' MRI measures were within 3 mm of the intraoperative measures 98 and 75% of the time, respectively, for the femur and 92 and 83% of the time, respectively, for the tibia. This study concludes that preoperative MRI measures of ACL insertion lengths can be used to predict intraoperative ACL insertion lengths. Also, it is expected that taller patients and male patients should have greater ACL insertion lengths seen arthroscopically. PMID:24622911

  17. Preoperative Planning in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, Michael; Makhdom, Asim M

    2016-04-01

    Preoperative planning is of paramount importance in primary total knee arthroplasty. A thorough preoperative analysis helps the surgeon envision the operation, anticipate any potential issues, and minimize the risk of premature implant failure. Obtaining a thorough history is critical for appropriate patient selection. The physical examination should evaluate the integrity of the soft tissues, the neurovascular status, range of motion, limb deformity, and the status of the collateral ligaments to help determine the soft-tissue balancing and constraint strategy required. Standard radiographs, with a known magnification, should be obtained for preoperative total knee arthroplasty templating. Routine standing AP, lateral, and skyline radiographs of the knee can help the surgeon plan the bone cuts and tibial slope as well as the implant size and position at the time of surgery. In certain circumstances, such as severe coronal deformities, bone deficiencies, and/or extra-articular deformities, additional measures are frequently necessary to successfully reconstruct the knee. Constrained implants, metal augments, and bone graft must be part of the surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:26990712

  18. EBM-based Clinical Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer (2013) issued by the Japan Pancreas Society: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Okusaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Kyoko; Furuse, Junji; Ito, Yoshinori; Hanada, Keiji; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines for pancreatic cancer based on evidence-based medicine (2006) were published by the Japan Pancreas Society (Committee for revision of clinical guidelines for pancreatic cancer) in March 2009 in Japanese, revised to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer based on evidence-based medicine (2009) in July 2009 in Japanese and further revised to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer (2013) in October 2013 in Japanese. These guidelines were established according to evidence-based medicine. A total of 629 papers were collected from among 4612 reports concerning pancreatic cancer listed in PubMed and Igakuchuo Zasshi between May 2007 and January 2011. This new set of guidelines was written by members of the Committee for the Revision of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer in the Japan Pancreas Society. The guidelines provide an algorithm for the diagnosis (Fig. 1) and treatment (Fig. 2) of pancreatic cancer and address six subjects (Diagnosis, Surgery, Adjuvant therapy, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy and stent therapy), with 35 clinical questions and 57 recommendations. PMID:25205672

  19. Extrahepatic biliary atresia: preoperative assessment and surgical results in 47 consecutive cases.

    PubMed Central

    Psacharopoulos, H T; Howard, E R; Portmann, B; Mowat, A P

    1980-01-01

    Of 47 consecutive infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia, effective bile drainage with the return of the serum bilirubin concentration to normal, was achieved in 17 (38%). Direct bile duct-to-bowl anastomosis, attempted in 15 infants, produced bile drainage in only those 4 (9%) in whom bile could be seen within the bile duct remnants at laparotomy. 13 (45%) of 29 infants subjected to portoenterostomy (direct liver-to-bowel anastomosis) had satisfactory prolonged bile drainage with normal serum bilirubin values. Although a correct preoperative diagnosis was made in each case, in 3 (6%) the 72-hour faecal rose bengal 131I excretion was greater than 10% of the injected dose, and in 5 (11%) the hepatic histology did not indicate bile duct obstruction, showing that both investigations are necessary for preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative clinical, laboratory, and hepatic histological features in the 16 jaundice-free survivors showed no significant difference when compared with the 31 infants in whom surgery was successful. Cholangitis occurred in only 7 (43%) of 16 infants with satisfactory bile drainage and was easily controlled with antibiotic treatment. No cutaneous enterostomies were performed. In most survivors liver function tests remain abnormal, but the patients are symptom-free. While it is too early to predict a long-term prognosis for these children, our eldest survivors are healthy and show normal development. PMID:7436455

  20. Comparison of pre-operative bilirubin level in simple appendicitis and perforated appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Maghsoudloo, Farshid; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Chaichian, Shahla

    2013-01-01

    Background Delay in diagnosis and treatment of perforated appendicitis may cause life-threatening complications.The aim of this study was to determine and compare pre-operative total and direct bilirubin levels incases of simple and perforated acute appendicitis in order to improve the clinical decision making. Methods This prospective observational study included eighty patients who underwent open appendectomy,during a one-year period from March 2010 to March 2011 in the surgical department of Hazrat-e-Rasool AkramHospital, an academic teaching hospital in Tehran- Iran. Pre-operative total and direct levels of bilirubin werecompared in two groups of histologically proved appendicitis (simple and perforated), each including 40 patients. Results Eighty patients who underwent open appendectomy including 70% men and 30% women with a meanage of 3411 years in Group I (perforated appendicitis) and 47.5% women and 52.5% men with a mean age of3314 in Group II (simple appendicitis) were included in this study. The mean bilirubin levels were higher forpatients with perforated acute appendicitis compared to those with a non-perforated simple appendicitis(1.0405 mg/dl vs 0.70.1 mg/dl) and this difference is highly significant (p<0.01). Conclusion Assessment of preoperative total bilirubin is useful for the differential diagnosis of perforatedversus acute simple appendicitis and total bilirubin should be used as an independent parameter in the early diagnosisof appendix perforation PMID:24791119

  1. Heterotopic Pancreas Presented as Duodenal Tumor with Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Heun

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas (HP) is defined as pancreatic tissue lacking anatomic and vascular continuity with the main body of the pancreas. Most are asymptomatic, but can cause ulcer, bleeding, intussusception, and mechanical obstruction. Herein, we presented one case of HP presented as duodenal tumor causing duodenal obstruction. A 7-year-old girl visited the emergency room for abdominal pain with vomiting for 24 hours. Computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal series revealed a polypoid mass with short stalk in the 2nd portion of duodenum. We attempted an endoscopic removal. However, the lumen was nearly obstructed by the mass and the stalk was too broad and hard to excise. The mass was surgically removed via duodenotomy. It was confirmed as a HP with ductal and acini components (type 2 by Heinrich classification). Postoperatively, the patient has been well without any complication and recurrence. PMID:26770904

  2. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms. PMID:25468799

  3. Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Technology for Bioartificial Pancreas Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Marcus; Katari, Ravi; Patel, Timil; Peloso, Andrea; Mugweru, Jon; Owusu, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Emergent technologies in regenerative medicine may soon overcome the limitations of conventional diabetes therapies. Collaborative efforts across the subfields of stem cell technology, islet encapsulation, and biomaterial carriers seek to produce a bioengineered pancreas capable of restoring endocrine function in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. These technologies rely on a robust understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the supportive 3-dimensional network of proteins necessary for cellular attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Although these functions can be partially approximated by biosynthetic carriers, novel decellularization protocols have allowed researchers to discover the advantages afforded by the native pancreatic ECM. The native ECM has proven to be an optimal platform for recellularization and whole-organ pancreas bioengineering, an exciting new field with the potential to resolve the dire shortage of transplantable organs. This review seeks to contextualize recent findings, discuss current research goals, and identify future challenges of regenerative medicine as it applies to diabetes management. PMID:24876552

  4. Implication of epigenetics in pancreas development and disease.

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Evans; Haumaitre, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    Pancreas development is controlled by a complex interaction of signaling pathways and transcription factor networks that determine pancreatic specification and differentiation of exocrine and endocrine cells. Epigenetics adds a new layer of gene regulation. DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs recently appeared as important epigenetic factors regulating pancreas development. In this review, we report recent findings obtained by analyses in model organisms as well as genome-wide approaches that demonstrate the role of these epigenetic regulators in the control of exocrine and endocrine cell differentiation, identity, function, proliferation and regeneration. We also highlight how altered epigenetic processes contribute to pancreatic disorders: diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Uncovering these epigenetic events can help to better understand these diseases, provide novel therapeutical targets for their treatment, and improve cell-based therapies for diabetes. PMID:26696517

  5. A novel strategy for long-term implantable artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Assaf, Tareq; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Technology has recently changed type 1 diabetes treatment by introducing several advancements able to improve patients' quality of life. However, despite of several decades of research efforts, the dream of a fully-automated implanted artificial pancreas is quite far from its realization. The need for periodically restoring the implanted battery charge and refilling the implanted insulin reservoir are the main issues, for which invasive surgery, transcutaneous catheters or external portable devices are presently the only solutions. In this paper we propose a novel approach to these issues, describing a totally implanted closed-loop artificial pancreas with a wireless battery charger and a non-invasive strategy for insulin refilling, based on sensorized swallowable "insulin carrier" capsules. Such system has the potential to represent a final solution for diabetes treatment, by fully restoring patients' quality of life. PMID:22254935

  6. Laparoscopic Surgery for Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Afridi, Shabbir A.; Kazaryan, Airazat M.; Marangos, Irina Pavlik; Rsok, Brd I.; Fretland, smund A.; Yaqub, Sheraz

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas are rare and occur most frequently in young women. They have an uncertain pathogenesis and unclear clinical behavior. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical presentation of solid pseudopapillary tumors and assess the efficacy of treatment with minimally invasive surgery. Methods: From March 1997 to February 2011, 13 of 273 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures on the pancreas were found to have solid pseudopapillary tumors. There were 12 female patients and 1 male patient. The median age was 21 years (range, 1577 years). Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (n = 9). Tumors were incidentally found in 3 patients on computed tomography scans obtained for other reasons. Results: Enucleation of the tumor was performed in 4 patients, including 3 in whom the tumor was located in the head of the pancreas. Eight patients underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, whereas spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in one case. The median tumor size was 6 cm (range, 1.511 cm), the median operative time was 197 minutes (range, 68320 minutes), and the median blood loss was 50 mL (range, <50750 mL). Distal resections were performed with a linear stapler. Four patients had postoperative complications. The median length of hospital stay was 5 days (range, 212 days). During a median follow-up period of 11 months (range, 3121 months), no local recurrences or distant metastases were found. Conclusion: Laparoscopic resections and enucleations of solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas can be performed safely and with adequate resection margins even if the tumors are located in the head of the organ. PMID:24960486

  7. Giardia lamblia infection after pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ann Abkjaer; Horneland, Rune; Birn, Henrik; Svensson, My

    2016-01-01

    Infection is a common complication of solid organ transplantation. It is associated with an increased risk of acute cellular rejection and loss of graft function. The most common infections are due to bacteria and viruses, including transmission of cytomegalovirus from donor to recipient. In the past years, an increasing number of parasitic infections have been documented in transplant recipients. We describe the first reported case of intestinal Giardia lamblia transmission following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. PMID:26783005

  8. Induction Gemcitabine and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Nonmetastatic Pancreas Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Anand; Miksad, Rebecca; Goldstein, Michael; Sullivan, Ryan; Bullock, Andrea; Buchbinder, Elizabeth; Pleskow, Douglas; Sawhney, Mandeep; Kent, Tara; Vollmer, Charles; Callery, Mark

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used successfully to treat patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer. However, many patients develop metastatic disease soon after diagnosis and may receive little benefit from such therapy. We therefore retrospectively analyzed a planned strategy of initial chemotherapy with restaging and then treatment for those patients with no evidence of metastatic progression with SBRT. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients received gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m{sup 2} per week for 3 weeks then 1 week off) until tolerance, at least six cycles, or progression. Patients without metastases after two cycles were treated with SBRT (tolerance-based dose of 24-36 Gy in 3 fractions) between the third and fourth cycles without interrupting the chemotherapy cycles. Results: Eight of the 47 patients (17%) were found to have metastatic disease after two cycles of gemcitabine; the remaining 39 patients received SBRT. The median follow-up for survivors was 21 months (range, 6-36 months). The median overall survival for all patients who received SBRT was 20 months, and the median progression-free survival was 15 months. The local control rate was 85% (33 of 39 patients); and 54% of patients (21 of 39) developed metastases. Late Grade III toxicities such as GI bleeding and obstruction were observed in 9% (3/39) of patients. Conclusion: For patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer, this strategy uses local therapy for those who are most likely to benefit from it and spares those patients with early metastatic progression from treatment. SBRT delivers such local therapy safely with minimal interruption to systemic chemotherapy, thereby potentially improving the outcome in these patients.

  9. Monitoring Artificial Pancreas Trials Through Agent-based Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Scarpellini, Stefania; Di Palma, Federico; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the availability and reliability of network connections lets envision systems supporting a continuous remote monitoring of clinical parameters useful either for overseeing chronic diseases or for following clinical trials involving outpatients. We report here the results achieved by a telemedicine infrastructure that has been linked to an artificial pancreas platform and used during a trial of the AP@home project, funded by the European Union. The telemedicine infrastructure is based on a multiagent paradigm and is able to deliver to the clinic any information concerning the patient status and the operation of the artificial pancreas. A web application has also been developed, so that the clinic staff and the researchers involved in the design of the blood glucose control algorithms are able to follow the ongoing experiments. Albeit the duration of the experiments in the trial discussed in the article was limited to only 2 days, the system proved to be successful for monitoring patients, in particular overnight when the patients are sleeping. Based on that outcome we can conclude that the infrastructure is suitable for the purpose of accomplishing an intelligent monitoring of an artificial pancreas either during longer trials or whenever that system will be used as a routine treatment. PMID:24876570

  10. What is artificial endocrine pancreas? Mechanism and history

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Kenro; Shimoda, Seiya; Ichinose, Kenshi; Araki, Eiichi; Shichiri, Motoaki

    2009-01-01

    The artificial endocrine pancreas is a feedback control instrument that regulates insulin delivery on a minute-by-minute basis according to measured blood glucose levels. Only one type of bedside-type artificial endocrine pancreas is now available in Japan: STG-22 (Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Japan). In the insulin infusion algorithm, insulin is infused on the basis of its proportional and derivative actions, to blood glucose concentrations with a constant time delay. The bedside-type artificial endocrine pancreas has been proven to be useful not only as a therapeutic tool for diabetes mellitus, but also as an elegant research tool for investigating the pathophysiology of the disease, by using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique. The wearable type of closed-loop system has been developed recently. The breakthrough is the establishment of a needle-type glucose sensor. The development of closed-loop glycemic control systems that enable long-term physiological regulation has focused on implantable devices. Much effort has been expended to realize these devices. PMID:19725141

  11. Designing an artificial pancreas architecture: the AP@home experience.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    The latest achievements in sensor technologies for blood glucose level monitoring, pump miniaturization for insulin delivery, and the availability of portable computing devices are paving the way toward the artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes patients. This device encompasses a controller unit that oversees the administration of insulin micro-boluses and continuously drives the pump based on blood glucose readings acquired in real time. In order to foster the research on the artificial pancreas and prepare for its adoption as a therapy, the European Union in 2010 funded the AP@home project, following a series of efforts already ongoing in the USA. This paper, authored by members of the AP@home consortium, reports on the technical issues concerning the design and implementation of an architecture supporting the exploitation of an artificial pancreas platform. First a PC-based platform was developed by the authors to prove the effectiveness and reliability of the algorithms responsible for insulin administration. A mobile-based one was then adopted to improve the comfort for the patients. Both platforms were tested on real patients, and a description of the goals, the achievements, and the major shortcomings that emerged during those trials is also reported in the paper. PMID:25430423

  12. Pancreas retransplantation: ideal timing and early and late results.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, C V; Maione, G; Rossetti, O; Aseni, P; Soldano, S; De Roberto, A; Civati, G

    2006-05-01

    Surgical complications are the leading cause of pancreatic graft loss among diabetic patients who undergo pancreas transplantation alone (PTA), or combined with kidney transplantations (PK) or after kidney transplantations (PAK). Therapeutic effects on secondary complications of diabetes justify pancreas retransplantation (re-PT) when the first graft is lost. However, the appropriate timing for retransplant and related problems is not known. We present our initial experience on re-PT performed on seven diabetic patients who lost their first pancreas grafts (PK) due to surgical complications (venous thrombosis in five and enteric fistula in two). Five re-PT were performed a few days after the first PT without a second course of induction therapy, while two patients received re-PT some months later with reinduction therapy. In the early re-PT group, one patient died some hours after the second surgical procedure due to pulmonary embolism, while four patients lost their second grafts due to accelerated rejection within 2 years from re-PT. In the late re-PT group, both patients have good graft function without signs of rejection. Our initial experience showed discouraging results in the group of early re-PT, due to accelerated rejection episodes leading to a high incidence of graft loss. Late re-PT accompanied by reinduction therapy seemed to have better results. PMID:16757292

  13. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (p<0.0001) decreased the body weight, blood glucose level, improved the mass and size of pancreas, elevated the levels of antioxidant enzymes and up regulate the expression of visfatin and PCNA. PCO analysis was good to fitness and prediction distinguishes the therapeutic effects of M. roxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue. PMID:26764087

  14. [Systematized care in cardiac preoperative: theory of human caring in the perspective of nurses and users].

    PubMed

    Amorim, Thais Vasconselos; Arreguy-Sena, Cristina; Alves, Marcelo da Silva; Salimena, Anna Maria de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study research that aimed to know, with the adoption of the Theory of Human Caring, the meanings of therapeutic interpersonal relationship between nurse and user on the preoperative nursing visit after the experience of the surgical process. The convenience sample was composed of three nurses and three users of an institution that has updated records to perform highly complex cardiovascular surgery, comprising nine combinations of therapeutic interactions. It was used instruments, structured according to the theory of Jean Watson and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomies. The legal and ethical aspects of research involving human subjects were assured. The results revealed three clusters to grasp the significance of preoperative visits by users and five clusters to capture the perception of nurses when they experience this clinical experience. PMID:25271581

  15. Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Taciana Freitas; de Carvalho Ramos, Marisa; Guglielminetti, Rachel; Silva, Alex Augusto; Crema, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A major decline in pulmonary function is observed on the first day after upper abdominal surgery. This decline can reduce vital and inspiratory capacity and can culminate in restrictive lung diseases that cause atelectasis, reduced diaphragm movement, and respiratory insufficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative ambulatory respiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. The sample consisted of 20 adult patients (14 men [70%] and 6 women [30%]) with a diagnosis of advanced chagasic megaesophagus. A significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure was observed after inspiratory muscle training when compared with baseline values (from -55.059 18.359 to -76.286 16.786). Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training was effective in increasing respiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing esophagectomy and contributed to the prevention of postoperative complications. PMID:23113846

  16. Preoperative Ambulatory Inspiratory Muscle Training in Patients Undergoing Esophagectomy. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Agrelli, Taciana Freitas; de Carvalho Ramos, Marisa; Guglielminetti, Rachel; Silva, Alex Augusto; Crema, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A major decline in pulmonary function is observed on the first day after upper abdominal surgery. This decline can reduce vital and inspiratory capacity and can culminate in restrictive lung diseases that cause atelectasis, reduced diaphragm movement, and respiratory insufficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative ambulatory respiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. The sample consisted of 20 adult patients (14 men [70%] and 6 women [30%]) with a diagnosis of advanced chagasic megaesophagus. A significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure was observed after inspiratory muscle training when compared with baseline values (from ?55.059 18.359 to ?76.286 16.786). Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training was effective in increasing respiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing esophagectomy and contributed to the prevention of postoperative complications. PMID:23113846

  17. Transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hauzeur, C; Corbusier, A; Vanden Bossche, M; Schulman, C C

    1990-01-01

    In this retrospective study we try to evaluate the benefit of transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate in the diagnostic, the screening and the preoperative staging of prostatic carcinoma. Five hundred and sixty-six patients with histologically proved prostatic carcinoma were evaluated. For the diagnosis, our specificity was 80%. The specificity of preoperative staging was 85% concerning the extraprostatic extension of the tumor. The screening seems to be of poor interest. PMID:1699765

  18. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) and pancreas living-donor kidney (SPLK) transplantation at the University of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Philosophe, B; Farney, A C; Schweitzer, E J; Colonna, J O; Jarrell, B E; Foster, C E; Wiland, A M; Bartlett, S T

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of enteric and portal venous drainage, better immunosuppression, and better patient care has elevated pancreas transplantation with dramatically improved results. At our center, long-term graft survival and rejection has significantly improved with portal venous drainage, which has become our gold standard. This improvement is exemplified by the excellent one-year patient and graft survival rates for SPLK transplants. SPLK has proven to be an ideal approach in uremic Type 1 diabetic patients with living donors and should become the procedure of choice for that population. Moreover, the improved monitoring of rejection has allowed a similar success of pancreas transplantation alone in non-uremic patients with brittle diabetes. The treatment of diabetes mellitus has room for great improvement, however, and there is no question that islet transplantation, xenotransplantation, and the pursuit of immunologic tolerance will play an extremely important role in that endeavor. PMID:11512315

  19. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. This suggests that preoperative biliary drainage should be avoided whenever possible in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Such a change in current preoperative management may improve patient outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:10450725

  20. Cochlear implantation: preoperative counselling and postoperative problems.

    PubMed

    Ito, J

    1994-01-01

    Some patients cannot understand the reasons for a cochlear implant, nor the implications of such a device, and thus a clear explanation is required during patient counselling. Approximately one tenth of the patients with hearing loss examined in our hospital have received cochlear implants. Adequate preoperative examinations can make the surgery less difficult. Following cochlear implantation, speech comprehension of the patients with prelingual hearing loss is poor, and even patients with good speech comprehension have complaints about the clarity of the voice by the cochlear implant. PMID:7993233

  1. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  2. Preoperative risk reduction: strategies to optimize outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Robert G; Deveney, Clifford W

    2013-10-01

    The success of hernia repair is measured by absence of recurrence, appearance of the surgical scar, and perioperative morbidity. Perioperative surgical site occurrence (SSO), defined as infection, seroma, wound ischemia, and dehiscence, increases the risk of recurrent hernia by at least 3-fold. The surgeon should optimize all measures that promote healing, reduce infection, and enhance early postoperative recovery. In the population with ventral hernia, the most common complication in the immediate perioperative period is surgical site infection. This article reviews several preoperative measures that have been reported to decrease SSOs and shorten length of hospital stay. PMID:24035075

