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Sample records for pancreas preoperative diagnosis

  1. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a review of preoperative diagnosis and management*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue-li; Zhang, Qi; Masood, Noman; Masood, Waqas; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Ting-bo

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a diverse group of neoplasms in the pancreas, and are more increasingly encountered with widespread abdominal screening and improved imaging techniques. The most common types of PCNs are serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Clinicians frequently feel bewildered in the differential diagnosis and subsequent management among the various types of lesions in the pancreas, which may lead to overtreatment or delayed treatment. The current review provides recent developments in the understanding of the three most common types of PCNs, the latest modalities used in preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as the most up to date management. Suggestions for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCNs, MCNs, and IPMNs are also provided for young surgeons. Better understanding of these neoplasms is essential for clinicians to make accurate diagnosis and to provide the best management for patients. PMID:23463761

  2. Errors and mistakes in the ultrasound diagnosis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gierbli?ski, Ireneusz W.

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of the focal lesions in the region of the pancreas is difficult due to the similarity of clinical and radiological pictures of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. This paper presents the most common causes of errors in ultrasound diagnosis of pancreatic pathologies. Attention was paid to the errors resulting from the structural variants of the pancreas and those caused by the neighborhood of intestine, stomach and other organs or vessels. Moreover, the article presents mistakes in the interpretation of ultrasound images of normal pancreas as well as its inflammatory and neoplastic lesions. The errors and mistakes in question were divided into three categories: 1) mistakes related to the anatomical structure of the pancreas (anatomical variants, echostructure and echogenicity, course of the splenic artery); 2) mistakes related to anatomical structures localized in the vicinity of the pancreas (caudate lobe of the liver, other organs and intestinal loops surrounding the head of the pancreas, vessels and bile ducts, lymph nodes in the region of the pancreas or duodenal diverticula and tumors); 3) mistakes related to the pathologies of the pancreas (inflammatory and neoplastic lesions including differentiation between inflammatory tumors and malignant masses). In spite of the progress of imaging techniques, the differential diagnosis of focal solid lesions remains the prime problem of imaging examinations of the pancreas. The major aim of the ultrasound examination is early detection of pancreatic neoplasm. Improper performance of the examination or a failure to perform a repeated scan when the conditions for the assessment of the pancreas are not favorable or, what is worse, description of normal pancreas when it is not clearly and entirely visible, constitute errors. PMID:26674270

  3. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Pancreas Divisum

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The published data on the accuracy of the detection of pancreas divisum by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is limited. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of detection of pancreas divisum by radial EUS in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent EUS followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the last four years to identify patients with complete pancreas divisum. Results: One hundred and forty six patients with chronic pancreatitis underwent EUS examination and 20 patients (13.6%) had pancreas divisum. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of absence of stack sign on EUS for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum were 50%, 97%, 73%, 93% and 91%, respectively and for the inability to trace pancreatic duct from the head to the body were 100%, 96%, 80%, 100% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: EUS can diagnose pancreas divisum in a majority of patients. Pancreas divisum can be reliably excluded if pancreatic duct could be tracked backwards from the head to the body around the genu. PMID:24949360

  4. [Preoperative diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Ji?í; Kamínek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Making pre-operative diagnosis of intermediate and low-grade infections of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is demanding and requires both clinical experience and good knowledge of diagnostic test performance. It is also necessary to know the rules of working with diagnostic tests based on the expected change in pre-test probability of PJI or the diagnostic odds ratio. This also requires a multi-modal approach with a rational combination of relevant tests because none of them can have both 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Suspicion of a developing PJI should be aroused by relevant information present in the patient s medical history and confirmed by clinical examination. Patients with an increased starting PJI probability, i.e. after taking the medical history and clinical examination, should be examined for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (screening tests). When both of these tests are positive and no other alternative explanation for their increase is plausible, then the post-test probability of PJI is significantly increased (up to 70%). Under such conditions the diagnosis is made definitive by positive results of synovial fluid analysis (leukocyte count, percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes, IL-1, IL-6) or an increased IL-6 serum levels. On the other hand, when both ESR and CRP are negative, the post-test probability of PJI is significantly decreased and no further examination for the presence of infection is usually necessary. In case of inconsistent results of ESR and CRP or if there is a high suspicion of joint infection regardless of these test results, joint fluid aspiration (cytology, IL-1, IL-6) and IL-6 serum levels should be assessed. In this situation scintigraphy imaging (three-phase bone scan combined with labelled leukocytes or anti-granulocyte antibodies) can also support or exclude the diagnosis. In low-grade infections or after previous administration of antibiotics it is recommended to repeat the above-mentioned laboratory tests and joint aspiration after at least a two-week interval without antibiotics. Key words: Total joint arthroplasty, prosthetic joint infection, preoperative diagnosis, pre-test probability, post-test probability, algorithm. PMID:22217403

  5. Hemolymphangioma: A rare differential diagnosis of cystic-solid or cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fei; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Jian-Jun; Fu, Yan-Biao; Jin, Kai; Chao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of pancreatic hemolymphangioma. Hemolymphangioma is a malformation of both lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The incidence of this disease in the pancreas is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported worldwide (PubMed). A 39-year-old woman with a one-day history of abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. There was no obvious precipitating factor. The preoperative examination, including ultrasonography and computed tomography, showed a cystic-solid tumor in the pancreas, and it was considered to be a mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Pancreatic body-tail resection combined with splenectomy was performed. After the operation, the tumor was pathologically demonstrated to be a pancreatic hemolymphangioma. Although pancreatic hemolymphangioma is rare, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic-solid tumors of the pancreas, particularly when there is no sufficient evidence for diagnosing cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma or some other relatively common disease of the pancreas. PMID:23801850

  6. Non-functional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: Advances in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Jordan M; Poultsides, George A

    2015-01-01

    Nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Although rare, the incidence of NF-PNETs is increasing significantly. The classification of PNETs has evolved over the past decades and is now based on a proliferation grading system. While most NF-PNETs are slow growing, tumors with more aggressive biology may become incurable once they progress to unresectable metastatic disease. Tumors of higher grade can be suspected preoperatively based on the presence of calcifications, hypoenhancement on arterial phase computed tomography, positron emission technology avidity and lack of octreotide scan uptake. Surgery is the only curative treatment and is recommended for most patients for whom complete resection is possible. Liver-directed therapies (thermal ablation, transarterial embolization) can be useful in controlling unresectable hepatic metastatic disease. In the presence of unresectable progressive disease, somatostatin analogues, everolimus and sunitinib can prolong progression-free survival. This article provides a comprehensive review of NF-PNETs with special emphasis on recent advances in diagnosis and management. PMID:26327759

  7. Biochemical Diagnosis and Preoperative Imaging of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jessica E; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Howe, James R

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are a group of neoplasms that can arise in a variety of locations throughout the body and often metastasize early. A patient's only chance for cure is surgical removal of the primary tumor and all associated metastases, although even when surgical cure is unlikely, patients can benefit from surgical debulking. A thorough preoperative workup will often require multiple clinical tests and imaging studies to locate the primary tumor, delineate the extent of the disease, and assess tumor functionality. This review discusses the biomarkers important for the diagnosis of these tumors and the imaging modalities needed. PMID:26610781

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Annular Pancreas: Reliability of the Double Bubble Sign with Periduodenal Hyperechogenic Band

    PubMed Central

    Dankovcik, Robert; Jirasek, Jan E.; Kucera, Eduard; Feyereisl, Jaroslav; Radonak, Jozef; Dudas, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the power of prenatal 2-D ultrasound examination in the 2nd trimester as a method of choice for accurate diagnosis of annular pancreas. Methods Co-incidence of the double bubble sign (often accompanying gastroduodenal dilatation) together with a hyperechogenic band around the duodenum (corresponding with the tissue of annular pancreas) was used as a diagnostic criterion. Findings from postnatal surgery served for verification. Results From 7,897 screened pregnancies, annular pancreas was proven in the cases where both signs were present, but never without the hyperechogenic band (N1 = 3, N2 = 3, p ? 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Conclusions More multicentric studies are required to test this approach. The following diagnostic strategy is reasonable at the present time: when the double bubble sign is discovered, always suspect annular pancreas and look for the second sign: hyperechogenic bands around the duodenum. Also look for known associated anomalies, and vice versa, if any of associated anomalies are noted, also search specifically for the signs of annular pancreas. PMID:19047797

  9. [Diagnosis and surgical treatment for endocrine tumors of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Isaji, S; Kato, K; Tanigawa, K

    1994-02-01

    Clinical features, diagnostic accuracy of imaging study, and the outcome of surgical treatment for endocrine tumors of the pancreas were analyzed in 12 patients who underwent surgery for the past 16 years and 11 months. The 12 cases were classified into two groups: functioning tumors in 8 (insulinoma in 7 including one malignant case, and malignant glucagonoma in one), and nonfunctioning tumors in 4 including 3 malignant cases. In functioning tumors, tumor size was 2 cm or less in 6 benign cases, but 5 cm or more in 2 malignant cases. In nonfunctioning tumors, tumor size was larger, ranging from 3.5 to 8.0 cm. Diagnostic accuracy for localization of functioning tumors was 66.7% for US, 75.0% for CT, 66.7% for endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), and 50.0% for selective angiography, while all nonfunctioning tumors could be detected by any diagnostic imagings. Percutaneous transhepatic portal venous sampling for immunoreactive insulin was very helpful to localize insulinoma. Stenosis or obstruction of the main pancreatic duct on ERP and arterial encasement on angiography highly suggested a malignant tumor. Even for malignant cases with liver metastasis, resection of the primary tumor with debulking of metastatic disease or intraarterial infusion chemotherapy was considered to prolong patient prognosis. PMID:8139124

  10. Diagnosis and management of cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) are being increasingly identified in recent years. They show a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical features. The diagnosis and discrimination of these lesions are very important because of the risk for concurrent or later development of malignancy. PCLs are usually first diagnosed and characterized by conventional imaging modalities such as trans-abdominal ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their ability to differentiate the benign and malignant lesions remains limited. Endoscopic US may be more helpful for the diagnosis and differentiation of PCLs because of its high resolution and better imaging characteristics than cross-sectional imaging modalities. It also allows for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of cystic lesions for biochemical, cytological and DNA analysis that might be further helpful for diagnosis and differentiation. The management options of PCLs are to observe, endoscopic treatment or surgical resection. However, the decision for management is sometimes hampered by limitations in current diagnostic and tissue sampling techniques. As further diagnostic and non-invasive management options become available, clinical decision-making will become much easier for these lesions. PMID:26261724

  11. Pancreas-specific protein (PASP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and neopterin (NEOP) in the diagnosis of rejection after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Müller, T F; Trösch, F; Ebel, H; Grüssner, R W; Feiber, H; Göke, B; Greger, B; Lange, H

    1997-01-01

    A reliable, noninvasive indicator of pancreatic allograft rejection is urgently needed. In this study, serum (S), plasma (P), and urine (U) levels of pancreas-specific protein (P-PASP, U-PASP), neopterin (S-NEOP, U-NEOP), amylase (U-AMYL), and amyloid A (SAA) were measured daily in ten type I diabetic patients following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK). Rejection episodes occurred in three isolated pancreas, nine isolated kidney, and five simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplants. In the case of the eight pancreas rejections, SAA was the rejection marker with the highest diagnostic accuracy (94%). Using P-PASP and U-PASP, an accuracy of 81% and 79%, respectively, was achieved. During viral infections, U-NEOP levels increased to a maximum level of 1904 mumol/mol creatinine, whereas during bacterial infections, SAA levels increased to a maximum value of 43 mg/dl. SAA, measured for the first time in SPK, appears to be a valuable rejection parameter. In combination with U-NEOP and U-AMYL, a differential diagnosis between rejection, bacterial infection, and viral infection was possible. Neither U-PASP nor P-PASP monitoring led to a significant improvement in the results. PMID:9163857

  12. ERCP and CT diagnosis of pancreas divisum and its relation to etiology of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei-Fu

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To inquire into the ERCP and CT features of pancreas divisum (PD) and its role in the etiology of chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Fourteen patients with PD were analyzed in regard to the findings in ERCP and CT, the activities of serum amylase and the incidence of pancreatitis. Dorsal ductography via minor papilla cannulation was performed in six of them. RESULTS: The length of dorsal and ventral pancre-atic duct was 16.56 cm ± 2.52 cm and 5.55 cm ± 1.46 cm. Most of the patients had dilatation of dorsal (10/14) and ventral (8/14) duct and the stenosis of dorsal duct terminal (10/14). Delayed clearance of contrast in dorsal duct was found in 8 patients. The size and contour of the pancreas were normal in all the patients at conventional CT. Pan-creatitis was identified in 13 patients. CONCLUSION: Dorsal ductography was necessary in the diagnosis of PD. Conventional CT play little role in the diagnosis of PD. Patients with PD run a higher risk of pancreatitis due to the stenosis of the minor papilla. PMID:11819261

  13. Diverticulitis of the appendix, a distinctive entity: preoperative diagnosis by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Manickam; Chawla, Ashish; Chokkappan, Kabilan; Liu, Huimin

    2015-10-01

    Diverticular disease of the appendix is rare and is usually diagnosed during surgery. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with right lower quadrant pain of 1-day duration. A preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal diverticulitis was made by computed tomography of the abdomen. The patient underwent emergency laparoscopic appendectomy, which confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:26041371

  14. Preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors, including magnifying endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Doyama, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Tsuyama, Sho; Tominaga, Kei; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Niwa, Hideki; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi; Okada, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumor (SNADET) is defined as a sporadic tumor that is confined to the mucosa or submucosa that does not arise from Vater’s papilla, and it includes adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Recent developments in endoscopic technology, such as high-resolution endoscopy and image-enhanced endoscopy, may increase the chances of detecting SNADET lesions. However, because SNADET is rare, little is known about its preoperative endoscopic diagnosis. The use of endoscopic resection for SNADET, which has no risk of metastasis, is increasing, but the incidence of complications, such as perforation, is significantly higher than in any other part of the digestive tract. A preoperative diagnosis is required to distinguish between lesions that should be followed up and those that require treatment. Retrospective studies have revealed certain endoscopic findings that suggest malignancy. In recent years, several new imaging modalities have been developed and explored for real-time diagnosis of these lesion types. Establishing an endoscopic diagnostic tool to differentiate between adenoma and adenocarcinoma in SNADET lesions is required to select the most appropriate treatment. This review describes the current state of knowledge about preoperative endoscopic diagnosis of SNADETs, such as duodenal adenoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma. Newer endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy, may help to guide these diagnostics, but their additional advantages remain unclear, and further studies are required to clarify these issues. PMID:26557007

  15. [The significance of beta2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of the carcinoma of the pancreas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fateh-Moghadam, A; Mantel, W; Neumeier, D; Hannig, Ch; Kristin, H; Otte, M

    1978-03-15

    The concentration of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was measured radioimmunologically in the sera of 79 patients with malignant disorders and 15 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Elevated levels of beta2m and CEA were found in 11 out of 22 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas, which sets off this malignancy from chronic pancreatitis and other malignant tumors. Only 3 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas exhibited serum levels within the normal range for both parameters and none of the patients with chronic pancreatitis was shown to have elevated levels of beta2m. The simultaneous determination of beta2m and CEA suggests itself for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy especially in the case of a tentative diagnosis of a pancreatic tumor. PMID:76694

  16. Diffusion-weighted intensity magnetic resonance in the preoperative diagnosis of cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Michele; Di Lullo, Antonella Miriam; Caruso, Antonia; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Elefante, Andrea; Brunetti, Arturo; Iengo, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the preoperative diagnosis of cholesteatoma through the use of diffusion-weighted intensity magnetic resonance (DWI-MR) in 16 consecutive patients suffering from chronic otitis media with clinical and radiological (by computed tomography) suspicion of cholesteatoma. In particular, we compared the radiological data with intraoperative ones, verifying the correspondence (in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy) between what is reported by DWI-MR and what is actually detectable at the time of surgery. Furthermore, we identified the most reliable DWI-MR sequence [single-shot (SSh) echo planar imaging (EPI) vs. multi-shot turbo spin-echo not-EPI] to detect cholesteatoma and reduce the time for examination. The obtained data on computed tomography scans revealed low diagnostic accuracy (56%); DWI-MR, instead, showed higher values, especially using not-EPI sequences (93.75 vs. 68.75% obtained by SSh-EPI sequences). PMID:25322773

  17. [Delayed and fortuitous diagnosis of right diaphragmatic rupture during preoperative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ould-Ahmed, M; Choplain, J-N; Andre, M; Mondine, P; Potier, L

    2005-04-01

    Although diaphragmatic rupture occurs after violent blunt trauma, its diagnosis is often delayed. The intra-thoracic displacement of abdominal organs through diaphragmatic rupture may lead to early or delayed complications because of compression of heart and lungs or strangulation of the abdominal viscera. A 49-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo elective lumbar disc surgery in prone position. The preoperative chest radiograph revealed an abnormally elevated right hemi diaphragm with loops of colon filling the right costophrenic angle. The CT-scan confirmed right chronic diaphragmatic rupture with colon and liver herniations. Fifteen months previously, this woman had been involved in a traffic accident, with blunt right trauma resulting in right pelvic fractures. Perianaesthetic course increase the pre-existing mechanical risk of complications of chronic diaphragmatic rupture. Primary repair of right chronic diaphragmatic rupture through thoracotomy must be recommended. When another surgery must be done in emergency, the feasibility of regional anaesthesia should be considered. PMID:15826792

  18. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-12-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan.

  19. Pancreas Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  20. Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas: The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zamil; Walker, Blair; Lam, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions that can appear as a complex cyst or a mass in the pancreas. Cytology from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be helpful in making a diagnosis with the aim of avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. A case involving a 51-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain who was found to have a multiloculated cystic lesion at the junction of the pancreatic body and tail is described. Cytology from EUS-FNA was consistent with a pancreatic LEC. The lesion was managed conservatively and follow-up imaging of the cyst over the following two years was unchanged. The patient remains clinically well. Cytology from EUS-FNA can help distinguish LECs from cystic neoplasms, thus preventing radical surgical resection of this benign pancreatic cyst. PMID:20559575

  1. Diagnosis and preoperative predictive value of serum HE4 concentrations for optimal debulking in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZHIJUN; LUO, ZHAOQIN; ZHAO, BINGBING; ZHANG, WEI; ZHANG, JIEQING; LI, ZHUANG; LI, LI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) concentrations for the diagnosis and preoperative prediction of optimal debulking in epithelial ovarian cancer. The concentrations of serum HE4 and CA125 in 180 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, 40 benign ovarian tumor patients and 40 healthy female subjects were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The value of determining the serum HE4 concentrations for the diagnosis and preoperative prediction of optimal debulking in epithelial ovarian cancer was also analyzed. The concentration of serum HE4 was 355.2±221.29 pmol/l in ovarian cancer, 43.86±20.87 pmol/l in benign ovarian tumors and 30.22±9.64 pmol/l in healthy individuals, respectively. The serum HE4 levels of patients with ovarian cancer were significantly higher compared with those in the other two groups (P<0.01), although there were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between the benign ovarian tumors and healthy individuals. The maximum diagnostic value was identified at an HE4 serum concentration of 67.52 pmol/l and the sensitivity and specificity were 84 and 96%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.944 (95% CI, 0.912–0.976; P<0.001) and the ? value of the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer according to HE4 was 0.814 (P=0.000). The demarcation criterion was 600 pmol/l, where a value >600 mol/l indicates a lower possibility of optimal debulking. HE4 predicted that the sensitivity of the incomplete cytoreductive surgery was 77% and specificity was 32%. The concentration of serum HE4 is a useful marker for diagnosis and preoperative prediction for the ideal tumor cytoreductive surgery in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23946773

  2. Multifocal Insulinoma in Pancreas and Effect of Intraoperative Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Borazan, Ersin; Aytekin, Alper; Yilmaz, Latif; Elci, Muhsin; Karaca, Mehmet Salih; Kervancioglu, Selim; Balik, Ahmet Abdulhalik

    2015-01-01

    Insulinoma is the most frequently seen functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The incidence of multifocal insulinoma is lower than 10%. Its treatment is direct or laparoscopic excision. The present case was examined with the findings of hypoglycemia and hypercalcemia, and as there was high insulin and C-peptide levels the initial diagnosis was insulinoma. The case was investigated in terms of MEN 1. During preoperative screening for localization, there was one focus in the head of the pancreas in the abdominal tomography and two foci in endoscopic ultrasonography. No other focus was detected through intraoperative visual or manual palpation. However, five foci were detected during operation by intraoperative ultrasonography. The relation of masses with the main pancreatic canal was evaluated and they were excised by enucleation method. There was no recurrence during the postoperative 18-month follow-up of the patient. As a result, during treatment for insulinoma, it should be kept in mind that there might be multifocal foci. In all insulinomas, the whole pancreas should be evaluated with intraoperative ultrasonography because none of the current preoperative diagnostic methods are as sensitive as manual palpation of pancreas and intraoperative ultrasonography. The intraoperative detection of synchronous five foci in pancreas is quite a rare condition. PMID:26295000

  3. What Is the Pancreas?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pancreas Function of the Pancreas What is the pancreas? The pancreas is a long flattened gland located ... controller of blood sugar levels. Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. ...

  4. Pancreas Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, David ER

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is generally treated with oral diabetic drugs and/or insulin. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition increases over time, even in patients receiving intensive insulin treatment, and this is largely attributable to diabetic complications or the insulin therapy itself. Pancreas transplantation in humans was first conducted in 1966, since when there has been much debate regarding the legitimacy of this procedure. Technical refinements and the development of better immunosuppressants and better postoperative care have brought about marked improvements in patient and graft survival and a reduction in postoperative morbidity. Consequently, pancreas transplantation has become the curative treatment modality for diabetes, particularly for type I diabetes. An overview of pancreas transplantation is provided herein, covering the history of pancreas transplantation, indications for transplantation, cadaveric and living donors, surgical techniques, immunosuppressants, and outcome following pancreas transplantation. The impact of successful pancreas transplantation on the complications of diabetes will also be reviewed briefly. PMID:21253293

  5. Localization of occult insulin secreting tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallio, H; Suoranta, H

    1979-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic portal venography (PTP) and selective portal blood sample collection for immunoreactive insulin (IRI) analyses was done in four patients who had clinical evidence of the presence of an insulin secreting tumor, but selective arteriogrphy of the pancreas did not visualize any insulinomas. In all patients the clinical diagnosis was confirmed and the localization of the tumors could be calculated with the aid of the PTP and the IRI values detected in different parts of the portal trees. Because no tumor was found at the operation in two patients, despite careful exploration of the pancreas, blind distal pancreatectomy was performed to the point suggested with the help of the investigations, and insulinomas were found close to the resection lines. In the two other patients the proposed localization of the tumor preoperatively was confirmed. There have been no postoperative hypoglycemic symptoms. PMID:215092

  6. Artifical Pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  7. Annular Pancreas: A Cause of Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a 20-Year-Old Patient

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Raha; Almuhammadi, Saud

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 20 Final Diagnosis: Annular pancreas Symptoms: Food intolerance • vomiting Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly that consists of a ring of pancreatic tissue partially or completely encircling the descending portion of the duodenum. It is formed due to the failure of the ventral bud to rotate, thus it elongates and encircles the upper part of the duodenum. It can present in a wide range of clinical severities, and can affect neonates to the elderly, making it difficult to diagnosis. Although diagnosis of annular pancreas can be made pre-operatively by upper GI series, upper GI endoscopy, or CT scan, 40% of diagnoses require surgery for confirmation. Case Report: We report the case of a 20-year-old woman presenting with history of vomiting and weight loss since childhood. We present the clinical characteristics, surgical management in the form of bypass procedure done through a duodenojujenostomy, and follow-up of the patient. Conclusions: Annular pancreas occasionally presents in adults. Variable presentations have been described in the literature, including pancreatic neoplasm, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, duodenal obstruction, and peptic ulcer diseases. Most studies of these lesions are single case reports or small series, which do not allow a surgeon to accumulate extensive experience; therefore, reliance on the combined experience of others in recognition and appropriate management has been the norm. PMID:25300027

  8. Dermoid Cyst of the Pancreas: A Report of an Unusual Case and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Aynur; Yildirim, Umran; Aydin, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic dermoid cysts are a rare entity. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The diagnosis is generally taking intraoperative. A 20-year-old female presented with epigastric pain without nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, jaundice, and weight loss of one-month duration. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a smooth borders, solid, hyperechoic tumor within midline abdomen, without any connection to the stomach or spleen. At surgery, the entire mass was excised off of the head and inferior part of pancreas. Histopathologic evaluation revealed the rare diagnosis of a dermoid cyst. The diagnosis is difficult preoperatively in evaluating cystic pancreatic lesions by imaging. Therefore, we want to summarize the literature on this rare entity knowledge. PMID:24349815

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis and Risk Factors for Preoperative Death in Neonates with Single Right Ventricle and Systemic Outflow Obstruction: Screening Data from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atz, Andrew M.; Travison, Thomas G.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Laussen, Peter C.; Mahle, William T.; Cook, Amanda L.; Kirsh, Joel A.; Sklansky, Mark; Khaikin, Svetlana; Goldberg, Caren; Frommelt, Michele; Krawczeski, Catherine; Puchalski, Michael D.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Baffa, Jeanne M.; Rychik, Jack; Ohye, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this analysis was to assess preoperative risk factors prior to the first-stage Norwood surgery in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single ventricle lesions, and to evaluate practice patterns in prenatal diagnosis as well as the role of prenatal diagnosis in outcome. Methods Data from all live births with morphologic single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction screened for the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial were used to investigate prenatal diagnosis and preoperative risk factors. Demographics, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis status, presence of major extracardiac congenital abnormalities and preoperative mortality rates were recorded. Results Of 906 infants, 677 (75%) had prenatal diagnosis, 15% were preterm (<37 weeks), and 16% were low birth weight (<2500 g). Rates of prenatal diagnosis varied by study site (59%-85%, p<0.0001). Major extracardiac congenital abnormalities were less prevalent in those born after prenatal diagnosis (6% vs. 10%, p=0.03). There were 26 (3%) deaths prior to Norwood palliation; preoperative mortality did not differ by prenatal diagnosis status (p=0.49). In multiple logistic regression models, preterm birth (p=0.02), major extracardiac congenital abnormalities (p<0.0001), and obstructed pulmonary venous return (p=0.02) were independently associated with preoperative mortality. Conclusions Prenatal diagnosis occurred in 75%. Preoperative death was independently associated with preterm birth, obstructed pulmonary venous return and major extracardiac congenital abnormalities. Adjusted for gestational age and the presence of obstructed pulmonary venous return, the estimated odds of preoperative mortality were 10 times greater for subjects with a major extracardiac congenital abnormality. PMID:20561642

  10. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Normal Pancreas Anatomy View/Download: Small: 761x736 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Normal Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  11. Preoperative Prediction of Ki-67 Labeling Index By Three-dimensional CT Image Parameters for Differential Diagnosis Of Ground-Glass Opacity (GGO)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mingzheng; Peng, Fei; Zhang, Chengzhong; Wang, Qingguo; Li, Zhao; Hu, Haiyang; Liu, Sida; Xu, Binbin; Zhu, Wenzhuo; Han, Yudong; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict Ki-67 labeling index (LI) preoperatively by three-dimensional (3D) CT image parameters for pathologic assessment of GGO nodules. Diameter, total volume (TV), the maximum CT number (MAX), average CT number (AVG) and standard deviation of CT number within the whole GGO nodule (STD) were measured by 3D CT workstation. By detection of immunohistochemistry and Image Software Pro Plus 6.0, different Ki-67 LI were measured and statistically analyzed among preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis with cross-validation were performed to further research a quantitative correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and radiological parameters. Diameter, TV, MAX, AVG and STD increased along with PIA, MIA and IAC significantly and consecutively. In the multiple linear regression model by a stepwise way, we obtained an equation: prediction of Ki-67 LI=0.022*STD+0.001* TV+2.137 (R=0.595, R’s square=0.354, p<0.001), which can predict Ki-67 LI as a proliferative marker preoperatively. Diameter, TV, MAX, AVG and STD could discriminate pathologic categories of GGO nodules significantly. Ki-67 LI of early lung adenocarcinoma presenting GGO can be predicted by radiologic parameters based on 3D CT for differential diagnosis. PMID:26061252

  12. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  13. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  14. Pancreas transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It functions to produce digestive enzymes which are delivered to ... of the most important hormones produced by the pancreas is insulin. Insulin is produced by specialized cells ...

  15. National Pancreas Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pancreas Foundation Donate to NPF Contact Us Social Networking Button – Medium Search: Main menu Skip to primary ... 20814 1.866.726.2737 | Contact Us Social Networking Button – Medium © 2014 The National Pancreas Foundation | Health ...

  16. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  17. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Morana, Giovanni; Guarise, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than solid lesions and are often detected incidentally, as many of these lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, they may be associated with pancreatitis or have malignant potential. With advancements in diagnostic imaging, cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Many lesions can cause a pancreatic cyst, most being non-neoplastic while approximately 10% are cystic tumors, ranging from benign to highly malignant tumors. With increasing experience it is becoming clear that the prevalence of pseudocyst among cystic lesions of the pancreas is lower than usually presumed. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst based on imaging appearance alone can cause a diagnostic error, and neoplastic cysts of the pancreas are particularly susceptible to this misdiagnosis, which can result in inappropriate treatment. Cystic tumors of the pancreas are formed by serous or mucinous structures showing all stages of cellular differentiation. According to the WHO classification, they can be subdivided on the basis of their histological type and biological behavior into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors. Cystic pancreatic tumors can be subdivided into peripheral (serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic tumors, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms, cystic islet cell tumors), which do not communicate with the main pancreatic duct, and ductal tumors (mucinous tumor), according to their site of origin. On the basis of imaging criteria alone, it can be very difficult to differentiate non-tumoral cystic lesions from neoplastic ones. The management of these patients is complex, and it is important to correlate imaging findings with knowledge of the patient’s symptoms and of the natural history and predictors of malignancy in pancreatic cysts. PMID:16861136

  18. Gastric heterotopic pancreas masquerading as a stromal tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIN, MAOSONG; FU, YIWEI; YU, HONG; HUANG, JUNXING

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas (HP), a rare condition that is generally asymptomatic, is an aberration in the developmental profile of the pancreas. While it can occur in any location in the gastrointestinal tract, it is most typically found in the antrum of the stomach and is usually wrongly considered to be a submucosal tumor (SMT). Despite advances in diagnostic modalities, a HP still poses a diagnostic dilemma to clinicians. Invasive surgery or endoscopic resection have often been inappropriately applied in cases of an ectopic pancreas due to the difficulty in distinguishing it from neoplastic SMTs, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The present study reports the unusual case of a middle-aged female with an SMT at the lesser curve of the mid-body of the stomach, which was initially diagnosed as a GIST through endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography. However, following removal by endoscopic submucosal dissection, this lesion was finally histopathologically confirmed as an HP. Therefore, although it is rare, the possibility of an HP should always be considered when diagnosing an extramucosal gastric mass. The precise pre-operative diagnosis of this entity may avoid unnecessary extensive treatment intervention.

  19. Pancreatic Islet Cell Amyloidosis Manifesting as a Large Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yaln?z, Mehmet; Poyraz, Ahmet Kursad; Özercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with epigastric pain lasting for two months. Laboratory results showed impaired glucose tolerance. Ultrasonography of the patient showed a hypoechoic, diffusely enlarged pancreas. CT revealed a large pancreas, with multiple calcifications. On MRI, a diffusely enlarged pancreas was seen hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration. A biopsy of the pancreas revealed primary amyloidosis of islet cells. Decreased signal on T1-weighted images without inflammation findings on CT and MRI were clues for the diagnosis. PMID:22247642

  20. Metastatic Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma to the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nicolas A; Pannala, Rahul; Faigel, Douglas O; Haakinson, Danielle J; Katariya, Nitin; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Jaroszewski, Dawn; Lidner, Thomas K; Byrne, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, usually presenting in the younger population (<40 years) without underlying liver disease. Although it has a better prognosis than hepatocellular carcinoma, it has a high rate of recurrence months to years after primary resection. While sites of recurrence usually involve the liver, regional lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung, metastasis to the pancreas is extremely rare, with only 2 other cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 46-year-old patient with metastatic FL-HCC to the pancreas 30 years after diagnosis and 26 years since his last resected liver recurrence. PMID:26351415

  1. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  2. Diagnosis of periprosthetic infection following total hip arthroplasty – evaluation of the diagnostic values of pre- and intraoperative parameters and the associated strategy to preoperatively select patients with a high probability of joint infection

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Michael; Morawietz, Lars; Hasart, Olaf; Strube, Patrick; Perka, Carsten; Tohtz, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background The correct diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is crucial for adequate surgical treatment. The detection may be a challenge since presentation and preoperative tests are not always obvious and precise. This prospective study was performed to evaluate a variety of pre- and intraoperative investigations. Furthermore a detailed evaluation of concordance of each preoperative diagnosis was performed, together with a final diagnosis to assess the accuracy of the pre-operative assumption of PJI. Methods Between 01/2005 and 02/2007, a prospective analysis was performed in 50 patients, who had a two stage revision because of assumed PJI. Based on clinical presentation, radiography, haematological screening, or early failure, infection was assumed and a joint aspiration was performed. Depending upon these findings, a two stage revision was performed, with intra-operative samples for culture and histological evaluation obtained. Final diagnosis of infection was based upon the interpretation of the clinical presentation and the pre- and intraoperative findings. Results In 37 patients a positive diagnosis of PJI could be made definitely. The histopathology yielded the highest accuracy (0.94) in identification of PJI and identified 35 of 37 infections (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.94, positive-/negative predictive value 0.97/0.86). Intra-operative cultures revealed sensitivities, specificities, positive-/negative predictive values and accuracy of 0.78, 0.92, 0.96, 0.63 and 0.82. These values for blood screening tests were 0.95, 0.62, 0.88, 0.80, and 0.86 respectively for the level of C-reactive protein, and 0.14, 0.92, 0.83, 0.29 and, 0.34 respectively for the white blood-cell count. The results of aspiration were 0.57, 0.5, 0.78, 0.29, and 0.54. Conclusion The detection of PJI is still a challenge in clinical practice. The histopathological evaluation emerges as a highly practical diagnostic tool in detection of PJI. Furthermore, we found a discrepancy between the pre-operative suspicion of PJI and the final post-operative diagnosis, resulting in a slight uncertainty in whether loosening is due to bacterial infection or not. The variation in accuracy of the single tests may influence the detection of PJI. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level I. PMID:18644107

  3. Giant mucinous cystic adenoma with pancreatic atrophy mimicking dorsal agenesis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Dupré, Aurélien; Ines, David Da; Tixier, Lucie; Pezet, Denis; Buc, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic adenoma (MCA) of the pancreas is a rare benign cystic tumor with ovarian-like stroma and lack of communication with the pancreatic ductal system. The ovarian tissue is incorporated from the left gonad within the dorsal pancreas during embryogenesis. Consequently, congenital dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) cannot be associated with MCA. We report the case of a giant MCA associated with atrophy of the dorsal pancreas mimicking complete DAP. Pancreato-magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify the dorsal pancreas but the absence of diabetes mellitus and compression of the splenic vein with major tributaries rectified the diagnosis of secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. Unusual proximal location of the cyst in the pancreas may have induced chronic obstruction of both the dorsal pancreatic duct and the splenic vein, with secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. PMID:24672649

  4. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  5. Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Diagnostic Dilemma of Intraoperative Diagnosis: Could Preoperative He4 Assay and ROMA Score Assessment Increase the Frozen Section Accuracy? A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Berretta, Roberto; Di Gangi, Stefania; Guido, Maria; Zanni, Giuliano Carlo; Franceschetti, Ilaria; Quaranta, Michela; Plebani, Mario; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Patrelli, Tito Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the value of a preoperative He4-serum-assay and ROMA-score assessment in improving the accuracy of frozen section histology in the diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). 113 women presenting with a unilateral ovarian mass diagnosed as serous/mucinous BOT at frozen-section-histology (FS) and/or confirmed on final pathology were recruited. Pathologists were informed of the results of preoperative clinical/instrumental assessment of all patients. For Group_A patients, additional information regarding He4, CA125, and ROMA score was available (in Group_B only CA125 was known). The comparison between Group A and Group B in terms of FS accuracy, demonstrated a consensual diagnosis in 62.8% versus 58.6% (P: n.s.), underdiagnosis in 25.6% versus 41.4% (P < 0.05), and overdiagnosis in 11.6% versus 0% (P < 0.01). Low FS diagnostic accuracy was associated with menopausal status (OR: 2.13), laparoscopic approach (OR: 2.18), mucinous histotype (OR: 2.23), low grading (OR: 1.30), and FIGO stage I (OR: 2.53). Ultrasound detection of papillae (OR: 0.29), septa (OR: 0.39), atypical vascularization (OR: 0.34), serum He4 assay (OR: 0.39), and ROMA score assessment (OR: 0.44) decreased the probability of underdiagnosis. A combined preoperative assessment through serum markers and ultrasonographic features may potentially reduce the risk of underdiagnosis of BOTs on FS while likely increasing the concomitant incidence of false-positive events. PMID:25431767

  6. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (158). Duodenal ectopic pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Wee, Eric; Desai, Vijayadwaja; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man presented with right loin tenderness following a road traffic accident. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, smooth, enhancing oval lesion in the wall of the first part of the duodenum. The lesion was seen separately from the normal pancreas. It showed attenuation, intensity and enhancement similar to that of normal pancreas. Based on the imaging appearance, a diagnosis of ectopic pancreas was made. The patient underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the lesion, which confirmed ectopic pancreatic tissue. Since the patient was asymptomatic, surgical resection was deferred. The embryologic origin, various locations, imaging appearance and clinical significance of ectopic pancreas are discussed. PMID:25630315

  7. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  8. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75–92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85–98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with AUS/FLUS or FN/SFN cytology. PMID:25965083

  9. Automatic segmentation of abdominal vessels for improved pancreas localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Amal; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal organs from CT images is important for quantitative and qualitative organ tissue analysis as well as computer-aided diagnosis. The large variability of organ locations, the spatial interaction between organs that appear similar in medical scans and orientation and size variations are among the major challenges making the task very difficult. The pancreas poses these challenges in addition to its flexibility which allows for the shape of the tissue to vastly change. Due to the close proximity of the pancreas to numerous surrounding organs within the abdominal cavity the organ shifts according to the conditions of the organs within the abdomen, as such the pancreas is constantly changing. Combining these challenges with typically found patient-to-patient variations and scanning conditions the pancreas becomes harder to localize. In this paper we focus on three abdominal vessels that almost always abut the pancreas tissue and as such useful landmarks to identify the relative location of the pancreas. The splenic and portal veins extend from the hila of the spleen and liver, respectively, travel through the abdominal cavity and join at a position close to the head of the pancreas known as the portal confluence. A third vein, the superior mesenteric vein, anastomoses with the other two veins at the portal confluence. An automatic segmentation framework for obtaining the splenic vein, portal confluence and superior mesenteric vein is proposed using 17 contrast enhanced computed-tomography datasets. The proposed method uses outputs from the multi-organ multi-atlas label fusion and Frangi vesselness filter to obtain automatic seed points for vessel tracking and generation of statistical models of the desired vessels. The approach shows ability to identify the vessels and improve localization of the pancreas within the abdomen.

  10. Cystic lesions of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Volkan Adsay, N

    2007-02-01

    Although cystic tumors of the pancreas are relatively rare, they constitute an increasingly important category. Advances in imaging and interventional techniques and the sharp drop in the mortality rate of pancreatic surgery have rendered pancreatic biopsies and resections commonplace specimens. Consequently, in the past two decades, the nature of many cystic tumors in this organ has been better characterized. The names of some existing entities were revised; for example, what was known as papillary-cystic tumor is now regarded as solid-pseudopapillary tumor. New entities, in particular, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and its variants, such as oncocytic and intestinal subtypes were recognized. The importance of clinical and pathologic correlation in the evaluation of these lesions was appreciated, in particular, with regards to the multifocality of these lesions, their association with invasive carcinomas, and thus their 'preinvasive' nature. Consensus criteria for the distinction of these from the ordinary precursors of adenocarcinoma, the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, were established. The definition of mucinous cystic neoplasms was refined; ovarian-like stroma has now become almost a requirement for the diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasia, and defined as such, the propensity of these tumors to occur in perimenopausal women became even more striking. The validity and clinical value of classifying the pancreatic cysts of mucinous type as adenoma, borderline, CIS and invasive have been established. Related to this, the importance of thorough sampling in accurate classification of these mucinous lesions was recognized. Greater accessibility of the pancreas afforded by improved invasive as well as noninvasive modalities has also increased the detection of otherwise clinically silent cystic tumors, which has led to the recognition of more innocuous entities such as acinar cell cystadenoma and squamoid cyst of pancreatic ducts. As the significance of the cystic lesions emerged, cystic forms of otherwise typically solid tumors were also better characterized. Thus, significant developments have taken place in the classification and our understanding of pancreatic cystic tumors in the past few years, and experience with these lesions is likely to grow exponentially in the coming years. PMID:17486054

  11. Quantification of the Iodine Content of Perigastric Adipose Tissue by Dual-Energy CT: A Novel Method for Preoperative Diagnosis of T4-Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Gaofeng; Li, Yang; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of quantifying iodine concentration (IC) in perigastric adipose tissue, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), for the detection of T4a-stage gastric cancer. Fifty-four patients with gastric cancer were enrolled at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January and June 2013. Patients were imaged preoperatively with conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and DECT, and the IC in perigastric fat adjacent to the tumor calculated from arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) images. The patients subsequently received surgical treatment (gastrectomy), and histologic analysis of resected specimens was used as a ‘gold standard’ reference for cancer staging. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to assess the utility of DECT for identifying T4a-stage gastric cancer, with optimal IC thresholds determined from the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Postoperative histology revealed that 32 patients had serosal invasion (group A), and 22 did not (group B). The accuracy of conventional CT for distinguishing stage T4 from non-T4 stages was 68.5% (37/54). IC was significantly higher in group A than in group B (AP: 0.60±0.34 vs. 0.09±0.19 mg/mL, p<0.001; PVP: 0.83±0.41 vs. 0.27±0.21 mg/mL, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and AUC for detecting serosal invasion were 77.1%, 79.2% and 0.89 at an IC threshold of 0.25 mg/mL for AP images; and 80.0%, 79.2% and 0.90 at an IC threshold of 0.45 mg/mL for PVP images. These results indicated that Iodine quantification in perigastric fat using DECT is an accurate method for detecting serosal invasion by gastric cancer. PMID:26372042

  12. Surgery for pancreas divisum.

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Subodh; Johnson, Colin D.

    2002-01-01

    We present our experience of open surgical treatment in 5 patients with symptomatic pancreas divisum (PD). Choice of therapy was based on allocation of patients to one of five clinical presentation groups: (i) with minor symptoms (no operation); (ii) with recurrent acute pancreatitis or upper abdominal pain (RAP/RUAP)--3 patients; (iii) with radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP)--1 patient; (iv) chronic pancreatic pain without radiological evidence of chronic pancreatitis (CPP); and (v) other pancreatic complications--1 patient. This classification helps to decide management and predict possible outcome. Various types of operation were performed as indicated (open surgical accessory sphincteroplasty [2 also had distal pancreatectomy], n = 3; Puestow's operation, n = 1; or Beger's pancreatectomy, n = 1). All patients improved significantly and are now leading normal personal, professional, and social lives. We conclude that, with careful selection of patients and appropriate therapy, the response to surgical treatment is good. PMID:12092866

  13. Ultrasound evaluation of vascular complications in pancreas transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Karamehi?, Jasenko; Scoutt, Leslie; Gavrankapetanovi?, Faris; Subasi?, Demo

    2005-01-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas is progressively becoming one of the preferred options of treating the insulin addicted diabetes mellitus. Pancreas can be transplanted alone, or together with a kidney, the latter option becoming more successful in recent years. In this case, the successfully transplanted pancreas with the regulation of sugar, protects the kidney from further damage. Among the more important complications in the recipient of the graft, we can certainly include vascular complications. One of the most important non-invasive methods of early discovery of vascular complications on the pancreas is in the first place ultrasound. Early diagnosis with ultrasound enables timely appropriate treatment and therefore the survival of the transplant. Especially unavoidable and useful in everyday practice is the role of the modern forms of ultrasound such as the Gray-scale sonography, duplex Doppler imaging and sonographic guidance for percutaneous biopsy. Color and Doppler ultrasound have proved themselves in everyday use as a precious source of information for diagnosis of eventual vascular complications and the status of regional vasculature. Early diagnosis resulting from the ultrasound and the concurrent use of other laboratory and clinical findings enables us to timely recognize and preempt the consequences of vascular complications thereby increasing the chances of pancreatic survival. PMID:16134749

  14. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the disease becomes more chronic, patients can develop malnutrition and weight loss. If the pancreas becomes destroyed ... with these disorders may have chronic pain, diarrhea, malnutrition, or diabetes. Treatment focuses on pain control and ...

  15. A case of long survival in poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Min Sung; Ha, Tae Kyung; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Paik, Seung Sam

    2008-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is rare. It has similar histological features to pulmonary small cell carcinoma and is equally aggressive. Most patients with SCC in the pancreas reported in case studies died within 1 year after diagnosis. We present a case of unusually long-term survival after surgery and combined chemotherapy for SCC of the pancreas. A 62-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and jaundice. Computed tomography revealed dilated common bile duct caused by external compression of the mass in the pancreatic head. Exploratory laparotomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) was performed with histopathological analysis confirming a primary small cell carcinoma of the pancreas. After an uneventful postoperative recovery, the patient was treated with 6 cycles of combined chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and ectoposide. During the follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence and the patient has remained in a good health condition for 36 mo since the diagnosis. PMID:18756608

  16. Clinical imaging of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    May, G.; Gardiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Featuring more than 300 high-quality radiographs and scan images, clinical imaging of the pancreas systematically reviews all appropriate imaging modalities for diagnosing and evaluating a variety of commonly encountered pancreatic disorders. After presenting a succinct overview of pancreatic embryology, anatomy, and physiology, the authors establish the clinical indications-including postoperative patient evaluation-for radiologic examination of the pancreas. The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of currently available imaging techniques for the pancreas are thoroughly assessed, with carefully selected illustrations depicting the types of images and data obtained using these different techniques. The review of acute and chronic pancreatitis considers the clinical features and possible complications of their variant forms and offers guidance in selecting appropriate imaging studies.

  17. Gemcitabine and AMG 479 in Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Advanced Solid Tumors; Cancer; Cancer of Pancreas; Cancer of the Pancreas; Metastases; Metastatic Cancer; Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Bone Metastases; Endocrine Cancer; Oncology; Oncology Patients; Solid Tumors; Advanced Malignancy

  18. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Uirá; Goldoni, Marcos; Unterleider, Michelle; Diedrich, João; Balbinot, Diogo; Rodrigues, Pablo; Monteiro, Rodolfo; Gomes, Daniel; Sampaio, José; Fontes, Paulo; Waechter, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are presented as rare malignant neoplasms. In unusual cases, those neoplasms may arise in solid organs containing neuroendocrine cells, such as the pancreas. Herein the case of a 28-year-old patient that underwent gastroduodenopancreatectomy after the diagnosis of a huge mass (PNET) located in both head and body of the pancreas is reported. This is the 19th case of pancreatic PNET reported in literature. PMID:26101685

  19. [The diagnosis and treatment of insulinoma and gastrinoma].

    PubMed

    Honda, Munehiro; Ishibashi, Miyuki

    2004-03-01

    The gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumor is relatively rare tumor that originate from pancreas, duodenum, and a variety of neuroendocrine cells. The differential diagnosis and preoperative localization of the tumor are important, because surgical resection of the tumor is the first choice of treatment. Of these tumors, insulinomas and gastrinomas are usually small in size (less than 2.0 cm), and methods of preoperative localization such as ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging often fail to identify them. These tumors often malignant, and tumors as small as 1 to 2 mm might develop lymph node metastases especially in gastrinomas. Recent studies have shown that selective arterial calcium stimulation test and hepatic venous sampling using intraarterial calcium injection as the insulin secretagogue are useful for detection of small insulinomas, and the selective intraarterial injection of secretin test combined with venous sampling (Imamura technique), for detection of small gastrinomas. In addition, somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy is widely used in Western countries. Moreover, detection of the tumor during operation using ultrasonography delivered much better results than preoperative diagnoses. These tumors may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and MEN1 gene mutation analysis is necessary in those patients. PMID:15045936

  20. Nodular Elastosis of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Whitney; Talmon, Geoffrey; Sasson, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Elastofibromatous change is a benign process that has been increasingly recognized in the tubular gastrointestinal tract. These changes can present as a colonic polyp or be seen in conjunction with inflammatory changes. Similar lesions have been noted in the liver, apparently associated with vascular injury. We describe a case in which multiple circumscribed nodules of elastofibromatous change within the pancreas had a similar morphology to nodular elastosis of the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a finding occurring within the pancreas. PMID:26346767

  1. Model Predictive Control for an artical pancreas

    E-print Network

    Model Predictive Control for an artical pancreas B.Sc. Thesis Matias Sørensen og Simon Kristiansen with linear Model Predictive Control, MPC, with the goal of making a controller for an articial pancreas

  2. Ciliated Foregut Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Munshi , Imtiaz A.; Parra-Davila, Eduardo; Casillas, Victor J.; Levi, Joé U.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are relatively uncommon. We describe the case of a young man with a complex cystic mass located within the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent exploration with resection of the mass. Pathology revealed a ciliated epithelial cyst, a rare cystic lesion of the pancreas. PMID:9893242

  3. The Preoperative Neurological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Probasco, John; Sahin, Bogachan; Tran, Tung; Chung, Tae Hwan; Rosenthal, Liana Shapiro; Mari, Zoltan; Levy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases are prevalent in the general population, and the neurohospitalist has an important role to play in the preoperative planning for patients with and at risk for developing neurological disease. The neurohospitalist can provide patients and their families as well as anesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitalists, and other providers guidance in particular to the patient’s neurological disease and those he or she is at risk for. Here we present considerations and guidance for the neurohospitalist providing preoperative consultation for the neurological patient with or at risk of disturbances of consciousness, cerebrovascular and carotid disease, epilepsy, neuromuscular disease, and Parkinson disease. PMID:24198903

  4. Cavernous hemangioma of adult pancreas: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Henkes, David; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic hemangioma is a rare type of benign vascular tumor. Low clinical suspicion and inability of current cross sectional imaging techniques to differentiate it from other pancreatic lesions, contribute to the difficulty in making the correct diagnosis. Without a definitive diagnosis, and due to concern for malignancy, in many instances, surgery is performed. We report a case of pancreas cavernous hemangioma in an 18-year-old female. The patient presented with three-month history of epigastric pain. Physical examination and routine blood tests were normal. Abdominal Computed Tomography scan revealed a 5 cm × 6 cm complex non-enhancing cystic mass in the head of pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS guided fine needle aspiration cytology were non-diagnostic. Because of uncontrolled symptoms, the patient underwent surgical resection. Histopathology and Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of pancreas. PMID:26361427

  5. Preoperative tumor embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Aziz-Sultan, Ali

    2014-07-01

    In this article, the authors review general principles and technical details of preoperative embolization of various hypervascular head, neck, and spinal tumors encountered in contemporary neuroendovascular practice. Indications, treatment goals, techniques, outcomes, and complications are discussed, and illustrative case examples are presented. PMID:24994094

  6. Composite pheochromocytoma masquerading as solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Geetanjali; Saran, Ravindra Kumar; Godhi, Satyajit; Srivastava, Siddharth; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma form rare composite tumours of the adrenal medulla comprising less than 3% of all sympathoadrenal tumours. We present a case of intraoperatively detected adrenal medullary tumour of composite pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma diagnosed on histopathology, in a normotensive patient. A 50-year-old male with a past history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with abdominal pain and significant weight loss since one month. Ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed a large lobulated lesion in the distal body and tail of pancreas suggestive of solid and papillary neoplasm of body and tail of pancreas. Intra-operatively, a 15 cm × 10 cm solid lesion with cystic areas was seen arising from the left lower pole of the adrenal gland pushing the pancreas which appeared unremarkable. In our case, exploratory laparotomy with tumour excision was done. Extensive sectioning and microscopic examination of this adrenal tumour confirmed a diagnosis of composite Pheochromocytoma with Ganglioneuroma on histopathology. Immunophenotyping with S-100 further supported the diagnosis. The goal of this report is to increase the awareness of this rare disease and to further identify its variable presentation. PMID:25984524

  7. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Pancreas examination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the pancreas constitutes an integral part of the abdominal ultrasound. It is mostly indicated to diagnose pain in the epigastrium, discomfort and jaundice as well as to monitor the patients with acute pancreatitis. The assessment of this organ in an ultrasound examination may be problematic due to its anatomical location and the fact that it might be covered by gastric and duodenal contents as well as due to a number of possible pathological changes, including inflammation and benign or malignant neoplasms, which require differentiation. The basis for establishing a correct diagnosis is the knowledge of the examination technique, correct pancreas structure and images of individual pathologies. This paper presents the standards of ultrasound examination published in 2011 and updated with the current knowledge. The following are discussed: preparation of the patient for the examination, abnormal lesions in the pancreas, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, cystic lesions (benign and malignant cysts) and solid focal lesions. Ultrasound is also used to guide the drainage of fluid cisterns, abscesses and cysts. The prime role in the diagnosis and treatment of selected diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract and parenchymal organs of the abdomen belongs to endosonography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the possibility to conduct a fine needle aspiration biopsy, and intraoperative or laparoscopic ultrasound. PMID:26676070

  8. Deep convolutional networks for pancreas segmentation in CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Holger R.; Farag, Amal; Lu, Le; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Automatic organ segmentation is an important prerequisite for many computer-aided diagnosis systems. The high anatomical variability of organs in the abdomen, such as the pancreas, prevents many segmentation methods from achieving high accuracies when compared to state-of-the-art segmentation of organs like the liver, heart or kidneys. Recently, the availability of large annotated training sets and the accessibility of affordable parallel computing resources via GPUs have made it feasible for "deep learning" methods such as convolutional networks (ConvNets) to succeed in image classification tasks. These methods have the advantage that used classification features are trained directly from the imaging data. We present a fully-automated bottom-up method for pancreas segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images of the abdomen. The method is based on hierarchical coarse-to-fine classification of local image regions (superpixels). Superpixels are extracted from the abdominal region using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC). An initial probability response map is generated, using patch-level confidences and a two-level cascade of random forest classifiers, from which superpixel regions with probabilities larger 0.5 are retained. These retained superpixels serve as a highly sensitive initial input of the pancreas and its surroundings to a ConvNet that samples a bounding box around each superpixel at different scales (and random non-rigid deformations at training time) in order to assign a more distinct probability of each superpixel region being pancreas or not. We evaluate our method on CT images of 82 patients (60 for training, 2 for validation, and 20 for testing). Using ConvNets we achieve maximum Dice scores of an average 68% +/- 10% (range, 43-80%) in testing. This shows promise for accurate pancreas segmentation, using a deep learning approach and compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods.

