Sample records for pancreatic duct stent

  1. Treatment of Common Bile Duct Obstruction by Pancreatic Cancer Using Various Stents: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Toshifumi; Hirai, Ritsuko; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami [Department of Gastroenterology, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 328 Tomitsuka-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Tamakoshi, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Hirotoshi [SecondDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School ofMedicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Kanamori, Masao [Department of Public Health, HamamatsuUniversity School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of various means of stenting in patients with biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in a retrospective analysis. Methods: Sixty-two patients with biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent biliary stenting. On the basis of the findings obtained by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(10 patients) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (52 patients),the site of obstruction was distal to the hilar confluence,predominantly especially in the middle to lower third of the common bile duct. Polyurethane-covered Wallstents (9 mm in diameter) we reinserted in 13 patients, while uncovered Wallstents (10 mm in diameter)were used in 10 patients and plastic stents (10 Fr and 12 Fr) were used in 39 patients. Results: Stenting was successful in 34 patients (87.2%) treated with plastic stents and in 22 patients(95.7%) treated with Wallstents. Effective biliary drainage was achieved in 32 out of 34 patients (94.1%) treated with plastic stents and in 21 out of 22 patients (95.5%) treated with Wallstents. The cumulative patency rate was significantly higher for the uncovered and covered Wallstents compared to plastic stents, but was not significantly higher for covered than for uncovered Wallstents. Stentocclusion occurred in 23 patients (70%; all by clogging) from the plastic stent group, in two patients (22%; by tumor ingrowth) from the uncovered Wallstent group, and in one patient (9%; by clogging) from the covered Wallstent group. The survival rate showed no significant difference among the three stent groups. Conclusion: The Wallstent is effective for long-term palliation in patients with obstruction caused by pancreatic cancer invading the middle to lower part of the common bile duct. The covered Wallstent can prevent tumor ingrowth, a problem with the uncovered Wallstent. However, it may be necessary to take measures to prevent the migration or clogging of covered Wallstents.

  2. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis Causing a Highway to the Colon with Subsequent Road Closure: Pancreatic Colonic Fistula Presenting as a Large Bowel Obstruction Treated with Pancreatic Duct Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Justin; Schlepp, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Context. Colonic complications associated with acute pancreatitis have a low incidence but carry an increased risk of mortality with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic colonic fistula is most commonly associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or abscess formation and rarely forms spontaneously. Classic clinical manifestations for pancreatic colonic fistula include diarrhea, hematochezia, and fever. Uncommonly pancreatic colonic fistula presents as large bowel obstruction. Case. We report a case of a woman with a history of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who presented with large bowel obstruction secondary to pancreatic colonic fistula. Resolution of large bowel obstruction and pancreatic colonic fistula was achieved with pancreatic duct stenting. Conclusion. Pancreatic colonic fistula can present as large bowel obstruction. Patients with resolved acute pancreatitis who have radiographic evidence of splenic flexure obstruction, but without evidence of mechanical obstruction on colonoscopy, should be considered for ERCP to evaluate for PCF. PCF not associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or peritoneal abscess can be treated conservatively with pancreatic duct stenting. PMID:25893120

  3. Risk Factors for Migration, Fracture, and Dislocation of Pancreatic Stents

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Lin, Jung-Chun; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Mine, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic stent migration, dislocation, and fracture in chronic pancreatitis patients with pancreatic strictures. Materials and Methods. Endoscopic stent placements (total 386 times) were performed in 99 chronic pancreatitis patients with pancreatic duct stenosis at our institution between April 2006 and June 2014. We retrospectively examined the frequency of stent migration, dislocation, and fracture and analyzed the patient factors and stent factors. We also investigated the retrieval methods for migrated and fractured stents and their success rates. Results. The frequencies of stent migration, dislocation, and fracture were 1.5% (5/396), 0.8% (3/396), and 1.2% (4/396), respectively. No significant differences in the rates of migration, dislocation, or fracture were noted on the patient factors (etiology, cases undergoing endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy, location of pancreatic duct stenosis, existence of pancreatic stone, and approach from the main or minor papilla) and stent factors (duration of stent placement, numbers of stent placements, stent shape, diameter, and length). Stent retrieval was successful in all cases of migration. In cases of fractured stents, retrieval was successful in 2 of 4 cases. Conclusion. Stent migration, fracture, and dislocation are relatively rare, but possible complications. A good understanding of retrieval techniques is necessary. PMID:25945085

  4. Biliary sphincterotomy is not required for bile duct stent placement

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, C. Mel; Kim, Hwasoon; Ramesh, Jayapal; Trevino, Jessica; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to assess the success and outcome of bile duct stent placement without the use of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS). Patients and Methods Over a period of 10 years and 9 months, all patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were prospectively identified. Bile duct stent placement was routinely done without EBS unless additional therapy (stone removal, multiple stenting) was anticipated. Results Of 5020 patients who underwent ERCP, bile duct stents were placed in 1668 patients. After excluding those requiring additional endoscopic therapy, 1112 patients (89.5%) had ERCP and stent placement without a sphincterotomy and 130 patients (10.5%) had ERCP and stent placement with a sphincterotomy. Deployed endoprostheses were self-expandable metallic stents in 15.7% and plastic in 77.5%. Caliber of plastic stents was 10 Fr in 78.9% and <10 Fr in 21.1%. All stents were successfully placed in these 1112 patients without the need for EBS. Comparing patients undergoing bile duct stenting with and without sphincterotomy, no difference was seen in rates of pancreatitis (1.54% vs 2.07%, P > 0.9999). Conclusion Single bile duct stents, both plastic and metal, can be deployed without EBS. PMID:23517140

  5. Pancreatic duct strictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jawad Ahmad; John Martin

    2000-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The treatment of pancreatic duct strictures is based on an accurate assessment of the etiology of the disease, and then the\\u000a degree of symptomatology. Our outline for therapy is as follows:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Exclude a diagnosis of malignancy by using radiologic, endoscopic, histologic, and molecular biologic modalities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Once a benign stricture has been demonstrated, we favor a

  6. Management of pancreatic duct stone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li; Sheng-Ning Zhang

    2008-01-01

    ancreatic duct stone is a rare disease. With the advancement of radiological techniques in diagnosis and in-depth study the incidence of the disease has appeared to be rising in recent years, especially in the Western world. Defined as stone or calcification in the pancreatic duct, the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, but many theories are available for its formation.

  7. Argon Plasma Coagulation for Extraction of an Impacted Trapezoid Basket in the Pancreatic Duct

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Treta; Garg, Mrinal; Kulkarni, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy for pancreatic stent placement on a 55-year-old woman with a dilated pancreatic duct, pancreatic duct stone, and chronic pancreatitis. During follow-up ERCP, the lithotripter traction wire fractured during electrohydraulic lithotripsy and mechanical lithotripsy. Multiple attempts using standard techniques to clear the lithotripter and stone failed. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) was used to ablate 2 of the lithotripter wires, and the lithotripter was disengaged from the stone and removed. PMID:26157943

  8. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Malignant Cystic Duct Obstruction: Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Komatsu, Tetsuya [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.

  9. Flow reduction of a neonatal stented arterial duct by covered coronary stent.

    PubMed

    Demir, Fadli; Cools, Bjorn; Gewillig, Marc

    2015-08-01

    The final flow rate through a stented duct is variable and depends on stent diameter, ductal length, and ductal tissue protrusion after ductal constriction. Typically after duct stenting, there is initially mild overperfusion which may require some antifailure treatment. Severe heart failure is uncommon, but in some cases flow reduction is required. We present a case of overperfusion after arterial duct stent implantation which was successfully managed with implantation of covered stents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25601430

  10. Updated meta-analysis of pancreatic stent placement in preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jin-He; Qian, Jun-Bo; Wang, Ya-Min; Shi, Rui-Hua; Zhao, Cheng-Jin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety profile of pancreatic duct (PD) stent placement for prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). METHODS: We performed a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify randomized controlled clinical trials of prophylactic PD stent placement after ERCP. RevMan 5 software provided by Cochrane was used for the heterogeneity and efficacy analyses, and a meta-analysis was performed for the data that showed homogeneity. Categorical data are presented as relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and measurement data are presented as weighted mean differences and 95%CIs. RESULTS: The incidence rates of severe pancreatitis, operation failure, complications and patient pain severity were analyzed. Data on pancreatitis incidence were reported in 14 of 15 trials. There was no significant heterogeneity between the trials (I2 = 0%, P = 0.93). In the stent group, 49 of the 1233 patients suffered from PEP, compared to 133 of the 1277 patients in the no-stent group. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that it may be possible to prevent PEP by placing a PD stent. CONCLUSION: PD stent placement can reduce postoperative hyperamylasemia and might be an effective and safe option to prevent PEP if the operation indications are well controlled.

  11. Endoscopic transpapillary therapy for disrupted pancreatic duct and peripancreatic fluid collections.

    PubMed

    Kozarek, R A; Ball, T J; Patterson, D J; Freeny, P C; Ryan, J A; Traverso, L W

    1991-05-01

    Eighteen patients with active pancreatic ductal disruptions, including 14 with definable fluid collections, were treated with transpapillary pancreatic duct drains or stents. Twelve of these patients had undergone a previous percutaneous or surgical pancreatic drainage procedure or both, and 8 had long-term drainage tubes in chronic fistulous tracts. Transpapillary catheters could be placed across the ductal disruption or directly into the fluid collection in each case, and 16 of 18 patients had resolution of the disrupted pancreatic duct. Twelve of 14 fluid collections resolved. Complications were limited to mild exacerbation of pancreatitis symptoms in 2 patients and 2 patients who developed subsequent stent occlusion leading to recurrent pancreatitis (1 patient) or recurrent duct blowout with pseudocyst (1 patient). Nine patients had variably significant ductal changes attributable to pancreatic duct stents. At a median follow-up of 16 months, 7 patients ultimately required surgery for ongoing pancreatic pain or residual/recurrent fluid collection. The transpapillary treatment of ongoing pancreatic ductal disruption with or without fluid collection has the potential to obviate surgery in some patients, change an urgent surgical procedure into an elective one, or even assist the surgeon in the performance of intraoperative pancreatography. Further study of this technique appears warranted and must be placed into the perspective of current therapies. PMID:2013381

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A Mathematical Model of the Pancreatic Duct Cell

    E-print Network

    Ermentrout, G. Bard

    a proximal pancreatic duct and included a sodium-2- bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and sodium-potassium pump dysfunction in humans. Key Words: bicarbonate, chloride, pancreatitis, pancreas, secretin, sodium bicarbonateORIGINAL ARTICLE A Mathematical Model of the Pancreatic Duct Cell Generating High Bicarbonate

  13. Pancreatic stenting prevents pancreatitis after biliary sphincterotomy in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Tarnasky; Yuko Y. Palesch; John T. Cunningham; Patrick D. Mauldin; Peter B. Cotton; Robert H. Hawes

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: Patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are at high risk of developing pancreatitis after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Impaired pancreatic drainage caused by pancreatic sphincter hypertension is the likely explanation for this increased risk. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine if ductal drainage with pancreatic stenting protects against pancreatitis after biliary sphincterotomy in patients with

  14. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Placement of an ePTFE/FEP-Covered Stent in the Common Bile Duct

    SciTech Connect

    Krokidis, Miltiadis E., E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.co [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology (Greece); Hatzidakis, Adam A. [Medical School of Crete (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    We report the case of a 78-year-old male patient with obstructive jaundice due to a pancreatic head neoplasm. The patient's general condition did not permit an endoscopic approach and the presence of diffuse liver metastases prohibited hepatic puncture for percutaneous biliary drainage, therefore the transcolecystic transperitoneal approach was decided to be the safest decompression route. Through a gallbladder access, a Viabil-covered stent with a mesh extension was placed in the distal common bile duct, without complications. The patient died 8 months later without signs of stent dysfunction or necessity of reintervention. Transcholecystic transperitoneal access is a safe option when diffuse liver metastases prohibit the transhepatic approach, even in cases where placement of a covered stent is considered necessary.

  15. Polyurethane stents for lacrimal duct stenoses: 5-year results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckart Bertelmann; Peter Rieck

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  To present 5-year results of polyurethane stent implantation for treatment of postsaccal lacrimal duct stenoses.Methods  Ninety-two consecutive patients admitted to our hospital for stent implantation between 1997 and 2001 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who were not re-treated in our clinic were asked by questionnaire about their satisfaction and complaints.Results  In 5 patients (5.4%) the implantation was not completed, 38 patients (41.3%)

  16. Endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Heyries; Jose Sahel

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of chronic pancreatitis has been exclusively surgical for a long time. Recently, endoscopic therapy has become widely used as a primary therapeutic option. Initially performed for drainage of pancreatic cysts and pseudocysts, endoscopic treatments were adapted to biliary and pancreatic ducts stenosis. Pancreatic sphincterotomy which allows access to pancreatic ducts was firstly reported. Secondly, endoscopic methods of stenting, dilatation,

  17. New pancreatic duct-invagination anastomosis using ultrasonic dissection for nonfibrotic pancreas with a nondilated duct.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ku, Yonson; Tanioka, Yasuki; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Kamigaki, Takashi; Tominaga, Masahiro; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Kuroda, Yoshikazu

    2002-02-01

    Nonfibrotic pancreases with a nondilated duct are susceptible to pancreatic fistula or leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy. We developed a novel pancreatic duct-invagination anastomosis using an ultrasonic dissector and applied this technique to 14 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies and 1 segmental pancreatectomy for otherwise normal pancreases. With the aid of an ultrasonic dissector, even branch pancreatic ducts were skeletonized, ligated securely, and divided during pancreatic transection. Moreover, the main duct was exposed (> 1 cm) easily by ultrasonic dissection and a small-caliber pancreatic tube was inserted into the duct on the stump. Subsequently, pancreatic duct invagination could be easily done through a 10 G intravenous catheter passed through the gastrointestinal tract. The main duct was anchored to the adjacent serosa, but any pancreatic parenchymal sutures, possibly leading to internal laceration and/or parenchymal ischemia particularly in soft nonfibrotic pancreases, were avoidable during the procedures. All the anastomoses were done within 10 minutes. Only 1 patient (6.7%)developed pancreatic fistula, which resolved spontaneously in 21 days postoperatively. Neither anastomotic leakage nor remnant pancreatitis was seen in this series. Although a prospective, randomized study is needed, this technique may contribute to reduced morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy for a nonfibrotic pancreas with a nondilated main duct. PMID:11865343

  18. Current Trends in Preoperative Biliary Stenting in Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jinkins, Lindsay J.; Parmar, Abhishek D.; Han, Yimei; Duncan, Casey B.; Sheffield, Kristin M.; Brown, Kimberly M.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sufficient evidence suggests that preoperative biliary stenting is associated with increased complication rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and linked Medicare claims data (1992–2007) were used to identify patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. We evaluated trends in the use of preoperative biliary stenting, timing of physician visits relative to stenting, and time to surgical resection and symptoms in stented and unstented patients. RESULTS Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed in 2,573 patients. 52.6% of patients underwent preoperative biliary stenting (N=1,354). Of these, 75.3% underwent endoscopic stenting only, 18.9% received a percutaneous stent, and 5.8% underwent both procedures. The overall stenting rate increased from 29.6% of patients in 1992–95 to 59.1% in 2004–07 (p<0.0001). Preoperative stenting was more common in patients with jaundice, cholangitis, pruritus, or coagulopathy (p<0.05 for all). 77.7% of stented patients had a stent placed prior to seeing a surgeon. Stenting prior to surgical consultation was associated with longer indwelling stent time compared to stenting after surgical consultation (37.3 vs. 27.0 days, p<0.0001). In addition, stented patients had longer times from surgeon visit to pancreatectomy than those who were not stented (24.2 days vs. 17.2 days, p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION Use of preoperative biliary stenting doubled from 1992–2007 despite evidence that stenting is associated with increased perioperative infectious complications. The majority of stenting occurred prior to surgical consultation and is associated with significant delay in time to operation. Surgeons should be involved early in order to prevent unnecessary stenting and improve outcomes. PMID:23889947

  19. Placement of prophylactic pancreatic stents to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in high-risk patients: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qing-Qing; Ning, Xiao-Yi; Zhan, Ling-Ling; Tang, Guo-Du; Lv, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of pancreatic stents for preventing pancreatitis in high-risk patients after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched to identify relevant trials published in English. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to screen for suitable studies. Two reviewers independently judged the study eligibility while screening the citations. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Jadad scoring system. All results were expressed as OR and 95%CI. Data were analyzed using Stata12.0 software. RESULTS: Ten eligible randomized controlled trials were selected, including 1176 patients. A fixed-effects model in meta-analysis supported that pancreatic duct stents significantly decreased the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk patients (OR = 0.25; 95%CI: 0.17-0.38; P < 0.001). Pancreatic stents also alleviated the severity of PEP (mild pancreatitis after ERCP: OR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.21-0.54; P < 0.001; moderate pancreatitis after ERCP: OR = 0.30; 95%CI: 0.13-0.67; P = 0.004). The result of severe pancreatitis after ERCP was handled more rigorously (OR = 0.24; 95%CI: 0.05-1.16; P = 0.077). Serum amylase levels were not different between patients with pancreatic stents and control patients (OR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.82-1.41; P = 0.586). CONCLUSION: Placement of prophylactic pancreatic stents may lower the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis in high-risk patients and alleviate the severity of this condition. PMID:24944500

  20. Intrapancreatic communication of bile and pancreatic ducts secondary to pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, B M; Traverso, L W; Freeny, P C

    1988-08-01

    An unusual complication of acute necrotizing pancreatitis occurred in which erosion of the intrapancreatic common bile duct and cephalic pancreatic duct formed a pancreaticobiliary cavity. This pancreatic process was observed to enhance during contrast computed tomography and was hypervascular during angiography, making preoperative diagnosis difficult. To our knowledge, the spontaneous development of such a cavity as a complication of acute pancreatitis has not been reported. The patient was successfully treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:3395229

  1. Novel endoscopic management for pancreatic pseudocyst with fistula to the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Crinò, Stefano Francesco; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Consolo, Pierluigi; Varvara, Doriana; Bottari, Antonio; Pantè, Sebastiano; Pallio, Socrate

    2014-12-16

    Pancreatic pseudocyst formation is a well-known complication of pancreatitis. It represents about 75% of the cystic lesions of the pancreas and might be located within or surrounding the pancreatic tissue. Sixty percent of the occurrences resolve spontaneously and only persistent, symptomatic or complicated cysts need to be treated. Complications include infection, hemorrhage, gastric outlet obstruction, splenic infarction and rupture. The formation of fistulas to other viscera is rare and most commonly occurs within the stomach, duodenum or colon. We report a case of a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst in communication with the common bile duct. There have been only few cases reported in the literature. We successfully managed our case by performing an endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of the pancreatic collection and a contemporaneous stenting of the common bile duct. Performed independently, both drainages are effective, safe and well-coded and the expertise on these procedures is widespread. By our knowledge this therapeutic approach was never reported in literature but we retain this is the most correct treatment for this very rare condition. PMID:25512772

  2. Blunt pancreatic trauma with main pancreatic duct disruption managed successfully with total parenteral nutrition: Report of a case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Shirai; Kazuhiro Tsukada; Yoichi Yamadera; Tetsuya Ohtani; Terukazu Muto; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    1995-01-01

    Although surgery is the usual treatment of choice for pancreatic trauma with disruption of the main pancreatic duct, we report herein the case of a patient in whom blunt pancreatic trauma with disruption of the proximal main pancreatic duct was successfully managed by conservative treatment. An 18-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain 22 days after being involved in a car

  3. Pancreatic duct cells as a source of VEGF in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Prasadan, Krishna; Guo, Ping; El-Gohary, Yousef; Fischbach, Shane; Wiersch, John; Gaffar, Iljana; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for proper pancreatic development, islet vascularisation and insulin secretion. In the adult pancreas, VEGF is thought to be predominantly secreted by beta cells. Although human duct cells have previously been shown to secrete VEGF at angiogenic levels in culture, an analysis of the kinetics of VEGF synthesis and secretion, as well as elucidation of an in vivo role for this ductal VEGF in affecting islet function and physiology, has been lacking. Methods We analysed purified duct cells independently prepared by flow cytometry, surgical isolation or laser-capture microdissection. We infected duct cells in vivo with Vegfa short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in an intrapancreatic ductal infusion system and examined the effect of VEGF knockdown in duct cells in vitro and in vivo. Results Pancreatic duct cells express high levels of Vegfa mRNA. Compared with beta cells, duct cells had a much higher ratio of secreted to intracellular VEGF. As a bioassay, formation of tubular structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells was essentially undetectable when cultured alone and was substantially increased when co-cultured with pancreatic duct cells but significantly reduced when co-cultured with duct cells pretreated with Vegfa shRNA. Compared with islets transplanted alone, improved vascularisation and function was detected in the islets co-transplanted with duct cells but not in islets co-transplanted with duct cells pretreated with Vegfa shRNA. Conclusions/interpretation Human islet preparations for transplantation typically contain some contaminating duct cells and our findings suggest that the presence of duct cells in the islet preparation may improve transplantation outcomes. PMID:24535231

  4. Temporary Pancreatic Duct Occlusion by Ethibloc: Cause of Microcirculatory Shutdown, Acute Inflammation, and Pancreas Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Plusczyk; Simone Westermann; Björn Bersal; Michael Menger; Gernot Feifel