  3. The effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on outcomes after lung cancer surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Page, Richard; Hasler, Elise

    2013-03-01

    The preferred treatment for lung cancer is surgery if the disease is considered resectable and the patient is considered surgically fit. Preoperative smoking cessation and/or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation might improve postoperative outcomes after lung cancer surgery. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine the effectiveness of (1) preoperative smoking cessation and (2) preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on peri- and postoperative outcomes in patients who undergo resection for lung cancer. We searched MEDLINE, PreMedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, BNI, Psychinfo, Amed, Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), and Biomed Central. Original studies published in English investigating the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative and longer-term outcomes in ≥ 50 patients who received surgery with curative intent for lung cancer were included. Of the 7 included studies that examined the effect of preoperative smoking cessation (n = 6) and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (n = 1) on outcomes after lung cancer surgery, none were randomized controlled trials and only 1 was prospective. The studies used different smoking classifications, the baseline characteristics differed between the study groups in some of the studies, and most had small sample sizes. No formal data synthesis was therefore possible. The included studies were marked by methodological limitations. On the basis of the reported bodies of evidence, it is not possible to make any firm conclusions about the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer. PMID:23017983

  4. Preoperative carbohydrate nutrition reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to preoperative fasting

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Neslihan; ekmen, Nedim; Bilgin, Ferruh; Erten, Ela; zhan, Mehmet zhan; Co?ar, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate drink 400 mL given 2 h before the surgery with preoperative overnight fasting on the gastric pH and residual volume, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and antiemetic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials And Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Randomized, prospective, controlled study, Gulhane Medical Faculty and Guven Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Pre-operative carbohydrate drink group (group C, n = 20) and preoperative fasting group (group F, n = 20). Group C was given a 400 mL carbohydrate drink 2 h before to the surgery. The patients of group F were fasted 8 h before the surgery. Both groups were operated under general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics. Results: Hemodynamic parameters, demographic data, gastric acidity and residual volumes were similar for both groups. No complications were observed. PONV and antiemetic consumption was lower in group C compared to group F (P = 0.001). Patient's satisfaction was higher in group C (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that pre-operative carbohydrate drink may be used safely and also improves patient's satisfaction and comfort in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24497851

  5. Evaluation of a Preoperative Clinic for Women With Gynecologic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Chia, Yen Y; Eng, Chui L; Lim, Yong K; Yam, Kwai L; Tan, Soh C; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    2015-12-01

    Although many patients with gynecologic cancer undergo surgery, time constraints during the preoperative consultation may affect the accuracy of the information exchange, as well as compromise the quality of the patient assessment and care plan. Both put patients at a higher risk for complications during surgery and the postoperative period. This article describes an advanced practice RN-led preoperative assessment and education clinic designed to improve the quality of preoperative preparation and postoperative outcomes of patients with gynecologic cancer. PMID:26583642

  6. Arterio-Enteric Fistula in Failed Enteric-Drained Pancreas Transplants: An Impending Danger

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Jaimes, Natalia; Eckstein, Donna; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sachdeva, Mala; Jhaveri, Kenar; Calderon, Kellie; Greben, Craig; Sharan, Lauren; Coppa, Gene; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Enteric drainage is the preferred method of exocrine diversion in simultaneous kidneypancreas transplantation. Because of improvements in immunosuppression, enteric drainage has become the preferred method of pancreas transplantation in general. Although associated with less potential complications than bladder-drained pancreas, potentially lethal arterio-enteric fistulas in the setting of nonfunctioning allografts represent a constant threat. We herein present a case report, a review of the literature, and a call for caution. PMID:24627620

  7. Arterio-enteric fistula in failed enteric-drained pancreas transplants: an impending danger.

    PubMed

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Jaimes, Natalia; Eckstein, Donna; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sachdeva, Mala; Jhaveri, Kenar; Calderon, Kellie; Greben, Craig; Sharan, Lauren; Coppa, Gene; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Enteric drainage is the preferred method of exocrine diversion in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Because of improvements in immunosuppression, enteric drainage has become the preferred method of pancreas transplantation in general. Although associated with less potential complications than bladder-drained pancreas, potentially lethal arterio-enteric fistulas in the setting of nonfunctioning allografts represent a constant threat. We herein present a case report, a review of the literature, and a call for caution. PMID:24627620

  8. Preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Angelis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Arikas, Stamatis; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Siminelakis, Stavros; Argyriou, Michael; Kotsakou, Maria; Kessis, George; Kolettas, Alexander; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide for both sexes. Even though cigarette smoking has been proved to be the main causative factor, many other agents (e.g., occupational exposure to asbestos or heavy metals, indoor exposure to radon gas radiation, particulate air pollution) have been associated with its development. Recently screening programs proved to reduce mortality among heavy-smokers although establishment of such strategies in everyday clinical practice is much more difficult and unknown if it is cost effective compared to other neoplasms (e.g., breast or prostate cancer). Adding severe comorbidities (coronary heart disease, COPD) to the above reasons as cigarette smoking is a common causative factor, we could explain the low surgical resection rates (approximately 20-30%) for lung cancer patients. Three clinical guidelines reports of different associations have been published (American College of Chest Physisians, British Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society/European Society of Thoracic Surgery) providing detailed algorithms for preoperative assessment. In the current mini review, we will comment on the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer patients. PMID:24672690

  9. A critical inventory of preoperative skull replicas

    PubMed Central

    Beinemann, J; Schaller, K; Gailloud, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Physical replicas of organs are used increasingly for preoperative planning. The quality of these models is generally accepted by surgeons. In view of the strong trend towards minimally invasive and personalised surgery, however, the aim of this investigation was to assess qualitatively the accuracy of such replicas, using skull models as an example. Methods Skull imaging was acquired for three cadavers by computed tomography using clinical routine parameters. After digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, physical replicas were produced by 3D printing. The facsimilia were analysed systematically and compared with the best gold standard possible: the macerated skull itself. Results The skull models were far from anatomically accurate. Non-conforming rendering was observed in particular for foramina, sutures, notches, fissures, grooves, channels, tuberosities, thin-walled structures, sharp peaks and crests, and teeth. Conclusions Surgeons should be aware that preoperative models may not yet render the exact anatomy of the patient under consideration and are advised to continue relying, in specific conditions, on their own analysis of the native computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24025287

  10. Uncinate Duct Dilation in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: A Radiographic Finding with Potentially Increased Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ammori, John B; Do, Richard KG; Brennan, Murray F; DAngelica, Michael I; Dematteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Jarnagin, William R; Allen, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk of high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas is increased in main-duct compared to branch-duct lesions. We hypothesized that isolated uncinate duct dilation may also be a radiographic indicator of high-risk disease as the primary drainage of this portion of the gland originates from a distinct embryologic precursor. Methods All patients with available preoperative imaging who underwent resection for IPMN between 1994 and 2010 were included (n=184). Imaging studies were reviewed by an experienced radiologist who was blinded to the pathologic results, and studies were categorized as main-duct, branch- duct, or combined-duct. The presence of uncinate duct dilation was assessed as a risk factor for tumors which proved to have high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or invasive carcinoma (IC) on pathologic assessment. Results IPMN with HGD or IC were identified in 82 of 184 cases (45%). Without considering uncinate duct dilation, IPMN with HGD or IC were present in 84% of patients with main-duct IPMN (n= 31/37), 58% with combined-duct IPMN (n= 23/40), and 26% with branch-duct IPMN (n=28/107). Dilation of the uncinate duct was observed in 47 patients, with or without main duct dilation, and 30 of these (64%) contained HGD or IC on pathology. Isolated uncinate duct dilation without main duct dilation was observed in 17 patients, and 11 (65%) had HGD. On multivariate analysis of IPMN without associated main-duct dilation, uncinate duct dilation was independently associated with IPMN with HGD or IC (p=0.002). Conclusion Uncinate duct dilation on preoperative radiologic imaging appears to be an additional risk factor for IPMN-associated high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. PMID:24448998

  11. Xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis: The missed diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    EL Abiad, Yassine; Dehayni, Youness; Qarro, Abdelmounaim; Balla, Bouzid; Ammani, Abdelghani; Alami, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the kidney that can be focal or diffuse with the focal form imitating greatly renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Presentation of case We report a challenging clinical case of a 38-year old male with right flank pain persisting for 3-months, imaging showed an 8cm heterogenous mass of the upper pole of the right kidney and invading the liver. A right radical nephrectomy including the adrenal in the resection was performed under the tentative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) whereas histology revealed focal XGPN. Discussion Preoperative diagnosis of focal XGPN was difficult because of radiological similarities to RCC and lack of history of stone disease or urinary tract infection. Conclusion This case highlights the need to include XGPN in the differential diagnosis of RCC even in the era of modern imaging. PMID:26684864

  12. Automatic Data Processing to Achieve a Safe Telemedical Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. Methods The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. Results The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Conclusions Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. PMID:20144417

  13. Plasticity and dedifferentiation within the pancreas: development, homeostasis, and disease.

    PubMed

    Puri, Sapna; Folias, Alexandra E; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Cellular identity is established by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that regulate organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Although some flexibility in fate potential is beneficial to overall organ health, dramatic changes in cellular identity can have disastrous consequences. Emerging data within the field of pancreas biology are revising current beliefs about how cellular identity is shaped by developmental and environmental cues under homeostasis and stress conditions. Here, we discuss the changes occurring in cellular states upon fate modulation and address how our understanding of the nature of this fluidity is shaping therapeutic approaches to pancreatic disorders such as diabetes and cancer. PMID:25465113

  14. Plasticity and Dedifferentiation within the Pancreas: Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Sapna; Folias, Alexandra E.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Cellular identity is established by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that regulate organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Although some flexibility in fate potential is beneficial to overall organ health, dramatic changes in cellular identity can have disastrous consequences. Emerging data within the field of pancreas biology are revising current beliefs about how cellular identity is shaped by developmental and environmental cues under homeostasis and stress conditions. Here, we discuss the changes occurring in cellular states upon fate modulation and address how our understanding of the nature of this fluidity is shaping therapeutic approaches to pancreatic disorders such as diabetes and cancer. PMID:25465113

  15. Agent-based model of macrophage action on endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ignacio V; Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando, M Elena; Villares, Ricardo; Mellado, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based model of the action of macrophages on the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas. The aim of this model is to simulate the processes of beta cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the process of phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages, all of which are related to the onset of the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes. We have used data from the scientific literature to design the model. The results show that the model obtains good approximations to real processes and could be used to shed light on some open questions concerning such processes. PMID:23155767

  16. [Preoperative evaluation of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer with a virtual three-dimensional multi-imaging].

    PubMed

    Takemasa, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative palpation around the target organs and an overview of the operative field are difficult to achieve in laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the target organs and the neighboring structures along with a precise preoperative diagnosis is essential in individual cases for completion of an appropriate laparoscopic procedure. A routine virtual three-dimensional multi-imaging integrating PET/MDCT, CT colonography and CT angiography is useful for a precise diagnosis. Local anatomy and patient's features directly affect surgical outcome, especially in the laparoscopic surgery for the rectal cancer. CT pelvimetry is useful for a preoperative prediction of the difficulties of the laparoscopic surgery. These data should be taken into account when planning this procedure. PMID:24597352

  17. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001) and an increased 30-day morbidity rate of 25.9% versus 14.14% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001). The 30-day morbidity rates for all patients undergoing cranial procedures were stratified by diagnosis: 26.5% aneurysm, 24.7% sellar tumor, 19.7% extra-axial tumor, 14.8% intra-axial tumor, 14.4% arteriovenous malformation, and 5.6% pain. Following multivariable regression, the 30-day mortality in anemic patients was threefold higher than in non-anemic patients (4.1% vs 1.3%; OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.66). The odds of postoperative morbidity in anemic patients were significantly higher than in non-anemic patients (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). There was a significant difference in postoperative morbidity event odds with a hematocrit level above (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.48) and below (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55-3.42) 33% [hemoglobin (Hgb) 11 g/dl]. Conclusions: Preoperative anemia in elective cranial neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID:25422784

  18. Nonepithelial Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation, Part 1-Benign Tumors: From the Radiologic Pathology Archives.

    PubMed

    Manning, Maria A; Srivastava, Amogh; Paal, Edina E; Gould, Charles F; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Solid and cystic pancreatic neoplasms are being recognized more frequently with increasing utilization and spatial resolution of modern imaging techniques. In addition to the more common primary pancreatic solid (ductal adenocarcinoma) and cystic neoplasms of epithelial origin, nonepithelial neoplasms of the pancreas may appear as well-defined solid or cystic neoplasms. Most of these lesions have characteristic imaging features, such as a well-defined border, which allows differentiation from ductal adenocarcinoma. Solid masses include neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma, leiomyoma, lipoma, and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). Schwannomas and desmoid tumors can be solid or cystic. Cystic tumors include mature cystic teratoma and lymphangioma. Lipoma, PEComa, and mature cystic teratoma can contain fat, and ganglioneuroma and mature cystic teratoma may contain calcification. Although these unusual benign neoplasms are rare, the radiologist should at least consider them in the differential diagnosis of well-defined lesions of the pancreas. The goal of this comprehensive review is to improve understanding of these rare primary pancreatic mesenchymal tumors. PMID:26761535

  19. The Human Pancreas Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallstrm, Bjrn M.; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Uhln, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects. PMID:25546435

  20. Glomus Tumors: A Review of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Satellite Lesions.

    PubMed

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Glomus tumors are malformations of the neuromyoarterial system that commonly develop in the digits and cause exquisite tenderness, especially with cold temperatures. Treatment typically involves surgical excision, although there is a tendency to avoid aggressive resections, which may lead to aesthetically displeasing nail plate deformities. In a minority of patients, symptoms may persist and the tumor may recur. The etiology of the persistent of symptoms is debatable. One theory for the persistence of symptoms is an incomplete initial excision of the glomus tumor. Another theory suggests that clinically unapparent satellite lesions exist at the time of diagnosis that are not excised, and they later mature into symptomatic recurrent tumors. Although not clinically visible, if present, these satellite lesions should be seen on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The authors reviewed all cases of pathology-confirmed glomus tumors in the past 7 years at a single institution in which preoperative magnetic resonance imaging using a high-powered 3.0 Tesla (General Electric, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) magnet was performed. Six cases met inclusion criteria and only 1 case developed a recurrent glomus tumor. None of the cases were found to have satellite lesions associated with the primary glomus tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. Preventing recurrence seems to be dependent on the completeness of the initial excision. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable tool used to delineate the extent of the tumor for surgical planning. PMID:26488783

  1. Pre-operatively misdiagnosed undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver: analysis of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanzhuo; Cai, Quanyu; Jia, Ningyang; Chen, Dong; Lu, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinical features of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) to improve its preoperative diagnostic accuracy. Methods The clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings of 16 UESL patients whose disease was pathologically confirmed but preoperatively misdiagnosed were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among these 16 patients, 9 were clinically misdiagnosed as primary liver cancer, 3 as hepatoblastoma, and 4 as malignant hepatic mass. In 12 patients who were presented due to abdominal discomfort, ultrasound showed that predominantly solid lesions, whereas computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated predominantly cystic masses within irregular soft tissue. Contrast-enhanced imaging showed enhancement intralesional foci, multiple internal septations, and edges. The postoperative pathology showed the cutting surface of tumors was variegated, with solid and cystic gelatinous areas, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules were commonly present among cancer cells. Conclusions UESL is a rare clinical condition without specific clinical manifestations. The inconsistencies between ultrasound and CT/MRI findings may be helpful to improve the preoperative diagnosis accuracy. PMID:26807408

  2. Preoperative evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Vikas; Khaitan, Leena

    2015-06-01

    GERD is a common problem. If prolonged therapy is needed, the patient should have at least an endoscopy to assess for complications of GERD. If a surgical treatment is being considered, a thorough preoperative evaluation should be done to confirm the presence of pathologic GERD. Studies that should be done before a procedure include ambulatory pH testing, esophageal function testing, endoscopy, and esophagram. Nonacid ambulatory studies can be done in those who seem to be suffering from nonacid reflux with careful note of symptom correlation. Gastric emptying studies should be done if gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction is suspected. Esophageal motility disorders should be assessed with manometry, especially to evaluate for achalasia, which can mimic reflux. PMID:25965134

  3. Pancoast tumors: characteristics and preoperative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasilios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Hatzimichalis, Antonios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kesisis, Georgios; Siminelakis, Stavros; Madesis, Athanasios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumors (SSTs), or as otherwise known Pancoast tumors, make up a clinically unique and challenging subset of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). Although the outcome of patients with this disease has traditionally been poor, recent developments have contributed to a significant improvement in prognosis of SST patients. The combination of severe and unrelenting shoulder and arm pain along the distribution of the eighth cervical and first and second thoracic nerve trunks, Horner’s syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis) and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles comprises a clinical entity named as “Pancoast-Tobias syndrome”. Apart NSCLC, other lesions may, although less frequently, result in Pancoast syndrome. In the current review we will present the main characteristics of the disease and focus on the preoperative assessment. PMID:24672686

  4. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  5. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Naheed

    2015-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only when combined with other respiratory muscle exercises. Volume-based inspiratory devices have the best results. Pharmacotherapy of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be optimised before considering the patient for elective surgery. Beta 2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and systemic corticosteroids, are the main drugs used for this and several drugs play an adjunctive role in medical therapy. A graded approach has been suggested to manage these patients for elective surgery with an aim to achieve optimal pulmonary function. PMID:26556913

  6. The Preoperative Assessment of Multiple Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh-Gray, D.; Gerein, A.

    1964-01-01

    Representative case histories are used to discuss the difficulties in preoperative assessment of patients with multiple valve disease and the dangers of correcting one lesion when two or more valves are seriously damaged. Errors fall into three broad categories: existing second valve disease (1) may not be suspected, (2) may be considered insignificant or (3) may be considered a consequence of the first. Recommendations are offered to minimize these errors. The four valves should be studied physiologically, no matter how normal the other three may appear to be clinically, whenever open-heart surgery is contemplated. In bivalvular disease angiographic methods are preferable to pressure studies, for data so obtained are not dependent on cardiac output. Mitral and tricuspid regurgitation can never be attributed with certainty to a more distal lesion but require direct examination at time of operation for assessment. PMID:14199819

  7. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  8. Prevention and Intervention Strategies to Alleviate Preoperative Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristi D.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Finley, G. Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been…

  9. Prevention and Intervention Strategies to Alleviate Preoperative Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristi D.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Finley, G. Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been

  10. Role of Connexins and Pannexins in the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cigliola, Valentina; Allagnat, Florent; Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Lamprianou, Smaragda; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    The pancreas produces enzymes with a digestive function and hormones with a metabolic function, which are produced by distinct cell types of acini and islets, respectively. Within these units, secretory cells coordinate their functioning by exchanging information via signals that flow in the intercellular spaces and are generated either at distance (several neural and hormonal inputs) or nearby the pancreatic cells themselves (inputs mediated by membrane ionic-specific channels and by ionic- and metabolite-permeant pannexin channels and connexin "hemichannels"). Pancreatic secretory cells further interact via the extracellular matrix of the pancreas (inputs mediated by integrins) and directly with neighboring cells, by mechanisms that do not require extracellular mediators (inputs mediated by gap and tight junction channels). Here, we review the expression and function of the connexins and pannexins that are expressed by the main secretory cells of the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Available data show that the patterns of expression of these proteins differ in acini and islets, supporting distinct functions in the physiological secretion of pancreatic enzymes and hormones. Circumstantial evidence further suggests that alterations in the signaling provided by these proteins are involved in pancreatic diseases. PMID:26465951

  11. Conservative resection for benign tumors of the proximal pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai; Dong, Xin; Gao, Shun-Liang; Wu, Yu-Lian

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and long-term prognosis of conservative resection (CR) for benign or borderline tumor of the proximal pancreas. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients who underwent CR at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between April 2000 and October 2008. For pancreaticojejunostomy, a modified invagination method, continuous circular invaginated pancreaticojejunostomy (CCI-PJ) was used. Modified continuous closed lavage (MCCL) was performed for patients with pancreatic fistula. RESULTS: The indications were: serous cystadenomas in eight patients, insulinomas in six, non-functional islet cell tumors in three and solid pseudopapillary tumors in three. Perioperative mortality was zero and morbidity was 25%. Overall, pancreatic fistula was present in 25% of patients. At a mean follow up of 42.7 mo, all patients were alive with no recurrence and no new-onset diabetes mellitus or exocrine dysfunction. CONCLUSION: CR is a safe and effective procedure for patients with benign tumors in the proximal pancreas, with careful CCI-PJ and postoperative MCCL. PMID:19705501

  12. Exocytosis of insulin: in vivo maturation of mouse endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rozzo, Aldo; Meneghel-Rozzo, Tiziana; Delakorda, Sasa Lipovsek; Yang, Shi-Bing; Rupnik, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define when an insulin-positive cell becomes functional in vivo and starts to exocytose insulin in a regulated nutrient-dependent manner. Insulin-positive cells appear in embryonic life (midgestation) and complete their maturation, presumably around birth. In order to work with embryonic and newborn endocrine pancreas, we used organotypic slices. The mouse embryonic pancreas slices show high basal insulin release that is not further elevated by high glucose levels. Despite the presence of functional voltage-activated ion channels, the cells are not electrically active in the presence of secretagogues. At birth, the high basal insulin release drops and, after postnatal day 2, the insulin-positive cells show both adult-like bursting electrical activity and hormone release induced by high glucose levels. These properties allowed us to define them as beta cells. Despite the apparent stability of the transcription factor profile reported in insulin-positive cells during late-embryonic life, functional beta cells appear only 2 days after birth. PMID:19161376