  9. A case of epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen mimicking pancreas neoplasms: MRI with DWI.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min Kyu; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Han, Ga Jin; Seo, Hyung Il; Park, Do Youn; Lee, So Jeong; Kim, Tae Un

    2016-01-01

    We report on a rare case of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS) that presented as a cystic lesion in the tail of the pancreas, in a 21-year-old woman. ECIAS is very rare; thus, accurate diagnosis before surgery is difficult. When a wall within the lesion presents with similar imaging features to accessory splenic tissues on magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging, ECIAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in the tail of the pancreas. PMID:26422768

  10. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, George; Shukla, Parul J.; Ramadwar, Mukta; Arya, Supreeta

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma accounts for the most dismal survival among all malignancies with 5-year survival rates approaching 5%. The reason for this, besides the inherent biologic nature of the disease, is the fact that the patients tend to present late in the disease. We present a review of the current published data on cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, which though rare, constitute an important subgroup of pancreatic neoplasms that have a better prognosis and are potentially curable lesions. PMID:18345301

  11. Subselective angiography in localizing insulinomas of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Clouse, M E; Costello, P; Legg, M A; Soeldner, S J; Cady, B

    1977-05-01

    Preoperative angiography was performed on 10 patients who had insulin-producing islet cell adenomas. Eight of the 10 islet cell tumors were localized. Seven of the eight adenomas were demonstrated only on subselective injections into the small intrapancreatic arteries, and one was demonstrated by a selective injection into a large artery. Failure to localize two islet cell adenomas was probably caused by the inability to subselect the small intrapancreatic arteries supplying the tumor. One tumor was seen only with subtraction techniques, which were used in all cases. Localization was not related to vascularity, size of tumor, or location within the pancreas. Vasoconstrictive pharmacoangiography was not helpful; magnification was helpful but not essential. The most important factor in localizing islet cell tumors is demonstrating the complete pancreatic blood supply with subselective injections into the small intrapancreatic arteries supplying the tumor (inferior and superior pancreaticoduodenal and dorsal arteries). PMID:193410

  12. Imaging preoperatively for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pietryga, Jason Alan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy which is increasing in incidence and mortality. The fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S., pancreatic cancer is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2020. Patients with pancreatic cancer have an abysmal 5-year survival of 6%, and 90% of these patients eventually die from the disease. This is in large part due to the commonly advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Currently, the only potentially curative therapy for pancreatic carcinoma is complete surgical resection. Patients who undergo incomplete resection with residual disease have similar survival rates to those patients with metastatic disease and should be spared this relatively morbid surgery. Thus, the key to impacting prognosis is the detection of smaller and earlier stage lesions, and the key to optimal management is accurately determining which patients have potentially resectable surgery and which patients would not benefit from surgery. Cross-sectional imaging plays an essential role in both the diagnosis and appropriate staging of pancreatic carcinoma. The diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is performed with cross-sectional imaging. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is the most commonly used, best-validated imaging modality for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. Modern contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated to be equivalent to MDCT in detection and staging of pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is very sensitive for detecting pancreatic masses; however, due to limitations in adequate overall abdominal staging, it is generally used in addition to or after MDCT. Transabdominal ultrasound and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have limited roles in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. Preoperative imaging is used to characterize patients as having resectable disease, borderline resectable disease, locally advanced disease (unresectable) and metastatic disease (unresectable). As the definitions of borderline resectable and unresectable may vary from institution to institution and within institutions, it is essential to accurately assess and describe the factors relevant to staging including: local extent of tumor, vascular involvement, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease. To facilitate this, standardized reporting templates for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have been created and published. Structured reporting for pancreatic cancer has been reported to provide superior evaluation of pancreatic cancer, facilitate surgical planning, and increase surgeons’ confidence about tumor resectability. PMID:26261722

  13. Accurate localization of an insulinoma by preoperative selective intra-arterial calcium injection and intraoperative glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iwanaka, T; Matsumoto, M; Yoshikawa, Y; Koda, N; Mochizuki, H; Aihara, T; Imaizumi, S

    2000-01-01

    The role of pre- and intraoperative procedures for the localization of insulinomas has been extensively debated. We report a case of successful treatment using preoperative selective intra-arterial calcium injection and intraoperative glucose monitoring. A 12-year-old boy with hypoglycemic attacks had a large insulinoma in the head of the pancreas on computed tomography. Preoperative selective angiography combined with arterial stimulation-venous sampling (ASVS) by intra-arterial injection of calcium revealed no other insulinomas in the body and tail of the pancreas. Elevation of serum glucose on intraoperative monitoring confirmed complete enucleation of the insulinoma. Preoperative ASVS can accurately localize an insulinoma, and may help to increase the success rate of surgery and avoid blind pancreatectomy. PMID:10663858

  14. Pancreas-Preserving Approach to “Paraduodenal Pancreatitis” Treatment: Why, When, and How? Experience of Treatment of 62 Patients with Duodenal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, V. I.; Vankovich, A. N.; Petrov, R. V.; Starostina, N. S.; Butkevich, A. Ts.; Sazhin, A. V.; Stepanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term “paraduodenal pancreatitis” (PP) was proposed as a synonym for duodenal dystrophy (DD) and groove pancreatitis, but it is still unclear what organ PP originates from and how to treat it properly. Objective. To assess the results of different types of treatment for PP. Method. Prospective analysis of 62 cases of PP (2004–2013) with histopathology of 40 specimens was performed; clinical presentation was assessed and the results of treatment were recorded.??Results. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in all the cases except one (1.9%). Patients presented with abdominal pain (100%), weight loss (76%), vomiting (30%), and jaundice (18%). CT, MRI, and endoUS were the most useful diagnostic modalities. Ten patients were treated conservatively, 24 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD), pancreatico- and cystoenterostomies (8), Nakao procedures (5), duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections (5), and 10 pancreas-preserving duodenal resections (PPDR) without mortality. Full pain control was achieved after PPRDs in 83%, after PDs in 85%, and after PPPH resections and draining procedures in 18% of cases. Diabetes mellitus developed thrice after PD. Conclusions. PD is the main surgical option for PP treatment at present; early diagnosis makes PPDR the treatment of choice for PP; efficacy of PPDR for DD treatment provides proof that so-called PP is an entity of duodenal, but not “paraduodenal,” origin. PMID:24995273

  15. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity. PMID:25923544

  16. Pre-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated. PMID:25440391

  17. Sonographic features of agenesis of dorsal pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Gouru, Swapna; Senthil, Sathiya

    2013-01-01

    Agenesis of dorsal pancreas is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that occurs due to failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud to form the body and tail of the pancreas. We report the sonographic appearance of this condition in six cases. PMID:24082486

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Andrew R.; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  20. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  1. Robotic surgery of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-10-28

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  2. Glutathione synthesis in the exocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Neuschwander-Tetri, B A; Presti, M E; Wells, L D

    1997-05-01

    Glutathione is essential for cellular cytoprotection, and in the exocrine pancreas, it is required for digestive enzyme synthesis. The purpose of these studies was to measure the capacity of the exocrine pancreas to synthesize glutathione, determine whether the pancreatic transsulfuration pathway has a role in providing cysteine needed for glutathione synthesis, and determine whether the glutathione synthetic capacity of the pancreas responds to pathologically relevant stresses. The activity of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the key regulatory enzyme for glutathione synthesis, was 3.56 +/- 0.29 mU/mg protein in the pancreas of fed rats, compared to 31 +/- 4 in the liver and 116 +/- 5 in the kidney. Studies using dispersed rat pancreatic acinar cells showed that the exocrine pancreas synthesizes glutathione from precursor amino acids and that the transsulfuration pathway is functionally intact in the pancreas and may serve as an important source of pancreatic cysteine. In mice, pancreatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity was induced 37% by corn oil, 77% by ethanol, and 88% by both treatments. Thus, the glutathione synthetic capacity of the pancreas is quantitatively less than that of the kidney or liver, but its key regulatory enzyme responds dynamically to pathologically relevant metabolic stresses, suggesting that glutathione is a key pancreatic cytoprotectant. PMID:9163779

  3. Preoperative Safety Briefing Project

    PubMed Central

    DeFontes, James; Surbida, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Context: Increased media attention on surgical procedures that were performed on the wrong anatomic site or wrong patient has prompted the health care industry to identify and address human factors that lead to medical errors. Objective: To increase patient safety in the perioperative setting, our objective was to create a climate of improved communication, collaboration, team-work, and situational awareness while the surgical team reviewed pertinent information about the patient and the pending procedure. Methods: A team of doctors, nurses, and technicians used human factors principles to develop the Preoperative Safety Briefing for use by surgical teams, a briefing similar to the preflight checklist used by the airline industry. A six-month pilot of the briefing began in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) Anaheim Medical Center in February 2002. Four indicators of safety culture were used to measure success of the pilot: occurrence of wrong-site/wrong procedures, attitudinal survey data, near-miss reports, and nursing personnel turnover data. Results: Wrong-site surgeries decreased from 3 to 0 (300%) per year; employee satisfaction increased 19%; nursing personnel turnover decreased 16%; and perception of the safety climate in the operating room improved from “good” to “outstanding.” Operating suite personnel perception of teamwork quality improved substantially. Operating suite personnel perception of patient safety as a priority, of personnel communication, of their taking responsibility for patient safety, of nurse input being well received, of overall morale, and of medical errors being handled appropriately also improved substantially. Conclusions: Team members who work together and communicate well can quickly detect and more easily avoid errors. The Preoperative Safety Briefing is now standard in many operating suites in the KP Orange County Service Area. The concepts and design of this project are transferable, and similar projects are underway in the Departments of Radiology and of Labor and Delivery at KP Anaheim Medical Center. PMID:26704913

  4. Solid Pseudo-Papillary Tumor of the Pancreas in a 10 Year Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzipour, K; Jenabzadeh, A; Mirzaei Ilali, H; Behnam, B; Tavassol, H

    2015-01-01

    Background Solid pseudo-papillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare disease with a low malignant potential. Though it shows low malignant potential 10% to 15% of the cases show aggressive behavior with metastatic involvement of the liver. The symptoms include abdominal discomfort and abdominal pain. It is very rare in early years of age. This is the case of a 10 year old girl with abdominal pain and her evaluation revealed solid pseudo papillary tumor of pancreas. In family history, her grandmother died because of pancreas cancer. The mass was excised and in her 6-month follow up she didn’t have any problems. This case is presented to point out physicians that more attention to pseudo- papillary tumor can bring us significant improvement in the diagnosis of this pathology, though pseudo- papillary tumor is a rare pathologic condition in children. PMID:26705457

  5. Choledochocele with pancreas divisum: A rare co-occurrence diagnosed on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Patidar, Yashwant; Agarwal, Nitesh; Gupta, Shailesh; Arora, Ankur; Mukund, Amar; Rajesh, S

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 42-year-old male with symptomatic choledochocele and incidental pancreas divisum diagnosed with magnetic resonance cholangiopan- creatography (MRCP). Small choledochocele is rare congenital malformation associated with non-specific symptoms and a delay in diagnosis. The coexistence of choledochocele and pancreas divisum is extremely rare with only two case reports published in literature. In both cases MRCP failed to diagnose any biliary or pancreatic abnormality. This case suggests that the patients with recurrent abdominal pain and pancreas divisum should not be presumed to be suffering from pancreatitis. Careful evaluated for additional anomalies in the biliary tree should be sought for refractory symptoms. MRCP is a useful one-stop-shop for diagnosing pancreatic and biliary ductal anomalies. PMID:23908697

  6. Acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a patient with pancreas divisum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, D; Partalis, N; Polimili, G; Kastanakis, S

    2013-09-15

    Pancreas divisum is a frequent congenital anatomical anomaly characterized by the failure of fusion of the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung during fetal development. Although the condition usually remains asymptomatic, it has been reported to be a predisposing factor of chronic and recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. We report a case of acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a 54-year-old Caucasian male with pancreas divisum. Diagnosis was established based on the findings from magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The patient was managed conservatively and was discharged home having an uneventful clinical course after five days of hospitalization. Although the role of the pancreas in the induction of acute pancreatitis is still a matter of debate, physicians have to be aware about this prevalent pancreatic anatomic abnormality. Timely detection may help in the prevention of potential recurrent pancreatic reaction. PMID:24146696

  7. Acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a patient with pancreas divisum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anyfantakis, D; Partalis, N; Polimili, G; Kastanakis, S

    2013-01-01

    Pancreas divisum is a frequent congenital anatomical anomaly characterized by the failure of fusion of the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung during fetal development. Although the condition usually remains asymptomatic, it has been reported to be a predisposing factor of chronic and recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. We report a case of acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a 54-year-old Caucasian male with pancreas divisum. Diagnosis was established based on the findings from magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The patient was managed conservatively and was discharged home having an uneventful clinical course after five days of hospitalization. Although the role of the pancreas in the induction of acute pancreatitis is still a matter of debate, physicians have to be aware about this prevalent pancreatic anatomic abnormality. Timely detection may help in the prevention of potential recurrent pancreatic reaction. PMID:24146696

  8. Artificial Pancreas Works Well in Home Trial

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154683.html Artificial Pancreas Works Well in Home Trial Study found improved diabetes ... world trial shows that this potentially transformative therapy works for everyone. You can use it in the ...

  9. CA19-9 as a Potential Target for Radiolabeled Antibody-Based Positron Emission Tomography of Pancreas Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Mark D.; Olafsen, Tove; Kenanova, Vania; McCabe, Katelyn E.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Sensitive and specific imaging of pancreas cancer are necessary for accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment. The vast majority of pancreas cancers express the carbohydrate tumor antigen CA19-9. The goal of this study was to determine the potential to target CA19-9 with a radiolabeled anti-CA19-9 antibody for imaging pancreas cancer. Methods. CA19-9 was quantified using flow cytometry on human pancreas cancer cell lines. An intact murine anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody was labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide (Iodine-124) and injected into mice harboring antigen positive and negative xenografts. MicroPET/CT were performed at successive time intervals (72 hours, 96 hours, 120 hours) after injection. Radioactivity was measured in blood and tumor to provide objective confirmation of the images. Results. Antigen expression by flow cytometry revealed approximately 1.3 × 106 CA19-9 antigens for the positive cell line and no expression in the negative cell line. Pancreas xenograft imaging with Iodine-124-labeled anti-CA19-9 mAb demonstrated an average tumor to blood ratio of 5 and positive to negative tumor ratio of 20. Conclusion. We show in vivo targeting of our antigen positive xenograft with a radiolabeled anti-CA19-9 antibody. These data demonstrate the potential to achieve anti-CA19-9 antibody based positron emission tomography of pancreas cancer. PMID:21912743

  10. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine ?-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed ?-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression.

  11. Multipotent pancreas progenitors: Inconclusive but pivotal topic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Morahan, Grant

    2015-12-26

    The establishment of multipotent pancreas progenitors (MPP) should have a significant impact not only on the ontology of the pancreas, but also for the translational research of glucose-responding endocrine ?-cells. Deficiency of the latter may lead to the pandemic type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder. An ideal treatment of which would potentially be the replacement of destroyed or failed ?-cells, by restoring function of endogenous pancreatic endocrine cells or by transplantation of donor islets or in vitro generated insulin-secreting cells. Thus, considerable research efforts have been devoted to identify MPP candidates in the pre- and post-natal pancreas for the endogenous neogenesis or regeneration of endocrine insulin-secreting cells. In order to advance this inconclusive but critical field, we here review the emerging concepts, recent literature and newest developments of potential MPP and propose measures that would assist its forward progression. PMID:26730269

  12. [Pancreatic insulinoma. Peroperative topographical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Deixonne, B; Baudin, G; Rodier, M; Pignodel, C; Rouanet, J P; Balmes, P; Baumel, H

    1988-09-24

    Difficult problems may arise and place the surgeon in an uncomfortable position in cases where neither pre-operative investigations nor palpation of the pancreas have enabled pancreatic insulinomas to be localized. However, 3 examinations performed during the operation should help solve these problems, as shown by the case presented here. These examinations are insulin assays in the peripancreatic venous blood, blood glucose measurements under constant rate glucose infusion, and intra-operative ultrasonography. Pre-operative radioimmunological assays of insulin have been used for about 10 years, but owing to technical advances and shortening of the incubation time these assays can now be performed during surgery and, above all, with immediate results. Blood glucose measurements are good pointers, and this method has long been used in this type of surgery. Intra-operative ultrasonography has recently been introduced; it is very effective in diagnosing endocrine tumours of the pancreas, since the images it provides are quite characteristic. These 3 examinations combined should be used to localize pancreatic insulinomas; they may replace most of the pre-operative examinations that are still carried out. PMID:2847138

  13. Review of Preoperative Carbohydrate Loading.

    PubMed

    Pogatschnik, Cassandra; Steiger, Ezra

    2015-10-01

    Preoperative carbohydrate-containing clear liquids (usually composed of approximately 12% carbohydrate predominantly in maltodextrin form) have provided benefits for the surgical population and further have been included in the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society's recommendations as part of a multimodal approach to reduce surgical patients' length of stay and complication rates. Carbohydrate metabolism is greatly affected by the fed state, which is activated by preoperative carbohydrate fluids given up to 2 hours prior to surgery in contrast to the traditional midnight preoperative fast. Carbohydrate-rich fluids have been proven to enhance patient comfort prior to surgery and have been theorized to reduce insulin resistance, reducing patient catabolism, with a positive impact on perioperative glucose control and muscle preservation. This practice is further hypothesized to support the ERAS goals of reducing both complication rate and length of stay. Preoperative carbohydrate fluid loading is difficult to prove, as the degree of surgical procedure and postoperative pathways are likely more reflective of patient outcome. The use of carbohydrate-loading protocols warrants further adequately blinded, placebo-controlled studies, including the use of variable surgical techniques, reproduction of the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic technique measurements, investigation of ideal carbohydrate fluid composition, and the use of similar surgeries in comparison. Preoperative carbohydrate loading is just one of the many strategies linked to the success of ERAS protocols. PMID:26197803

  14. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ?10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of IPMN has evolved over the years. The recent guidelines have played a role in this regard. PMID:26110127

  15. [Persistent neonatal hypoglycemia in nesidioblastosis of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Reiterer, F; Gamillscheg, A; Ritschl, E; Müller, W D; Schwingshandl, J; Borkenstein, M; Klos, J; Ratschek, M; Fellbaum, C

    1990-01-01

    A now 10 month old female infant suffered from persistent non ketotic neonatal hypoglycemia despite continuous intravenous application of glucose (greater than 10 mg/kg/min). There was only a transient response of blood glucose after intravenous administration of glucagon and prednisolon. Biochemical findings indicated hyperinsulinismus (insulin level of 26 mE/ml during hypoglycemia). Oral diazoxid treatment in high doses (22 mg/kg) stopped hypoglycemia episodes for several days but the newborn remained glucose infusion depended. Finally the treatment had to be interrupted because of vomiting. At the age of 4 1/2 weeks a subtotal pancreatectomy was performed. The histological examination of the pancreas confirmed the clinically suspected diagnosis of nesidioblastosis. After pancreatectomy the infant required insulin therapy. Since six months the girl is without insulin in a good condition. Despite periods of arrested head growth before pancreatectomy the psychomotoric development is normal. PMID:2326089

  16. Stenting of the Superior Mesenteric Artery as a Preoperative Treatment for Total Pancreatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigawa, Noboru Kariya, Shuji; Komemushi, Atsushi; Satoi, Sohei; Kamiyama, Yasuo; Sawada, Satoshi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Takai, Yuichirou

    2004-09-15

    The patient was a 58-year-old male with mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Prior to total pancreatectomy, preoperative CT and angiography showed a high-grade arteriosclerotic stenosis of about 1.0 cm in length in the ostium of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), as well as the development of collateral vessels in the area around the head of the pancreas. A stent was placed in the SMA stenosis to preserve the intestinal blood flow in the SMA region after total pancreatectomy, which was performed 25 days after stent placement. The postoperative SMA blood flow was favorable, with no postoperative intestinal ischemia, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course.

  17. Mucin Hypersecreting Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Anthony W.; Ryan, Anna; Doolas, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Mucin Hypersecreting Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm is a rare neoplasm that arises from ductal epithelial cells. This entity is distinct from the more commonly known Mucinous Cystadenoma or Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma. Despite this distinction, it has been erroneously categorized with these more common cystic neoplasms. Characteristic clinical presentation, radiographic, and endoscopic findings help distinguish this neoplasm from the cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas. Histopathologic identification is not crucial to the preoperative diagnosis. This neoplasm is considered to represent a premalignant condition and, therefore, surgical resection is warranted. Prognosis, following resection, is felt to be curative for the majority of patients. We present two cases of Mucin Hypersecreting Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm and discuss their diagnosis and surgical therapy. PMID:10371063

  18. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials. PMID:17957502

  19. Microendoscopes for imaging of the pancreas Angelique Kano*

    E-print Network

    Gmitro, Arthur F.

    Microendoscopes for imaging of the pancreas Angelique Kano* , Andrew R. Rouse, Shona M. Kroto imaging of the pancreas is limited by the small size of the pancreatic duct, which has an average size the miniature endoscope and confocal microendoscope are presented. Keywords: pancreas, cancer, broadfield, white

  20. CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

  1. Preoperative Assessment of Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Nakhaie, Mariam; Tsai, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The preoperative assessment of geriatric patients provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate the patient for perioperative risk factors such as frailty, functional status, nutritional status, cardiovascular and pulmonary status, and substance dependence. It also provides an overall clinical picture on which health care providers can base a framework to reduce these risk factors. PMID:26315632

  2. Identifying patients with undetected pancreatic cancer in primary care: an independent and external validation of QCancer® (Pancreas)

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gary S; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite its rarity, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer is very poor and it is a major cause of cancer mortality; being ranked fourth in the world, it has one of the worst survival rates of any cancer. Aim To evaluate the performance of QCancer® (Pancreas) for predicting the absolute risk of pancreatic cancer in an independent UK cohort of patients, from general practice records. Design and setting Prospective cohort study to evaluate the performance QCancer (Pancreas) prediction models in 364 practices from the UK, contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Method Records were extracted from the THIN database for 2.15 million patients registered with a general practice surgery between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2008, aged 30–84 years (3.74 million person-years), with 618 pancreatic cancer cases. Pancreatic cancer was defined as incident diagnosis of pancreatic cancer during the 2 years after study entry. Results The results from this independent and external validation of QCancer (Pancreas) demonstrated good performance data on a large cohort of general practice patients. QCancer (Pancreas) had very good discrimination properties, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 and 0.92 for females and males respectively. QCancer (Pancreas) explained 60% and 67% of the variation in females and males respectively. QCancer (Pancreas) over-predicted risk in both females and males, notably in older patients. Conclusion QCancer (Pancreas) is potentially useful for identifying undetected cases of pancreatic cancer in primary care in the UK. PMID:23998844

  3. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  4. Cystic neoplasia of the pancreas: pathology and biology.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N Volkan

    2008-03-01

    In contrast with solid tumors, most of which are invasive ductal adenocarcinoma with dismal prognosis, cystic lesions of the pancreas are often either benign or low-grade indolent neoplasia. Those that are mucinous, namely, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), constitute the most important category, not only because they are the most common, but more importantly because they have well-established malignant potential, representing an adenomacarcinoma sequence. While many are innocuous adenomas--in particular, those that are small and less complex, and in the case of IPMN, those that are branch-duct type are more commonly benign, some harbor or progress into in situ or invasive carcinomas. For this reason, pancreatic cysts with mucinous differentiation ought to be evaluated carefully, preferably by experts familiar with subtle evidences of malignancy in these tumors. In the past few years, the definition of IPMNs and MCNs has become more refined. The presence of ovarian-type stroma has now almost become a requirement for the diagnosis of MCN, and when defined as such, MCN is seen almost exclusively in women of perimenopausal age group as thick-walled multilocular cystic mass in the tail of the pancreas in contrast with IPMN which afflicts an elder population, both genders in almost equal numbers, and occur predominantly in the head of the organ. While mucinous lesions have well-established pre-malignant properties, most of the entities that fall into the nonmucinous true cyst category such as serous tumors, lymphoepithelial cysts, congenital cysts, and squamoid cyst of ducts have virtually no malignant potential. In contrast, the rare cystic tumors that occur as a result of degenerative/necrotic changes in otherwise solid neoplasia such as the rare cystic ductal adenocarcinomas, cystic endocrine neoplasia, and most importantly, solid-pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) in which cystic change is so common that it used to be incorporated into its name ("solid-cystic," "papillary-cystic") are malignant neoplasia, albeit variable degrees of aggressiveness. SPT holds a distinctive place among pancreatic neoplasia because of its highly peculiar characteristics, undetermined cell lineage, occurrence almost exclusively in young females, association with beta-catenin pathway, and also by being a very low-grade curable malignancy. In conclusion, cystic lesions in the pancreas constitute a biologically and pathologically diverse category most (but not all) of which are either benign or treatable diseases; however, a substantial subset, especially mucinous ones, has malignant potential that requires careful analysis. PMID:17957438

  5. [Preoperative Management of Thrombotic Disease].

    PubMed

    Katori, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    As the growing population needs to receive antithrombotic therapy, perioperative management of anti- thrombotic therapy, with anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet has become a major concern to physicians taking care of surgical patients. Balancing the risk of bleeding with continuation and thrombosis with discontinuation requires consideration of each patient's risks for thrombotic complications and probability of bleeding in surgical procedures. Warfarin has been a mainstay of chronic anticoagulation therapy, and patients receiving warfarin need interruption of warfarin prior to the surgery and a preoperative bridge therapy with an alternative anticoagulant, typically unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin. The novel oral anticoagulants including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban and apixaban have shorter half-lives and may not need the preoperative bridge therapy. However they raised other concerns for perioperative management including prolonged elimination half-life in patients with compromised kidney, poor correlation between routine laboratory tests and clinical effectiveness of anticoagulation or lack of a specific antidote. PMID:26466495

  6. Porcelain gallbladder complicated with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sekido, Hitoshi; Sugita, Mitsutaka; Tanaka, Kuniya; Endo, Itaru; Togo, Shinji; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We report a rare case of porcelain gallbladder associated with pancreas divisum (PD). A 60-year-old woman suffered from discomfort in the back of the right side. An abdominal radiograph revealed a calcified spherical mass in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasonography revealed a scattered echo with a posterior acoustic shadow in the gallbladder wall. A plain computed tomography (CT) scan showed flecks of intramural calcification in the wall of the gallbladder. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed separate openings for the Santorini and Wirsung ducts. The patient underwent cholecystectomy after porcelain gallbladder and pancreas divisum had been diagnosed. The porcelain gallbladder resulted from a stone impacted in the neck of the gallbladder. Patients with PD should be followed carefully, because gallstones often accompany PD, and porcelain gallbladder may result, as in this patient. PMID:17139436

  7. Future trends in preoperative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Varela, Gonzalo; Novoa, Nuria M

    2008-02-01

    Preoperative evaluation before lung resection has been frequently addressed in modern medical literature. Actual or predicted pulmonary volumes are considered relevant to predict the risk of surgery. Nevertheless, ppoFEV1 underestimates the real functional loss in the immediate postoperative period when most of the complications occur. Not all patients, however, have comparable functional changes after lobectomy. Minimal impairment or even improvements have been demonstrated in COPD cases after lobectomy. Efforts should be directed to an accurate prediction of the immediate postoperative pulmonary volumes for a better evaluation of high-risk patients caused by respiratory impairment. Future developments are needed on the role of measuring preoperative DLCO and how to evaluate a patient's general cardiorespiratory status. Evidence underlines the relevance of routine evaluation of preoperative DLCO at rest or, better, during exercise for a thorough assessment of patient's capability to adapt to a stressful situation (Fig. 3). Only by improving knowledge about the general condition of the patient, can one assess the physiologic response to surgery. Widespread use of sophisticated or simple exercise tests and measurements or daily activity using motion detectors can identify high-risk patients with otherwise acceptable pulmonary volumes. Another suggested investigation issue is to develop different relevant outcome parameters, not only from the surgeon's point of view but also from the patient's perspective, such as postoperative QOL-related variables or delayed outcomes. Finally, multidisciplinary investigation teams, including experts in mathematical modeling, are essential to improve the quality and validity of the developed models. Although knowledge about perioperative physiologic changes has increased, clinicians are still far from finding a way to put all this knowledge down and make it applicable for an individual patient. Multicentric cooperation and evaluation of large prospectively recorded databases are essential to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines on preoperative evaluation. PMID:18402199

  8. Pancreas transplants: Evaluation using perfusion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; du Cret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphic perfusion studies in evaluating pancreas transplant patients, we reviewed 56 of these studies in 22 patients who had 27 transplants. Seventeen patients underwent two or more studies. The perfusion studies were performed with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA injected as a bolus followed by eight to 16 serial 2-sec images and a 500,000-count immediate static image. Images were evaluated for (1) the time and intensity of pancreatic peak radioactivity relative to the time and intensity of the iliac arterial peak; (2) relative pancreatic to iliac arterial intensity on the static image; and (3) size, homogeneity, and definition of the pancreas. Clinical diagnoses at the time of scintigraphy of normal function (n = 36), rejection (n = 13), pancreatitis (n = 6), or arterial thrombosis (n = 1) were based on insulin requirement, urine amylase, serum glucose, serum amylase, response to therapy, cultures, CT, MR, sonography, scintigraphy with 67Ga or 111In-WBCs, percutaneous drainage results, angiography, surgery, and pathologic examination of resected transplants. Three 99mTc-DTPA perfusion studies showed no pancreatic perfusion, four showed decreasing perfusion on serial studies, and five showed progressive loss of definition of the pancreas on serial studies. Of the three patients with no detectable perfusion, one had a normally functioning transplant, one had arterial thrombosis with transplant infarction, and one had severe rejection with minimal function. Decreasing perfusion was associated with rejection in three patients and pancreatitis in one. Decreasing definition was seen in four patients with rejection and one with pancreatitis. We conclude that perfusion scintigraphy is useful, primarily when performed serially, although nonspecific for evaluating pancreas transplants.

  9. An atypically localized gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report of pancreas gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Keskin, Metin; Güllüo?lu, Mine; Emre, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They can arise from any part of the tract as well as the omentum, mesentery or retroperitoneum. In this study, we present a case of a GIST originating from an extraordinary site, the pancreas. Evaluation of 30-year-old man with complaints of abdominal distension revealed a cystic, distal pancreatic lesion 13 cm in diameter. There were no intra-abdominal or distant organ metastases. The patient was operated with a diagnosis of cystic pancreas tumor, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed. The lesion was diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor upon histopathological examination. He was discharged on the sixth postoperative day without any complications and is being followed up for 21 months without systemic or local recurrence. Extragastrointestinal GISTs are reported rarely. To our knowledge, only one pancreatic GIST has been reported previously in the English literature. PMID:25931843

  10. Arteriography with simultaneous gastric distention to detect insulin-secreting tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J S; Han, S Y; Henao, F

    1983-12-01

    Gaseous distention of the stomach at the time of arteriography enhances the contrast of densities within the pancreatic parenchyma, resulting in excellent visualization and therefore precise preoperative localization of insulin-secreting tumors of the pancreas. This relatively simple modification of selective arteriography was used in the last three consecutive patients we have seen with insulinomas. Apparently, the presence of air in the stomach makes the "tumor blush" that results from the uptake of the contrast dye by the vessels within the insulinoma and is clearer than in selective arteriography alone. The stomach was distended at the time of selective arteriography with carbonated soft drinks in two cases and by gas-producing pills in one. In all three cases, the location of the tumor shown by arteriography coincided exactly with the operative findings. Distal pancreatectomy was required in two; enucleation of the insulinoma was possible in one. All three patients recovered from operation uneventfully and were completely relieved of symptoms. PMID:6316560

  11. Preoperative Computed Tomography to Predict and Stratify the Risk of Severe Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sandini, Marta; Bernasconi, Davide Paolo; Ippolito, Davide; Nespoli, Luca; Baini, Melissa; Barbaro, Salvatore; Fior, Davide; Gianotti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article is to assess whether measures of abdominal fat distribution, visceral density, and antropometric parameters obtained from computed tomography (CT) may predict postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) occurrence. We analyzed 117 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and had a preoperative CT scan as staging in our center. CT images were processed to obtain measures of total fat volume (TFV), visceral fat volume (VFV), density of spleen, and pancreas, and diameter of pancreatic duct. The predictive ability of each parameter was investigated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves methodology and assessing optimal cutoff thresholds. A stepwise selection method was used to determine the best predictive model. Clinically relevant (grades B and C) POPF occurred in 24 patients (20.5%). Areas under ROC-curves showed that none of the parameters was per se significantly predictive. The multivariate analysis revealed that a VFV >2334?cm3, TFV >4408?cm3, pancreas/spleen density ratio <0.707, and pancreatic duct diameter <5?mm were predictive of POPF. The risk of POPF progressively increased with the number of factors involved and age. It is possible to deduce objective information on the risk of POPF from a simple and routine preoperative radiologic workup. PMID:26252274

  12. The effect of systemic venous drainage of the pancreas on insulin sensitivity in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Radziuk, J; Barron, P; Najm, H; Davies, J

    1993-01-01

    To assess the metabolic consequences of the diversion of the pancreatic venous drainage to the systemic circulation, the pancreaticoduodenal and gastrosplenic veins were anastomosed to the inferior vena cava in nine normal dogs. This procedure maintained the integrity of the entire pancreas while shunting the hormonal output of the pancreas to the periphery. The metabolic effects were assessed from the sensitivity to insulin during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp using an insulin infusion of 800 microU/kg per min. The studies were controlled by their duplication in seven dogs identically treated but with the pancreatic veins reanastomosed to the portal vein. No differences in systemic insulin levels or insulin sensitivity before and after surgery were seen under these circumstances. After diversion, however, basal insulin levels rose from 4.5 +/- 1.0 to 11.5 +/- 2.5 microU/ml. Basal glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR) rose to 3.0 +/- 0.4 from 2.0 +/- 0.3 ml/kg per min. On insulin infusion, maximal stimulation of MCR within the 2-h infusion period was to 15.2 +/- 2.5 ml/kg per min preoperatively and to 7.2 +/- 0.8 ml/kg per min after diversion. Using ratios of MCR-to-insulin concentration as an index of insulin sensitivity, it was demonstrated that this index decreased by at least 50% after diversion. These data imply that portal venous drainage of the pancreas is an important factor in the determination of peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:8104957

  13. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP

    PubMed Central

    Lath, Chinar O.; Agrawal, Dilpesh S.; Timins, Michael E.; Wein, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature.

  14. Human pancreas scintigraphy using iodine-123-labeled HIPDM and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibata, T.; Saji, H.; Kubo, S.; Aoki, E.; Fujita, T.; Yonekura, Y.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The pancreatic affinity of iodine-123-labeled HIPDM (N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propane diamine) (({sup 123}I)HIPDM) was studied in 18 cases (5 normal volunteers, 7 cases with pancreas cancer, and 6 with chronic pancreatitis). In the normal cases, the pancreas was visualized in the planar images as early as 3 hr, and again at 20 hr postinjection. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed following 3-hr planar scintigraphy, provided excellent pancreas images without an overlap of activity in the liver or spleen. The mean pancreas-to-liver (P/L) ratio was 1.26 +/- 0.22 in normal controls. With the exception of one case of massive calcification in the pancreas, the entire pancreas could be observed in the cases with chronic pancreatitis, but the P/L ratio was 0.74 +/- 0.15, significantly lower than that of normal cases. Defective areas of the distal portion of the pancreas were clearly seen in those with cancer of the pancreas. The results of our study indicate that ({sup 123}I) HIPDM may have clinical potential as a human pancreas imaging agent.

  15. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas?

    PubMed Central

    Temesgen, Wudneh M.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare, with an incidence of less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor (OGCT) of the pancreas is one of the three types of PGCT, which are now classified as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 57 year old woman who presented with a 3 week history of epigastric pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Imaging studies revealed an 18 cm × 15 cm soft tissue mass with cystic components which involved the pancreas, stomach and spleen. Exploratory laparotomy with distal pancreatectomy, partial gastrectomy and splenectomy was performed. Histology revealed undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells with production of osteoid and glandular elements. DISCUSSION OGCT of the pancreas resembles benign-appearing giant cell tumors of bone, and contain osteoclastic-like multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells. OGCTs display a less aggressive course with slow metastasis and lymph node spread compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Due to the rarity of the cancer, there is a lack of prospective studies on treatment options. Surgical en-bloc resection is currently considered first line treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not been established. CONCLUSION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare pancreatic neoplasms with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. Osteoclastic giant cell tumors are the most favorable sub-type. Surgical en bloc resection is the first line treatment. Long-term follow-up of patients with these tumors is essential to compile a body of literature to help guide treatment. PMID:24631915

  16. Timing of preoperative patient teaching.

    PubMed

    Lepczyk, M; Raleigh, E H; Rowley, C

    1990-03-01

    With the increasing cost of health care and the growing constraints made by third party payers, in-hospital time for preoperative teaching is quickly being reduced. Seventy-two patients attended preoperative instruction either as an inpatient the day before surgery or as an outpatient 4-8 days before surgery. Anxiety and knowledge levels were measured before and after class and the evening before surgery. No differences were found between the groups on a measure of anxiety levels. Both groups demonstrated a moderate anxiety level with no significant change over the testing period. Using the knowledge pretest as a covariate, repeated measures analysis of variance suggested the knowledge gained with the class was significantly greater for the outpatient group than the inpatient group (P = 0.018). There was also a significant positive relationship between the knowledge score and knowing someone who had cardiac surgery (t = 2.34, d.f. = 66, P = 0.022). The results suggest that it makes little difference whether patients receive information up to a week before surgery or just the day before; therefore, the more economical preadmission teaching may be the path of choice. PMID:2332553

  17. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Nishi, Yuji; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Mizuno, Akira; Kajikawa, Masaki; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A man in his thirties visited our hospital for an evaluation of a 12×10-mm pancreatic solid tumor that was accidentally detected on computed tomography performed for follow-up of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). We diagnosed the patient with a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) based on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, and he underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Small SPN tumors appear as solid tumors, without typical features of SPN, making the definitive diagnosis more difficult. The genetic background of FAP patients can predispose them to SPN, and imaging of the pancreas should be performed at prescribed intervals in FAP patients. PMID:26027985

  18. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26166470

  19. Photosynthetic oxygen generator for bioartificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konstantin; Papismedov, Eli; Yavriyants, Karina; Vorobeychik, Marina; Beer, Sven; Vardi, Pnina

    2006-02-01

    Immunoisolation of pancreatic islets interrupts their vascular connections and results in severe cell hypoxia and dysfunction. This process is believed to be the major obstacle to a successful cure of diabetes by implantation of bioartificial pancreas. Here we describe a new technology for microalga-based, photosynthetic oxygen supply to encapsulated islets, in which a thermophylic strain of the unicellular alga Chlorella was used as a natural photosynthetic oxygen generator. Following determinations of the optimal number of alga cells required for compensation of islet respiration, an appropriate number of islets and algae were co-encapsulated in alginate and perifused with oxygen-free medium at increasing glucose concentrations. No insulin response to glucose was obtained in islets alone, or upon inactivation of photosynthesis by darkness. However, under illumination, photosynthetic- dependent oxygen generation induced higher glucose-stimulated insulin response when compared to normoxic perifusion. Such photosynthetic oxygen generation may have a potential application in development of various bioartificial tissues, in particular the endocrine pancreas. PMID:16548692

  20. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade. PMID:25819473

  1. A new method for modelling preoperative diagnosis of ovarian tumours

    E-print Network

    . In Europe and North America the age-adjusted standard- ised incidence rate of ovarian cancer is over 10 per an appropriate pre-, peri- and postoperative management. A number of papers have been devoted to the development, such as the risk of malignancy index [3], logistic regression models [4], [5], artificial neural networks [6

  2. Autonomous and Continuous Adaptation of a Bihormonal Bionic Pancreas in Adults and

    E-print Network

    Autonomous and Continuous Adaptation of a Bihormonal Bionic Pancreas in Adults and Adolescents pancreas algorithm, initialized with only subject weight; to adapt automatically to the different insulin

  3. Diagnostic outcome of preoperative coagulation testing in children.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Neha; Parker, Robert I

    2014-08-01

    The value of routine coagulation testing instead of bleeding history alone in children, to predict bleeding risk prior to tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy has been questioned. Our objectives are to identify the causes of abnormal PT and/or aPTT in these patients, and to determine whether routine preoperative coagulation testing is effective in identifying children with a clinically significant coagulation abnormality prior to undergoing a procedure. In this study, data were extracted by chart review for 854 patients referred to the pediatric hematology service at Stony Brook University for the evaluation of an elevated PT and/or aPTT on preoperative testing. Seven hundred and ninety two of 854 reviewed charts (92.7%) contained sufficient data for analysis. On repeat testing, 393 (49.6%) had a laboratory abnormality identified. A potentially significant coagulation abnormality was identified in 32 of 792 patients (4%). For the remaining 760 patients, the most common diagnosis was a lupus anticoagulant (n = 98, 24.6%) or a "presumed" lupus anticoagulant (n = 166, 41.6%). A positive personal or family bleeding history was documented in 268 patients (268/792 = 33.8%). Of these patients, only 107 (39.9%) had an abnormality identified on further work-up. Seventeen of the 32 patients with clinically significant bleeding disorders identified were found to have a positive bleeding history (17/32 = 53.1%). Routine preoperative coagulation testing identifies only a small number of children at increased risk for surgical bleeding. However, a "positive" bleeding history identifies only 60% of children found to have a clinically significant coagulation abnormality. Routine preoperative coagulation testing may serve as a useful adjunct to clinical history. PMID:24851937

  4. Serous microcystic adenoma (glycogen-rich cystadenoma) of the pancreas: study of 11 cases showing clinicopathological and immunohistochemical correlations.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Yumiko; Sakaida, Noriko; Uemura, Yoshiko; Senzaki, Hideto; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2002-04-01

    Serous microcystic adenoma of the pancreas, also known as microcystic adenoma, glycogen-rich cystadenoma or serous cystadenoma, is an uncommon benign tumor. We have studied 11 cases involving eight women and three men. The average age at diagnosis was 61.7 years. Four tumors were discovered incidentally. Tumors varied from 1.2 to 20 cm in maximum diameter and all were multicystic. Within the pancreas, three were located in the pancreas head, one involved the head and body, one was located in the body, five were in the tail, and one occupied the whole pancreas. Central stellate scar was seen in five (45%) cases. Histologically, all tumors were composed of microglandular cysts lined by clear epithelial cells rich in glycogen, which were separated by fibrocollagenous stroma. The expression of keratin in clear epithelial cells resembled that in ductal and/or centroacinar cells, but not acinar cells. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoepithelial cells and stromal amyloid deposits were not detected. Ultrastructurally, fibrocollagenous stroma was composed of alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts and endothelial cells embedded in thick collagen bundles. Regardless of female propensity, estrogen and progesterone receptors were not detected. Therefore, female predominance in this tumor remains to be elucidated. PMID:12031087

  5. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation. PMID:26319779

  6. The monocarboxylate transporters exist in the cattle endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kirat, Doaa; Kato, Seiyu

    2015-02-01

    Extensive studies are published concerning the distribution of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in various animal issues including ruminants; nonetheless, nothing is known about their cellular expression and localization in the ruminant pancreas. The present study was carried out to examine the expression and cellular localization of all the fourteen MCT isoforms in cattle pancreas. RT-PCR verified the existence of mRNA transcripts for eight MCT isoforms, namely, MCT1, MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT5, MCT8, MCT13, and MCT14 in cattle pancreas. Western blotting analysis confirmed the protein expression of these eight MCTs in the cattle pancreatic tissue. Immunohistochemical study, within the whole pancreas, was conducted to localize the eight MCTs identified, and the results showed strong positive immunoreactive staining for MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, MCT13, and MCT14 on nearly all the islet cells of Langerhans, while we could not detect immunopositive signals in the acinar cells with any of MCTs antibodies used. This study, for the first time, showed the cellular localization and expression of MCT1-MCT5, MCT8, MCT13, and MCT14 within the ruminant pancreas. The distribution and expression pattern of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, and CD147 in the cattle pancreas are different from that previously published on monogastric pancreas. Our study suggested that MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, MCT13, and MCT14 may participate in the regulation of the pancreatic endocrine secretions in ruminants. PMID:25224143

  7. Quest for the artificial pancreas: combining technology with treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Rebecca A; Wang, Youqing; Grosman, Benyamin; Percival, Matthew W; Bevier, Wendy; Finan, Daniel A; Zisser, Howard; Seborg, Dale E; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Dassau, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The various components of the artificial pancreas puzzle are being put into place. Features such as communication, control, modeling, and learning are being realized presently. Steps have been set in motion to carry the conceptual design through simulation to clinical implementation. The challenging pieces still to be addressed include stress and exercise; as integral parts of the ultimate goal, effort has begun to shift toward overcoming the remaining hurdles to the full artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas is close to becoming a reality, driven by technology, and the expectation that lives will be improved. PMID:20659841

  8. National trends in resection of the distal pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Bowers, Steven P; Goldberg, Ross F; Clarke, Tatyan M; Buchanan, Mauricia A; Stauffer, John A; Asbun, Horacio J

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate national trends in distal pancreatectomy (DP) through query of three national patient care databases. METHODS: From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2003-2009), the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP, 2005-2010), and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER, 2003-2009) databases using appropriate diagnostic and procedural codes we identified all patients with a diagnosis of a benign or malignant lesion of the body and/or tail of the pancreas that had undergone a partial or distal pancreatectomy. Utilization of laparoscopy was defined in NIS by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision correspondent procedure code; and in NSQIP by the exploratory laparoscopy or unlisted procedure current procedural terminology codes. In SEER, patients were identified by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition diagnosis codes and the SEER Program Code Manual, third edition procedure codes. We analyzed the databases with respect to trends of inpatient outcome metrics, oncologic outcomes, and hospital volumes in patients with lesions of the neck and body of the pancreas that underwent operative resection. RESULTS: NIS, NSQIP and SEER identified 4242, 2681 and 11??082 DP resections, respectively. Overall, laparoscopy was utilized in 15% (NIS) and 27% (NSQIP). No significant increase was seen over the course of the study. Resection was performed for malignancy in 59% (NIS) and 66% (NSQIP). Neither patient Body mass index nor comorbidities were associated with operative approach (P = 0.95 and P = 0.96, respectively). Mortality (3% vs 2%, P = 0.05) and reoperation (4% vs 4%, P = 1.0) was not different between laparoscopy and open groups. Overall complications (10% vs 15%, P < 0.001), hospital costs [44??741 dollars, interquartile range (IQR) 28 347-74 114 dollars vs 49 792 dollars, IQR 13 299-73 463, P = 0.02] and hospital length of stay (7 d, IQR 4-11 d vs 7 d, IQR 6-10, P < 0.001) were less when laparoscopy was utilized. One and two year survival after resection for malignancy were unchanged over the course of the study (ductal adenocarinoma 1-year 63.6% and 2-year 35.1%, P = 0.53; intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and nueroendocrine 1-year 90% and 2-year 84%, P = 0.25). The majority of resections were performed in teaching hospitals (77% NIS and 85% NSQIP), but minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was not more likely to be used in teaching hospitals (15% vs 14%, P = 0.26). Hospitals in the top decile for volume were more likely to be teaching hospitals than lower volume deciles (88% vs 43%, P < 0.001), but were no more likely to utilize MIS at resection. Complication rate in teaching and the top decile hospitals was not significantly decreased when compared to non-teaching (15% vs 14%, P = 0.72) and lower volume hospitals (14% vs 15%, P = 0.99). No difference was seen in the median number of lymph nodes and lymph node ratio in N1 disease when compared by year (P = 0.17 and P = 0.96, respectively). CONCLUSION: There appears to be an overall underutilization of laparoscopy for DP. Centralization does not appear to be occurring. Survival and lymph node harvest have not changed. PMID:22969197

  9. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Cancer of the Pancreas?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the insulin-making cells to cause diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term inflammation of the pancreas. ... cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis never develop pancreatic cancer. A small number of ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition; its prevalence is unknown. What are the genetic changes related to Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome? Pearson ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  12. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  13. Massive haematemesis--presenting symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Y.; Levy, Y.; Goldsher, D.; Munichor, M.; Eidelman, S.

    1989-01-01

    A 43 year old woman presented with attacks of abdominal pain, haematemesis and hyperamylasaemia. Gastrointestinal X-rays and repeated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy failed to reveal the source of bleeding. Ultrasound and computed tomographic scan demonstrated a calcified mass in the tail of the pancreas. Surgical exploration revealed a solitary mass in the pancreas and histological examination showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient died 2 years later because of local recurrence, but haematemesis and melaena did not recur. This case presents an unusual manifestation of cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas with massive bleeding from the tumour via the pancreatic duct and associated pancreatitis. Other possible reasons for bleeding with cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2780451

  14. Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia in a pancreas transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elizabeth A; Topal, Jeffrey E; Tichy, Eric M

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia in a patient 12 years after his pancreas transplant, during which time he received a steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases describing L monocytogenes bacteremia after pancreas transplant. In addition, although typically identified as a complication shortly after transplant or after treatment for organ rejection, this case demonstrates that it is still possible for a patient to develop a L monocytogenes infection far removed from transplant. PMID:26645926

  15. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  16. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that ? cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25029387

  17. [Results of preoperative preparation with mannitol in colorectal surgery. January-December 1995].

    PubMed

    Torres Panuncia, B; Rodríguez Fernández, Z; Piña Prieto, L R

    1998-01-01

    A study on the results obtained in 20 patients selected by the simple randomized method, who were preoperatively prepared for colorectal surgery with the oral administration of manitol and complementary antimicrobial therapeutics at the ASaturnino Lora@ Provincial Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 1995, was conducted aimed at evaluating the results attained with the use of manitol in the preoperative preparation for colorectal surgery, determining its complications, analyzing its advantages, and assessing the patient, nurse and surgeon's opinion about the new procedure. The following variables were taken into account: age, preoperative diagnosis and previous operations. The percentage statistical method was used. Most of the patients were elderly, who were able to undergo surgery. There were no complications in connection with the preoperative preparation, which has the following advantages: it is simpler and more efficient that the traditional use of enemas, it is easy to apply, it saves time and resources on reducing the preoperative stay, it is considered as more comfortable for patients and nurses, and it is much more economic and effective, which was proved by surgeons during the operation. PMID:9934233

  18. Endocrine Cell Clustering During Human Pancreas Development

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jongmin; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Ricordi, Camillo; Edlund, Helena; Diez, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of efficient, reproducible protocols for directed in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells into insulin-producing ? cells will benefit greatly from increased knowledge regarding the spatiotemporal expression profile of key instructive factors involved in human endocrine cell generation. Human fetal pancreases 7 to 21 weeks of gestational age, were collected following consent immediately after pregnancy termination and processed for immunostaining, in situ hybridization, and real-time RT-PCR expression analyses. Islet-like structures appear from approximately week 12 and, unlike the mixed architecture observed in adult islets, fetal islets are initially formed predominantly by aggregated insulin- or glucagon-expressing cells. The period studied (7–22 weeks) coincides with a decrease in the proliferation and an increase in the differentiation of the progenitor cells, the initiation of NGN3 expression, and the appearance of differentiated endocrine cells. The present study provides a detailed characterization of islet formation and expression profiles of key intrinsic and extrinsic factors during human pancreas development. This information is beneficial for the development of efficient protocols that will allow guided in vitro differentiation of hES cells into insulin-producing cells. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:811–824, 2009) PMID:19365093

  19. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  20. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  1. Stromal reengineering to treat pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stromnes, Ingunn M.; DelGiorno, Kathleen E.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Hingorani, Sunil R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma co-opts multiple cellular and extracellular mechanisms to create a complex cancer organ with an unusual proclivity for metastasis and resistance to therapy. Cell-autonomous events are essential for the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but recent studies have implicated critical non-cell autonomous processes within the robust desmoplastic stroma that promote disease pathogenesis and resistance. Thus, non-malignant cells and associated factors are culprits in tumor growth, immunosuppression and invasion. However, even this increasing awareness of non-cell autonomous contributions to disease progression is tempered by the conflicting roles stromal elements can play. A greater understanding of stromal complexity and complicity has been aided in part by studies in highly faithful genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Insights gleaned from such studies are spurring the development of therapies designed to reengineer the pancreas cancer stroma and render it permissive to agents targeting cell-autonomous events or to reinstate immunosurveillance. Integrating conventional and immunological treatments in the context of stromal targeting may provide the key to a durable clinical impact on this formidable disease. PMID:24908682

  2. Epidemiology of pancreas cancer in Los Angeles

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, T.M.; Paganini-Hill, A.