    2001-01-01

    .   Temporary obliteration of the pancreatic duct has been suggested to be beneficial in chronic pancreatitis, segmental pancreatic\\u000a transplantation, and following Roux-Y pancreaticojejunostomy. Little is known, however, as to whether obliteration of the\\u000a duct alters exocrine pancreatic physiology. Therefore we studied in male inbred Lewis rats the immediate effects of Ethibloc-induced\\u000a duct obliteration (Ethibloc: Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany) on pancreatic microcirculation,

  5. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikio; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K(+) channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K(+) channels in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (KCa 3.1), KCNMA1 (KCa 1.1), KCNQ1 (Kv 7.1), KCNH2 (Kv 11.1), KCNH5 (Kv 10.2), KCNT1 (KCa 4.1), KCNT2 (KCa 4.2), and KCNK5 (K 2P 5.1). We will give an overview of K(+) channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K(+) channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K(+) channels may be of importance. PMID:23962792

  6. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Mikio; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K+ channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K+ channels in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (KCa3.1), KCNMA1 (KCa1.1), KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), KCNH2 (Kv11.1), KCNH5 (Kv10.2), KCNT1 (KCa4.1), KCNT2 (KCa4.2), and KCNK5 (K2P5.1). We will give an overview of K+ channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K+ channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K+ channels may be of importance. PMID:23962792

  7. A Suspicious Pancreatic Mass in Chronic Pancreatitis: Pancreatic Actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    de Clerck, F.; Laukens, P.; De Wilde, V.; Vandeputte, L.; Cabooter, M.; Van Huysse, J.; Orlent, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pancreatic actinomycosis is a chronic infection of the pancreas caused by the suppurative Gram-positive bacterium Actinomyces. It has mostly been described in patients following repeated main pancreatic duct stenting in the context of chronic pancreatitis or following pancreatic surgery. This type of pancreatitis is often erroneously interpreted as pancreatic malignancy due to the specific invasive characteristics of Actinomyces. Case. A 64-year-old male with a history of chronic pancreatitis and repeated main pancreatic duct stenting presented with weight loss, fever, night sweats, and abdominal pain. CT imaging revealed a mass in the pancreatic tail, invading the surrounding tissue and resulting in splenic vein thrombosis. Resectable pancreatic cancer was suspected, and pancreatic tail resection was performed. Postoperative findings revealed pancreatic actinomycosis instead of neoplasia. Conclusion. Pancreatic actinomycosis is a rare type of infectious pancreatitis that should be included in the differential diagnosis when a pancreatic mass is discovered in a patient with chronic pancreatitis and prior main pancreatic duct stenting. Our case emphasizes the importance of pursuing a histomorphological confirmation. PMID:25705533

  8. Dissolution of Pancreatic Lithiasis by Direct Citrate Application into the Pancreatic Duct in Two Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Güitrón; Horacio González-Loya; Ricardo Barinagarrementería; Juan Carlos Sarol; Raúl Adalid; Jorge Rodríguez-Delgado

    1997-01-01

    Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that citrates are useful in dissolving calcifications and proteic plug in pancreatic ducts both of alcoholic etiology and in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Until now, using citrates to dissolve stones in clinical studies was performed orally with satisfactory medium-term results, including control of abdominal pain and eradication of shadows on X-rays. Laboratory studies

  9. Cigarette Smoking Impairs Pancreatic Duct Cell Bicarbonate Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Vivek; Lee, Linda S; Banks, Peter A; Suleiman, Shadeah; Paulo, Joao A; Wang, Wei; Rosenblum, Jessica; Sainani, Nisha I; Mortele, Koenraad; Conwell, Darwin L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare pancreatic duct cell function in smokers (current and past) and never smokers by measurement of secretin-stimulated peak bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3?]) in endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid (PF). Methods This retrospective study was cross-sectional in design, recording demographic information (age, gender, etc.), smoking status (former, current, never), alcohol intake, clinical data (imaging, endoscopy), and laboratory results (peak PF [HCO3?]) from subjects evaluated for pancreatic disease at a tertiary pancreas center. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (SAS Version 9.2, Cary, NC, USA) was performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid bicarbonate concentration. Results A total of 131 subjects underwent pancreatic fluid collection (endoscopic pancreatic function test, ePFT) for bicarbonate analysis: 25.2% (33 out of 131) past smokers, 31.3% (41 out of 131) current smokers, and 43.5% (57 out of 131) were never smokers. Measures of Association The mean peak PF [HCO3?] in never smokers (81.3±18.5 mEq/L) was statistically higher (indicating better duct cell function) when compared to past smokers (66.8±24.7 mEq/L, P=0.005) and current smokers (70.0±20.2 mEq/L, P=0.005). However, the mean peak [HCO3?] in past smokers was not statistically different from that in current smokers (P=0.575), and therefore, the two smoking groups were combined to form a single “smokers cohort”. When compared to the never smokers, the smokers cohort was older (P=0.037) and had a greater proportion of subjects with definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (P=0.010), alcohol consumption ?20 g/day (P=0.012), and abnormal peak PF [HCO3-] (P<0.001). Risk-Based Estimates Cigarette smoking (risk ratio, RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.5; P<0.001), diagnosis of definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6–3.2; P<0.001) and alcohol consumption ?20 g/day (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.4; P=0.033) were all associated with low mean peak PF [HCO3?] (indicating duct cell secretory dysfunction). Multivariate Analysis Smoking (odds ratio, OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1; P=0.003) and definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 2.2–14.8; P<0.001) were determined to be independent predictors of low peak PF [HCO3?], controlling for age, gender, and alcohol intake. Furthermore there was no interaction between smoking status and alcohol intake in predicting duct cell dysfunction (P=0.571). Conclusion Measurement of pancreatic fluid bicarbonate in smokers reveals that cigarette smoking (past and current) is an independent risk factor for pancreatic duct cell secretory dysfunction (low PF [HCO3?]). Furthermore, the risk of duct cell dysfunction in subjects who smoked was approximately twice the risk (RR: 2.2) in never smokers. Further in depth, translational research approaches to pancreatic fluid analysis may help unravel mechanisms of cigarette smoking induced pancreatic duct cell injury. PMID:23306332

  10. A Novel Model of Severe Gallstone Pancreatitis: Murine Pancreatic Duct Ligation Results in Systemic Inflammation and Substantial Mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac Samuel; Zuobiao Yuan; David K. Meyerholz; Erik Twait; Deborah E. Williard; Duraisamy Kempuraj

    2010-01-01

    Background: Suitable experimental models of gallstone pancreatitis with systemic inflammation and mortality are limited. We developed a novel murine model of duct-ligation-induced acute pancreatitis associated with multiorgan dysfunction and severe mortality. Methods: Laparotomy was done on C57\\/BL6 mice followed by pancreatic duct (PD) ligation, bile duct (BD) ligation without PD ligation, or sham operation. Results: Only mice with PD ligation

  11. Accessory Pancreatic Duct-Portal Vein Fistula: A Rare Complication of Chronic Pancreatitis during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Lin, Jung-Chun; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis, hemorrhage and perforation are the most frequent complications associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We report a rare case of accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula, which occurred during ERCP in a patient with chronic pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of accessory pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula created during ERCP by the use of a guide wire. PMID:25473386

  12. Selective agenesis of pancreatic isthmus parenchyma with preservation of main pancreatic duct continuity, a very rare entity: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Paiella, Salvatore; De Pastena, Matteo; Esposito, Alessandro; Salvia, Roberto; Morigi, Consuelo; Bassi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Context Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is a rare anomaly, mostly associated with other medical conditions. It may be complicated with pancreatic neoplasms. Case report We report the case of a 51-year-old male with selective agenesis of pancreatic isthmus with preservation of main pancreatic duct and branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN) with suspicious features of the pancreas. Conclusion This is probably the first report of isolated agenesis of pancreatic isthmus with conservation of main pancreatic duct. PMID:25544484

  13. Acute pancreatitis complicating the insertion of a self-expandable biliary metal stent.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, W; van Aken, L; Ponette, E

    1992-06-01

    A patient is reported who developed acute pancreatitis complicated by pseudocyst formation immediately after the insertion of a self-expanding metallic biliary stent via the percutaneous route. The distal end of the stent was positioned into the duodenum. Endoscopists should be aware of this potential complication of metallic biliary stents. PMID:1505495

  14. Pathological Pancreatic Exocrine Function and Duct Morphology in Patients with Cholelithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D. Hardt; Lars Bretz; Axel Krauss; Henning Schnell-Kretschmer; Oliver W?sten; Jens Nalop; Tobias Zekorn; Hans U. Klõr

    2001-01-01

    Most authors claim alcohol consumption to be the only relevant reason for chronic pancreatitis. However, gallstones might cause this disease, as they do cause acute pancreatitis. In this study 91 gallstone patients and 94 age-matched controls were investigated concerning exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 concentrations). Furthermore x-rays of 100 consecutive ERCP patients were evaluated for differences concerning pancreatic duct changes

  15. [Therapeutic pancreatic duct occlusion in chronic pancreatitis: clinical, exocrine and endocrine consequences in a 12 month follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Schneider, M U; Lux, G; Gebhardt, C; Meister, R; Pichl, J; Heptner, G; Knorr, H; Rödle, T; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic pancreatic duct occlusion (PDO) is applied to preserve endocrine pancreatic function by atrophizing and thus eliminating chronically inflamed exocrine pancreatic parenchyma. So far, efficient and lasting elimination of exocrine parenchyma is brought about only by intraoperative PDO upon partial duodenopancreatectomy. While partial duodenopancreatectomy itself reduces endocrine pancreatic function by about 40%, intraoperative PDO does not further impair endocrine function. Endocrine function is not affected at all by endoscopic PDO, which has to be improved, however, concerning its eliminatory effect on exocrine pancreatic parenchyma. PMID:3887075

  16. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic biliary stenting for pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Sasaki, Tamito; Serikawa, Masahiro; Minami, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Akihito; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ishii, Yasutaka; Mouri, Teruo; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Tomonori; Fujino, Hatsue; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-05-01

    A man in his sixties presented to our hospital with obstructive jaundice and was diagnosed with inoperable pancreatic cancer. Chemoradiotherapy was initiated, and an expandable metallic stent was inserted endoscopically to drain the biliary system. Six months later, he was referred to our hospital with 1-week history of epigastric pain and obstructive jaundice. On admission for further evaluation, he experienced hematemesis and went into severe shock. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed active bleeding from the duodenal papilla. Therefore, we performed endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD). On day 4, blood was detected in the ENBD tube, and the patient again experienced hematemesis. Emergent enhanced computed tomography revealed a right hepatic arterial aneurysm that had likely ruptured and caused the hemobilia. The aneurysm was successfully embolized, and the patient was discharged on hospital day 21. PMID:24806237

  17. Clinical Immunosuppressants Inhibit Inflammatory, Proliferative And Reprogramming Potential, But Not Angiogenesis Of Human Pancreatic Duct Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Heremans, Yves; Pipeleers, Daniel; Ling, Zhidong; Heimberg, Harry; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-07-14

    The presence of pancreatic duct cells in clinical islet grafts may affect long-term metabolic success. Human pancreatic duct cells express factors that may exert both protective and damaging effects on islet cells in the graft. Here, we studied the potential of commonly used immunosuppressive drugs in islet transplantation - sirolimus, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) - to influence the inflammatory and angiogenic capacity of human pancreatic duct cells in addition to their proliferation and reprogramming abilities. Our data show that the expression of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines by the human pancreatic duct cells was either unaltered or inhibited by the immunosuppressants studied, especially tacrolimus and MMF, whereas expression of chemotactic and angiogenic factors was unaffected. Although none of the immunosuppressants directly led to duct cell death, MMF prevented duct cell proliferation and sirolimus inhibited Ngn-3-mediated duct-to-(neuro)endocrine cell reprogramming. Our data indicate that the immunosuppressant tacrolimus was the least aggressive on the angiogenic, proliferative, and reprogramming potential of human pancreatic duct cells, while it was most powerful in inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, which may influence the outcome of islet transplantation. PMID:25198311

  18. Penetration of lanthanum through the main pancreatic duct epithelium in cats following exposure to infected human bile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Arendt

    1991-01-01

    The main pancreatic duct epithelium acts as a barrier to the diffusion of molecules from the duct lumen into pancreatic acinar and interstitial tissue. We studied sequential ultrastructural characteristics of the loss of epithelial barrier function in the cat using lanthanum, an electron-opaque tracer, following perfusion of the duct from the tail to the duodenum with infected human bile. Tight

  19. Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma with Compression of the Main Pancreatic Duct: An Unusual Entity

    PubMed Central

    Truant, Stéphanie; Izgarevic, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Buob, David; Bulois, Philippe; Ernst, Olivier; Huet, Guillemette; Zerbib, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René

    2011-01-01

    Serous cystadenoma is a common benign neoplasm that can be managed without surgery in asymptomatic patients provided that the diagnosis is certain. We describe a patient, whose pancreatic cyst exhibited a radiological appearance distinct from that of typical serous cystadenoma, resulting in diagnostic difficulties. CT and MRI showed a 10?cm-polycystic tumor with upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). Ultrasonographic aspect and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration gave arguments for serous cystadenoma. ERCP showed a communication between cysts and the dilated MPD, compatible with IPMT. The patient underwent left pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Pathological examination concluded in a serous cystadenoma, with only a ductal obstruction causing proximal dilatation. PMID:21436987

  20. Pancreatic serous cystadenoma with compression of the main pancreatic duct: an unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Truant, Stéphanie; Izgarevic, D; Maunoury, Vincent; Buob, David; Bulois, Philippe; Ernst, Olivier; Huet, Guillemette; Zerbib, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René

    2011-01-01

    Serous cystadenoma is a common benign neoplasm that can be managed without surgery in asymptomatic patients provided that the diagnosis is certain. We describe a patient, whose pancreatic cyst exhibited a radiological appearance distinct from that of typical serous cystadenoma, resulting in diagnostic difficulties. CT and MRI showed a 10?cm-polycystic tumor with upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). Ultrasonographic aspect and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration gave arguments for serous cystadenoma. ERCP showed a communication between cysts and the dilated MPD, compatible with IPMT. The patient underwent left pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Pathological examination concluded in a serous cystadenoma, with only a ductal obstruction causing proximal dilatation. PMID:21436987

  1. Repair of bile duct defect with degradable stent and autologous tissue in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue-Long; Yu, Yi-Chen; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei-Jia; Ying, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Yi-Fan; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To introduce and evaluate a new method to repair bile duct defect with a degradable stent and autologous tissues. METHODS: Eight Ba-Ma mini-pigs were used in this study. Experimental models with common bile duct (CBD) defect (0.5-1.0 cm segment of CBD resected) were established and then CBD was reconstructed by duct to duct anastomosis with a novel degradable stent made of poly [sebacic acid-co-(1,3-propanediol)-co-(1,2-propanediol)]. In addition, a vascularized greater omentum was placed around the stent and both ends of CBD. Cholangiography via gall bladder was performed for each pig at postoperative months 1 and 3 to rule out stent translocation and bile duct stricture. Complete blood count was examined pre- and post-operatively to estimate the inflammatory reaction. Liver enzymes and serum bilirubin were examined pre- and post-operatively to evaluate the liver function. Five pigs were sacrificed at month 3 to evaluate the healing of anastomosis. The other three pigs were raised for one year for long-term observation. RESULTS: All the animals underwent surgery successfully. There was no intraoperative mortality and no bile leakage during the observation period. The white blood cell counts were only slightly increased on day 14 and month 3 postoperatively compared with that before operation, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.652). The plasma level of alanine aminotransferase on day 14 and month 3 postoperatively was also not significantly elevated compared with that before operation (P = 0.810). Nevertheless, the plasma level of ?-glutamyl transferase was increased after operation in both groups (P = 0.004), especially 2 wk after operation. The level of serum total bilirubin after operation was not significantly elevated compared with that before operation (P = 0.227), so did the serum direct bilirubin (P = 0.759). By cholangiography via gall bladder, we found that the stent maintained its integrity of shape and was still in situ at month 1, and it disappeared completely at month 3. No severe CBD dilation and stricture were observed at both months 1 and 3. No pig died during the 3-mo postoperative observation period. No sign of necrosis, bile duct stricture, bile leakage or abdominal abscess was found at reoperation at month 3 postoperatively. Pigs had neither fragments of stent nor stones formed in the CBD. Collagen deposit was observed in the anastomosis by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson’s trichrome stains. No severe cholestasis was observed in liver parenchyma by HE staining. Intestinal obstruction was found in a pig 4 mo after operation, and no bile leakage, bile duct stricture or biliary obstruction were observed in laparotomy. No sign of bile duct stricture or bile leakage was observed in the other two pigs. CONCLUSION: The novel method for repairing bile duct defect yielded a good short-term effect without postoperative bile duct stricture. However, the long-term effect should be further studied. PMID:23066314

  2. Intraductal dissemination of papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater in the pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Akiko; Nara, Satoshi; Sekine, Shigeki; Ojima, Hidenori; Kosuge, Tomoo; Shimada, Kazuaki; Kushima, Ryoji; Kanai, Yae; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    It has been speculated that intraductal dissemination, via the pancreatic duct, bile duct, or mammary duct, is a unique form of cancer cell spread. However, clinical evidence to confirm this form of dissemination has been lacking. Here we report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater in which retrograde dissemination to the pancreatic duct was strongly suggested. A 79-year-old woman underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for a 22?mm microinvasive papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla. Multiple carcinomas in situ were found in the pancreatic duct distant from the ampulla. Seven months later, she underwent a second operation for a recurrent papillary adenocarcinoma at the pancreato-jejunal anastomosis showing exophytic and expansive growth into the jejunal lumen that connected to an intraductal adenocarcinoma in the pancreatic body. None of these tumors showed invasive growth, or vascular or neural invasion, being separate from each other but sharing identical histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features; papillary growth, a pancreatobiliary phenotype, the same pattern of genomic loss of heterozygosity, and no mutation of the KRAS, TP53, and GNAS genes. These results imply that this papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater had disseminated to the pancreatic duct in a retrograde manner and recurred in the remnant pancreas. PMID:24471969

  3. Diagnosis of pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula; a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Anthony; Malden, Eric; Kugelmas, Marcelo; Kortz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pseudocysts containing activated enzymes are a common complication of pancreatitis. Pseudocysts can rupture into adjacent structures including the peritoneal cavity, adjacent organs, and rarely vascular structures. While arterial pseudoaneurysms and venous thrombosis or occlusion are well known complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis, only 17 cases of pancreas-portal venous fistula have been encountered in review of the literature. A patient with chronic pancreatitis presented with a history of weight loss, fatigue and was found to have a pancreatic duct-portal vein fistula. The patient was treated surgically with good outcome. PMID:24967026

  4. Concomitant pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a patient with branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Law, Joanna K; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Weiss, Matthew J; Lennon, Anne Marie

    2014-07-21

    Branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMN) are pre-malignant pancreatic cystic lesions which carry a small risk of malignant transformation within the cyst. Guidelines exist with respect to surveillance of the cysts using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). There are reports that patients with IPMNs are at increased risk of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which arises in an area separate to the IPMNs. We present two cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma arising within the parenchyma, distinct from the IPMN-associated cyst, identified with EUS. This case report highlights that patients with BD-IPMN are at increased risk for pancreatic adenocarcinoma separate from the cyst and also the importance for endosonographers to carefully survey the rest of the pancreatic parenchyma separate from the cyst in order to identify small pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:25083095

  5. Detection of c-Ki-ras gene codon 12 mutations from pancreatic duct brushings in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Van Laethem, J L; Vertongen, P; Deviere, J; Van Rampelbergh, J; Rickaert, F; Cremer, M; Robberecht, P

    1995-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis is sometimes difficult and cytological examination of brushings or aspirated material collected during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains disappointing. As point mutations in codon 12 of the c-Ki-ras 2 gene are found in most pancreatic adenocarcinoma and not in chronic pancreatitis, this study analysed prospectively the presence of these mutations in brushing samples collected during ERCP in 45 patients (26 males, 19 females) showing a dominant stricture of the main pancreatic duct at pancreatography: 24 with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 16 with chronic pancreatitis, and five intraductal mucin hypersecreting neoplasms. Twenty of 45 patients presented equivocal ERCP findings that did not permit a definite diagnosis. Ki-ras mutations at codon 12 were detected using a rapid and sensitive method based on polymerase chain reaction mediated restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and confirmed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. Results were compared with those provided by routine brush cytology. A definitive diagnosis was established for each patient. Mutations were detected in 20 of 24 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (83%), but in none of the chronic pancreatitis patients and intraductal mucin hypersecreting neoplasms, irrespective of their location. By contrast, only 13 of 24 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (54%) were detected by conventional cytological examination, which yielded four false negative and seven non-contributive results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of molecular biological and cytological methods were 83%-76%, 100-83%, and 90%-58%, respectively. Notably the mutations could be detected in six patients with small tumour size (< or = 2 cm). In conclusion, Ki-ras analysis performed on pancreatic brushing samples is an efficient procedure, more accurate than cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and highly specific in the differentiation between neoplastic and chronic inflammatory ductal changes, especially in patients showing inconclusive ERCP findings. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7797131

  6. [Apropos of a case of acute pancreatitis revealing cystic dilatation of the common bile duct].