  13. Endothelium-derived essential signals involved in pancreas organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Talavera-Adame, Dodanim; Dafoe, Donald C

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for pancreas differentiation, endocrine specification, and endocrine function. They are also involved in the physiopathology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. During embryogenesis, aortic ECs provide specific factors that maintain the expression of key genes for pancreas development such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1. Other unknown factors are also important for pancreatic endocrine specification and formation of insulin-producing beta cells. Endocrine precursors proliferate interspersed with ductal cells and exocrine precursors and, at some point of development, these endocrine precursors migrate to pancreatic mesenchyme and start forming the islets of Langerhans. By the end of the gestation and close to birth, these islets contain immature beta cells with the capacity to express vascular endothelial growth factor and therefore to recruit ECs from the surrounding microenvironment. ECs in turn produce factors that are essential to maintain insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Once assembled, a cross talk between endocrine cells and ECs maintain the integrity of islets toward an adequate function during the whole life of the adult individual. This review will focus in the EC role in the differentiation and maturation of pancreatic beta cells during embryogenesis as well as the current knowledge about the involvement of endothelium to derive pancreatic beta cells in vitro from mouse or human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25992319

  14. Pdx1 regulates pancreas tubulogenesis and E-cadherin expression.

    PubMed

    Marty-Santos, Leilani; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts in developing treatments for diabetes focus on in vitro generation of functional ?-cells for cell replacement therapies; however, these attempts have only been partly successful because factors involved in islet formation remain incompletely understood. The embryonic pancreas, which gives rise to ?-cells, undergoes early epithelial rearrangements, including transient stratification of an initially monolayered epithelium, followed by microlumen formation and later resolution into branches. Within the epithelium, a multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population is specified, giving rise to three important lineages: acinar, ductal and endocrine. Pdx1 is a transcription factor required for pancreas development and lineage specification; however, few Pdx1 targets that regulate pancreatogenesis have been identified. We find that pancreatic defects in Pdx1(-/-) embryos initiate at the time when the progenitor pool is specified and the epithelium should resolve into branches. Pdx1(-/-) microlumen diameters expand aberrantly, resulting in failure of epithelial tubulogenesis and ductal plexus formation. Pdx1(-/-) epithelial cell proliferation is decreased and the MPC pool is rapidly lost. We identify two conserved Pdx1 binding sites in the epithelial cadherin (E-cad, Cdh1) promoter, and show that Pdx1 directly binds and activates E-cad transcription. In addition, Pdx1 is required in vivo for maintenance of E-cad expression, actomyosin complex activity and cell shape. These findings demonstrate a novel link between regulators of epithelial architecture, specification of pancreatic cell fate and organogenesis. PMID:26657766

  15. Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Lopes, Camila; Velloso, Fernando J.; Campopiano, Julia C.; Sogayar, Mari C.; Correa, Ricardo G.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities. PMID:26347203

  16. Endothelium-derived essential signals involved in pancreas organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Talavera-Adame, Dodanim; Dafoe, Donald C

    2015-05-20

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for pancreas differentiation, endocrine specification, and endocrine function. They are also involved in the physiopathology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. During embryogenesis, aortic ECs provide specific factors that maintain the expression of key genes for pancreas development such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1. Other unknown factors are also important for pancreatic endocrine specification and formation of insulin-producing beta cells. Endocrine precursors proliferate interspersed with ductal cells and exocrine precursors and, at some point of development, these endocrine precursors migrate to pancreatic mesenchyme and start forming the islets of Langerhans. By the end of the gestation and close to birth, these islets contain immature beta cells with the capacity to express vascular endothelial growth factor and therefore to recruit ECs from the surrounding microenvironment. ECs in turn produce factors that are essential to maintain insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Once assembled, a cross talk between endocrine cells and ECs maintain the integrity of islets toward an adequate function during the whole life of the adult individual. This review will focus in the EC role in the differentiation and maturation of pancreatic beta cells during embryogenesis as well as the current knowledge about the involvement of endothelium to derive pancreatic beta cells in vitro from mouse or human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25992319

  17. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki )

    1988-04-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

  18. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation with duodeno-duodenal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Khubutia, M; Pinchuk, A; Dmitriev, I; Storozhev, R

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT) is now accepted as the method of choice for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I) who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We believe that retroperitoneal positioning of the donor pancreas with the formation of duodeno-duodenal anastomosis is the most physiologically relevant. Starting in January 2008, the SPKT was chosen as the treatment method of 32 patients with diabetes mellitus. In 15 cases comprising group I (46.9%), the pancreas was placed intra-abdominally (including the formation of the duodeno-jejunal anastomosis). In the remaining 17 patients (53.1%) comprising group II, the pancreas was positioned retroperitoneally (including the formation of the duodeno-duodenal anastomosis). We compared the main parameters of the early postoperative period in these groups. There were no substantial differences between the groups in the prevalence of immunological (13.3% and 11.8%, P = .9), surgical (20% and 23.5%, P = .81), and infectious complications (20% and 5.9%, P = .23). On discharge there were no significant differences in the values of the following between the two groups, respectively: serum creatinine values, 112.7 ± 31.2 and 104.8 ± 54.6 μmol/L, P = .17; glomerular filtration rate, 73.5 ± 28.6 and 78.7 ± 24.9 mL/min, P = .55; α-amylase, 121.9 ± 63.6 and 150.1 ± 72.1 U/L, P = .27; pancreatic amylase, 102 ± 51.5 and 122.5 ± 75.4 U/L, P = .6; lipase, 115.4 ± 67.3 and 96 ± 65.7 U/L, P = .5; С-peptide, 4.44 ± 1.9 and 4.02 ± 2.4 ng/mL, P = .47; HbA1c, 5.45 ± 0.8% and 5.56 ± 1.12%, P = .9; and intact insulin, 12.2 ± 5.4 and 12.9 ± 8.8 mcIU/mL, P = .95). SPKT remains the best method of medical and social rehabilitation for patients who have diabetes mellitus (type-I) with ESRD. Compared to the classic method, we have seen no significant deviations in either of the following: the qualitative features marking the restoration of function of the two transplanted organs and/or the quality of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism, incidence of rejection, and graft loss. At the same time, retroperitoneal positioning of the pancreas exhibited lower repeat surgery rates. PMID:25131067

  19. [Application of a preoperative evaluation model in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, C; Risso, J; Khoury, M; Torn, A; Noel, M; Baredes, N; Mariscal, C; Rosenbaum, G; Nallar, M; Sarotto, L; Ferraina, P

    2000-01-01

    We used a preoperative evaluation model based on the clinical history in order to determine the clinical characteristics of the patients. We also estimated the prevalence of asymptomatic disease in ASA1 patients and described the frequency of diagnosis that motivated suspension of the surgery during the preoperative time. Another purpose was to establish the perioperative complications according to the risk index and to detect the medical reasons for suspension of surgery during hospitalization. A total of 777 patients having an indication of surgery were evaluated in this program. Only 507 completed the preoperative evaluation. Of these, 57.79%, had at least one known disease or were diagnosed by their clinical history. Preoperative tests were indicated according to age in ASA1 patients. Complementary studies were indicated in relationship to the history and physical examination in ASA2 and ASA3 patients. After the evaluation, 27 surgeries were suspended: 21 were considered high risk, 2 suffered unknown active infections, and 4 ASA1 patients had severe asymptomatic anemia. A total of 328 patients were admitted for surgery. In 5 of these patients the anesthesiologist stopped the procedure in the operating room. The causes were acute decompensations of known pathologies. There were no complications or deaths related to unknown diseases and no patients died from cardiopulmonary or metabolic complications. In ASA1 patients, there were no complications related to this evaluation. This study allowed us to determine the clinical status of the patients and in consequence high-risk surgeries were canceled. In admitted patients a few surgeries were canceled for clinical reasons. This program probably decreased patient morbimortality, unnecessary hospitalization and costs. PMID:10835709

  20. Polymyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. In PM, the ...

  1. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Diagnosis Language: English Espaol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... anthrax. The only ways to confirm an Anthrax diagnosis are: To measure antibodies or toxin in blood ...

  2. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan . E-mail: dbsgzy@nus.edu.sg

    2006-05-15

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development.

  3. Acute graft-versus-host disease following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Asari, Sadaki; Matsumoto, Ippei; Toyama, Hirochika; Shinzeki, Makoto; Goto, Tadahiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Shirakawa, Sachiyo; Yamashita, Hironori; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2015-12-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a rare complication in the setting of pancreas-kidney transplantation (PKT). We herein describe the case of a 37-year-old male with severe type 1 diabetes with chronic renal failure who received simultaneous PKT from a female donor. Diarrhea developed on postoperative day (POD) 10. Subsequently, fever and liver dysfunction occurred on POD 32. Skin rashes appeared with pain and itching on his trunk and extremities on POD 40. As pancytopenia occurred on POD 63, bone marrow biopsies demonstrated profound hypoplastic marrow. On POD 69, we eventually made a definitive diagnosis of aGVHD because skin biopsies revealed the XX chromosome signal in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Thereafter, 100mg of prednisolone was administered for 5days. Although every symptom was temporarily improved, on POD 156, the patient expired from the septic pneumonia without any effects of antibiotics. Clinician should be aware that PKT has the potential to induce aGVHD. PMID:25373363

  4. Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking carcinoma of the head of the pancreas: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We report on a case of autoimmune pancreatitis presenting as pancreatic head cancer, which is extremely rare in Iran. Currently, on the PubMed database, no such cases exist. Case presentation A 70-year-old Iranian man presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice and elevated bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a heterogeneous presence in the pancreatic head as well as dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. A common bile duct stent had been inserted. Our patient was subsequently diagnosed with pancreatic head cancer. Due to his continued recurrent abdominal pain, our patient returned to the hospital. His levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and tumor markers were all normal but his immunoglobulin G4 and antinuclear antibodies were extremely high. A biopsy of the pancreatic head heterogeneity by endoscopic ultrasonography was performed. Pathologic samples showed fibrosis associated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis was confirmed, the bile duct stent removed, and an appropriate treatment plan was undertaken. Conclusion Autoimmune pancreatitis should be considered in suspected cases of pancreatic cancer. In these instances, a biopsy of the pancreas will help to differentiate between the two and prevent complications due to disease progression as well as unnecessary surgery. PMID:22236871

  5. Estrogen Receptor ? Regulates ?-Cell Formation During Pancreas Development and Following Injury.

    PubMed

    Yuchi, Yixing; Cai, Ying; Legein, Bart; De Groef, Sofie; Leuckx, Gunter; Coppens, Violette; Van Overmeire, Eva; Staels, Willem; De Leu, Nico; Martens, Geert; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Heimberg, Harry; Van de Casteele, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Identifying pathways for ?-cell generation is essential for cell therapy in diabetes. We investigated the potential of 17?-estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling for stimulating ?-cell generation during embryonic development and in the severely injured adult pancreas. E2 concentration, ER activity, and number of ER? transcripts were enhanced in the pancreas injured by partial duct ligation (PDL) along with nuclear localization of ER? in ?-cells. PDL-induced proliferation of ?-cells depended on aromatase activity. The activation of Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) gene expression and ?-cell growth in PDL pancreas were impaired when ER? was turned off chemically or genetically (ER?(-/-)), whereas in situ delivery of E2 promoted ?-cell formation. In the embryonic pancreas, ?-cell replication, number of Ngn3(+) progenitor cells, and expression of key transcription factors of the endocrine lineage were decreased by ER? inactivation. The current study reveals that E2 and ER? signaling can drive ?-cell replication and formation in mouse pancreas. PMID:26015547

  6. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-01

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer. PMID:23438436

  7. ECM Signaling Regulates Collective Cellular Dynamics to Control Pancreas Branching Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hung Ping; Panlasigui, Devin; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Sander, Maike

    2016-01-12

    During pancreas development, epithelial buds undergo branching morphogenesis to form an exocrine and endocrine gland. Proper morphogenesis is necessary for correct lineage allocation of pancreatic progenitors; however, the cellular events underlying pancreas morphogenesis are unknown. Here, we employed time-lapse microscopy and fluorescent labeling of cells to analyze cell behaviors associated with pancreas morphogenesis. We observed that outer bud cells adjacent to the basement membrane are pleomorphic and rearrange frequently; additionally, they largely remain in the outer cell compartment even after mitosis. These cell behaviors and pancreas branching depend on cell contacts with the basement membrane, which induce actomyosin cytoskeleton remodeling via integrin-mediated activation of FAK/Src signaling. We show that integrin signaling reduces E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in outer cells and provide genetic evidence that this regulation is necessary for initiation of branching. Our study suggests that regulation of cell motility and adhesion bylocal niche cues initiates pancreas branching morphogenesis. PMID:26748698

  8. [Incretin-based antidiabetic treatment and diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma)].

    PubMed

    Jermendy, György

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years incretin-based antidiabetic drugs became increasingly popular and widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Immediately after launching, case reports and small case series were published on the potential side effects of the new drugs, with special attention to pancreatic disorders such as acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. As clinical observations accumulated, these side-effects were noted with nearly all drugs of this class. Although these side-effects proved to be rare, an intensive debate evolved in the literature. Opinion of diabetes specialists and representatives of pharmaceutical industry as well as position statements of different international scientific boards and health authorities were published. In addition, results of randomized clinical trials with incretin-based therapy and meta-analyses became available. Importantly, in everyday clinical practice, the label of the given drug should be followed. With regards to incretins, physicians should be cautious if pancreatitis in the patients' past medical history is documented. Early differential diagnosis of any abdominal pain during treatment of incretin-based therapy should be made and the drug should be discontinued if pancreatitis is verified. Continuous post-marketing surveillance and side-effect analysis are still justified with incretin-based antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(14), 523-528. PMID:27017851

  9. Treatment of cancer of the pancreas by precision high dose (PHD) external photon beam and intraoperative electron beam therapy (IOEBT)

    SciTech Connect

    Dobelbower, R.R. Jr.; Howard, J.M.; Bagne, F.R.; Eltaki, A.; Merrick, H.W. III

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with a diagnosis of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were explored in the Clement O. Miniger (COMROC) IOEBT operating amphitheater at the Medical College of Ohio. Seventeen were treated with IOEBT (20-30 Gy, 15 or 18 meV electrons) PHD external beam radiation therapy (40-60 Gy, 1.8 Gy per fraction) plus appropriate operative biliary and gastrointestinal bypass procedures. No intraoperative complications were observed. Two patients died of causes that may have been treatment-related. Two patients developed abdominocutaneous fistulae. Pain was ameliorated in eleven of twelve patients. Jaundice was relieved in all patients. Four of ten patients with weight loss showed a reversal of that trend. Patient survival was not significantly different from that of patients treated with high-dose precision therapy alone.

  10. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm with expansile invasive carcinoma of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Ayako; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kodama, Yuzo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Adachi, Souichi; Haga, Hironori

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the pancreas, a novel entity included in the World Health Organization 2010 classification, accounts for <1% of all pancreatic exocrine neoplasms and the number of reported cases is limited in the English literature. Herein we describe the cytologic features of ITPN with invasive carcinoma showing expansile growth on endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology. A 74-year-old male patient is presented with a 6.2 cm irregular mass in the head of the pancreas. Microscopic examination of EUS-FNA material showed abundant branching clusters of cells, with some scattered discohesive cells. High power magnification revealed tubular and cribriform patterns with central lumina, containing mucinous or proteinaceous secretions. The constituent cells were relatively uniform and showed mild to intermediate nuclear atypia. Intracytoplasmic mucin was not identified. On cell-block preparation, luminal spaces of clusters contained wispy luminal mucin. Immunohistochemically, constituent cells were positive for MUC1 and MUC6, and were negative for MUC5AC. The large cribriform and tubular clusters with luminal spaces containing wispy mucin were considered to be diagnostic clues for the cytologic diagnosis of ITPN by EUS-FNA. MUC1, MUC6, and MUC5AC immunohistochemistry for cell-block preparation appears to be a useful adjunctive tool to confirm the diagnosis. On EUS-FNA, ITPN should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion showing good circumscription. PMID:24339429

  11. [Pancreas transplantation: a survey on indications, surgical techniques, immunosuppression, complications and outcome].

    PubMed

    Drognitz, O; Hopt, U T

    2003-10-01

    Since its introduction in 1966, pancreas transplantation has undergone considerable progress. Refinements in surgical technique, better organ preservation solutions, and more potent immunosuppressive therapies have improved patient and graft-survival rates dramatically. Survival rates for patient and pancreas at 1 year approach 95 and 83 %, resp., for simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, and 97 and 78 %, resp., for pancreas alone. US pancreas graft and patient survival rates do not significantly differ from the results of the European centers. However, there is still a hesitant acceptance of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation in Germany. Combined pancreas-kidney transplantation is nowadays the treatment of choice in carefully selected patients with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal failure. Many US centers even advocate combined transplantation in diabetic patients at a pre-uremic stage. Pancreas transplantation significantly improves quality of life and provides excellent long-term glycemic control which halts or even ameliorates secondary diabetic complications such as microangiopathy and neuropathy. In addition, there is increasing evidence that successful pancreas transplantation significantly prolongs patient survival mainly by a reduction of cardiovascular-related mortality. Current 10-year patient survival rate after SPK exceeds 70 %. For diabetics with end-stage renal disease there is no alternative treatment available with comparable live expectancy. However, morbidity and mortality after SPK is still higher than for kidney transplantation alone in the first year. Outcome of isolated pancreas transplantation is also improving but this technique is still restricted to non-uremic patients with severe diabetic complications or with brittle diabetes and severe impairment of quality of life. PMID:14628231

  12. Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization for Extended Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hemming, Alan W.; Reed, Alan I.; Howard, Richard J.; Fujita, Shiro; Hochwald, Steven N.; Caridi, James G.; Hawkins, Irvin F.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine the authors experience with preoperative ipsilateral portal vein embolization (PVE) and assess its role in extended hepatectomy. Summary Background Data Extended hepatectomy (five or more liver segments) has been associated with higher complication rates and increased postoperative liver dysfunction than have standard hepatic resections involving lesser volumes. Recently, PVE has been used in patients who have a predicted (postresection) future liver remnant (FLR) volume less than 25% of total liver volume in an attempt to increase the FLR and reduce complications. Methods Sixty patients from 1996 to 2002 were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients had PVE preoperatively. Eight patients who had PVE were not resected either due to the discovery of additional unresectable disease after embolization but before surgery (n = 5) or due to unresectable disease at surgery (n = 3). Therefore, 31 patients who had PVE subsequently underwent extended hepatic lobectomy. A comparable cohort of 21 patients who had an extended hepatectomy without PVE were selected on the basis of demographic, tumor, and liver volume characteristics. Patients had colorectal liver metastases (n = 30), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 15), Klatskin tumors (n = 9), peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (n = 3), and other tumors (n = 3). The 52 resections performed included 42 extended right hepatectomies, 6 extended left hepatectomies, and 4 right hepatectomies extended to include the middle hepatic vein and the caudate lobe but preserving the majority of segment 4. Concomitant vascular reconstruction of either the inferior vena cava or hepatic veins was performed in five patients. Results There were no differences between PVE and non-PVE groups in terms of tumor number, tumor size, tumor type, surgical margin status, complexity of operation, or perioperative red cell transfusion requirements. The predicted FLR was similar between PVE and non-PVE groups at presentation. After PVE the FLR was higher than in the non-PVE group. No complications were observed after PVE before resection. There was no difference in postoperative mortality, with one death from liver failure in the non-PVE group and no operative mortality in the PVE group. Postoperative peak bilirubin was higher in the non-PVE than the PVE group, as were postoperative fresh-frozen plasma requirements. Liver failure (defined as the development of encephalopathy, ascites requiring sustained diuretics or paracentesis, or coagulopathy unresponsive to vitamin K requiring fresh-frozen plasma after the first 24 hours postresection) was higher in the non-PVE patients than the PVE patients. The hospital stay was longer in the non-PVE than the PVE group. Conclusions Preoperative PVE is a safe and effective method of increasing the remnant liver volume before extended hepatectomy. Increasing the remnant liver volume in patients with estimated postresection volumes of less than 25% appears to reduce postoperative liver dysfunction. PMID:12724635

  13. Preoperative Sleep Disruption and Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Sands, Laura P.; Newman, Stacey; Meckler, Gabriela; Xie, Yimeng; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe preoperative and postoperative sleep disruption and its relationship to postoperative delirium. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6 time points (3 nights pre-hospitalization and 3 nights post-surgery). Setting: University medical center. Patients: The sample consisted of 50 English-speaking patients ? 40 years of age scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery, with an anticipated hospital stay ? 3 days. Interventions: None. Measurements and results: Sleep was measured before and after surgery for a total of 6 days using a wrist actigraph to quantify movement in a continuous fashion. Postoperative delirium was measured by a structured interview using the Confusion Assessment Method. Sleep variables for patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 43) postoperative delirium were compared using the unpaired Student t-tests or ?2 tests. Repeated measures analysis of variance for the 6 days was used to examine within-subject changes over time and between group differences. The mean age of the patients was 66 11 years (range 4391 years), and it was not associated with sleep variables or postoperative delirium. The incidence of postoperative delirium observed during any of the 3 postoperative days was 14%. For the 7 patients who subsequently developed postoperative delirium, wake after sleep onset (WASO) as a percentage of total sleep time was significantly higher (44% 22%) during the night before surgery compared to the patients who did not subsequently developed delirium (21% 20%, p = 0.012). This sleep disruption continued postoperatively, and to a greater extent, for the first 2 nights after surgery. Patients with WASO < 10% did not experience postoperative delirium. Self-reported sleep disturbance did not differ between patients with vs. without postoperative delirium. Conclusions: In this pilot study of adults over 40 years of age, sleep disruption was more severe before surgery in the patients who experienced postoperative delirium. A future larger study is necessary to confirm our results and determine if poor sleep is associated with delirium in larger samples and what specific sleep problems best predict postoperative delirium in older surgical patients. Citation: Leung JM, Sands LP, Newman S, Meckler G, Xie Y, Gay G, Lee K. Preoperative sleep disruption and postoperative delirium. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):907913. PMID:25979094