    1981-03-15

    The characteristics of the 3614 Los Angeles County residents in whom cancer of the exocrine pancreas was diagnosed during the period 1972-1977 were compared with those of all county residents and patients in whom any cancer was diagnosed during the same period. Seventy-nine percent of the diagnoses had been pathologically verified. This disease still preferentially afflicts the old, the black, and men, although the differences in risk with factors other than age are modest. The disease is not evenly distributed by social class, or over time, although it is not clear that the observed differences reflect etiology. The distributions with respect to important categories of occupation and industry, religion, marital status, geography of residence, and birthplace were rather uniform. Although there is no obvious explanation for any of several unexpected minor inequities in the pattern of incidence, there is no compelling evidence to support any specific environmental cause. There is substantial evidence which is inconsistent with those environmental hypotheses that have been proposed previously.

  3. Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Stockland, Andrew H.; Willingham, Darrin L.; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; Grewal, Hani P.; McKinney, J. Mark; Hughes, Christopher B.; Walser, Eric M.

    2009-03-15

    Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated with catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.

  4. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of ? and ? cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of ? cells but not ? cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with ?-cell loss. PMID:26113611

  5. Solitary hepatic granuloma preoperatively diagnosed as intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Daizo; Iwane, Takeru; Sato, Kazushige; Kawagishi, Naoki; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Satomi, Susumu

    2012-12-01

    We herein report the case of a 67-year-old female with a solitary hepatic granuloma preoperatively diagnosed as a mass-forming type of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid as a contrast medium is expected to be useful for making a differential diagnosis between hepatic granuloma and other hypovascular liver tumors, such as the mass-forming type of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. PMID:22678661

  6. Specialist pre-operative assessment clinics.

    PubMed

    Dhesi, J K; Swart, M

    2016-01-01

    While specialist pre-operative assessment is not new, its focus has evolved in response to more operations and changes in the surgical population. Patients are older and have more long-term medical comorbidities. At the same time, there has been a move from paternalistic medical decision-making to shared decision-making, based on an individual patient's choice or preference. Specialist pre-operative consultations have had to adapt to these changes by broadening their scope. Pre-operative clinics have a central role in shared decision-making, coordinating and planning care before, during and after surgery, including rehabilitation and discharge planning. Multiple specialties need to work together to deliver quality patient-centred care. PMID:26620141

  7. Frey operation for chronic pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Skórzewska, Magdalena; Romanowicz, Tomasz; Mielko, Jerzy; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Pertkiewicz, Jan; Zymon, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas, which increases susceptibility to recurrent pancreatitis. Usually, after failure of initial endoscopic therapies, surgical treatment combining pancreatic resection or drainage is used. The Frey procedure is used for chronic pancreatitis, but it has not been reported to be applied in an adult patient with PD-associated pancreatitis. The purpose of the paper was to describe effective treatment of this rare condition by the Frey procedure after failure of interventional endoscopic treatment. A 39-year-old female patient was initially treated for recurrent acute pancreatitis. After endoscopic diagnosis of PD, the minor duodenal papilla was incised and a plastic stent was inserted into the dorsal pancreatic duct. During the following 36 months, the patient was hospitalised several times because of recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. Thereafter, local resection of the pancreatic head combined with lateral pancreaticojejunostomy was performed with no complications. After 54 months of follow-up, the patient demonstrates abnormal glucose metabolism, with a need for enzyme supplementation, and she is free of pain. Local resection of the pancreatic head combined with lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Frey procedure) offers a favourable outcome after failure of endoscopic papillotomy and duct stenting for pancreatitis associated with PD. PMID:25097717

  8. RNA Isolation from Mouse Pancreas: A Ribonuclease-rich Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P.; Elgamal, Ola A.; Schmittgen, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of high-quality RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissue such as mouse pancreas presents a challenge. As a primary function of the pancreas is to aid in digestion, mouse pancreas may contain as much a 75 mg of ribonuclease. We report modifications of standard phenol/guanidine thiocyanate lysis reagent protocols to isolate RNA from mouse pancreas. Guanidine thiocyanate is a strong protein denaturant and will effectively disrupt the activity of ribonuclease under most conditions. However, critical modifications to standard protocols are necessary to successfully isolate RNA from ribonuclease-rich tissues. Key steps include a high lysis reagent to tissue ratio, removal of undigested tissue prior to phase separation and inclusion of a ribonuclease inhibitor to the RNA solution. Using these and other modifications, we routinely isolate RNA with RNA Integrity Number (RIN) greater than 7. The isolated RNA is of suitable quality for routine gene expression analysis. Adaptation of this protocol to isolate RNA from ribonuclease rich tissues besides the pancreas should be readily achievable. PMID:25145327

  9. The Changing Spectrum of Surgically Treated Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Plichta, Jennifer K.; Brosius, Jacqueline A.; Pappas, Sam G.; Abood, Gerard J.; Aranha, Gerard V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. While the incidence of pancreatic cystic lesions has steadily increased, we sought to evaluate the changes in their surgical management. Methods. Patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013 were identified. Clinicopathologic factors were analyzed and compared to a similar cohort from 1992 to 2002. Results. There were 134 patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013, compared to 73 from 1992 to 2002. The most common preoperative imaging was a CT scan, although 66% underwent EUS and 63% underwent biopsy. Pathology included 18 serous, 47 mucinous, 11 pseudopapillary, and 58 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). In comparing cohorts, there were significantly fewer serous lesions and more IPMN. Postoperative complication rates were similar, and perioperative mortality rates were comparable. Conclusion. There has been a dramatic change in surgically treated pancreatic cystic tumors over the past two decades. Our data suggests that the incorporation of new imaging and diagnostic tests has led to greater detection of cystic tumors and a decreased rate of potentially unnecessary resections. Therefore, all patients with cystic pancreatic lesions should undergo a focused CT-pancreas, and an EUS biopsy should be considered, in order to best select those that would benefit from surgical resection. PMID:25918455

  10. An unusual neoplasm of the pancreas: Pancreatic metastasis of a Merkel cell carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Cock, E; Remery, M; De Vuyst, M; Lecluyse, K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pancreatic metastases are rare. The differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms can be difficult, especially it can be troublesome to obtain tissue diagnosis. However, pancreatic lesions in patients with a history of a malignancy must be considered to be metastases. We present a case of a patient with a history of a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in the neck. Twelve months after this diagnosis a follow-up CT shows a large isolated tumor in the head of the pancreas. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of specimen obtained through ultrasound-guided transabdominal biopsy, show similar characteristics as the primary MCC. To our knowledge twelve cases of a pancreatic metastasis of a MCC have been reported in English literature. A review of the literature was performed. PMID:26448416

  11. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  12. Tissue-specific deletion of c-Jun in the pancreas has limited effects on pancreas formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ayako; Toyoda, Shuichi; Kato, Ken; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2007-11-30

    It is well known that activating protein-1 (AP-1) is involved in a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. AP-1 is a dimer complex consisting of different subunits, and c-Jun is known to be one of its major components. In addition, it has been shown that mice lacking c-Jun are embryonic lethal and that c-Jun is essential for liver and heart development. However, the role of c-Jun in the pancreas is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of c-Jun in the pancreas. First, c-Jun was strongly expressed in pancreatic duct-like structures at an embryonic stage, while a lower level of expression was observed in some part of the adult pancreas, implying that c-Jun might play a role during pancreas development. Second, to address this point, we generated pancreas-specific c-Jun knock-out mice (Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} mice) by crossing Ptf1a-Cre knock-in mice with c-Jun floxed mice. Ptf1a is a pancreatic transcription factor and its expression is confined to pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, which give rise to all three types of pancreatic tissue: endocrine, exocrine, and duct. Contrary to our expectation, however, there was no morphological difference in the pancreas between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. In addition, there was no difference in body weight, pancreas weight, and the expression of various pancreas-related factors (insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin, and amylase) between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose tolerance between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun{sup flox/flox} and control mice. Taken together, although we cannot exclude the possibility that c-Jun ablation is compensated by some unknown factors, c-Jun appears to be dispensable for pancreas development at least after ptf1a gene promoter is activated.

  13. Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells arising in a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiroshi; Morita, Keiichi; Tachibana, Shiro; Okimura, Akira; Fujisawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Sachiko; Nakasho, Keiji; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Nishigami, Takashi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, for which pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed, with total gross excision of a mass. A tumor measuring 11 x 9 cm was found in the pancreas. On cut surface there were two cysts filled with a necrotic substance and hemorrhagic content. Spindle or ovoid-shaped cells, in the sarcomatous component, had diffusely infiltrated along the inner side of the walls of one cyst. Osteoclast-like giant cells (OGC) were also contained in the sarcomatous component. Adenoma components of mucinous epithelium with foci of borderline and adenocarcinomatous components were seen on the inner side of the other cyst. An ovarian-type stroma beneath the epithelial component was seen in the cyst wall. A diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma with OGC arising in a mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas, was made. Seven months after the initial operation the patient had a local recurrence, and the tumor was removed. One month after the second operation, the patient was free of symptoms. Only four cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with OGC arising in MCN, involving an ovarian-type stroma of the pancreas, have been reported. PMID:18477218

  14. Potential usefulness of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative pancreatic biopsy or juice cytology specimens in the determination of treatment strategies for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    HISAKA, TORU; HORIUCHI, HIROYUKI; UCHIDA, SHINJI; ISHIKAWA, HIROTO; KAWAHARA, RYUICHI; KAWASHIMA, YUSUKE; AKASHI, MASANORI; MIKAGI, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YUSUKE; OKABE, YOSHINOBU; NAKAYAMA, MASAMICHI; NAITO, YOSHIKI; YANO, HIROHISA; TAIRA, TOMOKI; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; KINOSHITA, HISAFUMI; SHIROZU, KAZUO

    2013-01-01

    We classified resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic) according to their morphological features and mucin expression, determined their clinicopathological characteristics and investigated the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing these subtypes. Sixty resected tumors, 4 preoperative tumor biopsies and 10 preoperative pancreatic juice cytology specimens were analyzed. The gastric and intestinal types accounted for the majority of IPMNs. Non-gastric type IPMNs were of high-grade malignancy. Many of the pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs were in an advanced stage and were associated with a poor prognosis. The results of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative biopsy and surgically resected specimens were in agreement with each other, and in close agreement with those for pancreatic juice cytology specimens obtained from 10 patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The immunostaining of preoperative biopsy specimens and ERCP-obtained pancreatic juice cytology specimens may be useful in the differential diagnosis of gastric and intestinal types of IPMN. If such techniques enable the preoperative diagnosis of IPMN subtypes, their use in combination with conventional preoperative imaging modalities may lead to surgical treatment best suited for the biological characteristics of the four subtypes. PMID:24008495

  15. En-bloc liver-pancreas transplant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Mehdi, Seyed Haider; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Bahreini, Amin; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2014-09-01

    Liver transplant can be challenging in cirrhotic patients with diabetes mellitus. In chronic liver disease, the glucose metabolism is altered; uncontrolled diabetes negatively influences the outcome of liver transplantation and poses difficulty in the management of immediate post transplantation period. Simultaneous liver-pancreas transplantation is an option to prevent early complications due to diabetes and also to improve the quality of life after transplantation in patients with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and chronic liver disease. We report the first en-bloc liver-pancreas transplant done in the transplant history of Iran. We describe the technical details of the procedure as well as the short term outcome after transplantation. In this case report, we also discuss in some details, the surgical, medical and immunological advantages of combined liver-pancreas transplantation as opposed to separate implantation of both organs. PMID:25204483

  16. Mucinous cystic tumour of the pancreas presenting with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pope, I; Garden, OJ

    2001-01-01

    Background The optimal therapy for mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas is surgical resection because these tumours are either premalignant (cystadenoma) or malignant. Case outline A 44-year-old previously fit woman presented with sudden onset of epigastric pain. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with acute pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound scan demonstrated a mature 6-cm cyst in the tail of pancreas and no findings suggestive of cholelithiasis. These findings were confirmed by a CT scan, which also demonstrated splenic infarction and evidence of recent haemorrhage into the cyst. The patient's abdominal pain persisted after amylase levels returned to normal. Results Splenic infarction, a mature cyst in the tail of the pancreas, and peripancreatic inflammation consistent with recent pancreatitis were found at laparotomy. Enbloc distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. Histological examination of the cyst wall demonstrated a focus of mucinous cystadenoma. Discussion This case demonstrates that acute pancreatitis may be the first presentation of a cystic neoplasm. PMID:18333030

  17. Ectopic Pancreas in the Stomach Successfully Resected by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Takao; Ohya, Shogen; Okada, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takehiro; Hori, Keisuke; Kita, Masahide; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old Japanese man presented with a gastric submucosal tumor. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a sessile submucosal tumor measuring approximately 10?mm in diameter on the greater curvature of the gastric antrum. Endoscopic ultrasonography examination revealed a solid tumor with a diameter of 11.8?mm, which was located in the deep mucosal and submucosal layers. The internal echogenicity was homogenous and hypoechoic. Biopsy examinations were performed twice but were not diagnostic since only the intact mucosal layer was obtained. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with ectopic pancreas in the stomach by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). This case underscores the usefulness of the ESD technique for the pathological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:25878668

  18. Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome in patients suspected to have Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Katelyn E; Ghazvinian, Roxanne; Yuan, Daniel; Zon, Rebecca L; Storm, Kelsie; Mazur-Popinska, Magdalena; Andolina, Laura; Bubala, Halina; Golebiowska, Sydonia; Higman, Meghan A; Kalwak, Krzysztof; Kurre, Peter; Matysiak, Michal; Niewiadomska, Edyta; Pels, Salley; Petruzzi, Mary Jane; Pobudejska-Pieniazek, Aneta; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Fleming, Mark D; Gazda, Hanna T; Agarwal, Suneet

    2014-07-17

    Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome (PS) is a multisystem disorder caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital hypoproliferative anemia in which mutations in ribosomal protein genes and GATA1 have been implicated. Both syndromes share several features including early onset of severe anemia, variable nonhematologic manifestations, sporadic genetic occurrence, and occasional spontaneous hematologic improvement. Because of the overlapping features and relative rarity of PS, we hypothesized that some patients in whom the leading clinical diagnosis is DBA actually have PS. Here, we evaluated patient DNA samples submitted for DBA genetic studies and found that 8 (4.6%) of 173 genetically uncharacterized patients contained large mtDNA deletions. Only 2 (25%) of the patients had been diagnosed with PS on clinical grounds subsequent to sample submission. We conclude that PS can be overlooked, and that mtDNA deletion testing should be performed in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with congenital anemia. PMID:24735966

  19. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Overview of Clinicopathologic Features and Insights into the Molecular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for about 1–2% of pancreatic tumors in adults and about 15% in pediatric subjects. They show different clinical symptoms at presentation, different morphological features, different outcomes, and different molecular alterations. This heterogeneous clinicopathological spectrum may give rise to difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis with consequential therapeutic and prognostic implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of ACCs are still not completely understood, although in recent years, several attempts have been made to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in ACC biology. In this paper, we will review the main clinicopathological and molecular features of pancreatic ACCs of both adult and pediatric subjects to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this rare tumor type. PMID:26137463

  20. Microencapsulation of Pancreatic Islets for Use in a Bioartificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Opara, Emmanuel C.; McQuilling, John P.; Farney, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is the most exciting treatment option for individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles for the routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets with biopolymers for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process. PMID:23494435

  1. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  2. Preoperative Surgical Planning Using Virtual Laparoscopic Camera

    E-print Network

    Zhukov, Leonid

    on abdominal CT scan- ning and physically based modeling of organ dis- placement after abdominal insufflation quality of segmen- tation. Fig.2 Deforming model on top of CT scan 2.4 Deformations To simulate laporascopic view of intestines and right lobe of the liver.. 4 Discussion Preoperative planning with CT scan

  3. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  4. PREDICTIVE SURGICAL SIMULATION FOR PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    PREDICTIVE SURGICAL SIMULATION FOR PREOPERATIVE PLANNING OF COMPLEX CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERIES LI PLANNING OF COMPLEX CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERIES LI, HAO (HT050623N) (B.Sc., Fudan University, China, 2005. Leow involved me in the project of cardiovascular surgery simulation in the first place. He taught me

  5. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN THE MUMMICHOG, FUNDULUS HETEROLCLITUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultrastructure of normal exocrine pancreas and exocrine pancreatic neoplasms in Fundulus heteroclitus from a creosote-contaminated environment in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, is described. he normal exocrine pancreas in this species was an anastomosing tubular rather than a...

  6. Preoperative Chemotherapy Versus Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III (N2) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Kristin; Chino, Junzo P.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Ready, Neal; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Clough, Robert W.; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To compare preoperative chemotherapy (ChT) and preoperative chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) in operable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed all patients with pathologically confirmed Stage III (N2) non-small-cell lung cancer who initiated preoperative ChT or ChT-RT at Duke University between 1995 and 2006. Mediastinal pathologic complete response (pCR) rates were compared using a chi-square test. The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 101 patients who initiated preoperative therapy with planned resection were identified. The median follow-up was 20 months for all patients and 38 months for survivors. The mediastinal lymph nodes were reassessed after preoperative therapy in 88 patients (87%). Within this group, a mediastinal pCR was achieved in 35% after preoperative ChT vs. 65% after preoperative ChT-RT (p = 0.01). Resection was performed in 69% after ChT and 84% after ChT-RT (p = 0.1). For all patients, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rate at 3 years was 40%, 27%, and 66%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical endpoints between the ChT and ChT-RT subgroups. On multivariate analysis, a mediastinal pCR was associated with improved disease-free survival (p = 0.03) and local control (p = 0.03), but not overall survival (p = 0.86). Conclusion: Preoperative ChT-RT was associated with higher mediastinal pCR rates but not improved survival.

  7. Vet Path0134:138-145 (1997) Canine Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreas: A Study Using

    E-print Network

    Rodenacker, Karsten

    1997-01-01

    Vet Path0134:138-145 (1997) Canine Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreas: A Study Using Image tumor; morphometry; neuroendocrinetumorof the pancreas;nuclearimagehistometry; prognosis of the pancreas(NETPs) on the basis of a common phenotype characterized by ex- pression of neuroendocrine marker

  8. The Journal of Immunology B7x in the Periphery Abrogates Pancreas-Specific Damage

    E-print Network

    Zang, Xingxing

    The Journal of Immunology B7x in the Periphery Abrogates Pancreas-Specific Damage Mediated by Self effector CD8 T cells were capable of migrating to the pancreas but failed to robustly destroy tissue when-producing b cells of the pancreas, resulting in a breakdown of glucose homeostasis. Genetic mapping and gene

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION Hnf1b controls pancreas morphogenesis and the generation of

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    RESEARCH ARTICLE STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION Hnf1b controls pancreas morphogenesis HNF1B gene are associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5) and pancreas deletion in the entire epiblast leads to pancreas agenesis associated with abnormal gut regionalization

  10. P2X and P2Y purinoceptor expression in pancreas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    P2X and P2Y purinoceptor expression in pancreas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats Robson Coutinho and P2Y4, in the pancreas of the streptozotocin- induced diabetic rat was investigated using Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Diabetes; Purinoceptors; Pancreas; Adenosine

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Preoperative Antibiotics and Mortality in the Elderly

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES Preoperative Antibiotics and Mortality in the Elderly Jeffrey H. Silber, MD, Ph*§ Objective and Background: It is generally thought that the use of preoperative antibiotics reduces the risk of postoperative infection, yet few studies have described the association between preoperative antibiotics

  12. A systems view of epigenetic networks regulating pancreas

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    Opinion A systems view of epigenetic networks regulating pancreas development and -cell function net- works. It is now known that an interconnected epigenetic program is also required to drive these processes. Recent studies using genome-wide approaches have implicated epigenetic regulators, such as DNA

  13. Pancreas ? cell regeneration and type 1 diabetes (Review)

    PubMed Central

    WU, JINXIAO; YANG, XIYAN; CHEN, BIN; XU, XIUPING

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, which may cause hyperglycemia and a number of complications, mostly results from a deficiency of ? cell mass (type 1 diabetes) or a limitation of ? cell function (type 2 diabetes). Currently, enhancing ? cell regeneration and increasing cell proliferation have not only been described in experimental diabetes models, but have also been proven to improve outcomes for patients with diabetes. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms controlling the development and regeneration of ? cells in the human pancreas may be helpful for the treatment of ? cell-deficient disease. In this review, we first introduce the various cell types in the adult pancreas and thereby clarify their functions and origins. Then, the known mechanisms of ? cell development and expansion in the normal human pancreas are described. The potential mechanisms of ? cell regeneration, including ? cell self-replication, neogenesis from non-? cell precursors and transdifferentiation from ? cells, are discussed in the next part. Finally, the ability of the pancreas to regenerate mature ? cells is explored in pathological conditions, including type 1 diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. PMID:25667609

  14. Ampullary carcinoma: Effect of preoperative biliary drainage on surgical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Sheikh Anwar; Gupta, Tarun; Jaafar, Khairul Azhar; Chung, Yaw Fui Alexander; Ooi, London Lucien Peng Jin; Mesenas, Steven Joseph

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality after surgical resection for ampullary carcinoma. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively data for 82 patients who underwent potentially curative surgery for ampullary carcinoma between September 1993 and July 2007 at the Singapore General Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. Diagnosis of ampullary carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Thirty-five patients underwent preoperative biliary drainage (PBD group), and 47 were not drained (non-PBD group). The mode of biliary drainage was endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (n = 33) or percutaneous biliary drainage (n = 2). The following parameters were analyzed: wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, intra-abdominal or gastrointestinal bleeding, septicemia, biliary or pancreatic leakage, pancreatitis, gastroparesis, and re-operation rate. Mortality was assessed at 30 d (hospital mortality) and also long-term. The statistical endpoint of this study was patient survival after surgery. RESULTS: The groups were well matched for demographic criteria, clinical presentation and operative characteristics, except for lower hemoglobin in the non-PBD group (10.9 ± 1.6 vs 11.8 ± 1.6 in the PBD group). Of the parameters assessing postoperative morbidity, incidence of wound infection was significantly less in the PBD than the non-PBD group [1 (2.9%) vs 12 (25.5%)]. However, the rest of the parameters did not differ significantly between the groups, i.e. sepsis [10 (28.6%) vs 14 (29.8%)], intra-abdominal bleeding [1 (2.9%) vs 5 (10.6%)], intra-abdominal abscess [1 (2.9%) vs 8 (17%)], gastrointestinal bleeding [3 (8.6%) vs 5 (10.6%)], pancreatic leakage [2 (5.7%) vs 3 (6.4%)], biliary leakage [2 (5.7%) vs 3 (6.4%)], pancreatitis [2 (5.7%) vs 2 (4.3%)], gastroparesis [6 (17.1%) vs 10 (21.3%)], need for blood transfusion [10 (28.6%) vs 17 (36.2%)] and re-operation rate [1 (2.9%) vs 5 (10.6%)]. There was no early mortality in either group. Median survival was 44 mo (95% CI: 34.2-53.8) in the PBD group and 41 mo (95% CI: 27.7-54.3; P = 0.86) in the non-PBD group. CONCLUSION: Biliary drainage before surgery for ampullary cancer significantly reduced postoperative wound infection. Overall mortality was not influenced by preoperative drainage. PMID:19533815

  15. Secondary tumors of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Waters, Lindsay; Si, Quisheng; Caraway, Nancy; Mody, Dina; Staerkel, Gregg; Sneige, Nour

    2014-09-01

    Determining whether a pancreatic mass is a primary or secondary neoplasm is necessary for appropriate treatment. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of pancreatic tumors to identify clinical and cytopathologic characteristics of metastatic disease. We reviewed all cases of tumors metastatic to the pancreas evaluated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas during the period from 2002 to 2012. The review included cytologic specimens, clinical history, radiologic findings, primary tumor type, and clinical follow-up. We identified 66 patients with disease metastatic to the pancreas for which cytologic material was available: 38 (58%) men and 28 (42%) women, with an average age of 63 years (range, 40-89 years). Most metastases (98%) were single lesions, and nearly half were located in the head of the pancreas (30/66). The most common site of origin for these metastases was kidney (27 [41%] cases). Follow-up information was available for 65 (98%) patients, and duration of follow-up ranged from <1 to 10 years (mean, 2.3 years). Thirty-three patients (50%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up contact. Of the 25 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, 19 (76%) were alive at the time of the most recent follow-up. It was concluded that metastases may mimic primary pancreatic carcinomas both clinically and cytologically. Ancillary studies in conjunction with clinical history are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of FNAs of secondary pancreatic tumors. PMID:24554612

  16. Cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test identified perilymph leakage preoperatively in revision stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yuko; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Yuen, Koji; Maeda, Yukihide; Sugaya, Akiko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as an abnormal leakage between perilymph from the labyrinth to the middle ear. Symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The standard mode of PLF detection is intraoperative visualization of perilymph leakage and fistula, which ostensibly confirms the existence of PLF. Other possible methods of diagnosis include confirmation of pneumolabyrinth via diagnostic imaging. Recently, a cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test has been developed that allows definitive diagnosis of PLF-related hearing loss. We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with right-sided tinnitus, hearing loss, and dizziness 30 years after stapes surgery. Middle ear lavage was performed after myringotomy. A preoperative diagnosis of PLF was reached using the CTP detection test. Intraoperative observations included a necrotic long process of the incus, displaced wire piston, and fibrous tissue in the oval window. Perilymph leakage was not evident. The oval window was closed with fascia, and vertigo disappeared within 2 weeks postoperatively. When PLF is suspected after stapes surgery, the CTP detection test can be a useful, highly sensitive, and less invasive method for preoperative diagnosis. PMID:23084787

  17. Preoperative evaluation for tracheoesophageal voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Gress, Carla DeLassus

    2004-06-01

    Systematic preoperative assessment by the surgeon and speech pathologist reduces complications and increases the success rates of tracheoesophageal (TE) voice restoration by identifying unsuitable candidates for the procedure. Preselection criteria are based on the various medical, psychologic, structural, and physiologic factors that are contraindications to the procedure or are associated with failure of the TE method. Predictive testing as part of the preoperative evaluation for secondary voice restoration can identify patients with structural or physiologic abnormalities that will hinder the development of satisfactory TE speech. Early recognition and management of potential obstacles to TE voice production will shorten the recovery time to achieve functional communication,and allow more laryngectomees to benefit from the TE voice restoration method of alaryngeal communication. PMID:15163598

  18. JOP. J. Pancreas (Online) 2001; 2(4 Suppl):229-236. JOP. Journal of the Pancreas http://www.joplink.net Vol.2, No.4 Suppl. July 2001 229

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    JOP. J. Pancreas (Online) 2001; 2(4 Suppl):229-236. JOP. Journal of the Pancreas ­ http) and glycolipids (asialo-GM1, proposed to be an important bacterial binding site on the #12;JOP. J. Pancreas (Online) 2001; 2(4 Suppl):229-236. JOP. Journal of the Pancreas ­ http://www.joplink.net ­ Vol.2, No.4

  19. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Diagnosis of a scabies infestation usually is made based ... and the presence of burrows. Whenever possible, the diagnosis of scabies should be confirmed by identifying the ...

  20. Induction Gemcitabine and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Nonmetastatic Pancreas Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Anand; Miksad, Rebecca; Goldstein, Michael; Sullivan, Ryan; Bullock, Andrea; Buchbinder, Elizabeth; Pleskow, Douglas; Sawhney, Mandeep; Kent, Tara; Vollmer, Charles; Callery, Mark

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used successfully to treat patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer. However, many patients develop metastatic disease soon after diagnosis and may receive little benefit from such therapy. We therefore retrospectively analyzed a planned strategy of initial chemotherapy with restaging and then treatment for those patients with no evidence of metastatic progression with SBRT. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients received gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m{sup 2} per week for 3 weeks then 1 week off) until tolerance, at least six cycles, or progression. Patients without metastases after two cycles were treated with SBRT (tolerance-based dose of 24-36 Gy in 3 fractions) between the third and fourth cycles without interrupting the chemotherapy cycles. Results: Eight of the 47 patients (17%) were found to have metastatic disease after two cycles of gemcitabine; the remaining 39 patients received SBRT. The median follow-up for survivors was 21 months (range, 6-36 months). The median overall survival for all patients who received SBRT was 20 months, and the median progression-free survival was 15 months. The local control rate was 85% (33 of 39 patients); and 54% of patients (21 of 39) developed metastases. Late Grade III toxicities such as GI bleeding and obstruction were observed in 9% (3/39) of patients. Conclusion: For patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer, this strategy uses local therapy for those who are most likely to benefit from it and spares those patients with early metastatic progression from treatment. SBRT delivers such local therapy safely with minimal interruption to systemic chemotherapy, thereby potentially improving the outcome in these patients.

  1. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. This suggests that preoperative biliary drainage should be avoided whenever possible in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Such a change in current preoperative management may improve patient outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:10450725

  2. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms. PMID:25468799

  3. Implication of epigenetics in pancreas development and disease.

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Evans; Haumaitre, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    Pancreas development is controlled by a complex interaction of signaling pathways and transcription factor networks that determine pancreatic specification and differentiation of exocrine and endocrine cells. Epigenetics adds a new layer of gene regulation. DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs recently appeared as important epigenetic factors regulating pancreas development. In this review, we report recent findings obtained by analyses in model organisms as well as genome-wide approaches that demonstrate the role of these epigenetic regulators in the control of exocrine and endocrine cell differentiation, identity, function, proliferation and regeneration. We also highlight how altered epigenetic processes contribute to pancreatic disorders: diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Uncovering these epigenetic events can help to better understand these diseases, provide novel therapeutical targets for their treatment, and improve cell-based therapies for diabetes. PMID:26696517

  4. RB regulates pancreas development by stabilizing Pdx1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, So Yoon; Mellado-Gil, Jose Manuel; Yadav, Hariom; Neidermyer, William; Kamaraju, Anil K; Rane, Sushil G

    2011-01-01

    RB is a key substrate of Cdks and an important regulator of the mammalian cell cycle. RB either represses E2Fs that promote cell proliferation or enhances the activity of cell-specific factors that promote differentiation, although the mechanism that facilitates this dual interaction is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RB associates with and stabilizes pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx-1) that is essential for embryonic pancreas development and adult ?-cell function. Interestingly, Pdx-1 utilizes a conserved RB-interaction motif (RIM) that is also present in E2Fs. Point mutations within the RIM reduce RB–Pdx-1 complex formation, destabilize Pdx-1 and promote its proteasomal degradation. Glucose regulates RB and Pdx-1 levels, RB/Pdx-1 complex formation and Pdx-1 degradation. RB occupies the promoters of ?-cell-specific genes, and knockdown of RB results in reduced expression of Pdx-1 and its target genes. Further, RB-deficiency in vivo results in reduced pancreas size due to decreased proliferation of Pdx-1+ pancreatic progenitors, increased apoptosis and aberrant expression of regulators of pancreatic development. These results demonstrate an unanticipated regulatory mechanism for pancreatic development and ?-cell function, which involves RB-mediated stabilization of the pancreas-specific transcription factor Pdx-1. PMID:21399612

  5. What is artificial endocrine pancreas? Mechanism and history

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Kenro; Shimoda, Seiya; Ichinose, Kenshi; Araki, Eiichi; Shichiri, Motoaki

    2009-01-01

    The artificial endocrine pancreas is a feedback control instrument that regulates insulin delivery on a minute-by-minute basis according to measured blood glucose levels. Only one type of bedside-type artificial endocrine pancreas is now available in Japan: STG-22 (Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Japan). In the insulin infusion algorithm, insulin is infused on the basis of its proportional and derivative actions, to blood glucose concentrations with a constant time delay. The bedside-type artificial endocrine pancreas has been proven to be useful not only as a therapeutic tool for diabetes mellitus, but also as an elegant research tool for investigating the pathophysiology of the disease, by using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique. The wearable type of closed-loop system has been developed recently. The breakthrough is the establishment of a needle-type glucose sensor. The development of closed-loop glycemic control systems that enable long-term physiological regulation has focused on implantable devices. Much effort has been expended to realize these devices. PMID:19725141

  6. Designing an artificial pancreas architecture: the AP@home experience.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    The latest achievements in sensor technologies for blood glucose level monitoring, pump miniaturization for insulin delivery, and the availability of portable computing devices are paving the way toward the artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes patients. This device encompasses a controller unit that oversees the administration of insulin micro-boluses and continuously drives the pump based on blood glucose readings acquired in real time. In order to foster the research on the artificial pancreas and prepare for its adoption as a therapy, the European Union in 2010 funded the AP@home project, following a series of efforts already ongoing in the USA. This paper, authored by members of the AP@home consortium, reports on the technical issues concerning the design and implementation of an architecture supporting the exploitation of an artificial pancreas platform. First a PC-based platform was developed by the authors to prove the effectiveness and reliability of the algorithms responsible for insulin administration. A mobile-based one was then adopted to improve the comfort for the patients. Both platforms were tested on real patients, and a description of the goals, the achievements, and the major shortcomings that emerged during those trials is also reported in the paper. PMID:25430423

  7. Pancreas retransplantation: ideal timing and early and late results.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, C V; Maione, G; Rossetti, O; Aseni, P; Soldano, S; De Roberto, A; Civati, G

    2006-05-01

    Surgical complications are the leading cause of pancreatic graft loss among diabetic patients who undergo pancreas transplantation alone (PTA), or combined with kidney transplantations (PK) or after kidney transplantations (PAK). Therapeutic effects on secondary complications of diabetes justify pancreas retransplantation (re-PT) when the first graft is lost. However, the appropriate timing for retransplant and related problems is not known. We present our initial experience on re-PT performed on seven diabetic patients who lost their first pancreas grafts (PK) due to surgical complications (venous thrombosis in five and enteric fistula in two). Five re-PT were performed a few days after the first PT without a second course of induction therapy, while two patients received re-PT some months later with reinduction therapy. In the early re-PT group, one patient died some hours after the second surgical procedure due to pulmonary embolism, while four patients lost their second grafts due to accelerated rejection within 2 years from re-PT. In the late re-PT group, both patients have good graft function without signs of rejection. Our initial experience showed discouraging results in the group of early re-PT, due to accelerated rejection episodes leading to a high incidence of graft loss. Late re-PT accompanied by reinduction therapy seemed to have better results. PMID:16757292

  8. Adenoma of the minor papilla associated with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tajiri, Takashi; Uchida, Eiji; Aimoto, Takayuki; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Katsuno, Akira; Cho, Kazumitsu; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    Tumors of the minor papilla of the duodenum are quite rare. We report the first documented case of an adenoma of the minor papilla complicating pancreas divisum. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an asymptomatic duodenal tumor detected by computed tomography scan. Endoscopy showed an 18-mm, whitish-colored, sessile mass located in the descending duodenum proximal to a normal appearing major papilla. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed divisum of the pancreas with dilatation of pancreatic duct ranged in the dorsal pancreas. Transduodenal minor papillectomy was performed because there is malignant potential of the tumor and the possibility of acute pancreatitis. The Santorini orifice was then re-approximated to the duodenal wall for protection against acute pancreatitis caused by scarring and stenosis of the duct orifice as a possible late complication. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and she has been asymptomatic without evidence of tumor recurrence or stenosis of the Santorini orifice on endoscopic examination for the last 4 years. PMID:18019730

  9. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  10. Preoperative Evaluation and Indications for Pulmonary Metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Erhunmwunsee, Loretta; Tong, Betty C

    2016-02-01

    Most patients with pulmonary metastases will not be candidates for pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative evaluation determines whether a patient is both fit enough for surgery and has disease that is actually resectable. Both components are necessary for patients who undergo resection with curative intent. In general, to be considered for pulmonary metastasectomy, patients must fit the following criteria: the primary disease site and any extrathoracic disease are both controlled; complete resection of pulmonary involvement is achievable with adequate pulmonary reserve; and there are no effective medical therapies. PMID:26611505

  11. Evaluation of a Preoperative Clinic for Women With Gynecologic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Chia, Yen Y; Eng, Chui L; Lim, Yong K; Yam, Kwai L; Tan, Soh C; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    2015-12-01

    Although many patients with gynecologic cancer undergo surgery, time constraints during the preoperative consultation may affect the accuracy of the information exchange, as well as compromise the quality of the patient assessment and care plan. Both put patients at a higher risk for complications during surgery and the postoperative period. This article describes an advanced practice RN-led preoperative assessment and education clinic designed to improve the quality of preoperative preparation and postoperative outcomes of patients with gynecologic cancer. PMID:26583642

  12. Preoperative carbohydrate nutrition reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to preoperative fasting

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Neslihan; Çekmen, Nedim; Bilgin, Ferruh; Erten, Ela; Özhan, Mehmet Özhan; Co?ar, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate drink 400 mL given 2 h before the surgery with preoperative overnight fasting on the gastric pH and residual volume, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and antiemetic consumption in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials And Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Randomized, prospective, controlled study, Gulhane Medical Faculty and Guven Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Pre-operative carbohydrate drink group (group C, n = 20) and preoperative fasting group (group F, n = 20). Group C was given a 400 mL carbohydrate drink 2 h before to the surgery. The patients of group F were fasted 8 h before the surgery. Both groups were operated under general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics. Results: Hemodynamic parameters, demographic data, gastric acidity and residual volumes were similar for both groups. No complications were observed. PONV and antiemetic consumption was lower in group C compared to group F (P = 0.001). Patient's satisfaction was higher in group C (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that pre-operative carbohydrate drink may be used safely and also improves patient's satisfaction and comfort in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24497851

  13. [Preoperative evaluation of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer with a virtual three-dimensional multi-imaging].

    PubMed

    Takemasa, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative palpation around the target organs and an overview of the operative field are difficult to achieve in laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the target organs and the neighboring structures along with a precise preoperative diagnosis is essential in individual cases for completion of an appropriate laparoscopic procedure. A routine virtual three-dimensional multi-imaging integrating PET/MDCT, CT colonography and CT angiography is useful for a precise diagnosis. Local anatomy and patient's features directly affect surgical outcome, especially in the laparoscopic surgery for the rectal cancer. CT pelvimetry is useful for a preoperative prediction of the difficulties of the laparoscopic surgery. These data should be taken into account when planning this procedure. PMID:24597352

  14. Glomus Tumors: A Review of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Satellite Lesions.

    PubMed

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Glomus tumors are malformations of the neuromyoarterial system that commonly develop in the digits and cause exquisite tenderness, especially with cold temperatures. Treatment typically involves surgical excision, although there is a tendency to avoid aggressive resections, which may lead to aesthetically displeasing nail plate deformities. In a minority of patients, symptoms may persist and the tumor may recur. The etiology of the persistent of symptoms is debatable. One theory for the persistence of symptoms is an incomplete initial excision of the glomus tumor. Another theory suggests that clinically unapparent satellite lesions exist at the time of diagnosis that are not excised, and they later mature into symptomatic recurrent tumors. Although not clinically visible, if present, these satellite lesions should be seen on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The authors reviewed all cases of pathology-confirmed glomus tumors in the past 7 years at a single institution in which preoperative magnetic resonance imaging using a high-powered 3.0 Tesla (General Electric, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) magnet was performed. Six cases met inclusion criteria and only 1 case developed a recurrent glomus tumor. None of the cases were found to have satellite lesions associated with the primary glomus tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. Preventing recurrence seems to be dependent on the completeness of the initial excision. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable tool used to delineate the extent of the tumor for surgical planning. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(10):e888-e890.]. PMID:26488783

  15. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... anthrax. The only ways to confirm an Anthrax diagnosis are: To measure antibodies or toxin in blood ...

  16. Dermatomyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Partners in Progress Search form Search Dermatomyositis (DM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. In DM, the ...

  17. Polymyositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Partners in Progress Search form Search Polymyositis (PM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. In PM, the ...

  18. Identification of transcripts with enriched expression in the developing and adult pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Brad G; Zavaglia, Bogard; Witzsche, Joy; Ruiz de Algara, Teresa; Beach, Mike; Hoodless, Pamela A; Jones, Steven JM; Marra, Marco A; Helgason, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances, the transcriptional hierarchy driving pancreas organogenesis remains largely unknown, in part due to the paucity of comprehensive analyses. To address this deficit we generated ten SAGE libraries from the developing murine pancreas spanning Theiler stages 17-26, making use of available Pdx1 enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and Neurog3 EGFP reporter strains, as well as tissue from adult islets and ducts. Results We used a specificity metric to identify 2,536 tags with pancreas-enriched expression compared to 195 other mouse SAGE libraries. We subsequently grouped co-expressed transcripts with differential expression during pancreas development using K-means clustering. We validated the clusters first using quantitative real time PCR and then by analyzing the Theiler stage 22 pancreas in situ hybridization staining patterns of over 600 of the identified genes using the GenePaint database. These were then categorized into one of the five expression domains within the developing pancreas. Based on these results we identified a cascade of transcriptional regulators expressed in the endocrine pancreas lineage and, from this, we developed a predictive regulatory network describing beta-cell development. Conclusion Taken together, this work provides evidence that the SAGE libraries generated here are a valuable resource for continuing to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating pancreas development. Furthermore, our studies provide a comprehensive analysis of pancreas development, and insights into the regulatory networks driving this process are revealed. PMID:18554416

  19. [Application of a preoperative evaluation model in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, C; Risso, J; Khoury, M; Torn, A; Noel, M; Baredes, N; Mariscal, C; Rosenbaum, G; Nallar, M; Sarotto, L; Ferraina, P

    2000-01-01

    We used a preoperative evaluation model based on the clinical history in order to determine the clinical characteristics of the patients. We also estimated the prevalence of asymptomatic disease in ASA1 patients and described the frequency of diagnosis that motivated suspension of the surgery during the preoperative time. Another purpose was to establish the perioperative complications according to the risk index and to detect the medical reasons for suspension of surgery during hospitalization. A total of 777 patients having an indication of surgery were evaluated in this program. Only 507 completed the preoperative evaluation. Of these, 57.79%, had at least one known disease or were diagnosed by their clinical history. Preoperative tests were indicated according to age in ASA1 patients. Complementary studies were indicated in relationship to the history and physical examination in ASA2 and ASA3 patients. After the evaluation, 27 surgeries were suspended: 21 were considered high risk, 2 suffered unknown active infections, and 4 ASA1 patients had severe asymptomatic anemia. A total of 328 patients were admitted for surgery. In 5 of these patients the anesthesiologist stopped the procedure in the operating room. The causes were acute decompensations of known pathologies. There were no complications or deaths related to unknown diseases and no patients died from cardiopulmonary or metabolic complications. In ASA1 patients, there were no complications related to this evaluation. This study allowed us to determine the clinical status of the patients and in consequence high-risk surgeries were canceled. In admitted patients a few surgeries were canceled for clinical reasons. This program probably decreased patient morbimortality, unnecessary hospitalization and costs. PMID:10835709

  20. Prevention and Intervention Strategies to Alleviate Preoperative Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristi D.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Finley, G. Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been…

  1. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Naheed

    2015-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only when combined with other respiratory muscle exercises. Volume-based inspiratory devices have the best results. Pharmacotherapy of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be optimised before considering the patient for elective surgery. Beta 2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and systemic corticosteroids, are the main drugs used for this and several drugs play an adjunctive role in medical therapy. A graded approach has been suggested to manage these patients for elective surgery with an aim to achieve optimal pulmonary function. PMID:26556913

  2. Pancoast tumors: characteristics and preoperative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasilios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Hatzimichalis, Antonios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kesisis, Georgios; Siminelakis, Stavros; Madesis, Athanasios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumors (SSTs), or as otherwise known Pancoast tumors, make up a clinically unique and challenging subset of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). Although the outcome of patients with this disease has traditionally been poor, recent developments have contributed to a significant improvement in prognosis of SST patients. The combination of severe and unrelenting shoulder and arm pain along the distribution of the eighth cervical and first and second thoracic nerve trunks, Horner’s syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis) and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles comprises a clinical entity named as “Pancoast-Tobias syndrome”. Apart NSCLC, other lesions may, although less frequently, result in Pancoast syndrome. In the current review we will present the main characteristics of the disease and focus on the preoperative assessment. PMID:24672686

  3. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  4. From endoderm formation to liver and pancreas development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ober, Elke A; Field, Holly A; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have contributed to our understanding of early endoderm formation in vertebrates. Specifically, they have illustrated the importance of Nodal signaling as well as three transcription factors, Faust/Gata5, Bonnie and Clyde, and Casanova, in this process. Ongoing genetic and embryological studies in zebrafish are also contributing to our understanding of later aspects of endoderm development, including the formation of the gut and its associated organs, the liver and pancreas. The generation of transgenic lines expressing GFP in these organs promises to be particularly helpful in such studies. PMID:12490292

  5. The Human Pancreas Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects. PMID:25546435

  6. Preoperative predictive factors for parathyroid carcinoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yenna; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Young Joo; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Do Jun; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Sang Wan

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the clinical characteristics of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and to evaluate potential preoperative predictive factors for PC in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We performed a retrospective review of electronic medical records of 194 patients with pathologically confirmed PHPT in affiliated teaching hospitals of Seoul National University from January 2000 to March 2011. Adenoma was diagnosed in 171 patients, hyperplasia in 12, and carcinoma in 11. Several biochemical measurements were higher in patients with PC than in patients with benign disease, including serum total calcium (P < 0.001), intact parathyroid hormone (P = 0.003), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P < 0.001). Tumors were larger in PC than in benign disease (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum ALP level (P < 0.001) and tumor size were associated with PC (P = 0.03). Tumor size and serum ALP level were evaluated as preoperative predictive factors for PC using ROC analyses: a tumor size of 3.0 cm (sensitivity 90.9%, specificity 92.1%) and serum ALP level of 285 IU/L (83.3%, 97.0%) had predictive value for the diagnosis of PC in patients with PHPT. In conclusion, elevated serum ALP and a large parathyroid mass at the time of diagnosis can be helpful to predict PC in patients with PHPT. PMID:22876055

  7. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm with expansile invasive carcinoma of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Ayako; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kodama, Yuzo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Adachi, Souichi; Haga, Hironori

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the pancreas, a novel entity included in the World Health Organization 2010 classification, accounts for <1% of all pancreatic exocrine neoplasms and the number of reported cases is limited in the English literature. Herein we describe the cytologic features of ITPN with invasive carcinoma showing expansile growth on endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology. A 74-year-old male patient is presented with a 6.2 cm irregular mass in the head of the pancreas. Microscopic examination of EUS-FNA material showed abundant branching clusters of cells, with some scattered discohesive cells. High power magnification revealed tubular and cribriform patterns with central lumina, containing mucinous or proteinaceous secretions. The constituent cells were relatively uniform and showed mild to intermediate nuclear atypia. Intracytoplasmic mucin was not identified. On cell-block preparation, luminal spaces of clusters contained wispy luminal mucin. Immunohistochemically, constituent cells were positive for MUC1 and MUC6, and were negative for MUC5AC. The large cribriform and tubular clusters with luminal spaces containing wispy mucin were considered to be diagnostic clues for the cytologic diagnosis of ITPN by EUS-FNA. MUC1, MUC6, and MUC5AC immunohistochemistry for cell-block preparation appears to be a useful adjunctive tool to confirm the diagnosis. On EUS-FNA, ITPN should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion showing good circumscription. PMID:24339429

  8. [CT diagnosis of soft tissue injuries in habitual shoulder dislocation].

    PubMed

    Kramps, H A; Lingg, G; Laumann, U

    1985-12-01

    Computed tomography can demonstrate most glenohumeral structures accurately. If the articular cavitz is filled with air, CT ist the method of choice in preoperative diagnosis to determine the capsular extension and to assess the destruction of the glenoid bone rim and glenoid labrum. PMID:4075704

  9. [Differential sonographic and computer tomographic diagnosis of angiomyolipoma].

    PubMed

    Klumair, J; Walcher, G

    1985-06-01

    3 angiomyolipomas were found in 8,500 CT examinations of the abdomen. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by both computed tomography and sonography. The densitometrically negative density values that are considered to be principal signs in computed tomography, must however be refuted by us. In all cases under investigation we found density values above 40 HU. PMID:3893852

  10. Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking carcinoma of the head of the pancreas: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We report on a case of autoimmune pancreatitis presenting as pancreatic head cancer, which is extremely rare in Iran. Currently, on the PubMed database, no such cases exist. Case presentation A 70-year-old Iranian man presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice and elevated bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a heterogeneous presence in the pancreatic head as well as dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. A common bile duct stent had been inserted. Our patient was subsequently diagnosed with pancreatic head cancer. Due to his continued recurrent abdominal pain, our patient returned to the hospital. His levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and tumor markers were all normal but his immunoglobulin G4 and antinuclear antibodies were extremely high. A biopsy of the pancreatic head heterogeneity by endoscopic ultrasonography was performed. Pathologic samples showed fibrosis associated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis was confirmed, the bile duct stent removed, and an appropriate treatment plan was undertaken. Conclusion Autoimmune pancreatitis should be considered in suspected cases of pancreatic cancer. In these instances, a biopsy of the pancreas will help to differentiate between the two and prevent complications due to disease progression as well as unnecessary surgery. PMID:22236871

  11. Acute graft-versus-host disease following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Asari, Sadaki; Matsumoto, Ippei; Toyama, Hirochika; Shinzeki, Makoto; Goto, Tadahiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Shirakawa, Sachiyo; Yamashita, Hironori; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2015-12-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a rare complication in the setting of pancreas-kidney transplantation (PKT). We herein describe the case of a 37-year-old male with severe type 1 diabetes with chronic renal failure who received simultaneous PKT from a female donor. Diarrhea developed on postoperative day (POD) 10. Subsequently, fever and liver dysfunction occurred on POD 32. Skin rashes appeared with pain and itching on his trunk and extremities on POD 40. As pancytopenia occurred on POD 63, bone marrow biopsies demonstrated profound hypoplastic marrow. On POD 69, we eventually made a definitive diagnosis of aGVHD because skin biopsies revealed the XX chromosome signal in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Thereafter, 100 mg of prednisolone was administered for 5 days. Although every symptom was temporarily improved, on POD 156, the patient expired from the septic pneumonia without any effects of antibiotics. Clinician should be aware that PKT has the potential to induce aGVHD. PMID:25373363

  12. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki )

    1988-04-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

  13. Role of Connexins and Pannexins in the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cigliola, Valentina; Allagnat, Florent; Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Lamprianou, Smaragda; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    The pancreas produces enzymes with a digestive function and hormones with a metabolic function, which are produced by distinct cell types of acini and islets, respectively. Within these units, secretory cells coordinate their functioning by exchanging information via signals that flow in the intercellular spaces and are generated either at distance (several neural and hormonal inputs) or nearby the pancreatic cells themselves (inputs mediated by membrane ionic-specific channels and by ionic- and metabolite-permeant pannexin channels and connexin "hemichannels"). Pancreatic secretory cells further interact via the extracellular matrix of the pancreas (inputs mediated by integrins) and directly with neighboring cells, by mechanisms that do not require extracellular mediators (inputs mediated by gap and tight junction channels). Here, we review the expression and function of the connexins and pannexins that are expressed by the main secretory cells of the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Available data show that the patterns of expression of these proteins differ in acini and islets, supporting distinct functions in the physiological secretion of pancreatic enzymes and hormones. Circumstantial evidence further suggests that alterations in the signaling provided by these proteins are involved in pancreatic diseases. PMID:26465951

  14. Acid-base transport in pancreas—new challenges

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian A.; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+) and base (HCO?3) transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO?3 and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl? channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, and cancer. PMID:24391597

  15. Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Lopes, Camila; Velloso, Fernando J.; Campopiano, Julia C.; Sogayar, Mari C.; Correa, Ricardo G.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas plays a central role in metabolism, allowing ingested food to be converted and used as fuel by the cells throughout the body. On the other hand, the pancreas may be affected by devastating diseases, such as pancreatitis, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC), and diabetes mellitus (DM), which generally results in a wide metabolic imbalance. The causes for the development and progression of these diseases are still controversial; therefore it is essential to better understand the underlying mechanisms which compromise the pancreatic homeostasis. The interest in the study of the commensal microbiome increased extensively in recent years, when many discoveries have illustrated its central role in both human physiology and maintenance of homeostasis. Further understanding of the involvement of the microbiome during the development of pathological conditions is critical for the improvement of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the present review, we discuss recent findings on the behavior and functions played by the microbiota in major pancreatic diseases and provide further insights into its potential roles in the maintenance of pancreatic steady-state activities. PMID:26347203

  16. Preoperative pain treatment in acute abdomen in Osogbo, Nigeria: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Withholding analgesics in acute abdomen for fear of masking clinical features and impairing diagnosis and decision-making is still being practiced despite recent evidence to the contrary. This study assesses the effect of preoperative analgesia on clinical findings, clinical diagnosis, and decision-making in patients with non-trauma acute abdomen. Method This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using Tramal, a brand of tramadol, at the ED of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, Nigeria. Ninety-five patients between 18–60 years received Tramal (n?=?46) or placebo (n?=?49). The pain score, clinical findings, provisional diagnosis, and treatment plan were noted before and 15–20 min after administration of the analgesic or placebo. The final diagnosis arrived at after adequate investigation or operation was considered the gold standard. The pain scores, diagnosis, treatment plan, and decision between the two groups were compared. Statistical analysis was by SPSS 16. Results were considered statistically significant at p?diagnosis after use of Tramal (p?=?0.01). There were more changes in the decision in the Tramal group (p?=?0.03). Most of the changes in diagnosis and decision in the Tramal group were for the better. Conclusion The preoperative use of Tramal in acute abdomen improved the experience of pain and did not adversely affect the accuracy of the diagnosis or decision-making. PMID:23343476

  17. Imaging of the pancreas using dynamic positron emission tomography with N-13 ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, N.; Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Adachi, H.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-05-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new imaging technique of the pancreas. Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 3 normal volunteers, 9 patient without the evidence of pancreatic diseases, 2 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head and one patient with islet cell carcinoma. Immediately after the intravenous injection of 10-20mCi of N-13 ammonia, data were obtained every 150 seconds for 30 minutes using a multi-slice whole-body PET scanner. In two cases of adenocarcinoma, the pancreas was not imaged, probably because the nontumorous portion of the pancreas was also suffered from severe pancreatitis due to the duct obstruction at the pancreatic head. In the case with islet cell carcinoma, the radionuclide was accumulated in the tumor and pancreas similarly. Thus, both of them were visualized but not separated. The central necrosis of the tumor showed poor radioactivity. The mechanism of the radionuclide accumulation in the pancreas is not well understood. However, the authors also studied the biodistribution of N-13 ammonia in mice and confirmed that there is an early and high accumulation of the radionuclide in the murine pancreas. These preliminary results of this paper suggest that the dynamic PET study may be useful for the imaging of the pancreas as well as for the further study of the blood supply and metabolism of the pancreas.