    PubMed

    Kabbaj, N; Ababou, A; el Fakir, Y; Amarouch, N; Dafiri, R; Sbihi, A; Imani, F

    1998-11-01

    Dilatation of the common bile duct is rarely caused by cystic formations. Though the pathogenesis is uncertain, congenital disorders have been suggested. Most cases are observed in small children (80% female predominance) with only 20% of the cases reported in adults. Clinical signs vary. Recurrent acute pancreatitis has been reported but is rare. New imaging techniques using CT-scan cholangiography and sometimes MR cholangiography have greatly improved the diagnostic approach. MR of the bile ducts is a recent noninvasive technique enabling an analysis of the biliopancreatic ducts without contrast injection into the bile. To our knowledge, cystic dilatation of the common bile duct has not been previously reported in the literature. We report an interesting case in a 25-year-old woman who developed an episode of acute pancreatitis during the post partum period. We describe the clinical aspects and the different imaging findings, including magnetic resonance cholangiography results. PMID:9846293

  7. Is endoscopic drainage of common bile duct stenoses in chronic pancreatitis up-to-date?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Farnbacher; T. Rabenstein; C. Ell; E. G. Hahn; H. T. Schneider

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Common bile duct (CBD) stenoses often complicate chronic pancreatitis (CP). Although endoscopic drainage is employed as a standard procedure in malignant CBD stenoses, it is not yet the approved standard therapy of CBD stenosis in CP.METHODS:The records of 31 patients with CBD stenosis in CP who had undergone endoscopic placement of plastic endoprostheses into the bile duct between January 1991

  8. Percutaneous Palliation of Pancreatic Head Cancer: Randomized Comparison of ePTFE/FEP-Covered Versus Uncovered Nitinol Biliary Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Krokidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mkrokidis@hotmail.com [Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Fanelli, Fabrizio ['La Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Orgera, Gianluigi [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Tsetis, Dimitrios [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology (Greece); Mouzas, Ioannis [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Gastroenterology (Greece); Bezzi, Mario ['La Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Kouroumalis, Elias [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Gastroenterology (Greece); Pasariello, Roberto ['La Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Hatzidakis, Adam [Medical School of Crete (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/fluorinated-ethylene-propylene (ePTFE/FEP)-covered stents with that of uncovered nitinol stents for the palliation of malignant jaundice caused by inoperable pancreatic head cancer. Eighty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Bare nitinol stents were used in half of the patients, and ePTFE/FEP-covered stents were used in the remaining patients. Patency, survival, complications, and mean cost were calculated in both groups. Mean patency was 166.0 {+-} 13.11 days for the bare-stent group and 234.0 {+-} 20.87 days for the covered-stent group (p = 0.007). Primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 77.5, 69.8, and 69.8% for the bare-stent group and 97.5, 92.2, and 87.6% for the covered-stent group, respectively. Mean secondary patency was 123.7 {+-} 22.5 days for the bare-stent group and 130.3 {+-} 21.4 days for the covered-stent group. Tumour ingrowth occurred exclusively in the bare-stent group in 27.5% of cases (p = 0.002). Median survival was 203.2 {+-} 11.8 days for the bare-stent group and 247.0 {+-} 20 days for the covered-stent group (p = 0.06). Complications and mean cost were similar in both groups. Regarding primary patency and ingrowth rate, ePTFE/FEP-covered stents have shown to be significantly superior to bare nitinol stents for the palliation of malignant jaundice caused by inoperable pancreatic head cancer and pose comparable cost and complications. Use of a covered stent does not significantly influence overall survival rate; nevertheless, the covered endoprosthesis seems to offer result in fewer reinterventions and better quality of patient life.

  9. Neonatal pig pancreatic duct–derived insulin-producing cells: preliminary in vitro studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Basta; L Racanicchi; F Mancuso; L Guido; G Macchiarulo; G Luca; G Calabrese; P Brunetti; R Calafiore

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal pig pancreata could represent an ideal tissue resource for donor islets for transplantation trials. Because functional islet ?-cells could derive from precursors situated in the ductal system, and neonatal animals are better suitable than adults for recovering such elements, we have examined whether isolated neonatal pancreatic ducts (NPD) could form insulin-producing cells. NPD, retrieved from the pancreas by collagenase

  10. Retrospective evaluation of endoscopic stenting of combined malignant common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum obstructions

    PubMed Central

    YU, JIANFENG; HAO, JIANYU; WU, DONGFANG; LANG, HAIBO

    2014-01-01

    Malignant dual obstruction in the common bile duct and gastric outlet-duodenum can cause difficulties in palliative treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize our successful experience with the endoscopic stenting procedure for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenum obstruction. Seventeen patients who underwent dual stenting procedures for the common bile duct and duodenum were retrospectively reviewed. The success rate of placement, palliative effect for biliary and duodenal obstruction, incidence of complication and restricture and stent patency were analyzed. Stent placement achieved a 100% success rate. Total bilirubin decreased from 263.4±62.5 to 157.6±25.1 ?mol/l, direct bilirubin decreased from 233.2±66.5 to 130.9±27.7 ?mol/l and alkaline phosphatase from 534.2±78.7 to 216.3±23.3 IU/l. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative results were statistically significant (P<0.01). The gastric outlet obstruction score increased significantly from 0.9±1.1 to 2.1±0.7 points (P<0.01). The general nutritional status of the patients was improved. No serious complications occurred in any of the patients, and the survival time of patients following stenting ranged between 70 and 332 days with a mean survival time of 192 days. In conclusion, our methodology for combined biliary and enteral stenting is highly effective for the palliation of malignant biliary and gastric outlet-duodenal obstruction. PMID:25187819

  11. Pancreatic duct obstruction in rabbits causes digestive zymogen and lysosomal enzyme colocalization.

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, A; Saluja, M; Villa, A; Leli, U; Rutledge, P; Meldolesi, J; Steer, M

    1989-01-01

    The pancreatic duct of anesthetized rabbits was cannulated and, in some animals, flow of pancreatic exocrine secretions was blocked by raising the cannula to a vertical position. Blockage for 3-7 h caused a rapid and significant rise in serum amylase activity and an increase in amylase activity within the pancreas. The concentration of lysosomal enzymes in the pancreas was not altered but they became redistributed among subcellular fractions and, as a result, an increased amount was recovered in the 1,000-g, 15-min pellet, which was enriched in zymogen granules. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that lysosomal enzymes become localized within organelles which, in size and distribution, resemble zymogen granules. They also contain digestive enzyme zymogens. Blockage of pancreatic secretions also caused lysosomal enzyme-containing organelles to become more fragile and subject to in vitro rupture. These changes noted after short-term pancreatic duct obstruction are remarkably similar to those previously noted to occur during the early stages of diet and secretagogue-induced experimental pancreatitis, observations that have suggested that colocalization of digestive enzyme zymogens and lysosomal hydrolases might result in intracellular digestive enzyme activation and be an important early event in the evolution of those forms of experimental acute pancreatitis. Images PMID:2477393

  12. Internal compared with external drainage of pancreatic duct during pancreaticoduodenectomy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Guangxing; Xing, Qianzhe; Yuan, Qiang; Du, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare internal with external drainage of the pancreatic duct during pancreaticoduodenectomy with regard to the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and other complications. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 316 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with a placed drainage tube (external, n=128; internal, n=188) in the pancreatic duct from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2011 in Tianjin Third Central Hospital of China. The incidence of POPF and some other complications were compared. Results There was no difference in the incidence rates of POPF between those given an internal or external drainage tube (P=0.788), but POPF was more severe in the former (P=0.014). Intraperitoneal bleeding rate was also higher in the patients with internal drainage (P=0.040), but operative time and postoperative hospitalization were longer in those with external drainage (P=0.002 and P=0.007, respectively). There was no difference between the groups with regard to the incidence rates of gastrointestinal bleeding, delayed gastric emptying, pulmonary infection, or incision infection and in-hospital mortality. Conclusions External drainage of the pancreatic duct during pancreaticoduodenectomy can decrease the severity of POPF, but operative time and postoperative hospitalization will be extended. PMID:25035654

  13. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in pancreatic duct cells by gastrointestinal hormones: interaction with other growth factors.

    PubMed

    Mangino, M M; Hubchak, S; Scarpelli, D G

    1992-01-01

    Pancreatic duct cells of the Syrian hamster were grown as monolayers on thin layers of type I collagen coated onto microporous membranes. The effects of a number of potential trophic factors were tested by their ability to increase [3H]thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA. To measure the effect of growth factors, cells were subjected to a period of growth factor depletion to induce a state of partial quiescence in DNA synthesis. Cells responded with a significant increase in thymidine incorporation after the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) alone or a growth factor mixture containing EGF plus insulin, transferrin, selenium, linoleic acid, bovine pituitary extract, triiodothyronine, and dexamethasone. When the serum substitute, Nu Serum IV (5%, vol/vol), was added to this mixture, addition of several gastrointestinal (GI) hormones including secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), bombesin, and gastrin caused significant increases in thymidine incorporation at concentrations of 0.01-1 microM. At 1 microM, these hormones stimulated DNA synthesis relative to their respective control in the order secretin (178%) greater than bombesin (153%) greater than VIP (138%) greater than gastrin (126%). Cholecystokinin octapeptide, a known trophic factor for pancreatic acinar cells, did not cause significant increases in thymidine incorporation in cultured duct cells. These results suggest that pancreatic duct cells possess receptors for a number of GI hormones and respond to the trophic effects of hormones known to stimulate pancreatic growth in vivo. PMID:1594548

  14. Pancreatic duct abnormalities in gall stone disease: an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S P; Gulati, P; Choudhary, V; Anand, B S

    1990-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess pancreatic duct abnormalities in gall stone disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograms of 50 patients with gall stone disease were analysed and the results compared with those obtained in 33 patients investigated for cholestatic jaundice who were found to have a normal biliary tree (control group). Abnormal pancreatograms were obtained in 24 (48%) patients with gall stone disease and in only two (6%) in the control group; the differences were statistically significant (chi 2 = 14.3; p less than 0.001). The patients in the control group showed mild abnormalities as did those in the gall stone group. The frequency of various abnormalities were: mild 16 (32%), moderate five (10%), and severe three (6%). Pancreatic duct abnormalities were more severe and occurred more frequently in patients with gall stones who had stones in the biliary tree than in patients with a normal biliary tree (postcholecystectomy patients, 55% v 25%) but the difference between the two groups just failed to be significant (chi 2 = 3.34). In conclusion, nearly half of all patients with gall stone disease have pancreatic duct abnormalities and in 16% these were severe enough to be labelled as chronic pancreatitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2210455

  15. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary and pancreatic duct interventions.

    PubMed

    Prichard, David; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-11-16

    When endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography fails to decompress the pancreatic or biliary system, alternative interventions are required. In this situation, endosonography guided cholangio-pancreatography (ESCP), percutaneous radiological therapy or surgery can be considered. Small case series reporting the initial experience with ESCP have been superseded by comprehensive reports of large cohorts. Although these reports are predominantly retrospective, they demonstrate that endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided biliary and pancreatic interventions are associated with high levels of technical and clinical success. The procedural complication rates are lower than those seen with percutaneous therapy or surgery. This article describes and discusses data published in the last five years relating to EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic intervention. PMID:25400865

  17. In vitro Modeling of Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cell Transformation Defines Gene Expression Changes Induced by K-ras Oncogenic Activation in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaying Qian; Jiangong Niu; Ming Li; Paul J. Chiao

    Genetic analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and their putative precursor lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN), has shown a multistep molecular para- digm for duct cell carcinogenesis. Mutational activation or inactivation of the K-ras, p16INK4A, Smad4, and p53 genes occur at progressive and high frequencies in these lesions. Oncogenic activation of the K-ras gene occurs in >90% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma

  18. Basolateral anion transport mechanisms underlying fluid secretion by mouse, rat and guinea-pig pancreatic ducts.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salazar, M Paz; Pascua, Patricia; Calvo, José Julián; López, María A; Case, R Maynard; Steward, Martin C; San Román, José I

    2004-04-15

    Fluid secretion by interlobular pancreatic ducts was determined by using video microscopy to measure the rate of swelling of isolated duct segments that had sealed following overnight culture. The aim was to compare the HCO(3)(-) requirement for secretin-evoked secretion in mouse, rat and guinea-pig pancreas. In mouse and rat ducts, fluid secretion could be evoked by 10 nm secretin and 5 microm forskolin in the absence of extracellular HCO(3)(-). In guinea-pig ducts, however, fluid secretion was totally dependent on HCO(3)(-). Forskolin-stimulated fluid secretion by mouse and rat ducts in the absence of HCO(3)(-) was dependent on extracellular Cl(-) and was completely inhibited by bumetanide (30 microm). It was therefore probably mediated by a basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter. In the presence of HCO(3)(-), forskolin-stimulated fluid secretion was reduced approximately 40% by bumetanide, approximately 50% by inhibitors of basolateral HCO(3)(-) uptake (3 microm EIPA and 500 microm H(2)DIDS), and was totally abolished by simultaneous application of all three inhibitors. We conclude that the driving force for secretin-evoked fluid secretion by mouse and rat ducts is provided by parallel basolateral mechanisms: Na(+)-H(+) exchange and Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport mediating HCO(3)(-) uptake, and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport mediating Cl(-) uptake. The absence or inactivity of the Cl(-) uptake pathway in the guinea-pig pancreatic ducts may help to account for the much higher concentrations of HCO(3)(-) secreted in this species. PMID:14978209

  19. Effect of Biliary Stenting Combined With Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Terpene Treatment on Retained Common Bile Duct Stones in Elderly Patients: A Multicenter Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimin Han; Jong Ho Moon; Hyun Cheol Koo; Jee Heon Kang; Joon Hyuck Choi; Seok Jeong; Don Haeng Lee; Moon Sung Lee; Ho Gak Kim

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:For frail, elderly patients with large impacted common bile duct (CBD) stones, long-term treatment with biliary stenting provides palliation. Biliary stenting with choleretic agents such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and terpene preparations may promote CBD stone size reduction. We studied the effectiveness of biliary stenting combined with UDCA and a terpene preparation as a medical treatment for difficult-to-remove CBD stones

  20. Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration in Pregnancy With Acute Gallstone Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young W.; Chung, Mathew H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: We present a case in which a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was performed safely in a pregnant patient with acute gallstone pancreatitis. Case Report: A 25-year-old female, gravida 4 para 3, at 14-weeks gestation presented to her obstetrician with complaints of epigastric pain radiating to the back. She was otherwise healthy with no past medical or surgical history. A physical examination revealed a healthy young female with no evidence of jaundice and in no acute distress. An abdominal examination was remarkable for a gravid abdomen with mild tenderness to palpation in her epigastrium and negative Murphy's sign. The patient safely underwent a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conclusion: This case illustrates the role of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in the diagnosis and treatment of possible choledocholithiasis in a pregnant patient. PMID:16709365

  1. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Menter, David G. [Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Abbruzzese, James L. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.

  2. Can pancreatic duct-derived progenitors be a source of islet regeneration?

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Bing [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Zhan, Xiao-Rong, E-mail: xiaorongzhan@sina.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Yi, Ran [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Yang, Baofeng [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Biomedicine and Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Biomedicine and Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)

    2009-06-12

    The regenerative process of the pancreas is of interest because the main pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is an inadequate number of insulin-producing {beta}-cells. The functional mass of {beta}-cells is decreased in type 1 diabetes, so replacing missing {beta}-cells or triggering their regeneration may allow for improved type 1 diabetes treatment. Therefore, expansion of the {beta}-cell mass from endogenous sources, either in vivo or in vitro, represents an area of increasing interest. The mechanism of islet regeneration remains poorly understood, but the identification of islet progenitor sources is critical for understanding {beta}-cell regeneration. One potential source is the islet proper, via the dedifferentiation, proliferation, and redifferentiation of facultative progenitors residing within the islet. Neogenesis, or that the new pancreatic islets can derive from progenitor cells present within the ducts has been reported, but the existence and identity of the progenitor cells have been debated. In this review, we focus on pancreatic ductal cells, which are islet progenitors capable of differentiating into islet {beta}-cells. Islet neogenesis, seen as budding of hormone-positive cells from the ductal epithelium, is considered to be one mechanism for normal islet growth after birth and in regeneration, and has suggested the presence of pancreatic stem cells. Numerous results support the neogenesis hypothesis, the evidence for the hypothesis in the adult comes primarily from morphological studies that have in common the production of damage to all or part of the pancreas, with consequent inflammation and repair. Although numerous studies support a ductal origin for new islets after birth, lineage-tracing experiments are considered the 'gold standard' of proof. Lineage-tracing experiments show that pancreatic duct cells act as progenitors, giving rise to new islets after birth and after injury. The identification of differentiated pancreatic ductal cells as an in vivo progenitor for pancreatic {beta}-cells has implications for a potentially important, expandable source of new islets for diabetic replenishment therapy.

  3. Long-Term Palliative Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Extending into the Portal Vein and Bile Duct by Chemoembolization and Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya [Department of Radiology, Nara Prefectural Hospital, 1-30-1 Hiramatsu, Nara-City, Nara 631 (Japan); Uchida, Hideo [Department of Radiology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo, Kashihara-City, Nara 634 (Japan); Kitano, Satoru [Department of Radiology, Nara Prefectural Hospital, 1-30-1 Hiramatsu, Nara-City, Nara 631 (Japan); Makutani, Shirou; Maeda, Munehiro [Department of Radiology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo, Kashihara-City, Nara 634 (Japan); Taoka, Toshiaki [Department of Radiology, Nara Prefectural Hospital, 1-30-1 Hiramatsu, Nara-City, Nara 631 (Japan); Ohishi, Hajime [Department of Oncoradiology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo, Kashihara-City, Nara 634 (Japan)

    1997-09-15

    We present a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by portal vein and bile duct tumor thrombi. The patient was treated with a spiral Z-stent covered by a polyethylene sheet placed in the bile duct, a Wallstent placed in the portal vein, chemoembolization, and external radiation therapy. The patient is alive with patency of both endoprostheses 18 months later.

  4. [A case of portal vein stenting for portal vein stenosis due to pancreatic cancer recurrence after pancreatoduodenectomy].

    PubMed

    Sawatsubashi, Takahiro; Morioka, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Takao; Nakatsuka, Hideki

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of portal vein stenosis due to pancreatic cancer recurrence that was successfully treated with intravenous stent implantation. The patient was a 70-year-old man who had undergone a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with the modified Child method for pancreatic cancer. He was readmitted due to melena, dorsal pain, and severe ascites 8 months after the operation. Computed tomography (CT) findings revealed that pancreatic cancer recurrence had narrowed the portal vein. Neither gastrointestinal nor colon endoscopy could locate the source of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding from the varices increased, and a hepatopetal collateral was considered to be the cause. We therefore placed an intravenous stent at the site of portal vein stenosis, by the transileocolic portal vein. After the stent placement, no further gastrointestinal hemorrhagic episodes occurred. PMID:25731472

  5. [Murder for a duct. Wirsüng and Hoffmann: the true story of the discovery of the main pancreatic duct].

    PubMed

    Giardiello, Cristiano; Trojaniello, Biagio; Giardiello, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The Authors reconstruct the vicissitudes that led to the murder of Georg Wirsüng on the evening of 22nd August 1643 in Padua. Among the motives for the murder, it was later assumed, was jealousy over the discovery of the main pancreatic duct. The Authors recall that this discovery, which removed the pancreas from the sphere of amorphous organs in order to correctly place it among the glands, was not originally made by the celebrated scientist himself but is attributable to his young co-worker Moritz Hoffmann. However, Georg Wirsüng had the merit of confirming and disclosing the discovery. This circumstance, which even today is not widely recognised among the scientific community, is worth remembering in the name of respect for the historical truth. PMID:18360992

  6. Improving patient and user safety during endoscopic investigation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, John E.; Melville, C. David; Lee, Cameron M.; Saunders, Michael D.; Burkhardt, Matthew R.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Endoscopic investigation of the main pancreatic duct and biliary ducts is called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and carries a risk of pancreatitis for the patient. During ERCP, a metal guidewire is inserted into the pancreatobiliary duct from a side-viewing large endoscope within the duodenum. To verify correct placement of the ERCP guidewire, an injection of radiopaque dye is required for fluoroscopic imaging, which exposes the patient and clinical team to x-ray radiation. A safer and more effective means to access the pancreatobiliary system can use direct optical imaging, although the endoscope diameter and stiffness will be significantly larger than a guidewire's. To quantify this invasiveness before human testing, a synthetic force-sensing pancreas was fabricated and attached to an ERCP training model. The invasiveness of a new, 1.7-mm diameter, steerable scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) was compared to the standard ERCP guidewire of 0.89-mm (0.035") diameter that is not steerable. Although twice as large and significantly stiffer than the ERCP guidewire, the SFE generated lower or significantly less average force during insertion at all 4 sensor locations (P<0.05) within the main pancreatic duct. Therefore, the addition of steering and forward visualization at the tip of the endoscope reduced the invasiveness of the in vitro ERCP procedure. Since fluoroscopy is not required, risks associated with dye injection and x-ray exposure can be eliminated when using direct optical visualization. Finally, the SFE provides wide-field high resolution imaging for image-guided interventions, laser-based fluorescence biomarker imaging, and spot spectral analysis for future optical biopsy.