  14. Preoperative predictive factors for parathyroid carcinoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yenna; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Young Joo; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Do Jun; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Sang Wan

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the clinical characteristics of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and to evaluate potential preoperative predictive factors for PC in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We performed a retrospective review of electronic medical records of 194 patients with pathologically confirmed PHPT in affiliated teaching hospitals of Seoul National University from January 2000 to March 2011. Adenoma was diagnosed in 171 patients, hyperplasia in 12, and carcinoma in 11. Several biochemical measurements were higher in patients with PC than in patients with benign disease, including serum total calcium (P < 0.001), intact parathyroid hormone (P = 0.003), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P < 0.001). Tumors were larger in PC than in benign disease (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum ALP level (P < 0.001) and tumor size were associated with PC (P = 0.03). Tumor size and serum ALP level were evaluated as preoperative predictive factors for PC using ROC analyses: a tumor size of 3.0 cm (sensitivity 90.9%, specificity 92.1%) and serum ALP level of 285 IU/L (83.3%, 97.0%) had predictive value for the diagnosis of PC in patients with PHPT. In conclusion, elevated serum ALP and a large parathyroid mass at the time of diagnosis can be helpful to predict PC in patients with PHPT. PMID:22876055

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Gadofluorine P and Gd-DOTA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye Rim; Lee, Youkyung; Doble, Philip; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Kyong Soo; Choi, Seung Hong; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the performance of Gadofluorine P-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the diagnosis of diabetes in a streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rat model. METHODS: Fischer 344 rats were treated with STZ. Rats not treated with STZ served as controls. T1-weighted MRI was performed using a 3T scanner before and after the injection of Gd-DOTA or Gadofluorine P (6 diabetic rats, 5 controls). The normalized signal intensity (SI) and the enhancement ratio (ER) of the pancreas were measured at each time point, and the values were compared between the normal and diabetic rats using the Mann-Whitney test. In addition, the values were correlated with the mean islet number. Optimal cut-off values were calculated using a positive test based on receiver operating characteristics. Intrapancreatic Gd concentration after the injection of each contrast media was measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in a separate set of rats (4 diabetic rats, 4 controls for Gadofluorine P; 2, 2 for Gd-DOTA). RESULTS: The normalized SI and ER of the pancreas using Gd-DOTA were not significantly different between diabetic rats and controls. With Gadofluorine P, the values were significantly higher in the diabetic rats than in the control rats 30 min after injection (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve that differentiated diabetic rats from the control group was greater for Gadofluorine P than for Gd-DOTA (0.967 vs 0.667, P = 0.085). An increase in normalized SI 30 min after Gadofluorine P was correlated with a decrease in the mean number of islets (r2 = 0.510, P = 0.014). Intra-pancreatic Gd was higher in rats with Gadofluorine P injection than Gd-DOTA injection (Gadofluorine P vs Gd-DOTA, 7.37 vs 0.00, P < 0.01). A significant difference in the concentration of intrapancreatic Gd was observed between the control and diabetic animals that were sacrificed 30 min after Gadofluorine P injection (control vs diabetic, 3.25 ng/g vs 10.55 ng/g, P < 0.05) CONCLUSION: In this STZ-induced diabetes rat model, Gadofluorine P-enhanced MRI of the pancreas showed high accuracy in the diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:26019447

  16. Preoperative arterial embolization of large liver hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Topalo?lu, Serdar; O?uz, ?kr; Kalayc?, Orhan; ztrk, M. Halil; al?k, Adnan; Din, Hasan; obano?lu, mit

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative selective intra-arterial embolization (PSIAE) in the surgical treatment of large liver hemangiomas. METHODS Data of 22 patients who underwent resection of large liver hemangiomas were retrospectively analyzed. PSIAE was performed in cases having a high risk of severe blood loss during surgery (n=11), while it was not applied in cases with a low risk of blood loss (n=11). RESULTS A total of 19 enucleations and six anatomic resections were performed. Operative time, intraoperative bleeding amount, Pringle period, and blood transfusion were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05, for all). The perioperative serum aspartate transaminase level was not different between groups (P = 1.000). Perioperative total bilirubin levels were significantly increased in the PSIAE group (P = 0.041). Postoperative hospital stay was longer in the PSIAE group. Surgical complications were comparable between groups (P = 0.476). CONCLUSION Patients who underwent PSIAE due to a high risk of severe blood loss during resection of large liver hemangiomas had comparable operative success as patients with a low risk of blood loss who were operated without PSIAE. Hence, PSIAE can be used for the control of intraoperative blood loss, especially in surgically difficult cases. PMID:25858526

  17. The Preoperative Patient With a Systolic Murmur

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with undifferentiated systolic murmurs present commonly during the perioperative period. Traditional bedside assessment and auscultation has not changed significantly in almost 200 years and relies on interpreting indirect acoustic events as a means of evaluating underlying cardiac pathology. This is notoriously inaccurate, even in expert cardiology hands, since many different valvular and cardiac diseases present with a similar auditory signal. Evidence Acquisition: The data on systolic murmurs, physical examination, perioperative valvular disease in the setting of non-cardiac surgery is reviewed. Results: Significant valvular heart disease increases perioperative risk in major non-cardiac surgery and increases long term patient morbidity and mortality. We propose a more modern approach to physical examination that incorporates the use of focused echocardiography to allow direct visualization of cardiac structure and function. This improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment, allows rational planning of surgery and anaesthesia technique, risk stratification, postoperative monitoring and appropriate referral to physicians and cardiologists. Conclusions: With a thorough preoperative assessment incorporating focused echocardiography, anaesthetists are in the unique position to enhance their role as perioperative physicians and influence short and long term outcomes of their patients. PMID:26705529

  18. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J

    2014-04-01

    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important. PMID:24727874

  19. Preoperative cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lock-Andersen, J.; Rossing, N.; Drzewiecki, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the regional lymph node basins cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m rhenium sulfide colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-ReS) was performed in 45 patients and with technetium 99m antimony sulfide colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-Sb2S3) in seven patients after excisional biopsy of the primary tumor. All patients had skin tumors located in the face or neck or on the trunk with 47 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma and 5 cases of benign or premalignant lesions. In 48 patients the scintiscans 1 hour after perilesional injection of the tracer colloid clearly showed the lymphatic drainage patterns from the tumor sites, of them 25 patients demonstrated unidirectional drainage, whereas the remaining 23 patients had multidirectional drainage to two or three lymph node groups. There were technical difficulties in performing the examinations in four patients. The authors recommend cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy as a safe, simple and reliable technique for mapping the lymphatic drainage preoperatively in patients with Stage I cutaneous malignant melanoma of axial localization.

  20. Computed Tomography Angiography for Preoperative Thoracoabdominal Flap Planning.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ryan B; Robinson, Tracy J; Kozlow, Jeffrey H; Liu, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Mastectomy rates have increased, coinciding with more advanced reconstruction options. Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps decrease abdominal donor site morbidity, but require considerable technical expertise. Preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) can accurately demonstrate DIEA anatomy and perforator courses, facilitating preoperative planning and flap design, allowing for more targeted intraoperative microdissection. Patients who undergo CTA before DIEP flap have better clinical outcomes with shorter operative times and hospital length of stay, which can decrease overall associated health care costs. Future directions include selected imaging of the thoracic anatomy and recipient vasculature, allowing for additional preoperative planning and customization. PMID:26654396

  1. [Problems in the preoperative treatment of old patients].

    PubMed

    Wittig, R

    1975-01-01

    Because of a higher duration of life the age surgical operations get higher importance also in the gynaecology. In elderly patients careful pre-operative treatment gives a reduction of lethality and morbidity. You must consider the shorted functional resources of the heart circulation system and the lungs and kindeys. Disturbances in electrolyte metabolism, water balance and acid-base regulation should optimally be compensated pre-operatively. At the same time the thrombosis prophylactic is a very important fact in the pre-operative treatment. PMID:1202868

  2. Pathway to artificial pancreas systems revisited: moving downstream.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems, a long-sought quest to replicate mechanically islet physiology that is lost in diabetes, are reaching the clinic, and the potential of automating insulin delivery is about to be realized. Significant progress has been made, and the safety and feasibility of AP systems have been demonstrated in the clinical research center and more recently in outpatient "real-world" environments. An iterative road map to AP system development has guided AP research since 2009, but progress in the field indicates that it needs updating. While it is now clear that AP systems are technically feasible, it remains much less certain that they will be widely adopted by clinicians and patients. Ultimately, the true success of AP systems will be defined by successful integration into the diabetes health care system and by the ultimate metric: improved diabetes outcomes. PMID:25998296

  3. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analysis of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Ge, Shundi; Crooks, Gay M

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the immunological reaction of antibodies with antigens in fixed tissues, it is necessary to unmask or retrieve the antigens through pretreatment of the specimens. However, adjustment of heat-induced antigen retrieval is always required for different tissues and antigens. Using a low-power antigen retrieval technique, with appropriate dilution of antibodies, we successfully immunostained key antigens in the pancreas such as insulin, PDX-1, glucagon, cytokeratin, and CD31, which have presented a particular challenge for investigators in the past, because of the rapid autodigestion and high nonspecific antibody binding in the tissue. Satisfactory results were obtained when immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were combined in the same slides. PMID:19504251

  4. Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems: engineering the algorithms.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Huyett, Lauren M; Lee, Joon Bok; Zisser, Howard C; Dassau, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    In this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative, recent advances in both the preclinical and clinical aspects of artificial pancreas (AP) development are described. In the preceding Bench narrative, Kudva and colleagues provide an in-depth understanding of the modified glucoregulatory physiology of type 1 diabetes that will help refine future AP algorithms. In the Clinic narrative presented here, we compare and evaluate AP technology to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. We enumerate the design objectives, variables, and challenges involved in AP development, concluding with a discussion of recent clinical advancements. Thanks to the effective integration of engineering and medicine, the dream of automated glucose regulation is nearing reality. Consistent and methodical presentation of results will accelerate this success, allowing head-to-head comparisons that will facilitate adoption of the AP as a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24757226

  5. Innervation patterns of autonomic axons in the human endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Abdulreda, Midhat H; Formoso, Alexander L; Gans, Itai; Ricordi, Camillo; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system regulates hormone secretion from the endocrine pancreas, the islets of Langerhans, thus impacting glucose metabolism. The parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves innervate the pancreatic islet, but the precise innervation patterns are unknown, particularly in human. Here we demonstrate that the innervation of human islets is different from that of mouse islets and does not conform to existing models of autonomic control of islet function. By visualizing axons in three dimensions and quantifying axonal densities and contacts within pancreatic islets, we found that, unlike mouse endocrine cells, human endocrine cells are sparsely contacted by autonomic axons. Few parasympathetic cholinergic axons penetrate the human islet, and the invading sympathetic fibers preferentially innervate smooth muscle cells of blood vessels located within the islet. Thus, rather than modulating endocrine cell function directly, sympathetic nerves may regulate hormone secretion in human islets by controlling local blood flow or by acting on islet regions located downstream. PMID:21723503

  6. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-04-15

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  7. Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems: Engineering the Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Huyett, Lauren M.; Lee, Joon Bok; Zisser, Howard C.; Dassau, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    In this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative, recent advances in both the preclinical and clinical aspects of artificial pancreas (AP) development are described. In the preceding Bench narrative, Kudva and colleagues provide an in-depth understanding of the modified glucoregulatory physiology of type 1 diabetes that will help refine future AP algorithms. In the Clinic narrative presented here, we compare and evaluate AP technology to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. We enumerate the design objectives, variables, and challenges involved in AP development, concluding with a discussion of recent clinical advancements. Thanks to the effective integration of engineering and medicine, the dream of automated glucose regulation is nearing reality. Consistent and methodical presentation of results will accelerate this success, allowing head-to-head comparisons that will facilitate adoption of the AP as a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24757226

  8. Glucagon in the artificial pancreas: supply and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  9. The Human Endocrine Pancreas: New Insights on Replacement and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Domnguez-Bendala, Juan; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Klein, Dagmar; lvarez-Cubela, Silvia; Pastori, Ricardo L

    2016-03-01

    Islet transplantation is an effective cell therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) but its clinical application is limited due to shortage of donors. After a decade-long period of exploration of potential alternative cell sources, the field has only recently zeroed in on two of them as the most likely to replace islets. These are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) (through directed differentiation) and pancreatic non-endocrine cells (through directed differentiation or reprogramming). Here we review progress in both areas, including the initiation of Phase I/II clinical trials using human embryonic stem cell (hESc)-derived progenitors, advances in hESc differentiation in vitro, novel insights on the developmental plasticity of the pancreas, and groundbreaking new approaches to induce ? cell conversion from the non-endocrine compartment without genetic manipulation. PMID:26774512

  10. Binding characteristics of the muscarinic receptor subtype in rabbit pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwam, A.J.; Willems, P.H.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; de Pont, J.J.; van Ginneken, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor in the rabbit pancreas was characterized with the use of the labeled ligand ({sup 3}H)-(-)-quinuclidinyl-benzylate (({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB). Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB to pancreatic acini was found to be reversible and of high affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 68 pmol/l and a receptor density (RT) of 170 fmol/mg protein. Agonist binding behaviour was investigated by displacement of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by eight agonists like arecoline, arecadine-propargylester (APE) and carbachol, yielding only low affinity binding sites. The inhibition of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by the selective antagonists pirenzepine, hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD) and (11-(2-(diethyl-amino)-methyl-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyr ido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116) confirmed the M3 nature of the rabbit pancreatic receptor.

  11. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates.

    PubMed

    Dalgin, Gkhan; Prince, Victoria E

    2015-06-01

    During development a network of transcription factors functions to differentiate foregut cells into pancreatic endocrine cells. Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels. A fuller understanding of the details of endocrine cell differentiation may contribute to development of cell replacement therapies to treat diabetes. In this study, by using morpholino and gRNA/Cas9 mediated knockdown we establish that differential levels of the basic-helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurod are required for the differentiation of distinct endocrine cell types in developing zebrafish. While Neurod plays a role in the differentiation of all endocrine cells, we find that differentiation of glucagon-expressing alpha cells is disrupted by a minor reduction in Neurod levels, whereas differentiation of insulin-expressing beta cells is less sensitive to Neurod depletion. The endocrine cells that arise during embryonic stages to produce the primary islet, and those that arise subsequently during larval stages from the intra-pancreatic duct (IPD) to ultimately contribute to the secondary islets, show similar dependence on differential Neurod levels. Intriguingly, Neurod-deficiency triggers premature formation of endocrine precursors from the IPD during early larval stages. However, the Neurod-deficient endocrine precursors fail to differentiate appropriately, and the larvae are unable to maintain normal glucose levels. In summary, differential levels of Neurod are required to generate endocrine pancreas subtypes from precursors during both embryonic and larval stages, and Neurod function is in turn critical to endocrine function. PMID:25797153

  12. Pancreas transplant alone: a procedure coming of age.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, Rainer W G; Gruessner, Angelika C

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this review is to highlight the significant improvements, over the past four decades, in outcomes after a pancreas transplant alone (PTA) in patients with brittle diabetes and recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and/or hypoglycemic unawareness. A successful PTA-in contrast to intensive insulin regimens and insulin pumps-restores normoglycemia without the risk of hypoglycemia and prevents, halts, or reverses the development or progression of secondary diabetes complications. In this International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR) analysis, we reviewed the records of 1,929 PTA recipients from December 1966 to December 2011. We computed graft survival rates according to the Kaplan-Meier method and used uni- and multivariate analyses. In the most recent era (January 2007-December 2011), patient survival rates were >95% at 1 year posttransplant and >90% at 5 years. Graft survival rates with tacrolimus-based maintenance therapy were 86% at 1 year and 69% at 3 years and with sirolimus, 94 and 84%. Graft survival rates have significantly improved owing to marked decreases in technical and immunologic graft failure rates (P < 0.05). As a result, the need for a subsequent kidney transplant has significantly decreased, over time, to only 6% at 5 years. With patient survival rates of almost 100% and graft survival rates of up to 94% at 1 year, a PTA is now a highly successful long-term option. It should be considered in nonuremic patients with brittle diabetes in order to achieve normoglycemia, to avoid hypoglycemia, and to prevent the development or progression of secondary diabetes complications. PMID:23881967

  13. Secretin-enhanced MR Imaging of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Riccardo; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Secretin is a hormone that stimulates the exocrine pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate-rich fluid from the acinar cells of the pancreas that accumulates within the pancreatic ductal lumen. The exogenous administration of secretin improves the visualization of pancreatic ducts at magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), because of an enlargement of the pancreatic duct system and an increase of the fluid content within the lumen of the pancreatic ducts, responsible of an increase of MR signal. In this review, the technique of secretin-enhanced MRCP, which has the aim to depict the whole pancreatic duct system, the biliary tree, the major and minor papillae, and the duodenum, will be described. Because of the anatomic contiguity between the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract, the presence of fluid within the stomach may overlap with the pancreatic duct system and therefore the pancreatic duct may be difficult to visualize, representing a potential source of diagnostic pitfalls. The technique to reduce the signal intensity of the static fluid present within the stomach and in the duodenal lumen is also described. The technique of secretin administration will be illustrated, with emphasis on the synchronization of secretin administration and MR image acquisition. Furthermore, the frequency and number of MRCP images necessary to achieve a temporal resolution adequate to visualize the physiologic changes in the pancreatic gland, induced by the administration of secretin, is described. The assessment of pancreatic, morphologic, and functional response to the administration of secretin, as depicted on MRCP images, will be illustrated. Finally, the indications for secretin-enhanced MRCP will be discussed to define which patients will benefit from secretin-enhanced MR imaging for their treatment planning. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26989929

  14. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with /sup 125/I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes.

  15. Characterization of integrin chains in normal and neoplastic human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hall, P A; Coates, P; Lemoine, N R; Horton, M A

    1991-09-01

    Integrins are a complex family of non-covalently linked heterodimeric glycoproteins which function as cell adhesion molecules, interacting with extracellular matrix molecules such as laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin, and collagen, and also having a role in intercellular adhesion. Each integrin subfamily is characterized by a common beta chain associated with variable alpha chains. We have examined, using immunohistological methods, the expression of the VLA (very late activation) family comprising beta 1 in association with alpha 1-6, and also alpha 6 in association with beta 4, the LFA beta chain beta 2, and the vitronectin receptor, in association with beta 1 or beta 5 and as the complex alpha v beta 3. Cryostat sections of normal pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and ampullary tumours were studied together with six pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Normal pancreas showed expression of beta 1 in all parenchyma. alpha 2 and alpha 6 had a similar distribution whereas alpha 3 expression was confined to ducts, including the very smallest radicles. Staining along the basement membranes of ducts was seen with beta 4 and the anti-vitronectin alpha v chain receptor antibody 13C2. Islet cells failed to stain with any antibody. No staining of epithelial components was seen with antibodies to alpha 1, alpha 4, alpha 5, or to the alpha v beta 3 form of the vitronectin receptor (beta 3 and alpha v beta 3 using the antibody 23C6). Pancreatic adenocarcinomas and ampullary tumours showed expression of alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, beta 4, and the vitronectin receptor (alpha v associated with beta 1 or beta 5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1720170

  16. Artificial Pancreas: Model Predictive Control Design from Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Toffanin, Chiara; Messori, Mirko; Palma, Federico Di; Nicolao, Giuseppe De; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this research is to develop a new artificial pancreas that takes into account the experience accumulated during more than 5000 h of closed-loop control in several clinical research centers. The main objective is to reduce the mean glucose value without exacerbating hypo phenomena. Controller design and in silico testing were performed on a new virtual population of the University of Virginia/Padova simulator. Methods A new sensor model was developed based on the Comparison of Two Artificial Pancreas Systems for Closed-Loop Blood Glucose Control versus Open-Loop Control in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes trial AP@home data. The Kalman filter incorporated in the controller has been tuned using plasma and pump insulin as well as plasma and continuous glucose monitoring measures collected in clinical research centers. New constraints describing clinical knowledge not incorporated in the simulator but very critical in real patients (e.g., pump shutoff) have been introduced. The proposed model predictive control (MPC) is characterized by a low computational burden and memory requirements, and it is ready for an embedded implementation. Results The new MPC was tested with an intensive simulation study on the University of Virginia/Padova simulator equipped with a new virtual population. It was also used in some preliminary outpatient pilot trials. The obtained results are very promising in terms of mean glucose and number of patients in the critical zone of the control variability grid analysis. Conclusions The proposed MPC improves on the performance of a previous controller already tested in several experiments in the AP@home and JDRF projects. This algorithm complemented with a safety supervision module is a significant step toward deploying artificial pancreases into outpatient environments for extended periods of time. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2013;7(6):1470-1483 PMID:24351173