  18. [Double kidney-total pancreas transplantation with bladder reimplantation. 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Eschwege, P; Benoit, G; Blanchet, P; Alexandre, L; Hesse, C; Zucman, D; Edouard, A; Decaux, A; Bensadoun, H; Andraud, F; Chanson, P; Bouchard, P; Jardin, A; Charpentier, B

    1996-02-01

    Twenty five double kidney-pancreas transplantations were performed according to the total pancreas transplantation technique with drainage of exocrine secretions into the bladder via a vesicoduodenostomy. 72% of kidney-pancreas grafts were functional at one year and 59% were functional at four years. The authors observed a slightly higher rejection rate (0.56 versus 0.34) and a higher incidence of urinary tract infection (60% versus 35%) following double pancreas and renal transplantation than after isolated renal transplantation. Complications were rare: two venous thromboses and two cases of urethritis requiring of rediversion of the duodenum into the intestine. These good results, comparable to those reported in the international registry, reflect the value of the pancreatic and renal transplantation technique using a total pancreas drained into the bladder. It would probably be preferable to transplant patients earlier, when chronic renal failure secondary to insulin-dependent diabetes induces end-stage renal failure and the need for haemodialysis. PMID:8624525

  19. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan . E-mail: dbsgzy@nus.edu.sg

    2006-05-15

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development.

  20. Adoption of Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer From 2000 to 2006: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Patterns-of-Care Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Raymond H.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Das, Prajnan; Hong, Theodore S.; Mamon, Harvey J.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The German rectal study determined that preoperative radiation therapy (RT) as a component of combined-modality therapy decreased local tumor recurrence, increased sphincter preservation, and decreased treatment toxicity compared with postoperative RT for rectal cancer. We evaluated the use of preoperative RT after the presentation of the landmark German rectal study results and examined the impact of tumor and sociodemographic factors on receiving preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: In total, 20,982 patients who underwent surgical resection for T3-T4 and/or node-positive rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 through 2006 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registries. We analyzed trends in preoperative RT use before and after publication of the findings from the German rectal study. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with receiving preoperative RT. Results: Among those treated with RT, the proportion of patients treated with preoperative RT increased from 33.3% in 2000 to 63.8% in 2006. After adjustment for age; gender; race/ethnicity; marital status; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; county-level education; T stage; N stage; tumor size; and tumor grade, there was a significant association between later year of diagnosis and an increase in preoperative RT use (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26/y increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.29). When we compared the years before and after publication of the German rectal study (2000-2003 vs. 2004-2006), patients were more likely to receive preoperative RT than postoperative RT in 2004-2006 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-2.59). On multivariate analysis, patients who were older, who were female, and who resided in counties with lower educational levels had significantly decreased odds of receiving preoperative RT. Conclusions: After the publication of the landmark German rectal study, there was widespread, rapid adoption of preoperative RT for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative RT may be underused in certain sociodemographic groups.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Gadofluorine P and Gd-DOTA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye Rim; Lee, Youkyung; Doble, Philip; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Kyong Soo; Choi, Seung Hong; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the performance of Gadofluorine P-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the diagnosis of diabetes in a streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rat model. METHODS: Fischer 344 rats were treated with STZ. Rats not treated with STZ served as controls. T1-weighted MRI was performed using a 3T scanner before and after the injection of Gd-DOTA or Gadofluorine P (6 diabetic rats, 5 controls). The normalized signal intensity (SI) and the enhancement ratio (ER) of the pancreas were measured at each time point, and the values were compared between the normal and diabetic rats using the Mann-Whitney test. In addition, the values were correlated with the mean islet number. Optimal cut-off values were calculated using a positive test based on receiver operating characteristics. Intrapancreatic Gd concentration after the injection of each contrast media was measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in a separate set of rats (4 diabetic rats, 4 controls for Gadofluorine P; 2, 2 for Gd-DOTA). RESULTS: The normalized SI and ER of the pancreas using Gd-DOTA were not significantly different between diabetic rats and controls. With Gadofluorine P, the values were significantly higher in the diabetic rats than in the control rats 30 min after injection (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve that differentiated diabetic rats from the control group was greater for Gadofluorine P than for Gd-DOTA (0.967 vs 0.667, P = 0.085). An increase in normalized SI 30 min after Gadofluorine P was correlated with a decrease in the mean number of islets (r2 = 0.510, P = 0.014). Intra-pancreatic Gd was higher in rats with Gadofluorine P injection than Gd-DOTA injection (Gadofluorine P vs Gd-DOTA, 7.37 vs 0.00, P < 0.01). A significant difference in the concentration of intrapancreatic Gd was observed between the control and diabetic animals that were sacrificed 30 min after Gadofluorine P injection (control vs diabetic, 3.25 ng/g vs 10.55 ng/g, P < 0.05) CONCLUSION: In this STZ-induced diabetes rat model, Gadofluorine P-enhanced MRI of the pancreas showed high accuracy in the diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:26019447

  2. [Pancreas transplantation: a survey on indications, surgical techniques, immunosuppression, complications and outcome].

    PubMed

    Drognitz, O; Hopt, U T

    2003-10-01

    Since its introduction in 1966, pancreas transplantation has undergone considerable progress. Refinements in surgical technique, better organ preservation solutions, and more potent immunosuppressive therapies have improved patient and graft-survival rates dramatically. Survival rates for patient and pancreas at 1 year approach 95 and 83 %, resp., for simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, and 97 and 78 %, resp., for pancreas alone. US pancreas graft and patient survival rates do not significantly differ from the results of the European centers. However, there is still a hesitant acceptance of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation in Germany. Combined pancreas-kidney transplantation is nowadays the treatment of choice in carefully selected patients with type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal failure. Many US centers even advocate combined transplantation in diabetic patients at a pre-uremic stage. Pancreas transplantation significantly improves quality of life and provides excellent long-term glycemic control which halts or even ameliorates secondary diabetic complications such as microangiopathy and neuropathy. In addition, there is increasing evidence that successful pancreas transplantation significantly prolongs patient survival mainly by a reduction of cardiovascular-related mortality. Current 10-year patient survival rate after SPK exceeds 70 %. For diabetics with end-stage renal disease there is no alternative treatment available with comparable live expectancy. However, morbidity and mortality after SPK is still higher than for kidney transplantation alone in the first year. Outcome of isolated pancreas transplantation is also improving but this technique is still restricted to non-uremic patients with severe diabetic complications or with brittle diabetes and severe impairment of quality of life. PMID:14628231

  3. An evaluation of echography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, G; Bolondi, L; Conti, M; Plicchi, G; Gullo, L; Caletti, G C; Labo, G

    1976-01-01

    In the present study an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of echography as a diagnostic tool has been made. A total of 52 patients (chronic pancreatitis (42); pancreatic cysts (three); and carcinoma of the pancreas (seven)) were studied and the results compared with those from other diagnostic techniques. In 65.7% of chronic pancreatitis patients, and in all cases of carcinoma of the pancreas, echography provided evidence of pancreatic abnormality but in no case could an unambiguous diagnosis of the disease be made. However, in all cases of pancreatic cyst, echography gave precise and unequivocal diagnostic information. There was good agreement between the echographic picture and surgical findings. Cholangiography and duodenography indicated duodenal and choledochal compression in a high proportion of cases in which echography revealed enlargement of the head of the pancreas. It is concluded that echography is a simple, safe, and valuable addition to the techniques available for studying the pancreas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1269992

  4. Computed Tomography Angiography for Preoperative Thoracoabdominal Flap Planning.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ryan B; Robinson, Tracy J; Kozlow, Jeffrey H; Liu, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Mastectomy rates have increased, coinciding with more advanced reconstruction options. Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps decrease abdominal donor site morbidity, but require considerable technical expertise. Preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) can accurately demonstrate DIEA anatomy and perforator courses, facilitating preoperative planning and flap design, allowing for more targeted intraoperative microdissection. Patients who undergo CTA before DIEP flap have better clinical outcomes with shorter operative times and hospital length of stay, which can decrease overall associated health care costs. Future directions include selected imaging of the thoracic anatomy and recipient vasculature, allowing for additional preoperative planning and customization. PMID:26654396

  5. Colony-forming cells in the adult mouse pancreas are expandable in Matrigel and form endocrine/acinar

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    Colony-forming cells in the adult mouse pancreas are expandable in Matrigel and form endocrine isolated from dissociated adult (2­4 mo old) murine pancreas. We find that a methylcellulose microfluidic expression analysis of single cells and colonies, should also advance study of pancreas

  6. Identification of differentially expressed mRNA during pancreas regeneration of rat by mRNA differential display

    E-print Network

    Park, Jong-Sang

    Identification of differentially expressed mRNA during pancreas regeneration of rat by m was used to isolate genes that show transcriptional changes in pancreas of rat after 90% partial pancreatectomy. Forty-nine candidate pancreas regeneration-associated transcripts were isolated. cDNA sequencing

  7. The Preoperative Patient With a Systolic Murmur

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with undifferentiated systolic murmurs present commonly during the perioperative period. Traditional bedside assessment and auscultation has not changed significantly in almost 200 years and relies on interpreting indirect acoustic events as a means of evaluating underlying cardiac pathology. This is notoriously inaccurate, even in expert cardiology hands, since many different valvular and cardiac diseases present with a similar auditory signal. Evidence Acquisition: The data on systolic murmurs, physical examination, perioperative valvular disease in the setting of non-cardiac surgery is reviewed. Results: Significant valvular heart disease increases perioperative risk in major non-cardiac surgery and increases long term patient morbidity and mortality. We propose a more modern approach to physical examination that incorporates the use of focused echocardiography to allow direct visualization of cardiac structure and function. This improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment, allows rational planning of surgery and anaesthesia technique, risk stratification, postoperative monitoring and appropriate referral to physicians and cardiologists. Conclusions: With a thorough preoperative assessment incorporating focused echocardiography, anaesthetists are in the unique position to enhance their role as perioperative physicians and influence short and long term outcomes of their patients. PMID:26705529

  8. Preoperative optimization of the vascular surgery patient

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Henry T; Purcell, Seth T; Bush, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that patients who suffer from peripheral (noncardiac) vascular disease often have coexisting atherosclerotic diseases of the heart. This may leave the patients susceptible to major adverse cardiac events, including death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and pulmonary edema, during the perioperative time period, in addition to the many other complications they may sustain as they undergo vascular surgery procedures, regardless of whether the procedure is performed as an open or endovascular modality. As these patients are at particularly high risk, up to 16% in published studies, for postoperative cardiac complications, many proposals and algorithms for perioperative optimization have been suggested and studied in the literature. Moreover, in patients with recent coronary stents, the risk of non-cardiac surgery on adverse cardiac events is incremental in the first 6 months following stent implantation. Just as postoperative management of patients is vital to the outcome of a patient, preoperative assessment and optimization may reduce, and possibly completely alleviate, the risks of major postoperative complications, as well as assist in the decision-making process regarding the appropriate surgical and anesthetic management. This review article addresses several tools and therapies that treating physicians may employ to medically optimize a patient before they undergo noncardiac vascular surgery. PMID:26170688

  9. Preoperative biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Heek, N T; Busch, O R; Van Gulik, T M; Gouma, D J

    2014-04-01

    This review is to summarize the current knowledge about preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer. Most patients with pancreatic carcinoma (85%) will present with obstructive jaundice. The presence of toxic substances as bilirubin and bile salts, impaired liver function and altered nutritional status due to obstructive jaundice have been characterized as factors for development of complications after surgery. Whereas PBD was to yield beneficial effects in the experimental setting, conflicting results have been observed in clinical studies. The meta-analysis from relative older studies as well as more importantly a recent clinical trial showed that PBD should not be performed routinely. PBD for patients with a distal biliary obstruction is leading to more serious complications compared with early surgery. Arguments for PBD have shifted from a potential therapeutic benefit towards a logistic problem such as patients suffering from cholangitis and severe jaundice at admission or patients who need extra diagnostic tests, or delay in surgery due to a referral pattern or waiting list for surgery as well as candidates for neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. If drainage is indicated in these patients it should be performed with a metal stent to reduce complications after the drainage procedure such as stent occlusion and cholangitis. Considering a change towards more neoadjuvant therapy regimes improvement of the quality of the biliary drainage concept is still important. PMID:24727874

  10. Preoperative cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lock-Andersen, J.; Rossing, N.; Drzewiecki, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the regional lymph node basins cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m rhenium sulfide colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-ReS) was performed in 45 patients and with technetium 99m antimony sulfide colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-Sb2S3) in seven patients after excisional biopsy of the primary tumor. All patients had skin tumors located in the face or neck or on the trunk with 47 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma and 5 cases of benign or premalignant lesions. In 48 patients the scintiscans 1 hour after perilesional injection of the tracer colloid clearly showed the lymphatic drainage patterns from the tumor sites, of them 25 patients demonstrated unidirectional drainage, whereas the remaining 23 patients had multidirectional drainage to two or three lymph node groups. There were technical difficulties in performing the examinations in four patients. The authors recommend cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy as a safe, simple and reliable technique for mapping the lymphatic drainage preoperatively in patients with Stage I cutaneous malignant melanoma of axial localization.

  11. Facultative Stem Cells in Liver and Pancreas: Fact and Fancy

    PubMed Central

    Yanger, Kilangsungla; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue turnover is a regular feature of higher eukaryotes, either as part of normal wear and tear (homeostasis) or in response to injury (regeneration). Cell replacement is achieved either through replication of existing cells or differentiation from a self-renewing pool of stem cells. The major distinction regards cellular potential, because stem cells by definition have a capacity to differentiate, while replication implies that cells adopt a single fate under physiologic conditions. A hybrid model, the facultative stem cell (FSC) model, posits that tissues contain cells that normally exhibit unipotency but have the capacity to function as stem cells upon injury. The FSC paradigm is well established in urodele amphibians, but the nature and role of FSCs in mammals is less defined. Here, we review the evidence for FSCs in two mammalian organs, the liver and the pancreas, and discuss alternative models that could account for regeneration in these organs. PMID:21312313

  12. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-04-15

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  13. Artificial three-dimensional niches deconstruct pancreas development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Manuel; Gobaa, Samy; Ranga, Adrian; Semb, Henrik; Lutolf, Matthias; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2013-11-01

    In the context of a cellular therapy for diabetes, methods for pancreatic progenitor expansion and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing beta cells would be extremely valuable. Here we establish three-dimensional culture conditions in Matrigel that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the medium composition we generate either hollow spheres, which are mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors, or complex organoids that spontaneously undergo pancreatic morphogenesis and differentiation. The in vitro maintenance and expansion of pancreatic progenitors require active Notch and FGF signaling, thus recapitulating in vivo niche signaling interactions. Our experiments reveal new aspects of pancreas development, such as a community effect by which small groups of cells better maintain progenitor properties and expand more efficiently than isolated cells, as well as the requirement for three-dimensionality. Finally, growth conditions in chemically defined biomaterials pave the way for testing the biophysical and biochemical properties of the niche that sustains pancreatic progenitors. PMID:24130330

  14. Glucagon in the artificial pancreas: supply and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The use of glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, in a dual chamber pump (artificial pancreas, AP) is a working goal for multiple companies and researchers. However, capital investment to create, operate, and maintain facilities with sufficient scale to produce enough glucagon to treat millions of patients, at a level of profit that makes it feasible, will be substantial. It can be assumed that the marketplace will expect the daily cost of glucagon (to the consumer) to be similar to the daily cost of insulin. After one subtracts wholesaler and pharmacy markup, there may be very few dollars remaining for the drug company to cover profit, capital expenditures, marketing, burden, and other costs. Without the potential for adequate margins, manufacturers may not be willing to take the risk. Assuming that the projections discussed in this article are in the right ballpark, advance planning for the supply for glucagon needs to start today and not wait for the AP to come to market. PMID:25139825

  15. Pathway to artificial pancreas systems revisited: moving downstream.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems, a long-sought quest to replicate mechanically islet physiology that is lost in diabetes, are reaching the clinic, and the potential of automating insulin delivery is about to be realized. Significant progress has been made, and the safety and feasibility of AP systems have been demonstrated in the clinical research center and more recently in outpatient "real-world" environments. An iterative road map to AP system development has guided AP research since 2009, but progress in the field indicates that it needs updating. While it is now clear that AP systems are technically feasible, it remains much less certain that they will be widely adopted by clinicians and patients. Ultimately, the true success of AP systems will be defined by successful integration into the diabetes health care system and by the ultimate metric: improved diabetes outcomes. PMID:25998296

  16. Endoscopic papillectomy of minor papillar adenoma associated with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Akira; Kumada, Takashi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Sone, Yasuhiro; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kawashima, Hiroki; Itoh, Akihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2009-03-01

    Tumors of the minor papilla of the duodenum are quite rare. We successfully and safely treated an 18-mm adenoma of the minor papilla associated with pancreas divisum using endoscopic papillectomy. A 64-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an asymptomatic mass in the minor papilla detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endscopic analysis showed an 18-mm, whitish, sessile mass, located in the duodenum proximal to a normal-appearing major papilla. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography did not reveal the pancreatic duct. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a lack of the ventral pancreatic duct. We suspected this case was associated with pancreatic divisum; therefore, we performed endoscopic papillectomy of the minor papilla tumor. Subsequently, endoscopic pancreatic stent placement in the minor papilla was done to prevent drainage disturbance. The patient has been asymptomatic without recurrence of tumor or stenosis of the Santorini orifice upon endoscopic examination for the past 2 years. PMID:19266610

  17. CLINICAL PROGRAMS OF STEM CELL THERAPIES FOR LIVER AND PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Lanzoni, Giacomo; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Wang, Yunfang; Cui, Cai-Bin; Carpino, Guido; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Gerber, David; Gabriel, Mara; Dominguez-Bendala, Juan; Furth, Mark E.; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico; Inverardi, Luca; Reid, Lola M.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is transitioning into clinical programs utilizing stem/progenitor cell therapies for repair of damaged organs. We summarize those for liver and pancreas, organs that share endodermal stem cell populations, biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs), located in peribiliary glands: they are precursors to hepatic stem/progenitors in canals of Hering and to committed progenitors in pancreatic duct glands. They give rise to maturational lineages along a radial axis within bile duct walls and a proximal-to-distal axis starting at the duodenum and ending with mature cells in the liver or pancreas. Clinical trials have been ongoing for years assessing effects of fetal-liver-derived hepatic stem/progenitors transplanted into the hepatic artery of patients with various liver diseases. Immunosuppression was not required. Control subjects, those given standard of care for a given condition, all died within a year or deteriorated in their liver functions. Subjects transplanted with 100–150 million hepatic stem/progenitor cells had improved liver functions and survival extending for several years. Full evaluations of safety and efficacy of transplants are still in progress. Determined stem cell therapies for diabetes utilizing hBTSCs remain to be explored but are likely to occur following ongoing preclinical studies. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are being used for patients with chronic liver conditions or with diabetes. MSCs have demonstrated significant effects through paracrine signaling of trophic and immune-modulatory factors, and there is limited evidence for inefficient lineage restriction into mature parenchymal or islet cells. HSCs’ effects are primarily via modulation of immune mechanisms. PMID:23873634

  18. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with /sup 125/I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes.

  19. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates.

    PubMed

    Dalgin, Gökhan; Prince, Victoria E

    2015-06-01

    During development a network of transcription factors functions to differentiate foregut cells into pancreatic endocrine cells. Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels. A fuller understanding of the details of endocrine cell differentiation may contribute to development of cell replacement therapies to treat diabetes. In this study, by using morpholino and gRNA/Cas9 mediated knockdown we establish that differential levels of the basic-helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurod are required for the differentiation of distinct endocrine cell types in developing zebrafish. While Neurod plays a role in the differentiation of all endocrine cells, we find that differentiation of glucagon-expressing alpha cells is disrupted by a minor reduction in Neurod levels, whereas differentiation of insulin-expressing beta cells is less sensitive to Neurod depletion. The endocrine cells that arise during embryonic stages to produce the primary islet, and those that arise subsequently during larval stages from the intra-pancreatic duct (IPD) to ultimately contribute to the secondary islets, show similar dependence on differential Neurod levels. Intriguingly, Neurod-deficiency triggers premature formation of endocrine precursors from the IPD during early larval stages. However, the Neurod-deficient endocrine precursors fail to differentiate appropriately, and the larvae are unable to maintain normal glucose levels. In summary, differential levels of Neurod are required to generate endocrine pancreas subtypes from precursors during both embryonic and larval stages, and Neurod function is in turn critical to endocrine function. PMID:25797153

  20. Correlation of genetic markers of rejection with biopsy findings following human pancreas transplant.

    PubMed

    Cashion, Ann; Sabek, Omaima; Driscoll, Carolyn; Gaber, Lillian; Kotb, Malak; Gaber, Osama

    2006-01-01

    Acute rejection after pancreas transplantation remains a significant problem and contributes to immunologic graft loss. No clinical markers of pancreas rejection have been universally accepted. Recent studies have identified several cytotoxic genes as possible markers of acute rejection in renal and islet cell transplant recipients. However, these markers of rejection have not been evaluated in pancreas transplant recipients. This study evaluated the differential expression of granzyme B, perforin, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRA in peripheral blood between patients with and without biopsy-proven pancreas rejection (n = 7 per group). Gene expression levels were analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. Expression of these genes in controls (n = 17) with and without type 1 diabetes was also analyzed. Patients with biopsy-proven pancreas rejection had higher levels of granzyme B, perforin, and HLA-DRA than patients who did not have rejection, although the difference was not statistically significant. Moreover, patients with biopsy-proven pancreas rejection had a significantly higher level of granzyme B than control subjects with type 1 diabetes (p pancreas allograft rejection. PMID:16556164

  1. From diagnosis to social diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil; Lyson, Mercedes; Jenkins, Tania

    2011-09-01

    In the past two decades, research on the sociology of diagnosis has attained considerable influence within medical sociology. Analyzing the process and factors that contribute to making a diagnosis amidst uncertainty and contestation, as well as the diagnostic encounter itself, are topics rich for sociological investigation. This paper provides a reformulation of the sociology of diagnosis by proposing the concept of 'social diagnosis' which helps us recognize the interplay between larger social structures and individual or community illness manifestations. By outlining a conceptual frame, exploring how social scientists, medical professionals and laypeople contribute to social diagnosis, and providing a case study of how the North American Mohawk Akwesasne reservation dealt with rising obesity prevalence to further illustrate the social diagnosis idea, we embark on developing a cohesive and updated framework for a sociology of diagnosis. This approach is useful not just for sociological research, but has direct implications for the fields of medicine and public health. Approaching diagnosis from this integrated perspective potentially provides a broader context for practitioners and researchers to understand extra-medical factors, which in turn has consequences for patient care and health outcomes. PMID:21705128

  2. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  3. Serous Microcystic Adenocarcinoma of Pancreas Infiltrating Into Spleen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Sathyalakshmi; Mishra, Nidhi; Adaikalam, Mary Lilly Susai; Venkatesan, Ramya

    2015-01-01

    Cystic tumours of pancreas account for 5-10% of all pancreatic neoplasms and serous tumours represent 1% among those tumours. Most of the serous tumours are benign and very rarely they infiltrate adjacent organs like liver and spleen. Herewith we present a rare case report of serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas in a 65-year-old woman. The tumour involved the body and tail of pancreas and contiguously invaded the spleen. The histopathology of tumour was similar to serous cystadenoma with mild nuclear hyperchromasia and atypia. The spleen showed tumour infiltration as microcysts diffusely infitrating the red pulp. PMID:26500911

  4. Serous Microcystic Adenocarcinoma of Pancreas Infiltrating Into Spleen: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kadhirvel, Valarmathi; Ramu, Sathyalakshmi; Mishra, Nidhi; Adaikalam, Mary Lilly Susai; Venkatesan, Ramya

    2015-09-01

    Cystic tumours of pancreas account for 5-10% of all pancreatic neoplasms and serous tumours represent 1% among those tumours. Most of the serous tumours are benign and very rarely they infiltrate adjacent organs like liver and spleen. Herewith we present a rare case report of serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas in a 65-year-old woman. The tumour involved the body and tail of pancreas and contiguously invaded the spleen. The histopathology of tumour was similar to serous cystadenoma with mild nuclear hyperchromasia and atypia. The spleen showed tumour infiltration as microcysts diffusely infitrating the red pulp. PMID:26500911

  5. Preoperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Thomas M

    2005-05-01

    Cardiovascular complications following noncardiac surgery constitute an enormous burden of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Annually, more than one million operations are complicated by adverse cardiovascular events, such as perioperative myocardial infarction or death from cardiac causes. In order to combat this problem, cardiac evaluation prior to noncardiac surgery should ask two questions about the patient: What is the risk of cardiac complications during and after surgery? How can that risk be reduced or eliminated? Risk assessment evaluates patients' co-morbidities and exercise tolerance, as well as the type of surgery to be performed, to determine the overall risk of perioperative cardiac complications. Previous or current cardiac disease, diabetes and renal insufficiency all confer higher risks for perioperative cardiac complications. Poor exercise tolerance and high-risk surgical procedures (e.g., vascular, prolonged thoracic or abdominal operations) also predict worse perioperative outcomes. Noninvasive stress testing is widely used to help predict risk of perioperative complications, but the poor predictive power of these tests hampers their usefulness. After estimating the risk of cardiac complications, one should take measures to reduce it. Beta blockade has shown clear benefits in risk reduction. At this time, there are no data suggesting benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting in reducing noncardiac surgical risk. In addition, angioplasty with stenting and its attendant need for anticoagulation can expose patients to increased risk of perioperative bleeding. Thus, the use of coronary revascularization prior to noncardiac surgery should be reserved for those patients with an independent cardiac need for the procedure, such as unstable angina or stable angina refractory to medical therapy. In summary, patients with low clinical risk factors and good functional status, undergoing a low or intermediate risk surgery, have an excellent prognosis and may proceed to surgery without further delay. In addition, stable patients who have previously undergone coronary revascularization may also safely undergo surgery. Patients requiring urgent surgery should proceed immediately, since the consequences of delay usually outweigh the benefits of preoperative risk assessment. However, elective surgery should be indefinitely deferred for those patients with unstable coronary syndromes, since consequences of the cardiac disease usually negate the benefits of surgery. Controversy involves the intermediate or high clinical risk patient considering high-risk, but elective, surgery. Noninvasive testing offers only limited assistance in estimating risk for these patients. The best risk reduction strategy for these patients is perioperative beta blockade use. The role of coronary revascularization specifically to reduce perioperative cardiac complications remains unproven. PMID:15915313

  6. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  7. Total dorsal pancreatectomy for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in a patient with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Talbot, M L; Foulis, A K; Imrie, C W

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm confined to the dorsal (Santorini) pancreatic duct. A 51-year-old woman presented with a cystic lesion in the head of her pancreas and pancreas divisum. A biopsy taken during cyst-enteric drainage revealed dysplastic epithelium so the patient was scheduled for resection. At operation, excision of the entire dorsal pancreas was performed with preservation of the unaffected ventral pancreas and the spleen and its vessels. Over 6 years later she remains well with stable weight and a good quality of life. This case illustrates the benefits of anatomical preservation in pancreatic resection, and was performed some years prior to the only other reported similar case. PMID:15855827

  8. Pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum: Imaging features at MRI and MRCP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deng-Bin; Yu, Jinxing; Fulcher, Ann S; Turner, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of pancreatitis with pancreas divisum (PD) and the differences vs pancreatitis without divisum. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained and the informed consent requirement was waived for this HIPAA-compliant study. During one year period, 1439 consecutive patients underwent successful MRCP without injection of secretin and abdominal MRI studies for a variety of clinical indications using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner. Two experienced radiologists retrospectively reviewed all the studies in consensus. Disputes were resolved via consultation with a third experienced radiologist. The assessment included presence and the imaging findings of PD, pancreatitis, and distribution of abnormalities. The pancreatitis with divisum constituted the study group while the pancreatitis without divisum served as the control group. MRCP and MRI findings were correlated with final diagnosis. Fisher exact tests and Pearson × 2 tests were performed. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was demonstrated at MRCP and MRI in 173 cases (38 cases with and 135 cases without divisum) among the 1439 consecutive cases. The recurrent acute pancreatitis accounted for 55.26% (21 of 38) in pancreatitis patients associated with PD, which was higher than 6.67% (9 of 135) in the control group, whereas the chronic pancreatitis was a dominant type in the control group (85.19%, 115 of 135) when compared to the study group (42.11%, 16 of 38) (?2 = 40.494, P < 0.0001). In cases of pancreatitis with PD, the dorsal pancreatitis accounted for a much higher percentage than that in pancreatitis without PD (17 of 38, 44.74% vs 30 of 135, 22.22%) (?2 = 7.257, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: MRCP and MRI can depict the features of pancreatitis associated with divisum. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and isolated dorsal involvement are more common in patients with divisum. PMID:23946595

  9. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga), was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in parallel by other microRNAs as well. This study may further the understanding of gene expression regulation in the human developing pancreas. PMID:20860821

  10. Lessons From Pancreas Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes: Recurrence of Islet Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Burke, George W; Vendrame, Francesco; Virdi, Sahil K; Ciancio, G; Chen, Linda; Ruiz, Phillip; Messinger, Shari; Reijonen, Helena K; Pugliese, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes recurrence (T1DR) affecting pancreas transplants was first reported in recipients of living-related pancreas grafts from twins or HLA identical siblings; given HLA identity, recipients received no or minimal immunosuppression. This observation provided critical evidence that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease. However, T1DR is traditionally considered very rare in immunosuppressed recipients of pancreas grafts from organ donors, representing the majority of recipients, and immunological graft failures are ascribed to chronic rejection. We have been performing simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplants for over 25 years and find that 6-8 % of our recipients develop T1DR, with symptoms usually becoming manifest on extended follow-up. T1DR is typically characterized by (1) variable degree of insulitis and loss of insulin staining, on pancreas transplant biopsy (with most often absent), minimal to moderate and rarely severe pancreas, and/or kidney transplant rejection; (2) the conversion of T1D-associated autoantibodies (to the autoantigens GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8), preceding hyperglycemia by a variable length of time; and (3) the presence of autoreactive T cells in the peripheral blood, pancreas transplant, and/or peripancreatic transplant lymph nodes. There is no therapeutic regimen that so far has controlled the progression of islet autoimmunity, even when additional immunosuppression was added to the ongoing chronic regimens; we hope that further studies and, in particular, in-depth analysis of pancreas transplant biopsies with recurrent diabetes will help identify more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:26547222

  11. Extramedullary Myeloid Tumor Involving the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Payda?, Semra; Özdo?u, Hakan; Günald?, Meral; Haksöyler, Veysel; Aç?kal?n, Arbil; Ergin, Melek

    2014-01-01

    Extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMTs) are the tumors of myeloid cells. These tumors may occur in all of the organs of the body, but some localizations are rare. Pancreatic involvement of EMMTs is a rare entity. Here we report a case of EMMT of the pancreas 4 years after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and we review the existing data about EMMTs involving the pancreas. PMID:25330524

  12. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to examine pilot mental models of the aircraft subsystems and their use in diagnosis tasks. Future research plans include piloted simulation evaluation of the diagnosis decision aiding concepts and crew interface issues. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  13. Endorectal ultrasound for control of preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, F; Kuntz, C; Schlag, P; Herfarth, C

    1993-01-01

    Endorectal ultrasound (EUS) is known to be a reliable method for preoperative staging of rectal tumors. In this study, EUS was used to select patients with rectal cancer suitable for preoperative radiation therapy. By performing EUS before and after radiation, the aim of the study was to evaluate the role of EUS in monitoring the effects of preoperative radiation therapy. In 17 patients with large T3 or T4 rectal tumors, a complete staging by EUS was done before and after radiation therapy. Beside a shrinkage of the tumor, there was a change of echopattern to more hyperechoic gray levels to be observed in the irradiated tumor. The rectal wall lost its normal architecture, and lymph nodes disappeared or changed their echopattern from echopoor to echorich. There was no down-staging of a tumor seen by EUS. Complete preoperative staging was correct in 13 of 17 patients because of endosonographic examination before and after preoperative radiation therapy. New interpretation criteria are given for evaluation of patients with rectal cancer treated by radiation therapy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8424703

  14. Preoperative therapy for localized prostate cancer: A comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jensen; Hsu, JoAnn; Bergerot, Paulo G.; Yuh, Bertram E.; Stein, Cy A.; Pal, Sumanta K.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, two studies of preoperative systemic therapy for localized prostate cancer garnered significant attention. In the first, investigators evaluated various permutations of conventional hormonal therapies prior to prostatectomy, with detailed biomarker studies focused on tissue androgens. In the second, investigators assessed the novel CYP17 lyase inhibitor abiraterone prior to prostatectomy. Both studies provide a wealth of biological information, but the question remains – will preoperative systemic therapy ultimately be incorporated into clinical algorithms for prostate cancer? Herein, the existing literature for both preoperative hormonal and chemotherapeutic approaches is reviewed. We performed a MEDLINE search of published prospective and retrospective clinical studies assessing preoperative systemic therapy for prostate cancer from 1982 onwards, revealing a total of 75 publications meeting these criteria. Of these, 55 possessed a number of patients (i.e., greater than 10) deemed worthy of the current analysis. Beyond outlining these datasets, we discuss the relevance of clinical and pathologic endpoints in assessing preoperative therapy. PMID:23158077

  15. Report of International Human Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Registry Cases through 1981.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, D E

    1982-08-01

    According to cases reported to the new International Human Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Registry, 190 pancreas transplants in 178 patients were performed worldwide between December 16, 1966, and December 31, 1981. Currently (March 1982), 19 patients have functioning pancreas grafts and are insulin-independent, 9 for more than 1 yr. All of the patients with currently functioning grafts were transplanted after 1977. Since 1970, 76 islet transplants have been attempted in 71 patients, of which almost all failed and no patients are currently insulin-independent. Although the technical problems with pancreas transplants are not entirely solved, the major cause of graft failure has been rejection. The need for antirejection therapy has limited the application of pancreas transplantation to diabetic renal allograft recipients or to nonuremic patients whose complications of diabetes are, or predictably will be, worse than the side effects of chronic immunosuppression. Pancreas transplantation can, however, be performed with expectation of long-term success in some patients with current surgical and immunosuppressive methods. PMID:6819961

  16. A case of annular pancreas accompanied with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-case report

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fu-Jian; Tian, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Liang; Fang, Xue-Dong; Cao, Hong; Jin, Hong-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by pancreatic tissues wrapping completely or incompletely around the descending duodenum. In most patients with annular pancreas, onset occurs in early childhood. Adults with annular pancreas are prone to duodenal ulcers and pancreatitis. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a type of papillary mucinous secretory epithelial tumor, which originates in the main pancreatic duct and/or branch duct. We report a case of annular pancreas accompanied with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Methods: A 52-year-old male patient hospitalized due to recurrent upper abdominal pain for one and a half years was enrolled in this study. Results: One case of annular pancreas accompanied with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm which manifested as recurrent chronic pancreatitis was found. After pancreaticoduodenectomy, the patient died from uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in China and the second case worldwide of annular pancreas accompanied with IPMN in English literature. PMID:26064223

  17. [Preoperative localization of insulinoma is necessary].

    PubMed

    Houlbert, D; Roche, A; Dorf, G; Gardies, A; Roche, D; Segrestaa, J M

    1984-01-01

    Many insulinomas because of their small size are not localized by routine investigations: abdominal ultrasound, angiography, computed tomography, nor at the step of laparotomy. Biological diagnosis is far more encouraging. Percutaneous transhepatic sampling of blood in the portal venous system is very predictable for adenoma localization. Absolute reliability of this method remains to be established, nevertheless the observance of some basic requirements are already known: withdrawal of any drug interfering with insulin release several days before performing the catheterism; need of a steady, preferably low, glucose level during the whole sampling; selective samples in tiny draining veins of the whole gland, and adequate radio-immunoassay. Transhepatic sampling can detect multiple localisations and diffuse hyperplasia but angiography alone is able to show hepatic metastasis and is helpful in giving the surgeon information on local vascularization. Confrontation of both angiography and transhepatic sampling gives the best criteria of localization. In case of discrepancy, transhepatic sampling seems to be more reliable. PMID:6322637

  18. Development of a tele-anesthesia preoperative clinic to support distant military treatment facilities for the European regional medical command.

    PubMed

    Turabi, Ali; Nessen, Shawn C; Boedeker, David; Boedeker, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) provides primary care services for more than 65,000 beneficiaries and specialty care and hospitalization for 245,000 U.S. Service Members and their Families serving in Europe. These personnel are located in Germany, Italy and Belgium (See Fig 1). Anesthesia preoperative diagnosis/work was done by telemedicine at the distant, end user site, and significant cost savings and enhanced patient service was accomplished. A novel use of existing technologies was implemented to enhance provider and patient satisfaction and create a sustainable, user friendly system. PMID:24732550

  19. Colon and pancreas tumors enhance coagulation: role of hemeoxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Nfonsam, Valentine N; Matika, Ryan W; Ong, Evan S; Jie, Tun; Warneke, James A; Steinbrenner, Evangelina B

    2014-07-01

    Colon and pancreatic cancer are associated with significant thrombophilia. Colon and pancreas tumor cells have an increase in hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, the endogenous enzyme responsible for carbon monoxide production. Given that carbon monoxide enhances plasmatic coagulation, we determined if patients undergoing resection of colon and pancreatic tumors had an increase in endogenous carbon monoxide and plasmatic hypercoagulability. Patients with colon (n = 17) and pancreatic (n = 10) tumors were studied. Carbon monoxide was determined by the measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). A thrombelastographic method to assess plasma coagulation kinetics and formation of carboxyhemefibrinogen (COHF) was utilized. Nonsmoking patients with colon and pancreatic tumors had abnormally increased COHb concentrations of 1.4 ± 0.9 and 1.9 ± 0.7%, respectively, indicative of HO-1 upregulation. Coagulation analyses comparing both tumor groups demonstrated no significant differences in any parameter; thus the data were combined for the tumor groups for comparison with 95% confidence interval values obtained from normal individuals (n = 30) plasma. Seventy percent of tumor patients had a velocity of clot formation greater than the 95% confidence interval value of normal individuals, with 53% of this hypercoagulable group also having COHF formation. Further, 67% of tumor patients had clot strength that exceeded the normal 95% confidence interval value, and 56% of this subgroup had COHF formation. Finally, 63% of all tumor patients had COHF formation. Future investigation of HO-1-derived carbon monoxide in the pathogenesis of colon and pancreatic tumor-related thrombophilia is warranted. PMID:24509340

  20. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  1. CT pancreatogram in carcinoma of the pancreas and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Karasawa, E.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.A.; Federle, M.P.; London, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    CT has made it possible to determine the contour of the pancreatic duct, to measure its caliber, and to detect dilatation of the duct. CT scans of 75 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and of 45 patients with chronic pancreatitis were obtained. Dilatation of the pancreatic duct was seen in 56% of patients with carcinoma, and in 70% of those with tumors confined to the pancreatic head and body. Smooth dilatation (43%) or beaded dilatation (40%) were most commonly associated with carcinoma. Ductal dilatation was present in 58% of the patients with chronic pancreatitis, and irregular dilatation was seen in 73% of the patients in this group. About half of the patients who had irregular dilatation had calculi within the ducts. Eight cases of dilatation of the duct with no detectible pancreatic mass were seen in a subgroup of 13 patients who had small carcinomas of the pancreas (tumor size of 3 cm or less). Our findings indicate that a dilated pancreatic duct with a smooth contour and a ratio of duct to total gland width of 0.50 or greater suggests carcinoma as the underlying pathology.

  2. Adaptive control of artificial pancreas systems - a review.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Cinar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems offer an important improvement in regulating blood glucose concentration for patients with type 1 diabetes, compared to current approaches. AP consists of sensors, control algorithms and an insulin pump. Different AP control algorithms such as proportional-integral-derivative, model-predictive control, adaptive control, and fuzzy logic control have been investigated in simulation and clinical studies in the past three decades. The variability over time and complexity of the dynamics of blood glucose concentration, unsteady disturbances such as meals, time-varying delays on measurements and insulin infusion, and noisy data from sensors create a challenging system to AP. Adaptive control is a powerful control technique that can deal with such challenges. In this paper, a review of adaptive control techniques for blood glucose regulation with an AP system is presented. The investigations and advances in technology produced impressive results, but there is still a need for a reliable AP system that is both commercially viable and appealing to patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24691384

  3. [Imaging of incidental cystic lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Lewin, M; Hoeffel, C; Azizi, L; Lacombe, C; Monnier-Cholley, L; Raynal, M; Arrivé, L; Tubiana, J M

    2008-02-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas, with an estimated prevalence of 20%, frequently are incidental findings at imaging on asymptomatic patients. Pseudocysts, typically in a setting of pancreatitis, should first be excluded. Characterization of cystic tumors is more complicated. Still, it is important to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Multi-detector row CT and MRI allow characterization of such lesions in over 75% of cases. Indeterminate lesions should undergo endoscopic US with biopsy/aspiration and fluid analysis, especially for mucin producing tumors (rounded with thick enhancing wall). When imaging fails to fully characterize a lesion, follow-up may be proposed for lesions less than 3 cm in size, that are either unilocular with thin nonenhancing wall (simple cyst) or lobulated multilocular with thin nonenhancing wall (serous cystadenoma, isolated side branch IPMTP). Follow-up imaging shows that these tumors usually show very little change over time. Management is based on comparing estimated patient survival without treatment to surgical risks (morbidity, mortality, functional sequelae from the procedure). PMID:18354350

  4. Impact of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: patients’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Isla Pera, P; Moncho Vasallo, J; Guasch Andreu, O; Ricart Brulles, MJ; Torras Rabasa, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few qualitative studies of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK Tx) have been published. The aims of this study were to explore from the perspective of patients, the experience of living with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM), suffering from complications, and undergoing SPK Tx with good outcome; and to determine the impact of SPK Tx on patients and their social and cultural environment. Methods: We performed a focused ethnographic study. Twenty patients were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison following the method proposed by Miles and Huberman. Results: A functioning SPK Tx allowed renal replacement therapy and insulin to be discontinued. To describe their new situation, patients used words and phrases such as “miracle”, “being reborn” or “coming back to life”. Although the complications of T1DM, its surgery and treatment, and associated psychological problems did not disappear after SPK Tx, these were minimized when compared with the pretransplantation situation. Conclusion: For patients, SPK Tx represents a recovery of their health and autonomy despite remaining problems associated with the complications of T1DM and SPK Tx. The understanding of patients’ existential framework and their experience of disease are key factors for planning new intervention and improvement strategies. PMID:22936846

  5. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  6. Preoperative testing before low-risk surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Kyle R.; Wijeysundera, Duminda N.; Pendrith, Ciara; Ng, Ryan; Tu, Jack V.; Laupacis, Andreas; Schull, Michael J.; Levinson, Wendy; Bhatia, R. Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is concern about increasing utilization of low-value health care services, including preoperative testing for low-risk surgical procedures. We investigated temporal trends, explanatory factors, and institutional and regional variation in the utilization of testing before low-risk procedures. Methods: For this retrospective cohort study, we accessed linked population-based administrative databases from Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1 546 223 patients 18 years or older underwent a total of 2 224 070 low-risk procedures, including endoscopy and ophthalmologic surgery, from Apr. 1, 2008, to Mar. 31, 2013, at 137 institutions in 14 health regions. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to assess patient- and institution-level factors associated with electrocardiography (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac stress test or chest radiography within 60 days before the procedure. Results: Endoscopy, ophthalmologic surgery and other low-risk procedures accounted for 40.1%, 34.2% and 25.7% of procedures, respectively. ECG and chest radiography were conducted before 31.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.9%–31.1%) and 10.8% (95% CI 10.8%–10.8%) of procedures, respectively, whereas the rates of preoperative echocardiography and stress testing were 2.9% (95% CI 2.9%–2.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI 2.1%–2.1%), respectively. Significant variation was present across institutions, with the frequency of preoperative ECG ranging from 3.4% to 88.8%. Receipt of preoperative ECG and radiography were associated with older age (among patients 66–75 years of age, for ECG, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 18.3, 95% CI 17.6–19.0; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.8–3.0), preoperative anesthesia consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 8.7, 95% CI 8.5–8.8; for radiography, adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.1–2.2) and preoperative medical consultation (for ECG, adjusted OR 6.8, 95% CI 6.7–6.9; for radiography, adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.6). The median ORs for receipt of preoperative ECG and radiography were 2.3 and 1.6, respectively. Interpretation: Despite guideline recommendations to limit testing before low-risk surgical procedures, preoperative ECG and chest radiography were performed frequently. Significant variation across institutions remained after adjustment for patient- and institution-level factors. PMID:26032314

  7. Minimizing preoperative anxiety with alternative caring-healing therapies.

    PubMed

    Norred, C L

    2000-11-01

    This article reviews holistic caring-healing therapies that may decrease preoperative anxiety for the surgical patient, based on the philosophy and science of caring developed by Jean Watson, RN, PhD, FAAN. Dr Watson reveals a new paradigm emerging in health care that blends the compassion and caring of nursing in harmony with the curative therapies of medicine. Hypnosis, aromatherapy, music, guided imagery, and massage are integrative caring-healing therapies that may minimize preoperative anxiety. Alternative therapies offer a high-touch balance when integrated with high-tech conventional surgical treatments. PMID:11098363

  8. Only grading has independent impact on breast cancer survival after adjustment for pathological response to preoperative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Andreas; Katretchko, Julia; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Unnebrink, Kristina; Rudlowski, Christian; Geberth, Matthias; Beldermann, Frank; Bastert, Gunther; Strittmatter, Hans-Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Our objective was to determine pretreatment factors with an independent impact on survival after adjusting for response to preoperative chemotherapy and to describe parameters predictive for achieving a pathological complete remission (pCR) after preoperative chemotherapy containing an anthracycline. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to describe the impact of the following pretreatment characteristics of 240 primary breast cancer patients who received preoperative chemotherapy containing an anthracycline at our institution on disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS): age, stage, clinical tumor size, clinical nodal status, grading, and expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her2/neu, Ki67, Bcl-2 and p53. Afterwards, the response to preoperative chemotherapy was added to the multivariate model in order to evaluate which pretreatment parameters retained their prognostic impact. In addition, univariate analysis was performed to describe pretreatment variables predictive for achieving a pCR. With a median follow-up of 6.4 years (range 0-10.4), only grading retained its independent impact on DFS, DDFS and OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.5, 1.7 and 2.9, respectively; p<0.05] after adjusting for the strongest independent prognostic factors pathological T category at surgery (HR 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7, respectively; p<0.001) and pathological N category at surgery (HR 2.3, 2.4 and 2.1, respectively; p<0.001). Predictive factors for the achievement of pCR (p<0.05) were age under 35 years, lower stage or smaller clinical tumor size and higher expression of Bcl-2 at diagnosis. We conclude that only grading retained its independent prognostic impact on DFS, DDFS and OS after adjusting for pathological response of breast tumor and axillary lymph node metastases to preoperative chemotherapy. According to our data, it could be hypothesized that young patients with early tumor stage and small primary tumors might profit most from preoperative chemotherapy. PMID:15075668

  9. Extracorporeal machine perfusion of the pancreas: technical aspects and its clinical implications - a systematic review of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation is an important treatment option for insulin-dependent diabetes and its complications. However, as the pancreas is particularly susceptible to ischaemic-reperfusion injury, the criteria for pancreas and islet donation are especially strict. With a chronic shortage of donors, one critical challenge is to maximise organ availability and expand the donor pool. To achieve that, continuous improvement in organ preservation is required, with the aims of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury, prolong preservation time and improve graft function. Static cold storage, the only method used in clinical pancreas and islet cell transplant currently, has likely reached its plateau. Machine perfusion, hypothermic or normothermic, could hold the key to improving donor pancreas quality as well as quantity available for transplant. This article reviews the literature on experimental models of pancreas machine perfusion, examines the benefits of machine perfusion, the technical aspects and their clinical implications. PMID:26253243

  10. Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Graft Pancreas Divisum in a Patient with Modified Multi-Visceral Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Haq; Slivka, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A patient with modified multivisceral transplant developed recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) 1 year after transplant and was found to have graft pancreas divisum with otherwise negative work-up for identifying the etiology of RAP. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed with minor papilla sphincterotomy and pancreatic duct stent placement of the graft pancreas. The patient's symptoms resolved following endotherapy for a follow-up period of 2 years. This is a unique case of graft pancreatitis secondary to pancreas divisum. PMID:26157839

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Disease Stratified Human Pancreas Tissue Indicates Unique Signature of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Pugliese, Alberto; Nadler, Jerry L.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with functional beta cell loss due to ongoing inflammation. Despite shared similarities, T1D is an autoimmune disease with evidence of autoantibody production, as well as a role for exocrine pancreas involvement. Our hypothesis is that differential protein expression occurs in disease stratified pancreas tissues and regulated proteins from endocrine and exocrine tissues are potential markers of disease and potential therapeutic targets. The study objective was to identify novel proteins that distinguish the pancreas from donors with T1D from the pancreas from patients with T2D, or autoantibody positive non-diabetic donors. Detailed quantitative comprehensive proteomic analysis was applied to snap frozen human pancreatic tissue lysates from organ donors without diabetes, with T1D-associated autoantibodies in the absence of diabetes, with T1D, or with T2D. These disease-stratified human pancreas tissues contain exocrine and endocrine tissues (with dysfunctional islets) in the same microenvironment. The expression profiles of several of the proteins were further verified by western blot. We identified protein panels that are significantly and uniquely upregulated in the three disease-stratified pancreas tissues compared to non-disease control tissues. These proteins are involved in inflammation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity, all of which are pathways linked to, and likely involved in, T1 and T2 diabetes pathogenesis. Several new proteins were differentially upregulated in prediabetic, T1D, and T2D pancreas. The results identify proteins that could serve as novel prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic tools to preserve functional islet mass in Type 1 Diabetes. PMID:26302420

  12. Clinicoradiological appraisal of ‘paraduodenal pancreatitis’: Pancreatitis outside the pancreas!

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Patidar, Yashwant; Thapar, Shalini; Arora, Asit; Bhatia, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP) is a unique form of focal chronic pancreatitis that selectively involves the duodenum and aberrant pancreatic tissue located near the minor papilla (beyond the pancreas proper). The pseudotumoral nature of the disease often generates considerable clinical quandary and patient apprehension, and therefore merits a better understanding. The present study appraises the clinicoradiological manifestations of PP in 33 patients. Materials and Methods: Clinical, laboratory, and radiological manifestations of 33 patients of PP treated in gastroenterology/hepatology and hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgery units during June 2010-August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All patients were young to middle-aged men (100%) with history of alcohol abuse (93.9%) and/or smoking (42.4%), who presented either with acute or gradually worsening abdominal pain (90.9%). Pancreatic enzymes and serum tumor markers remained normal or were mildly/transiently elevated. Cystic variant was detected in 57.6% (solid in 42.4%); the disease remained confined to the groove/duodenum (pure form) in 45.4%. Medial duodenal wall thickening with increased enhancement was seen in 87.87 and 81.81%, respectively, and duodenal/paraduodenal cysts were seen in 78.78%. Pancreatic calcifications and biliary stricture were seen 27.3% patients. Peripancreatic arteries were neither infiltrated nor encased. Conclusion: PP has a discrete predilection for middle-aged men with history of longstanding alcohol abuse and/or smoking. Distinguishing imaging findings include thickening of the pancreatic side of duodenum exhibiting increased enhancement with intramural/paraduodenal cysts. This may be accompanied by plate-like scar tissue in the groove region, which may simulate groove pancreatic carcinoma. However, as opposed to carcinoma, the peripancreatic arteries are neither infiltrated nor encased, rather are medially displaced. PMID:26288527

  13. Patterns of Response After Preoperative Treatment in Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Gonzalez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Javier; Hernandez-Lizoain, Jose L.; Ciervide, Raquel; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Miguel, Inigo; Arbea, Leire; Aristu, J. Javier; Chopitea, Ana; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando; Valenti, Victor; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Sola, Jesus J.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the rate of pathologic response in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy with and without chemoradiation at our institution. Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2007 patients were retrospectively identified who received preoperative treatment for gastric cancer (cT3-4/ N+) with induction chemotherapy (Ch) or with Ch followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 5 weeks) (ChRT). Surgery was planned 4-6 weeks after the completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Pathologic assessment was used to investigate the patterns of pathologic response after neoadjuvant treatment. Results: Sixty-one patients were analyzed. Of 61 patients, 58 (95%) underwent surgery. The R0 resection rate was 87%. Pathologic complete response was achieved in 12% of the patients. A major pathologic response (<10% of residual tumor) was observed in 53% of patients, and T downstaging was observed in 75%. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 36.5 months. The only patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factor associated with pathologic response was the use of preoperative ChRT. Patients achieving major pathologic response had a 3-year actuarial DFS rate of 63%. Conclusions: The patterns of pathologic response after preoperative ChRT suggest encouraging intervals of DFS. Such a strategy may be of interest to be explored in gastric cancer.