  7. Pancreatic duct guidewire placement for biliary cannulation in a single-session therapeutic ERCP

    PubMed Central

    Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Bassioukas, Stefanos P; Kypreos, Dimitrios; Korkolis, Dimitrios; Scorilas, Andreas; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitrios; Paraskevas, Emmanouil

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the technical success and clinical complication rate of a cannulated pancreatic duct with guidewire for biliary access. METHODS: During a five-year study period, a total of 2843 patients were included in this retrospective analysis. Initial biliary cannulation method consisted of single-guidewire technique (SGT) for up to 5 attempts, followed by double-guidewire technique (DGT) when repeated unintentional pancreatic duct cannulation had taken place. Pre-cut papillotomy technique was reserved for when DGT had failed or no pancreatic duct cannulation had been previously achieved. Main outcome measurements were defined as biliary cannulation success and post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complication rate. RESULTS: SGT (92.3% success rate) was characterized by statistically significant enhanced patient outcome compared to either the DGT (43.8%, P < 0.001), pre-cut failed DGT (73%, P < 0.001) or pre-cut as first step method (80.6%, P = 0.002). Pre-cut as first step method offered a statistically significantly more favorable outcome compared to the DGT (P < 0.001). The incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis did not differ in a statistically significant manner between either method (SGT: 5.3%, DGT: 6.1%, Pre-cut failed DGT: 7.9%, Pre-cut as first step: 7.5%) or with patients’ gender. CONCLUSION: Although DGT success rate proved not to be superior to SGT or pre-cut papillotomy, it is considered highly satisfactory in terms of safety in order to avoid the risk of a pre-cut when biliary therapy is necessary in difficult-to-cannulate cases. PMID:21528077

  8. Recent Advances in Endoscopic Papillectomy for Ampulla of Vater Tumors: Endoscopic Ultrasonography, Intraductal Ultrasonography, and Pancreatic Stent Placement

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jimin; Lee, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Since it was first described nearly three decades ago, endoscopic papillectomy (EP) has been utilized as a less invasive, alternative therapy for adenoma of the major duodenal papilla. In this article, we review the recent advances in EP, especially those pertaining to endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS), and pancreatic stent placement for the prevention of postpapillectomy pancreatitis. Because EUS and IDUS have similar diagnostic accuracies, either modality can be used for the preprocedural evaluation of ampullary tumors. Nevertheless, further technical refinements are required for a more precise evaluation. Given the paucity of data on the usefulness of EUS and/or IDUS during follow-up after EP, a well-designed study is warranted. Furthermore, pancreatic stent placement appears to have a protective effect against postpapillectomy pancreatitis; however, a prospective, randomized, controlled study with a larger number of patients is needed to assess this finding. Moreover, since pancreatic stent placement after EP is not always successful, various novel techniques have been developed to ensure reliable stent placement. Despite the recent advances in EP, further technical refinements and studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. PMID:25674523

  9. Adult pancreatic acinar cells give rise to ducts but not endocrine cells in response to growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Stacy A.; Ray, Kevin C.; Anunobi, Reginald; Gannon, Maureen A.; Washington, Mary K.; Means, Anna L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in both humans and rodents have found that insulin+ cells appear within or near ducts of the adult pancreas, particularly following damage or disease, suggesting that these insulin+ cells arise de novo from ductal epithelium. We have found that insulin+ cells are continuous with duct cells in the epithelium that makes up the hyperplastic ducts of both chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in humans. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that both hyperplastic ductal cells and their associated insulin+ cells arise from the same cell of origin. Using a mouse model that develops insulin+ cell-containing hyperplastic ducts in response to the growth factor TGF?, we performed genetic lineage tracing experiments to determine which cells gave rise to both hyperplastic ductal cells and duct-associated insulin+ cells. We found that hyperplastic ductal cells arose largely from acinar cells that changed their cell fate, or transdifferentiated, into ductal cells. However, insulin+ cells adjacent to acinar-derived ductal cells arose from pre-existing insulin+ cells, suggesting that islet endocrine cells can intercalate into hyperplastic ducts as they develop. We conclude that apparent pancreatic plasticity can result both from the ability of acinar cells to change fate and of endocrine cells to reorganize in association with duct structures. PMID:20534672

  10. New developments in diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Miyoshi, Hironao; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is progressive and irreversible, leading to digestive and absorptive disorders by destruction of the exocrine pancreas and to diabetes mellitus by destruction of the endocrine pancreas. When complications such as pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst occur, elevated pancreatic ductal pressure exacerbates pain and induces other complications, worsening the patient's general condition. Combined treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic lithotripsy is a useful, minimally invasive, first-line treatment approach that can preserve pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic duct stenosis elevates intraductal pressure and favor both pancreatolithiasis and pseudocyst formation, making effective treatment vitally important. Endoscopic treatment of benign pancreatic duct stenosis stenting frequently decreases pain in chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, stenosis of the main pancreatic duct increases risk of stone recurrence after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. Recently, good results were reported in treating pancreatic duct stricture with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent, which shows promise for preventing stone recurrence after lithotripsy in patients with pancreatic stricture. Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic atrophy, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function, as well as frequent recurrence of stones after treatment of pancreatolithiasis. As early treatment of chronic pancreatitis is essential, the new concept of early chronic pancreatitis, including characteristics findings in endoscopic ultrasonograms, is presented. PMID:24251715

  11. Differentiating Branch Duct and Mixed IPMN in Endoscopically Collected Pancreatic Cyst Fluid via Cytokine Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda S.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Banks, Peter A.; Sainani, Nisha I.; Kadiyala, Vivek; Suleiman, Shadeah; Conwell, Darwin L.; Paulo, Joao A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Differentiating branch duct from mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN) is problematic, but clinically important as mixed IPMNs are managed surgically, while some BD-IPMN may be followed. Inflammatory mediator proteins (IMPs) have been implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory and malignant pancreatic diseases. Aim. To compare IMP profile of pancreatic cyst fluid collected endoscopically from BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Methods. Pancreatic cyst fluid from ten patients (5 BD-IPMN and 5 mixed IPMN) was collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Concentrations of 89 IMPs in these samples were determined using a multiplexed bead-based microarray protein assay and compared between BD-IPMN and mixed IPMN. Results. Eighty-six of 89 IMPs were detected in at least one of the 10 samples. Fourteen IMPs were detected only in mixed IPMN, while none were only in BD-IPMN. Of these, TGF-?1 was most prevalent, present in 3 of 5 mixed IPMNs. Seventy-two IMPs were detected in both BD-IPMN and mixed IPMNs. Of these, only G-CSF (P < 0.05) was present in higher concentrations in mixed IPMNs. Conclusion. TGF-?1 and G-CSF detected in endoscopically collected pancreatic cyst fluid are potential diagnostic biomarkers capable of distinguishing mixed IPMN from BD-IPMN. PMID:23326260

  12. Distal migration of a transanastomotic pancreatic stent resulting in bowel perforation 19 years after pancreatoduodenectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Patricia M; Zozaya-Larequi, Gabriel; Arredondo, Jorge; Martí-Cruchaga, Pablo; Bellver, Manuel; Sánchez-Justicia, Carlos; Rotellar, Fernando; Pardo, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy 19 years earlier was referred to us for investigation of progressive abdominal pain without conclusive preliminary complementary tests. Computed tomography enabled us to identify that the transanastomotic pancreatic stent had migrated distally, resulting in bowel perforation. She underwent surgery and the foreign body was removed. PMID:24752691

  13. Solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreatic head causing marked distal atrophy: a tumor originated posterior to the main pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroto; Ono, Kaname; Takano, Manabu; Sumida, Kei; Ikuta, Koji; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a solid-pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the head of the pancreas causing occlusion of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and marked pancreatic atrophy distal to the tumor disproportionate to the tumor size. A 15-yr-old girl was diagnosed with 5-cm solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreatic head with marked distal pancreatic atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated obstruction of the MPD in the pancreatic head. We performed a duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection to avoid postoperative exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. The surgical specimen showed the typical gross appearance of a SPT, with only a thin rim of pancreas anterior to the tumor. We believe that this presentation results when a tumor originates posterior to the MPD. Thus, whether or not pancreatic atrophy occurs depends strongly on the anterior/posterior relationship between the enlarging tumor and the MPD. The risk of SPT causing severe pancreatic atrophy should be kept in mind to avoid irreversible pancreatic insufficiency in young females. PMID:12630770

  14. [The possibilities of modern prophylaxis of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)].

    PubMed

    Tarasov, A N; Vasil'ev, A V; Olevskaia, E R; Deriabina, E A; Mashkovski?, A M

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the 1778 performed ERCP on patients with benign bile duct occlusion. Father was given evaluation of the effectiveness of using ksifokam, and usage of preventive and therapeutic stenting of the main pancreatic duct in 31 patients. PMID:25842666

  15. Comparative neurohistological observations on the pancreatic duct in certain birds and mammals as revealed by cholinesterase technique.

    PubMed

    Purwar, R S

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of pancreatic duct innervation of Francolinus pondicerianus (grey partridge or safed teeter) and Suncus murinus (Indian musk shrew) as revealed by cholinesterase technique has been done for investigation. In Suncus pancreas, the AChE-positive ganglia, elongated and irregularly shaped, medium and large-sized, were recorded either on the periphery of the excretory duct or on the wall of the duct. No ganglia were recorded on the periphery, although the fibres of the ganglia were in close association with the periductular plexus and the fibres of the peri-insular plexus in Francolinus. In Suncus, multipolar and AChE-positive ganglia of various shapes, arranged in chain-like fashion on the duct, were recorded, whereas in Francolinus the multipolar ganglia of AChE-positive nature and of various shapes, arranged in chain-like fashion, were observed in the duct region. PMID:645332

  16. ?-Cells Are Not Generated in Pancreatic Duct Ligation–Induced Injury in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Matthew M.; Wilbur, Christopher J.; Rak, Kimberly; Shields, Emily J.; Granger, Anne; Kushner, Jake A.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of adult ?-cell progenitors remains the most controversial developmental biology topic in diabetes research. It has been reported that ?-cell progenitors can be activated by ductal ligation–induced injury of adult mouse pancreas and apparently act in a cell-autonomous manner to double the functional ?-cell mass within a week by differentiation and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) does not activate progenitors to contribute to ?-cell mass expansion. Rather, PDL stimulates massive pancreatic injury, which alters pancreatic composition and thus complicates accurate measurement of ?-cell content via traditional morphometry methodologies that superficially sample the pancreas. To overcome this potential bias, we quantified ?-cells from the entire pancreas and observed that ?-cell mass and insulin content are totally unchanged by PDL-induced injury. Lineage-tracing studies using sequential administration of thymidine analogs, rat insulin 2 promoter–driven cre-lox, and low-frequency ubiquitous cre-lox reveal that PDL does not convert progenitors to the ?-cell lineage. Thus, we conclude that ?-cells are not generated in injured adult mouse pancreas. PMID:23349489

  17. Endotherapy in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tandan, Manu; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2013-10-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disease with irreversible changes in the pancreas. Patients commonly present with pain and with exocrine or endocrine insufficiency. All therapeutic efforts in CP are directed towards relief of pain as well as the management of associated complications. Endoscopic therapy offers many advantages in patients with CP who present with ductal calculi, strictures, ductal leaks, pseudocyst or associated biliary strictures. Endotherapy offers a high rate of success with low morbidity in properly selected patients. The procedure can be repeated and failed endotherapy is not a hindrance to subsequent surgery. Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy is helpful in patients with CP with minimal ductal changes while minor papilla sphincterotomy provides relief in patients with pancreas divisum and chronic pancreatitis. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the standard of care in patients with large pancreatic ductal calculi. Long term follow up has shown pain relief in over 60% of patients. A transpapillary stent placed across the disruption provides relief in over 90% of patients with ductal leaks. Pancreatic ductal strictures are managed by single large bore stents. Multiple stents are placed for refractory strictures. CP associated benign biliary strictures (BBS) are best treated with multiple plastic stents, as the response to a single plastic stent is poor. Covered self expanding metal stents are increasingly being used in the management of BBS though further long term studies are needed. Pseudocysts are best drained endoscopically with a success rate of 80%-95% at most centers. Endosonography (EUS) has added to the therapeutic armamentarium in the management of patients with CP. Drainage of pseudcysts, cannulation of inaccessible pancreatic ducts and celiac ganglion block in patients with intractable pain are all performed using EUS. Endotherapy should be offered as the first line of therapy in properly selected patients with CP who have failed to respond to medical therapy and require intervention. PMID:24115811

  18. A comparison of common bile duct pressures after botulinum toxin injection into the sphincter of Oddi versus biliary stenting in a canine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M Marks; Andrew L Bower; Marlene Goormastic; Janis L Malycky; Jeffrey L Ponsky

    2001-01-01

    Background: Botulinum toxin A (Botox) functionally paralyzes the sphincter of Oddi in both animals and humans, resulting in reduced pressures. No study, however, has specifically addressed common bile duct (CBD) pressures after Botox injection into the sphincter of Oddi with regard to treating biliary leaks and fistulae. The goals of this present study are to compare, versus biliary stenting, the

  19. An intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel is important for secretion in pancreatic duct cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikio; Wang, Jing; Hede, Susanne E; Novak, Ivana

    2012-07-15

    Potassium channels play a vital role in maintaining the membrane potential and the driving force for anion secretion in epithelia. In pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, the identity of K(+) channels has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of functional K(+) channels in rodent and human pancreatic ducts (Capan-1, PANC-1, and CFPAC-1) using molecular and electrophysiological techniques. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNAs for KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNH5, KCNT1, and KCNT2, as well as KCNN4 coding for the following channels: KVLQT1; HERG; EAG2; Slack; Slick; and an intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IK) channel (K(Ca)3.1). The following functional studies were focused on the IK channel. 5,6-Dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-one (DC-EBIO), an activator of IK channel, increased equivalent short-circuit current (I(sc)) in Capan-1 monolayer, consistent with a secretory response. Clotrimazole, a blocker of IK channel, inhibited I(sc). IK channel blockers depolarized the membrane potential of cells in microperfused ducts dissected from rodent pancreas. Cell-attached patch-clamp single-channel recordings revealed IK channels with an average conductance of 80 pS in freshly isolated rodent duct cells. These results indicated that the IK channels may, at least in part, be involved in setting the resting membrane potential. Furthermore, the IK channels are involved in anion and potassium transport in stimulated pancreatic ducts. PMID:22555847

  20. Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Graft Pancreas Divisum in a Patient with Modified Multi-Visceral Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Haq; Slivka, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A patient with modified multivisceral transplant developed recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) 1 year after transplant and was found to have graft pancreas divisum with otherwise negative work-up for identifying the etiology of RAP. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed with minor papilla sphincterotomy and pancreatic duct stent placement of the graft pancreas. The patient's symptoms resolved following endotherapy for a follow-up period of 2 years. This is a unique case of graft pancreatitis secondary to pancreas divisum.

  1. Pancreatitis-Associated Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Endovascular Treatment with Self-Expandable Stent-Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, Elias N. [Second Department of Radiology, Medical School, Athens University, Eugenidion Hospital, 20Papadiamantopoulou Street, Athens 11528 (Greece); Vagenas, Kostantinos [Department of Surgery, Medical School, Patras University, Patras University Hospital, Rion, Patras (Greece); Apostolopoulou, Sotiria C.; Panagiotou, Irene [Second Department of Radiology, Medical School, Athens University, Eugenidion Hospital, 20 Papadiamantopoulou Street, Athens 11528 (Greece); Lymberopoulou, Dimitra [Department of Surgery, Medical School, Patras University, Patras University Hospital, Rion, Patras (Greece); Kelekis, Dimitrios A. [Second Department of Radiology, Medical School, Athens University, Eugenidion Hospital, 20 Papadiamantopoulou Street, Athens 11528 (Greece)

    2003-02-15

    We present a patient with a splenic arterypseudoaneurysm (SAPA) treated with placement of self-expandable stent-grafts. The procedure was complicated by stent-graft migration,but successful management resulted in lasting exclusion of the SAPA,while the patency of the splenic artery was preserved. This is the first report of self-expandable stent-graft treatment of SAPA.

  2. Neonatal pig pancreatic duct-derived insulin-producing cells: preliminary in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Basta, G; Racanicchi, L; Mancuso, F; Guido, L; Macchiarulo, G; Luca, G; Calabrese, G; Brunetti, P; Calafiore, R

    2004-04-01

    Neonatal pig pancreata could represent an ideal tissue resource for donor islets for transplantation trials. Because functional islet beta-cells could derive from precursors situated in the ductal system, and neonatal animals are better suitable than adults for recovering such elements, we have examined whether isolated neonatal pancreatic ducts (NPD) could form insulin-producing cells. NPD, retrieved from the pancreas by collagenase digestion, were cultured for 2 weeks. A compact tissue monolayer detached by trypsin was re-incubated to form upon culture. The primary tissue monolayer was plated, yielding secondary monolayers that were supplemented in culture with the following factors: insulin transferrin selenium, niacinamide, keratinocyte growth factor, and high glucose, which promoted formation of islet cell-like clusters during 30 days of culture. Upon reaching 50 to 100 microm in diameter, the cell clusters were subjected to morphologic examination (assessment of viability by staining with ethidium bromide+fluorescein diacetate [EB+FD]; staining for insulin with diphenylthiocarbazone [DTZ]); DNA assay; insulin radioimmunoassay both in the basal state and after in vitro static incubation with high glucose; immunolabeling with anti-insulin fluorescent antibodies. Of the cell clusters, 80% were composed of viable cells that faintly showed DTZ staining. Basal insulin was 16.7 microU/mL, but no insulin response was elicited by stimulation with high glucose. Acid-ethanol extraction showed high insulin levels in the clusters. Finally, immunofluorescence for insulin was positive, indicating the presence of beta-cell-like committed elements. In conclusion, NPD may differentiate into insulin-producing cells, which are at a very early stage when the glucose-sensing apparatus is still immature. PMID:15110610

  3. Endoscopic treatment of large pancreatic fluid collections (PFC) using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) – a two-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Dalton Marques; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Carneiro, Fred; Medrado, Bruno; dos Santos, Marcos; Wodak, Stephanie; Reimão, Sílvia; Sakai, Paulo; de Moura, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background/study aim: During the last several years, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided pancreatic fluid collections’ (PFC) drainage has evolved into the preferred drainage technique. Recently, self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) have been used as an alternative to double pigtail stents, with the advantage of providing a larger diameter fistula, thereby decreasing the risk of early obstruction and also allowing for direct endoscopic exploration of the cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety, and outcome of patients undergoing EUS-guided drainage of complex PFC using SEMS. Patients/materials and methods: The study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals from January 2010 to January 2013. All patients with PFC referred for endoscopic drainage were enrolled in a prospective database. The inclusion criteria were: (1) patients with pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis based on the revised Atlanta classification; (2) symptomatic patients with thick PFC; (3) PFC that persisted more than 6 weeks; and (4) large PFC diameter (??9?cm). The exclusion criteria consisted of coagulation disorders, PFC bleeding or infection, and failure-to-inform written consent. Results: A total of 16 patients (9 females, 7 males; mean age 52.6, range 20?–?82) underwent EUS drainage with SEMS.?There were 14 cases of pseudocysts and 2 cases of walled-off necrosis. The etiologies of the PFC were mainly gallstones (8 of 16 patients, 50?%) and alcohol (5 of 16 patients, 31?%). Technical success was achieved in 100?% of the cases. All patients had a complete resolution of the PFC. Conclusion: Transmural EUS-guided drainage of complex PFC using SEMS is feasible, appears safe, and is efficacious. However, the exchange of the UC (uncovered)-SEMS for plastic stents is mandatory within 1 week. Future prospective studies, preferably multicenter studies, comparing SEMS versus traditional plastic stents for the drainage of PFC are warranted.

  4. Mechanisms of parenchymal injury and signaling pathways in ectatic ducts of chronic pancreatitis: implications for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umesh K Bhanot; Peter Möller

    2009-01-01

    The pathobiology of chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains enigmatic despite remarkable progress made recently in uncovering key mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. CP is increasingly thought of as a multifactorial disorder. Apoptosis plays a role in parenchymal destruction, the pathological hallmark of CP. The apoptotic mechanisms preferentially target the exocrine compartment, leaving endocrine islets relatively intact

  5. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related adverse events: post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

    2015-01-01

    Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and not uncommonly is the reason behind ERCP-related lawsuits. Patients at high risk for PEP include young women with abdominal pain, normal liver tests, and unremarkable imaging. Procedure-related factors include traumatic and persistent cannulation attempts, multiple injections of the pancreatic duct, pancreatic sphincterotomy, and, possibly, use of precut sphincterotomy. Aggressive hydration, use of rectal indomethacin, and prophylactic pancreatic stenting can diminish the risk (and likely severity) of PEP. Though hugely beneficial, these measures do not supersede careful patient selection and technique. PMID:25442962

  6. Pancreatic duct leak in a case of post Whipple surgery: Managed by endoscopic ultrasound guided pancreatogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rajesh; Choudhary, Narendra S; Kotecha, Hardik; Rawat, Ankesh; Sud, Randhir

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) provides an option of minimal invasive intervention over surgery. EUS-guided pancreatogastrostomy (EPH) is particularly useful in patients with altered anatomy where ERCP is not feasible. This paper reports a case of post Whipple surgery pancreatic ductal leak and external pancreatic fistula, which was managed by EPH. The patient had uneventful post-procedure course and were asymptomatic at 6 months. PMID:25184127

  7. Pneumoperitoneum Caused by Transhepatic Air Leak After Metallic Biliary Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jei Hee; Lee, Deok Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Joon [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Ki Whang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, YongDong Severance Hospital, 146-92 Dokok-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    A self-expanding metallic biliary stent was placed for palliation of a common bile duct obstruction in a 68-year-old male with unresectable pancreatic head cancer 3 days after initial percutaneous right transhepatic catheter decompression. The stent crossed the ampulla of Vater. Three days later, the stent was balloon-dilated and the percutaneous access was removed. At removal, a small contrast leak from the transhepatic tract was seen. Three days later, pneumoperitoneum was found with symptoms of peritoneal irritation and fever. A widely open sphincter of Oddi caused by the metallic stent, accompanied by delayed sealing of the transhepatic tract, may have caused the air and bile leakage into the peritoneal space. This case shows that pneumoperitoneum may occur without ductal tear or bowel injury, with a biliary stent crossing the ampulla of Vater.