  17. Pancreatic Steatosis and Fibrosis: Quantitative Assessment with Preoperative Multiparametric MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Kyung Bun; Kim, Sun-Whe; Kang, Mee Joo; Jang, Jin-Young; Kannengiesser, Stephan; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of multiparametric pancreatic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including the T2*-corrected Dixon technique and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, in the quantification of pancreatic steatosis and fibrosis, with histologic analysis as the reference standard, and to determine the relationship between MR parameters and postoperative pancreatic fistula. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the informed consent requirement was waived. A total of 165 patients (93 men, 72 women; mean age, 62 years) underwent preoperative 3-T MR imaging and subsequent pancreatectomy (interval, 0-77 days). Fat fractions, IVIM DW imaging parameters (true diffusion coefficient [D], pseudodiffusion coefficient [D*], and perfusion fraction [f]), pancreas-to-muscle signal intensity ratios on unenhanced T1-weighted images, and pancreatic duct sizes were compared with the fat fractions and fibrosis degrees (F0-F3) of specimens. In 95 patients who underwent pancreatoenteric anastomosis, MR parameters were compared between groups with clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula and those without. The relationship between postoperative pancreatic fistula and MR parameters was evaluated by using logistic regression analysis. Results Fat fractions at MR imaging showed a moderate relationship with histologic findings (r = 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.78). Patients with advanced fibrosis (F2-F3) had lower D*([39.72 ± 13.64] ×10(-3)mm(2)/sec vs [32.50 ± 13.09] ×10(-3)mm(2)/sec [mean ± standard deviation], P = .004), f (29.77% ± 8.51 vs 20.82% ± 8.66, P < .001), and unenhanced T1-weighted signal intensity ratio (1.43 ± 0.26 vs 1.21 ± 0.30, P < .001) than did patients with F0-F1 disease. Clinically relevant fistula developed in 14 (15%) of 95 patients, and f was significantly associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.30). Conclusion Multiparametric MR imaging of the pancreas, including imaging with the T2*-corrected Dixon technique and IVIM DW imaging, may yield quantitative information regarding pancreatic steatosis and fibrosis, and f was shown to be significantly associated with postoperative pancreatic fistulas. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26566228

  18. Preoperative pain treatment in acute abdomen in Osogbo, Nigeria: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Withholding analgesics in acute abdomen for fear of masking clinical features and impairing diagnosis and decision-making is still being practiced despite recent evidence to the contrary. This study assesses the effect of preoperative analgesia on clinical findings, clinical diagnosis, and decision-making in patients with non-trauma acute abdomen. Method This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using Tramal, a brand of tramadol, at the ED of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, Nigeria. Ninety-five patients between 1860 years received Tramal (n?=?46) or placebo (n?=?49). The pain score, clinical findings, provisional diagnosis, and treatment plan were noted before and 1520 min after administration of the analgesic or placebo. The final diagnosis arrived at after adequate investigation or operation was considered the gold standard. The pain scores, diagnosis, treatment plan, and decision between the two groups were compared. Statistical analysis was by SPSS 16. Results were considered statistically significant at p?diagnosis after use of Tramal (p?=?0.01). There were more changes in the decision in the Tramal group (p?=?0.03). Most of the changes in diagnosis and decision in the Tramal group were for the better. Conclusion The preoperative use of Tramal in acute abdomen improved the experience of pain and did not adversely affect the accuracy of the diagnosis or decision-making. PMID:23343476

  19. Adoption of Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer From 2000 to 2006: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Patterns-of-Care Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Raymond H.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Das, Prajnan; Hong, Theodore S.; Mamon, Harvey J.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The German rectal study determined that preoperative radiation therapy (RT) as a component of combined-modality therapy decreased local tumor recurrence, increased sphincter preservation, and decreased treatment toxicity compared with postoperative RT for rectal cancer. We evaluated the use of preoperative RT after the presentation of the landmark German rectal study results and examined the impact of tumor and sociodemographic factors on receiving preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: In total, 20,982 patients who underwent surgical resection for T3-T4 and/or node-positive rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 through 2006 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registries. We analyzed trends in preoperative RT use before and after publication of the findings from the German rectal study. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with receiving preoperative RT. Results: Among those treated with RT, the proportion of patients treated with preoperative RT increased from 33.3% in 2000 to 63.8% in 2006. After adjustment for age; gender; race/ethnicity; marital status; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; county-level education; T stage; N stage; tumor size; and tumor grade, there was a significant association between later year of diagnosis and an increase in preoperative RT use (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26/y increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.29). When we compared the years before and after publication of the German rectal study (2000-2003 vs. 2004-2006), patients were more likely to receive preoperative RT than postoperative RT in 2004-2006 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-2.59). On multivariate analysis, patients who were older, who were female, and who resided in counties with lower educational levels had significantly decreased odds of receiving preoperative RT. Conclusions: After the publication of the landmark German rectal study, there was widespread, rapid adoption of preoperative RT for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative RT may be underused in certain sociodemographic groups.

  20. An evaluation of echography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, G; Bolondi, L; Conti, M; Plicchi, G; Gullo, L; Caletti, G C; Labo, G

    1976-01-01

    In the present study an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of echography as a diagnostic tool has been made. A total of 52 patients (chronic pancreatitis (42); pancreatic cysts (three); and carcinoma of the pancreas (seven)) were studied and the results compared with those from other diagnostic techniques. In 65.7% of chronic pancreatitis patients, and in all cases of carcinoma of the pancreas, echography provided evidence of pancreatic abnormality but in no case could an unambiguous diagnosis of the disease be made. However, in all cases of pancreatic cyst, echography gave precise and unequivocal diagnostic information. There was good agreement between the echographic picture and surgical findings. Cholangiography and duodenography indicated duodenal and choledochal compression in a high proportion of cases in which echography revealed enlargement of the head of the pancreas. It is concluded that echography is a simple, safe, and valuable addition to the techniques available for studying the pancreas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1269992

  1. Videolaryngostroboscopy versus microlaryngoscopy for the diagnosis of benign vocal cord lesions: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sevtap; Altintas, Hande; Oguz, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively compare rigid videolaryngostroboscopy with microlaryngoscopy for the diagnosis of benign vocal cord lesions. Eighty-five adult patients with benign vocal cord lesions were evaluated with videolaryngostroboscopy and later underwent microlaryngoscopy. During microlaryngoscopy, systematic examination of the glottis was conducted, including careful inspection and meticulous palpation of the vocal cords from anterior commissure to arytenoids. Preoperative and intraoperative diagnoses were analyzed. One hundred and forty-one lesions were diagnosed preoperatively with rigid videolaryngostroboscopy in 85 patients. Microlaryngoscopy revealed a total of 199 lesions in these patients, demonstrating a 41.1 % higher diagnostic yield. Forty-five (77.6 %) of the 58 additional lesions involved structural abnormalities, including sulcus vocalis, microwebs, vascular ectasia, mucosal bridges, and anterior web. The preoperative diagnosis was consistent with the postoperative diagnosis in only 29 patients (34.2 %). For the rest of the patients (n = 56, 65.8 %), the preoperative diagnosis was either changed, or new lesions were identified during microlaryngoscopy. Intraoperative diagnosis of benign vocal cord lesions differs significantly from preoperative diagnosis, regarding both the type and number of lesions present. A large proportion of patients diagnosed with videolaryngostroboscopy have additional lesions, particularly structural abnormalities. Precise inspection and palpation of vocal cords are thus essential during microlaryngoscopy. PMID:25033931

  2. What Is the Best Preoperative Imaging for Endometrial Cancer?

    PubMed

    Haldorsen, Ingfrid S; Salvesen, Helga B

    2016-04-01

    Although endometrial cancer is surgicopathologically staged, preoperative imaging is recommended for diagnostic work-up to tailor surgery and adjuvant treatment. For preoperative staging, imaging by transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable to assess local tumor extent, and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) and/or computed tomography (CT) to assess lymph node metastases and distant spread. Preoperative imaging may identify deep myometrial invasion, cervical stromal involvement, pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph node metastases, and distant spread, however, with reported limitations in accuracies and reproducibility. Novel structural and functional imaging techniques offer visualization of microstructural and functional tumor characteristics, reportedly linked to clinical phenotype, thus with a potential for improving risk stratification. In this review, we summarize the reported staging performances of conventional and novel preoperative imaging methods and provide an overview of promising novel imaging methods relevant for endometrial cancer care. PMID:26922331

  3. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... INFO Scabies General Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  4. Scintigraphic and sonographic diagnosis of neonatal mesoblastic nephroma: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, G.; Mitchell, M.; Fleischer, A.C.; Sandler, M.

    1983-06-01

    The morphologic characteristics of mesoblastic nephroma result in a scintigraphic appearance which distinguishes this benign neonatal tumor from Wilms' tumor. This case report describes a patient in whom the use of scintigraphy and real-time sonography permitted preoperative diagnosis of mesoblastic nephroma.

  5. Serous Microcystic Adenocarcinoma of Pancreas Infiltrating Into Spleen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Sathyalakshmi; Mishra, Nidhi; Adaikalam, Mary Lilly Susai; Venkatesan, Ramya

    2015-01-01

    Cystic tumours of pancreas account for 5-10% of all pancreatic neoplasms and serous tumours represent 1% among those tumours. Most of the serous tumours are benign and very rarely they infiltrate adjacent organs like liver and spleen. Herewith we present a rare case report of serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas in a 65-year-old woman. The tumour involved the body and tail of pancreas and contiguously invaded the spleen. The histopathology of tumour was similar to serous cystadenoma with mild nuclear hyperchromasia and atypia. The spleen showed tumour infiltration as microcysts diffusely infitrating the red pulp. PMID:26500911

  6. Serous Microcystic Adenocarcinoma of Pancreas Infiltrating Into Spleen: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kadhirvel, Valarmathi; Ramu, Sathyalakshmi; Mishra, Nidhi; Adaikalam, Mary Lilly Susai; Venkatesan, Ramya

    2015-09-01

    Cystic tumours of pancreas account for 5-10% of all pancreatic neoplasms and serous tumours represent 1% among those tumours. Most of the serous tumours are benign and very rarely they infiltrate adjacent organs like liver and spleen. Herewith we present a rare case report of serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas in a 65-year-old woman. The tumour involved the body and tail of pancreas and contiguously invaded the spleen. The histopathology of tumour was similar to serous cystadenoma with mild nuclear hyperchromasia and atypia. The spleen showed tumour infiltration as microcysts diffusely infitrating the red pulp. PMID:26500911

  7. Preoperative Assessment of Adult Patients for Intracranial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sivanaser, Vanitha; Manninen, Pirjo

    2010-01-01

    The preoperative assessment of the patient for neurosurgical and endovascular procedures involves the understanding of the neurological disease and its systemic presentation, and the requirements of the procedure. There is a wide spectrum of different neurosurgical disorders and procedures. This article provides an overview of the preoperative evaluation of these patients with respect to general principles of neuroanesthesia, and considerations for specific intracranial and vascular neurosurgical and interventional neuroradiological procedures. PMID:20700431

  8. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  9. Preoperative and intraoperative localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, W Y; Fan, S T; Wong, S H; Wong, K P; Poon, G P; Chu, K W; Yip, W C; Wong, K K

    1987-01-01

    In the past six years, 37 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin had their bleeding sites localised preoperatively or intraoperatively. Preoperative investigations followed a regime consisting of endoscopy, barium meal and follow through, small bowel enema, 99mTc pertechnetate scan, 99mTc-labelled red blood cell scan and selective coeliac and mesenteric angiography. Bleeding lesions were localised preoperatively in 36 patients. In one patient, diagnostic laparotomy had to be carried out immediately before any investigation because the bleeding was severe. At operation, angiosarcoma of ileum was found. Unless preoperative investigations showed the lesions to be in anatomically fixed organs like the duodenum or colon, the lesions had still to be found at operation. Palpation and transillumination detected the lesion intraoperatively in 21 patients while only some lesions were found in three patients with multiple lesions. Sigmoidoscopy through enterotomies was required in one patient. Intraoperative enteroscopy was done for small lesions not found grossly at operation in nine patients, to detect additional lesions in three patients or to rule out suspicious lesion shown on preoperative tests in one patient. In another patient with diffuse lymphoma of small bowel with bleeding from only a small segment of jejunum, injection of methylene blue intraoperatively through a previously placed angiographic catheter stained the bleeding segment of jejunum blue. This segment was identified easily and resected. These preoperative and intraoperative localisation procedures were simple and effective and we recommend them to be used more freely. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3498667

  10. Facial Nerve Schwannoma of Parotid Gland: Difficulties in Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Damar, Murat; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Şevik Eliçora, Sultan; Bişkin, Sultan; Erten, Gül; Biz, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) are encapsulated benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of seventh cranial nerve. Most of the facial nerve schwannomas are localized in intratemporal region; only 9% of cases involve a portion of the extratemporal segment. Preoperative diagnosis is often unclear; diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. Management of intraparotid FNS is troublesome because of the facial nerve paralysis. In this report we presented a case of intraparotid schwannoma in a 55-year-old male patient complaining of a painless mass without peripheral facial nerve palsy in left parotid gland. Clinical features, preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis, and difficulties during management are discussed with the review of the literature. PMID:26904338

  11. Facial Nerve Schwannoma of Parotid Gland: Difficulties in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Damar, Murat; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Şevik Eliçora, Sultan; Bişkin, Sultan; Erten, Gül; Biz, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) are encapsulated benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of seventh cranial nerve. Most of the facial nerve schwannomas are localized in intratemporal region; only 9% of cases involve a portion of the extratemporal segment. Preoperative diagnosis is often unclear; diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. Management of intraparotid FNS is troublesome because of the facial nerve paralysis. In this report we presented a case of intraparotid schwannoma in a 55-year-old male patient complaining of a painless mass without peripheral facial nerve palsy in left parotid gland. Clinical features, preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis, and difficulties during management are discussed with the review of the literature. PMID:26904338

  12. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60% and 100%. There was no significant difference in mortality (40/265, weighted proportion 14.9%) in the pre-operative biliary drainage group versus the direct surgery group (34/255, 13.3%) (RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.71; P = 0.60). The overall serious morbidity was higher in the pre-operative biliary drainage group (60 per 100 patients in the pre-operative biliary drainage group versus 26 per 100 patients in the direct surgery group) (RaR 1.66; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.16; P = 0.0002). The proportion of patients who developed serious morbidity was significantly higher in the pre-operative biliary drainage group (75/102, 73.5%) in the pre-operative biliary drainage group versus the direct surgery group (37/94, 37.4%) (P < 0.001). Quality of life was not reported in any of the trials. There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay (2 trials, 271 patients; MD 4.87 days; 95% CI ?1.28 to 11.02; P = 0.12) between the two groups. Trial sequential analysis showed that for mortality only a small proportion of the required information size had been obtained. There seemed to be no significant differences in the subgroup of trials assessing percutaneous compared to endoscopic drainage. Authors conclusions There is currently not sufficient evidence to support or refute routine pre-operative biliary drainage for patients with obstructive jaundice. Pre-operative biliary drainage may increase the rate of serious adverse events. So, the safety of routine pre-operative biliary drainage has not been established. Pre-operative biliary drainage should not be used in patients undergoing surgery for obstructive jaundice outside randomised clinical trials. PMID:22972086

  13. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the head of pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells presenting as a symptomatic cystic mass, following acute pancreatitis: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios ?.; Balasi, Ephimia; Siozopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsili, Athina; Fatouros, Michalis; Glantzounis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Undifferentiated head of pancreas carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UC-OGC) is a rare neoplasm, with less than a hundred cases reported. We present such a case, in which the UC-OGC presented atypically as a cystic lesion following acute pancreatitis and led to late diagnosis. Presentation of case A 75-year-old female patient, who had suffered acute pancreatitis three years ago, was referred with a diagnosis of osteoclast-like giant cell (OGC) tumor of the head of pancreas. She had suffered acute pancreatitis three years ago. Two years ago she developed abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography imaging showed a cystic mass in the head of the pancreas (maximum diameter 4cm). The initial diagnosis was pancreatic pseudocyst; however as the mass gradually increased in size and the patient continued to be symptomatic, a CT-guided biopsy was performed. Histological examination revealed an OGC pancreatic tumor. In laparotomy a large (9cm) encapsulated heterogeneous mass was found with partial involvement of the common hepatic artery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and the involved part of the common hepatic artery was replaced with a homologous graft from the major saphenous vein. Post-operative course was uneventful. Histology revealed an undifferentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma with OGCs. She survived 10 months after the operation. Discussion Pancreatic undifferentiated carcinomas with OGCs are very rare neoplasms and can present with an atypical clinical picture. Conclusions A symptomatic cystic lesion of the pancreas, which is growing in size, should be investigated promptly in order to exclude the presence of malignancy. PMID:26745313

  14. [Three cases of resected pulmonary metastasis from colorectal cancer after preoperative chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Ken; Koshiishi, Haruya; Nakata, Takuya; Matsuyama, Takatoshi; Hirano, Takayuki; Okuno, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Tetsuki; Ebana, Hiroki; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-11-01

    We describe three cases of resected pulmonary metastasis from postoperative colorectal cancer after preoperative 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin, oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) chemotherapy. The first case is a 38-year-old man who underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer in 2003. Subsequently, left lung metastasis occurred in February 2009. FOLFOX chemotherapy was administered, resulting in a partial response (PR) of tumor size. Post-chemotherapy, segmental resection of he S1+2 segments of the left lung was performed in May 2009. A pathological diagnosis of Grade 1b was made. The patient remained recurrence-free 5 years post-surgery. The second case is a 68-year-old man who underwent left half colon resection for descending colon cancer with left lung metastasis in March 2006. FOLFOX chemotherapy was administered, with a PR of lung metastasis size. Post-chemotherapy, a segmental resection of the S4 segment of the left lung was performed in September 2006. A pathological diagnosis of Grade 1b was made. The patient was alive 8 years post-surgery. The third case is a 64-year-old man who underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer in November 2007. A year later, bilateral lung metastases were detected. FOLFOX+bevacizumab was administered, with a stable disease effect on tumor size. Post-chemotherapy, partial resection of both lungs was performed in March and April 2010. A pathological diagnosis of Grade 1a was made. The patient was recurrence-free at the 4-year follow up. We believe that preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy may be effective in treating lung metastasis from colon cancer. PMID:25731421

  15. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Nissan, Noam; Golan, Talia; Furman-Haran, Edna; Apter, Sara; Inbar, Yael; Ariche, Arie; Bar-Zakay, Barak; Goldes, Yuri; Schvimer, Michael; Grobgeld, Dov; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) protocol that is sensitive to the complex diffusion and perfusion properties of the healthy and malignant pancreas tissues. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight healthy volunteers and nine patients with pancreatic-ductal-adenocacinoma (PDAC), were scanned at 3T with T2-weighted and DTI sequences. Healthy volunteers were also scanned with multi-b diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI), whereas a standard clinical protocol complemented the PDAC patients scans. Image processing at pixel resolution yielded parametric maps of three directional diffusion coefficients ?1, ?2, ?3, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as a ?1-vector map, and a main diffusion-direction map. Results DTI measurements of healthy pancreatic tissue at b-values 0,500 s/mm2yielded: ?1?=?(2.650.35)10?3, ?2?=?(1.870.22)10?3, ?3?=?(1.200.18)10?3, ADC?=?(1.910.22)10?3 (all in mm2/s units) and FA?=?0.380.06. Using b-values of 100,500 s/mm2 led to a significant reduction in ?1, ?2, ?3 and ADC (p<.0001) and a significant increase (p<0.0001) in FA. The reduction in the diffusion coefficients suggested a contribution of a fast intra-voxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) component at b?100 s/mm2, which was confirmed by the multi-b DWI results. In PDACs, ?1, ?2, ?3 and ADC in both 0,500 s/mm2 and 100,500 s/mm2 b-values sets, as well as the reduction in these diffusion coefficients between the two sets, were significantly lower in comparison to the distal normal pancreatic tissue, suggesting higher cellularity and diminution of the fast-IVIM component in the cancer tissue. Conclusion DTI using two reference b-values 0 and 100 s/mm2 enabled characterization of the water diffusion and anisotropy of the healthy pancreas, taking into account a contribution of IVIM. The reduction in the diffusion coefficients of PDAC, as compared to normal pancreatic tissue, and the smaller change in these coefficients in PDAC when the reference b-value was modified from 0 to 100 s/mm2, helped identifying the presence of malignancy. PMID:25549366

  16. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  17. Simultaneous Extensive Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct and Pancreas: A Very Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Luvira, Vor; Pugkhem, Ake; Tipwaratorn, Theerawee; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a specific type of bile duct tumor. It has been proposed that it could be the biliary counterpart of the intraductal papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P). This hypothesis is supported by the presence of simultaneous intraductal tumors of both the bile duct and pancreas. There have been five reports of patients with simultaneous IPNB and IPMN-P. In all of these cases, biliary involvement was limited to the intrahepatic and perihilar bile duct, which had characteristics similar to IPMN-P and usually had slow progression in nature. Herein, we present the first case of extensive intraductal neoplasm involving the extrahepatic bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct, and entire length of the pancreas with a poor outcome, even after being treated aggressively with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, we summarize previous case reports of simultaneous intraductal lesions of the bile duct and pancreas. PMID:26925284

  18. On the diabetic menu: Zebrafish as a model for pancreas development and function

    PubMed Central

    Kinkel, Mary D.; Prince, Victoria E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Development of the vertebrate pancreas is a complex stepwise process comprising regionalization, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis. Studies in zebrafish are contributing to an emerging picture of pancreas development in which extrinsic signaling molecules influence intrinsic transcriptional programs to allow ultimate differentiation of specific pancreatic cell types. Zebrafish experiments have revealed roles for several signaling molecules in aspects of this process; for example our own work has shown that Retinoic Acid signals specify the pre-pancreatic endoderm. Time-lapse imaging of live zebrafish embryos has started to provide detailed information about early pancreas morphogenesis. In addition to modeling embryonic development, the zebrafish has recently begun to be used as a model for pancreas regeneration studies. Here we review the significant progress in these areas and consider the future potential of zebrafish as a diabetes research model. PMID:19204986