  14. Does a Preoperative Educational Class Increase Patient Compliance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kelvin; Chin, Garwin; Moore, Tyler; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-09-01

    Past studies have shown successful outcomes regarding the use of various interventional education methods in improving patient compliance. At our institution, different educational resources are offered and encouraged, including a 2-hour-long educational class, to prepare patients who are undergoing total joint arthroplasty procedures. Given the significant impact that patient compliance with preoperative instruction can have on overall outcomes of these procedures, this study was intended to assess the effects that the educational classes can have on patient compliance with this institution's 6-point preoperative total joint arthroplasty protocol. The study analyzed 2 groups, those who did and did not attend the preoperative classes, and compliance rates were compared between the 2. It was hypothesized that patients who did attend the classes would be more compliant to the protocol compared to those who did not. Although results from the study showed that there were no significant differences in adherence between the 2 groups, future quality assessment studies can build off this in order to move toward achieving optimal patient compliance with preoperative instructions. PMID:26328228

  15. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  16. [The use of transvaginal sonography (TVS) for preoperative diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Hudelist, G; Keckstein, J

    2009-05-27

    Endometriosis is one the most challenging gynaecological disorders affecting 10-15% of women in their reproductive years. Considerable diagnostic delay of up to 8 years from presenting symptoms often confers a heavy economic and social price. Over the past years, additional diagnostic tools such as transvaginal scanning (TVS) and/or MRI have been recommended as an appropriate investigation to diagnose ovarian endometriomas or adenomyosis. Several lines of recent evidence strongly suggests that the use of TVS also has an important role in detecting DIE of the pelvis not only involving the ovaries but also structures such as the vagina, the rectovaginal space, the uterosacral ligaments, the bladder or the rectal wall. PMID:19472146

  17. 77 FR 71804 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...FDA-2012-N-1040] Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing...entitled ``Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products.'' The...

  18. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  19. Colorectal Stenting: An Effective Therapy for Preoperative and Palliative Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Rahel S. Jost, Res; Schoch, Erich; Brunner, Brigit; Decurtins, Marco; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the effectiveness of preoperative and palliative colorectal stent placement in acute colonic obstruction. Methods. Sixty-seven consecutive patients (mean age 67.3 years, range 25-93 years) with clinical and radiological signs of colonic obstruction were treated: 45 (67%) preoperatively and 22 (33%) with a palliative intent. In 59 patients (88%) the obstruction was malignant, while in 8 (12%) it was benign. A total of 73 enteric Wallstents were implanted under combined fluoroscopic/endoscopic guidance. Results. Forty-five patients were treated preoperatively with a technical success rate of 84%, a clinical success rate of 83%, and a complication rate of 16%. Of the 38 patients who were successfully stented preoperatively, 36 (95%) underwent surgery 2-22 days (mean 7.2 days) after stent insertion. The improved general condition and adequate bowel cleansing allowed single-stage tumor resection and primary end-to-end anastomosis without complications in 31 cases (86% of all operations), while only 5 patients had colostomies. Stent placement was used as the final palliative treatment in 22 patients. The technical success rate was 95%, the clinical success rate 72%, and the complication rate relatively high at 67%, caused by reocclusion in most cases. After noninvasive secondary interventions (e.g., tube placement, second stenting, balloon dilatation) the secondary patency of stents was 71% and mean reported survival time after stent insertion was 92 days (range 10-285 days). Conclusion. Preoperative stent placement in acute colonic obstruction is minimally invasive and allows an elective one-stage surgery in most cases. Stent placement also proved a valuable alternative to avoid colostomy in palliation.

  20. Improving surgical outcomes in pancreatic surgery with preoperative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ward-Boahen, Dwanna; Wallace-Kazer, Meredith

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to describe the relationship between preoperative physical status and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing Whipple resection, and (2) to determine if the use of specialized immunonutrition with IMPACT Advanced Recovery supplementation improved postoperative outcomes (pancreatic leak rate, length of stay, and postoperative complications) in patients undergoing Whipple resection. The trial was a case-controlled prospective pilot study that took place in an outpatient gastrointestinal surgical oncology office in an urban community hospital in the northeast United States. The study population consisted of nine patients undergoing Whipple surgery. Patients were given IMPACT Advanced Recovery supplementation 4 days prior to Whipple surgery. Prospective data were collected on all patients and then compared to national averages in terms of outcomes. Study approval was obtained from the Fairfield University Institutional Review Board (IRB), though IRB approval was not required by the study facility due to the fact that this was a pilot study. Consent was also not required for retrospective chart review. Patients with lower scores according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System have a shorter operating time in the setting of preoperative nutrition. Patients in this study who received preoperative nutrition with IMPACT Advanced Recovery supplementation had outcomes comparable to the national average. This pilot study suggests that there is a need for a multi-institutional randomized study powered to further evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative nutrition in pancreatic surgery. The literature supports the fact that preoperative nutritional supplementation should be offered to patients undergoing Whipple surgery. Optimization of nutritional status can translate to decreased length of stay and cost savings. PMID:25032044

  1. The artificial pancreas: current status and future prospects in the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peyser, Thomas; Dassau, Eyal; Breton, Marc; Skyler, Jay S

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in insulins, insulin pumps, continuous glucose-monitoring systems, and control algorithms have resulted in an acceleration of progress in the development of artificial pancreas devices. This review discusses progress in the development of external systems that are based on subcutaneous drug delivery and subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring. There are two major system-level approaches to achieving closed-loop control of blood glucose in diabetic individuals. The unihormonal approach uses insulin to reduce blood glucose and relies on complex safety mitigation algorithms to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. The bihormonal approach uses both insulin to lower blood glucose and glucagon to raise blood glucose, and also relies on complex algorithms to provide for safety of the user. There are several major strategies for the design of control algorithms and supervision control for application to the artificial pancreas: proportional-integral-derivative, model predictive control, fuzzy logic, and safety supervision designs. Advances in artificial pancreas research in the first decade of this century were based on the ongoing computer revolution and miniaturization of electronic technology. The advent of modern smartphones has created the ability to utilize smartphone technology as the engineering centerpiece of an artificial pancreas. With these advances, an artificial or bionic pancreas is within reach. PMID:24725149

  2. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  3. Concurrent hepatic hemangioma and solitary fibrous tumor: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Kueht, Michael; Masand, Prakash; Rana, Abbas; Cotton, Ronald; Goss, John

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor (HSFT) is a very rare benign liver tumor without well-defined findings on imaging. Even with multiphase advanced contrast-enhanced liver imaging, a definitive preoperative diagnosis is impossible. The diagnostic process can be further complicated when there are two concurrent lesions with different radiologic appearances. Here, we compare the findings of a commonly encountered liver lesion, hepatic hemangioma, with those of an exceedingly rare lesion, HSFT. PMID:26209579

  4. Cytological diagnosis of superficial acral fibromyxoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Divakar Sullery; Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Kakoti, Lopa Mudra

    2015-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a rare, distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that often involves the fingers and toes, with the great toe being the most frequently affected site. We report a case of SAF diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. The pre-operative cytological diagnosis will help the surgeon to plan for a wider excision that prevents recurrence. PMID:25948945

  5. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Cynthia; Chai, Wanxing; Yu, Victoria E.; Yu, Run

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), a group of endocrine tumors arising in the pancreas, are among the most common neuroendocrine tumors. The genetic causes of familial and sporadic PNETs are somewhat understood, but their molecular pathogenesis remains unknown. Most PNETs are indolent but have malignant potential. The biological behavior of an individual PNET is unpredictable; higher tumor grade, lymph node and liver metastasis, and larger tumor size generally indicate a less favorable prognosis. Endocrine testing, imaging, and histological evidence are necessary to accurately diagnose PNETs. A 4-pronged aggressive treatment approach consisting of surgery, locoregional therapy, systemic therapy, and complication control has become popular in academic centers around the world. The optimal application of the multiple systemic therapeutic modalities is under development; efficacy, safety, availability, and cost should be considered when treating a specific patient. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of specific types of PNETs and familial PNET syndromes, including the novel Mahvash disease, are summarized. PMID:23237225

  6. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Preoperative Needle Biopsy for Tumor Grading Assessment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanyu; Li, Jie; Wei, Xuyong; Cheng, Jun; Ling, Qi; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Background Needle core biopsy (NCB) is one of the most widely used and accepted methods for the diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions. Although many studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of NCB in predicting the tumor grade, it is still under debate. Objective To identify the influence of number of biopsies on NCB diagnostic accuracy. Methods 153 patients with HCC were selected from patients who received preoperative NCB under the guidance of ultrasonography in our hospital. The diagnostic reference standard was the surgical pathologic diagnosis. Results Using a 3-tier grading scheme (well, moderate and poor), the accuracy of NCB has no significant differences among different number of passes in HCC ?5cm. For HCC >5?8cm, the increasing number of passes could increase the diagnostic accuracy (63.3%, 81.8%, and 84.8% for passes one, two, and three, respectively). While in HCC>8cm, the diagnostic accuracy of passes one, two, and three were 62.1%, 69%, and 75.8%, respectively. Conclusions The accuracy of NCB in assessing tumor grading associated with tumor size and number of passes. Meanwhile, a minimum of two passes should be performed to get better accuracy in patients with HCC >5cm. PMID:26658912

  8. A Mass in the Junction of the Body and Tail of the Pancreas with Negative IgG4 Serology: IgG4-Related Disease with Negative Serology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient:Female, 55 Final Diagnosis: Autoimmune pancreatitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • weight loss Medication: Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Admitted to the hospital Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis is an IgG4-related fibroinflammatory condition often associated with obstructive jaundice, as most lesions are located at the head of the pancreas. IgG4 level can help in the diagnosis, but it is normal in nearly 30% of affected patients. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of 20-pound unintentional weight loss and intermittent abdominal pain. She had an unremarkable abdominal exam and significant findings included a small, non-mobile rubbery left axillary lymph node. Complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, amylase, anti-smooth muscle antibody, antimitochondrial antibody, carcinoembryonic antigen, Ca 19-9, complement C3 and C4, antinuclear antibody, anti-Smith double-strand antibody, and IgG4 were all within normal limits. CT of the abdomen showed a mass in the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and endoscopic ultrasound showed it as encasing the splenic artery. Fine-needle aspiration cytology demonstrated follicular hyperplasia, obliterative phlebitis, storiform fibrosis, and negative staining for IgG4 and malignancy. Left axillary lymph node biopsy demonstrated follicular hyperplasia. PET scan revealed hypermetabolic uptake of the pancreas tail, bone marrow, and spleen, as well as diffuse lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy showed follicular hyperplasia and was negative for malignancy. The patient was started on 40 mg of oral prednisone for possible autoimmune disease. During follow-up, she reported progressive improvement and a repeat PET scan 6 months later showed marked improvement. Conclusions: A normal IgG4 value should not decrease the clinical suspicion of IgG4-related disease. If clinical, histological, and radiological findings coincide, glucocorticoids should be initiated with subsequent follow-up to evaluate for a response. PMID:26001036

  9. Monitoring Inflammation, Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity in Pancreas and Islet Transplants.

    PubMed

    Monti, Paolo; Vignali, Debora; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the chronic autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells. Beta cell replacement therapy through whole pancreas or islet transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients in which a stable glucose control is not achievable with exogenous insulin therapy. Long-term insulin independence is, however, hampered by the recipient immune response that includes activation of inflammatory pathways and specific allo- and autoimmunity. The identification and monitoring of soluble and cellular biomarkers are of critical relevance for the prediction of graft damage, for the evaluation of responses to immune-modulating therapy, and for target pathways identification to generate novel drugs or therapeutic approaches. The final objective of immune monitoring is to find ways to improve the outcome of pancreas and islet transplantation. In this review, we discuss the available tools to monitor the innate, humoral and cellular responses after islet and pancreas transplantation, and the most relevant findings generated by these measurements. PMID:25777058

  10. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young-Eun; Kang, Ho-Cheol; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Chung, Min-Young; Kim, Sei-Jong

    2006-12-01

    Partial or complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly that results from the embryological failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud to form the body and tail of the pancreas. To date, four cases have been reported in Korea. We report an additional case; a 25-year-old woman presented with diabetes mellitus and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal-appearing pancreatic head, but the body and tail were not visualized. Endoscopic cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) revealed a short pancreatic duct in the uncinate process and the head and the duct of Santorini draining into the minor papilla. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were similar to the CT and ERCP results. The patient was diagnosed with partial agenesis of the dorsal pancreas by CT, ERCP and MRI. PMID:17249505

  11. Oddi sphincter function after canine auto-pancreas transplantation with bladder drainage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gui-Chen; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Yong-Feng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Several neural and hormonal factors are known to affect motility of sphincter of Oddi (SO). The major roles of SO are to regulate the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum and to prevent the reflux of duodenal contents into the biliary and pancreatic duct. After pancreas transplantation, graft SO was denervated and graft pancreatitis might have relations to SO motility. The motility of SO after canine pancreas transplantation with bladder drainage was investigated. METHODS: Normal canine SO manometry and pancreas graft SO manometry after pancreas transplantation with bladder drainage were performed in seven dogs respectively before and after cholecystokinin (CCK) administration. Data of SO basal pressure, contraction frequency, amplitude and motility index after transplantation and CCK administration were compared with that in controls and before CCK administration. RESULTS: SO showed regular contractions with a certain basal pressure in control dogs. After transplantation, the graft SO basal pressure and contraction frequency were higher than that in controls, but the amplitude decreased (P < 0.01). There was no great difference in SO motility index. CCK administration could relax normal SO but stimulate graft SO after pancreas transplantation with bladder drainage. After CCK administration, SO basal pressure, frequency and motility index were increased significantly (P < 0.05), in comparison with that before administration. The amplitude remained unchanged (P > 0.05), in comparison with that before CCK administration. CONCLUSION: After auto-pancreas transplantation with bladder drainage, canine SO motility was inhibited. Basal pressure and frequency increased but amplitude decreased. CCK administration after transplantation had an inhibitory effect on canine SO instead of a relaxation effect observed in normal canine SO. This will increase the resistance of SO to the pancreatic juice flow and induce pancreatic juice stagnation and can not prevent reflux of urine and duodenal contents when the bladder pressure is increased to a certain extent, which may cause graft pancreatitis. PMID:14669350

  12. Opposite Expression of SPARC between the Liver and Pancreas in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aseer, Kanikkai Raja; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular events, including inflammation and tissue remodelling. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific expression of SPARC in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, and found that SPARC was significantly up-regulated in the liver while down-regulated in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic inflammation occurred in the diabetic pancreas accompanied by up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP?) and its targets (TNF?, Il6, CRP, and Fn1) as well as myeloperoxidase (Mpo) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (Cxcr2). Diabetic liver showed significant up-regulation of Tgfb1 as well as moderately less up-regulated TNF? and reduced Fn1, resulting in elevated fibrogenesis. PARP-1 was not up-regulated during CD95-mediated apoptosis, resulting in restoration of high ATP levels in the diabetic liver. On the contrary, CD95-dependent apoptosis was not observed in the diabetic pancreas due to up-regulation of PARP-1 and ATP depletion, resulting in necrosis. The cytoprotective machinery was damaged by pancreatic inflammation, whereas adequate antioxidant capacity indicates low oxidative stress in the diabetic liver. High and low cellular insulin content was found in the diabetic liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, we identified six novel interacting partner proteins of SPARC by co-immunoprecipitation in the diabetic liver and pancreas, and their interactions with SPARC were predicted by bioinformatics tools. Taken together, opposite expression of SPARC in the diabetic liver and pancreas may be related to inflammation and immune cell infiltration, degrees of apoptosis and fibrosis, cytoprotective machinery, and cellular insulin levels. PMID:26110898

  13. Preoperative Consultations for Medicare Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thilen, Stephan R.; Treggiari, Miriam M.; Lange, Jane M.; Lowy, Elliott; Weaver, Edward M.; Wijeysundera, Duminda N.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Low-risk elective surgical procedures are common, but there are no clear guidelines for when preoperative consultations are required. Such consultations may therefore represent a substantial discretionary service. OBJECTIVE To assess temporal trends, explanatory factors, and geographic variation for preoperative consultation in Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery, a common low-risk elective procedure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort study using a 5% national random sample of Medicare part B claims data including a cohort of 556 637 patients 66 years or older who underwent cataract surgery from 1995 to 2006. Temporal trends in consultations were evaluated within this entire cohort, whereas explanatory factors and geographic variation were evaluated within the 89 817 individuals who underwent surgery from 2005 to 2006. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Separately billed preoperative consultations (performed by family practitioners, general internists, pulmonologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists, nurse practitioners, or anesthesiologists) within 42 days before index surgery. RESULTS The frequency of preoperative consultations increased from 11.3% in 1998 to 18.4% in 2006. Among individuals who underwent surgery in 2005 to 2006, hierarchical logistic regression modeling found several factors to be associated with preoperative consultation, including increased age (75–84 years vs 66–74 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04–1.13]), race (African American race vs other: AOR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.65–0.78]), urban residence (urban residence vs isolated rural town: AOR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.49–1.81]), facility type (outpatient hospital vs ambulatory surgical facility: AOR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05–1.15]), anesthesia provider (anesthesiologist vs non–medically directed nurse anesthetist: AOR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.10–1.24), and geographic region (Northeast vs South: AOR, 3.09 [95% CI, 2.33–4.10]). The burden of comorbidity was associated with consultation, but the effect size was small (<10%). Variation in frequency of consultation across hospital referral regions was substantial (median [range], 12% [0–69%]), even after accounting for differences in patient-level, anesthesia provider–level, and facility-level characteristics. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Between 1995 and 2006, the frequency of preoperative consultation for cataract surgery increased substantially. Referrals for consultation seem to be primarily driven by nonmedical factors, with substantial geographic variation. PMID:24366269

  14. Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Hardman, P.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.

  15. Use of panitumumab in the treatment of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MORALES, MANUEL; CABRERA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL; MAESO, MARIA DEL CARMEN; FERRER-LÓPEZ, NOEMÍ

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of stage IV acinar carcinoma of the pancreas are presented. The two patients were treated with several lines of chemotherapies active against colon cancer. At last-line, both patients received panitumumab monotherapy. We describe the tumour response to the different therapies. Our findings demonstrate that panitumumab produces objective responses when used as third-line treatment in the therapy of patients with acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Thus, we propose the consideration of the use of panitumumab in early lines of treatment. PMID:23426888

  16. Epigenetic modifications and long noncoding RNAs influence pancreas development and function.

    PubMed

    Arnes, Luis; Sussel, Lori

    2015-06-01

    Insulin-producing ? cells within the pancreatic islet of Langerhans are responsible for maintaining glucose homeostasis; the loss or malfunction of ? cells results in diabetes mellitus. Recent advances in cell purification strategies and sequencing technologies as well as novel molecular tools have revealed that epigenetic modifications and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent an integral part of the transcriptional mechanisms regulating pancreas development and ? cell function. Importantly, these findings have uncovered a new layer of gene regulation in the pancreas that can be exploited to enhance the restoration and/or repair of ? cells to treat diabetes. PMID:25812926

  17. [Results of studies of carbohydrate metabolism and ultrasonography of the pancreas in man after continuous anti-orthostatic hypokinesia].

    PubMed

    Afonin, B V; Nichiporuk, I A; Nesterov, M A; Pechenkina, R A; Goncharova, N P; Belousova, I V

    1999-01-01

    Data on the hypokinesia-induced transformation of the glycemic profile and ultrasonic changes in the pancreas structure are presented. The AOH study gave further evidence of transforming glycemic curves. Moreover, increased sizes of tail and head of the pancreas and a decrease in its echogeneity were observed in all test-subjects. Structural changes in the pancreas were confirmed by biochemical investigations which revealed increased levels of blood enzymes and activation of insulin secretion. Increases in the liver size, thickness of the wall of the stomach, diameter of the splenic vein were indicative of progressing venous plethora in the portal vein system. It was shown that venous plethora are the main cause for changes in the upper GI, and in the pancreas state in particular, which can be qualified as dysfunctional. These structural changes in the pancreas could suppress its functional activity manifested by increases in blood enzymes and hormones and transformation of the glycemic profile during the glucose load. PMID:10530381

  18. [Preoperative infusion therapy in childhood. I. Initial conditions and principles].

    PubMed

    Dick, W; Altemeyer, K H; Schöch, G

    1977-02-01

    Infusion therapy for purposes of surgery differs significantly from the infusion requirements for "conservative" purposes, in adults as well as in infants and children. The preoperative situation of infants and children undergoing usual surgical procedures is particularly characterized by 1. the physiological conditions of the water-, electrolyte- and acid-base-balances; 2. the effects of the preoperative food-and fluid-restrictions; 3. the intraoperative fluid- and volumen-losses; 4. the combination between 1--3 and the postoperative food- and fluid-restriction and the postoperative metabolic conditions respectively. The problems, summarized under 1--4, have been discussed within this article. Further two papers will deal with studies on the use of "basic solutions" for the substitution of fluid- and electrolyte losses in pediatric surgery. PMID:557453

  19. Essential elements of the preoperative breast reconstruction evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Angela; Losken, Albert

    2015-04-01

    A plethora of options exist for breast reconstruction and preoperative evaluation must be thorough to lead to a successful outcome. We review multiple components of the preoperative assessment including the patient's history, goals, imaging, and key elements of the physical exam. Consideration for tumor biology, staging, need or response to chemotherapy or radiation therapy is important in deciding on immediate versus delayed reconstruction. It is also important to consider the patient's anatomy, breast size and whether the reconstruction will be unilateral or bilateral. The reconstructive surgeon must accommodate all these factors to consider partial or complete mastectomy defects and guide the patient to the most appropriate reconstructive technique whether it be an oncoplastic reduction mammoplasty, expander-based reconstruction, immediate implant reconstruction, or immediate versus delayed autologous tissue reconstruction such as the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP)/transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM), latissimus, transverse upper gracilis (TUG)/profunda femoris artery perforator (PAP), or gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flaps. PMID:26005641

  20. Pre-operative fasting - a patient centered approach

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Sana

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pre-operative fasting can be an unpleasant experience and result in serious medical complications. The Royal College of Nursing guidelines state a minimum fasting period of six hours for food and two hours for clear fluids, prior to elective anaesthesia or sedation in healthy patients. We audited the Moorfields South Pre-operative Assessment Unit fasting instruction policy to ensure it is clear and in accordance with national guidelines. A questionnaire assessing the clarity and accuracy of fasting instructions and patient hydration was employed to survey patients undergoing elective anaesthesia or sedation in July 2013 (first cycle) and September 2013 (second cycle). The fasting instruction policy and patient information leaflet were reviewed; they state “nothing to eat or drink from midnight” for morning surgery and “nothing to eat or drink from 7AM” for afternoon surgery. The 10 patients surveyed in the first cycle reported that the instructions they were given were clear. 70% expressed subjective dehydration and 40% showed clinical evidence of dehydration. The patients had not been encouraged to drink clear fluids up till two hours before surgery. Patients fasted for unnecessarily prolonged periods, the longest of which was 17 hours. Our interventions were: delivering a teaching session to update staff of current pre-operative fasting guidelines, producing a patient information leaflet that was correct, reader-friendly and comprehensive and displaying posters as a reminder of the updated fasting instruction policy. The 12 patients surveyed in the second cycle had been encouraged to drink clear fluids up till two hours before surgery. A dramatically reduced 25% expressed subjective dehydration and 25% showed clinical evidence of dehydration. The longest fasting period was reduced to eight hours. We encourage all hospitals to adopt a patient centered approach to pre-operative fasting, dispelling the “nil my mouth for eight hours” policy, to improve patient wellbeing and satisfaction.

  1. Psychologists in preoperative programmes for children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria Cristina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to verify whether psychologists and game activities could reduce preoperative anxiety and promote compliance in paediatric patients. More specifically, we sought to evaluate whether it would be better to propose contextualized games or just distracting activities. A total of 104 children undergoing surgery were assigned to the following 4 conditions of treatment: (1) contextual games and psychological accompaniment, (2) only contextual games, (3) distracting activities, and (4) only psychological accompaniment. Observed children's anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and compliant behaviours with modified form of Induction Compliance Checklist. Children in the first condition (complete intervention - contextual games and psychological accompaniment) were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during the induction of anaesthesia than in the other three conditions. In particular, contextual activities (second condition) were found to be more efficient than psychological accompaniment (fourth condition), whereas the worst condition was proposing only distracting activities (third condition). In order to help young hospitalized patients in paediatric surgery structures, it is necessary to propose games that can prepare them for what will happen as well as the support of a psychologist. PMID:25469004

  2. [Effect of preoperative adjuvant therapy of esophageal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, H; Ogawa, Y; Ogawa, M; Fujimoto, J; Kido, Y; Miyamoto, T; Tane, H; Kokunai, I; Ueno, K; Kobayashi, K

    1984-10-01

    Between January 1970 and December 1983, 148 patients of esophageal carcinoma were treated surgically in the 2nd Department of Surgery, Osaka University Medical School. Among these patients, 70 (48.6%) with suspected invasion to neighboring structures were treated with preoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of both. The chemotherapeutic agents used were tegafur (FT-207)-suppository, bleomycin (BLM) or peplomycin (PEP). Radiotherapy (3000-4000 cGy) for selected cases was begun at the same time as the chemotherapy. Three to four weeks after the chemotherapy and radiotherapy were completed, esophagectomy was performed. The effects of the preoperative adjuvant therapies were investigated in these patients, and the following results were obtained: A marked histological effect, according to the Guide Lines in Clinical and Pathologic Studies for Carcinoma of the Esophagus (Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases, 1976) was found in 47.4% of the radiotherapy plus FT-207 group, 39.1% of the group receiving radiotherapy alone and 28.6% of the group receiving radiotherapy plus PEP or BLM. Radiotherapy plus FT-207 showed excellent effects (77.8% of this group showed marked histological effects) on well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, as shown histologically by biopsy specimens. Tumors exhibiting sharp edged margins radiographically and endoscopically, showed a very good histological effect after preoperative radiotherapy. Metastatic lymph nodes present in the irradiation field, whose primary lesion showed a marked histological effect, also gave excellent results. Postoperative radiotherapy is also expected to be equally effective on these cases. PMID:6207778

  3. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer: the MERCURY research project.

    PubMed

    Brown, G; Daniels, I R

    2005-01-01

    The development of a surgical technique that removes the tumour and all local draining nodes in an intact package, namely total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery, has provided the impetus for a more selective approach to the administration of preoperative therapy. One of the most important factors that governs the success of TME surgery is the relationship of tumour to the circumferential resection margin (CRM). Tumour involves the CRM in up to 20% of patients undergoing TME surgery, and results in both poor survival and local recurrence. It is therefore clear that the importance of the decision regarding the use of pre-operative therapy lies with the relationship of the tumour to the mesorectal fascia. In addition, a high-spatial-resolution MRI technique will identify tumours exhibiting other poor prognostic features, namely, extramural spread >5 mm, extramural venous invasion by tumour, nodal involvement, and peritoneal infiltration. The potential benefits of a selective approach using MRI-based selection criteria are evident. That is, over 50% of patients can be treated successfully with primary surgery alone without significant risk of local recurrence or systemic failure. Of the remainder, potentially dramatic improvements may be achieved through the use of intensive and targeted preoperative therapy aimed not only at reducing the size of the primary tumour and rendering potentially irresectable tumour resectable with tumour-free circumferential margins, but also at enabling patients at high risk of systemic failure to benefit from intensive combined modality therapy aimed at eliminating micrometastatic disease. PMID:15865021

  4. [Clinical diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Kamada, Maki; Ishiki, Aiko; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    The commonly followed definition of dementia is the one described by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10, World Health Organization) or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V, American Psychiatric Association). The most important aspect in the diagnosis of dementia is the assessment of overall mental and functions, including living environment, activities of daily living, cognition, mental status, and behavior. Physicians should diagnose dementia on the basis of not only cognitive test results or radiological findings but also other available information, including that obtained from the families or caregivers. Tests for the quantitative evaluation of cognitive function and dementia include the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale Revised (HDS-R), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). PMID:24796095

  5. An Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control with Moving Horizon Estimation Approach to the Treatment of T1DM with an Artificial Pancreas

    E-print Network

    Hespanha, João Pedro

    to the Treatment of T1DM with an Artificial Pancreas David A. Copp, Ravi Gondhalekar, Francis J. Doyle III, and Jo of an artificial pancreas to treat Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is proposed. This approach combines moving pancreas for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). T1DM is a metabolic auto- immune disease

  6. The Trouble with Type 1 Diabetes One of the most important functions of the pancreas is to regulate blood sugar levels.

    E-print Network

    The Trouble with Type 1 Diabetes ·One of the most important functions of the pancreas the carbohydrates from the bagel enter the blood, the cells of the pancreas release insulin, which is a hormone for type 1 diabetes Anticipated average using bionic endocrine pancreas FoldRiskinComplications Mean Blood

  7. Expression of receptors for gut peptides in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and tumour-free pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, C.; Biemond, I.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Verspaget, W.; Lamers, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    Gut hormones that modulate the growth of normal pancreas may also modulate the growth of cancers originating from pancreas. This study visualized and compared the receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK), bombesin (BBS), secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in tumour-free tissue sections of human pancreas (n = 10) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (n = 12) with storage phosphor autoradiography using radioligands. CCK-B receptors, present in control pancreata, were not detected in any of the pancreatic cancers. BBS receptors were visualized in control pancreata, but they were absent in 10 of 12 pancreatic cancers. In 5 of 12 pancreatic cancers, receptors for secretin were visualized, while binding for secretin was present in all tumour-free pancreata. Conversely, no specific binding of VIP was detected in control pancreata but was identified in 3 of 12 pancreatic cancer specimens. It is concluded that the expression of gut peptide receptors in pancreatic cancer differs from that in tumour-free pancreas. Receptors for these peptides are present in only a minority of pancreatic cancer specimens. Images Figure 1 PMID:9166939

  8. Experimental islet isolation in porcine pancreas with new enzyme Liberase PI.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Han, D J; Kang, C H; We, Y M; Back, J H; Kim, Y H; Lim, D G

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the results of 20 consecutive porcine islet isolations using a new enzyme Liberase PI. Twenty pancreata were procured for islet isolation, which was performed using modified Ricordi's method with Liberase PI. Quantitation of islet viability staining, insulin stimulation assay, intracellular insulin content/DNA, and in vivo transplantability into diabetic nude mice were examined for quality control. The results were compared between a high-yield group (>2500 IEQ/g pancreas) and a low-yield group (<2500 IEQ/g pancreas). Sufficient amount of purified islets (3000 IEQ/g pancreas) were obtained using the new brand enzyme Liberase PI. These islets showed good quality in structure and functions, which were demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo standard assays. Isolation index (IEQ/number) of the low-yield group was lower than that of high-yield group (0.75 vs 0.86), which means more fragmentation of islets in the low-yield group. There were no differences in function between the two groups. In conclusion, we obtained sufficient numbers of viable, functional islets from porcine pancreas using a new brand enzyme Liberase PI and low-temperature isolation technique. However, overdigestion of islets during the isolation remains to be overcome. Advance in porcine islet isolation technique will in the future make the porcine islet xenotransplantation a reality for the cure of diabetes mellitus. PMID:15518798

  9. Isolated granulocytic sarcoma of the pancreas: A tricky diagnostic for primary pancreatic extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report two clinical cases of primary granulocytic sarcoma of the pancreas that were diagnosed on the surgical specimen. Atypical clinical and morphological presentations may have lead to pretherapeutic biopsies of the pancreatic mass in order to indicate primary chemotherapy. Literature review of this rare clinical presentation may help physicians to anticipate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22248364

  10. The UK Pancreas Allocation Scheme for Whole Organ and Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A; Bradbury, L; Johnson, R; Fuggle, S V; Shaw, J A M; Casey, J J; Friend, P J; Watson, C J E

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop a national allocation scheme for donor pancreases, factors affecting waiting time and transplant outcomes in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed and compared. Blood group, sensitization, dialysis requirement, and whether the patient was waiting for a kidney and pancreas or pancreas alone affected waiting time in both countries; ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) also affected waiting time in the US. Ninety-day pancreas survival was similar in the UK and US, and was poorer for patients receiving a pancreas alone, with older donors, higher BMI and longer duration of ischemia in both countries. Factors affecting outcome, together with published data on factors affecting islet transplantation, informed the development of a points based allocation scheme for deceased donor pancreases in the UK providing equitable access for both whole organ and islet recipients through a single waiting list. Analysis of the allocation scheme 3 years after its introduction in December 2010 showed that the results were broadly as simulated, with a significant reduction in the number of long waiting patients and an increase in the number of islet transplants. There remains a surplus of highly sensitized patients in the waiting list, which the scheme should address in time. PMID:25943412

  11. Duplicate pancreas meets gastric duplication cyst: A tale of two anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Kathleen K.; Pappas, Sam; Pilgrim, Charles; Tsai, Susan; Quebbeman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Congenital anomalies are a rare cause of pancreatitis in adults. Gastric duplications are the least common duplication of the gastrointestinal tract and are even more uncommon in the setting of a duplicate pancreas. PRESENTATION OF CASE This manuscript contains a case report and review of the literature of an adult who presented with recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have a gastric duplication cyst that communicated with a duplicate pancreas. The study aim is to alert practitioners to the duplicate anomaly and recommend appropriate therapy. DISCUSSION Combined gastric and pancreatic duplications usually occur in young females with nonspecific, recurrent abdominal pain. This combined duplication can result in pancreatitis when the gastric duplication is contiguous with the stomach. Heightened awareness of the condition, appropriate diagnostics with accurate interpretation and a minimalist approach to resection are warranted. CONCLUSION Recurrent abdominal pain and pancreatitis in young adults devoid of risk factors should lead to consideration of congenital anomalies. Not all cysts near the pancreas and stomach are pseudocysts. ECRP and abdominal CT/MRI provide critical diagnostic information. This dual anomaly is best treated by simple excision of the gastric duplication and heterotopic pancreas. PMID:23827696

  12. Cholecystokinin A and B receptors are differentially expressed in normal pancreas and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, D S; Ruggeri, B; Barber, M T; Biswas, S; Miknyocki, S; Waldman, S A

    1997-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. While human CCK-A and -B receptors have been fully characterized, their relative roles in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma remain unclear. Thus, expression of CCK-A and -B receptors in normal human pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and other human extrapancreatic tissues and malignancies was examined, using reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). mRNA isolated from 15 normal pancreas specimens, 22 pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and 58 extrapancreatic tissues and tumors was subjected to RT-PCR using primers specific for human CCK-A and -B receptors. Expression of CCK-B receptors was detected in all tissues arising from pancreas and in most extrapancreatic tissues and tumors. In contrast, CCK-A receptors exhibited a more selective pattern of expression in gall bladder, intestine, brain, ovary, spleen, and thymus. Of significance, CCK-A receptors were expressed selectively in all pancreatic adenocarcinomas, but not in any normal pancreas specimens. In situ hybridization, using receptor-specific riboprobes, localized CCK-A receptor expression to ductal cells, the presumed origin of most human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of CCK-A receptor gene amplification or rearrangement in pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Because of its selective expression, the CCK-A receptor may serve as selective biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:9239407

  13. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lestelle, Valentin; de Coster, Claire; Sarran, Anthony; Poizat, Flora; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare. PMID:26557078

  14. Metabolic surgery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in pancreas after kidney transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Gullo-Neto, S; Padoin, A Vontobel; Queiroz de Carvalho, J E; Wendling, R; Traesel, M A; Kroth, L; Miranda, C; Balestro, A Colombo; Siqueira, R; Chao Lisot, B; Lima, S; Mottin, C Corá; Saitovitch, D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients not morbidly obese (BMI <35) has been widely studied. Taking into account that ?12% of pancreas transplants are performed in patients with T2DM, our goal was to evaluate the impact of metabolic surgery on the management of obese patients with T2DM on waiting lists for a pancreas transplant. We performed a Roux-en-Y gastrointestinal bypass in 5 patients with insulin-dependent T2DM who were candidates for pancreas after kidney transplant and with a BMI <35. Three patients became insulin independent by the end of the first year while the other 2 reduced their insulin requirements by 70%. Furthermore, all patients achieved improved control of lipid levels. We concluded that the surgery was effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid metabolism in these obese T2DM kidney transplant recipients. In this population, a pancreas transplant, along with its associated morbidity, may be avoided. PMID:25131025

  15. Biomarker validation for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A critical component to successful cancer screening is the identification of a lesion for which intervention will result in prolonged survival or cure.The five-year survival of patients with resected stage IA pancreas cancer (the earliest identifiable lesion and

  16. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  17. Embolization of an Insulinoma of the Pancreas with Trisacryl Gelatin Microspheres as Definitive Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, Gernot Biggemann, Martin; Pfohl, Martin

    2008-05-15

    Insulinomas are rare, mostly benign neuroendocrine tumors, originating in 99% of cases from the pancreas, that synthesize and secrete insulin, causing symptomatic hypoglycemia. Today the treatment of choice is surgical removal. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman with a symptomatic insulinoma who refused surgery and was treated with arterial embolization using trisacryl gelatin microspheres as definitive treatment.

  18. A Registry Analysis of Damage to the Deceased Donor Pancreas During Procurement.

    PubMed

    Ausania, F; Drage, M; Manas, D; Callaghan, C J

    2015-11-01

    Surgical injury to the pancreas is thought to occur commonly during procurement. The UK Transplant Registry was analyzed to determine the frequency of pancreatic injuries, identify factors associated with damage, and assess the impact of injuries on graft survival. Twelve hundred ninety-six pancreata were procured from donation after brain death donors, with 314 (19.5%) from donation after circulatory death donors. More than 50% of recovered pancreata had at least one injury, most commonly a short portal vein (21.5%). Liver donation, procurement team origin, hepatic artery (HA) arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and increasing donor BMI were associated with increased rates of pancreas damage on univariate analyses; on multivariate analysis only the presence of an HA from the SMA remained significant (p?=?0.02). Six hundred forty solid organ pancreas transplants were performed; 238 had some form of damage. Overall, there was no difference in graft survival between damaged and undamaged organs (p?=?0.28); however, graft loss was significantly more frequent in pancreata with arterial damage (p?=?0.04) and in those with parenchymal damage (p?=?0.05). Damage to the pancreas during organ recovery is more common than other organs, and meticulous surgical technique and awareness of damage risk factors are essential to reduce rates of procurement-related injuries. PMID:26484838

  19. Microcystic serous cystadenoma of the pancreas: a report of two cases with one of diffuse presentation.

    PubMed

    Tampi, Chandralekha; Mullerpatan, Prashant; Shah, Rajiv; Jagannath, Palepu; Zimmermann, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Microcystic adenoma or serous cystadenoma is an uncommon tumor and accounts for 1-2% of the exocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. Usually unifocal, they present as single, large, well-demarcated multiloculated cystic tumors, ranging in size from 1 to 25 cm. Multifocal variants or diffuse serous cystadenomas are extremely rare. We present 2 cases of which 1 is a diffuse variant affecting the body, tail and part of the neck of the pancreas. In both the patients the tumors were detected incidentally. We highlight on the diffuse variant in view of its rarity and present a review of literature. In this case the entire body and tail of the pancreas was spongy replaced by multicystic lobules and hyalinized fibrocollagenous stroma. The cysts were lined by low cuboidal glycogen containing bland cells. Such a unique presentation wherein the entire body and tail of the pancreas is replaced with multiple cysts is a diffuse presentation of microcystic adenoma and a search through literature revealed only 7 such cases among the 15 cases with multifocal presentation reported. PMID:16543776

  20. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: Molecular characterization of 23 patients along with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Borazanci, Erkut; Millis, Sherri Z; Korn, Ron; Han, Haiyong; Whatcott, Clifford J; Gatalica, Zoran; Barrett, Michael T; Cridebring, Derek; Von Hoff, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCP) is a rare entity. Like adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, overall survival is poor. Characteristics of ASCP include central tumor necrosis, along with osteoclasts and hypercalcemia. Various theories exist as to why this histological subtype exists, as normal pancreas tissue has no benign squamous epithelium. Due to the rarity of this disease, limited molecular analysis has been performed, and those reports indicate unique molecular features of ASCP. In this paper, we characterize 23 patients diagnosed with ASCP through molecular profiling using immunohistochemistry staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and gene sequencing, Additionally, we provide a comprehensive literature review of what is known to date of ASCP. Molecular characterization revealed overexpression in MRP1 (80%), MGMT (79%), TOP2A (75), RRM1 (42%), TOPO1 (42%), PTEN (45%), CMET (40%), and C-KIT (10%) among others. One hundred percent of samples tested were positive for KRAS mutations. This analysis shows heretofore unsuspected leads to be considered for treatments of this rare type of exocrine pancreas cancer. Molecular profiling may be appropriate to provide maximum information regarding the patient’s tumor. Further work should be pursued to better characterize this disease. PMID:26380056

  1. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery.…

  2. Monocytes Infiltrate the Pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 Pathway and Differentiate into Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Kazuko; Masuya, Masahiro; Tawara, Isao; Miyata, Eri; Oda, Keiko; Nakamori, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kei; Ohishi, Kohshi; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)+CD45– cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Because the vast majority of EGFP+CD45– cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and ?-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs). EGFP+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II) increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), were expressed on Ly6Chigh monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP+F4/80+CCR2+ monocytic cells and EGFP+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and give rise to PaSCs. PMID:24416305

  3. Three-dimensional contrasted visualization of pancreas in rats using clinical MRI and CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Coudyzer, Walter; Peeters, Ronald; Liu, Yewei; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Xia, Qian; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Yansheng; Dymarkowski, Steven; Huang, Gang; Chen, Feng; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to visualize the pancreas in post-mortem rats with local contrast medium infusion by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using clinical imagers. A total of 16 Sprague Dawley rats of about 300?g were used for the pancreas visualization. Following the baseline imaging, a mixed contrast medium dye called GadoIodo-EB containing optimized concentrations of Gd-DOTA, iomeprol and Evens blue was infused into the distally obstructed common bile duct (CBD) for post-contrast imaging with 3.0?T MRI and 128-slice CT scanners. Images were post-processed with the MeVisLab software package. MRI findings were co-registered with CT scans and validated with histomorphology, with relative contrast ratios quantified. Without contrast enhancement, the pancreas was indiscernible. After infusion of GadoIodo-EB solution, only the pancreatic region became outstandingly visible, as shown by 3D rendering MRI and CT and proven by colored dissection and histological examinations. The measured volume of the pancreas averaged 1.12?±?0.04?cm(3) after standardization. Relative contrast ratios were 93.28?±?34.61% and 26.45?±?5.29% for MRI and CT respectively. We have developed a multifunctional contrast medium dye to help clearly visualize and delineate rat pancreas in situ using clinical MRI and CT scanners. The topographic landmarks thus created with 3D demonstration may help to provide guidelines for the next in vivo pancreatic MRI research in rodents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25876187

  4. Pre-operative plasma club (clara) cell secretory protein levels are associated with primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal J.; Wickersham, Nancy; Lederer, David J.; Palmer, Scott M.; Cantu, Edward; Diamond, Joshua M.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Weinacker, Ann; Shah, Pali; Arcasoy, Selim; Wilkes, David S.; Christie, Jason D.; Ware, Lorraine B.

    2013-01-01

    Inherent recipient factors, including pre-transplant diagnosis, obesity, and elevated pulmonary pressures are established PGD risks. We evaluated the relationship between pre-operative lung injury biomarkers and PGD to gain further mechanistic insight in recipients. We performed a prospective cohort study of recipients in the lung transplant outcomes group enrolled between 2002 and 2010. Our primary outcome was grade 3 PGD on day 2 or 3. We measured pre-operative plasma levels of 5 biomarkers (CC-16, sRAGE, ICAM-1, IL-8, and Protein C) that were previously associated with PGD when measured at the post-operative timepoint. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders. Of 714 subjects, 130 (18%) developed PGD. Median CC-16 levels were elevated in subjects with PGD (10.1 vs. 6.0, p<0.001). CC-16 was associated with PGD in non-IPF subjects (OR for highest quartile of CC-16: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.37, 6.00, p=0.005) but not in subjects with IPF (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 0.43, 4.45, p=0.59). After adjustment, pre-operative CC-16 levels remained associated with PGD (OR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.26, 7.30, p=0.013) in non-IPF subjects. Our study suggests the importance of pre-existing airway epithelial injury in PGD. Markers of airway epithelial injury may be helpful in pre-transplant risk stratification in specific recipients. PMID:24400993

  5. Does preoperative gabapentin affects the characteristics of post-dural puncture headache in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia?

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Walid Hamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gabapentin is effective for treating different types of headache including post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), also used for prophylaxis against migraine. We studied the effect of pre-operative administration of gabapentin on the characteristics of PDPH in parturients undergoing cesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive preoperative gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 ?g fentanyl. Babies were followed up by Apgar scores, umbilical artery blood gases, breastfeeding difficulties, and need for NICU admission. The mothers were followed up for any side-effects of gabapentin for 24 h. Patients with PDPH were re-admitted and onset and duration of the headache were reported and severity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 4 days from diagnosis. Paracetamol with caffeine and diclofenac were given for treatment, and the doses were adjusted according to VAS; also number of doses given for each group was recorded. Results: Eighty eight patients were randomized, and 2 were excluded. The incidence of headache and co-existing symptoms were similar in both groups. The onset of headache was significantly delayed in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). Also, severity and duration of headache were significantly less in gabapentin group (P < 0.05). The incidence of sedation was more in gabapentin group 11 (26.19%) versus placebo group 3 (6.81%). Neonatal outcomes were statistically insignificant between both groups. Conclusion: Pre-operative administration of gabapentin has no effect on incidence of (PDPH) but delays its onset and reduces its severity and duration in parturients undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia without significant adverse effects on the mother or the baby. PMID:25191187

  6. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph F; Neuman, Joshua C; Brill, Allison L; Brar, Harpreet K; Thompson, Mary F; Cadena, Mark T; Connors, Kelsey M; Busch, Rebecca A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Cham, Candace M; Jones, Elaina K; Kibbe, Carly R; Davis, Dawn B; Groblewski, Guy E; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-09-15

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  7. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Detailed Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendations Diagnosis Doctors examining a bubo caused by plague. Plague ...

  8. Preoperative cerebrospinal fluid ?-Amyloid/Tau ratio and postoperative delirium

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhongcong; Swain, Celeste A; Ward, Sarah A P; Zheng, Hui; Dong, Yuanlin; Sunder, Neelakantan; Burke, Dennis W; Escobar, Diana; Zhang, Yiying; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2014-01-01

    Objective The neuropathogenesis of postoperative delirium remains unknown. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ?-amyloid protein (A?) and high CSF Tau levels are associated with Alzheimer's disease. We, therefore, assessed whether lower preoperative CSF A?/Tau ratio was associated with higher incidence and greater severity of postoperative delirium. Methods One hundred and fifty-three participants (71 ± 5 years, 53% men) who had total hip/knee replacement under spinal anesthesia were enrolled. CSF was obtained during initiation of spinal anesthesia. The incidence and severity of postoperative delirium were determined by Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) on postoperative day 1 and 2. A?40, A?42, and Tau levels in the CSF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these variables were determined, adjusting for age and gender. Results Participants in the lowest quartile of preoperative CSF A?40/Tau and A?42/Tau ratio had higher incidence (32% vs. 17%, P = 0.0482) and greater symptom severity of postoperative delirium (A?40/Tau ratio: 4 vs. 3, P = 0.034; A?42/Tau ratio: 4 vs. 3, P = 0.062, the median of the highest MDAS score) as compared to the combination of the rest of the quartiles. The preoperative CSF A?40/Tau or A?42/Tau ratio was inversely associated with MDAS score (A?40/Tau ratio: ?0.12 ± 0.05, P = 0.014, adj. ?0.12 ± 0.05, P = 0.018; A?42/Tau ratio: ?0.65 ± 0.26, P = 0.013, adj. ?0.62 ± 0.27, P = 0.022). Interpretation Lower CSF A?/Tau ratio could be associated with postoperative delirium, pending confirmation of our preliminary results in further studies. These findings suggest potential roles of A? and/or Tau in postoperative delirium neuropathogenesis. PMID:24860840

  9. Preoperative color Doppler assessment in planning of gluteal perforator flaps.

    PubMed

    Isken, Tonguc; Alagoz, M Sahin; Onyedi, Murat; Izmirli, Hakki; Isil, Eda; Yurtseven, Nagehan

    2009-02-01

    Gluteal artery perforator flaps have gained popularity due to reliability, preservation of the muscle, versatility in flap design without restricting other flap options, and low donor-site morbidity in ambulatory patients and possibility of enabling future reconstruction in paraplegic patients. But the inconstant anatomy of the vascular plexus around the gluteal muscle makes it hard to predict how many perforators are present, what their volume of blood flow and size are, where they exit the overlying fascia, and what their course through the muscle will be. Without any prior investigations, the reconstructive surgeon could be surprised intraoperatively by previous surgical damage, scar formation, or anatomic variants.For these reasons, to confirm the presence and the location of gluteal perforators preoperatively we have used color Doppler ultrasonography. With the help of the color Doppler ultrasonography 26 patients, 21 men and 5 women, were operated between the years 2002 and 2007. The mean age of patients was 47.7 (age range: 7-77 years). All perforator vessels were marked preoperatively around the defect locations. The perforator based flap that will allow primary closure of the donor site and the defect without tension was planned choosing the perforator that showed the largest flow in color Doppler ultrasonography proximally. Perforators were found in the sites identified with color Doppler ultrasonography in all other flaps. In our study, 94.4% flap viability was ensured in 36 perforator-based gluteal area flaps. Mean flap elevation time was 31.9 minutes. We found that locating the perforators preoperatively helps to shorten the operation time without compromising a reliable viability of the perforator flaps, thus enabling the surgeon easier treatment of pressure sores. PMID:19158526

  10. Geometric alopecia after preoperative angioembolization of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Alejandro; Shukla, Pratik A; Choudhry, Osamah J; Gandhi, Chirag D; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Resection of a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is challenging because of high intraoperative blood loss secondary to the tumor's well-developed vascularity. Endoscopic sinus and skull base surgeons commonly collaborate with neurointerventionalists to embolize these tumors before resection in an attempt to reduce the vascular supply and intraoperative bleeding. However, angioembolization can be associated with significant complications. Geometric alopecia from angioembolization of JNA has not been previously reported in the otolaryngologic literature. In this study, we discuss geometric alopecia from radiation exposure during preoperative angioembolization of a JNA. PMID:23772321

  11. Geometric alopecia after preoperative angioembolization of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Alejandro; Shukla, Pratik A.; Choudhry, Osamah J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.; Liu, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Resection of a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is challenging because of high intraoperative blood loss secondary to the tumor's well-developed vascularity. Endoscopic sinus and skull base surgeons commonly collaborate with neurointerventionalists to embolize these tumors before resection in an attempt to reduce the vascular supply and intraoperative bleeding. However, angioembolization can be associated with significant complications. Geometric alopecia from angioembolization of JNA has not been previously reported in the otolaryngologic literature. In this study, we discuss geometric alopecia from radiation exposure during preoperative angioembolization of a JNA. PMID:23772321

  12. Diagnostic value of ultrasound indicators of neoplastic risk in preoperative differentiation of adnexal masses

    PubMed Central

    Bachanek, Micha?; Trojanowski, Seweryn; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, W?odzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Aim To assess the diagnostic value of the risk of malignancy indices and simple ultrasound- based rules in preoperative differentiation of adnexal masses. Material and methods Retrospective examination of 87 patients admitted to hospital due to adnexal tumors. The lesions were evaluated on the basis of international ultrasound classification of ovarian tumors and four risk of malignancy indices were calculated based on ultrasound examination, concentration of CA 125 and menopausal status. Results The patients were aged between 17 and 79, the mean age was 44.5 (standard deviation SD=16.6). Most of the patients (60.91%) were before their menopause. The sensitivity of the simple ultrasound-based rules in the diagnosis of malignancies equaled 64.71% and the specificity constituted 90.00%. A significant statistical difference in the presence of the malignant process was demonstrated in relation to age, menopausal status, CA 125 concentration and analyzed ultrasound score. All indices were characterized by similar sensitivity and specificity. The highest specificity and predictive value of malignant lesions out of the assessed ones was demonstrated by the risk of malignancy index proposed by Yamamoto. The risk of malignancy index according to Jacobs, however, showed the highest predictive value in the case of non-malignant lesions. Conclusions The multiparametric ultrasound examination may facilitate the selection of patients with adnexal tumors to provide them with an appropriate treatment – observation, laparotomy and laparoscopy. These parameters constitute a simple ambulatory method of determining the character of adnexal masses before recommending appropriate treatment.