  8. Development of a bent-type tube stent for simultaneous drainage of bile and pancreatic juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reishi Abe; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2002-01-01

    .  \\u000a \\u000a Background\\/Purpose: Endoscopic lithotomy is a useful medical procedure for treating choledocholithiasis. Although this procedure is commonly\\u000a performed, complications such as pancreatitis and cholangitis are recognized as major and serious problems. The obstruction\\u000a of bile and pancreatic juice flow caused by papillary edema or spasm is thought to be responsible for such complications.\\u000a We have developed a new bent-type tube

  9. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormones important in maintaining normal blood sugar levels. Pancreatitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the pancreas. Causes of pancreatitis include gallstones and toxins such as excessive alcohol. ...

  10. Inactivation of Rab23 inhibits the invasion and motility of pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Z Z; Xu, L B; Cai, J L; Wang, J S; Zhou, B; Hu, H

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is charac-terized by a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. In this study, we investigated the expression of Rab23 in non-tumor pancreatic tissues and PDACs via immunohistochemistry. Rab23 was found in 39 of 58 (67.2%) and in 11 of 30 (36.7%) of the PDAC and non-tumor pan-creatic tissue samples (P = 0.0073), respectively. There were signifi-cant correlations between Rab23 expression and unfavorable variables, including cancer differentiation level (P = 0.0089), lymph nodal (P = 0.0099), and distant metastases (P = 0.0173). Inactivation with small interfering RNA against Rab23 in the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 inhibited the migration and invasive potential of the cells. Our data provide new insight into the essential role of Rab23 in PDAC inva-sion and metastasis and suggest that Rab23 expression is a useful indi-cator of metastatic potential; hence, it may be a new therapeutic target for this common malignancy. PMID:25867419

  11. Deep Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes Revealed GNAS Mutations to Be Associated with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms and Its Main Pancreatic Duct Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Maekawa, Shinya; Kadokura, Makoto; Miura, Mika; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the genetic mutations associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and IPMN-related pancreatic tumours, we conducted cancer-related gene profiling analyses using pure pancreatic juice and resected pancreatic tissues. Methods Pure pancreatic juice was collected from 152 patients [nine with a normal pancreas, 22 with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 39 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and 82 with IPMN], and resected tissues from the pancreas were collected from 48 patients (six IPMNs and 42 PDACs). The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 46 cancer-related genes containing 739 mutational hotspots. The mutations were analysed using a semiconductor-based DNA sequencer. Results Among the 46 cancer-related genes, KRAS and GNAS mutations were most frequently detected in both PDAC and IPMN cases. In pure pancreatic juice, GNAS mutations were detected in 7.7% of PDAC cases and 41.5% of IPMN cases (p<0.001 vs. others). All PDAC cases with GNAS mutations (n?=?3) were accompanied by IPMN. Multivariate analysis revealed that GNAS mutations in IPMN cases were associated with dilated main pancreatic ducts (MPD, p?=?0.016), while no statistically independent associations with clinical variables were observed for KRAS mutations. In the resected pancreatic tissues, GNAS mutations were detected in 50% of PDAC cases concomitant with IPMN, 33.3% of PDAC cases derived from IPMN, and 66.7% of IPMN cases, while no GNAS mutations were detected in cases of PDAC without IPMN. Conclusions The GNAS mutation was specifically found in the cases with IPMN and it was speculated that some PDACs might be influenced by the concomitant but separately-located IPMN in their pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, the GNAS mutation was significantly associated with MPD dilatation in IPMN cases, suggesting its role in mucus hypersecretion. PMID:24897499

  12. Mechanisms of KGF Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Duct Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Uzan; Florence Figeac; Bernard Portha; Jamileh Movassat; Kathrin Maedler

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundKeratinocyte growth factor (KGF; palifermin) is a growth factor with a high degree of specificity for epithelial cells. KGF is an important effector of epithelial growth and tissue homeostasis in various organs including the pancreas.Here we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the mediation of pancreatic ductal cell proliferation and differentiation induced by exogenous KGF during beta-cell regeneration in

  13. Double Duct Sign: Reassessed Significance in ERCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Plumley; C. A. Rohrman; P. C. Freeny; F. E. Silverstein

    The double duct sign, defined as an abnormality of both the pancreatic duct and the contiguous part of intrapancreatic common bile duct, was found in 52 of 1180 patients studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Thirty patients were proved to have pancreatic malignancy and 22, benign pancreatic disease. Specific ductal characteristics found to indicate a malignant process were ductal obstruction, especially

  14. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rajasree J; Lawler, Lanika; Miller, Mark R

    2007-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is the progressive and permanent destruction of the pancreas resulting in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and, often, chronic disabling pain. The etiology is multifactorial. Alcoholism plays a significant role in adults, whereas genetic and structural defects predominate in children. The average age at diagnosis is 35 to 55 years. Morbidity and mortality are secondary to chronic pain and complications (e.g., diabetes, pancreatic cancer). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the radiographic test of choice for diagnosis, with ductal calcifications being pathognomonic. Newer modalities, such as endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, provide diagnostic results similar to those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Management begins with lifestyle modifications (e.g., cessation of alcohol and tobacco use) and dietary changes followed by analgesics and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Before proceeding with endoscopic or surgical interventions, physicians and patients should weigh the risks and benefits of each procedure. Therapeutic endoscopy is indicated for symptomatic or complicated pseudocyst, biliary obstruction, and decompression of pancreatic duct. Surgical procedures include decompression for large duct disease (pancreatic duct dilatation of 7 mm or more) and resection for small duct disease. Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is the most commonly performed surgery in patients with large duct disease. Pancreatoduodenectomy is indicated for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic head enlargement. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk of pancreatic neoplasm; regular surveillance is sometimes advocated, but formal guidelines and evidence of clinical benefit are lacking. PMID:18092710

  15. Histopathology and pathogenesis of caerulein-, duct ligation-, and arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL6 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Rouse, Rodney L

    2014-09-01

    Three classical rodent models of acute pancreatitis were created in an effort to identify potential pre-clinical models of drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) and candidate non-invasive biomarkers for improved detection of DIP. Study objectives included designing a lexicon to minimize bias by capturing normal variation and spontaneous and injury-induced changes while maintaining the ability to statistically differentiate degrees of change, defining morphologic anchors for novel pancreatic injury biomarkers, and improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for pancreatitis. Models were created in male Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL6 mice through: 1) administration of the cholecystokinin analog, caerulein; 2) administration of arginine; 3) surgical ligation of the pancreatic duct. Nine morphologically detectable processes were used in the lexicon; acinar cell hypertrophy; acinar cell autophagy; acinar cell apoptosis; acinar cell necrosis; vascular injury; interstitial edema, inflammation and hemorrhage; fat necrosis; ductal changes; acinar cell atrophy. Criteria were defined for scoring levels (0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) for each lexicon component. Consistent with previous studies, histopathology scores were significant greater in rats compared to mice at baseline and after treatment. The histopathology scores in caerulein and ligation-treated rats and mice were significantly greater than those of arginine-treated rats and mice. The present study supports a multifaceted pathogenesis for acute pancreatitis in which intra-acinar trypsinogen activation, damage to acinar cells, fat cells, and vascular cells as well as activation/degranulation of mast cells and activated macrophages all contribute to the initiation and/or progression of acute inflammation of the exocrine pancreas. PMID:24585404

  16. Dasatinib and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride or Gemcitabine Hydrochloride Alone in Treating Patients With Pancreatic Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-06

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer

  17. IRBIT coordinates epithelial fluid and HCO3– secretion by stimulating the transporters pNBC1 and CFTR in the murine pancreatic duct

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongki; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Zeng, Weizhong; Ohana, Ehud; So, Insuk; Ando, Hideaki; Mizutani, Akihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Muallem, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3– secretion are vital functions of secretory epithelia. In most epithelia, this entails HCO3– entry at the basolateral membrane, mediated by the Na+-HCO3– cotransporter, pNBC1, and exit at the luminal membrane, mediated by a CFTR-SLC26 transporters complex. Here we report that the protein IRBIT (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate [IP3] receptors binding protein released with IP3), a previously identified activator of pNBC1, activates both the basolateral pNBC1 and the luminal CFTR to coordinate fluid and HCO3– secretion by the pancreatic duct. We used video microscopy and ion selective microelectrodes to measure fluid secretion and Cl– and HCO3– concentrations in cultured murine sealed intralobular pancreatic ducts. Short interference RNA–mediated knockdown of IRBIT markedly inhibited ductal pNBC1 and CFTR activities, luminal Cl– absorption and HCO3– secretion, and the associated fluid secretion. Single-channel measurements suggested that IRBIT regulated CFTR by reducing channel mean close time. Furthermore, expression of IRBIT constructs in HEK cells revealed that activation of pNBC1 required only the IRBIT PEST domain, while activation of CFTR required multiple IRBIT domains, suggesting that IRBIT activates these transporters by different mechanisms. These findings define IRBIT as a key coordinator of epithelial fluid and HCO3– secretion and may have implications to all CFTR-expressing epithelia and to cystic fibrosis. PMID:19033647

  18. Severe complications with irreversible electroporation of the pancreas in the presence of a metallic stent: a warning of a procedure that never should be performed.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Christopher; Nilsson, Anders; Karlson, Britt-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an ablation technique that is being investigated as a potential treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, many of these patients have a metallic stent in the bile duct, which is recognized as a contraindication for IRE ablation. We report a case in which an IRE ablation in the region of the pancreatic head was performed on a patient with a metallic stent which led to severe complications. After the treatment, the patient suffered from several complications including perforation of the duodenum and transverse colon, and bleeding from a branch of the superior mesenteric artery which eventually lead to her death. Therefore, we believe it is important to be aware of this if an IRE ablation close to a metallic stent is considered. PMID:25535573

  19. [External biliary fistulas selectively managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy and/or stent placement].

    PubMed

    S?ftoiu, A; Gheonea, D I; Surlin, V; Ciurea, M E; Georgescu, A; Andrei, E; Blendea, A; Georgescu, C C; Georgescu, I; Ciurea, T

    2006-01-01

    External bile duct fistulas are inherent postoperative complications that usually appear after biliary tract surgery, traumatic bile duct injuries and liver surgery for hepatic hydatid disease or liver transplant. The management is highly individualized, while the success and long-term results of endoscopic and surgical techniques are conflicting. The study included 32 cases with external bile duct fistulas managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with sphincterotomy and/or stent placement, including "rendez-vous" procedures in 2 cases. The causes of the external fistula were represented by cholecystectomy with/without retained common bile duct stones or strictures (22 cases), cholecystectomy and drainage of a subphrenic abscess caused by severe acute pancreatitis (1 case) and surgical interventions for hepatic hydatid disease (9 cases). Due to the prospective protocol of the study we were able to apply an individualized endoscopic treatment: sphincterotomy with proper relief of the bile duct obstruction (stone extraction) or sphincterotomy with large-size (10 Fr) stent placement for large-sized bile duct defects. The results consisted in closure of the fistula in 3.5 +/- 1.7 days for the subgroup of patients with sphincterotomy alone. Among the patients with stent insertion, fistulas healed slower in 14 +/- 3.5 days. There were no complications after endoscopic treatment; however the stent could not be passed in one patient that required subsequent surgery. In conclusion, endoscopic intervention is the treatment of choice for small external biliary fistulas complicating biliary tract surgery or liver surgery for hepatic hydatid disease. When the fistula is large, the placement of a 10 Fr endoprosthesis becomes necessary, while failure of endoscopic treatment leads to surgery with hepatico-jejunal anastomosis. PMID:16927917

  20. Palliative Portal Vein Stent Placement in Malignant and Symptomatic Extrinsic Portal Vein Stenosis or Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Novellas, Sebastien [Hopital Archet, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (France); Denys, Alban, E-mail: Alban.Denys@chuv.ch; Bize, Pierre, E-mail: pierrebize@bluewin.c [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Brunner, Philippe; Motamedi, Jean Paul [Hopital Archet, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (France); Gugenheim, Jean [Hopital Archet, Department of Surgery (France); Caroli, Francois-Xavier [Hopital Archet, Department of Medical Oncology (France); Chevallier, Patrick [Hopital Archet, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (France)

    2009-05-15

    This article evaluates the results of portal vein (PV) stent placement in patients with malignant extrinsic lesions stenosing or obstructing the PV and causing symptomatic PV hypertension (PVHT). Fourteen patients with bile duct cancer (n = 7), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 4), or another cancer (n = 3) underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement because of gastroesophageal or jejunal varices (n = 9), ascites (n = 7), and/or thrombocytopenia (n = 2). Concurrent tumoral obstruction of the main bile duct was treated via the transhepatic route in the same session in four patients. Changes in portal venous pressure, complications, stent patency, and survival were evaluated. Mean {+-} standard deviation (SD) gradient of portal venous pressure decreased significantly immediately after stent placement from 11.2 mmHg {+-} 4.6 to 1.1 mmHg {+-} 1.0 (P < 0.00001). Three patients had minor complications, and one developed a liver abscess. During a mean {+-} SD follow-up of 134.4 {+-} 123.3 days, portal stents remained patent in 11 patients (78.6%); stent occlusion occurred in 3 patients, 2 of whom had undergone previous major hepatectomy. After stent placement, PVHT symptoms were relieved in four (57.1%) of seven patients who died (mean survival, 97 {+-} 71.2 days), and relieved in six (85.7%) of seven patients still alive at the end of follow-up (mean follow-up, 171.7 {+-} 153.5 days). Stent placement in the PV is feasible and relatively safe. It helped to relieve PVHT symptoms in a single session.

  1. Surgical Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Porembka; William G. Hawkins; Steven M. Strasberg

    \\u000a Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive parenchymal fibrosis resulting in loss of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine\\u000a function. The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis is unclear, but is thought to be secondary to repeated parenchymal injury.\\u000a Common etiologies include alcoholic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and pancreatic duct obstruction caused by pancreatic\\u000a divisum or stricture. The disease affects all elements of the gland; exocrine

  2. CT of the pancreas: comparison of image quality and pancreatic duct depiction among model-based iterative, adaptive statistical iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Zhu; Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Ueno, Eiko; Chen, Ke-Min; Yan, Fu-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare CT images of the pancreas reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and filtered back projection (FBP) techniques for image quality and pancreatic duct (PD) depiction. Data from 40 patients with contrast-enhanced abdominal CT [CTDIvol: 10.3 ± 3.0 (mGy)] during the late arterial phase were reconstructed with FBP, 40% ASiR-FBP blending, and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the depiction of the main PD, image noise, and overall image quality using 5-point scale independently. Objective CT value and noise were measured in the pancreatic parenchyma, and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the PD was calculated. The Friedman test and post-hoc multiple comparisons with Bonferroni test following one-way ANOVA were used for qualitative and quantitative assessment, respectively. For the subjective assessment, scores for MBIR were significantly higher than those for FBP and 40% ASiR (all P < 0.001). No significant differences in CT values of the pancreatic parenchyma were noted among FBP, 40% ASiR, and MBIR images (P > 0.05). Objective image noise was significantly lower and CNR of the PD was higher with MBIR than with FBP and 40% ASiR (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that pancreatic CT images reconstructed with MBIR have lower image noise, better image quality, and higher conspicuity and CNR of the PD compared with FBP and ASiR. PMID:24496703

  3. Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Adarsh M.; Mosko, Jeffrey D.; Berzin, Tyler M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). It is reported to occur in 2–10% of unselected patient samples and up to 40% of high-risk patients. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence behind the known risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis, as well as the technical and medical approaches developed to prevent it. There have been many advances in identifying the causes of this condition. Based on this knowledge, a variety of preventive strategies have been developed and studied. The approach to prevention begins with careful patient selection and performing ERCP for specific indications, while considering alternative diagnostic modalities when appropriate. Patients should also be classified by high-risk factors such as young age, female sex, suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, a history of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and normal serum bilirubin, all of which have been identified in numerous research studies. The pathways of injury that are believed to cause post-ERCP pancreatitis eventually lead to the common endpoint of inflammation, and these individual steps can be targeted for preventive therapies through procedural techniques and medical management. This includes the use of a guide wire for cannulation, minimizing the number of cannulation attempts, avoiding contrast injections or trauma to the pancreatic duct, and placement of a temporary pancreatic duct stent in high-risk patients. Administration of rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) in high-risk patients is the proven pharmacological measure for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. The evidence for or against numerous other attempted therapies is still unclear, and ongoing investigation is required. PMID:25406464

  4. Clinical evaluation of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided drainage using a novel flared-type biflanged metal stent for pancreatic fluid collection

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Shuntaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Gotoda, Takuji; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided transluminal drainage for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) has become the standard therapy worldwide as a minimally invasive therapy compared with surgical drainage. Recently, a novel flared-type biflanged metal stent (BFMS) designed specifically for the treatment of PFCs has been developed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility and safety of EUS-guided drainage and direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) for PFCs using the novel flared-type BFMS. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients were treated by EUS-guided drainage using a flared-type BFMS for PFCs (pancreatic pseudocyst, 2 patients; walled-off necrosis, 19 patients). Results: The present study showed a technical success rate of 100%, a final clinical success rate of 100%, a procedure-related adverse event (AE) rate of 0%, an early AE rate of 28.6% (moderate and severe AE rate of 9.5%), a mortality rate of 0%, and a recurrence rate of 9.5%. DEN (mean, 2.3 sessions) was required in 38% of the patients. Conclusion: The present study clarified that the EUS-guided drainage using the flared-type BFMS is an effective and safe treatment approach for PFCs. Further studies using randomized controlled multicenter trials are warranted. PMID:26020046

  5. Jejunum or Stomach for the Pancreatic Anastomosis After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The authors hypothesized that pancreaticogastrostomy is safer than pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy and less likely to be associated with a postoperative pancreatic fistula. Summary Background Data: Pancreatic fistula is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy, occurring in 10% to 20% of patients. Nonrandomized reports have suggested that pancreaticogastrostomy is less likely than pancreaticojejunostomy to be associated with postoperative complications. Methods: Between May 1993 and January 1995, the findings for 145 patients were analyzed in this prospective trial at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. After giving their appropriate preoperative informed consent, patients were randomly assigned to pancreaticogastrostomy or pancreaticojejunostomy after completion of the pancreaticoduodenal resection. All pancreatic anastomoses were performed in two layers without pancreatic duct stents and with closed suction drainage. Pancreatic fistula was defined as drainage of greater than 50 mL of amylase-rich fluid on or after postoperative day 10. Results: The pancreaticogastrostomy (n=73) and pancreaticojejunostomy (n=72) groups were comparable with regard to multiple parameters, including demographics, medical history, preoperative laboratory values, and intraoperative factors, such as operative time, blood transfusions, pancreatic texture, length of pancreatic remnant mobilized, and pancreatic duct diameter. The overall incidence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 11.7% (171145). The incidence of pancreatic fistula was similar for the pancreaticogastrostomy (12.3%) and pancreaticojejunostomy (11.1%) groups. Pancreatisc fistula was associated with a significant prolongation of postoperative hospital stay (36±5 vs. 15±1 days) (p<0.001). Factors significantly increasing the risk of pancreatic fistula by univariate logistic regression analysis included ampullary or duodenal disease, soft pancreatic texture, longer operative time, greater intraoperative red blood cell transfusions, and lower surgical volume (p<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the factors most highly associated with pancreatic fistula to be lower surgical volume and ampullary or duodenal disease in the resected specimen. Conclusions: Pancreatic fistula is a common complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy, with an incidence most strongly associated with surgical volume and underlying disease. These data do not support the hypothesis that pancreaticogastrostomy is safer than pancreaticojejunostomy or is associated with a lower incidence of pancreatic fistula. PMID:9174871

  6. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Braganza, Joan M; Lee, Stephen H; McCloy, Rory F; McMahon, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibroinflammatory disease that exists in large-duct (often with intraductal calculi) or small-duct form. In many patients this disease results from a complex mix of environmental (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and occupational chemicals) and genetic factors (eg, mutation in a trypsin-controlling gene or the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator); a few patients have hereditary or autoimmune disease. Pain in the form of recurrent attacks of pancreatitis (representing paralysis of apical exocytosis in acinar cells) or constant and disabling pain is usually the main symptom. Management of the pain is mainly empirical, involving potent analgesics, duct drainage by endoscopic or surgical means, and partial or total pancreatectomy. However, steroids rapidly reduce symptoms in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, and micronutrient therapy to correct electrophilic stress is emerging as a promising treatment in the other patients. Steatorrhoea, diabetes, local complications, and psychosocial issues associated with the disease are additional therapeutic challenges. PMID:21397320

  7. Pancreatitis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses both acute and chronic pancreatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It also reviews the anatomy of the digestive system. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  8. Belgian consensus on chronic pancreatitis in adults and children: statements on diagnosis and nutritional, medical, and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Delhaye, Myriam; Van Steenbergen, Werner; Cesmeli, Ercan; Pelckmans, Paul; Putzeys, Virginie; Roeyen, Geert; Berrevoet, Frederik; Scheers, Isabelle; Ausloos, Floriane; Gast, Pierrette; Ysebaert, Dirk; Plat, Laurence; van der Wijst, Edwin; Hans, Guy; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Deprez, Pierre H