  19. Lessons From Pancreas Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes: Recurrence of Islet Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Burke, George W; Vendrame, Francesco; Virdi, Sahil K; Ciancio, G; Chen, Linda; Ruiz, Phillip; Messinger, Shari; Reijonen, Helena K; Pugliese, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes recurrence (T1DR) affecting pancreas transplants was first reported in recipients of living-related pancreas grafts from twins or HLA identical siblings; given HLA identity, recipients received no or minimal immunosuppression. This observation provided critical evidence that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease. However, T1DR is traditionally considered very rare in immunosuppressed recipients of pancreas grafts from organ donors, representing the majority of recipients, and immunological graft failures are ascribed to chronic rejection. We have been performing simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplants for over 25 years and find that 6-8 % of our recipients develop T1DR, with symptoms usually becoming manifest on extended follow-up. T1DR is typically characterized by (1) variable degree of insulitis and loss of insulin staining, on pancreas transplant biopsy (with most often absent), minimal to moderate and rarely severe pancreas, and/or kidney transplant rejection; (2) the conversion of T1D-associated autoantibodies (to the autoantigens GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8), preceding hyperglycemia by a variable length of time; and (3) the presence of autoreactive T cells in the peripheral blood, pancreas transplant, and/or peripancreatic transplant lymph nodes. There is no therapeutic regimen that so far has controlled the progression of islet autoimmunity, even when additional immunosuppression was added to the ongoing chronic regimens; we hope that further studies and, in particular, in-depth analysis of pancreas transplant biopsies with recurrent diabetes will help identify more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:26547222

  20. Extramedullary Myeloid Tumor Involving the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Payda?, Semra; zdo?u, Hakan; Gnald?, Meral; Haksyler, Veysel; A?kal?n, Arbil; Ergin, Melek

    2014-01-01

    Extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMTs) are the tumors of myeloid cells. These tumors may occur in all of the organs of the body, but some localizations are rare. Pancreatic involvement of EMMTs is a rare entity. Here we report a case of EMMT of the pancreas 4 years after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and we review the existing data about EMMTs involving the pancreas. PMID:25330524

  1. A case of annular pancreas accompanied with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-case report

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fu-Jian; Tian, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Liang; Fang, Xue-Dong; Cao, Hong; Jin, Hong-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by pancreatic tissues wrapping completely or incompletely around the descending duodenum. In most patients with annular pancreas, onset occurs in early childhood. Adults with annular pancreas are prone to duodenal ulcers and pancreatitis. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a type of papillary mucinous secretory epithelial tumor, which originates in the main pancreatic duct and/or branch duct. We report a case of annular pancreas accompanied with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Methods: A 52-year-old male patient hospitalized due to recurrent upper abdominal pain for one and a half years was enrolled in this study. Results: One case of annular pancreas accompanied with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm which manifested as recurrent chronic pancreatitis was found. After pancreaticoduodenectomy, the patient died from uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in China and the second case worldwide of annular pancreas accompanied with IPMN in English literature. PMID:26064223

  2. Activation of pancreatic-duct-derived progenitor cells during pancreas regeneration in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan-Chun; Rukstalis, J. Michael; Nishimura, Wataru; Tchipashvili, Vaja; Habener, Joel F.; Sharma, Arun; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The adult pancreas has considerable capacity to regenerate in response to injury. We hypothesized that after partial pancreatectomy (Px) in adult rats, pancreatic-duct cells serve as a source of regeneration by undergoing a reproducible dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. We support this hypothesis by the detection of an early loss of the ductal differentiation marker Hnf6 in the mature ducts, followed by the transient appearance of areas composed of proliferating ductules, called foci of regeneration, which subsequently form new pancreatic lobes. In young foci, ductules express markers of the embryonic pancreatic epithelium – Pdx1, Tcf2 and Sox9 – suggesting that these cells act as progenitors of the regenerating pancreas. The endocrine-lineage-specific transcription factor Neurogenin3, which is found in the developing embryonic pancreas, was transiently detected in the foci. Islets in foci initially resemble embryonic islets in their lack of MafA expression and lower percentage of β-cells, but with increasing maturation have increasing numbers of MafA+ insulin+ cells. Taken together, we provide a mechanism by which adult pancreatic duct cells recapitulate aspects of embryonic pancreas differentiation in response to injury, and contribute to regeneration of the pancreas. This mechanism of regeneration relies mainly on the plasticity of the differentiated cells within the pancreas. PMID:20663919

  3. Dynamic expression and localization of c-MET isoforms in the developing rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yulong; Cheng, Mei; Shi, Zhen; Feng, Zhenqing; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Pancreata from Sprague Dawley rats of different developmental stages were studied to determine the expression and cellular localization of different c-MET isoforms in the developing rat pancreas. Pancreatic mRNA and protein expression levels of c-MET at different developmental stages from embryo to adult were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of c-MET protein in the developing rat pancreas, double immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies for cell type-specific markers and for c-MET. The expression of two isoforms of c-MET (190 kDa and 170 kDa) coincided with the development of the pancreas. The 190 kDa isoform of c-MET is expressed during embryonic stages, and its expression is replaced by the expression of the 170 kDa isoform as the pancreas develops. Only the 170 kDa isoform is expressed in the adult rat pancreas. Throughout all stages of pancreatic development, c-MET is expressed by vimentin-positive cells. In contrast, c-MET staining was stronger in rat pancreata from newborn to adult stages and overlapped with insulin-positive beta-cells. The dynamic expression and localization of different c-MET isoforms in the rat pancreas during different developmental stages indicates that distinct c-MET isoform might be involved in different aspects of pancreatic development. PMID:25674220

  4. The artificial endocrine pancreas in clinical practice and research. The present position and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marena, S; Imperiale, G; Pagano, G

    1993-06-01

    The artificial endocrine pancreas (AEP) is a controlled glucose and/or insulin infusion system in which continuously monitored blood sugar values are fed to a computerised analyser that uses predetermined algorithms to establish the doses to be administered. Since its first appearance in clinical practice and diabetological research during the Sixties, the AEP has been modified in various ways to overcome technical problems associated with the gluco-sensor and algorithms so as to make better use of the glucose-insulin feedback mechanism, and hence obtain a closer correspondence to physiological islet cell activity. As a result of these changes, the AEP can be employed in accordance with the physiopathological principles of insulin secretion in a variety of clinical conditions to secure the short-term control of metabolic alterations in the diabetic. Surgery is one field in which the AEP is used to great advantage, since this and its accompanying anaesthetics are the source of stress, which in turn may result in a rapid and sometimes serious postoperative metabolic derangement, including an increased secretion of anti-insulin hormones. The AEP has also been proposed for diabetic pregnancy and for the treatment of subjects in diabetic coma. It has proved useful in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycaemia due to organic hyperinsulinism, in diabetics with renal failure, in the honeymoon period, and in cases of unstable diabetes. The versatility of its application and its underlying physiopathological principles have enabled the AEP to be predominantly employed in research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8414626

  5. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  6. Centroacinar Cells Are Progenitors That Contribute to Endocrine Pancreas Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Delaspre, Fabien; Beer, Rebecca L; Rovira, Meritxell; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangliang; Gee, Stephen; Vitery, Maria del Carmen; Wheelan, Sarah J; Parsons, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with a paucity of insulin-producing β-cells. With the goal of finding therapeutic routes to treat diabetes, we aim to find molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in β-cell neogenesis and regeneration. To facilitate discovery of such mechanisms, we use a vertebrate organism where pancreatic cells readily regenerate. The larval zebrafish pancreas contains Notch-responsive progenitors that during development give rise to adult ductal, endocrine, and centroacinar cells (CACs). Adult CACs are also Notch responsive and are morphologically similar to their larval predecessors. To test our hypothesis that adult CACs are also progenitors, we took two complementary approaches: 1) We established the transcriptome for adult CACs. Using gene ontology, transgenic lines, and in situ hybridization, we found that the CAC transcriptome is enriched for progenitor markers. 2) Using lineage tracing, we demonstrated that CACs do form new endocrine cells after β-cell ablation or partial pancreatectomy. We concluded that CACs and their larval predecessors are the same cell type and represent an opportune model to study both β-cell neogenesis and β-cell regeneration. Furthermore, we show that in cftr loss-of-function mutants, there is a deficiency of larval CACs, providing a possible explanation for pancreatic complications associated with cystic fibrosis. PMID:26153247

  7. Fully Integrated Artificial Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Marc; Farret, Anne; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Anderson, Stacey; Magni, Lalo; Patek, Stephen; Dalla Man, Chiara; Place, Jerome; Demartini, Susan; Del Favero, Simone; Toffanin, Chiara; Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard; Doyle, Francis J.; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio; Renard, Eric; Kovatchev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Integrated closed-loop control (CLC), combining continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]), known as artificial pancreas, can help optimize glycemic control in diabetes. We present a fundamental modular concept for CLC design, illustrated by clinical studies involving 11 adolescents and 27 adults at the Universities of Virginia, Padova, and Montpellier. We tested two modular CLC constructs: standard control to range (sCTR), designed to augment pump plus CGM by preventing extreme glucose excursions; and enhanced control to range (eCTR), designed to truly optimize control within near normoglycemia of 3.9–10 mmol/L. The CLC system was fully integrated using automated data transfer CGM→algorithm→CSII. All studies used randomized crossover design comparing CSII versus CLC during identical 22-h hospitalizations including meals, overnight rest, and 30-min exercise. sCTR increased significantly the time in near normoglycemia from 61 to 74%, simultaneously reducing hypoglycemia 2.7-fold. eCTR improved mean blood glucose from 7.73 to 6.68 mmol/L without increasing hypoglycemia, achieved 97% in near normoglycemia and 77% in tight glycemic control, and reduced variability overnight. In conclusion, sCTR and eCTR represent sequential steps toward automated CLC, preventing extremes (sCTR) and further optimizing control (eCTR). This approach inspires compelling new concepts: modular assembly, sequential deployment, testing, and clinical acceptance of custom-built CLC systems tailored to individual patient needs. PMID:22688340

  8. Chemoradiotherapy in the management of localized tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Poen, J C; Ford, J M; Niederhuber, J E

    1999-01-01

    In western countries, carcinoma of the pancreas remains the most lethal of the common malignancies. Even the favorable "organ-confined" tumors present a considerable challenge. The lack of anatomic barriers to local infiltration and the biological propensity for early lymphatic, perineural, and vascular invasion are nearly insurmountable obstacles to complete surgical eradication of this malignancy. Various combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) have been used with marginal but measurable success. Earlier trials conducted by the Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group established roles for 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy and RT in the treatment of patients with resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer. More recently, computed tomography-guided conformal RT and a variety of intraoperative RT techniques have enabled more reliable sterilization of the local surgical field and escalation of doses to potentially curative levels (7000 cGy) for unresectable lesions. Chemotherapy dose intensification through the use of portable programmable pumps for protracted venous infusions and the development of active systemic agents in addition to 5-fluorouracil suggest that an effective combination chemotherapeutic regimen might soon be developed. This report reviews the current standards of practice and integrates recent developments to construct a modern algorithm for the use of chemoradiotherapy in the management of localized (nonmetastatic) pancreatic cancer. The likely directions of future investigations are also discussed. PMID:10030424

  9. Image-guided radiosurgery for the spine and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M J; Adler, J R; Bodduluri, M; Dooley, J; Forster, K; Hai, J; Le, Q; Luxton, G; Martin, D; Poen, J

    2000-01-01

    A robotic image-guided radiosurgical system has been modified to treat extra-cranial sites using implanted fiducials and skeletal landmarks to locate the treatment targets. The system has been used to treat an artero-venous malformation in the cervical spine, a recurrent schwannoma of the thoracic spine, a metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lumbar spine, and three pancreatic cancers. During each treatment, the image guidance system monitored the position of the target site and relayed the target coordinates to the beam-pointing system at discrete intervals. The pointing system then dynamically aligned the therapy beam with the lesion, automatically compensating for shifts in target position. Breathing-related motion of the pancreas lesions was managed by coordinating beam gating with breath-holding by the patient. The system maintained alignment with the spine lesions to within +/- 0.2 mm on average, and to within +/- 1 mm for the pancreatic tumors. This experience has demonstrated the feasibility of using image-guided robotic radiosurgery outside the cranium. PMID:11029160

  10. Patients' Perception and Future Acceptance of an Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    van Bon, Arianne C.; Kohinor, Miriam J. E.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; von Basum, Golo; DeVries, J. Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known of patient acceptance of an artificial pancreas (AP). The purpose of this study was to investigate future acceptance of an AP and its determinants. Methods Patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy were interviewed using questions based on the technology acceptance model and completed the diabetes treatment and satisfaction questionnaire (DTSQ). Results Twenty-two adults with type 1 diabetes participated. Half of the patients were followed in a university hospital, and the others were under treatment in an affiliated teaching hospital. Half of the patients were male. The mean DTSQ score was 29 (range 2333). The AP was perceived as likely to be useful. Perceived advantages were a stable glucose regulation, less need for self-monitoring of blood glucose, relief of daily concerns, and time saving. Participants were confident in their capability to use the system. Although many participants (58%) had been reluctant to start continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the majority (79%) felt they would have no barriers to start using the AP. Trust in the AP was related to the quality of glucose control it would provide. Almost everyone expressed the intention to use the new system when available, even if it would initially not cover 24/24 hours. Conclusion The overall attitude on the AP was positive. Intention to use was dependent on trust in the AP, which was related to the quality of glucose control provided by the AP. PMID:20513325

  11. The biosynthesis of glucagon in perfused rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Kevin J.; Gay, Adrian; Lazarus, Norman R.

    1973-01-01

    The biosynthesis of glucagon was studied by using the recirculated, isolated perfused rat pancreas. [3H]Tryptophan was initially incorporated into acid–ethanol-extractable protein, which on gel filtration was eluted with a molecular weight of about 9000 and contained a small amount of glucagon immunoreactivity. With longer incubation [3H]tryptophan incorporation into a second peak was obtained in an identical position with that of the majority of rat glucagon immunoreactivity. This peak of labelled protein exhibited migration characteristics on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis identical with those of rat glucagon and was identified as newly synthesized glucagon by demonstration of specific binding and dissociation behaviour with glucagon antibodies. The incorporation of [3H]tryptophan into acid–ethanol-extractable protein was inhibited by cycloheximide. High concentrations of glucose increased [3H]tryptophan incorporation into high-molecular-weight protein but decreased incorporation into proteins smaller than cytochrome c. The pattern of [3H]leucine incorporation into protein was similar to that of [3H]tryptophan. PMID:16742807

  12. Impact of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: patients perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Isla Pera, P; Moncho Vasallo, J; Guasch Andreu, O; Ricart Brulles, MJ; Torras Rabasa, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few qualitative studies of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK Tx) have been published. The aims of this study were to explore from the perspective of patients, the experience of living with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM), suffering from complications, and undergoing SPK Tx with good outcome; and to determine the impact of SPK Tx on patients and their social and cultural environment. Methods: We performed a focused ethnographic study. Twenty patients were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison following the method proposed by Miles and Huberman. Results: A functioning SPK Tx allowed renal replacement therapy and insulin to be discontinued. To describe their new situation, patients used words and phrases such as miracle, being reborn or coming back to life. Although the complications of T1DM, its surgery and treatment, and associated psychological problems did not disappear after SPK Tx, these were minimized when compared with the pretransplantation situation. Conclusion: For patients, SPK Tx represents a recovery of their health and autonomy despite remaining problems associated with the complications of T1DM and SPK Tx. The understanding of patients existential framework and their experience of disease are key factors for planning new intervention and improvement strategies. PMID:22936846

  13. Concise Review: Pancreas Regeneration: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lysy, Philippe A.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of functional pancreatic ?-cells is seen as an attractive potential therapy for diabetes, because diabetes results from an inadequate ?-cell mass. Inducing replication of the remaining ?-cells and new islet formation from progenitors within the pancreas (neogenesis) are the most direct ways to increase the ?-cell mass. Stimulation of both replication and neogenesis have been reported in rodents, but their clinical significance must still be shown. Because human islet transplantation is limited by the scarcity of donors and graft failure within a few years, efforts have recently concentrated on the use of stem cells to replace the deficient ?-cells. Currently, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells achieve high levels of ?-cell differentiation, but their clinical use is still hampered by ethical issues and/or the risk of developing tumors after transplantation. Pancreatic epithelial cells (duct, acinar, or ?-cells) represent an appealing alternative to stem cells because they demonstrate ?-cell differentiation capacities. Yet translation of such capacity to human cells after significant in vitro expansion has yet to be achieved. Besides providing new ?-cells, cell therapy also has to address the question on how to protect the transplanted cells from destruction by the immune system via either allo- or autoimmunity. Encouraging developments have been made in encapsulation and immunomodulation techniques, but many challenges still remain. Herein, we discuss recent advances in the search for ?-cell replacement therapies, current strategies for circumventing the immune system, and mandatory steps for new techniques to be translated from bench to clinics. PMID:23197762

  14. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  15. Preoperative cardiac assessment in patients undergoing major vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Nicola; Pulli, Raffaele; Dorigo, Walter; Lo Sapio, Patrizia; Pratesi, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a preoperative standardized cardiac assessment in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. From January 2005 to December 2006, 1446 elective interventions for major vascular diseases (carotid stenosis, CS; abdominal aortic aneurysm, AAA; peripheral arterial obstructive disease, PAOD) were performed; 1090 out of these patients underwent preoperative diagnostic assessment on an outpatient basis. Thirty-day results in terms of cardiac mortality and morbidity rates were recorded. Patients suffered from a CS in 578 cases (53%), an AAA in 303 cases (27.8%) and a PAOD in 209 cases (19.2%). Four hundred thirty-two patients (39.6%) underwent further evaluation of cardiac functional capacity with non-invasive stress testing. Sixteen patients were successfully treated prior to vascular surgery. Thirty-day cardiac mortality and morbidity rates were 0.2% and 3.9%, respectively. A positive preoperative non-invasive stress testing did not affect 30-day cardiac outcomes. In conclusion, the use of an accurate preoperative cardiac assessment allowed us to obtain satisfactory perioperative results in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. Routine preoperative evaluation with non-invasive stress testing did not seem to improve perioperative cardiac results. PMID:21742935

  16. Role of preoperative embolization for intradural spinal hemangioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Ampie, Leonel; Choy, Winward; Khanna, Ryan; Smith, Zachary A; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Parsa, Andrew T; Bloch, Orin

    2016-02-01

    Spinal hemangioblastomas (HB) are relatively rare neoplasms with a high degree of vascularity. Therapy for symptomatic tumors involves total resection when possible. Due to the enriched blood supply of these neoplasms, there is a high risk of significant intraoperative blood loss, which can lead to perioperative complications. Preoperative embolization of HB has been suggested to reduce blood loss and operative morbidity, but its use remains controversial. Data on the risks and benefits of preoperative embolization for this tumor remains limited. We identified and analyzed all 29 reported cases of preoperative embolization of intradural spinal HB within the literature. There were 18 men and nine women, and patients ranged from 24 to 61years of age. Mean tumor size was 3.5cm. Cervical and thoracic location was most common, accounting for 48.3% and 20% of cases, respectively. Complications from embolization and surgery were minimal, with no deaths or permanent neurological morbidity. Minimal intraoperative bleeding and excellent rates of gross total resection were reported with preoperative embolization. However, outcomes from microsurgery alone from historical series have similarly reported excellent outcomes. While there is no established standard, preoperative embolization should be reserved for particularly high risk patients with risk of intraoperative bleeding. PMID:26585384

  17. Endorectal ultrasound for control of preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, F; Kuntz, C; Schlag, P; Herfarth, C

    1993-01-01

    Endorectal ultrasound (EUS) is known to be a reliable method for preoperative staging of rectal tumors. In this study, EUS was used to select patients with rectal cancer suitable for preoperative radiation therapy. By performing EUS before and after radiation, the aim of the study was to evaluate the role of EUS in monitoring the effects of preoperative radiation therapy. In 17 patients with large T3 or T4 rectal tumors, a complete staging by EUS was done before and after radiation therapy. Beside a shrinkage of the tumor, there was a change of echopattern to more hyperechoic gray levels to be observed in the irradiated tumor. The rectal wall lost its normal architecture, and lymph nodes disappeared or changed their echopattern from echopoor to echorich. There was no down-staging of a tumor seen by EUS. Complete preoperative staging was correct in 13 of 17 patients because of endosonographic examination before and after preoperative radiation therapy. New interpretation criteria are given for evaluation of patients with rectal cancer treated by radiation therapy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8424703

  18. [Asthma diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ortega Martell, José Antonio; Fernández Vega, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of asthma is based primarily on patient history, conducting the interrogation to the search for risk factors for developing it and the triggers of their symptoms. This chapter will detail some laboratory tests and cabinet that can support this clinical diagnosis. Respiratory function tests help to show the degree of airway obstruction and its reversibility with treatment. Allergy tests help prove the existence of cells sensitized to a specific allergen and once identified, implement environmental control measures or if necessary to control this immunomodulation exaggerated immune response. The exhaled nitric oxide test has been most useful in assessing the course of asthma during treatment, rather than for diagnosis. Sometimes the confirmatory diagnosis of asthma is achieved after excluding other diseases that may present a similar clinical picture, and especially after knowing the response to standard treatment with bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20873051

  19. Prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Madhulika

    2003-01-01

    With the leaping advances in knowledge of genetics, its applications in patient management are also increasing. Prenatal diagnosis is the most useful application as it offers prospective parents the assurance of having an unaffected child in situations of high recurrence risks. Pretest and post test counseling is an integral part of prenatal diagnosis. All Pediatricians and Obstetricians should be familiar with the basic prerequisites of prenatal screening/testing. Timely referral, preferably pre-pregnancy is important. There is more or less a consensus regarding offering prenatal diagnosis for lethal/chronic disabling or difficult/expensive to treat conditions. Ethical issues are already around regarding prenatal testing for disabilities like deafness and late onset disorders. The present communication is an effort to present the clinician's perspective of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:12619957

  20. [Preoperative localization of insulinoma is necessary].