  13. Preoperative evaluation of colorectal cancer using CT colonography, MRI, and PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Kijima, Shigeyoshi; Sasaki, Takahiro; Nagata, Koichi; Utano, Kenichi; Lefor, Alan T; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    Imaging studies are a major component in the evaluation of patients for the screening, staging and surveillance of colorectal cancer. This review presents commonly encountered findings in the diagnosis and staging of patients with colorectal cancer using computed tomography (CT) colonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT colonography. CT colonography provides important information for the preoperative assessment of T staging. Wall deformities are associated with muscular or subserosal invasion. Lymph node metastases from colorectal cancer often present with calcifications. CT is superior to detect calcified metastases. Three-dimensional CT to image the vascular anatomy facilitates laparoscopic surgery. T staging of rectal cancer by MRI is an established modality because MRI can diagnose rectal wall laminar structure. N staging in patients with colorectal cancer is still challenging using any imaging modality. MRI is more accurate than CT for the evaluation of liver metastases. PET/CT colonography is valuable in the evaluation of extra-colonic and hepatic disease. PET/CT colonography is useful for obstructing colorectal cancers that cannot be traversed colonoscopically. PET/CT colonography is able to localize synchronous colon cancers proximal to the obstruction precisely. However, there is no definite evidence to support the routine clinical use of PET/CT colonography. PMID:25493009

  14. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Silja A.; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  15. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  16. Neoplasms of the Stomach, Liver & Pancreas: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment among High-Risk Populations | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Agenda - Day 1, September 18, 2015 08:00 am - Registration 08:30 am - Welcome remarks and overview of the Conference Dr. Leslie Ford (NCI) – 5 min Dr. Edgar Colon (RCM and UPRCCC) - 5 min Luz Maria Rodriguez – Conference objectives & structure  Global Cancer Burden: An Overview and State of the Problem Moderators: Dr. Luz Maria Rodriguez and Dr. Victor Jose Carlo (PR Gastroenterology Association)

  17. DNA in situ hybridization for the rapid diagnosis of massive necrotizing avian adenovirus hepatitis and pancreatitis in chicks.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, M A; Latimer, K S; Resurreccion, R S; Miller, P G; Campagnoli, R P

    1996-01-01

    The present study describes the use of DNA in situ hybridization for the rapid diagnosis of massive necrotizing adenovirus hepatitis and pancreatitis in broiler chicks. A light microscope and DNA probes were used to identify avian adenovirus in replicate sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver and pancreas from field and experimental chicks. Avian adenovirus infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and virus isolation. PMID:8980813

  18. Essential elements of the preoperative breast reconstruction evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A plethora of options exist for breast reconstruction and preoperative evaluation must be thorough to lead to a successful outcome. We review multiple components of the preoperative assessment including the patient’s history, goals, imaging, and key elements of the physical exam. Consideration for tumor biology, staging, need or response to chemotherapy or radiation therapy is important in deciding on immediate versus delayed reconstruction. It is also important to consider the patient’s anatomy, breast size and whether the reconstruction will be unilateral or bilateral. The reconstructive surgeon must accommodate all these factors to consider partial or complete mastectomy defects and guide the patient to the most appropriate reconstructive technique whether it be an oncoplastic reduction mammoplasty, expander-based reconstruction, immediate implant reconstruction, or immediate versus delayed autologous tissue reconstruction such as the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP)/transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM), latissimus, transverse upper gracilis (TUG)/profunda femoris artery perforator (PAP), or gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flaps. PMID:26005641

  19. Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L.

    2008-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

  20. A comparison of propranolol and diazepam for preoperative anxiolysis.

    PubMed

    Dyck, J B; Chung, F

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of propranolol, a nonsedating anxiolytic premedication, was studied by monitoring preoperative anxiety and postoperative recovery of cognitive function in 92 healthy ASA physical status I females aged 15-42 yr undergoing outpatient dilatation and curettage (D&C) for therapeutic abortion. In a randomized double-blind design, patients received one of the following oral medications 1-1.5 hr preoperatively: (1) diazepam 10 mg (n = 31); (2) propranolol 80 mg (n = 31); (3) placebo (n = 30). Anxiety throughout the hospital stay was monitored using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Postoperative cognitive recovery was assessed using the digit span and Trieger tests. STAI anxiety levels were recorded on admission to hospital, immediately before entering the operating room, and two hours postoperatively. There was no difference among the anxiolytic properties of the three medications and all three patient groups showed a significant decrease in anxiety levels after administration of the medication. Tests of cognitive function after anaesthesia showed the fastest return to baseline status in patients receiving propranolol, possibly because beta adrenergic blockade blunted the autonomic signs of light anaesthesia and less anaesthetic was administered. None of the study premedications was demonstrated to have an anxiolytic advantage, but propranolol did offer a faster return of cognitive function in the postoperative period. PMID:1914053

  1. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Sakai, Yuji; Mikata, Rintaro; Yasui, Shin; Watanabe, Yuto; Sakamoto, Dai; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Senoo, Jun-ichi; Kusakabe, Yuko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed using the keywords “PBD”, “pancreaticoduodenectomy”, and “obstructive jaundice”. Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention. PMID:26328029

  2. Preoperative Statin Use and Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Steven M.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Bateman, Brian T.; Chang, Tara I.; Lii, Joyce; Garg, Amit X.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury is a frequent postoperative complication that confers increased mortality, morbidity, and costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative statin use is associated with a decreased risk of postoperative acute kidney injury. METHODS We assembled a retrospective cohort of 98,939 patients who underwent a major open abdominal, cardiac, thoracic, or vascular procedure between 2000 and 2010. Statin users were pair-matched to nonusers on the basis of surgery type, baseline kidney function, days from admission until surgery, and propensity score based on demographics, comorbid conditions, and concomitant medications. Acute kidney injury was defined based on changes in serum creatinine measurements applying Acute Kidney Injury Network and Risk-Injury-Failure staging systems, and on the need for renal replacement therapy. Associations between statin use and acute kidney injury were estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Across various acute kidney injury definitions, statin use was consistently associated with a decreased risk: adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) varied from 0.74 (0.58–0.95) to 0.80 (0.71–0.90). Associations were similar among diabetics and nondiabetics, and across strata of baseline kidney function. The protective association of statins was most pronounced among patients undergoing vascular surgery and least among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative statin use is associated with a decreased risk of postoperative acute kidney injury. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to determine causality. PMID:23062398

  3. Preoperative pain management education: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Katherine F

    2015-06-01

    The management of pain is one of the greatest clinical challenges for nurses who care for patients during the postoperative period. It can be even more challenging for patients who must manage their own pain after discharge from the health care facility. Research shows that postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged despite decades of education and evidence-based guidelines. Ineffective management of postoperative pain can negatively impact multiple patient outcomes. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a preoperative pain management patient education intervention on improving patients' postoperative pain management outcomes. The project was conducted with patients undergoing same-day laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an outpatient general surgery service at a teaching institution. Patients in the intervention and comparison groups completed the American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire-Revised during their first postoperative clinic visit 2 weeks after surgery. Results showed that patients who received the preoperative education intervention reported less severe pain during the first 24 hours postoperatively, experienced fewer and less severe pain medication side effects, returned to normal activities sooner, and used more nonpharmacologic pain management methods postoperatively compared with those who did not receive the education. PMID:26003769

  4. Preoperative pulmonary assessment of children for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luciane; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; March, Maria de Fátima B P; Ferreira, Sidnei; Marsillac, Marise; Tura, Mônica; Oñate, Hermes

    2008-08-01

    Pulmonary assessment should be part of the preoperative investigation of pediatric patients with chronic liver disease undergoing liver transplantation, as it allows the identification of pulmonary alterations that influence candidacy for transplantation and survival. To describe pulmonary changes found in pediatric patients who were candidates for liver transplantation. Retrospective study of 17 pediatric liver transplant candidates undergoing preoperative pulmonary evaluation assessing pulmonary clinical data, arterial blood gas analysis, CXR, respiratory function test by spirometry, pulmonary scintigraphy, and CEE. Ten patients presented normal chest roentgenograms. The most common radiographic change was interstitial infiltrate in the lung bases. Of the five patients with PaO(2) <70 mmHg, four had cyanosis and dyspnea and two were diagnosed with HPS with intrapulmonary shunt evidenced by contrast echocardiogram. Two patients presented with intrapulmonary shunt but without hypoxemia. Spirometry was normal in six patients, restrictive disturbance was evidenced in one patient, obstructive in three, and combined in two. The most common scintigraphic change was heterogeneous pulmonary perfusion. Pulmonary assessment should be performed routinely in pediatric patients prior to liver transplantation, even in asymptomatic patients. Pulmonary assessment may indicate changes such as HPS that can increase postoperative morbidity/mortality. PMID:18194351

  5. Diagnosis and management of the infected total joint arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Cuckler, J.M.; Star, A.M.; Alavi, A.; Noto, R.B. )

    1991-07-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of the infected orthopedic implant is complicated by lack of a single precise test to forewarn patient and surgeon of the presence of microorganisms. Given the overall limitation of accuracy of preoperative diagnosis to approximately 80% when 111In scanning, preoperative aspiration, and ESR are considered, it would seem prudent to approach each revision surgery with the possibility in mind of subclinical sepsis as the cause for failure of the implant. The essentials of surgical technique including thorough debridement of the wound and removal of all existing foreign bodies, especially including PMMA bone cement, are critical to minimizing the risk for occurrence or persistence of sepsis. Although the use of antibiotic impregnated bone cement may enhance the treatment of orthopedic sepsis, the data available to date lead to the conclusion that two-stage revision surgery in the face of known sepsis remains the cornerstone of surgical therapy for the infected implant, along with aggressive and rational antibiotic treatment. The surgeon is offered the following guidelines in the management of the septic total hip arthroplasty. 1. Preoperative evaluation including ESR, 111In WBC scan, and aspiration for culture and sensitivity (fluoroscopically guided for the hip) will produce on average approximately 80% accuracy. 2. Intraoperative cultures at the time of revision surgery should be obtained prior to administration of systemic antibiotics; three tissue specimens (hip capsule, femoral membrane, acetabular membrane) should be submitted for culture and sensitivity determination. 3. Careful debridement of the surgical site of granulation tissue and all foreign bodies (e.g., PMMA) should be performed within the limits of patient safety to maximize the likelihood of success. 37 refs.

  6. Expression pattern of claudins 5 and 7 distinguishes solid-pseudopapillary from pancreatoblastoma, acinar cell and endocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Comper, Fabrizio; Antonello, Davide; Beghelli, Stefania; Gobbo, Stefano; Montagna, Licia; Pederzoli, Paolo; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Solid-pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is characterized by a discohesive appearance of the neoplastic cells. This has been linked to the displacement of E-cadherin and beta-catenin from their normal membrane location, which prevents adherens junctions to form. The nuclear localization of beta-catenin is also a feature of SPT that helps in differential diagnosis. This latter includes pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) as SPT may show neuroendocrine differentiation, and pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) and pancreatoblastoma (PB) that may often show nuclear beta-catenin staining. However, the role of additional cell-cell adhesion systems remains to be elucidated in SPT, particularly that of claudins that are essential components of tight junctions showing modulated expression in diverse tumor types. We studied 20 SPT, 20 nonfunctioning PET, 7 ACC, 2 PB, and their matched normal pancreas for the immunohistochemical expression of claudin family members 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7, beta-catenin and E-cadherin. All SPT showed intense membrane claudin 5 and cytoplasmic claudin 2 staining, lack of claudins 3 and 4, and positive cytoplasmic claudins 1 and 7 in few cases. Conversely, PET, ACC, and PB showed strong membrane expression of claudin 7 and lack of claudin 5, whereas claudins 1, 2, 3, and 4 showed variable expression among samples. All SPT showed nuclear beta-catenin and lack of E-cadherin membrane staining, whereas PET, ACC, and PB only showed nuclear beta-catenin in 1, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. SPT shows a peculiar claudin expression profile and the highly specific pattern of claudins 5 and 7 differentiates SPT from PET, ACC, and PB. PMID:19194274

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrinomas in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN-1)

    PubMed Central

    Plöckinger, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease. It is associated with a broad range of endocrine tumours, most frequently arising in the parathyroid glands, the pituitary and the pancreas. Most neuroendocrine tumours will be diagnosed in the pancreas as non-functioning neuroendocrine tumours or insulinomas. Forty-two percent of the patients will develop a gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumour, a gastrinoma. Gastrinomas in MEN-1 tend to be small, multiple and preferentially located in the duodenum. This paper will focus on the specific characteristics of gastrinomas in the setting of MEN-1 compared to sporadic gastrinomas. The developments in understanding the tumorigenesis of these tumours and the consequences for diagnosis and therapy will be discussed. PMID:24213225

  8. Fault Detection and Safety in Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  9. International consensus on the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    International consensus guidelines for the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas revised in 2012 (Fukuoka consensus) seem to be accepted well worldwide. Division of various factors to predict malignant transformation into two categories, i.e., “high-risk stigmata” and “worrisome features”, is also accepted as practically useful for stratifying the risk factors. Our current interest resides in the development of noninvasive and/or invasive pancreatic cancer in areas of the pancreas distinct from IPMN. Invasive pancreatic cancers derived from and concomitant with IPMN should be distinguished to clarify the incidence of each entity, although some more definitive method for differentiation has to be devised in some cases where histological distinction is obscure. IPMN is a clue to early detection of pancreatic cancer. The optimal surveillance protocol for IPMN on observation should be determined in consideration of both of these different pancreatic cancers.

  10. Design and in silico evaluation of an intraperitoneal–subcutaneous (IP–SC) artificial pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Howard; Doyle, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Prandial glucose regulation is a major challenge for the artificial pancreas using subcutaneous insulin (without a feedforward bolus) due to insulin’s slow absorption-peak (50–60 min). Intraperitoneal insulin, with a fast absorption peak (20–25 min), has been suggested as an alternative to address these limitations. An artificial pancreas using intraperitoneal insulin was designed and evaluated on 100 in silico subjects and compared with two designs using subcutaneous insulin with and without a feedforward bolus, following the three meal (40–70 g-carbohydrates) evaluation protocol. The design using intraperitoneal insulin resulted in a significantly lower postprandial blood glucose peak (38 mg/dL) and longer time in the clinically accepted region (13%) compared to the design using subcutaneous insulin without a feedforward bolus and comparable results to a subcutaneous feedforward bolus design. This superior regulation with minimal user interaction may improve the quality of life for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25267863

  11. Pax6 Inactivation in the Adult Pancreas Reveals Ghrelin as Endocrine Cell Maturation Marker

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Rafeeq, Maria; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Pax6 is an important regulator of development and cell differentiation in various organs. Thus, Pax6 was shown to promote neural development in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord, and to control pancreatic endocrine cell genesis. However, the role of Pax6 in distinct endocrine cells of the adult pancreas has not been addressed. We report the conditional inactivation of Pax6 in insulin and glucagon producing cells of the adult mouse pancreas. In the absence of Pax6, beta- and alpha-cells lose their molecular maturation characteristics. Our findings provide strong evidence that Pax6 is responsible for the maturation of beta-, and alpha-cells, but not of delta-, and PP-cells. Moreover, lineage-tracing experiments demonstrate that Pax6-deficient beta- and alpha-cells are shunted towards ghrelin marked cells, sustaining the idea that ghrelin may represent a marker for endocrine cell maturation. PMID:26658466

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactivity in the vertebrate endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Petrusz, P; Merchenthaler, I; Maderdrut, J L; Vigh, S; Schally, A V

    1983-01-01

    The light microscopic immunocytochemical localization of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is described in the endocrine pancreas of several species representing the major classes of vertebrates: fishes (channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus), amphibians (African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis), reptiles (chameleon, Anolis carolinensis), birds (chicken, Gallus domesticus), and several mammals (rat, mouse, cat, rhesus monkey, and man). The CRF-containing cells are scattered over the entire islet tissue in primates and cat, whereas in rat and mouse they are located at the periphery of the islets. In the chicken and catfish, the CRF-containing cells are found in a central location within islets and form larger clusters or cords. Single cells with CRF-like immunoreactivity are interspersed between acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas in all species studied. The CRF cells show a substantial topographical overlap with glucagon cells, but their precise identity and function remain to be determined. Images PMID:6340106

  13. Fault detection and safety in closed-loop artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  14. Santorinicele containing a pancreatic duct stone in a patient with incomplete pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kwang Ro; Bang, Sung Jo; Shin, Jung Woo; Kim, Do Ha; Park, Neung Hwa

    2004-10-31

    Santorinicele, a focal cystic dilatation of the distal duct of Santorini, has been suggested as a possible cause of the relative stenosis of the accessory papilla, is associated with complete pancreas divisum, which results in acute episodes of pancreatitis or pain. This report describes a case of a santorinicele, which was initially detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as a polypoid mass, in a patient with recurrent abdominal pain. The mass was subsequently proved to be a santorinicele containing a pancreatic duct stone associated with incomplete pancreas divisum on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. To the best of our knowledge this is believed to be the first description of a santorinicele associated with these characteristic findings. PMID:15515212

  15. Antioxidant protection of Malaysian tualang honey in pancreas of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, O O; Sulaiman, S A; Wahab, M S; Sirajudeen, K N S; Salleh, M S Md; Gurtu, S

    2010-09-01

    Glucotoxicity contributes to beta-cell dysfunction through oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that tualang honey ameliorated renal oxidative stress and produced hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. This present study investigated the hypothesis that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might partly be due to protection of pancreas against oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups and administered distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). Similarly, two groups of non-diabetic rats received distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). The animals were treated orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, the honey-treated diabetic rats had significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose levels [8.8 (5.8)mmol/L; median (interquartile range)] compared with the diabetic control rats [17.9 (2.6)mmol/L]. The pancreas of diabetic control rats showed significantly increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced while glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Tualang honey significantly (p<0.05) reduced elevated MDA levels. Honey treatment also restored SOD and CAT activities. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might be attributed to its antioxidative effect on the pancreas. PMID:20398890

  16. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles. PMID:26253251

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of the tongue: Late metastasis to the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gavin A.; El-Hayek, Kevin; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Winans, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the salivary glands. We present a 64-year-old gentleman with ACC of the tongue who following resection and radiotherapy, presented 10 years later with a lung metastasis and underwent operative intervention and further radiotherapy. Five years later he presented with obstructive jaundice found to be metastatic ACC. We believe this to be the first report of an ACC metastasizing to the pancreas. PMID:22096672

  18. Bringing Patient-Centered Care to the Fore in Diseases of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Pendharkar, Sayali A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the pancreas are often very challenging for both patients and doctors as well as pose a considerable burden on healthcare system. Emerging evidence on the importance of shared-decision making in medicine stresses the need to integrate best clinical evidence and patient-reported outcomes to deliver optimal patient care. This paper argues that patient-centered care should no longer be a hermit in management of pancreatic diseases in the 21st century. PMID:26074955

  19. Pancreas Recovery Following Caerulein-induced Pancreatitis is Impaired in Plasminogen Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lugea, Aurelia; Nan, Li; French, Samuel W.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: The plasminogen (plg) system participates in tissue repair in several organs, but its role in pancreas repair remains poorly characterized. To better understand the role of plg in pancreas recovery following injury, we examined the course of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in plg deficient and sufficient mice. Methods: Pancreatitis was induced by caerulein administration (50 ?g/kg, 7 ip injections). Mice were sacrificed either at the acute phase (7 hours after the first caerulein injection) or during recovery (at 2, 4 and 7 days). In pancreatic sections we examined: pancreatic morphology, trypsin activation, inflammatory cell infiltration, acinar cell death, cell proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, activation of stellate cells (PSCs), and components of the plg and metalloproteinase systems. Results: In plg sufficient mice, pancreatic plg levels and plasmin activity increased during the acute phase and remained elevated during recovery. Pancreatitis resolved in plg sufficient mice within 7 days. Pancreas recovery involved reorganization of the parenchyma structure, removal of necrotic debris, cell proliferation, transient activation of PSCs and moderate deposition of ECM proteins. Acute pancreatitis (7-h) was indistinguishable between plg deficient and sufficient mice. In contrast, pancreas recovery was impaired in plg deficient mice. Plg deficiency led to disorganized parenchyma, extensive acinar cell loss, poor removal of necrotic debris, reduced cell proliferation and fibrosis. Fibrosis was characterized by deposition of collagens and fibronectin, persistent activation of PSCs and upregulation of pancreatic TGF-?1. Conclusions: Plg/plasmin deficiency leads to features similar to those found in chronic pancreatitis such as parenchymal atrophy and fibrosis. PMID:16952557

  20. Bloodstream infection following 217 consecutive systemic-enteric drained pancreas transplants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Natalie; Guggenbichler, Sigmund; Steurer, Wolfgang; Margreiter, Christian; Mayer, Gert; Kafka, Reinhold; Mark, Walter; Rosenkranz, Alexander R; Margreiter, Raimund; Bonatti, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Background Combined kidney pancreas transplantation (PTx) evolved as excellent treatment for diabetic nephropathy. Infections remain common and serious complications. Methods 217 consecutive enteric drained PTxs performed from 1997 to 2004 were retrospectively analyzed with regard to bloodstream infection. Immunosuppression consisted of antithymocyteglobuline induction, tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and steroids for the majority of cases. Standard perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of pipercillin/tazobactam in combination with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Results One year patient, pancreas and kidney graft survival were 96.4%, 88.5% and 94.8%, surgical complication rate was 35%, rejection rate 30% and rate of infection 59%. In total 46 sepsis episodes were diagnosed in 35 patients (16%) with a median onset on day 12 (range 1–45) post transplant. Sepsis source was intraabdominal infection (IAI) (n = 21), a contaminated central venous line (n = 10), wound infection (n = 5), urinary tract infection (n = 2) and graft transmitted (n = 2). Nine patients (4%) experienced multiple episodes of sepsis. Overall 65 pathogens (IAI sepsis 39, line sepsis 15, others 11) were isolated from blood. Gram positive cocci accounted for 50 isolates (77%): Coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 28, i.e. 43%) (nine multi-resistant), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11, i.e. 17%) (four multi-resistant), enterococci (n = 9, i.e. 14%) (one E. faecium). Gram negative rods were cultured in twelve cases (18%). Patients with blood borne infection had a two year pancreas graft survival of 76.5% versus 89.4% for those without sepsis (p = 0.036), patient survival was not affected. Conclusion Sepsis remains a serious complication after PTx with significantly reduced pancreas graft, but not patient survival. The most common source is IAI. PMID:16895603

  1. TU-F-BRF-06: 3D Pancreas MRI Segmentation Using Dictionary Learning and Manifold Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, S; Rapacchi, S; Hu, P; Sheng, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The recent advent of MRI guided radiotherapy machines has lent an exciting platform for soft tissue target localization during treatment. However, tools to efficiently utilize MRI images for such purpose have not been developed. Specifically, to efficiently quantify the organ motion, we develop an automated segmentation method using dictionary learning and manifold clustering (DLMC). Methods: Fast 3D HASTE and VIBE MR images of 2 healthy volunteers and 3 patients were acquired. A bounding box was defined to include pancreas and surrounding normal organs including the liver, duodenum and stomach. The first slice of the MRI was used for dictionary learning based on mean-shift clustering and K-SVD sparse representation. Subsequent images were iteratively reconstructed until the error is less than a preset threshold. The preliminarily segmentation was subject to the constraints of manifold clustering. The segmentation results were compared with the mean shift merging (MSM), level set (LS) and manual segmentation methods. Results: DLMC resulted in consistently higher accuracy and robustness than comparing methods. Using manual contours as the ground truth, the mean Dices indices for all subjects are 0.54, 0.56 and 0.67 for MSM, LS and DLMC, respectively based on the HASTE image. The mean Dices indices are 0.70, 0.77 and 0.79 for the three methods based on VIBE images. DLMC is clearly more robust on the patients with the diseased pancreas while LS and MSM tend to over-segment the pancreas. DLMC also achieved higher sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.99) combining both imaging techniques. LS achieved equivalent sensitivity on VIBE images but was more computationally inefficient. Conclusion: We showed that pancreas and surrounding normal organs can be reliably segmented based on fast MRI using DLMC. This method will facilitate both planning volume definition and imaging guidance during treatment.

  2. Acute oxidative stress modulates secretion and repetitive Ca2+ spiking in rat exocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Sweiry, J H; Shibuya, I; Asada, N; Niwa, K; Doolabh, K; Habara, Y; Kanno, T; Mann, G E

    1999-05-31

    The effects of the oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-buOOH) on carbachol-stimulated pancreatic secretion in the vascularly perfused rat pancreas have been studied in parallel with [Ca2+]i signalling and amylase output in perifused rat pancreatic acinar cells. Perfusion of the pancreas with t-buOOH (0.1-1 mM) caused a rapid and irreversible inhibition of carbachol-stimulated (3x10-7 M) amylase and fluid secretion. Pre-perfusion of the pancreas with vitamin C and dithiothreitol or a cocktail of GSH and GSH-precursor amino acids provided only marginal protection against the deleterious effects of t-buOOH, even though GSH levels were elevated significantly. In perifused pancreatic acini, repetitive [Ca2+]i spikes evoked by carbachol (3x10-7 M) were sustained for 40 min. t-buOOH (1 mM) acutely increased the amplitude and duration of Ca2+ spikes, then attenuated Ca2+ spiking and subsequently caused a marked and sustained rise in [Ca2+]i. t-buOOH-induced alterations in carbachol-stimulated [Ca2+]i signalling and amylase release in perifused pancreatic acini were prevented by vitamin C. Although vitamin C restored impaired Ca2+ signalling and maintained amylase output in pancreatic acini, it seems likely that oxidative stress inhibits fluid secretion irreversibly in the intact pancreas, resulting in a loss of amylase output. Thus, perturbations in [Ca2+]i signalling may not fully explain the secretory block caused by oxidative stress in acute pancreatitis. PMID:10354511

  3. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n?=?1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2?mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients. PMID:23506242

  4. Persistence of counter-regulatory abnormalities in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Battezzati, A; Luzi, L; Perseghin, G; Bianchi, E; Spotti, D; Secchi, A; Vergani, S; Di Carlo, V; Pozza, G

    1994-11-01

    Conventional insulin therapy does not correct the counter-regulatory abnormalities of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pancreas transplantation is an alternative therapy that restores the endogenous insulin secretion in diabetes. In this study, the effects of segmental pancreas transplantation on counter-regulation to mild hypoglycaemia were evaluated. Glucose kinetics and the counter-regulatory hormonal responses were assessed in eight insulin-dependent diabetics with end-stage renal failure who had received pancreas and kidney transplantation 1 year previously, seven diabetic uraemic subjects (candidates for combined transplantation), five patients with chronic uveitis on immunosuppressive therapy comparable to pancreas recipients and 10 normal subjects. Insulin (0.3 mU kg-1 min-1) was infused for 2 h to induce mild hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose 3.2-3.5 mmol l-1) and exogenous glucose was infused as required to prevent any glucose decrease below 3.1 mmol l-1. After transplantation, two of eight recipients had hypoglycaemic episodes reported in their medical records. During the study, hepatic glucose production was rapidly suppressed in the controls and in the patients on immunosuppression (-80 +/- 7 and -54 +/- 7%, P < 0.001 vs. basal), and rebounded to the baseline values within 1 h (-3 +/- 1 and -6 +/- 2%, P = NS vs. basal). The transplant recipients had similar suppression in the first hour (-88 +/- 8%, P < 0.001 vs. basal), but the suppression persisted in the second hour (-69 +/- 11%, P < 0.001 vs. basal) indicating a lack of glucose counter-regulatory response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7890013

  5. Monitoring of kidney and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation rejection by release of donor-specific, soluble HLA class I.

    PubMed

    DeVito-Haynes, L D; Jankowska-Gan, E; Sollinger, H W; Knechtle, S J; Burlingham, W J

    1994-07-01

    Using an HLA-A2-specific ELISA we monitored daily pretransplantation and posttransplantation sera from five kidney and eight simultaneous pancreas-kidney HLA-A2-negative recipients of HLA-A2-positive transplants during hospitalization. We found that, unlike liver transplants, neither kidney nor simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants continuously secreted donor HLA proteins. However, three of four rejection episodes in kidney recipients and seven of seven rejection episodes in simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients were accompanied by elevated serum levels of donor sHLA-A2 (> 5 ng/ml). In only one kidney patient was there a release of donor antigen without evidence of rejection, but in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney group most patients had at least one time point of detectable sHLA-A2 without strong evidence of kidney rejection. While total sHLA levels were also elevated during rejection, the rise in donor-specific sHLA was more dramatic when compared to pretransplantation background levels. We hypothesized that the release of donor sHLA class I proteins by transplanted organs might be a systemic indication of rejection in both pancreas and kidney allografts. The detection of donor sHLA in recipient sera could be an important noninvasive monitor of rejection, especially in the pancreas, which is currently difficult to monitor as a single-organ transplant. PMID:7960963

  6. Magnetic resonance-based thermometry during laser ablation on ex-vivo swine pancreas and liver.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, G; Saccomandi, P; Giurazza, F; Caponero, M A; Frauenfelder, G; Di Matteo, F M; Beomonte Zobel, B; Silvestri, S; Schena, E

    2015-07-01

    Laser Ablation (LA) is a minimally-invasive procedure for tumor treatment. LA outcomes depend on the heat distribution inside tissues and require accurate temperature measurement during the procedure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a non-invasive and three-dimensional thermometry of the organ undergoing LA. In this study, the temperature distribution within two swine pancreases and three swine livers undergoing LA (Nd:YAG, power: 2 W, treatment time: 4 min) was monitored by a 1.5-T MR scanner, utilizing two T1-weighted sequences (IRTF and SRTF). The signal intensity in four regions of interest, placed at different distances from the laser applicator, was related to temperature variations monitored in the same regions by twelve fiber Bragg grating sensors. The relationship between the signal intensity and temperature increase was calculated to obtain the calibration curve and to evaluate accuracy, sensibility and precision of each sequence. This is the first study of MR-based thermometry during LA on pancreas. More specifically, the IRTF sequence provides the highest temperature sensitivity in both liver (1.8 ± 0.2 °C(-1)) and pancreas (1.8 ± 0.5 °C(-1)) and the lowest precision and accuracy. SRTF sequence on pancreas presents the highest accuracy and precision (MODSFRT = -0.1 °C and LOASFRT = [-2.3; 2.1] °C). PMID:25979670

  7. Minimal modeling of insulin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas: a drug effect case study.

    PubMed

    Riz, Michela; Pedersen, Morten Gram; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Haschke, Guido; Schneider, Hans-Christoph; Klabunde, Thomas; Margerie, Daniel; Cobelli, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    The experimental protocol of the perfused rat pancreas is commonly used to evaluate ?-cell function. In this context, mathematical models become useful tools through the determination of indexes that allow the assessment of ?-cell function in different experimental groups and the quantification of the effects of antidiabetic drugs, secretagogues, or treatments. However, a minimal model applicable to the isolated perfused rat pancreas has so far been unavailable. In this work, we adapt the C-peptide minimal model applied previously to the intravenous glucose tolerance test to obtain a specific model for the experimental settings of the perfused pancreas. Using the model, it is possible to estimate indexes describing ?-cell responsivity for first (?D) and second phase (?S, T) of insulin secretion. The model was initially applied to untreated pancreata and afterward used for the assessment of pharmacologically relevant agents (the gut hormone GLP-1, the potent GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide, and a GPR40/FFAR1 agonist, SAR1) to quantify and differentiate their effect on insulin secretion. Model fit was satisfactory, and parameters were estimated with good precision for both untreated and treated pancreata. Model application showed that lixisenatide reaches improvement of ?-cell function similarly to GLP-1 (11.7- vs. 13.1-fold increase in ?D and 2.3- vs. 2.8-fold increase in ?S) and demonstrated that SAR1 leads to an additional improvement of ?-cell function in the presence of postprandial GLP-1 levels. PMID:24425760

  8. Effect of a new cholinergic agonist, aclatonium napadisilate, on exocrine and endocrine rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, M; Nakamura, T; Okabayashi, Y; Fujii, M; Tani, S; Fujisawa, T; Baba, S

    1989-08-01

    The effect of aclatonium napadisilate, a choline sulfonate derivative, on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions was compared with that of carbamylcholine in both isolated pancreatic acini and the isolated perfused pancreas of rats. In the isolated acini, aclatonium napadisilate and carbamylcholine stimulated amylase release. While the relative efficacy of aclatonium napadisilate was the same as that of carbamylcholine, aclatonium napadisilate was about 20-fold less potent. In the isolated perfused pancreas, 0.1 microM or higher concentrations of aclatonium napadisilate elicited a significant insulin release in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose, whereas an appreciable increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion was obtained with a 10 times higher concentration (1.0 microM). In contrast, carbamylcholine did not stimulate insulin release at a dose (0.1 microM) that stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion. The insulin-releasing effect of aclatonium napadisilate depended on the glucose concentration. These stimulatory effects of aclatonium napadisilate on endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretion were inhibited by the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine but were not affected by the cholecystokinin receptor antagonist proglumide. These results indicate that aclatonium napadisilate stimulates both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretion via muscarinic receptors and that its action on B cells is more potent than on the exocrine pancreas. PMID:2473869

  9. Effect of restricted motion in high temperature on enzymatic activity of the pancreas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdusattarov, A.; Smirnova, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of 30 day hypodynamia coupled with high temperature (35-36 C) on enzymatic activity of the pancreas of male adult rats were studied. The test animals were divided into four groups. Group one served as controls (freedom of movement and a temperature of 25-26 C, considered optimal). The remaining animals were divided into three additional groups: Group two freedom of movement but high temperature (35-36 C); group three hypodynamia but an optimal temperature; group four hypodynamia and 35-36 C. Considerable change in the enzymatic activity in the pancreas of the four groups is observed in three experimental groups (two, three, and four) as compared to the control (group one). The results indicate that adaption of the organism to the thermal factor and restricted movement is accompanied by a change in the enzymatic spectrum of the pancreas. With the combined effect of these two stresses under conditions of the adaption of the organism especially sharp shifts occur in the enzymatic activity.

  10. Experimental assessment of CT-based thermometry during laser ablation of porcine pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schena, E.; Saccomandi, P.; Giurazza, F.; Caponero, M. A.; Mortato, L.; Di Matteo, F. M.; Panzera, F.; Del Vescovo, R.; Beomonte Zobel, B.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-08-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is employed to destroy tumors in organs, and its outcome strongly depends on the temperature distribution inside the treated tissue. The recent introduction of computed tomography (CT) scan thermometry, based on the CT number dependence of the tissue with temperature, overcomes the invasiveness of other techniques used to monitor temperature during LITT. The averaged CT number (ROI = 0.02 cm2) of an ex vivo swine pancreas is monitored during LITT (Nd:YAG laser power of 3 W, treatment time: 120 s) at different distances from the applicator (from 4 to 30 mm). The averaged CT number shows a clear decrease during treatment: it is highest at 4 mm from the applicator (mean variation in the whole treatment of -0.256 HU s-1) and negligible at 30 mm, since the highest temperature increase is present close to the applicator (i.e., 45 °C at 4 mm and 25 °C at 6 mm). To obtain the relationship between CT numbers and pancreas temperature, the reference temperature was measured by 12 fiber Bragg grating sensors. The CT number decreases as a function of temperature, showing a nonlinear trend with a mean thermal sensitivity of -0.50 HU °C-1. Results here reported are the first assessment of pancreatic CT number dependence on temperature, at the best of our knowledge. Findings can be useful to further investigate CT scan thermometry during LITT on the pancreas.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Badillo, Raul; Francis, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease with a prevalence as high as 10%-20% in the western world. The disease can manifest in various symptoms which can be grouped into typical, atypical and extra-esophageal symptoms. Those with the highest specificity for GERD are acid regurgitation and heartburn. In the absence of alarm symptoms, these symptoms can allow one to make a presumptive diagnosis and initiate empiric therapy. In certain situations, further diagnostic testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis as well as to assess for complications or alternate causes for the symptoms. GERD complications include erosive esophagitis, peptic stricture, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and pulmonary disease. Management of GERD may involve lifestyle modification, medical therapy and surgical therapy. Lifestyle modifications including weight loss and/or head of bed elevation have been shown to improve esophageal pH and/or GERD symptoms. Medical therapy involves acid suppression which can be achieved with antacids, histamine-receptor antagonists or proton-pump inhibitors. Whereas most patients can be effectively managed with medical therapy, others may go on to require anti-reflux surgery after undergoing a proper pre-operative evaluation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current approach to the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25133039

  12. Is there a Role for Preoperative Infusion or Intraoperative Cholangiography?

    PubMed Central

    Lau, W. Y.; Li, Arthur K. C.

    1997-01-01

    Background: There has been a resurgence of interest in recent years in preoperative infusion cholangiography (PIC). The role of routine PIC compared to routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) has not been clearly defined. Study design: In our department between 1985 and 1991, 1,042 of 1,576 consecutive patients with biliary calculous disease had elective cholecystectomy: 694 patients were prospectively scheduled for PIC, and 348 patients were randomly allocated to IOC. The patients in the PIC and IOC groups were similar with regard to age, history of biliopancreatic complications, and laboratory findings. The cost of PIC in Sweden is nearly five times greater than the cost of IOC. Results: Satisfactory opacification of the biliary system was obtained in 90.1 and 96.8 percent of patients who underwent PIC and IOC, respectively. Preoperative infusion cholangiography required support by IOC in 19.5 percent of patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the PIC and IOC groups with regard to the incidence (7 percent in both groups) of or positive predictive value (68 and 80 percent, respectively) for bile duct stones, rate of retained stones (6 and 20 percent, respectively), intraoperative (5.6 and 6.3 percent, respectively) or postoperative (13.3 and 15.9 percent, respectively) morbidity, or incidence of bile duct anomalies (0.9 and 0.3 percent, respectively). Median operative time was longer in .patients with (95 minutes) compared to those without (75 minutes) IOC (p<0.001). More postoperative complications occurred after bile duct exploration (26 of 75 patients) compared to cholecystectomy alone (114 of 917 patients, p<0.001). The 30-day mortality was zero. Minor bile duct injuries occurred in two patients (0.2 percent) at cholecystectomy, (one with and one without bile duct exploration). In no patient was the cholangiographic finding of a biliary anomaly crucial for the safe execution of cholecystectomy. Conclusions: In our study, PIC and IOC were comparable, but routine use of either method did not promote the safety of cholecystectomy and thus their routine use is not warranted. The shorter operative time and preoperative identification of common bile duct (CBD) stones provided by PIC might favor this examination when applied selectively in patients with increased risk of having CBD stones. However, this potential advantage is offset by the need for PIC to be supported by IOC in approximately 20 percent of patients. Also, the cost of PIC is greater than the cost of IOC. PMID:9298394

  13. 77 FR 59023 - Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...) is issuing Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.68.3, ``Preoperational Testing of Instrument and... since RG 1.68.3 was first issued. These include vibration testing of instrument and control air...

  14. 77 FR 15813 - Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission..., ``Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems.'' This regulatory guide is being revised to address new issues that have been raised since RG 1.68.3 was first issued. These include vibration testing...

  15. SU-E-J-168: Automated Pancreas Segmentation Based On Dynamic MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, S; Rapacchi, S; Hu, P; Sheng, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is particularly attractive for abdominal targets with low CT contrast. To fully utilize this modality for pancreas tracking, automated segmentation tools are needed. A hybrid gradient, region growth and shape constraint (hGReS) method to segment 2D upper abdominal dynamic MRI is developed for this purpose. Methods: 2D coronal dynamic MR images of 2 healthy volunteers were acquired with a frame rate of 5 f/second. The regions of interest (ROIs) included the liver, pancreas and stomach. The first frame was used as the source where the centers of the ROIs were annotated. These center locations were propagated to the next dynamic MRI frame. 4-neighborhood region transfer growth was performed from these initial seeds for rough segmentation. To improve the results, gradient, edge and shape constraints were applied to the ROIs before final refinement using morphological operations. Results from hGReS and 3 other automated segmentation methods using edge detection, region growth and level set were compared to manual contouring. Results: For the first patient, hGReS resulted in the organ segmentation accuracy as measure by the Dices index (0.77) for the pancreas. The accuracy was slightly superior to the level set method (0.72), and both are significantly more accurate than the edge detection (0.53) and region growth methods (0.42). For the second healthy volunteer, hGReS reliably segmented the pancreatic region, achieving a Dices index of 0.82, 0.92 and 0.93 for the pancreas, stomach and liver, respectively, comparing to manual segmentation. Motion trajectories derived from the hGReS, level set and manual segmentation methods showed high correlation to respiratory motion calculated using a lung blood vessel as the reference while the other two methods showed substantial motion tracking errors. hGReS was 10 times faster than level set. Conclusion: We have shown the feasibility of automated segmentation of the pancreas anatomy based on dynamic MRI.

  16. Preoperative Localization and Surgical Margins in Conservative Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, F.; Sorrentino, L.; Bossi, D.; Sartani, A.; Foschi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. The adequacy of surgical margins (SM) is a crucial issue for adjusting the volume of excision and for avoiding local recurrences, although the precise definition of an adequate margins width remains controversial. Moreover, other factors such as the biological behaviour of the tumor and subsequent proper systemic therapies may influence the local recurrence rate (LRR). However, a successful BCS requires preoperative localization techniques or margin assessment techniques. Carbon marking, wire-guided, biopsy clips, radio-guided, ultrasound-guided, frozen section analysis, imprint cytology, and cavity shave margins are commonly used, but from the literature review, no single technique proved to be better among the various ones. Thus, an association of two or more methods could result in a decrease in rates of involved margins. Each institute should adopt its most congenial techniques, based on the senologic equipe experience, skills, and technologies. PMID:23986868

  17. Preoperative testing for sepsis before revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Craig J; Sporer, Scott M; Jacobs, Joshua J; Berger, Richard A; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Paprosky, Wayne G

    2007-09-01

    One hundred five consecutive painful knee arthroplasties were evaluated by a single surgeon for the presence of infection using a uniform protocol that included an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), perioperative aspiration with synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count and differential, intraoperative frozen section analysis, and culture. A synovial fluid WBC count of greater than 3000 was the most precise test with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 99%. The preoperative use of an ESR and CRP proved to be an excellent screening modality with only one infection identified with both values being normal. A rational approach to perioperative testing for sepsis includes a screening ESR and CRP, and if elevated, aspiration with synovial fluid WBC count or an intraoperative frozen section. PMID:17823024

  18. [Preoperative ERCP and laparoscopic cholecystectomy for treatment of choledocholithiasis].

    PubMed

    Metzger, J; Berbig, R; Muller, C

    1993-03-01

    Out of 110 patients suffering from gallstone-related symptoms, 21 underwent ERCP prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Indications for this combined treatment were laboratory signs of cholestasis (36%), pancreatitis (29%), pathological IVC (18%), sonographic evidence for bile duct dilatation (10%) and cholangitis (7%). Local and general complications were not increased neither intraoperatively nor postoperatively. Median duration of postoperative hospital stay was four days for ERCP-treated patients as compared to three days for patients subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy only. In summary treatment of choledocholithiasis by a combination of preoperative ERCP and laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers the following advantages: high patient comfort, low incidence of complications and short hospitalization compares favourably with conventional common bile duct exploration. PMID:8473184

  19. Different preoperative approaches for acute lumber spinal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lu-Feng; Yuan, Yan-Sheng; Li, En-Hui; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To compare the long and short term effectiveness of different preoperative approaches for lumber spinal fractures and finds a better surgical method for the disease. Follow up records of 144 patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy or methylprednisolone infusion within 8 hours after the lubmer spinal injury were analyzed. Postoperative outcome immediately and 3, 6, 12, 36 months after the surgery were compared to evaluate the effectiveness two different approaches. The results indicated that there are no significant differences regarding age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) score as well as Frankel scores before the surgery, and significant differences VAS score as well as Frankel scores immediately after the surgery. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen therapy within 8 hours after the injury can be more effective than methylprednisolone infusion in patients with lumber spinal injury. PMID:26309686

  20. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  1. Preoperative Arterial Embolization Facilitates Multivisceral Transplantation for Portomesenteric Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, L J; Jochmans, I; Monbaliu, D; Verhaegen, M; Laleman, W; Nevens, F; Heye, S; Maleux, G; Pirenne, J

    2015-11-01

    Multivisceral transplantation (MvTx) for diffuse venous portomesenteric thrombosis is a surgically and anesthesiologically challenging procedure, partly because of the risk of massive bleeding during visceral exenteration. Preoperative visceral artery embolization might reduce this risk. In three consecutive MvTx, the celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were embolized immediately pretransplant. We analyzed demographics, serum D-lactate, pH, base excess, hemoglobin, blood pressure, transfused packed cell (PC) units, intervention time and outcome. Results are reported as median (range). All recipients were male (43, 22, 47 years old). Portomesenteric thrombosis followed antiphospholipid syndrome, neuroendocrine tumor and liver cirrhosis. A peritransplant D-lactate peak of 6.1 (5.1-7.6) mmol/L, lowest pH of 7.24 (7.18-7.36) and lowest base excess level of -9.5 (-7.6 to -11.5) were observed. Values normalized within 3?h posttransplant. Embolization and exenteration times were 80 (70-90) min and 140 (130-165) min, respectively, during which blood pressure remained stable, lowest hemoglobin was 6.1 (6.1-7.6) g/dL and three (2-4) PC were administered. All procedures were uneventful. Follow-up was 7 (4-9) months. The first patient died 4 months post-MvTx after an intracranial bleeding; the other patients are doing well. Our experience suggests that preoperative embolization of CT and SMA facilitates native organ resection in MvTx. PMID:26015088

  2. Effects of Preoperative Clarithromycin Administration in Patients with Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Peri?, A; Baleti?, N; Milojevi?, M; Sotirovi?, J; Živi?, L; Peri?, AV; Vojvodi?, D

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: In recent years, various investigators have shown considerable interest in the use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of preoperative long-term, low-dose clarithromycin administration in patients with nasal polyposis. Methods: Eighty nasal polyp patients (42 non-atopic and 38 atopic) were included in this prospective, non-placebo controlled investigation and randomized equally to either the combined clarithromycin-surgical or surgical group. Forty patients received 500 mg of clarithromycin daily for eight weeks, and, after evaluation, they were treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). The other 40 patients were treated only surgically. The nasal symptom scores and endoscopic scores after macrolide treatment/surgical treatment, and after six and 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. Results: After clarithromycin therapy, we found improvement in symptom scores in 25/40, and improvement in endoscopic scores in 19/40 patients. We found no significant difference in nasal symptom score between allergic and non-allergic patients regarding the outcome to macrolide (p = 0.352) or surgical treatment (p = 0.396). When we compared differences between endoscopic scores at the time points of 12 months and six months postoperatively (ESt12 minus ESt6), we found statistically lower differences in the clarithromycin-surgery group than in the surgery group (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Preoperative clarithromycin administration postponed nasal polyp relapse after FESS. Allergies have no influence on the clinical efficacy of clarithromycin therapy and on the efficacy of FESS. PMID:25867579

  3. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative complications and mortality following total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Viola, Jessica; Gomez, Miguel M; Restrepo, Camilo; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-05-01

    Single-institution, large case-controlled study examines the association between preoperative anemia and adverse outcomes following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). We collected data from our institutional database of patients who underwent primary and aseptic revision TJA. Only 2576 patients had anemia preoperatively, and 10,987 patients had hemoglobin within the normal range. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of preoperative anemia on the incidence of medical complications, infection, LOS and mortality. Anemic patients had a higher rate of complications (odds ratio 2.11), namely cardiovascular 26.5% versus 11.8%, and genitourinary 3.9% versus 0.9%. Our study confirms that patients with preoperative anemia are likely to exhibit a higher incidence of postoperative complications following TJA. Preoperative optimization may be needed in an effort to reduce these complications. PMID:25669131

  4. Video-assisted laparoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of endometriosis: safety, reliability, and invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, Erica; Nezhat, Camran

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a highly enigmatic disease with multiple presentations ranging from infertility to severe pain, often causing significant morbidity. Video-assisted laparoscopy (VALS) has now replaced laparotomy as the gold standard for the diagnosis and management of endometriosis. While imaging has a role in the evaluation of some patients, histologic examination is needed for a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory evaluation currently has a minor role in the diagnosis of endometriosis, although studies are underway investigating serum markers, genetic studies, and endometrial sampling. A high index of suspicion is essential to accurately diagnose this complex condition, and a multidisciplinary approach is often indicated. The following review discusses laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis from the pre-operative evaluation of patients suspected of having endometriosis to surgical technique for safe and adequate laparoscopic diagnosis of the condition and postsurgical care. PMID:22927769

  5. Tetanus: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... should be given along with treatment. Related Page Diagnosis/Treatment for Clinicians Related Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal ...

  6. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... conditions. The words used to describe your specific diagnosis may be confusing. To accurately describe the form ...

  7. Diagnosis of Ataxia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Time (GMT) Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Diagnosis of Ataxia Being diagnosed with Ataxia can be ... Ataxia Foundation's primary emphases. How is Ataxia Diagnosed? Diagnosis is based on a person's medical history, family ...

  8. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Light-microscopic examination of a stained bone marrow ... are done. More on: Resources for Health Professionals: Diagnosis Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS ...

  9. Porphyrins and Porphyria Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here Home Testing for Porphyria Porphyrins & Porphyria diagnosis The porphyrias are caused by deficiencies of enzymes ... that accumulate are very large. This enables a diagnosis of active Porphyria to be made quite readily. ** ...

  10. Diphtheria Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Action Coalition (IAC) Diphtheria and the Alaskan Iditarod Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Getting treatment for diphtheria quickly is important. Diagnosis of diphtheria is usually made based on signs ...

  11. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A screening test does not provide a specific diagnosis—that requires a diagnostic test (see below). A ...

  12. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  13. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  14. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  15. Coping with a Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Home Share Page Print Page Email Page Home / Understanding Parkinson's Coping with a Diagnosis Diagnosis Parkinson's Disease: You Are Not Alone Video Secrets, Myths and Misconceptions What is Parkinson’s ...

  16. Food Allergy Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Food Allergy Diagnosis © iStockphoto On this page Detailed History ... diagnosis of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause ...

  17. Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, Alberto . E-mail: alberto.bossi@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; De Wever, Ivo; Van Limbergen, Erik; Vanstraelen, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT.