    2014-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in a progressive and irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. Clinicians should attempt to classify patients into one of the six etiologic groups according to the TIGARO classification system. MRI/MRCP, if possible with secretin enhancement, is considered the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of early-stage disease.In CP, pain is the most disabling symptom, with a significant impact on quality of life. Pain should be assessed using the Izbicki score and preferably treated using the "pain ladder" approach. In painful CP, endoscopic therapy (ET) can be considered as early as possible. This procedure can be combined with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the presence of large (> 4 mm), obstructive stone(s) in the pancreatic head, and with ductal stenting in the presence of a single main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture in the pancreatic head with a markedly dilated MPD. Pancreatic stenting should be pursued for at least 12 months in patients with persistent pain relief. On-demand stent exchange should be the preferred strategy. The simultaneous placement of multiple, side-by-side, pancreatic stents can be recommended in patients with MPD strictures persisting after 12 months of single plastic stenting. We recommend surgery in the following cases: a) technical failure of ET ; b) early (6 to 8 weeks) clinical failure ; c) definitive biliary drainage at a later time point; d) pancreatic ductal drainage when repetitive ET is considered unsuitable for young patients; e) resection of an inflammatory pancreatic head when pancreatic cancer cannot be ruled out; f) duodenal obstruction. Duodenopancreatectomy or oncological distal pancreatectomy should be considered for patients with suspected malignancy. Pediatricians should be aware of and systematically search for CP in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain. As malnutrition is highly prevalent in CP patients, patients at nutritional risk should be identified in order to allow for dietary counseling and nutritional intervention using oral supplements. Patients should follow a healthy balanced diet taken in small meals and snacks, with normal fat content. Enzyme replacement therapy is beneficial to symptomatic patients, but also in cases of subclinical insufficiency. Regular follow-up should be considered in CP patients, primarily to detect subclinical maldigestion and the development of pancreatogenic diabetes. Screening for pancreatic cancer is not recommended in CP patients, except in those with the hereditary form. PMID:24761691

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage for right hepatic bile duct obstruction: novel technical tips.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeshi; Sano, Tatsushi; Onda, Saori; Imoto, Akira; Masuda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is not normally indicated for an obstructed right intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD). The technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of a novel technique of EUS-BD for right IHBD obstruction were evaluated. A total of 11 patients underwent drainage using either a left or a right biliary access route. The causes of obstructive jaundice were cholangiocarcinoma (n?=?6), pancreatic cancer (n?=?3), gastric cancer (n?=?1), and colon cancer (n?=?1). After placement of an uncovered metal stent to bridge the obstruction, a hepaticogastrostomy was completed using a covered stent. Mean procedure time was 33.9?±?10.0 minutes. Technical and functional success were achieved in all patients, and no adverse events occurred. This novel method appears to be safe and effective for right IHBD obstruction. PMID:25264761

  10. Treatment of Pain with Pancreatic Extracts in Chronic Pancreatitis: Results of a Prospective Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Mössner; Roger Secknus; Jürgen Meyer; Claus Niederau; Guido Adler

    1992-01-01

    According to the theory of negative feedback regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion by proteases, treatment with pancreatic extracts has been proposed to lower pain in chronic pancreatitis by decreasing pancreatic duct pressure. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled double blind multicenter study to investigate the effect of porcine pancreatic extracts on pain in chronic pancreatitis. 47 patients with pain (41 males,

  11. Transcatheter Closure of a Chronic Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Carotid Artery and the Brachiocephalic Vein with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder in Combination with a Carotid Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stasek, Josef, E-mail: stasek@fnhk.c [Charles University Prague, Cardiocenter of University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 1st Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Lojik, Miroslav [Charles University Prague, Cardiocenter of University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Bis, Josef [Charles University Prague, Cardiocenter of University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 1st Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Horak, David [Regional Hospital Liberec, Department of Cardiology (Czech Republic); Dusek, Jaroslav [Charles University Prague, Cardiocenter of University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 1st Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Brtko, Miroslav; Polansky, Pavel [Charles University Prague, Cardiocenter of University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Babu, Anush; Vojacek, Jan [Charles University Prague, Cardiocenter of University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 1st Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2009-05-15

    We report an original method of transcatheter closure of an arteriovenous fistula using the combination of an Amplatzer PDA occluder and a carotid stent. The fistula was between the left carotid artery and the brachiocephalic vein. The patient had significant left-to-right shunt and was highly symptomatic. Due to the large orifice and pseudoaneurysmatic enlargement of the fistula, we had to use a large Amplatzer PDA occluder and the protruding part of the PDA device disk had to be covered with a carotid stent. The fistula was completely closed. The patient stopped having symptoms and, 2 years after the procedure, the effect persists.

  12. Combined use of videoendoscopy and X-ray imaging for improved monitoring of stenting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cysewska-Sobusiak, A. R.; Sowier, A.; Skrzywanek, P.

    2005-09-01

    The subject of this paper concerns advanced techniques of procedures and imaging used in minimally invasive surgery and in non-operable cases of the alimentary tract tumor therapy. Examples of videoendoscopy and X-ray imaging used for the application of stents (prostheses) and catheters allowing for the performance of diagnostic and endo-therapeutic procedures are described. The possibility was indicated to elaborate a new method of proceeding in tumor therapy in the patients for whom the methods used so far were ineffective. In the paper examples of combined imaging the application of metallic stents and plastic catheters allowing for the performance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are presented. The cases shown refer to tumor located in the esophagus and in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

  13. Pancreatitis - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most commonly caused by either alcohol toxicity or gallstones. Gallstones can lodge in the common bile duct and ... If pancreatitis is due to gallstones, most often the responsible gallstone ... goes away. Less commonly, a minor surgical procedure ...

  14. Endoscopic stent for palliating malignant and benign biliary obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Miao; Zhi-ning Fan; Guo-zhong Ji; Wei Wen; Guo-bin Jiang; Ping Wu; Zheng Liu; Guang-ming Huang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the techniques of placement of memory alloy plating gold biliary stent and plastic stent for palliation\\u000a of malignant and benign biliary obstruction, and to assess its clinical effectiveness. Methods: The patients in plastic stent\\u000a group included paplilla of duodenum inflamational strictures (n=24), common bile duct inflammational inferior segment strictures\\u000a (n=4), choledocholithiasis (n=5), bile leak (n=11), bile duct

  15. Whipple made simple for surgical pathologists: orientation, dissection, and sampling of pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens for a more practical and accurate evaluation of pancreatic, distal common bile duct, and ampullary tumors.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N Volkan; Basturk, Olca; Saka, Burcu; Bagci, Pelin; Ozdemir, Denizhan; Balci, Serdar; Sarmiento, Juan M; Kooby, David A; Staley, Charles; Maithel, Shishir K; Everett, Rhonda; Cheng, Jeanette D; Thirabanjasak, Duangpeng; Weaver, Donald W

    2014-04-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) specimens present a challenge for surgical pathologists because of the relative rarity of these specimens, combined with the anatomic complexity. Here, we describe our experience on the orientation, dissection, and sampling of PD specimens for a more practical and accurate evaluation of pancreatic, distal common bile duct (CBD), and ampullary tumors. For orientation of PDs, identification of the "trapezoid," created by the vascular bed at the center, the pancreatic neck margin on the left, and the uncinate margin on the right, is of outmost importance in finding all the pertinent margins of the specimen including the CBD, which is located at the upper right edge of this trapezoid. After orientation, all the margins can be sampled. We submit the uncinate margin entirely as a perpendicular inked margin because this adipose tissue-rich area often reveals subtle satellite carcinomas that are grossly invisible, and, with this approach, the number of R1 resections has doubled in our experience. Then, to ensure proper identification of all lymph nodes (LNs), we utilize the orange-peeling approach, in which the soft tissue surrounding the pancreatic head is shaved off in 7 arbitrarily defined regions, which also serve as shaved samples of the so-called "peripancreatic soft tissue" that defines pT3 in the current American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM. With this approach, our LN count increased from 6 to 14 and LN positivity rate from 50% to 73%. In addition, in 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas there are grossly undetected microfoci of carcinoma. For determination of the primary site and the extent of the tumor, we believe bisectioning of the pancreatic head, instead of axial (transverse) slicing, is the most revealing approach. In addition, documentation of the findings in the duodenal surface of the ampulla is crucial for ampullary carcinomas and their recent site-specific categorization into 4 categories. Therefore, we probe both the CBD and the pancreatic duct from distal to the ampulla and cut the pancreatic head to the ampulla at a plane that goes through both ducts. Then, we sample the bisected pancreatic head depending on the findings of the case. For example, for proper staging of ampullary carcinomas, it is imperative to take the sections perpendicular to the duodenal serosa at the "groove" area, as ampullary carcinomas often extend to this region. Amputative (axial) sectioning of the ampulla, although good for documentation of the peri-Oddi spread of the intra-ampullary tumors, unfortunately disallows documentation of mucosal spread of the papilla of Vater tumors (those arising from the edge of the ampulla, where the ducts transition to duodenal mucosa and extending) into the neighboring duodenum. Axial sectioning also often fails to document tumor spread to the "groove" area. In conclusion, knowledge of the gross characteristics of the anatomic hallmarks is essential for proper dissection of PD specimens. The approach described above allows practical and accurate documentation and staging of pancreas, distal CBD, and ampullary cancers. PMID:24451278

  16. Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis: a systematic review of clinical trials with a large sample size in the past 10 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common and most severe complication associated with diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. A multivariate analysis of risk factors for PEP is essential for identifying patients at high risk and subsequently choosing other suitable diagnoses. Methods Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches of MEDLINE, Elsevier, and Springer; we performed a systematic review of 12 clinical studies published in the past ten years, selected out of 451 reviewed articles, in which risk factors for pancreatitis were identified. Seven probable risk factors were evaluated, and outcomes expressed in the case of dichotomous variables, as an odds ratio (OR) (with a 95% confidence interval, 95% CI). Results When the risk factors were analyzed, the OR for female gender was 1.40 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.58); the OR for previous PEP was 3.23 (95% CI 2.48 to 4.22); the OR for previous pancreatitis was 2.00 (95% CI 1.72 to 2.33); the OR for endoscopic sphincterotomy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.78); the OR for precut sphincterotomy was 2.11 (95% CI 1.72 to 2.59); the OR for Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction was 4.37 (95% CI 3.75 to 5.09); and the OR for non-prophylactic pancreatic duct stent was 2.10 (95% CI 1.63 to 2.69). Conclusions It appears that female gender, previous PEP, previous pancreatitis, endoscopic sphincterotomy, precut sphincterotomy, Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and non-prophylactic pancreatic duct stent are the risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis. PMID:24886445

  17. Proteomic analysis of pancreatic juice for the identification of biomarkers of pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Youp Park; Sun-A Kim; Joo Won Chung; Seungmin Bang; Seung Woo Park; Young-Ki Paik; Si Young Song

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Protein profiles of endoscopically collected pancreatic juice from normal, chronic pancreatitis patients and pancreatic cancer\\u000a patients were compared to identify diagnostic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Secretin was injected intravenously and pancreatic juice was collected via selective cannulation of the pancreatic duct during\\u000a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Pancreatic juices consisting of three pooled samples for normal control, chronic\\u000a pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer

  18. Role of stents and laser therapy in biliary strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennupati, Raja S.; Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    The most frequent primary cancers causing malignant obstructive jaundice were pancreatic cancer (57%), hilar biliary cancer (19% including metastatic disease), nonhilar biliary cancer (14%) and papillary cancer (10%). Endoscopic stenting has widely replaced palliative surgery for malignant biliary obstruction because of its lower risk and cost. Self-expandable metal stents are the preferred mode of palliation for hilar malignancies. Plastic stents have a major role in benign biliary strictures. Major complications and disadvantages associated with metallic stents include high cost, cholangitis. malposition, migration, unextractability, and breakage of the stents, pancreatitis and stent dysfunction. Dysfunction due to tumor ingrowth can be relieved by thermal methods (argon plasma coagulator therapy). We present a concise review of the efficacy of metallic stents for palliation of malignant strictures.

  19. Current status of endotherapy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Ang, Tiing Leong; Maydeo, Amit

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is associated with varied morphological complications, including intraductal stones, main pancreatic ductal strictures, distal biliary strictures and pseudocysts. Endoscopic therapy provides a less invasive alternative to surgery. In addition, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy improves the success rate of endoscopic clearance of intraductal stones. However, recent data from randomised trials have shown better long-term outcomes with surgical drainage for obstructive pancreatic ductal disease. In patients with distal biliary strictures, stent insertion leads to good immediate drainage, but after stent removal, recurrent narrowing is common. Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has excellent outcome and should be accompanied by pancreatic ductal stenting when a ductal communication is evident. In those who remain symptomatic, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided coeliac plexus block may provide effective but short-term pain relief. In this review, we present the current evidence for the role of endotherapy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25630314

  20. Alisertib and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors or Pancreatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-17

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. Pancreaticojejunostomy For Severe Symptomatic Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Denton, G. W. L.; Brough, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of operation, particularly pancreaticojejunostomy, in the treatment of abdominal pain from chronic pancreatitis is controversial, but relief of pancreatic duct obstruction may decrease the rate of pancreatic organ failure. Our results over 6 years in 13 carefully selected patients suggest that pancreatic drainage does relieve pain but is less effective in preventing pancreatic exocrine failure. Pain was the indication for operation in all patients. PMID:1610724

  2. The effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on stone size or fragmentation after long-term treatment with biliary stenting for large stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Katsinelos; I. Galanis; I. Pilpilidis; G. Paroutoglou; P. Tsolkas; B. Papaziogas; S. Dimiropoulos; E. Kamperis; D. Katsiba; M. Kalomenopoulou; A. Papagiannis

    2003-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic biliary stenting is often used for large or difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones, but the effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on size or fragmentation of stones after long-term treatment with biliary stenting has not been formally established. We compared the stone size or fragmentation of common bile duct stones after a long period of biliary stenting. Methods: Endoscopic

  3. Endoscopic extra-cavitary drainage of pancreatic necrosis with fully covered self-expanding metal stents (fcSEMS) and staged lavage with a high-flow water jet system

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ioana B.; Gutierrez, Juan P.; Ramesh, Jayapal; Wilcox, C. Mel; Mönkemüller, Klaus E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To present a novel, less-invasive method of endoscopic drainage (ED) for walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON).We describe the feasibility, success rate, and complications of combined ED extra-cavitary lavage and debridement of WON using a biliary catheter and high-flow water jet system (water pump). Patients and methods: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage was performed with insertion of two 7-Fr, 4-cm double pigtail stents. Subsequently a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (fcSEMS) was placed. The key aspect of the debridement was the insertion of a 5-Fr biliary catheter through or along the fcSEMS into the cavity, with ensuing saline lavage using a high-flow water jet system. The patients were then brought back for repeated, planned endoscopic lavages of the WON. No endoscopic intra-cavitary exploration was performed. Results: A total of 17 patients (15 men, 2 women; mean age 52.6, range 24?–?69; mean American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score of 3) underwent ED of WON with this new method. The mean initial WON diameter was 9.5?cm, range 8 to 26?cm. The total number of ED was 84, range 2 to 13.?The mean stenting period was 42.5 days. The mean follow-up was 51 days, range 3 to 370.?A resolution of the WON was achieved in 14 patients (82.3?%). There were no major complications associated with this method. Conclusion: ED of complex WON with fcSEMS followed by repeated endoscopic extra-cavitary lavage and debridement using a biliary catheter and high-flow water jet system is a minimally invasive, feasible method with high technical and clinical success and minimal complications.

  4. Polymeric photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding metal stent for repeatable endoscopic photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bae, Byoung-chan; Yang, Su-Geun; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Na, Kun; Kim, Joon Mee; Costamagna, Guido; Kozarek, Richard A; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Deviere, Jacques; Seo, Dong Wan; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic approach for the palliative treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction. In this study, we designed photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding nonvascular metal stent (PDT-stent) which allows repeatable photodynamic treatment of cholangiocarcinoma without systemic injection of photosensitizer. Polymeric photosensitizer (pullulan acetate-conjugated pheophorbide A; PPA) was incorporated in self-expanding nonvascular metal stent. Residence of PPA in the stent was estimated in buffer solution and subcutaneous implantation on mouse. Photodynamic activity of PDT-stent was evaluated through laserexposure on stent-layered tumor cell lines, HCT-116 tumor-xenograft mouse models and endoscopic intervention of PDT-stent on bile duct of mini pigs. Photo-fluorescence imaging of the PDT-stent demonstrated homogeneous embedding of polymeric Pheo-A (PPA) on stent membrane. PDT-stent sustained its photodynamic activities at least for 2 month. And which implies repeatable endoscopic PDT is possible after stent emplacement. The PDT-stent after light exposure successfully generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen in the surrounding tissues, inducing apoptotic degradation of tumor cells and regression of xenograft tumors on mouse models. Endoscopic biliary in-stent photodynamic treatments on minipigs also suggested the potential efficacy of PDT-stent on cholangiocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed our PDT-stent, allows repeatable endoscopic biliary PDT, has the potential for the combination therapy (stent plus PDT) of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25043500

  5. Hereditary pancreatitis for the endoscopist.

    PubMed

    Patel, Milan R; Eppolito, Amanda L; Willingham, Field F

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis shares a majority of clinical and morphologic features with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, but may present at an earlier age. The term hereditary pancreatitis has primarily been associated with mutations in the serine protease 1 gene (PRSS1) which encodes for cationic trypsinogen. PRSS1 mutations account for approximately 68-81% of hereditary pancreatitis. Mutations in other genes, primarily serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are also associated with hereditary pancreatitis. While chronic alcoholic pancreatitis may develop in the fourth or fifth decades, patients with hereditary pancreatitis may develop symptoms in the first or second decades of life. Hereditary pancreatitis is diagnosed either by detecting a causative gene mutation or by the presence of chronic pancreatitis in two first-degree or three second-degree relatives, in two or more generations, without precipitating factors and with a negative workup for known causes. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis may have recurrent acute pancreatitis and may develop pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Hereditary pancreatitis may involve premature trypsinogen activation or decreased control of trypsin. Recurrent inflammation can lead to acute pancreatitis and subsequently to chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal calcification. There is a markedly increased risk of pancreatic carcinoma compared with the general population. Patients are often referred for evaluation of pancreatitis, biliary or pancreatic ductal dilatation, jaundice, biliary obstruction, pancreatic duct stone or stricture, pancreatic pseudocysts, and for evaluation for malignancy. Medical treatment includes pancreatic enzyme supplementation, nutritional supplementation, diabetes management, and palliation of pain. Patients should avoid tobacco use and alcohol exposure. Hereditary pancreatitis is reviewed and recommendations for genetic testing are discussed. PMID:23503650

  6. Acute idiopathic pancreatitis: clinical and diagnostic contribution.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Montesano, G; Gallinaro, L; Bertagni, A; Turano, R; Hueck, S; Illuminati, G

    1997-01-01

    Acute idiopathic pancreatitis is a term used when no underlying cause can be identified on routine investigations. However more specialized investigations, such as endoscopic, endoscopic retrocolangio pancreopathy (CPRE), may detect aetiological factors, particularly biliary sludge and pancreatic duct abnormalities. The authors, reviewing the current literature, report their caseload of idiopathic pancreatitis. They conclude that CPRE is indicated if ultrasonography shows a calibre of the common duct at the superior limits of normal values and in each idiopathic recurrent AP. PMID:9444796

  7. Remnant pancreas reconstruction with duct-to-duct anastomosis after middle pancreatectomy: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masayuki; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Kyuno, Daisuke; Ueki, Tomomi; Uchiyama, Motonobu; Mizuguchi, Toru; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of a remnant pancreas after middle pancreatectomy has generally been performed with a pancreaticoenterostomy. We report here two cases in which physiological reconstructive procedures were performed. The reconstructive procedures included pancreatic duct-to-duct anastomosis and parenchymal sutures with absorbable monofilament interrupted stitches. A pancreatic tube was inserted for decompression at the anastomotic site in both cases. The patients comprised one with pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma and another with a non-malignant insulinoma. The tumors were located in the pancreatic body. Although an International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula classification grade B-pancreatic fistula was observed in each patient, they both resolved with conservative therapy. The pancreatic duct at the anastomosis site was patent in both cases, and no atrophic changes developed in the remnant pancreas in either patient. These outcomes confirmed that, in selected cases, this reconstructive procedure is safe and feasible for physiological reconstruction without involvement of the digestive tract. PMID:25911895

  8. Ascaris-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Khuroo, M S; Zargar, S A; Yattoo, G N; Koul, P; Khan, B A; Dar, M Y; Alai, M S

    1992-12-01

    The incidence, clinical disease and outcome of acute pancreatitis caused by ascariasis in an endemic area of Kashmir, India, was studied prospectively. Ascariasis was an aetiological factor in 59 of 256 patients (23.0 per cent) with acute pancreatitis. Worms had invaded the bile duct in 51 patients, the pancreatic duct in four and both ducts in four. Pancreatitis was mild in 46 patients and severe in 13. Associated pyogenic cholangitis was present in eight. Acute complications occurred in 11 patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in all cases within 72 h of admission and delineated ascarides in the duodenum invading the ampullary orifice (44 patients), in the bile duct (55) and in the pancreatic duct (eight). At ERCP, worms were extracted from the ampullary orifice and removed via the mouth of 33 patients with intractable epigastric pain, leading to rapid relief of symptoms. The eight patients with pyogenic cholangitis underwent endoscopic nasobiliary drainage to decompress the bile ducts; worms were extracted from the bile duct of three of these patients using a Dormia basket. A total of 56 patients recovered from acute illness with a combination of conservative and endoscopic treatment; the other three required emergency surgery. At a mean(s.d.) follow-up of 19(7) months, ten patients showed symptomatic worm reinvasion of the biliary tree. The overall mortality rate was 3 per cent. PMID:1486433

  9. Percutaneous Endoscopic Retrieval and Replacement of a Knitted (Ultraflex) Biliary Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-01 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masami [Department of Radiology, Tottori University Hospital, 36-1 Nishimachi, Yonago 683 (Japan); Tanigawa, Noboru; Okuda, Yoshikazu; Mishima, Kazuya; Ohmura, Naoto; Kobayashi, Midori [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-01 (Japan)

    1997-09-15

    A knitted (Ultraflex) biliary stent became obstructed after 5 months causing recurrent jaundice in a 92-year-old man with pancreatic cancer. The obstructed stent was successfully removed percutaneously by retrieval forceps under guidance by an 8.4 Fr fiberoptic biliary endoscope. A new stent was placed. No complications were encountered.