    PubMed

    Houlbert, D; Roche, A; Dorf, G; Gardies, A; Roche, D; Segrestaa, J M

    1984-01-01

    Many insulinomas because of their small size are not localized by routine investigations: abdominal ultrasound, angiography, computed tomography, nor at the step of laparotomy. Biological diagnosis is far more encouraging. Percutaneous transhepatic sampling of blood in the portal venous system is very predictable for adenoma localization. Absolute reliability of this method remains to be established, nevertheless the observance of some basic requirements are already known: withdrawal of any drug interfering with insulin release several days before performing the catheterism; need of a steady, preferably low, glucose level during the whole sampling; selective samples in tiny draining veins of the whole gland, and adequate radio-immunoassay. Transhepatic sampling can detect multiple localisations and diffuse hyperplasia but angiography alone is able to show hepatic metastasis and is helpful in giving the surgeon information on local vascularization. Confrontation of both angiography and transhepatic sampling gives the best criteria of localization. In case of discrepancy, transhepatic sampling seems to be more reliable. PMID:6322637

  1. [Predisposition to latex allergy undetected on preoperative evaluation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuriko; Okamura, Makoto; Harioka, Tokuya; Hara, Tadashi; Kamiya, Kiyoshi; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    A 70-year-old man was scheduled to undergo laparoscopic total gastrectomy for stomach cancer. He had no history of atopy, fruit allergies, or frequent exposure to natural rubber. Preoperative latex-specific IgE antibodies were negative. Anesthesia was induced, and the surgery was started uneventfully. Soon after the surgeon had begun to manipulate the intestine, the blood pressure suddenly dropped to 27/21 mmHg. Facial flushing was also observed. Anaphylactic shock caused by latex was strongly suspected, and surgery was immediately halted. The surgical gloves were changed to latex-free ones, and adrenaline was administered. The blood pressure was gradually normalized within 30 min, and the facial flushing mostly disappeared. Postoperative laboratory examination revealed that serum tryptase had increased to 34.4 microg l-1, 40 minutes after the onset of anaphylaxis, and decreased to 19.4 microg l-1, 24 hours than later. Latex-specific IgE antibodies and a prick test with latex were both positive. Consequently, the diagnosis of latex-induced anaphylactic reaction was confirmed. Because even detailed questioning and examination does not always identify such a predisposition, avoiding contactwith latex products is more rational exhaustively checking every preoperative patient for latex allergy PMID:24498786

  2. In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Feasibility of Preoperative Mapping of Cancer Margins

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhan-Yan; Lin, Jing-Ran; Cheng, Ting-Ting; Wu, Jia-Qiang; Wu, Wen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images skin at cellular resolution and has shown utility for the diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer in vivo. It has the potential to define lesion margins before surgical therapy. Objectives To investigate the feasibility of RCM in defining the margins of basal cell carcinoma before surgery. Methods The margins of 10 lesions were evaluated using RCM. Biopsies of the margins were used to confirm the results. A protocol was constructed to define margins. RCM was used to delineate preoperative surgical margins in 13 patients. Intraoperative frozen biopsy was used to confirm the margins. Results In seven of 10 (70.0%) cases, the margins of the cancer were identified suing RCM. The tumor island was the critical feature in identifying the margins. In 12 of 13 (92.3%) cases, frozen biopsy corroborated that the surgical margins delineated by RCM were clear. Conclusion RCM imaging of the margins is feasible and demonstrates the possibility of preoperative mapping of cancer margins. PMID:23039159

  3. Morbidity and Mortality Following Short Course Preoperative Radiotherapy in Rectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Farshid; Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Samiei, Farhad; Aghili, Mahdi; Haddad, Peiman; Gholami, Somayeh; Nabavi, Mansoureh

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in patients with operable stage II and III rectal cancers within one or two months after surgery, who has been treated pre-operatively with short course radiotherapy. Twenty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma, consecutively referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from March 2009 to March 2010, were selected for the study after staging by endorectal ultrasound and CT of abdomen, pelvis, and chest; and if they had inclusion criteria for short course schedule, they were treated with radiotherapy alone at 2500 cGy for 5 sessions, and then they were referred to the surgical service for operation one week later. They were visited there by a surgeon unaware of the research who completed a questionnaire about pre-operative, operative, and post-operative complications. Of 28 patients, 25 patients underwent either APR or LAR surgery with TME. One patient developed transient anal pain grade I and one patient had dysuria grade I; they were improved in subsequent follow-up. Short course schedule can be performed carefully in patients with staged rectal cancer without concerning about serious complications. This shorter treatment schedule is cost-effective and would be more convenient for patients due to fewer trips to the hospital and the main treatment, i.e. operating the patient, will be done with the shortest time the following diagnosis. PMID:26615375

  4. Preimplantation diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, J D; Martin, M C; Lebo, R V; Pedersen, R A

    1993-01-01

    Preimplantation embryonic biopsy and analysis offer couples at increased risk of having offspring affected with a genetic disorder the possibility of an early prenatal diagnosis. For many couples, this approach would avoid the issue of the selective termination of affected fetuses. Substantial advances have been made in the area of preimplantation diagnosis, but the possible difficulties with this approach cannot be ignored. Images PMID:8236971

  5. Extracorporeal machine perfusion of the pancreas: technical aspects and its clinical implications - a systematic review of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation is an important treatment option for insulin-dependent diabetes and its complications. However, as the pancreas is particularly susceptible to ischaemic-reperfusion injury, the criteria for pancreas and islet donation are especially strict. With a chronic shortage of donors, one critical challenge is to maximise organ availability and expand the donor pool. To achieve that, continuous improvement in organ preservation is required, with the aims of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury, prolong preservation time and improve graft function. Static cold storage, the only method used in clinical pancreas and islet cell transplant currently, has likely reached its plateau. Machine perfusion, hypothermic or normothermic, could hold the key to improving donor pancreas quality as well as quantity available for transplant. This article reviews the literature on experimental models of pancreas machine perfusion, examines the benefits of machine perfusion, the technical aspects and their clinical implications. PMID:26253243

  6. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: benefits of pre-operative octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Healy, E; Cooke, R S; Ellis, P K; Harper, R; Hunter, S J

    2015-01-01

    Summary TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and the optimal investigation and management is uncertain. We describe a case of a 43 year-old woman with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, highlighting diagnostic testing and our use, pre-operatively of somatostatin analogue therapy, which induced biochemical euthyroidism and a reduction in tumour size. Learning points The differential diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate TSH secretion is non-thyroidal illness, medications, assay interference due to heterophilic antibodies, thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.TRH stimulation test and triiodothyronine suppression test assist in differentiating thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.Somatostatin analogue therapy can induce biochemical euthyroidism and reduce tumour size. PMID:26113979

  7. Preoperative amygdala fMRI in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Robert; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Thompson, Pamela J; Symms, Mark R; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Anterior temporal lobe resections (ATLR) benefit 70% of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but may be complicated by emotional disturbances. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of the amygdala in processing emotions in TLE and whether this may be a potential preoperative predictive marker for emotional disturbances following surgery. Methods: We studied 54 patients with refractory mesial TLE due to hippocampal sclerosis (28 right, 26 left) and 21 healthy controls using a memory encoding fMRI paradigm, which included viewing fearful and neutral faces. Twenty-one TLE patients (10 left, 11 right) subsequently underwent ATLR. Anxiety and depression were assessed preoperatively and 4 months postoperatively using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: On viewing fearful faces, healthy controls demonstrated left lateralized, while right TLE patients showed bilateral amygdala activation. Left TLE patients had significantly reduced activation in left and right amygdalae compared to controls and right TLE patients. In right TLE patients, left and right amygdala activation was significantly related to preoperative anxiety and depression levels, and preoperative right amygdala activation correlated significantly with postoperative change of anxiety and depression scores, characterized by greater increases in anxiety and depression in patients with greater preoperative activation. No such correlations were seen for left TLE patients. Discussion: The fearful face fMRI paradigm is a reliable method for visualizing amygdala activation in controls and patients with mesial TLE. Activation of the right amygdala preoperatively was predictive of emotional disturbances following right ATLR. PMID:18717711

  8. A case of primary jejunal cancer diagnosed by preoperative small intestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Kazuhito; Machimura, Takao; Wasada, Mitsuru; Takayasu, Hiroyuki; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2008-04-01

    The patient was a 37-year-old female. She was brought to our hospital by ambulance with nausea and vomiting. Abdominal ultra sound and abdominal enhanced CT scan showed a tumor in left side of the abdominal aorta 6 cm in size, and it showed an expanded stomach and duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal series revealed an apple core sign in upper jejunum near the Treitz' ligament. Small intestinal endoscopy (XSIF-240 endoscope, Olympus Inc.) revealed stenosis related to an epithelially protruding lesion with an irregular surface in the jejunum on the anal side of the horizontal duodenal peduncle. Biopsy suggested a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Scintigraphy showed hot spot in left middle abdomen. Under a diagnosis of primary jejunum cancer, Partial resection of the jejunum and partial resection of the transverse colon was performed. Histopathologically, the tumor was well differentiated adenocarcinoma exposed serosal surface. Postoperatively, the stage was evaluated as III (T3, N1, M0). Preoperative diagnosis to use small intestinal endoscopy was effectiveness. We report a patient with primary jejunum cancer in whom a definitive diagnosis was made before surgery. PMID:21318964

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Disease Stratified Human Pancreas Tissue Indicates Unique Signature of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Pugliese, Alberto; Nadler, Jerry L.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with functional beta cell loss due to ongoing inflammation. Despite shared similarities, T1D is an autoimmune disease with evidence of autoantibody production, as well as a role for exocrine pancreas involvement. Our hypothesis is that differential protein expression occurs in disease stratified pancreas tissues and regulated proteins from endocrine and exocrine tissues are potential markers of disease and potential therapeutic targets. The study objective was to identify novel proteins that distinguish the pancreas from donors with T1D from the pancreas from patients with T2D, or autoantibody positive non-diabetic donors. Detailed quantitative comprehensive proteomic analysis was applied to snap frozen human pancreatic tissue lysates from organ donors without diabetes, with T1D-associated autoantibodies in the absence of diabetes, with T1D, or with T2D. These disease-stratified human pancreas tissues contain exocrine and endocrine tissues (with dysfunctional islets) in the same microenvironment. The expression profiles of several of the proteins were further verified by western blot. We identified protein panels that are significantly and uniquely upregulated in the three disease-stratified pancreas tissues compared to non-disease control tissues. These proteins are involved in inflammation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity, all of which are pathways linked to, and likely involved in, T1 and T2 diabetes pathogenesis. Several new proteins were differentially upregulated in prediabetic, T1D, and T2D pancreas. The results identify proteins that could serve as novel prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic tools to preserve functional islet mass in Type 1 Diabetes. PMID:26302420

  10. Minimization and withdrawal of steroids in pancreas and islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Davide; Sageshima, Junichiro; Burke, George W; Ricordi, Camillo

    2009-01-01

    For reducing the corticosteroid (CS)-related side-effects, especially cardiovascular events, CS-sparing protocols have become increasingly common in pancreas transplantation (PT). Lympho-depleting induction antibodies, such as rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) or alemtuzumab, have been widely used in successful trials. The results of various CS-sparing protocols combining calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and mycophenolate or sirolimus, have been mixed for rejection and survival rates. Most of the studies were uncontrolled trials of low-risk patients, therefore the grade of evidence is limited. Large-scale prospective studies with long-term follow up are necessary to assess risks and benefits of CS-sparing regimens in PT before recommending such strategies as standard practice. Islet allo-transplantation for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes mellitus, less invasive and safer procedure than PT, has been attempted since late 1980s, but diabetogenic immunosuppressants at maintenance, mainly CS and high-dose CNI, prevented satisfactory results (10% insulin-independence at 1-year post-transplant). Since 2000, CS-free and CNI-reducing protocols, including more potent induction [daclizumab, OKT3gamma1(ala-ala) anti-CD3 antibody, rATG] and maintenance (sirolimus, mycophenolate) agents, have significantly improved short-term outcomes whereas long-term are still inadequate (from 80% to 20% insulin-independence from 1- to 5-year post-transplant). Main limitations are allo- and autoimmunity, immunosuppression-related islet and systemic toxicity and transplant site unsuitability, which tolerogenic protocols and biotechnological solutions may solve. PMID:18855850

  11. Mechanisms of Action of GLP-1 in the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Máire E.; Egan, Josephine M.

    2007-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone that is encoded in the proglucagon gene. It is mainly produced in enteroendocrine L cells of the gut and is secreted into the blood stream when food containing fat, protein hydrolysate and/or glucose enters the duodenum. Its particular effects on insulin and glucagon secretion have generated a flurry of research activity over the past twenty years culminating in a naturally occurring GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, now being used to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 engages a specific G-protein coupled receptor that is present in tissues other than the pancreas (brain, kidney, lung, heart, major blood vessels). The most widely studied cell activated by GLP-1 is the insulin-secreting beta cell where its defining action is augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Upon GLP-1 receptor activation, adenylyl cyclase is activated and cAMP generated, leading, in turn, to cAMP-dependent activation of second messenger pathways, such as the PKA and Epac pathways. As well as short-term effects of enhancing glucose-induced insulin secretion, continuous GLP-1 receptor activation also increases insulin synthesis, and beta cell proliferation and neogenesis. Although these latter effects cannot be currently monitored in humans, there are substantial improvements in glucose tolerance and increases in both first phase and plateau phase insulin secretory responses in type 2 diabetic patients treated with exendin-4. This review we will focus on the effects resulting from GLP-1 receptor activation in islets of Langerhans PMID:17306374

  12. Human ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas express extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lhr, M.; Trautmann, B.; Gttler, M.; Peters, S.; Zauner, I.; Maillet, B.; Klppel, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are characterised by a dense connective tissue reaction. To test the hypothesis that stroma components are synthesised and produced by the tumour cells themselves, eight cell lines as well as six xenografted tumours from human ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas were examined for the expression of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), using cDNA probes and antibodies to collagen types I, III and IV, vitronectin, fibronectin, undulin and laminin. All tumour cell lines (CAPAN-1, CAPAN-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PANC-1, PaCa-2, PaCa-3, PaCa-44) and xenografted human pancreatic tumours expressed at least one of the examined ECM at the RNA (collagen type IV > laminin = fibronectin = vitronectin > collagen type III > undulin > collagen type I) or protein level (collagen type IV = collagen type III > vitronectin > laminin > collagen type I = fibronectin > undulin). In nude mouse tumours expression of laminin and collagen I was most pronounced in well-differentiated carcinomas. In a few tumours, collagen type III, vitronectin and undulin were expressed on the luminal side of the neoplastic glands, suggesting loss of normal polar differentiation. Incubation with fetal calf serum modulated ECM RNA levels to a varying extent in all but one cell line (AsPC-1). The results suggest that human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas cells are capable of synthesising and producing extracellular matrix proteins in vitro and in vivo, but that the extent and pattern of ECM expression differs between the various tumours and conditions tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8286197

  13. Minimizing preoperative anxiety with alternative caring-healing therapies.

    PubMed

    Norred, C L

    2000-11-01

    This article reviews holistic caring-healing therapies that may decrease preoperative anxiety for the surgical patient, based on the philosophy and science of caring developed by Jean Watson, RN, PhD, FAAN. Dr Watson reveals a new paradigm emerging in health care that blends the compassion and caring of nursing in harmony with the curative therapies of medicine. Hypnosis, aromatherapy, music, guided imagery, and massage are integrative caring-healing therapies that may minimize preoperative anxiety. Alternative therapies offer a high-touch balance when integrated with high-tech conventional surgical treatments. PMID:11098363

  14. [Importance of preoperative and intraoperative imaging for operative strategies].

    PubMed

    Nitschke, P; Bork, U; Plodeck, V; Podlesek, D; Sobottka, S B; Schackert, G; Weitz, J; Kirsch, M

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in preoperative and postoperative imaging have an increasing influence on surgical decision-making and make more complex surgical interventions possible. This improves the possibilities for frequently occurring challenges and promoting improved functional and oncological outcome. This manuscript reviews the role of preoperative and intraoperative imaging in surgery. Various techniques are explained based on examples from hepatobiliary surgery and neurosurgery, in particular real-time procedures, such as the online use of augmented reality and in vivo fluorescence, as well as new and promising optical techniques including imaging of intrinsic signals and vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:26939896

  15. Preoperative testing before low-risk surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Kyle R.; Wijeysundera, Duminda N.; Pendrith, Ciara; Ng, Ryan; Tu, Jack V.; Laupacis, Andreas; Schull, Michael J.; Levinson, Wendy; Bhatia, R. Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is concern about increasing utilization of low-value health care services, including preoperative testing for low-risk surgical procedures. We investigated temporal trends, explanatory factors, and institutional and regional variation in the utilization of testing before low-risk procedures. Methods: For this retrospective cohort study, we accessed linked population-based administrative databases from Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1 546 223 patients 18 years or older underwent a total of 2 224 070 low-risk procedures, including endoscopy and ophthalmologic surgery, from Apr. 1, 2008, to Mar. 31, 2013, at 137 institutions in 14 health regions. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to assess patient- and institution-level factors associated with electrocardiography (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac stress test or chest radiography within 60 days before the procedure. Results: Endoscopy, ophthalmologic surgery and other low-risk procedures accounted for 40.1%, 34.2% and 25.7% of procedures, respectively. ECG and chest radiography were conducted before 31.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.9%31.1%) and 10.8% (95% CI 10.8%10.8%) of procedures, respectively, whereas the rates of preoperative echocardiography and stress testing were 2.9% (95% CI 2.9%2.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI 2.1%2.1%), respectively. Significant variation was present across institutions, with the frequency of preoperative ECG ranging from 3.4% to 88.8%. Receipt of preoperative ECG and radiography were associated with older age (among patients 6675 years of age, for ECG, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 18.3, 95% CI 17.619.0; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.83.0), preoperative anesthesia consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 8.7, 95% CI 8.58.8; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.12.2) and preoperative medical consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 6.8, 95% CI 6.76.9; for radiography, adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.53.6). The median ORs for receipt of preoperative ECG and radiography were 2.3 and 1.6, respectively. Interpretation: Despite guideline recommendations to limit testing before low-risk surgical procedures, preoperative ECG and chest radiography were performed frequently. Significant variation across institutions remained after adjustment for patient- and institution-level factors. PMID:26032314

  16. Effect of preoperative irradiation on healing of low colorectal anastomoses

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, L.; Sanders, G.; Wahlstrom, E.; Yadegar, J.; Amodeo, P.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of preoperative irradiation on the healing of low colorectal anastomoses was studied experimentally. In 12 dogs in whom preoperative irradiation of 4,000 rads was given before low colorectal stapled anastomosis was performed, anastomotic leakage occurred in 66 percent. More than half of the anastomotic leaks were associated with either severe sepsis or death. In a matched group of control animals that underwent stapled anastomoses without irradiation, no anastomotic complications occurred. The clinical implications of this study are that stapled anastomoses in irradiated colon are at serious risk of anastomotic dehiscence and, therefore, should be protected with a proximal colostomy.