  18. Preoperative narcotic utilization: accuracy of patient self-reporting and its association with postoperative narcotic consumption.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyoung; Bohl, Daniel D; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Aboushaala, Khaled; Elboghdady, Islam M; Singh, Kern

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Little is known about the accuracy of reporting of preoperative narcotic utilization in spinal surgery. As such, the purpose of this study is to compare postoperative narcotic consumption between preoperative narcotic utilizers who do and do not accurately self-report preoperative utilization. METHODS Patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, minimally invasive lumbar discectomy, or minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedures between 2013 and 2014 were prospectively identified. The accuracy of self-reporting preoperative narcotic consumption was determined utilizing the Illinois Prescription Monitoring Program. Total inpatient narcotic consumption during postoperative Days 0 and 1 was compared according to the demographics and preoperative narcotic reporting accuracy. Similarly, the proportion of patients who continued to be dependent on narcotic medications at each postoperative visit was compared according to the demographics and preoperative narcotic reporting accuracy. RESULTS A total of 195 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 25% did not use narcotics preoperatively, while 47% and 28% did do so with accurate and inaccurate reporting, respectively. Patients who used narcotics preoperatively were more likely to demonstrate elevated inpatient narcotic consumption (adjusted RR 5.3; 95% CI 1.4-20.1; p = 0.013). However, such patients were no more or less likely to be dependent on narcotic medications at the first (p = 0.618) or second (p = 0.798) postoperative visit. Among patients who used narcotics preoperatively, no differences were demonstrated in terms of inpatient narcotic consumption (p = 0.182) or narcotic dependence following the first (p = 0.982) or second (p = 0.866) postoperative visit according to the self-reported accuracy of preoperative narcotic utilization. The only preoperative factors that were independently associated with elevated inpatient narcotic consumption were workers' compensation status and procedure type. The only preoperative factors that were independently associated with narcotic dependence at the first postoperative visit were female sex, workers' compensation status, and procedure type. The only preoperative factor that was independently associated with narcotic dependence at the second postoperative visit was procedure type. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that determining the actual preoperative narcotic utilization in patients who undergo spine surgery may help optimize postoperative pain management. Approximately 75% of patients used narcotics preoperatively. Patients who used narcotics preoperatively demonstrated significantly higher inpatient narcotic consumption, but this difference did not persist following discharge. Finally, postoperative narcotic consumption (inpatient and following discharge) was independent of the self-reported accuracy of preoperative narcotic utilization. Taken together, these findings suggest that corroboration between the patient's self-reported preoperative narcotic utilization and other sources of information (e.g., family members and narcotic registries) may be clinically valuable with respect to minimizing narcotic requirements, thereby potentially improving the management of postoperative pain. PMID:26360141

  19. Phonoaudiology guidance in the preoperative period in the head and neck tumors

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Grasiella Aparecida Nau; Fleig, Raquel; do Nascimento, Iramar Baptistella

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?The habit of smoking and intake of alcoholic drinks can lead to the incidence of malignant tumors in several areas, including the head or neck. Phonoaudiology is an area of oncology that is always seeking to expand its applications in oncological head and neck cases, with intervention in pre- and post-operative periods and in different clinical fields. Aim:?To evaluate and describe the impact of phonoaudiology preoperative guidance in patients, specifically smokers and alcohol drinkers, with head and neck cancer. Methods:?Series Study. Interviews were conducted by telephone with 40 individuals diagnosed with malignant head and neck tumors. Questionnaires regarding the use of tobacco and alcohol were administered before and after the phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Results:?Among the 40 individuals who received phonoaudiology preoperative guidance, 26 were smokers before the orientation. Of these 26 individuals, 18 (69.24%) abandoned tobacco dependence, 4 (15.38%) did not quit smoking, and 4 (15.38%) quit smoking for a few months before resuming smoking after receiving phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Regarding alcohol consumption, 31 individuals ingested alcohol before phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Of these 31 individuals, 17 (54.84%) abandoned alcohol dependence, 8 (25.81%) did not abstain from alcohol consumption, and 6 (19.35%) resumed alcohol consumption after a period of abstinence after receiving phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Conclusion:?Phonoaudiology preoperative orientations are effective in the treatment of head and neck malignant tumors. PMID:25992003

  20. Prognostic Implication of Preoperative Behavior Changes in Patients with Primary High-Grade Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High-grade meningiomas are rare extra-axial tumors, frequently causing brain invasion and prominent brain edema. Patients harboring high-grade meningiomas occasionally present with behavior changes. Data about frequency and prognostic importance of preoperative behavior changes in patients with high-grade meningiomas is missing. 86 patients with primary high-grade meningiomas were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed to determine correlation of preoperative behavior changes with tumor location, preoperative brain edema, tumor cleavability, tumor grade, Ki67 proliferation index, and microscopic brain invasion. Survival analysis was performed. 30 (34.9%) patients presented with preoperative behavior changes. These changes were more frequent with male patients (P = 0.066) and patients older than 55 years (P = 0.018). They correlated with frontal location (P = 0.013), tumor size (P = 0.023), microscopic brain invasion (P = 0.015), and brain edema (P = 0.006). Preoperative behavior changes did not correlate with duration of symptoms, tumor cleavability, tumor malignancy grade, and Ki67 proliferation index. They were not significantly related to overall survival or recurrence-free survival of patients with primary high-grade meningiomas. Preoperative behavior changes are frequent in patients harboring primary high-grade meningiomas. They correlate with tumor size, microscopic brain invasion, and brain edema. Preoperative behavior changes do not predict prognosis in patients with primary high-grade meningiomas. PMID:24578632

  1. Influence of Preoperative Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition with Micronutrients after Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Hu, Shu-Hui; Yang, Hui-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The inflammatory reactions are stronger after surgery of malnourished preoperative patients. Many studies have shown vitamin and trace element deficiencies appear to affect the functioning of immune cells. Enteral nutrition is often inadequate for malnourished patients. Therefore, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is considered an effective method for providing preoperative nutritional support. TPN needs a central vein catheter, and there are more risks associated with TPN. However, peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) often does not provide enough energy or nutrients. Purpose. This study investigated the inflammatory response and prognosis for patients receiving a modified form of PPN with added fat emulsion infusion, multiple vitamins (MTV), and trace elements (TE) to assess the feasibility of preoperative nutritional support. Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the influence of PPN with or without adding MTV and TE on malnourished abdominal surgery patients. Results. Both preoperative groups received equal calories and protein, but due to the lack of micronutrients, patients in preoperative Group B exhibited higher inflammation, lower serum albumin levels, and higher anastomotic leak rates and also required prolonged hospital stays. Conclusion. Malnourished patients who receive micronutrient supplementation preoperatively have lower postoperative inflammatory responses and better prognoses. PPN with added fat emulsion, MTV, and TE provides valid and effective preoperative nutritional support. PMID:26000296

  2. Investigation of the potential role of preoperative chemotherapy in treatment for gastric cancer with outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    JIAO, XUELONG; ZHOU, YANBING

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy is currently recognized as the recommended treatment for advanced gastric cancer. Whether there is a role of preoperative chemotherapy in the treatment for advanced gastric cancer with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is unknown. In order to explore the potential feasibility of preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with GOO, and to encourage the probe into optimal treatment strategies for advanced gastric cancer with GOO in the current era of preoperative chemotherapy prevailing, a systematic literature search was conducted with a multistage process. The characteristics of the retrieved publications were summarized and the essential information was extracted. Only 11 studies associated with preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with GOO were identified. Among them, 9 were case reports, while the other 2 were research reports of retrospective studies. None were of prospective studies. The paucity of the literature in this field is a marked finding of the present study, which reports the emerging attempts at preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer patients with GOO, as no high-quality data are available. The definite role of chemotherapy as an initial treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients with GOO remains unclear. Clinical trials are expected to be conducted in order to explore the feasibility, safety and efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer patients with GOO.

  3. Effect of Momordica dioica fruit extract on antioxidant status in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fruits, leaves, and tuberous roots of Momordica dioica are used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus (DM) in India. The aqueous extract of Momordica dioica fruit possesses very good anti-diabetic activity and is having high margin of safety. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effect of Momordica dioica fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of Momordica dioica (AEMD) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide (HP), non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum was evaluated in diabetic rats after 21 days treatment. Results: Increase in the levels of TBARS, HP and decrease in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and activity of enzymatic antioxidants was observed in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum of diabetic rats when compared with normal healthy rats. TBARS and HP levels were reduced while non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant enzymes activity was increased in AEMD and glibenclamide-treated rats. Furthermore, histological examination of liver, kidney, and pancreas of diabetic rats showed degenerative changes. AEMD treatment for 21 days rejuvenated liver, kidney, and pancreas histoarchitecture. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present results showed the protective role of AEMD on liver, kidney, and pancreas in severe diabetic rats justifying support for its anti-diabetic use in folk medicine. PMID:24497747

  4. Steroid withdrawal in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a 7-year report.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, J; Martins, L; Fonseca, I; Gomes, A M; Santos, J; Dias, L; Dores, J; Oliveira, F; Seca, R; Almeida, R; Henriques, A; Cabrita, A; Teixeira, M

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) is the treatment of choice for selected diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. Maintenance steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among SPK transplant recipients. Steroid withdrawal regimens are becoming more common, albeit with reservations regarding its safety and efficacy. We performed a retrospective review of 77 SPK transplant recipients from May 2000 to December 2007. The subjects received induction therapy with thymoglobulin followed by maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. A late steroid withdrawal protocol was adopted. The rates of acute rejection, graft and patient survival, and side effects were analyzed. One-year patient, kidney, and pancreas survivals were 93%, 91%, and 86%, respectively. Eleven patients experienced acute rejection. Mean follow-up time was 1155.5 +/- 776.1 days. Prednisolone withdrawal was carried out between 6 and 12 months posttransplantation in 42 patients (77.8%) with at least 1 year follow-up; no case of acute rejection occurred. At present, 72 patients have a functioning kidney graft, and 65 patients also have a functioning pancreas graft. The mean serum creatinine is 1.12 +/- 0.49 mg/dL and the mean HbA1c concentration is 4.5% +/- 0.4%. The patients have a low prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Steroid withdrawal was successful and safe in the majority of in-study patients and safe without an increase of immune events. Our patient and graft outcomes are within other international SPK transplant units standards. PMID:19376386

  5. Transgenic Pigs with Pancreas-specific Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    MATSUNARI, Hitomi; KOBAYASHI, Toshihiro; WATANABE, Masahito; UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; NAKANO, Kazuaki; KANAI, Takahiro; MATSUDA, Taisuke; NAGAYA, Masaki; HARA, Manami; NAKAUCHI, Hiromitsu; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The development and regeneration of the pancreas is of considerable interest because of the role of these processes in pancreatic diseases, such as diabetes. Here, we sought to develop a large animal model in which the pancreatic cell lineage could be tracked. The pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) gene promoter was conjugated to Venus, a green fluorescent protein, and introduced into 370 in vitro-matured porcine oocytes by intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer. These oocytes were transferred into four recipient gilts, all of which became pregnant. Three gilts were sacrificed at 47–65 days of gestation, and the fourth was allowed to farrow. Seven of 16 fetuses obtained were transgenic (Tg) and exhibited pancreas-specific green fluorescence. The fourth recipient gilt produced a litter of six piglets, two of which were Tg. The founder Tg offspring matured normally and produced healthy first-generation (G1) progeny. A postweaning autopsy of four 27-day-old G1 Tg piglets confirmed the pancreas-specific Venus expression. Immunostaining of the pancreatic tissue indicated the transgene was expressed in ?-cells. Pancreatic islets from Tg pigs were transplanted under the renal capsules of NOD/SCID mice and expressed fluorescence up to one month after transplantation. Tg G1 pigs developed normally and had blood glucose levels within the normal range. Insulin levels before and after sexual maturity were within normal ranges, as were other blood biochemistry parameters, indicating that pancreatic function was normal. We conclude that Pdx1-Venus Tg pigs represent a large animal model suitable for research on pancreatic development/regeneration and diabetes. PMID:24748398

  6. Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rohlinger, Audrey L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-04-01

    Long-term effects of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review identified 630 patients treated with SWL at our institution in 1985. Questionnaires focusing on recurrent stone episodes after SWL were sent to 578 patients alive in 2004. To further assess impact of SWL on the pancreas, pancreatic enzyme measurements were performed on 24 symptomatic stone patients treated in 2006 with ureteroscopy (n=12) and SWL (n=12). Serum amylase and lipase were evaluated pre and post SWL. A?5 U/L increase in either lab value was considered significant. Among patients in the long-term SWL treatment group, the questionnaire response rate was 58.9% (288/489). Recurrent stone events were noted in 154 (53.5%) of the survey respondents. Characteristics associated with stone recurrences were: gender (p=0.004), age at SWL (p=0.022), BMI (p=0.007), SWL complications (p=0.009), and lower pole SWL (p=0.025). Recurrent stone disease was also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (p=0.020). In the contemporary group of treated stone patients, pancreatic enzyme analysis demonstrated an increase in serum amylase and lipase in 3 (25.0%) SWL patients and 1 (8.3%) ureteroscopy patient (p=0.273). In conclusion, over half of the patients treated with SWL will develop recurrent stone events. We found a strong association between recurrent stone disease and the development of diabetes mellitus at long-term follow-up. Although not statistically significant due to small number, data in a contemporary treatment cohort suggest the possibility that the pancreas can be adversely affected by SWL.

  7. Regulation of the microvascular circulation in the leg muscles, pancreas and small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hisashi; Kurose, Tomoyuki; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    To study the microvascular circulation, we examined the proportion of open and functioning capillaries in the leg muscles, pancreas and small intestine of anesthetized rats. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Lycopersicon esculentum lectin was injected into the heart and allowed to circulate for 3 min to label open and functioning capillaries. Specimens were removed, frozen, sectioned and double-immunostained. Using one section, open and functioning capillaries were detected by immunostaining for this lectin bound to endothelial cells, while all capillaries were visualized by immunostaining for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31). These capillaries were semi-automatically detected and counted by fluorescence microscopy. The percentages of open and functioning capillaries were as follows: the soleus muscle, 93.0 ± 5.5%; superficial zone of the gastrocnemius muscle, 90.8 ± 6.2%; deep zone of the gastrocnemius muscle, 95.6 ± 4.0%; the plantaris muscle, 94.1 ± 2.7%; the pancreas, 86.3 ± 11.7%; and the small intestine, 91.1 ± 4.9% (n = 8, each). There was no significant difference among these data by the Kruskal-Wallis test. This study clearly demonstrated that the proportions of open and functioning capillaries are high and similar among the leg muscles, pancreas and small intestine in spite of their structural and functional differences. This finding agrees with previous studies and supports the notion that the microvascular circulation is mainly controlled by changing of the blood flow in each capillary rather than changing the proportion of open and functioning capillaries. PMID:26140259

  8. K-ras oncogene mutations indicate malignancy in cystic tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, D; Bastian, D; Barth, P; Schudy, A; Nies, C; Kisker, O; Wagner, H J; Rothmund, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical parameters, presurgical diagnostic tests, histologic findings, and the presence of K-ras oncogene mutations in cystic tumors of the pancreas to determine which best predict malignancy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Because presurgical, intraoperative, and final pathologic differentiation is difficult in cystic tumors of the pancreas, it would be a major benefit to identify markers that accurately predict malignancy in these rare tumors. The role of K-ras oncogene mutations as an indicator of malignancy has not been determined in these tumors. METHODS: Nineteen patients with cystic tumors of the pancreas were evaluated, including K-ras mutation analysis based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion assays and direct DNA sequencing, to screen for parameters that accurately predict malignancy. RESULTS: All malignant cystic pancreatic tumors (five cystadenocarcinomas and three mucin-producing adenocarcinomas) harbored K-ras mutations at codon 12 or 13. K-ras mutations were also detected in the percutaneous fine-needle aspirates of two of these patients. In contrast, none of nine benign cystadenomas or the solid-papillary neoplasm had K-ras mutations. None of the patients with a benign tumor carrying K-ras wild-type sequences developed recurrent disease after a mean follow-up of 50 months. Seven of the 8 malignant cystic pancreatic tumors, but none of the 11 benign tumors, showed dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on computed tomography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. CONCLUSIONS: K-ras mutation analysis seems to be a powerful tool to determine the malignant potential of cystic pancreatic tumors before and after surgery. Dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on computed tomography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is highly suggestive for malignancy in these rare tumors. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9671070

  9. Selenium deficiency influences nitric oxide and selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Yao, Haidong; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces pancreatic atrophy in chickens, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and examined the relationship between selenoproteins and NO. Chickens (180; 1 day old) were randomly divided into two groups, low (L) group (fed with Se deficient (Se 0.033 mg/kg) diet) and control (C) group (fed with normal (Se 0.2 mg/kg) diet). Then, pancreas was collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days, and the content of NO, the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 25 selenoproteins and iNOS were measured. The results showed that 25 selenoproteins were decreased (P?pancreas of chickens (P?pancreas of chickens. Thus, it offers some information on the mechanism of pancreatic injury induced by Se deficiency. PMID:25319006

  10. Providing preoperative information for children undergoing surgery: a randomized study testing different types of educational material to reduce children's preoperative worries.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, S C; Arriaga, P; Esteves, F

    2014-12-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the seven independent conditions that were combined into the following three main groups: an experimental group, which received educational materials with information about surgery and hospitalization (a board game, a video or a booklet); a comparison group, which received entertaining material with the same format type; and a control group, which did not receive any material. Children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety were evaluated after the experimental manipulation. Children who received educational materials were significantly less worried about surgery and hospital procedures than children in the comparison and the control groups, although no statistically differences were found between the type of materials within the experimental group, and no significant effect occurred on parental state anxiety. These results do however support the hypothesis that providing preoperative materials with educational information reduce children's preoperative worries. PMID:25348207

  11. Lungs and subcutaneous metastases from a solitary fibrous tumour of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Tesfom, Meron F.; Caldwell, Carole; Hanasoge, Raveesh; Bramhall, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm previously thought to only originate from the pleura; it is seen only rarely in an extra-pleural location. We report the first case of pancreatic solitary fibrous tumour in an 87-year-old woman that has metastasized to the lungs and subcutaneous tissue. We have identified a solitary mass excised from the groin region, which is positive for CD34 and vimentic marker with high proliferative rate, nuclear atypia and cellular necrosis. Imaging studies confirmed a slow-growing solitary mass in the uncinate lobe of the pancreas with evidence of lung metastasis. PMID:26612261

  12. Properties of human alpha-amylases from urine, pancreas, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, K

    1982-01-01

    alpha-Amylases from human urine, pancreas, and saliva were purified to homogeneity. Their molecular and catalytic properties were similar with respect to relative molecular masses, stability, and absorbance in neutral solution, but their isoelectric points differed clearly. Salivary amylase was more sensitive than the other two to inhibition by iodoacetate and EDTA, suggesting a less compact structure. The intermediate qualities of the urinary activity were ascribed to the fact that this enzyme originates from other two without major modifications by metabolism. Human alpha-amylase should be considered as a sole enzyme with multiple forms originating from glycosylation and deamidation. There was no evidence for real isoenzymes. PMID:6185332

  13. Pancreas imaging by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. [Dogs; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; O'Leary, J.F.; Salomonowitz, E.; Stoltenberg, E.; Hutton, S.; Gedgaudas, E.

    1984-01-01

    A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone.

  14. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric) or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150?days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva) which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins) compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play an important role in the regulation of pancreatic secretion in Roe deer as in calf. This work, to the best of our knowledge is the first study which compared the Roe deer adaptation to diet with a domesticated animal largely studied. PMID:22640469

  15. Precision radiotherapy for cancer of the pancreas: technique and results. [Photons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Dobelbower, R.R. Jr.; Borgelt, B.B.; Strubler, K.A.; Kutcher, G.J.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1980-09-01

    Forty patients with locally extensive, unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas received precision high dose (PHD) radiation therapy with a 45 MeV betatron. PHD radiotherapy was generally well tolerated. During treatment, only 7 patients experienced significant nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or anorexia. Late gastrointestinal radiation reactions were observed in 7 patients. Twelve patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The projected survival of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with PHD radiotherapy is comparable to that of patients with resectable disease operated on for cure. The projected one year survival rate is 49%.

  16. Preliminary results of fast neutron treatments in carcinoma of the pancreas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahbauer, R.; Koh, K. Y.; Rodriguez-Antunez, A.; Jelden, G. L.; Turco, R. F.; Horton, J.; Bukowski, R.; Reimer, R.; Blue, J.; Roberts, W.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 30 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas including some patients with very advanced disease, were treated with the so-called mixed beam modality employing photon treatments three times per week and neutron treatments twice a week. Two hundred Rads or equivalent Rads (RBE 3.3) were given in daily fractions aiming at a total dose of 6000 Rads in 6 to 8 weeks. The treatments were well tolerated and significant palliation was achieved in 26 to 30 cases. Twelve months survival was 33 percent with a median survival of 7 months or 210 days. Treatment techniques and localization procedures are discussed.

  17. Pre-operative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio as a predictor of overall survival in patients suffering from osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Fang, Xuan-Cheng; Ding, Zhen; Sun, Ze-Gan; Sun, Li-Ming; Wang, Yi-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory markers have been proposed to predict clinical outcomes in many types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) on clinical prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. This study collected 327 patients who underwent surgical treatment for osteosarcoma during the period 2006–2010. LMR was calculated from pre-operative peripheral blood cells counts. The optimal cut-off value of LMR was determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) was plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method and evaluated by the log-rank test. A predictive model was established to predict clinical prognosis for OS, and the predictive accuracy of this model was determined by concordance index (c-index). Our results showed that young age, elevated alkaline phosphatase, metastasis at diagnosis, chemotherapy, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly associated with LMR. Low LMR was associated with shorter OS and EFS (P < 0.001), and was an independent predictor of both OS and EFS (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.14–2.60, P = 0.010; HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.32–2.57, P = 0.009). The nomogram performed well in the prediction of overall survival in patients with osteosarcoma (c-index 0.630). In conclusion, low pre-operative LMR is associated with a poor prognosis in patients suffering from osteosarcoma. A prospective study is warranted for further validation of our results. PMID:26380812

  18. Evaluating the association of preoperative functional status and postoperative functional decline in older patients undergoing major surgery.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Steve; Symons, Rebecca; Yukawa, Michi; Dasher, Nikolas; Legner, Victor; Flum, David R

    2012-12-01

    This prospective cohort study sought to identify predictors of functional decline in patients aged 65 years or older who underwent major, nonemergent abdominal or thoracic surgery in our tertiary hospital from 2006 to 2008. We used the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) to evaluate functional decline; a 0.1 or greater increase was used to indicate a clinically significant decline. The preoperative Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and a physical function score (PFS), assessing gait speed, grip strength, balance, and standing speed, were evaluated as predictors of decline. We enrolled 215 patients (71.2 ± 5.2 years; 56.7% female); 204 completed follow-up HAQ assessments (71.1 ± 5.3 years; 57.8% female). A significant number of patients had functional decline out to 1 year. Postoperative HAQ-DI increases of 0.1 or greater occurred in 45.3 per cent at 1 month, 30.1 per cent at 3 months, and 28.3 per cent at 1 year. Preoperative DASI and PFS scores were not predictors of functional decline. Male sex at 1 month (odds ratio [OR], 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 6.85); American Society of Anesthesiologists class (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.31 to 8.86), smoking (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.27 to 7.85), and length of stay (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.16) at 3 months; and cancer diagnosis at 1 year (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.96) were associated with functional decline. PMID:23265122

  19. Preoperative embolization of the spleen in children with hypersplenism.

    PubMed

    Hickman, M P; Lucas, D; Novak, Z; Rao, B; Gold, R E; Parvey, L; Tonkin, I L; Hansen, D E

    1992-11-01

    Splenomegaly associated with myelodysplastic disorders in children may be massive and can result in pancytopenia, abdominal discomfort, and respiratory distress. When these symptoms cannot be relieved by nonsurgical means, splenectomy may be indicated. Under such conditions, surgical splenectomy carries increased risks, as the thrombocytopenia is difficult to correct secondary to splenic sequestration. Additionally, the surgical anatomy is often distorted secondary to the massive spleen and dissection can be difficult. These factors can lead to uncontrollable hemorrhage. In an attempt to decrease intraoperative blood loss, the authors successfully performed preoperative splenic artery embolization in 11 of 12 children (age range, 1-11 years) with pancytopenia due to hypersplenism. Hypersplenism requiring surgical splenectomy was due to leukemia (n = 9), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), immune thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and osteopetrosis (n = 1). Embolization was performed under general anesthesia, prior to surgery, with gelatin sponge particles alone, Gianturco coils alone, or a combination of polyvinyl alcohol sponge particles and Gianturco coils. Embolization allowed for safe surgical splenectomy. PMID:1446126

  20. Effect of preoperative mastoid ventilation on tympanoplasty success.

    PubMed

    Metin, Mehmet; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Dogan, Sedat; Yazici, Hasmet; Bayraktar, Cem; Gocmen, Hakan; Samim, Etem Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between mastoid air cell volumes and graft success after tympanoplasty. Material and Methods. This study was performed retrospectively with patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty and antrostomy. A total of 57 patients (20-35.09% female and 37-64.91% male) with a mean age of 29.69 ± SD (range 12-56 years) were included in the study. The patients were invited for a control at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months, and otoscopic examinations and audiometric tests were performed. The temporal bone computed tomography images were screened with the 4800?Dpi optic resolution scanner and transferred to the computer environment in JPG format in order to calculate the mastoid air cell volume, and the volumes were calculated using the Autocad 2007 program. Results. Although, the graft success was determined to be better in the well-ventilated group, no significant difference could be found between the groups in terms of graft success at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months (P > 0.05). No statistically significant difference could be found between the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperative hearing gains (P > 0.05). PMID:25374605

  1. Effect of Preoperative Mastoid Ventilation on Tympanoplasty Success

    PubMed Central

    Metin, Mehmet; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Dogan, Sedat; Yazici, Hasmet; Bayraktar, Cem; Gocmen, Hakan; Samim, Etem Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between mastoid air cell volumes and graft success after tympanoplasty. Material and Methods. This study was performed retrospectively with patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty and antrostomy. A total of 57 patients (20–35.09% female and 37–64.91% male) with a mean age of 29.69 ± SD (range 12–56 years) were included in the study. The patients were invited for a control at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months, and otoscopic examinations and audiometric tests were performed. The temporal bone computed tomography images were screened with the 4800?Dpi optic resolution scanner and transferred to the computer environment in JPG format in order to calculate the mastoid air cell volume, and the volumes were calculated using the Autocad 2007 program. Results. Although, the graft success was determined to be better in the well-ventilated group, no significant difference could be found between the groups in terms of graft success at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months (P > 0.05). No statistically significant difference could be found between the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperative hearing gains (P > 0.05). PMID:25374605

  2. Preoperative trajectory planning for percutaneous procedures in deformable environments.

    PubMed

    Hamzé, Noura; Peterlík, Igor; Cotin, Stéphane; Essert, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In image-guided percutaneous interventions, a precise planning of the needle path is a key factor to a successful intervention. In this paper we propose a novel method for computing a patient-specific optimal path for such interventions, accounting for both the deformation of the needle and soft tissues due to the insertion of the needle in the body. To achieve this objective, we propose an optimization method for estimating preoperatively a curved trajectory allowing to reach a target even in the case of tissue motion and needle bending. Needle insertions are simulated and regarded as evaluations of the objective function by the iterative planning process. In order to test the planning algorithm, it is coupled with a fast needle insertion simulation involving a flexible needle model and soft tissue finite element modeling, and experimented on the use-case of thermal ablation of liver tumors. Our algorithm has been successfully tested on twelve datasets of patient-specific geometries. Fast convergence to the actual optimal solution has been shown. This method is designed to be adapted to a wide range of percutaneous interventions. PMID:26629592

  3. Utility of stereoelectroencephalography in preoperative assessment of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Binnie, C D; Elwes, R D; Polkey, C E; Volans, A

    1994-01-01

    Of 269 consecutive patients entered into a preoperative assessment programme for possible surgical treatment of epilepsy, 33 had intracranial recording (SEEG) with combined subdural and depth electrodes for the purpose of localising a suspected temporal site of seizure onset. The findings in these patients are analysed with particular reference to: 1) the criteria of selection for SEEG and their validity; 2) information on SEEG compared with that obtained by less invasive means, including foramen ovale telemetry; 3) information on the use of intracerebral electrodes compared with subdural placements; 4) possible predictors of failure of localisation by SEEG and of surgical outcome. It was concluded that SEEG had usefully contributed to the management of 69% of the patients in whom it was used, establishing a previously unidentified site of seizure onset in 33%, correcting an erroneous localisation in 15%, and establishing inoperability in 21% of patients. No predictors of failure of SEEG or of surgery emerged; thus there was no evidence of unnecessary use of this procedure. Five patients were found with incorrect lateralisation of seizure onset on foramen ovale recording (of a total of 192 foramen ovale telemetries). Localisation of the ictal onset zone either by the distribution of inter-ictal discharges or by the initial ictal changes at subdural electrodes was unreliable, confirming the need for ictal, depth recordings. PMID:8301306

  4. [Preoperative imaging/operation planning for liver surgery].

    PubMed

    Schoening, W N; Denecke, T; Neumann, U P

    2015-12-01

    The currently established standard for planning liver surgery is multistage contrast media-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CM-CT), which as a rule enables an appropriate resection planning, e.g. a precise identification and localization of primary and secondary liver tumors as well as the anatomical relation to extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic vascular and biliary structures. Furthermore, CM-CT enables the measurement of tumor volume, total liver volume and residual liver volume after resection. Under the condition of normal liver function a residual liver volume of 25?% is nowadays considered sufficient and safe. Recent studies in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer showed a clear staging advantage of contrast media-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CM-MRI) versus CM-CT. In addition, most recent data showed that the use of liver-specific MRI contrast media further increases the sensitivity and specificity of detection of liver metastases. This imaging technology seems to lead closer to the ideal "one stop shopping" diagnostic tool in preoperative planning of liver resection. PMID:26606924

  5. Preoperative Prediction of Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Scoring Method

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nikhil; Singh, Sumitoj; Khichy, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the procedure of choice for management of symptomatic gallstone disease. At times, it is difficult and takes longer time or has to be converted to an open procedure. This study is undertaken to determine the predictive factors for difficult LC. Aim: The aim was to evaluate a scoring method to predict difficult LC preoperatively. Materials and Methods: There were 30 cases operated by a single experienced surgeon. There are total 15 score from history, clinical and sonological findings. Score up to 5 predicted easy, 6–10 difficult and >10 are very difficult. Results: Prediction came true in 76.4% for easy and 100% difficult cases; there were no cases with a score above 10. The factors like previous history of hospitalization (P - 0.004), clinically palpable gallbladder (GB) (P - 0.009), impacted GB stone (P - 0.001), pericholecystic collection (P - 0.04), and abdominal scar due to previous abdominal surgery (P - 0.009) were found statistically significant in predicting difficult LC. Conclusion: The proposed scoring system is reliable with a sensitivity of 76.47% and specificity of 100%. PMID:26425067

  6. Patients awaiting laparoscopic cholecystectomy--can preoperative complications be predicted?

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, D. J. A.; Robertson, A.; Alexander, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the nature and incidence of gallstone-related complications arising in patients awaiting laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to formulate a strategy to detect those most in need of urgent intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the case notes of 337 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a single surgeon in a district general hospital between 1995 and 1999. RESULTS: Of patients awaiting laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 65 (19.3%) were documented as suffering significant on-going symptoms, of whom 19 (5.6%) required hospital admission or urgent surgical review at median 8.9 weeks (range 0.1-32.3 weeks) after being placed on the waiting list. Factors predictive of symptom recurrence included: (i) initial acute presentation; (ii) diagnoses of jaundice, pancreatitis, or acute cholecystitis; (iii) elevation of amylase or liver function tests; and (iv) small stones on ultrasonography examination. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of patients awaiting laparoscopic cholecystectomy experience stone-related complications requiring hospital admission. We feel it is possible to reduce this number by selecting those most at risk on the basis of their history and pre-operative investigations for more urgent intervention. PMID:15005924

  7. Endoscopically Obtained Bile Aspirate is an Accurate Adjunct in the Diagnosis of Symptomatic Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The experience of a single surgeon in a rural hospital over a 10-year period was analyzed with respect to the utilization of endoscopically obtained bile aspirates as an adjunct in the diagnosis of symptomatic gallbladder disease. Methods: A retrospective study of the author's entire cholecystectomy experience over a 10-year period with 641 patients was conducted to evaluate the utility of the bile aspirate in the preoperative selection of operative candidates and with respect to the ultimate pathologic diagnostic accuracy of the test. Results: Derivation of preoperative diagnosis via traditional standard means was possible in 479 patients. An endoscopically obtained positive bile aspirate was found in 162 additional patients who failed to have positive traditional diagnostic studies (acalculous gallbladder disease). Micro-pathology was determined to be present in 603 patients (94.07%). In 27 of the 38 negatives, there had been positive radiological studies (71%). In 11 of the 38, a positive preoperative bile aspirate had been obtained (28.9%). Of the 162 patients with a positive bile aspirate, 151 (93.21%) of the gallbladder specimens had confirmatory histologic analysis (92.1% confidence interval ± 3.95%). Conclusion: In patients with symptoms suggestive of clinical gallbladder disease and negative traditional diagnostic studies, the endoscopically obtained bile aspirate has been shown to be a highly reliable tool in establishing the diagnosis and is recommended as an aid in the appropriate selection of candidates who may benefit from cholecystectomy. PMID:21605510

  8. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  9. Multiple pancreatic metastases from malignant melanoma: Conclusive diagnosis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Tanima; Caraway, Nancy P.; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare, ranging from 2% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies. Differentiating a primary pancreatic malignancy from a metastasis can be difficult due to similarities on imaging findings, but is crucial to ensure proper treatment. Although transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful images, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is often needed to provide a cytologic diagnosis. Here, we present a unique case of malignant melanoma with pancreatic metastases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of melanoma metastasizing to the pancreas and the role of EUS with FNA in providing cytological confirmation. PMID:26020050

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infections].

    PubMed

    Laffer, R; Ruef, C

    2006-02-01

    Prosthetic replacement surgery for hip, knee, shoulder, and elbow joints has become commonplace due to the great success of these procedures in restoring function to persons disabled by arthritis. One of the most feared complications is prosthetic joint infection, which is associated with significant morbidity and health care costs. The pathogenesis of prosthetic joint infections is influenced by microorganisms growing in biofilms, making these infections difficult to diagnose and eradicate. Low-grade infections are often manifest as early loosening with or without pain. They are therefore difficult to distinguish from aseptic failure. For an accurate diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections, a combination of preoperative and intraoperative tests is usually needed. Underlying rheumatologic disease can lead to periprosthetic inflammatory changes in tissue. Therefore, only the culture of the microorganism is definitive proof of infection. Successful treatment requires long-term antimicrobial therapy, ideally with an agent acting on adhering stationary-phase microorganisms, combined with an adequate surgical procedure. In this article, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of prosthetic joint infections are reviewed. We focus on difficult diagnostic aspects in the context of underlying rheumatologic disease. PMID:16421643

  11. In Vivo Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tourlakis, Marina E.; Zhang, Siyi; Ball, Heather L.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Liu, Hongrui; Zhong, Jian; Yuan, Julie S.; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Durie, Peter R.; Rommens, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic models of ribosome dysfunction show selective organ failure, highlighting a gap in our understanding of cell-type specific responses to translation insufficiency. Translation defects underlie a growing list of inherited and acquired cancer-predisposition syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms underlying organ failure in a recessive ribosomopathy, with particular emphasis on the pancreas, an organ with a high and reiterative requirement for protein synthesis. Biallelic loss of function mutations in SBDS are associated with the ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is typified by pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, skeletal abnormalities and neurological phenotypes. Targeted disruption of Sbds in the murine pancreas resulted in p53 stabilization early in the postnatal period, specifically in acinar cells. Decreased Myc expression was observed and atrophy of the adult SDS pancreas could be explained by the senescence of acinar cells, characterized by induction of Tgf?, p15Ink4b and components of the senescence-associated secretory program. This is the first report of senescence, a tumour suppression mechanism, in association with SDS or in response to a ribosomopathy. Genetic ablation of p53 largely resolved digestive enzyme synthesis and acinar compartment hypoplasia, but resulted in decreased cell size, a hallmark of decreased translation capacity. Moreover, p53 ablation resulted in expression of acinar dedifferentiation markers and extensive apoptosis. Our findings indicate a protective role for p53 and senescence in response to Sbds ablation in the pancreas. In contrast to the pancreas, the Tgf? molecular signature was not detected in fetal bone marrow, liver or brain of mouse models with constitutive Sbds ablation. Nevertheless, as observed with the adult pancreas phenotype, disease phenotypes of embryonic tissues, including marked neuronal cell death due to apoptosis, were determined to be p53-dependent. Our findings therefore point to cell/tissue-specific responses to p53-activation that include distinction between apoptosis and senescence pathways, in the context of translation disruption. PMID:26057580

  12. In Vivo Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tourlakis, Marina E; Zhang, Siyi; Ball, Heather L; Gandhi, Rikesh; Liu, Hongrui; Zhong, Jian; Yuan, Julie S; Guidos, Cynthia J; Durie, Peter R; Rommens, Johanna M

    2015-06-01

    Genetic models of ribosome dysfunction show selective organ failure, highlighting a gap in our understanding of cell-type specific responses to translation insufficiency. Translation defects underlie a growing list of inherited and acquired cancer-predisposition syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms underlying organ failure in a recessive ribosomopathy, with particular emphasis on the pancreas, an organ with a high and reiterative requirement for protein synthesis. Biallelic loss of function mutations in SBDS are associated with the ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is typified by pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, skeletal abnormalities and neurological phenotypes. Targeted disruption of Sbds in the murine pancreas resulted in p53 stabilization early in the postnatal period, specifically in acinar cells. Decreased Myc expression was observed and atrophy of the adult SDS pancreas could be explained by the senescence of acinar cells, characterized by induction of Tgf?, p15(Ink4b) and components of the senescence-associated secretory program. This is the first report of senescence, a tumour suppression mechanism, in association with SDS or in response to a ribosomopathy. Genetic ablation of p53 largely resolved digestive enzyme synthesis and acinar compartment hypoplasia, but resulted in decreased cell size, a hallmark of decreased translation capacity. Moreover, p53 ablation resulted in expression of acinar dedifferentiation markers and extensive apoptosis. Our findings indicate a protective role for p53 and senescence in response to Sbds ablation in the pancreas. In contrast to the pancreas, the Tgf? molecular signature was not detected in fetal bone marrow, liver or brain of mouse models with constitutive Sbds ablation. Nevertheless, as observed with the adult pancreas phenotype, disease phenotypes of embryonic tissues, including marked neuronal cell death due to apoptosis, were determined to be p53-dependent. Our findings therefore point to cell/tissue-specific responses to p53-activation that include distinction between apoptosis and senescence pathways, in the context of translation disruption. PMID:26057580

  13. Pancreas divisum

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound Abdominal CT scan Amylase and lipase blood test Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

  14. Annular pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fluid during pregnancy (polyhydramnios) Other congenital gastrointestinal problems Pancreatitis ... Obstructive jaundice Pancreatic cancer Pancreatitis (inflammation ... (tearing a hole) of the intestine due to obstruction Peritonitis

  15. Safety auxiliary feedback element for the artificial pancreas in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Revert, A; Garelli, F; Pico, J; De Battista, H; Rossetti, P; Vehi, J; Bondia, J

    2013-08-01

    The artificial pancreas aims at the automatic delivery of insulin for glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes, i.e., closed-loop glucose control. One of the challenges of the artificial pancreas is to avoid controller overreaction leading to hypoglycemia, especially in the late postprandial period. In this study, an original proposal based on sliding mode reference conditioning ideas is presented as a way to reduce hypoglycemia events induced by a closed-loop glucose controller. The method is inspired in the intuitive advantages of two-step constrained control algorithms. It acts on the glucose reference sent to the main controller shaping it so as to avoid violating given constraints on the insulin-on-board. Some distinctive features of the proposed strategy are that 1) it provides a safety layer which can be adjusted according to medical criteria; 2) it can be added to closed-loop controllers of any nature; 3) it is robust against sensor failures and overestimated prandial insulin doses; and 4) it can handle nonlinear models. The method is evaluated in silico with the ten adult patients available in the FDA-accepted UVA simulator. PMID:23428611

  16. Bilateral native nephrectomy for refractory hypertension in kidney transplant and kidney pancreas transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Mark J.; Hinton, Sandra; Aronoff, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is common in renal transplant patients and sometimes very difficult to control. Refractory hypertension can adversely affect renal graft and patient survival. Many antihypertensive medications are not well tolerated or can have important drug interactions with immunosuppressive medications. These drugs can cause significant side effects including fluid depletion, azotemia, electrolyte imbalance, and anemia. Bilateral native nephrectomy in renal transplant patients has been reported to be beneficial in controlling severe hypertension. We report five patients with severe hypertension despite as many as 9 different antihypertensive medications. All patients had previous kidney or simultaneous kidney pancreas transplantation. Each of our patients underwent laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy. Renal function varied from creatinine of 1.4–2.4, and the number of antihypertensive medications from 3 to 9 at the time of nephrectomy surgery. Mean arterial blood pressure improved in all five patients at 3–6 months post nephrectomy, the number of antihypertensive medications decreased in 4, but renal function remained stable at 3–6 months in only 3 patients. We found laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy to be beneficial in renal and simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant patients with severe and refractory hypertension. Our patients with better baseline renal allograft function at time of nephrectomy received the most benefit. No decrease in allograft function could be attributed to acute rejection. PMID:26348394

  17. Colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinoma of the pancreas: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GAO, YANG; ZHU, YA-YUN; YUAN, ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Colloid carcinoma (CC) of the pancreas, also known as mucinous non-cystic carcinoma, is a rare histological variant of pancreatic cancer. The present study reports the case of a 65-year-old male with a pancreatic head tumor 4.6×3.1 cm in size. The tumor had not invaded the superior mesenteric or celiac arteries. Laboratory data showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, ?-gluytamyl transpeptidase and cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels. The patient underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), and the pathology revealed CC extending to the submucosa of the duodenum, with mild atypical hyperplasia of the pancreatic duct. The patient was negative for circulating tumor cells, indicating a good prognosis. The CA19-9 concentration decreased to within the normal range following surgery. The present study reports a rare case of CC of the pancreas presenting with obstructive jaundice, in which a PD procedure was performed. Primary surgical treatment with curative intent is the optimal management and this subtype of pancreatic cancer is associated with a better prognosis compared with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26722311

  18. Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhen-Yu; Ni, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Feng; Li, Ning; Li, You-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Jie-Shou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe an auxiliary combined liver-small bowel transplantation model with the preservation of duodenum, head of pancreas and hepatic biliary system in pigs. The technique, feasibility, security and immunosuppression were commented. METHODS: Forty outbred long-white pigs were randomized into two groups, and the auxiliary composite liver/small bowel allotransplantations were undertaken in 10 long-white pigs in each group with the recipient liver preserved. Group A was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs while group B was treated with cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone after operation. The hemodynamic changes and amylase of body fluid (including blood, urine and abdominal drain) were analyzed. RESULTS: The average survival time of the animals was 10 ± 1.929 d (6 to 25 d) in group A while more than 30 d in group B. The pigs could tolerate the hemodynamic fluctuation during operation and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to normal 2 h after blood reperfusion. The transient high amylase level was decreased to normal one week after operation and autopsy showed no pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation is a feasible and safe model with simplified surgical techniques for composite liver/small bowel transplantation. This model may be used as a preclinical training model for clinical transplantation method, clinical liver-small bowel transplan-tation related complication research, basic research including immunosuppressive treatment, organ preservation, acute rejection, chronic rejection, immuno-tolerance and xenotransplantation. PMID:15133861

  19. Protection of brain and pancreas from high-fat diet: effects of catechin and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken-Ichi; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Hirotoshi; Kikunaga, Naomi; Takamori, Nina; Asahina, Shunsuke; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Sayama, Kazutoshi; Hoshino, Minoru

    2009-02-16

    To investigate the effect of a high-fat diet on brain and pancreas functions, we used SAMP10 mice that have characteristics of brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction with aging. Simultaneously, we investigated the effect of green tea catechin consumption on high-fat diet feeding, because green tea catechin has been reported to improve brain atrophy, brain dysfunction and obesity. The body weight of mice fed a high-fat diet from 2 to 12 months was higher than that of the control, although the calorie intake was not. The high-fat diet also increased insulin secretion; however, the hypersecretion of insulin and obesity were suppressed when mice were fed a high-fat diet with green tea catechin and caffeine. Furthermore, brain atrophy was suppressed and the working memory, tested using Y-maze, improved in mice fed a high-fat diet containing green tea catechin and caffeine. The secretion of insulin might affect both obesity and brain function. A strong correlation was found between working memory and insulin release in mice fed a high-fat diet with green tea catechin and/or caffeine. The results indicate the protective effect of green tea catechin and caffeine on the functions of brain and pancreas in mice fed a high-fat diet. PMID:18976677

  20. Sequential ultrastructural changes of the pancreas in zinc toxicosis in ducklings.

    PubMed Central

    Kazacos, E. A.; Van Vleet, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The sequential ultrastructural alterations of the pancreas in zinc toxicosis were examined in ducklings fed 2500 ppm Zn (as ZnSO4) for 56 days. From days 3 to 17, acinar cells had cytoplasmic vacuoles that contained electron-dense, zymogen-like material and increased autophagocytosis. Other changes were swollen mitochondria and dilatation, vesiculation, degranulation and intracisternal sequestration of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Apoptosis was the predominant form of cell deletion. By day 10, acinar cellular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were noted. Islets appeared normal. After day 19, the pancreas consisted of ductlike structures embedded in fibrous connective tissue with a minimal inflammatory cell response. These ductlike structures were lined by attenuated to cuboidal, atrophic acinar cells. Many cells contained granular, electron-dense cytoplasmic debris that served as a marker of previous cell damage. This ultrastructural study provides support for a previously proposed theory that ductlike structures (tubular complexes) arise by atrophy and dedifferentiation of acinar cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2923185

  1. Distinct patterns of peritumoral histological findings in subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Imada, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Maetani, Iruru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are primary pancreatic neoplasms that can act as precursors to invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The peritumoral stroma has been increasingly recognized to play an important role in many types of tumors. Therefore, to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the peritumoral stroma in IPMNs, we examined the histological features of the peritumoral stroma in each subtype and histological grade of IPMNs. Eighty-two patients with IPMN, who underwent surgical resection, were reviewed clinicopathologically. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (86 lesions in total) were histologically subclassified into gastric (n = 51), intestinal (n = 22), pancreatobiliary (n = 11), and oncocytic (n = 2) subtypes. Peritumoral histological features between the gastric and intestinal subtypes were evaluated by each histological grade. The results showed that subepithelial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration were more commonly observed in the gastric subtype (74% and 79%, respectively) than in the intestinal subtype (12% and 25%, respectively) of low-grade IPMNs. On the other hand, mucus lakes were more commonly observed in the intestinal subtype (100%) than in the gastric subtype (0%) of high-grade IPMNs. In addition, pancreatobiliary subtype IPMNs tended to exhibit acute inflammation such as neutrophil predominance. This study showed that peritumoral histological features differed among subtypes of IPMNs from low-grade tumors. These differences suggest the possibility that each subtype of IPMNs has a distinct mechanism from an early stage of tumor progression, which is reflected in the properties of the peritumoral stroma. PMID:26265194

  2. The use of reinforcement learning algorithms to meet the challenges of an artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Melanie K; Dickens, Luke; Reichel, Katrin; Tellmann, Arn; Ellger, Björn; Westphal, Martin; Faisal, Ahmed A

    2013-09-01

    Blood glucose control, for example, in diabetes mellitus or severe illness, requires strict adherence to a protocol of food, insulin administration and exercise personalized to each patient. An artificial pancreas for automated treatment could boost quality of glucose control and patients' independence. The components required for an artificial pancreas are: i) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), ii) smart controllers and iii) insulin pumps delivering the optimal amount of insulin. In recent years, medical devices for CGM and insulin administration have undergone rapid progression and are now commercially available. Yet, clinically available devices still require regular patients' or caregivers' attention as they operate in open-loop control with frequent user intervention. Dosage-calculating algorithms are currently being studied in intensive care patients [1] , for short overnight control to supplement conventional insulin delivery [2] , and for short periods where patients rest and follow a prescribed food regime [3] . Fully automated algorithms that can respond to the varying activity levels seen in outpatients, with unpredictable and unreported food intake, and which provide the necessary personalized control for individuals is currently beyond the state-of-the-art. Here, we review and discuss reinforcement learning algorithms, controlling insulin in a closed-loop to provide individual insulin dosing regimens that are reactive to the immediate needs of the patient. PMID:23972072

  3. Challenges and Recent Progress in the Development of a Closed-loop Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, B. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Pursuit of a closed-loop artificial pancreas that automatically controls the blood glucose of individuals with type 1 diabetes has intensified during the past six years. Here we discuss the recent progress and challenges in the major steps towards a closed-loop system. Continuous insulin infusion pumps have been widely available for over two decades, but “smart pump” technology has made the devices easier to use and more powerful. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has improved and the devices are more widely available. A number of approaches are currently under study for fully closed-loop systems; most manipulate only insulin, while others manipulate insulin and glucagon. Algorithms include on-off (for prevention of overnight hypoglycemia), proportional-integral-derivative (PID), model predictive control (MPC) and fuzzy logic based learning control. Meals cause a major “disturbance” to blood glucose, and we discuss techniques that our group has developed to predict when a meal is likely to be consumed and its effect. We further examine both physiology and device-related challenges, including insulin infusion set failure and sensor signal attenuation. Finally, we discuss the next steps required to make a closed-loop artificial pancreas a commercial reality. PMID:23175620

  4. Phase II trial of gemcitabine (2,2'-difluorodeoxycytidine) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Casper, E S; Green, M R; Kelsen, D P; Heelan, R T; Brown, T D; Flombaum, C D; Trochanowski, B; Tarassoff, P G

    1994-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a novel nucleoside analog which demonstrated a broad spectrum of preclinical activity in solid tumor models, and responses in patients with pancreas cancer during phase I evaluation. Patients with measurable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who had received no previous chemotherapy were eligible for this multicenter phase II clinical trial. Gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 was administered intravenously weekly for 3 consecutive weeks, followed by one week rest, every 4 weeks. Forty-four patients entered the trial; 35 had at least 2 cycles of therapy. Partial response was observed in 5 patients (11%, estimated 95% confidence interval 2-20%), with a median duration of 13 months. All responding patients had stabilization or improvement in performance status. Fourteen patients had stable disease of 4 or more months. The median WBC nadir was 3.8 x 10(3)/microliters (range 1.6-9.3) and the median absolute neutrophil (ANC) nadir was 2.0 x 10(3)/microliters (range 0.4-7.2). Thrombocytopenia - 100.0 x 10(3)/microliters was observed in 15 patients; the median platelet nadir was 123.0 (range 30.0-245.0). All patients experienced a mild to moderate flu-like syndrome. In addition, one patient had a mild hemolytic-uremic syndrome which appeared related to gemcitabine therapy. Gemicitabine demonstrated marginal activity in this resistant neoplasm, without excessive toxicity. Further evaluation, including the use of more intense dosing and/or combination therapy, is warranted. PMID:7960602

  5. Methylation profile and amplification of proto-oncogenes in rat pancreas induced with phytoestrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Lyn-Cook, B.D.; Blann, E.; Bo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Specific gene hypermethylation has been shown in DNA from neonatal rats exposed to the phytoestrogens, coumestrol, and equol. The pancreas is an organ in which estrogen receptors have been shown to be present. Studies have correlated the development of acute pancreatitis with rising levels of human estrogen binding proteins. Neonatal rats were dosed with 10 or 100 {mu}g of coumestrol or equol on postnatal day (PND) 1-10. The animals were sacrificed at Day 15. The pancreas was excised and pancreatic acinar cells isolated for molecular analysis. DNA was isolated from the cells by lysis in TEN-9 buffer supplemented with proteinase K and 0.1% SDS. High molecular weight (HMW) DNA was digested with the methylated DNA specific restriction enzymes, Hpa II and Msp I, for determination of methylation profiles. Both coumestrol and equol at high doses caused hypermethylation of the c-H-ras proto-oncogene. No hypermethylation or hypomethylation was observed in the proto-oncogenes, c-myc or c-fos. Methylation is thought to be an epigenetic mechanism involved in the activation (hypomethylation) or inactivation (hypermethylation) of cellular genes which are known to play a role in carcinogenesis. Epidemiology studies have shown that equol may have anti-carcinogenic effects on some hormone-dependent cancers. Additional studies are needed to further understand the role of phytoestrogens and methylation in relation to pancreatic disorders. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Release of NPY in pig pancreas: Dual parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, S.P.; Holst, J.J.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Knigge, U.; Warberg, J.; Theodorsson-Norheim, E.; Hoekfelt, T.; Lundberg, J.M.; Schwartz, T.W. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm )

    1988-07-01

    Several lines of evidence have connected neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-residue polypeptide, to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The authors studied the localization, the molecular characteristics, and the release of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) in the porcine pancreas. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that NPY nerves around blood vessels were likely to be of adrenergic nature, whereas NPY-immunoreactive fibers close to exocrine and endocrine cells may originate from local ganglia also containing VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine). Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve supply to the isolated perfused pig pancreas resulted in a corelease of NPY and NE into the venous effluent. Stimulation of the vagal nerves caused a sevenfold larger release of NPY without affecting the NE secretion. Characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue and in the venous effluent by gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoelectric focusing shoed that the immunoreactive NPY was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine NPY. It is concluded that, although NPY is associated with sympathetic perivascular neurons, the majority of the pancreatic NPY-containing nerve fibers are likely to belong to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  7. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith; Qing, Hong; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Kis, Andras; Vileno, Bertrand; Làszló, Forró; Miller, Lisa; Martins, Ralph N.; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Bosman, Fred; Khalili, Kamel; Darbinian, Nune; McGeer, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A?) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A?, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A? was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A? deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A? deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain. PMID:18950899

  8. Kidney, pancreas and liver allocation and distribution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Biggins, S W; Haselby, D G; Kim, W R; Wedd, J; Lamb, K; Thompson, B; Segev, D L; Gustafson, S; Kandaswamy, R; Stock, P G; Matas, A J; Samana, C J; Sleeman, E F; Stewart, D; Harper, A; Edwards, E; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K

    2012-12-01

    Kidney transplant and liver transplant are the treatments of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease and end-stage liver disease, respectively. Pancreas transplant is most commonly performed along with kidney transplant in diabetic end-stage renal disease patients. Despite a steady increase in the numbers of kidney and liver transplants performed each year in the United States, a significant shortage of kidneys and livers available for transplant remains. Organ allocation is the process the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) uses to determine which candidates are offered which deceased donor organs. OPTN is charged with ensuring the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of organ sharing in the national system of organ allocation. The policy has changed incrementally over time in efforts to optimize allocation to meet these often competing goals. This review describes the history, current status and future direction of policies regarding the allocation of abdominal organs for transplant, namely the kidney, liver and pancreas, in the United States. PMID:23157207

  9. Expression and functional studies of the GDNF family receptor alpha 3 in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Nivlet, Laure; Herrmann, Joel; Martin, Delia Esteban; Meunier, Aline; Orvain, Christophe; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2016-02-01

    The generation of therapeutic ?-cells from human pluripotent stem cells relies on the identification of growth factors that faithfully mimic pancreatic ?-cell development in vitro. In this context, the aim of the study was to determine the expression and function of the glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 3 (GFR?3) and its ligand artemin (Artn) in islet cell development and function. GFR?3 and Artn expression were characterized by in situ hybridization, immunochemistry, and qRT-PCR. We used GFR?3-deficient mice to study GFR?3 function and generated transgenic mice overexpressing Artn in the embryonic pancreas to study Artn function. We found that GFR?3 is expressed at the surface of a subset of Ngn3-positive endocrine progenitors as well as of embryonic ?- and ?-cells, while Artn is found in the pancreatic mesenchyme. Adult ?-cells lack GFR?3 but ?-cells express the receptor. GFR?3 was also found in parasympathetic and sympathetic intra-islet neurons as well as in glial cells in the embryonic and adult pancreas. The loss of GFR?3 or overexpression of Artn has no impact on Ngn3 and islet cell formation and maintenance in the embryo. Islet organization and innervation as well as glucose homeostasis is normal in GFR?3-deficient mice suggesting functional redundancy. PMID:26576643

  10. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  11. Application of Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Cell Culture for Pancreas Islet Cell Transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutzky, Lynne P.