  10. Pancreatic Stellate Cell Activation and MMP Production in Experimental Pancreatic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tokuyasu Yokota; Woody Denham; Kenric Murayama; Carolyn Pelham; Raymond Joehl; Richard H. Bell

    2002-01-01

    Background. The early events in pancreatic fibrosis are poorly understood. We examined the production of collagen and matrix metalloproteinases as well as the activation of pancreatic stellate cells in a rodent model of pancreatic fibrosis.Materials and methods. Pancreatitis was induced in rats by hyperstimulation with cerulein (50 ?g\\/kg\\/day ip) and concurrent pancreatic duct obstruction (SHOP model) for 96 h (n

  11. Nasolacrimal polyurethane stent: Complications with CT correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel T. Pinto; Laura Paul; Carlos Grande

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate initial results in patients with epiphora secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct treated by placement\\u000a of a polyurethane stent, and to discuss the technical problems and complications arising during the procedure, with visualization\\u000a of the anatomy of the drainage apparatus using computed tomography (CT).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We inserted 20 polyurethane Song stents under fluoroscopic guidance after dacryocystography

  12. Pancreatic trauma: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Kaur, Ravinder; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sinha, Anindita; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the pancreas is rare and difficult to diagnose. In contrast, traumatic injuries to the liver, spleen and kidney are common and are usually identified with ease by imaging modalities. Pancreatic injuries are usually subtle to identify by different diagnostic imaging modalities, and these injuries are often overlooked in cases with extensive multiorgan trauma. The most evident findings of pancreatic injury are post-traumatic pancreatitis with blood, edema, and soft tissue infiltration of the anterior pararenal space. The alterations of post-traumatic pancreatitis may not be visualized within several hours following trauma as they are time dependent. Delayed diagnoses of traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of pancreatic injuries because early recognition of the disruption of the main pancreatic duct is important. We reviewed our experience with the use of various imaging modalities for diagnosis of blunt pancreatic trauma. PMID:24379625

  13. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, R.J.; Benett, W.J.

    1994-04-26

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding is described. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic. 3 figures.

  14. Lensing duct

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA), Benett

    1994-01-01

    A lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of front surface lensing and reflective waveguiding. The duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side being lens-shaped and coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The four side surfaces are uncoated, preventing light from escaping by total internal reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials, and can be fabricated from inexpensive glass and plastic.

  15. Pancreatitis after sphincter of Oddi manometry.

    PubMed Central

    Rolny, P; Anderberg, B; Ihse, I; Lindström, E; Olaison, G; Arvill, A

    1990-01-01

    The nature, frequency, severity, and possible causes of complications after 207 sphincter of Oddi manometry measurements were studied in 146 patients. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 6% (12 of 207) of the investigations and in 8% (12 of 146) of the patients examined. The pancreatitis was mild in all patients. After cannulation of the pancreatic duct, acute pancreatitis occurred in 10 of 95 (11%) patients compared with one of 93 (1%) when the manometry catheter entered the bile duct only (p less than 0.02). Seven (58%) of the patients who developed acute pancreatitis, however, were found to be suffering from chronic pancreatitis. Some 26% of all sphincter of Oddi manometry measurements on patients with this diagnosis were complicated by an acute attack of pancreatitis compared with 3% (p less than 0.001) in patients without signs of chronic pancreatitis. In all patients the pancreatitis developed within three hours of manometry. We conclude that pancreatitis may occasionally follow sphincter of Oddi manometry measurement, even in patients without pancreaticobiliary disease, and that underlying chronic pancreatitis constitutes a definite risk. Sphincter of Oddi manometry measurement in control subjects should therefore be performed only in centres where the safety of the procedure has been established, and the presence of chronic pancreatitis should be excluded beforehand. Cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be avoided. Manometry can be safely performed, however, as an outpatient procedure. PMID:2370018

  16. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis, or swelling of the pancreas You may have ...

  17. Endobiliary Stent Position Changes during External-beam Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kwun-Ye; Eccles, Cynthia L.; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Endobiliary stents can be used as surrogates for pancreatic localization when using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). This work reports on interfraction stent position changes during EBRT for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Materials and Methods Six patients with endobiliary stents who underwent EBRT for LAPC were assessed. Measurements from the most superior aspect of the stent (sup stent) and the most inferior aspect of the stent (inf stent) to the most inferior, posterior aspect of the L1 vertebra central spinous process were determined from daily treatment CBCTs and compared with those determined from the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Changes in stent-L1 measurements were interpreted as changes in relative stent position. Results Three patients showed mean interfraction stent position changes of ?1 cm when treatment measurements were compared with planning measurements. The sup stent for patient A moved to the right (2.66 ± 2.77 cm) and inferiorly (3.0 ± 3.12 cm), and the inf stent moved to the right (1.92 ± 2.02 cm) inferiorly (3.23 ± 3.34 cm) and posteriorly (1.41 ± 1.43 cm). The inf stent for patient B moved superiorly (2.23 ± 0.49 cm) and posteriorly (1.72 ± 0.59 cm). The sup and inf stent for patient F moved inferiorly (0.98 ± 0.35 cm and 1.21 ± 0.38 cm, respectively). The remaining three patients C, D, and E showed interfraction position changes of <1 cm. Conclusion Endobiliary stent migration and deformation were observed in a small subset of patients. Further investigation is required before confirming their use as surrogates for LAPC target localization during image-guided EBRT. PMID:26090069

  18. Endoscopic Placement of Metal Stents in Treating Patients With Cancer- Related Duodenal Obstruction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-31

    Colorectal Cancer; Constipation, Impaction, and Bowel Obstruction; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Pancreatic Cancer; Quality of Life; Small Intestine Cancer

  19. CT of the extrahepatic bile ducts: wall thickness and contrast enhancement in normal and abnormal ducts.

    PubMed

    Schulte, S J; Baron, R L; Teefey, S A; Rohrmann, C A; Freeny, P C; Shuman, W P; Foster, M A

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have described thickening and enhancement of the extrahepatic bile duct wall on CT scans obtained after administration of IV contrast material. We undertook this study to establish parameters for the normal thickness and enhancement of the bile duct wall on CT, and to develop a differential diagnosis for thickening of the duct wall. Routine CT examinations of 100 patients without biliary disease were evaluated prospectively. The common hepatic duct and common bile duct could be visualized in 66% and 82% of cases, respectively; the walls of these ducts could be separately discerned in 59% and 52%. The mean thickness of the duct wall was 1 mm, with a maximal thickness of 1.5 mm. Wall enhancement was similar to (51%), slightly greater than (44%), or markedly greater than (5%) the enhancement of adjacent pancreatic parenchyma. A review of records covering a 5-year period identified 52 patients in whom CT showed thickening of the bile duct wall (greater than or equal to 2 mm). These patients could be categorized by seven underlying diseases, and analysis of the CT scans revealed four general patterns of thickening. Focal, concentric wall thickening in the distal common bile duct was associated with pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and common bile duct stones; focal, eccentric thickening tended to occur with cholangiocarcinoma and sclerosing cholangitis. Diffuse, concentric thickening was seen with acute cholangitis; diffuse, eccentric thickening was associated with oriental cholangiohepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis. Thickening of greater than 5 mm was seen only with cholangiocarcinoma. Enhancement of the duct wall in these groups varied and was of no predictive value. In summary, the extrahepatic bile ducts can be visualized in the majority of patients, and the normal duct wall should be 1.5 mm or less in thickness. Contrast enhancement of the duct wall occurs in patients without biliary tract disease and alone is predictive not predictive of pathology. Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, common bile duct stones, cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis, acute cholangitis, and oriental cholangiohepatitis are associated with thickening of the duct wall. PMID:2104731

  20. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Tanaka, Masaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis that is increasingly being reported. The presentation and clinical image findings of AIP sometimes resemble those of several pancreatic malignancies, but the therapeutic strategy differs appreciably. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary for cases of AIP. To date, AIP is classified into two distinct subtypes from the viewpoints of etiology, serum markers, histology, other organ involvements, and frequency of relapse: type 1 is related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis) and type 2 is related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Both types of AIP are characterized by focal or diffuse pancreatic enlargement accompanied with a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, and both show dramatic responses to corticosteroid. Unlike type 2, type 1 is characteristically associated with increasing levels of serum IgG4 and positive serum autoantibodies, abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes, frequent extrapancreatic lesions, and relapse. These findings have led several countries to propose diagnostic criteria for AIP, which consist of essentially similar diagnostic items; however, several differences exist for each country, mainly due to differences in the definition of AIP and the modalities used to diagnose this disease. An attempt to unite the diagnostic criteria worldwide was made with the publication in 2011 of the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP, established at the 2010 Congress of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP). PMID:25469024

  1. Nasolacrimal Polyurethane Stent: Complications with CT Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Isabel T.; Paul, Laura; Grande, Carlos [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Ctra. de Toledo, km 12.5, E-28905 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial results in patients with epiphora secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct treated by placement of a polyurethane stent, and to discuss the technical problems and complications arising during the procedure, with visualization of the anatomy of the drainage apparatus using computed tomography (CT). Methods: We inserted 20 polyurethane Song stents under fluoroscopic guidance after dacryocystography in 19 patients with grade 3-4 epiphora caused by idiopathic obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. CT scans were obtained following stent placement in all patients. Results: We focus on the technical problems and complications that arose during these procedures. During negotiation of the guidewire past the obstruction at the level of the junction of the duct with the lacrimal sac, the guidewire created a false passage in a posterior suborbital direction in two cases and towards the posterior midline in another. In all cases the guidewire was withdrawn and reinserted through the proper anatomic route without further difficulty or complications. In two cases the stent was improperly positioned wholly or partially outside the nasolacrimal system (one medially, one posteriorly). In one case the stent was removed and reinserted; in the other it remains in place and functional. CT was performed in all these cases to ensure proper anatomic alignment and determine what had gone wrong. The epiphora was completely resolved in 13 cases and partially relieved in four; there were three cases of stent obstruction. Epistaxis of short duration (1 hr) occurred in seven patients and headache in one. Conclusions: Treatment of epiphora with polyurethane stents is a technique that is well tolerated by patients and achieves a high success rate, yet problems in placement may be encountered. Though no major consequences for patients are involved, cognizance of such difficulties is important to avoid incorrect positioning of stents.

  2. Pancreatitis in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Spicer; Sidney Cywes

    1988-01-01

    Ninety children treated for acute, relapsing, or chronic pancreatitis at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, between 1958 and 1982 are reviewed. The commonest cause was Ascaris worms in the bile duct and the next commonest identifiable cause was trauma. Diagnosis was clinical, confirmed by raised amylase levels and radiological or operative findings. Ultrasound was particularly helpful.

  3. Coronary Angioplasty Stent Placement

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... put in, versus medicated or what’s known as drug-eluding stents. And there has been a lot ... Both bare metal stents and medicated stents, or drug-eluting stents, have their role, and we often ...

  4. Management of fibrosing pancreatitis in children presenting with obstructive jaundice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F A Sylvester; B Shuckett; E Cutz; P R Durie; M A Marcon

    1998-01-01

    Background—Children with fibrosing pancreatitis are conventionally treated surgically to relieve common bile duct (CBD) obstruction caused by pancreatic compression. Residual pancreatic function has not been formally tested in these patients.Aims—To evaluate the usefulness of non-surgical temporary drainage in children with fibrosing pancreatitis and to assess pancreatic function after resolution of their CBD obstruction.Patients—Four children (1.5–13 years; three girls).Methods and results—Abdominal

  5. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the management of pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and management has been enhanced with the application of endoscopic ultrasound. The close proximity of the pancreas to the stomach and duodenum permits detailed imaging with intraluminal ultrasonography and staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS directed fine needle aspiration and injection may be successfully employed with patients with pancreatic cancer. Expandable metal stents can palliate patients with obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary tract as well as the gastroduodenum. The efficacy of EUS in the management of pancreatic cancer is critically reviewed.

  6. Double-duct sign: do not forget the gallstones.

    PubMed

    Oterdoom, Leendert H; van Weyenberg, Stijn J B; de Boer, Nanne K H

    2013-12-01

    A double-duct sign is the combined dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct, often caused by cancer of the pancreas. We present a patient with colicky pain in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. On radiological imaging and endosonography, she had a double-duct sign due to choledocholithiasis and no mass in the pancreatic head. A literature search was performed, which indicated that in selected patients with a higher likelihood of pancreas cancer (for example jaundice or pancreatic mass on radiological imaging) up to 85% of patients do indeed have a pancreatic cancer. In an unselected population, regardless of presenting symptoms, a double-duct sign on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was caused by a pancreas malignancy in 58% of patients. In selected patients without jaundice but with a double duct sign, pancreas cancer was only seen in 6% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the double-duct sign observed by ERCP for pancreatic cancer varies between 50-76% and 63-80%, respectively. Our patient with symptomatic choledocholithiasis underwent an uncomplicated ERCP with stone extraction and papillotomy and was referred for a cholecystectomy. PMID:24369328

  7. Therapeutic ERCP

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fragments can be pulled out through the sphincterotomy. Stent Placement Stents are placed into the bile or pancreatic ducts ... normal duct drainage. There are two types of stents that are commonly used. The first is made ...

  8. Large duct type invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with microcystic and papillary patterns: a potential microscopic mimic of non-invasive ductal neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pelin Bagci; Aleodor A Andea; Olca Basturk; Kee-Taek Jang; Ipek Erbarut; Volkan Adsay

    2012-01-01

    A morphological variant of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma forming large ductal elements, large duct type ductal adenocarcinoma, is documented and its clinicopathological features are studied. These tumors may have microcystic and papillary growth patterns that closely mimic the non-invasive cystic and papillary pancreatic tumors such as: intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasia, including the oncocytic variant, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and ducts involved by pancreatic

  9. Autoimmune pancreatitis in an 11-year-old boy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rania Refaat; Marc Harth; Petra Proschek; Sebastian Lindemayr; Thomas J. Vogl

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of histopathologically proven autoimmune pancreatitis in an 11-year-old boy. Abdominal US and MRI showed\\u000a a focal swelling of the pancreatic head, the latter also showing delayed contrast enhancement. There was diffuse irregular\\u000a pancreatic duct narrowing, compression of the intrapancreatic common bile duct, and mild proximal biliary dilatation on MR\\u000a cholangiopancreatography. Laboratory results revealed normal serum IgG

  10. Clinical evaluation, imaging studies, indications for cytologic study and preprocedural requirements for duct brushing studies and pancreatic fine-needle aspiration: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas; Schmidt, C. Max; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Barthel, James S.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Merchant, Nipun B.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Shaaban, Akram M.; Simeone, Diane; Pitman, Martha Bishop; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques for EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature to be used for pancreaticobiliary disease, ancillary testing and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on expertise of the authors, literature review, discussions of the draft document at national and international meetings and synthesis of online comments of the draft document. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. This document summarizes recommendations for the clinical and imaging work-up of pancreatic and biliary tract lesions along with indications for cytologic study of these lesions. Prebrushing and FNA requirements are also discussed. PMID:25191515

  11. Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion Involves Two Proton Pumps*

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.; Haanes, Kristian A.; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H+/HCO3? transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na+/K+-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H+-K+-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H+-K+ pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H+-K+ pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H+/HCO3? and fluid transport shows that the H+-K+ pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H+-K+ pumps in pathophysiology. PMID:20978133

  12. Acute Obstructive Suppurative Pancreatic Ductitis in an Asymptomatic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2015-01-01

    Acute obstructive suppurative pancreatic ductitis (AOSPD), defined as suppuration from the pancreatic duct without associated pseudocyst, abscess, or necrosis, is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis. We present the first case of AOSPD in an asymptomatic patient with a polymicrobial infection and review the literature on this rare clinical entity. PMID:25688269

  13. Indicative findings of pancreatic cancer in prediagnostic CT.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Hong, Hye-Suk; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok

    2009-10-01

    We examined 20 prediagnostic CTs from 16 patients for whom the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was delayed until full diagnostic CT was performed. Three radiologists independently reviewed the prediagnostic CTs along with 50 CTs of control subjects, including patients without pancreatic disease (n = 38) or with chronic pancreatitis without calcification visible on CT (n = 12). The reviewers recorded the presence of biliary or pancreatic ductal dilation, interruption of the pancreatic duct, distal parenchymal atrophy, contour abnormality and focal hypoattenuation. Frequency, sensitivity and specificity of the significant findings were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed. Findings indicative of pancreatic cancer were seen on 85% (17/20) of the prediagnostic CTs. Patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to show focal hypoattenuation, pancreatic duct dilation, interruption of the pancreatic duct, and distal parenchymal atrophy, with sensitivities and specificities of 75%/84%, 50%/78%, 45%/82% and 45%/96%, respectively. Focal hypoattenuation and distal parenchymal atrophy were the independent predictors of pancreatic cancer with odds ratios of 20.92 and 11.22, respectively. In conclusion, focal hypoattenuation and pancreatic duct dilation with or without interruption, especially when accompanied by distal parenchymal atrophy, were the most useful findings for avoiding delayed diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19415290

  14. Comparison of pancreatic morphology and exocrine functional impairment in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, T; Braun, U; Leferink, S; Gilly, G; Lux, G

    1994-01-01

    A comparative analysis of pancreatic morphology and exocrine function was performed prospectively in 48 patients. All patients had transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, and a secretin-caerulein test. Classification of ultrasound, computed tomography, and pancreatogram findings was based on the Cambridge classification. In 10 patients, no pancreatic duct changes were detected on pancreatography. Equivocal (Cambridge I), mild to moderate (Cambridge II), and considerable ductal changes (Cambridge III) were found in 10, 12, and 16 patients, respectively. Computed tomography and ultrasound changes were found to correlate in 40-50%, 67%, and 94-100% of patients with Cambridge I, II, and III abnormal duct morphology, respectively. In patients with a normal pancreatogram, no patient had a functional impairment. Seventy per cent of the patients with equivocal pancreatic duct changes had dissociated, and 30% global, pancreatic insufficiency, while 50% of those with mild to moderate abnormal duct morphology manifested dissociated, and 50% global, functional impairment. All patients with considerable pancreatic duct changes had global pancreatic insufficiency. The results of this study confirm that normal endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic findings and Cambridge III ductal changes on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography correlate extremely well with normal pancreatic function and advanced functional insufficiency, respectively. As diagnostic tools, ultrasound and computed tomography are as sensitive as pancreatography only in chronic pancreatitis with considerable morphological changes. PMID:7523260

  15. Endoscopic management of choledochocele complicated with choledocholithiasis and pancreatitis in an old patient.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Zeng, Hao; Chen, You-Xiang; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Choledochocele, or type III choledochal cyst, is a rare congenital disease and is even less common among adults compared with children. In this case, a 75-year-old female was admitted to our hospital presented with epigastric pain and vomiting for one day. Abdominal computed tomography revealed dilated common bile duct, pancreatitis and peripancreatic effusion. The patient was treated with fasting, fluid resuscitation, anti-acid agents, somatostatin and antibiotics. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was employed for the further diagnosis of choledochocele, choledocholithiasis and biliary stenosis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy, stone extraction and plastic stent placement were performed for treatment. The patient recovered quickly after the treatment and no signs of recurrence and complications were observed during the first follow-up. Endoscopic management may be a promising and alternative therapy for choledochocele although long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of this procedure in the future. PMID:24859881

  16. Transpapillary and transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Hans Seifert; Andreas Walter; Nib Soehendra

    1995-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic drainage of pseudocysts using the transpapillary and transmural approaches has been reported. We evaluated endoscopic drainage in 53 patients with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts in whom conservative management had failed.Methods: After preliminary endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, transpapillary drainage was attempted in 33 patients with pseudocysts that communicated with the main pancreatic duct. Transmural drainage of pseudocysts in contact with the

  17. Transpapillary and transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Binmoeller; Hans Seifert; Andreas Walter; Nib Soehendra

    Background: Endoscopic drainage of pseudocysts using the transpapillary and transmural approaches has been reported. We evaluated endoscopic drainage in 53 patients with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts in whom conservative management had failed. Methods: After preliminary endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, transpapillary drainage was attempted in 33 patients with pseudocysts that communicated with the main pancreatic duct. Transmural drainage of pseudocysts in contact with

  18. Pain Management in chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darwin L. Conwell; Gregory Zuccaro

    1999-01-01

    Opinion statement  Painful chronic pancreatitis is difficult to manage. We believe a multidisciplinary approach is the best means of evaluating\\u000a this complex syndrome. In our opinion, the initial evaluation should aim at firmly establishing the diagnosis of chronic pan-creatitis:\\u000a calcifications on imaging; duct morphologic changes on pancreatography; parenchymal changes on ultrasound; or evidence of\\u000a pancreatic dysfunction on secre-tin\\/ cholecystokinin stimulation tests.