  17. Permanent Preoperative Carotid Artery Occlusion and Carotid Body Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Palaskas, Constantine W.; Fisch, Ugo; Valavanis, Anton; Pfaltz, Madeleine

    1993-01-01

    Precise angiographic evaluation of the cerebrovascular system and radiographically controlled balloon occlusion of the internal carotid artery have considerably changed the risk involved with carotid surgery at the skull base. Preoperative permanent balloon occlusion of the internal carotid artery was used in three patients with infiltrative carotid body tumors. Embolization and definitive preoperative control of the carotid artery provided ideal conditions for focusing the surgeon's attention on radical removal of tumor with maximal functional preservation of the adjacent cranial nerves. ImagesFigure 1p23-bFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17170886

  18. A new computational model for human thyroid cancer enhances the preoperative diagnostic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tuo; Sheng, Jianguo; Li, Weiqin; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Hongyu; Chen, Xueyun; Zhang, Jianquan; Cai, Quancai; Shi, Yongquan; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Considering the high rate of missed diagnosis and delayed treatments for thyroid cancer, an effective systematic model for the differential diagnosis is highly needed. Thus we analyzed the data on the clinicopathological characteristics, routine laboratory tests and imaging examinations in a cohort of 13,980 patients with thyroid cancer to establish a new diagnostic model for differentiating thyroid cancer in clinical practice. Here, we randomly selected two-thirds of the population to develop the thyroid malignancy risk scoring system (TMRS) for preoperative differentiation between thyroid cancer and benignant thyroid diseases, and then validated its differential diagnostic power in the rest one-third population. The 18 predictors finally enrolled in the TMRS included male gender, clinical manifestations (fever, neck sore, neck lump, palpitations or sweating), laboratory findings (TSH>1.56mIU/L, FT3>5.85pmol/L, TPOAb>14.97IU/ml, TgAb>48.00IU/ml, Tg>34.59μg/L, Ct>64.00ng/L, and CEA>0.41μg/L), and ultrasound features (tumor number≤ 23mm, site, size, echo texture, margins, and shape of neck lymphnodes). The TMRS is validated to be well-calibrated (P = 0.437) and excellently discriminated (AUC = 0.93, 95% CI [0.92, 0.94]), with an accuracy of 83.2%, a sensitivity of 89.3%, a specificity of 81.5%, positive and negative predictive values of 56.8% and 96.6%, positive and negative likelihood ratios of 4.83 and 0.13 in the development cohort, respectively. The TMRS highlights that this differential diagnostic system could help provide accurate preoperative risk stratification for thyroid cancer, and avoid unnecessary over- and under-treatment for such patients. PMID:26325368

  19. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  20. Perfusion-decellularized pancreas as a natural 3D scaffold for pancreatic tissue and whole organ engineering

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Saik-Kia; Bertera, Suzanne; Olsen, Phillip; Candiello, Joe; Halfter, Willi; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Johnson, Scott; Sicari, Brian; Kollar, Elizabeth; Badylak, Stephen F.; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, with insulin supplementation as the most common treatment measure. Regenerative medicine approaches such as a bioengineered pancreas has been proposed as potential therapeutic alternatives. A bioengineered pancreas will benefit from the development of a bioscaffold that supports and enhances cellular function and tissue development. Perfusion-decellularized organs are a likely candidate for use in such scaffolds since they mimic compositional, architectural and biomechanical nature of a native organ. In this study, we investigate perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas and the feasibility to recellularize the whole pancreas scaffold with pancreatic cell types. Our result demonstrates that perfusion-decellularization of whole pancreas effectively removes cellular and nuclear material while retaining intricate three-dimensional microarchitecture with perfusable vasculature and ductal network and crucial extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To mimic pancreatic cell composition, we recellularized the whole pancreas scaffold with acinar and beta cell lines and cultured up to 5 days. Our result shows successful cellular engraftment within the decellularized pancreas, and the resulting graft gave rise to strong up-regulation of insulin gene expression. These findings support biological utility of whole pancreas ECM as a biomaterials scaffold for supporting and enhancing pancreatic cell functionality and represent a step toward bioengineered pancreas using regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:23787110

  1. ECM signaling regulates collective cellular dynamics to control pancreas branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hung Ping; Panlasigui, Devin; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Sander, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Summary During pancreas development, epithelial buds undergo branching morphogenesis to form an exocrine and endocrine gland. Proper morphogenesis is necessary for correct lineage allocation of pancreatic progenitors; however, the cellular events underlying pancreas morphogenesis are unknown. Here, we employed time-lapse microscopy and fluorescent labeling of cells to analyze cell behaviors associated with pancreas morphogenesis. We observed that outer bud cells adjacent to the basement membrane are pleomorphic and rearrange frequently; as well, they largely remain in the outer cell compartment even after mitosis. These cell behaviors and pancreas branching depend on cell contacts with the basement membrane, which induce actomyosin cytoskeleton remodeling via integrin-mediated activation of FAK/Src signaling. We show that integrin signaling reduces E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in outer cells, and provide genetic evidence that this regulation is necessary for initiation of branching. Our study suggests that regulation of cell motility and adhesion by local niche cues initiates pancreas branching morphogenesis. PMID:26748698

  2. An Activated Immune and Inflammatory Response Targets the Pancreas of Newborn Pigs with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Sinkora, Marek; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McCray, Jr., Paul B.; Butler, John; Uc, Aliye

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: In cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreatic disease begins in utero and progresses over time to complete destruction of the organ. Although inflammatory cells have been detected in the pancreas of humans and pigs with CF, their subtypes have not been characterized. Methods: Using four-color flow cytometry, we analyzed the surface antigens of leukocytes in pancreas, blood, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of newborn pigs with CF (CFTR/ and CFTR?F508/?F508) and in those without CF (CFTR+/, CFTR+/?F508, CFTR+/+). Pancreatic histopathology was examined with HE stain. Results: CF pig pancreas had patchy distribution of inflammatory cells with neutrophils/macrophages in dilated acini, and lymphocytes in the interstitium compared to non-CF. B cells, effector (MHC-II+) and cytotoxic (CD2+CD8+) ?? T cells, activated (MHC-II+ and/or CD25+) and effector (CD4+CD8+) ?? T helper cells, effector natural killer cells (MHC-II+CD3?CD8+), and monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils were increased in the CF pig pancreas compared to pigs without CF. Blood and MLN leukocyte populations were not different between CF and non-CF pigs. Conclusions: We discovered an activated immune response that was specific to the pancreas of newborn CF pigs; inflammation was not systemic. The presence of both innate and adaptive immune cells suggests that the disease process is complex and extensive. PMID:22057257

  3. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jrg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  4. GPRC6A mediates responses to osteocalcin in ?-cells in vitro and pancreas in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pi, Min; Wu, Yunpeng; Quarles, L Darryl

    2011-07-01

    A bone-pancreas endocrine loop has been identified recently that involves insulin secreted from ?-cells in the pancreas stimulating insulin receptors in osteoblasts, leading to osteoblastic differentiation and increased secretion of osteocalcin (Ocn), a bone-derived hormone that regulates insulin secretion in ?-cells. The identity of the Ocn-sensing receptor in ?-cells is a missing component of this endocrine loop. The abnormalities in glucose homeostasis in Gprc6a null mice suggests that this pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor is a candidate for mediating the effects of Ocn on insulin secretion in the pancreas. In support of this possibility, we found that transfection of non-Gprc6a-expressing HEK-293 cells with a full-length Gprc6a cDNA imparted a dose-dependent response to Ocn (5 to 60 ng/mL), as measured by PKD1 and ERK phosphorylation. In addition, Gprc6a is highly expressed in mouse pancreatic tissue and in the mouse TC-6 pancreatic ?-cell line. Ocn also stimulated ERK activity in TC-6 pancreatic ?-cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of Ocn stimulated ERK activity in the pancreas and increased serum insulin levels in wild-type mice, but these responses were markedly attenuated in Gprc6a(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that GPRC6A is a candidate for mediating the response to Ocn in the bone-pancreas endocrine loop regulating insulin signaling. PMID:21425331

  5. Predicting Risk of Death in General Surgery Patients on the Basis of Preoperative Variables Using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Data

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Sachin; Bell, Ted; Grim, Rod; Ahuja, Vanita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To use the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to develop an accurate and clinically meaningful preoperative mortality predictor (PMP) for general surgery on the basis of objective information easily obtainable at the patients bedside and to compare it with the preexisting NSQIP mortality predictor (NMP). Methods: Data were obtained from the ACS NSQIP Participant Use Data File (2005 to 2008) for current procedural terminology codes that included open pancreas surgery and open/laparoscopic colorectal, hernia (ventral, umbilical, or inguinal), and gallbladder surgery. Chi-square analysis was conducted to determine which preoperative variables were significantly associated with death. Logistic regression followed by frequency analysis was conducted to assign weight to these variables. PMP score was calculated by adding the scores for contributing variables and was applied to 2009 data for validation. The accuracy of PMP score was tested with correlation, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: PMP score was based on 16 variables that were statistically reliable in distinguishing between surviving and dead patients (p < 0.05). Statistically significant variables predicting death were inpatient status, sepsis, poor functional status, do-not-resuscitate directive, disseminated cancer, age, comorbidities (cardiac, renal, pulmonary, liver, and coagulopathy), steroid use, and weight loss. The model correctly classified 98.6% of patients as surviving or dead (p < 0.05). Spearman correlation of the NMP and PMP was 86.9%. Conclusion: PMP score is an accurate and simple tool for predicting operative survival or death using only preoperative variables that are readily available at the bedside. This can serve as a performance assessment tool between hospitals and individual surgeons. PMID:23251111

  6. Only grading has independent impact on breast cancer survival after adjustment for pathological response to preoperative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Andreas; Katretchko, Julia; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Unnebrink, Kristina; Rudlowski, Christian; Geberth, Matthias; Beldermann, Frank; Bastert, Gunther; Strittmatter, Hans-Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Our objective was to determine pretreatment factors with an independent impact on survival after adjusting for response to preoperative chemotherapy and to describe parameters predictive for achieving a pathological complete remission (pCR) after preoperative chemotherapy containing an anthracycline. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to describe the impact of the following pretreatment characteristics of 240 primary breast cancer patients who received preoperative chemotherapy containing an anthracycline at our institution on disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS): age, stage, clinical tumor size, clinical nodal status, grading, and expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her2/neu, Ki67, Bcl-2 and p53. Afterwards, the response to preoperative chemotherapy was added to the multivariate model in order to evaluate which pretreatment parameters retained their prognostic impact. In addition, univariate analysis was performed to describe pretreatment variables predictive for achieving a pCR. With a median follow-up of 6.4 years (range 0-10.4), only grading retained its independent impact on DFS, DDFS and OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.5, 1.7 and 2.9, respectively; p<0.05] after adjusting for the strongest independent prognostic factors pathological T category at surgery (HR 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7, respectively; p<0.001) and pathological N category at surgery (HR 2.3, 2.4 and 2.1, respectively; p<0.001). Predictive factors for the achievement of pCR (p<0.05) were age under 35 years, lower stage or smaller clinical tumor size and higher expression of Bcl-2 at diagnosis. We conclude that only grading retained its independent prognostic impact on DFS, DDFS and OS after adjusting for pathological response of breast tumor and axillary lymph node metastases to preoperative chemotherapy. According to our data, it could be hypothesized that young patients with early tumor stage and small primary tumors might profit most from preoperative chemotherapy. PMID:15075668

  7. Preoperative digital mammography imaging in conservative mastectomy and immediate reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Hammond, Dennis; Nava, Maurizio; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Rostagno, Roman; Gercovich, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital mammography clearly distinguishes gland tissue density from the overlying non-glandular breast tissue coverage, which corresponds to the existing tissue between the skin and the Cooper’s ligaments surrounding the gland (i.e., dermis and subcutaneous fat). Preoperative digital imaging can determine the thickness of this breast tissue coverage, thus facilitating planning of the most adequate surgical techniques and reconstructive procedures for each case. Methods This study aimed to describe the results of a retrospective study of 352 digital mammograms in 176 patients with different breast volumes who underwent preoperative conservative mastectomies. The breast tissue coverage thickness and its relationship with the breast volume were evaluated. Results The breast tissue coverage thickness ranged from 0.233 to 4.423 cm, with a mean value of 1.952 cm. A comparison of tissue coverage and breast volume revealed a non-direct relationship between these factors. Conclusions Preoperative planning should not depend only on breast volume. Flap evaluations based on preoperative imaging measurements might be helpful when planning a conservative mastectomy. Accordingly, we propose a breast tissue coverage classification (BTCC). PMID:26855903

  8. The effect of preoperative total parenteral nutrition on surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Grimes, C J; Younathan, M T; Lee, W C

    1987-09-01

    The effect of preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on morbidity and mortality was studied in medical records of discharged surgical patients. Patients were classified into two groups on the basis of their ability to meet established criteria for malnutrition and the use of preoperative or postoperative TPN. The control group consisted of 44 patients who received TPN only after surgery or for less than 5 days preoperatively. The experimental group consisted of 26 patients who received treatment for at least 5 days before surgery and/or after surgery. Nutrition parameters measured included serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, weight, and percent weight loss. Major septic complications (MSC) considered were intra-abdominal sepsis, wound dehiscence, septicemia, and pneumonia. Other complications included respiratory failure, congestive heart failure, fistulas, urinary tract infection, shock, and death. The experimental group showed improvements after surgery in the nutritional parameters listed and had a lower incidence of morbidity and mortality. Deficits in serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, and weight losses greater than or equal to 10% have been significantly (p less than .01) linked to the incidence of MSC. MSC also has been more frequently noted among patients who did not have TPN prior to surgery and who died following surgery. Therefore, preoperative TPN does appear to make a difference in the outcome of surgery. PMID:3114353

  9. Influence of preoperative nutritional state on inflammatory response after surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Moriyama, Y; Kariyazono, H; Hamada, N; Toyohira, H; Taira, A; Yamada, K

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether the preoperative nutritional state influences the postoperative inflammatory reaction and immunity, we grouped patients whose postoperative nutritional support was performed by total parenteral nutrition into the good nutritional state group (group I) and the latent protein-calorie malnutrition suggested group (group II) based on the preoperative rapid turnover protein (RTP). Nutritional markers markedly decreased after surgery and recovered almost to preoperative levels on postoperative day (POD-) 7 in groups I and II. Nutritional markers on POD-7 in group II were significantly lower than those in group I (RTP, P < 0.001; albumin, P < 0.05). After surgery, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and polymorphonuclear (PMN-) elastase were higher in group II than in group I (P < 0.01). In groups I and II, IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) rose before the remarkable elevation of CRP and PMN-elastase. In group I, all the nutritional markers showed a negative correlation with CRP and PMN-elastase. Further, a positive correlation was observed between IL-6 and CRP and between IL-8 and PMN-elastase. In conclusion, evaluation of the preoperative nutritional state appears to be very important for the prediction of postoperative complication. PMID:10575657

  10. Patterns of Response After Preoperative Treatment in Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Gonzalez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Javier; Hernandez-Lizoain, Jose L.; Ciervide, Raquel; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Miguel, Inigo; Arbea, Leire; Aristu, J. Javier; Chopitea, Ana; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando; Valenti, Victor; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Sola, Jesus J.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the rate of pathologic response in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy with and without chemoradiation at our institution. Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2007 patients were retrospectively identified who received preoperative treatment for gastric cancer (cT3-4/ N+) with induction chemotherapy (Ch) or with Ch followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 5 weeks) (ChRT). Surgery was planned 4-6 weeks after the completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Pathologic assessment was used to investigate the patterns of pathologic response after neoadjuvant treatment. Results: Sixty-one patients were analyzed. Of 61 patients, 58 (95%) underwent surgery. The R0 resection rate was 87%. Pathologic complete response was achieved in 12% of the patients. A major pathologic response (<10% of residual tumor) was observed in 53% of patients, and T downstaging was observed in 75%. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 36.5 months. The only patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factor associated with pathologic response was the use of preoperative ChRT. Patients achieving major pathologic response had a 3-year actuarial DFS rate of 63%. Conclusions: The patterns of pathologic response after preoperative ChRT suggest encouraging intervals of DFS. Such a strategy may be of interest to be explored in gastric cancer.

  11. A preoperative predictive score of pancreatic fistula following pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Keith J; Hodson, James; Mehrzad, Homoyoon; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Sutcliffe, Robert P; Muiesan, Paolo; Isaac, John; Bramhall, Simon R; Mirza, Darius F

    2014-01-01

    Background Various factors are related to the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Some of the strongest are identified intra- or postoperatively, which limits their utility in predicting this complication. The preoperative prediction of POPF permits an individualized approach to patient consent and selection, and may influence postoperative management. This study sought to develop and test a score to predict POPF. Methods A post hoc analysis of a prospectively maintained database was conducted. Consecutive patients were randomly selected to modelling and validation sets at a ratio of 2 : 1, respectively. Patient data, preoperative blood tests and physical characteristics of the gland (assessed from preoperative computed tomography images) were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis in the modelling set of patients. A score predictive of POPF was designed and tested in the validation set. Results Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 77 of 325 (23.7%) patients. The occurrence of POPF was associated with 12 factors. On multivariate analysis, body mass index and pancreatic duct width were independently associated with POPF. A risk score to predict POPF was designed (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.832, 95% confidence interval 0.7680.897; P < 0.001) and successfully tested upon the validation set. Conclusions Preoperative assessment of a patient's risk for POPF is possible using simple measurements. The present risk score is a valid tool with which to predict POPF in patients undergoing PD. PMID:24246089

  12. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  13. The Concept of Death in Preoperational Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen preoperational retarded boys and girls were interviewed for their concepts of death. Subjects did not have realistic concepts of when they would die, or of the permanence of death, but did have knowledge of how things die. Types of replies subjects made were significantly related to subjects' cognitive level. (Author/RH)

  14. The Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Infection

    PubMed Central

    del Arco, Alfonso; Bertrand, Mara Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection (PJI) is the most serious joint replacement complication, occurring in 0.8-1.9% of knee arthroplasties and 0.3-1.7% of hip arthroplasties. A definition of PJI was proposed in the November 2011 issue of the journal Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. The presence of a fistula or of local inflammatory signs is indicative of PJI, but in many cases local pain is the only symptom. In the absence of underlying inflammatory conditions, C-reactive protein measurement is the most useful preoperative blood test for detecting infection associated with a prosthetic joint. The most useful preoperative diagnostic test is the aspiration of synovial joint fluid to obtain a total and differential cell count and culture. Intraoperative frozen sections of periprosthetic tissues produce excellent accuracy in predicting a diagnosis of PJI but only moderate accuracy in ruling out the diagnosis. In this process, obtaining a quality sample is the first step, and determines the quality of microbiological results. Specimens for culture should be obtained prior to the initiation of antibiotic treatment. Sonication of a removed implant may increase the culture yield. Plain radiography has low sensitivity and low specificity for detecting infection associated with a prosthetic joint. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in the evaluation of complex cases, but metal inserts interfere with these tests, and abnormalities may be non-specific. Labelled-leucocyte imaging (e.g., leucocytes labelled with indium-111) combined with bone marrow imaging with the use of technetium-99mlabelled sulphur colloid is considered the imaging test of choice when imaging is necessary. PMID:23898349

  15. Dual Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that make them feel better temporarily. Sometimes the substance abuse occurs first. Over time, that can lead to emotional and mental problems. Someone with a dual diagnosis must treat both conditions. For the treatment to be effective, the person needs to stop ...

  16. A multicenter, retrospective study to evaluate the effect of preoperative stoma site marking on stomal and peristomal complications.

    PubMed

    Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Demir, Sevil Guler; Karadag, Ayise; Harputlu, Deniz; Kahraman, Aysel; Karadag, Sercan; Hin, Aysel Oren; Togluk, Eylem; Altinsoy, Meral; Erdem, Sonca; Cihan, Rabia

    2014-05-01

    Even though preoperative marking of the stoma area is considered important for the prevention of postoperative complications, not all healthcare institutions have universally adopted this practice. A multicenter, retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to determine the effect of stoma site marking on stomal and peristomal complications. The 1-year study included 748 patients (408 [54.5%] male, mean age 56.60 16.73 years) from eight stomatherapy units in Turkey. Patient data, including age, gender, diagnosis, type of surgery, history of preoperative stoma site marking, person performing the marking, and postoperative complications, were obtained from patient records, abstracted, and analyzed. Cancer was the reason for the operation in 545 (72.9%) of the cases. In 287 patients (38.4%), the stoma and wound care nurse and/or surgeon marked the stoma area; this occurred 1 day before or on the day of surgery according to Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses Society and American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons recommendations. Stomal/ peristomal complications developed in 248 (33.2%) persons; the most frequently observed complications in patients were parastomal skin problems (136, 48.7%), mucocutaneous separation (52, 18.6%), and retraction (31, 11.1%). The rate of complications was higher among patients whose stoma site was not marked than among those whose stoma site was marked (22.9% and 46%, respectively; P <0.001). The results of this study confirm the stoma area should be marked preoperatively in all planned surgical interventions in order to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. Additional prospective and experimental studies on effectiveness of preoperative stoma site marking should be conducted with larger sample groups. PMID:24807019

  17. Colorectal Stenting: An Effective Therapy for Preoperative and Palliative Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Rahel S. Jost, Res; Schoch, Erich; Brunner, Brigit; Decurtins, Marco; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the effectiveness of preoperative and palliative colorectal stent placement in acute colonic obstruction. Methods. Sixty-seven consecutive patients (mean age 67.3 years, range 25-93 years) with clinical and radiological signs of colonic obstruction were treated: 45 (67%) preoperatively and 22 (33%) with a palliative intent. In 59 patients (88%) the obstruction was malignant, while in 8 (12%) it was benign. A total of 73 enteric Wallstents were implanted under combined fluoroscopic/endoscopic guidance. Results. Forty-five patients were treated preoperatively with a technical success rate of 84%, a clinical success rate of 83%, and a complication rate of 16%. Of the 38 patients who were successfully stented preoperatively, 36 (95%) underwent surgery 2-22 days (mean 7.2 days) after stent insertion. The improved general condition and adequate bowel cleansing allowed single-stage tumor resection and primary end-to-end anastomosis without complications in 31 cases (86% of all operations), while only 5 patients had colostomies. Stent placement was used as the final palliative treatment in 22 patients. The technical success rate was 95%, the clinical success rate 72%, and the complication rate relatively high at 67%, caused by reocclusion in most cases. After noninvasive secondary interventions (e.g., tube placement, second stenting, balloon dilatation) the secondary patency of stents was 71% and mean reported survival time after stent insertion was 92 days (range 10-285 days). Conclusion. Preoperative stent placement in acute colonic obstruction is minimally invasive and allows an elective one-stage surgery in most cases. Stent placement also proved a valuable alternative to avoid colostomy in palliation.

  18. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p < 0.02) and used less narcotic use (average 1.7 tablets, p < 0.02) for the first 36 hours compared with group 1. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups with regard to demographics, hours of postoperative cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. PMID:24488793

  19. [Usefulness of computerized myelotomography in the diagnosis of discopathy of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Z; Kasprzak, P; Chmielowski, M

    1992-01-01

    The authors compared the results of preoperative computer-assisted myelography (CAM) with surgical findings in 45 patients with suspected cervical disc disease. In 98% CAM gave full and proper diagnosis confirmed by surgery. Only in one patient, the preoperative diagnosis was extraspinal tumour, and surgery revealed prolapsed nucleus pulposus lying freely on the anterior wall of the dural sac. In authors's opinion, CAM is sufficient for planning of surgical treatment in cervical disc disease, and other radiological studies, myelography or nuclear magnetic resonance tomography are usually not necessary. PMID:1407293

  20. Nonmucinous cystadenomas of the pancreas with pancreatobiliary phenotype and ovarian-like stroma.

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Manivel, Carlos; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chabl-Montero, Fredy; Godoy-Valds, Csar; Chan-Nuez, Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2013-05-01

    Among 31 benign cystic neoplasms of the pancreas diagnosed as mucinous cystadenomas, we identified 9 (29%) cases of nonmucinous cystadenomas with a pancreatobiliary phenotype and an ovarian-like stroma. Although both cystic tumors belong to the same family, they should be separated because their epithelial lining and cyst fluid are different. The lining cells of the nonmucinous cystadenomas consisted of a single layer of cuboidal cells, similar to the epithelial cells of the normal pancreatic ducts, and were not dysplastic (90%-100% of the lining cells). The cyst fluid was described as serous or clear. The remaining 22 classical mucinous cystadenomas, lined predominantly by mucinous and foveolar epithelium, revealed focal pancreatobiliary epithelium in 86% of the cases, and 6 pancreatic invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinomas failed to show pancreatobiliary differentiation. We believe that these nonmucinous cystadenomas of the pancreas represent a distinctive subset of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas that probably have no malignant potential. PMID:23596111