    1998-01-01

    Type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both pediatric and adult populations, despite significant advances in medical management. While insulin therapy treats symptoms of acute diabetes, it fails to prevent chronic complications such as microvascular disease, blindness, neuropathy, and chronic renal failure. Strict control of blood glucose concentrations delays but does not prevent the onset and progression of secondary complications. Although, whole pancreas transplantation restores physiological blood glucose levels, a continuous process of allograft rejection causes vascular and exocrine-related complications. Recent advances in methods for isolation and purification of pancreatic islets make transplantation of islet allografts an attractive alternative to whole pancreas transplantation. However, immunosuppressive drugs are necessary to prevent rejection of islet allografts and many of these drugs are known to be toxic to the islets. Since auto-transplants of isolated islets following total pancreatectomy survive and function in vivo, it is apparent that a major obstacle to successful clinical islet transplantation is the immunogenicity of the islet allografts.

  12. Polyamine biosynthesis is critical for growth and differentiation of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Mastracci, Teresa L.; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas, in most studied vertebrates, is a compound organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine compartment makes and secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine compartment, organized into islets of Langerhans, produces hormones that regulate blood glucose. High concentrations of polyamines, which are aliphatic amines, are reported in exocrine and endocrine cells, with insulin-producing ? cells showing the highest concentrations. We utilized zebrafish as a model organism, together with pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation, to determine how polyamine biosynthesis functions in pancreatic organogenesis. We identified that inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis reduces exocrine pancreas and ? cell mass, and that these reductions are at the level of differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, phenocopies inhibition or knockdown of the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). These data identify that the pancreatic requirement for polyamine biosynthesis is largely mediated through a requirement for spermidine for the downstream posttranslational modification of eIF5A by its enzymatic activator DHS, which in turn impacts mRNA translation. Altogether, we have uncovered a role for polyamine biosynthesis in pancreatic organogenesis and identified that it may be possible to exploit polyamine biosynthesis to manipulate pancreatic cell differentiation. PMID:26299433

  13. 77 FR 69863 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...patient preoperative skin preparations contain antiseptic active ingredients subject to an OTC drug monograph, such as povidone- iodine or alcohol. Products that are marketed under approved NDAs or ANDAs include those that contain chlorhexidine gluconate...

  14. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-09-28

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING 1 PORTR: Pre-Operative and Post-Recurrence Brain

    E-print Network

    this type of intra-subject registration is challenging as tumor, resection, recurrence, and edema cause labeled as edema in the pre-operative scan transforming to healthy tissue in the post-recurrence scan (and

  16. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-10-12

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  17. Evaluation and implications of natural product use in preoperative patients: a retrospective review

    E-print Network

    King, Allison R.; Russett, Flint S.; Generali, Joyce A.; Grauer, Dennis W.

    2009-10-13

    , and to develop discontinuation guidelines for the use of these products prior to surgery. Methods: A retrospective review of surgery patients presenting to the Anesthesia Preoperative Evaluation Clinic (APEC) at the University of Kansas Hospital was conducted...

  18. Testicular schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis for testicular nodules: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago Neves; Higa, Hana Caroline Morais; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Miranda, Márcio Maia Lamy; Kaddoun, Marcos Lyra; Santos, Maria Carmen Ferreira Lopes Silva; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2015-01-01

    Despite its infrequent occurrence, testicular schistosomiasis forming pseudo-tumors can be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular tumors, especially in areas where the parasitic disease is endemic. In this report, we present a case of testicular schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni and mimicking a testicular neoplasm. We describe the patterns of a testicular nodule on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance images in a 46-year-old man. The nodule was removed after a pre-operative diagnosis of a non-malignant lesion. Histology demonstrated granulomas with epithelioid macrophages and eosinophils around S. mansoni eggs within a fibrous tissue that formed a nodular structure. PMID:26312943

  19. A Pitfall in the Diagnosis of Unresectable Liver Metastases: Multiple Bile Duct Hamartomas (von Meyenburg Complexes).

    PubMed

    Fuks, David; Le Mouel, Jean-Philippe; Chatelain, Denis; Sabbagh, Charles; Demuynck, Fabien; Brevet, Marie; Brehant, Olivier; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Yzet, Thierry; Dumont, Frederic; Verhaeghe, Pierre; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Von Meyenburg complexes (VMC) are a cluster of benign liver malformations including biliary cystic lesions, with congenital fibrocollagenous stroma. This rare entity can mimick multiple secondary hepatic lesions. We report a case of a 56-year-old woman who had multiples liver lesions 12 years after operation for breast cancer. Biopsy of the hepatic lesion confirmed the diagnosis of VMC. Preoperative discovery of multiple gray-white nodular lesions scattered on the surface of the liver should not always contraindicate curative liver resection. The diagnosis of VMC should be known and confirmed with liver biopsy. PMID:21103275

  20. Preoperative risk factors for prolonged postoperative ventilation following thymectomy in myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weihua; Yu, Tao; Longhini, Federico; Jiang, Xiaogan; Qin, Xuemei; Jin, Xiaoju

    2015-01-01

    Adequate preoperative evaluation and preparation for surgery are required to prevent prolonged mechanical ventilation after thymectomy, and facilitate the recovery of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). The objective of this study was to identify the preoperative risk factors for extubation failure after thymectomy in patients with MG. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 61 patients with MG who underwent extended thymectomy. Several factors were evaluated including patients’ demographic data, preoperative medical therapies, medical history, and comorbidities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of late extubation after thymectomy for MG. Results: Fourteen patients (22.95%) required breathing support after anesthesia or endotracheal re-intubation within 48 h. Univariate analysis illustrated that the quantitative MG (QMG) grade (odds ratio [OR] = 1.368, P = 0.000), preoperative muscle strength (OR = 0.279, P = 0.000), use of pyridostigmine (OR = 1.011, P = 0.024) and prednisone (OR = 1.059, P = 0.022), preoperative lung function (OR = 4.875, P = 0.016), low preoperative cholinesterase levels (OR = 0.999, P = 0.014), impaired preoperative swallowing muscle activity (OR = 7.619, P = 0.003), and positivity for acetylcholine receptor antibodies (OR = 14.143, P = 0.001) were significant predictors of prolonged postoperative intubation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the QMG score (OR = 3.408, P = 0.000) and Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) classification (OR = 28.683, P = 0.002) were independent risk factors for prolonged postoperative intubation. Conclusion: The preoperative MGFA clinical classification and QMG score were independent risk factors for prolonged postoperative intubation in patients with MG. PMID:26550357

  1. Preoperative hypnotherapy in the management of a child with anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, A; Frawley, G P

    2007-10-01

    A six-year-old boy with oesophageal strictures secondary to neonatal repair of oesophageal atresia and requiring six to eight weekly oesophageal dilatations by bouginage developed anticipatory nausea and vomiting. This was effectively managed by a course of preoperative hypnotherapy over four sessions. Resolution of anticipatory nausea and vomiting occurred along with cessation of postoperative nausea and vomiting. This case supports early intervention with preoperative hypnotherapy in children with anticipatory nausea and vomiting that has not responded to other measures. PMID:17933170

  2. Improving the quality of the surgical preoperative assessment in a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Koris, Jacob; Hopkins, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    At Leicester General Hospital, England, patients are assessed by a team of junior doctors for elective colorectal and hepatobiliary procedures. After a number of same day cancellations, a large discrepancy was identified between the findings at the preoperative assessment clinic and the anaesthetic assessment on the day of surgery. After a multidisciplinary meeting was held, three interventions were decided on with an aim to bring the preoperative assessment in line with the anaesthetic assessment. Firstly, a set of guidelines was written and introduced for the junior doctors to use as a reference when assessing patients. Secondly, a proforma was designed specifically to prompt users to include essential details which were being missed in the assessment, having audited 100 patients' notes. Thirdly, a preoperative investigation “calculator” was recommended for each patient to simplify compliance with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance for preoperative assessment. Before and after each intervention was introduced, a cohort of 50 patients were followed looking for differences in findings in the history, examination, investigations, and fitness for surgery between the preoperative assessment in clinic and the anaesthetic assessment on the day of surgery. Initially 68% of patients were compliant for details in the history, 76% for examination, 32% for choice of preoperative investigations, and 100% for fitness for surgery decision. After all three interventions had been introduced, 96% of patients were compliant for history, 94% for examination findings, 88% had the correct choice of preoperative investigations, and 100% had the same decision on fitness for surgery. The interventions described proved to be cheap and effective methods of improving the quality of the preoperative assessment, bringing it in line with the anaesthetic assessment and reducing the risk of same day cancellations.

  3. Bloodless third complex heart operation in a Jehovah's Witness patient with extremely low preoperative haemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Pasic, Miralem; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Unbehaun, Axel; Hetzer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    We report a successful third complex heart operation without the transfusion of any allogeneic blood or blood products in a female Jehovah's Witness patient who had pronounced preoperative anaemia with a haemoglobin value of 6.9 mg/dl. The report shows that such a procedure is possible without any transfusion of allogeneic blood or blood products in extreme conditions with a very low preoperative haemoglobin level. PMID:22354090

  4. Effect of Preoperative Biliary Drainage on Complications Following Pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yinting; Ou, Guangsheng; Lian, Guoda; Luo, Hui; Huang, Kaihong; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) prior to pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is still controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of PBD on complications following PD. A meta-analysis was carried out for all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective studies published from inception to March 2015 that compared PBD and non-PBD (immediate surgery) for the development of postoperative complications in PD patients. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using fixed-effect analyses, or random-effects analyses if there was statistically significant heterogeneity (P?

  5. The Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Govender, Praveen; Berman, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion; there exists neither a pathognomonic clinical feature nor a perfect diagnostic test. Missed diagnosis and overdiagnosis are common. A careful history and physical examination look for "footprints" of sarcoidosis or features suggesting alternative diagnoses. Some presentations are classic and do not require tissue confirmation. A tissue biopsy should be performed if doubt exists. Sampling intrathoracic disease by transbronchial or ultrasound-guided biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes provide high diagnostic yield with low complication rates. Even with tissue confirmation, diagnosis is never secure and follow-up is required to be fully confident of the diagnosis. PMID:26593135

  6. How the preoperative ultrasound examination and BFI of the cervical lymph nodes modify the therapeutic treatment in patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasound is considered the best diagnostic method for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). According to current guidelines, all patients undergoing thyroidectomy for malignancy should undergo preoperative neck ultrasound of the thyroid and central and lateral neck LNs, followed by fine needle aspiration of suspicious LNs. Cervical LN involvement determenes the extent of surgery. Complete surgical resection disease at the initial operation decreases likelihood of future surgery for recurrent disease and may impact survival. We use a new technique, B-flow imaging (BFI), recently used for evaluation of thyroid nodules, to estimate the presence of BFI twinkling signs (BFI-TS), within metastatic LNs in patients with PTC. Methods Between September 2006 and December 2012, 304 patients with known PTC were examined for preoperative sonographic evaluation with gray-scale US, color Doppler US and BFI. Only 157 with at least one metastatic LN were included in our study. All patients included underwent surgery, and the final diagnosis was based on the results of histologic examination of the resected specimens. The following LN characteristics were evaluated: LN shape, abnormal echogenicity, the absent of hilum, calcifications, cystic appearance, peripheral vascularization and the presence of BFI-TS. Results A total of 767 LNs were analyzed. 329 out of 767 were metastatic, according to the histopathologic findings. BFI-TS, showed 99.5% specificity and 81,5% sensitivity. We detected BFI-TS in 6 metastatic LNs that were negative to the other conventional US features. Conclusions Our results indicate that the BFI-TS has a diagnostic accuracy higher than the other conventional sonographic signs. Our findings suggest that BFI can be helpful in the selection of suspicious neck LNs that should be examined at cytologic examination or open biopsy for accurate preoperative staging and individual therapy selection. PMID:24267705

  7. Feasibility and safety of electrochemotherapy (ECT) in the pancreas: a pre-clinical investigation

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Roberto; Prejanò, Simona; Cataldo, Ivana; Corbo, Vincenzo; Martini, Lucia; Scarpa, Aldo; Claudio, Bassi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease generally refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents; therefore improvements in anticancer therapies are mandatory. A major determinant of therapeutic resistance in PDAC is the poor drug delivery to neoplastic cells, mainly due to an extensive fibrotic reaction. Electroporation can be used in vivo to increase cancer cells’ local uptake of chemotherapeutics (electrochemotherapy, ECT), thus leading to an enhanced tumour response rate. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of reversible electroporation in normal pancreas in a rabbit experimental model. We also tested the effect of electroporation on pancreatic cancer cell lines in order to evaluate their increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Materials and methods. The application in vivo of the European Standard Operating Procedure of Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE) pulse protocol (1000 V/cm, 8 pulses, 100 ?s, 5 KHz) was tested on the pancreas of normal New Zealand White Rabbits and short and long-term toxicity were assessed. PANC1 and MiaPaCa2 cell lines were tested for in vitro electrochemotherapy experiments with and without electroporation. Levels of cell permeabilization were determined by flow cytometry, whereas cell viability and drug (cisplatin and bleomycin) sensitivity of pulsed cells were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Results. In healthy rabbits, neither systemic nor local toxic effects due to the electroporation procedure were observed, demonstrating the safety of the optimized electric parameters in the treatment of the pancreas in vivo. In parallel, we established an optimized protocol for ECT in vitro that determined an enhanced anti-cancer effect of bleomycin and cisplatin with respect to treatment without electroporation. Conclusions. Our data suggest that electroporation is a safe procedure in the treatment of PDAC because it does not affect normal pancreatic parenchyma, but has a potentiating effect on cytotoxicity of bleomycin in pancreatic tumour cell lines. Therefore, ECT could be considered as a valid alternative for the local control of non-resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:26029026

  8. [Effects of alcohol on the upper gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas--an up-to-date overview].

    PubMed

    Siegmund, S V; Singer, M V

    2005-08-01

    The oesophagus, stomach and pancreas are primary target organs for ethanol-related diseases. In the oesophagus and stomach, ethanol induces motility disorders and mucosal lesions that are dose-dependent and reversible under acute conditions. Chronic consumption of alcohol causes a significant increase in the risk for squamous carcinoma of the oesophagus. All of these effects are mainly caused by direct contact of alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde with the mucosa. Non-alcoholic components are responsible for many effects of alcoholic beverages, including the powerful stimulation of gastric acid secretion by beverages that are produced by fermentation. In the exocrine pancreas, alcohol induces secretory alterations that are mainly affected by the manner and duration of alcohol exposure, the additional administration of food, the type of beverage or the basal secretory state of the gland. Because the pancreas is not topically exposed to ethanol, these ethanol effects on pancreatic secretion are primarily caused by systemic cholinergic mechanisms of the vagus nerve. Chronic alcohol abuse may cause chronic alcoholic pancreatitis after recurrent subclinical inflammatory episodes. Genetic predispositions are believed to play an additional role in the pathomechanism of the disease. In contrast to the cardiovascular system, moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages does not have any beneficial health effects on the oesophagus, stomach or pancreas. Future research needs to define the exact molecular mechanisms and the role of different genetic predispositions for alcohol-induced diseases as well as the effects of the non-alcoholic components of alcoholic beverages. PMID:16088770

  9. Efficacy of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L. on insulin and antioxidants activity in pancreas of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim Diabetes mellitus (DM), a leading non communicable disease with multiple etiologies is considered as third greatest cause of death in all over the world. During DM, persistent hyperglycemia causes an increased production of free radicals via auto oxidation of glucose and non-enzymatic protein glycation which may lead to disruption of cellular functions and oxidative damage to membranes. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of Evolvulus alsinoides on antioxidant activity in pancreas of experimental diabetes. Methods The antioxidant activities were done by using standard protocols. For histopathological analysis, the pancreatic tissues of all experimental groups were fixed with 10% formalin for 24 hrs then the samples were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin for the microscopic observation. Results Oral administration of plant extract for 45 days resulted in significant antioxidant activity, increases the insulin level and also inhibits lipid peroxidation in pancreas of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The histopathological studies showed the normal histology of pancreas after treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide. This study showed that the administration of Evolvulus alsinoides to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats improves the antioxidant activity and remodel the structure of pancreas due to the presence of secondary metabolites like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and glycosides in the ethanolic extract of plant material. Conclusion From the present study, it can be concluded that the plant extract effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin and potentially increased the insulin level. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:23834750

  10. Neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH-diaphorase staining in rat and human pancreas: influence of fixation.

    PubMed

    Wörl, J; Wiesand, M; Mayer, B; Greskötter, K R; Neuhuber, W L

    1994-11-01

    In this study, we wished to clarify the distribution and co-localization of nitric oxide synthase and NA-DPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in nerve cells, nerve fibres and parenchymal cells in exocrine and endocrine pancreas, and to assess the influence of fixation on the staining pattern obtained. For this purpose, we applied nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry to rat and human pancreas under different fixation conditions. Antibodies to neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were similarly applied. We found complete co-localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-d in ganglion cells, and in nerve fibres around acini, excretory ducts, blood vessels and in islets of Langerhans of rat and human pancreas. Immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was co-localized with NADPH-d in endothelial cells. However, in NADPH-d reactive islet and ductal epithelial cells we could detect neither brain nor endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity with any fixation protocol applied. There were marked differences in NADPH-d staining of both neurons and parenchymal cells under different fixation conditions. These results indicate the existence of different types of NADPH-d, which are associated or not associated with nitric oxide synthase(s), and which are differently influenced by various fixation procedures in rat and human pancreas. PMID:7532638

  11. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Daniela Tiemi; de Melo, Luciana Valentini; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Sanchez, Ana Paula Galli

    2014-01-01

    Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare genodermatosis with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. It is characterized by usually asymptomatic keratotic papules along the borders of the hands and/or feet. The main differential diagnosis is acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa, which differs from the former only by not presenting elastorrhexis in histopathological examination, thus requiring this exam for a correct diagnosis. PMID:25184932

  12. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei; Guzzo, Thomas; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (?T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder may lead to marginal misses when a partial-bladder technique is used.

  13. Effect of behavioral intervention using smartphone application for preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Jung, Han-Kil; Lee, Gang-geun; Kim, Han-Young; Park, Sun-Gyoo

    2013-01-01

    Background Children and parents experience significant anxiety and distress during the preoperative period. This is important because preoperative anxiety in children is associated with adverse postoperative outcome. So we suggest behaviorally oriented preoperative anxiety intervention program based on the anesthesia and psychology with smartphone application, world-widely used. Methods A total 120 patients (aged 1-10 years old) who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia was included in this randomized controlled trial. We randomized the patients into three groups, with using intravenous (IV) midazolam sedation (M group), with using smartphone application program (S group), and with using low dose IV midazolam plus smartphone application program (SM group). And the child anxiety was assessed using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) at holding area, 5 min after intervention, entrance to operating room. Results In all three groups, mYPAS after intervention were lower than the preoperative holding area (M group 52.8 ± 11.8 vs 41.0 ± 7.0, S group 59.2 ± 17.6 vs 36.4 ± 7.3, SM group 58.3 ± 17.5 vs 26.0 ± 3.4). A comparison of mYPAS scores between each group showed that the S group reduced anxiety lower than M group (P < 0.01), and the SM group exhibited significantly lower anxiety than the two other groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions The preoperative preparation program using smartphone application is simple and customized by individual development that effective in the reduction of preoperative anxiety. PMID:24427456

  14. Improving patient flow in pre-operative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Cameron; Gent, Anne; Kirkland, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Annual patient attendances at a pre-operative assessment department increased by 24.8% from 5659 in 2009, to 7062 in 2012. The unit was staffed by administrative staff, nurses, and health care assistants (HCA). Medical review was accessed via on call medical staff, or notes were sent to anaesthetists for further review. With rising demand, patient waits increased. The average lead time for a patient (time from entering the department to leaving) was 79 minutes. 9.3% of patients attended within two weeks of their scheduled surgery date. 10% of patients were asked to return on a later day, as there was not sufficient capacity to undertake their assessment. There were nine routes of referral in to the department. Patients moved between different clinic rooms and the waiting area several times. Work patterns were uneven, as many attendances were from out-patient clinics which meant peak attendance times were linked to clinic times. There were substantial differences in the approaches of different nurses, making the HCA role difficult. Patients reported dissatisfaction with waits. Using a Lean quality improvement process with rapid PDSA cycles, the service changed to one in which patients were placed in a room, and remained there for the duration of their assessment. Standard work was developed for HCWs and nurses. Rooms were standardised using 5S processes, and set up improved to reduce time spent looking for supplies. A co-ordinator role was introduced using existing staff to monitor flow and to organise the required medical assessments and ECGs. Timing of booked appointments were altered to take account of clinic times. Routes in to the department were reduced from nine to one. Ten months after the work began, the average lead time had reduced to 59 minutes. The proportion of people attending within two weeks of their surgery decreased from 9.3% to 5.3%. Referrals for an anaesthetic opinion decreased from 30% to 20%, and in the month reviewed no one had to return to be seen as a result of limited capacity.

  15. MR cholangiopancreatography of the pancreas and biliary system: a review of the current applications.

    PubMed

    Hossary, Sandy Hassan; Zytoon, Ashraf Anas; Eid, Mohamed; Hamed, Ahmed; Sharaan, Mohamed; Ebrahim, Ahmed Abd El-Maguid

    2014-01-01

    MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is still a rapidly evolving technique, but it has been already accepted as clinically useful and is widely used to evaluate biliary or pancreatic diseases. The advantages of this technique are that it does not use contrast media or ionizing radiation, it is noninvasive and complication free, and the examination is relatively short. MRCP has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing biliary dilatation and for determining the site and cause of stenosis. With further improvements of hardware and technique, MRCP is expected to replace diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to examine the biliary and pancreatic ducts in the near future. The other applications include evaluation of primary sclerosing cholangitis, stenosis after liver transplantation, and bilioenteric anastomoses. This article reviews the current applications of MRCP in the evaluation of the pancreas and the biliary system. PMID:24290199

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Robust PID Controller for a Fully Implantable Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus could be greatly improved by applying a closed-loop control strategy to insulin delivery, also known as an artificial pancreas (AP). In this work, we outline the design of a fully implantable AP using intraperitoneal (IP) insulin delivery and glucose sensing. The design process utilizes the rapid glucose sensing and insulin action offered by the IP space to tune a PID controller with insulin feedback to provide safe and effective insulin delivery. The controller was tuned to meet robust performance and stability specifications. An anti-reset windup strategy was introduced to prevent dangerous undershoot toward hypoglycemia after a large meal disturbance. The final controller design achieved 78% of time within the tight glycemic range of 80–140 mg/dL, with no time spent in hypoglycemia. The next step is to test this controller design in an animal model to evaluate the in vivo performance. PMID:26538805

  17. The fetal liver as cell source for the regenerative medicine of liver and pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Rossella; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gentile, Raffaele; Napoli, Cristina; Venere, Rosanna; Gatto, Manuela; Brunelli, Roberto; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Patients affected by liver diseases and diabetes mellitus are in need for sources of new cells to enable a better transition into clinic programs of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In this setting, fetal liver is becoming the most promising and available source of cells. Fetal liver displays unique characteristics given the possibility to isolate cell populations with a wide spectrum of endodermal differentiation and, the co-existence of endodermal and mesenchymal-derived cells. Thus, the fetal liver is a unique and highly available cell source contemporarily candidate for the regenerative medicine of both liver and pancreas. The purpose of this review is to revise the recent literature on the different stem cells populations isolable from fetal liver and candidate to cell therapy of liver diseases and diabetes and to discuss advantages and limitation with respect to other cell sources. PMID:25332958

  18. The pancreas-specific protein disulphide-isomerase PDIp interacts with a hydroxyaryl group in ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Klappa, P; Freedman, R B; Langenbuch, M; Lan, M S; Robinson, G K; Ruddock, L W

    2001-01-01

    Using a cross-linking approach, we have recently demonstrated that radiolabelled model peptides or misfolded proteins specifically interact in vitro with two members of the protein disulphide- isomerase family, namely PDI and PDIp, in a crude extract from sheep pancreas microsomes. In addition, we have shown that tyrosine and tryptophan residues within a peptide are the recognition motifs for the binding to PDIp. Here we examine non-peptide ligands and present evidence that a hydroxyaryl group is a structural motif for the binding to PDIp; simple constructs containing this group and certain xenobiotics and phytoestrogens, which contain an unmodified hydroxyaryl group, can all efficiently inhibit peptide binding to PDIp. To our knowledge this is the first time that the recognition motif of a molecular chaperone or folding catalyst has been specified as a simple chemical structure. PMID:11237859

  19. Enhanced insulin-like growth factor I gene expression in regenerating rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.E.; Rosen, K.M.; Villa-Komaroff, L.; Weir, G.C.; Bonner-Weir, S. )

    1991-07-15

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA expression was studied after 90% partial pancreatectomy in the rat to determine whether IGF-I was associated with pancreatic regeneration. The level of IGF-I mRNA was maximally increased (4-fold above control value) 3 days after pancreatectomy, but thereafter gradually decreased, returning to control levels by 14 days after surgery. By in situ hybridization, IGF-I mRNA in both pancreatectomized and sham-operated rats was localized to capillary endothelial cells, indicating that this is the site of IGF-I expression in the normal rat pancreas. However, enhanced IGF-I mRNA expression was localized to focal areas of regeneration unique to pancreatectomized rats. In these areas, epithelial cells of proliferating ductules and individual connective tissue cells expressed IGF-I, suggesting that IGF-I may play an important role in the growth or differentiation of pancreatic tissue.

  20. Review of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the liver and the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Perman, William H; Balci, Numan Cem; Akduman, Isin

    2009-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for in vivo biochemical characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. The initial application in the abdomen was the measurement of fat concentration in the liver using chemical shift imaging. The success of chemical shift imaging in providing a semiquantitative measure of liver fat concentration led to the application of the more quantitative single-voxel volume-selective spectroscopy of the liver. This single-voxel volume-selective spectroscopic technique is able to characterize the different lipids and metabolites present in the liver and the pancreas, providing information about the ratio of unsaturated and saturated lipids. The purposes of this article were to review the spectroscopic techniques and to discuss some of the clinical applications of these techniques in the abdomen. PMID:20010063

  1. Possible site of calcium regulation in rat exocrine pancreas cells: an X-ray microanalytical study

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, N.

    1988-03-01

    We analysed four subcellular compartments in rat exocrine pancreas cells, zymogen granules, cytoplasm surrounding the zymogen granules, mitochondria and cytoplasm in the basal part of the cells for sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium content, using ultrathin frozen-dried cryosections. The highest concentrations of calcium were measured in the zymogen granules and the surrounding apical part of the cell containing Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and condensing vacuoles. Calcium concentrations in the basal part of the cells (mostly rough endoplasmic reticulum) were 60% lower than in the apical part of the cells. The lowest calcium concentrations were measured in mitochondria. The results suggest that other subcellular compartments than the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria might be involved in the intracellular Ca2+ regulation.

  2. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates.

  3. Immunologic reactivity of purified human urinary kallikrein (urokallikrein) with antiserum directed against human pancreas.

    PubMed

    ole-Moi Yoi, O; Spragg, J; Halbert, S P; Austen, K F

    1977-02-01

    Donkey antiserum to normal human pancreas absorbed with lyophilized human plasma recognized human urokallikrein in concentrated crude urine or after an approximately 500-fold purification. The urokallikrein antigen was associated with kinin-generating and alpha-N-p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAMe) cleaving activity on isoelectric focusing, with the isoelectric point being 3.8 to 4.4. Both kiningenerating and esterolytic activity were removed from the purified urokallikrein by an immunoadsorbent prepared by coupling the IgG fraction of the absorbed donkey antiserum to Sepharose 6B. The failure of anti-plasma kallikrein to react in immunodiffusion with purified urokallikrein indicates that urinary kallikrein is distinct from plasma kallikrein although antigenically related to glandular kallikreins. PMID:402421

  4. Caveats and considerations for performing pancreas-specific gene manipulations in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, M A; Burlison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Conditional gene targeting using the Cre/loxP strategy has proven to be very useful for studies of glucose homeostasis, tissue function and dysfunction in diabetes, and pancreas development. However, use of this strategy over the past decade has revealed a variety of experimental caveats, many of which are a direct consequence of the procedures used to generate Cre-driver lines. We discuss frequently encountered experimental artefacts, the advantages of using bacterial artificial chromosome-derived transgenes or performing a Cre knockin for improving the specificity of expression, and systems for regulating Cre activity. In addition, recent studies indicate that high amounts of Cre in the pancreatic beta-cell may cause glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion. However, these findings, while serving as a reminder for simple experimental controls, are unlikely to diminish utilization of this very powerful and useful technology. PMID:17919173

  5. Age-related changes of claudin expression in mouse liver, kidney, and pancreas.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Theresa; Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A; Poosala, Suresh; Mullin, James M; Morin, Patrice J

    2009-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play crucial roles in tissue homeostasis and inflammation through their roles in the control of paracellular transport and barrier function. There is evidence that these functions are compromised in older organisms, but the exact mechanisms leading to TJ deterioration are not well understood. Claudin proteins are a family of membrane proteins that constitute the structural barrier elements of TJs and therefore play a major role in their formation and function. Using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, we have studied the expression of six different claudin proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -7) in three tissues (liver, kidney, and pancreas) of aging male and female mice. In general, we find an age-dependent decrease in the expression of several claudin proteins in all three tissues observed, although the exact changes are tissue specific. Our findings provide a possible basis for the decrease in tissue barrier function in older organisms. PMID:19692671

  6. Post-gastrectomy acute pancreatitis in a patient with gastric carcinoma and pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Kuo, I-Ming; Wang, Frank; Liu, Keng-Hao; Jan, Yi-Yin

    2009-09-28

    Gastrectomy is commonly performed for both benign and malignant lesions. Although the incidence of post-gastrectomy acute pancreatitis (PGAP) is low compared to other well-recognized post-operative complications, it has been reported to be associated with a high mortality rate. In this article, we describe a 70-year-old man with asymptomatic pancreatic divisum who underwent palliative subtotal gastrectomy for an advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis. His post-operative course was complicated by acute pancreatitis and intra-abdominal sepsis. The patient eventually succumbed to multiple organ failure despite surgical debridement and drainage, together with aggressive antibiotic therapy and nutritional support. For patients with pancreas divisum or dominant duct of Santorini who fail to follow the normal post-operative course after gastrectomy, clinicians should be alert to the possibility of PGAP as one of the potential diagnoses. Early detection and aggressive treatment of PGAP might improve the prognosis. PMID:19777622

  7. Overestimated Oncologic Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in G1 Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Tumor in the Left Side of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Jin; Yang, Seok Jeong; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kang, Chang Moo; Kim, Hogeun; Lee, Woo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have expounded on the oncologic significance of lymph node metastasis in nonfunctioning (NF) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas and suggest regional lymph node dissection for treating pancreatic NET. We tested this recommendation in NF pancreatic NET-G1, as these tumors are generally small and suitable for function-preserving minimally invasive pancreatectomy. From January 2005 to December 2014, medical records of patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pathologically confirmed NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Oncologic outcomes were compared between limited pancreatectomy and distal pancreatosplenectomy. Thirty-five patients (14 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 55.9?±?11.4 years were enrolled in this study. Six patients (17.1%) underwent distal pancreatosplenectomy. Limited pancreatectomies comprised 15 spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomies (42.8%), 10 enucleations (28.6%), and 4 central pancreatectomies (11.4%). Lymph node metastasis was not found in 6 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy with a splenectomy; meanwhile, the others were regarded as pNx since no lymph node retrieval was attempted during the limited pancreatectomy. Overall disease-free survival was 36.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.9–47.1) and no tumor-related mortality was noted. Minimally invasive pancreatectomy (P?=?0.557) and limited pancreatectomy (P?=?0.758) showed no adverse impact in treating NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas. The oncologic significance of lymph node metastasis is overestimated in NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas. Routine conventional distal pancreatosplenectomy to retrieve regional lymph nodes may be too excessive in treating NF NET-G1 of the distal pancreas. PMID:26356692

  8. Treatment of primary unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas with I-125 implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, T.; Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.; Manolatos, S.; Linares, L.; Harrison, L.; Anderson, L.L.; Fuks, Z.; Brennan, M.F. )

    1989-11-01

    Between January 1 1974 and October 31 1987, 98 patients with biopsy proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were treated with I-125 implants during laparotomy. Presenting symptoms were pain, jaundice, and weight loss. All patients underwent laparotomy and surgical staging. Thirty patients had T1NoMo disease, 47 patients had T2-3NoMo disease, and 21 patients had significant regional lymph node involvement (T1-3N1Mo). The surgical procedure performed was biopsy only (16 patients), gastric bypass, biliary bypass, and partial or total pancreatectomy with incomplete resection. The total activity and the number of seeds used were determined from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. Stereoshift localization X ray films were taken 3-6 days after operation. The mean activity, minimal peripheral dose (MPD), and volume of the implants were 35 mCi, 13,660 cGy, and 53 cm3, respectively. In addition, 27 patients received postoperative external irradiation and 27 patients received chemotherapy. Postoperative complications were observed in 19 patients. These included post-operative death (1 patient), biliary fistula (4), intraabdominal abscess (4), GI bleeding (3), gastric or small bowel obstruction (6), sepsis (5), and deep vein thrombophlebitis (4). Pain relief was obtained in 37/57 patients (65%) presenting with pain. A multivariate analysis showed that four factors significantly affected survival: T stage, N stage, administration of chemotherapy, and more than 30% reduction in the size of the implant on follow-up films. The median survival for the entire group was 7 months. A subgroup of patients with T1No stage disease who received chemotherapy survived 18.5 months. The indications for I-125 seed implantation in unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas are discussed.

  9. Characterization of human brain nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-2 and expression in human pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Yalowitz, Joel A; Xiao, Suhong; Biju, Mangatt P; Antony, A?ok C; Cummings, Oscar W; Deeg, Mark A; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N

    2004-01-01

    NMNAT (nicotinamide 5'-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.1) catalyses the transfer of the adenylyl group from ATP to NMN to form NAD. We have cloned a novel human NMNAT cDNA, designated hNMNAT-2, from human brain. The cDNA contains a 924 bp open reading frame that encodes a 307 amino acid peptide that was expressed as a histidine-patch-containing thioredoxin fusion protein. Expressed hNMNAT-2 shared only 35% amino acid sequence homology with the human NMNAT enzyme (hNMNAT-1), but possessed enzymic activity comparable with hNMNAT-1. Using human genomic databases, hNMNAT-2 was localized to chromosome 1q25 within a 171 kb gene, whereas hNMNAT-1 is on chromosome 1p32-35. Northern blot analysis revealed highly restricted expression of hNMNAT-2 to brain, heart and muscle tissues, which contrasts with the wide tissue expression of hNMNAT-1; different regions of the brain exhibited differential expression of hNMNAT-2. Substitution mutations of either of two invariant residues, His-24 or Trp-92, abolished enzyme activity. Anti-peptide antibody to a unique epitope within hNMNAT-2 was produced, and immunohistochemical analysis of sections of normal adult human pancreas revealed that hNMNAT-2 protein was markedly expressed in the islets of Langerhans. However, the pancreatic exocrine cells exhibited weak expression of hNMNAT-2 protein. Sections of pancreas from insulinoma patients showed strong expression of hNMNAT-2 protein in the insulin-producing tumour cells, whereas acinar cells exhibited relatively low expression of hNMNAT-2 protein. These data suggest that the unique tissue-expression patterns of hNMNAT-2 reflect distinct functions for the isoforms in the regulation of NAD metabolism. PMID:14516279

  10. Development of the endocrine pancreas and novel strategies for ?-cell mass restoration and diabetes therapy

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Aguirre, A.L.; Canales-Aguirre, A.A.; Padilla-Camberos, E.; Esquivel-Solis, H.; Díaz-Martínez, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a serious public health problem owing to its global prevalence in the last decade. The causes of this metabolic disease include dysfunction and/or insufficient number of ? cells. Existing diabetes mellitus treatments do not reverse or control the disease. Therefore, ?-cell mass restoration might be a promising treatment. Several restoration approaches have been developed: inducing the proliferation of remaining insulin-producing cells, de novo islet formation from pancreatic progenitor cells (neogenesis), and converting non-? cells within the pancreas to ? cells (transdifferentiation) are the most direct, simple, and least invasive ways to increase ?-cell mass. However, their clinical significance is yet to be determined. Hypothetically, ? cells or islet transplantation methods might be curative strategies for diabetes mellitus; however, the scarcity of donors limits the clinical application of these approaches. Thus, alternative cell sources for ?-cell replacement could include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. However, most differentiated cells obtained using these techniques are functionally immature and show poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with native ? cells. Currently, their clinical use is still hampered by ethical issues and the risk of tumor development post transplantation. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge of mouse pancreas organogenesis, morphogenesis, and maturation, including the molecular mechanisms involved. We then discuss two possible approaches of ?-cell mass restoration for diabetes mellitus therapy: ?-cell regeneration and ?-cell replacement. We critically analyze each strategy with respect to the accessibility of the cells, potential risk to patients, and possible clinical outcomes. PMID:26176316

  11. Development of polyvinyl alcohol bioartificial pancreas with rat islets and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, G; Sakata, N; Tsuchiya, H; Ishida, M; Motoi, F; Egawa, S; Sumi, S; Goto, M; Unno, M

    2013-06-01

    To improve the function of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bioartificial pancreas, we focused on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We examined whether the function of PVA-encapsulated rat islets could be improved by coencapsulation with syngeneic MSCs. We macroencapsulated 1,500 rat islet equivalents (IEQ) with or without 1 × 10(6) MSCs with the use of 3% PVA solution before implantation intraperitoneally into diabetic BALB/c mice. We evaluated the function of the device in vitro (the residual rate, viability, and insulin-releasing function of the islets) and in vivo assessments (blood glucose and serum C-peptide changes after transplantation and glucose tolerance test). Although cultured islets also were destroyed, the shapes of the islets cocultured with MSCs were preserved but not different from encapsulated islets without MSCs. At 96 hours after culture the residual rates of islet recovery among those cocultured with versus without MSCs were 66% versus 39.5%, respectively, (P = .03). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between encapsulated islets with versus without MSCs. Furthermore, the stimulation index of the islets was improved by coculture with MSCs (2.6 ± 0.6 vs 1.4 ± 0.1; P = .03), but no beneficial effects were observed between islets encapsulated with versus without MSCs. The viability of islets cocultured with MSCs was significantly better than that without MSCs (84.2 ± 2.5 vs 73.3 ± 0.9; P = .037), but MSCs did not improve the viability of encapsulated islets. There were no significant differences in blood glucose or serum C-peptide between islets encapsulated with versus without MSCs. The histologic findings showed many degenerative islets and MSCs soon after transplantation. In conclusion, further studies are necessary to develop a novel PVA bioartificial pancreas that can be used with MSCs. PMID:23769061

  12. Nom1 mediates pancreas development by regulating ribosome biogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Zelin; Zhang, Yihan; Yan, Ruibin; Yan, Guanrong; Li, Song; Zhong, Hanbing; Lin, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is an important biological process for proper cellular function and development. Defects leading to improper ribosome biogenesis can cause diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. Nucleolar proteins are a large family of proteins and are involved in many cellular processes, including the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. Through a forward genetic screen and positional cloning, we identified and characterized a zebrafish line carrying mutation in nucleolar protein with MIF4G domain 1 (nom1), which encodes a conserved nulceolar protein with a role in pre-rRNA processing. Zebrafish nom1 mutants exhibit major defects in endoderm development, especially in exocrine pancreas. Further studies revealed that impaired proliferation of ptf1a-expressing pancreatic progenitor cells mainly contributed to the phenotype. RNA-seq and molecular analysis showed that ribosome biogenesis and pre-mRNA splicing were both affected in the mutant embryos. Several defects of ribosome assembly have been shown to have a p53-dependent mechanism. In the nom1 mutant, loss of p53 did not rescue the pancreatic defect, suggesting a p53-independent role. Further studies indicate that protein phosphatase 1 alpha, an interacting protein to Nom1, could partially rescue the pancreatic defect in nom1 morphants if a human nucleolar localization signal sequence was artificially added. This suggests that targeting Pp1? into the nucleolus by Nom1 is important for pancreatic proliferation. Altogether, our studies revealed a new mechanism involving Nom1 in controlling vertebrate exocrine pancreas formation. PMID:24967912

  13. Neurogenin 3 Expressing Cells in the Human Exocrine Pancreas Have the Capacity for Endocrine Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Danielle L.; O’Driscoll, Marci; Sheets, Timothy P.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Oberholzer, Jose; McGarrigle, James J.; Shamblott, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is necessary and sufficient for endocrine differentiation during pancreatic development and is expressed by a population of progenitor cells that give rise exclusively to hormone-secreting cells within islets. NGN3 protein can be detected in the adult rodent pancreas only following certain types of injury, when it is transiently expressed by exocrine cells undergoing reprogramming to an endocrine cell fate. Here, NGN3 protein can be detected in 2% of acinar and duct cells in living biopsies of histologically normal adult human pancreata and 10% in cadaveric biopsies of organ donor pancreata. The percentage and total number of NGN3+ cells increase during culture without evidence of proliferation or selective cell death. Isolation of highly purified and viable NGN3+ cell populations can be achieved based on coexpression of the cell surface glycoprotein CD133. Transcriptome and targeted expression analyses of isolated CD133+ / NGN3+ cells indicate that they are distinct from surrounding exocrine tissue with respect to expression phenotype and Notch signaling activity, but retain high level mRNA expression of genes indicative of acinar and duct cell function. NGN3+ cells have an mRNA expression profile that resembles that of mouse early endocrine progenitor cells. During in vitro differentiation, NGN3+ cells express genes in a pattern characteristic of endocrine development and result in cells that resemble beta cells on the basis of coexpression of insulin C-peptide, chromogranin A and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1. NGN3 expression in the adult human exocrine pancreas marks a dedifferentiating cell population with the capacity to take on an endocrine cell fate. These cells represent a potential source for the treatment of diabetes either through ex vivo manipulation, or in vivo by targeting mechanisms controlling their population size and endocrine cell fate commitment. PMID:26288179

  14. Development of the endocrine pancreas and novel strategies for ?-cell mass restoration and diabetes therapy.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, A L; Canales-Aguirre, A A; Padilla-Camberos, E; Esquivel-Solis, H; Díaz-Martínez, N E

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a serious public health problem owing to its global prevalence in the last decade. The causes of this metabolic disease include dysfunction and/or insufficient number of ? cells. Existing diabetes mellitus treatments do not reverse or control the disease. Therefore, ?-cell mass restoration might be a promising treatment. Several restoration approaches have been developed: inducing the proliferation of remaining insulin-producing cells, de novo islet formation from pancreatic progenitor cells (neogenesis), and converting non-? cells within the pancreas to ? cells (transdifferentiation) are the most direct, simple, and least invasive ways to increase ?-cell mass. However, their clinical significance is yet to be determined. Hypothetically, ? cells or islet transplantation methods might be curative strategies for diabetes mellitus; however, the scarcity of donors limits the clinical application of these approaches. Thus, alternative cell sources for ?-cell replacement could include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. However, most differentiated cells obtained using these techniques are functionally immature and show poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with native ? cells. Currently, their clinical use is still hampered by ethical issues and the risk of tumor development post transplantation. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge of mouse pancreas organogenesis, morphogenesis, and maturation, including the molecular mechanisms involved. We then discuss two possible approaches of ?-cell mass restoration for diabetes mellitus therapy: ?-cell regeneration and ?-cell replacement. We critically analyze each strategy with respect to the accessibility of the cells, potential risk to patients, and possible clinical outcomes. PMID:26176316

  15. Preoperative Evaluation of Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm Index in Prediction of Malignancy of Adnexal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Farah; Honarvar, Zahra; Yaraghi, Mansoore; Yaseri, Mehdi; Arab, Maliheh; Hosseini, Maryamsadat; Ashrafgangoi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms is essential to create a system for patient referrals. Objectives: The aim of the present prospective trial was to analyze the value of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in prediction of adnexal masses malignancy in pre- and post-menopause women before operation. Materials and Methods: Preoperative serum samples were tested for CA125 and HE4 using fully automated methods (Abbott architect) and gained best cutoff. The ROMA index was analyzed in 99 patients (including 68 pre-menopause and 31 menopause) with adnexal masses referred to Imam Hossein Hospital/Tehran/Iran and had been scheduled for operation. The pathological results showed 43 cases (22 menopause) with malignant adnexal masses and 56 cases (9 menopauses) with benign adnexal masses. Demographical data, clinical symptoms and the ROMA index were separately analyzed and contrasted in benign and malignant in both menopause and pre-menopause patients. Results: The only significant difference was the older age of the malignant group vs. benign group (P = 0.001) regarding demographic findings. As concerns the clinical symptoms, presence of abdominal discomfort in pre-diagnosis period was the only significant parameter in malignant group (P = 0.001). Additionally, data analysis of patients as a total group showed that specificity (96.4%), positive predictive value (PPV) (94.1%), area under the curve (AUC) (0.907), and diagnostic accuracy (DA) (86.9%) of the ROMA were higher than HE4 (91.1%, 85.7%, 0.857 and 81.8%. respectively) and CA125 (87.9%, 67.3%, 0.828 and 75.8%, respectively) alone. Besides, negative predictive value (NPV) (86.4%) and sensitivity (86.1%) of CA125 were higher than HE4 (79.7% and 69.8%, respectively). In contrast, specificity of HE4 (91.1%) was higher than CA125 (67.9%). Data analysis of patients as two groups (pre and post menopause groups) showed the same results. Conclusions: Specificity, DA and AUC of the ROMA were higher than HE4 and CA125 taken separately. PMID:25068046

  16. Acute appendicitis: modern understanding of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Bhangu, Aneel; Søreide, Kjetil; Di Saverio, Salomone; Assarsson, Jeanette Hansson; Drake, Frederick Thurston

    2015-09-26

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergencies worldwide. The cause remains poorly understood, with few advances in the past few decades. To obtain a confident preoperative diagnosis is still a challenge, since the possibility of appendicitis must be entertained in any patient presenting with an acute abdomen. Although biomarkers and imaging are valuable adjuncts to history and examination, their limitations mean that clinical assessment is still the mainstay of diagnosis. A clinical classification is used to stratify management based on simple (non-perforated) and complex (gangrenous or perforated) inflammation, although many patients remain with an equivocal diagnosis, which is one of the most challenging dilemmas. An observed divide in disease course suggests that some cases of simple appendicitis might be self-limiting or respond to antibiotics alone, whereas another type often seems to perforate before the patient reaches hospital. Although the mortality rate is low, postoperative complications are common in complex disease. We discuss existing knowledge in pathogenesis, modern diagnosis, and evolving strategies in management that are leading to stratified care for patients. PMID:26460662

  17. Isolated pancreatic cysticercal cyst presenting as a diagnostic challenge: diagnosis and treatment review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Neogi, Sushanto

    2015-01-01

    Human cysticercosis most commonly affects the subcutaneous tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs, brain, eyes, liver and, rarely, the heart, thyroid and pancreas. Owing to vague clinical presentation and unfamiliarity of clinicians with this entity, it is difficult to diagnosis when seen as an isolated cyst. We present a case of a 16-year-old boy who presented with an upper abdominal lump and jaundice. Ultrasonography (USG) and MRI of the abdomen were carried out, which revealed a cystic mass (8.5 × 7 × 7 cm) in the pancreas. No evidence of solid component or papillary projections was noted within the lesion. Tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA 19-9) were normal. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, which revealed the presence of cysticercus larvae, along with a foreign body giant cell reaction. The patient was treated with therapeutic aspiration and antihelminthic therapy. Since then, he has been symptom free and under regular follow-up for the last 1 year. A diagnosis of cysticercal cyst at atypical sites is very rare and depends mainly on histopathological examination, which, along with USG and MRI, can give an accurate analysis. These cysts can be very well treated non-surgically with antihelminthics and aspiration. PMID:26160552

  18. Preoperative Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Patients with CKD Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hitti, Sharbel; Silberman, Shuli; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer; Lifschitz, Meyer; Slotki, Itzchak; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Preoperative anemia adversely affects outcomes of cardiothoracic surgery. However, in patients with CKD, treating anemia to a target of normal hemoglobin has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. We investigated the association between preoperative hemoglobin and outcomes of cardiac surgery in patients with CKD and assessed whether there was a level of preoperative hemoglobin below which the incidence of adverse surgical outcomes increases. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This prospective observational study included adult patients with CKD stages 3–5 (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) undergoing cardiac surgery from February 2000 to January 2010. Patients were classified into four groups stratified by preoperative hemoglobin level: <10, 10–11.9, 12–13.9, and ?14 g/dl. The outcomes were postoperative AKI requiring dialysis, sepsis, cerebrovascular accident, and mortality. Results In total, 788 patients with a mean eGFR of 43.5±13.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were evaluated, of whom 22.5% had preoperative hemoglobin within the normal range (men: 14–18 g/dl; women: 12–16 g/dl). Univariate analysis revealed an inverse relationship between the incidence of all adverse postoperative outcomes and hemoglobin level. Using hemoglobin as a continuous variable, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a proportionally greater frequency of all adverse postoperative outcomes per 1-g/dl decrement of preoperative hemoglobin (mortality: odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.57; P<0.001; sepsis: odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.49; P<0.001; cerebrovascular accident: odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.67; P=0.03; postoperative hemodialysis: odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.75; P<0.01). Moreover, preoperative hemoglobin<12 g/dl was an independent risk factor for postoperative mortality (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 7.3; P=0.04). Conclusions Similar to the general population, preoperative anemia is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes in patients with CKD. Whether outcomes could be improved by therapeutically targeting higher preoperative hemoglobin levels before cardiac surgery in patients with underlying CKD remains to be determined. PMID:24993450

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: 2. Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Howard H.; Jacova, Claudia; Robillard, Alain; Garcia, Angeles; Chow, Tiffany; Borrie, Michael; Schipper, Hyman M.; Blair, Mervin; Kertesz, Andrew; Chertkow, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background Dementia can now be accurately diagnosed through clinical evaluation, cognitive screening, basic laboratory evaluation and structural imaging. A large number of ancillary techniques are also available to aid in diagnosis, but their role in the armamentarium of family physicians remains controversial. In this article, we provide physicians with practical guidance on the diagnosis of dementia based on recommendations from the Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, held in March 2006. Methods We developed evidence-based guidelines using systematic literature searches, with specific criteria for study selection and quality assessment, and a clear and transparent decision-making process. We selected studies published from January 1996 to December 2005 that pertained to key diagnostic issues in dementia. We graded the strength of evidence using the criteria of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Results Of the 1591 articles we identified on all aspects of dementia diagnosis, 1095 met our inclusion criteria; 620 were deemed to be of good or fair quality. From a synthesis of the evidence in these studies, we made 32 recommendations related to the diagnosis of dementia. There are clinical criteria for diagnosing most forms of dementia. A standard diagnostic evaluation can be performd by family physicians over multiple visits. It involves a clinical history (from patient and caregiver), a physical examination and brief cognitive testing. A list of core laboratory tests is recommended. Structural imaging with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended in selected cases to rule out treatable causes of dementia or to rule in cerebrovascular disease. There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine functional imaging, measurement of biomarkers or neuropsychologic testing. Interpretation The diagnosis of dementia remains clinically integrative based on history, physical examination and brief cognitive testing. A number of core laboratory tests are also recommended. Structural neuroimaging is advised in selected cases. Other diagnostic approaches, including functional neuroimaging, neuropsychological testing and measurement of biomarkers, have shown promise but are not yet recommended for routine use by family physicians. PMID:18362376

  20. Incidence, Natural History, and Patterns of Locoregional Recurrence in Gastric Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Mansfield, Paul F.; Bhosale, Priya R.; Kim, Michelle; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Delclos, Marc E.; Lowy, Andrew M.; Feig, Barry W.; Pisters, Peter W.T.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the incidence and patterns (in-field, marginal, or out-of-field) of locoregional gastric cancer recurrence in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy and to determine the outcome in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2004, 149 patients with gastric carcinoma were treated according to institutional protocols with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Ultimately, 105 patients had an R0 resection. Of these 105 patients, 65 received preoperative chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and 40 received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Most (96%) of these patients received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy during radiotherapy, and the median radiation dose was 45 Gy. We retrospectively identified and classified the patterns of locoregional recurrence. Results: The 3-year actuarial incidence of locoregional recurrence was 13%, with locoregional disease recurring as any part of the failure pattern in 14 patients. Most (64%) of the evaluable locoregional recurrences were in-field. Of the 4 patients with a marginal recurrence, 2 had had inadequate coverage of the regional nodal volumes on their oblique fields. The pathologic complete response rate was 23%. A pathologic complete response was the only statistically significant predictor of locoregional control. Conclusion: Patients with gastric cancer who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy had low rates of locoregional recurrence. This strategy merits prospective multi-institutional and randomized evaluation.