  19. Cystic pancreatic lymphangioma

    PubMed Central

    Gure?, Nazim; Gurluler, Ercument; Alim, Altan; Berber, Ibrahim; Gurkan, Alihan

    2012-01-01

    Lymphangioma of the pancreas is a rare benign tumor of lymphatic origin. Retroperitoneal lymphangiomas account for 1% of all lymphangiomas. Herein, we report a case of cystic pancreatic lymphangioma diagnosed in 34 year-old female patient who was hospitalized for a slight pain in the epigastrium and vomiting. Radiological imaging revealed a large multiloculated cystic abdominal mass with enhancing septations involving the upper retroperitoneum. During the laparoscopic surgery, a well circumscribed polycystic tumor was completely excised preserving the pancreatic duct. The patient made a complete recovery and is disease-free 12 months postoperatively. PMID:22826784

  20. Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia Revisited and Updated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sipos; S. Frank; T. Gress; S. Hahn; G. Klöppel

    2009-01-01

    Most pancreatic neoplasms are classified as ductal adenocarcinoma because they show a ductal phenotype, making a ductal origin very likely. The duct lesions that may give rise to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have been called pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). A classification system for these lesions distinguishes between three grades of PanIN. Molecular studies revealed that PanIN-2 and PanIN-3 lesions represent a

  1. The angle of pancreaticobiliary junction correlates with acute pancreatitis: a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Guo-Li; Jing, Zong-Lin; Gao, Cai-Liang; Tang, Meng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between the angle of the pancreaticobiliary junction (APJ) and the prevalence of acute pancreatitis using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Materials and methods From February 2014 to October 2014, thirty two subjects with normal pancreas (group A) and 40 patients with acute pancreatitis (group B) who underwent MRCP were enrolled into our study. The type of biliary duct and main pancreatic duct joining the duodenal wall was reviewed and divided into V, B-P and P-B type. The V type is the pancreatic duct and biliary duct joining the duodenal wall without a common channel; the B-P type is the biliary duct draining into the pancreatic duct and forming a common channel; and the P-B type is the pancreatic duct draining into the biliary duct and forming a common channel. APJ was measured on MRCP. The correlation between the APJ and the prevalence of acute pancreatitis was analyzed. Results The APJ in group A was smaller than in group B (51.45°±13.51° vs. 65.76°±15.61°, P<0.05). According to the type of biliary duct and main pancreatic duct joining the duodenal wall, the prevalence of acute pancreatitis in the V type and in the B-P type was higher than in the P-B type (12/17 vs. 10/29, or 18/26 vs. 10/29, respectively, all P<0.05), whereas there were no significant difference for the prevalence of acute pancreatitis between the V type and B-P type (P>0.05). The APJ were 59.32°±20.04°, 60.22°±11.06°, 57.13°±17.27°, respectively in V type, B-P type and P-B type joining of main pancreatic duct (P>0.05). Conclusions A larger APJ is related to a higher prevalence of acute pancreatitis.

  2. Migrated biliary stent causing perforation of sigmoid colon and pelvic abscess.

    PubMed

    Mady, Raafat Fadly; Niaz, Osamah Saad; Assal, Mohamed Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopically placed biliary stents are a well-established procedure for the treatment of benign and malignant causes of obstructive jaundice. A plastic stent is usually inserted in patients with obstructive jaundice due to pancreatic cancer as a short-term procedure. Stent migration has been reported as a complication, although in most cases the stent will pass through or remain in the bowel lumen for a period of time. In rare cases, the stent may cause sigmoid perforation and pelvic abscess formation, especially in patients with sigmoid diverticulae or abdominal adhesions due to previous surgery. We present a patient with sigmoid perforation and pelvic abscess due to distal migration of a biliary stent placed to decompress a pancreatic head carcinoma. PMID:25870211

  3. PANCREATIC CANCER 14. PANCREATIC CANCER

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    PANCREATIC CANCER 125 14. PANCREATIC CANCER 14.1. SUMMARY Pancreatic cancer was the eleventh most increase of approximately 4% per annum. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to the age of 74 was 1 their pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Table 14.1 Summary information for pancreatic cancer in Ireland, 1995

  4. Morphohistological Features of Pancreatic Stump Are the Main Determinant of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ridolfi, Cristina; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Gavazzi, Francesca; Spaggiari, Paola; Tinti, Maria Carla; Uccelli, Fara; Madonini, Marco; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Aim of the Study. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients and Methods. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Results. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P = 0.009), BMI ? 25 (P = 0.002), prolonged surgery (P = 0.001), soft pancreatic texture (P < 0.001), small pancreatic duct (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P = 0.031), large stump area (P = 0.001), and extended stump mobilization (P = 0.001) were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions. Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:24900974

  5. EUS-Guided ERCP Multicenter Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Biliary Stricture; Biliary Obstruction; Stent Obstruction; Proximal Duct Stricture; Distal Duct Stricture; Ampullary Cancer; Biliary Sphincter Stenosis; Impacted Stones; Chronic Pancreatitis; Peri-ampullary Diverticula; Altered Anatomy

  6. Fibrin Glue Sandwich Prevents Pancreatic Fistula following Distal Pancreatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Ohwada; Tetsushi Ogawa; Yoshifumi Tanahashi; Seiji Nakamura; Izumi Takeyoshi; Toshihiro Ohya; Toshiroh Ikeya; Kenji Kawashima; Yoshiyuki Kawashima; Yasuo Morishita

    1998-01-01

    . Pancreatic fistula is a major form of morbidity following pancreatic resection. We conducted a nonrandomized clinical\\u000a trial comparing the sealing and sandwich techniques of spraying fibrin glue to prevent pancreatic fistula following distal\\u000a pancreatectomy. The pancreas was transected with a scalpel to identify and suture the main pancreatic duct and its small branches.\\u000a In the sealing group, fibrin glue

  7. Taking an Alternate Route Home: Stenting of Choledochoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chintanaboina, JayaKrishna; Mathew, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old male with adenocarcinoma of the rectum with metastasis to liver and porta hepatis region underwent biliary stenting due to aggressive distal common bile duct stricture. At the time of planned stent exchange, the guidewire could not be re-introduced, despite several techniques, including the SpyScope® system. A small fistula was noted by contrast fluoroscopy extending between proximal biliary tree/porta hepatis and the duodenal bulb, likely secondary to previous chemotherapy and radiation. A stent was placed in this fistula, as this was the only pathway available for biliary drainage.

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis: a surgical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Perez, David; Vaquero, Eva C; Ayuso, Juan R; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is defined as a particular form of pancreatitis that often manifests as obstructive jaundice associated with a pancreatic mass or an obstructive bile duct lesion, and that has an excellent response to corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of AIP worldwide is unknown, and it is considered as a rare entity. The clinical and radiological presentation of AIP can mimic bilio-pancreatic cancer, presenting difficulties for diagnosis and obliging the surgeon to balance decision-making between the potential risk presented by the misdiagnosis of a deadly disease against the desire to avoid unnecessary major surgery for a disease that responds effectively to corticosteroid treatment. In this review we detail the current and critical points for the diagnosis, classification and treatment for AIP, with a special emphasis on surgical series and the methods to differentiate between this pathology and bilio-pancreatic cancer. PMID:25066570

  9. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y. (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan); Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT.

  10. Systemic Inflammation with Multiorgan Dysfunction Is the Cause of Death in Murine Ligation-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuobiao Yuan; David K. Meyerholz; Erik C. Twait; Duraisamy Kempuraj; Deborah E. Williard; Isaac Samuel

    Background  We have previously shown that distal pancreatic duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice is associated with substantial\\u000a mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We examined the cause of death in duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice by serial examination of multiple parameters\\u000a in three experimental groups: distal pancreatic duct ligation (PD), bile duct ligation alone (BD), and sham operation (S).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  BD and S had no

  11. A model for predicting pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy based on the international study group of pancreatic surgery classification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Ye; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Jae Keun

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims With recent advances in pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) has become increasingly safe. However, pancreatic leakage is still one of the leading postoperative complications. An accurate prediction model for pancreatic leakage after PD can be helpful for pancreas surgeons. The aim of this study was to provide a new model that was simple and useful with high accuracy for predicting pancreatic leakage after PD. Methods To predict the occurrence of pancreatic leakage, several factors were selected using bivariate analysis and univariate logistic regression analysis. The final model was developed using multivariable logistic regression analysis in the model construction data set. Results Overall, 41 of 100 patients had pancreatic leakage by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) criteria. Soft pancreatic parenchyma, small pancreatic duct diameter (?3 mm), and combined resection of SMV and portal vein were independently predictive of pancreatic leakage. The risk score (R) for individual patients can be calculated by combining the 3 prognostic values with the regression test: R=0.5986+(0.5533×pancreatic parenchyma)+(0.5448×pancreatic duct diameter)+(0.8453×combined resection). The overall predictive accuracy of the model, as measured by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, was 0.728. Conclusions Although continued refinements and improvements in the model are needed, the present model may assist pancreatic surgeons in the prediction of pancreatic leakage after PD.

  12. Exocrine Pancreatic Secretions in Growing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Fish Oil, Rapeseed Oil or Coconut Oil1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VINCE M. GABERT; METTE S. JENSEN; RICARDA M. ENGBERG; Ano S; REN K. JENSEN

    Two experiments were performed to study the effect of feeding diets containing oils with different fatty acid composition on exocrine pancreatic secretions in growing pigs using two different methods to collect pancreatic juice. In the first experiment, three barrows (initial weight 37 kg) were fitted with a pancreatic pouch re-entrant cannula. An isolated pouch was prepared where the pancreatic duct

  13. Intracranial ectopic pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Heller, R Scott; Tsugu, Hitoshi; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Madsen, Ole D

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 a young Japanese female was reported to suffer from a congenital brain malformation with a non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor arising from intracranial ectopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas is normally confined to other endodermally-derived organs and not previously reported to be found in the brain. Therefore, we sought to better understand the true pancreatic nature of the tissue and to further understand the mechanism by which ectopic pancreas could appear in the brain. A detailed immunohistochemical analysis for pancreatic hormones, transcription factors, ductal/exocrine markers and stem cell markers on sections from the resected tumor tissue was performed. All five endocrine cell types are observed but pancreatic polypeptide cells are quite rare and ghrelin and glucagon cells are more numerous than in normal human pancreas. Insulin immunoreactive cells stain for c-peptide. The ?-cell specific transcription factor, Nkx6.1, is expressed only in the insulin immunoreactive cells while neither Ptf1a or PDX-1 immunoreactive cells can be observed. Duct-like structures stain strongly for pan-cytokeratin and E-cahderin. The exocrine like tissue stains strongly for pancreatic amylase, lipase and chymotrypsin. Ngn-3 cells were very rare and not in the pancreatic area. Examining for endodermal markers we observed Sox17 had a weak staining in some areas of the pancreatic tissue but was much less widely expressed than FoxA2. The tumor tissue did not stain for the stem cell markers, Oct-4 and Sox2. It is speculated that the ectopic pancreas domain may arise from misexpression of homeodomain transcription factors related to Pdx1 within a domain of Ptf1a expression. PMID:21099298

  14. In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Severini, Aldo [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mantero, Sara [Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica Chimica Applicata, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Addis, Flaminio [Clinica Chirurgica Veterinaria, Universita di Milano, Via Ponzio 7, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Andreola, Salvatore [Divisione di Anatomia Patologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Motta, Antonella [Stazione Sperimentale per la Seta, Via G. Colombo 81, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea [Divisione di Chirurgia dell'Apparato Digerente, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); De Pedri, Enrico [Divisione di Radiologia Gastroenterologica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Doci, Roberto [Divisione di Chirurgia dell'Apparato Digerente, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

  15. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that does not heal or improve, gets worse over time, and leads ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  16. A Minimally Invasive Approach for Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Shintaro [Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ohyaguchi kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Third Department of Surgery (Japan)], E-mail: yamazaki-nmed@umin.ac.jp; Kuramoto, Kenmei [National Hospital Tokyo, Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Department of Radiology (Japan); Itoh, Yutaka [National Hospital Tokyo, Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Department of Surgery (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshika [Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ohyaguchi kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Third Department of Surgery (Japan); Ueda, Toshisada [National Hospital Tokyo, Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Department of Surgery (Japan)

    2003-11-15

    Pancreas fistula is a well-known and severe complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. It is difficult to control with conservative therapy, inducing further complications and severe morbidity. Until now, re-operation has been the only way to resolve pancreatic fistula causing complete dehiscence of the pancreatic-enteric anastomosis (complete pancreatic fistula). Percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage is one of the treatments for pancreatic fistula. This procedure allows both pancreas juice drainage and anastomosis re-construction at the same time. This is effective and minimally invasive but difficult to adapt to a long or complicated fistula. In particular, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct is indispensable. This paper reports the successful resolution of a postoperative pancreatic fistula by a two-way-approach percutaneous transgastric fistula drainage procedure. Using a snare catheter from the fistula and a flexible guidewire from the transgastric puncture needle, it can be performed either with or without main pancreatic duct dilatation.

  17. Influence of feeding regimen and postnatal developmental stages on antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Pierzynowski; Peeyush Sharma; Jerzy Sobczyk; Stanislaw Garwacki; Wieslaw Baref

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Antibacterial activity of pancreatic juice in the pig (n = 8) was investigated during early postnatal development and in cattle (n = 6) receiving a different feeding regimen. For pancreatic juice collection, a catheter was surgically implanted in the pancreatic\\u000a duct. Reintroduction of pancreatic juice was achieved through a T-shaped cannula in the duodenum. Pancreatic juice was collected\\u000a for 30

  18. Reconstruction of a common bile duct injury by venous bypass.

    PubMed

    Biglari, M; Van den Bussche, D; Vanlangenhove, P

    2013-01-01

    Hepaticojejunostomy is the standard technique for the reconstruction of severe iatrogenic lesions of the common bile duct (CBD), although the technique itself is major surgery with a complication rate up to 30%. We report a case of a male patient with a iatrogenic complete transsection of the CBD. Due to multiple previous operations and the present inflammation a standard reconstruction technique was not possible to perform. A neo-bile duct was created using a segment of the Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) synchronously with an external biliary drainage by PTCA and biliary stenting (after 4 weeks). The stent was removed 8 months later. Cholangiography showed normal bile flow without occlusion. Blood tests normalised. We believe that using an autologous vein graft in combination with a removable or biodegradable stent is the right track for the reconstruction of the CBD in the future. PMID:24224445

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Björn

    2013-11-14

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is an important cause of maldigestion and a major complication in chronic pancreatitis. Normal digestion requires adequate stimulation of pancreatic secretion, sufficient production of digestive enzymes by pancreatic acinar cells, a pancreatic duct system without significant outflow obstruction and adequate mixing of the pancreatic juice with ingested food. Failure in any of these steps may result in pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, which leads to steatorrhea, weight loss and malnutrition-related complications, such as osteoporosis. Methods evaluating digestion, such as fecal fat quantification and the (13)C-mixed triglycerides test, are the most accurate tests for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, but the probability of the diagnosis can also be estimated based on symptoms, signs of malnutrition in blood tests, fecal elastase 1 levels and signs of morphologically severe chronic pancreatitis on imaging. Treatment for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency includes support to stop smoking and alcohol consumption, dietary consultation, enzyme replacement therapy and a structured follow-up of nutritional status and the effect of treatment. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is administered in the form of enteric-coated minimicrospheres during meals. The dose should be in proportion to the fat content of the meal, usually 40-50000 lipase units per main meal, and half the dose is required for a snack. In cases that do not respond to initial treatment, the doses can be doubled, and proton inhibitors can be added to the treatment. This review focuses on current concepts of the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. PMID:24259956

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lindkvist, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is an important cause of maldigestion and a major complication in chronic pancreatitis. Normal digestion requires adequate stimulation of pancreatic secretion, sufficient production of digestive enzymes by pancreatic acinar cells, a pancreatic duct system without significant outflow obstruction and adequate mixing of the pancreatic juice with ingested food. Failure in any of these steps may result in pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, which leads to steatorrhea, weight loss and malnutrition-related complications, such as osteoporosis. Methods evaluating digestion, such as fecal fat quantification and the 13C-mixed triglycerides test, are the most accurate tests for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, but the probability of the diagnosis can also be estimated based on symptoms, signs of malnutrition in blood tests, fecal elastase 1 levels and signs of morphologically severe chronic pancreatitis on imaging. Treatment for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency includes support to stop smoking and alcohol consumption, dietary consultation, enzyme replacement therapy and a structured follow-up of nutritional status and the effect of treatment. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is administered in the form of enteric-coated minimicrospheres during meals. The dose should be in proportion to the fat content of the meal, usually 40-50000 lipase units per main meal, and half the dose is required for a snack. In cases that do not respond to initial treatment, the doses can be doubled, and proton inhibitors can be added to the treatment. This review focuses on current concepts of the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. PMID:24259956

  1. Treatment of Complete Obstruction of the Nasolacrimal System by Temporary Placement of Nasolacrimal Polyurethane Stents: Preliminary Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Paúl; I Pinto; J. M Vicente

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of the temporary placement of polyurethane nasolacrimal stents as a treatment for complete post-saccal obstruction of the lacrimal apparatus.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyurethane nasolacrimal stents were inserted under radiological guidance in nine patients with grade IV epiphora due to complete obstruction of the lacrimal system, at the junction of the lacrimal sac and duct (eight patients)

  2. Bile duct obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and small intestine. Related topics include: Acute cholecystitis Choledocholithiasis Gallstones ... duct Enlarged lymph nodes in the porta hepatis Gallstones Inflammation of the bile ducts Narrowing of the ...

  3. Gene Expression Profiles in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia Reflect the Effects of Hedgehog Signaling on Pancreatic Ductal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nijaguna B. Prasad; Andrew V. Biankin; Noriyoshi Fukushima; Anirban Maitra; Surajit Dhara; Abdel G. Elkahloun; Ralph H. Hruban; Michael Goggins; Steven D. Leach

    Invasive pancreatic cancer is thought to develop through a series of noninvasive duct lesions known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). We used cDNA microarrays interrogating 15,000 transcripts to identify 49 genes that were differentially expressed in microdissected early PanIN lesions (PanIN-1B\\/2) compared with microdissected normal duct epithelium. In this analysis, a cluster of extrapancreatic foregut markers, including pepsinogen C, MUC6,

  4. Primary pancreatic paraganglioma: A report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lei; Wang, Jin; Fang, Song-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma is a rare tumor of paraganglia, derived from neural crest cells in sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglions. Primary paraganglioma originating from the pancreas is rare. We report two patients with paraganglioma in the head of the pancreas, in whom computed tomography showed a sharply marginated, hypervascular tumor with cystic areas. Significant intratumoral vessels and early contrast filling of the draining veins from the mass were not found. Although the pancreatic paraganglioma was located at the pancreatic head, the bile ducts often revealed no dilation, and sometimes the main pancreatic duct was mildly dilated. These findings are helpful in differentiating pancreatic paraganglioma from other pancreatic neoplasms. It is often difficult to distinguish between nonfunctional pancreatic paragangliomas and pancreatic endocrine tumors. In many reports,pancreatic paragangliomas show the retroperitoneal extension of a paraganglioma into the pancreas rather than a true pancreatic neoplasm. In surgical treatment, we could select simple excision of the tumor rather than radical surgery. PMID:25624744

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Gene delivery to pancreatic exocrine cells in vivo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    via ducts. In 2 major pancreatic pathologies, pancreatitis and pancreas cancer, the acinar cells: the overall 5- year survival rate among patients with pancreas cancer is less than 6% [3]. Exocrine tumours are the most com- mon form of pancreas cancer from which 95% are pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). PDAC

  6. Groove Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vallath Balakrishnan; Sanjeev Chatni; Lakshmi Radhakrishnan; Venkateswaran A Narayanan; Prem Nair

    Context Groove pancreatitis is a rare type of segmental pancreatitis characterized by fibrous scars of the anatomic space between the dorsocranial part of the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, and the common bile duct. Case report A 40-year-old man, with a past history of chronic alcohol consumption presented with epigastric pain radiating to the back and intermittent vomiting and

  7. Experimental Model of Obstructive, Chronic Pancreatitis in Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Boerma; I. H. Straatsburg; G. J. A. Offerhaus; D. J. Gouma; T. M. van Gulik

    2003-01-01

    Background: We aimed to develop a reproducible, experimental model of obstructive pancreatitis for future analysis of surgical interventions, and characterized this model using functional, histological and biochemical parameters. Animals and Methods: In 10 female pigs the pancreatic duct (PD) was ligated. After 4, 6 or 8 weeks the animals were sacrificed. Before and after ligation, glucose tolerance and intraductal pressure

  8. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, Alexander A; Mayerle, Julia; Christochowitz, Sandra; Weiss, Frank U; Sendler, Matthias; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed. PMID:22133269

  9. Groove pancreatitis: a brief review of a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Karyn; Nodit, Laurentia

    2015-03-01

    Groove pancreatitis is an uncommon, yet well-described, type of focal chronic pancreatitis, affecting "the groove"-the area between the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, and the common bile duct. Men aged 40 to 50 years are most commonly affected, with a history of alcohol abuse frequently disclosed. Clinical manifestations are similar to other forms of chronic pancreatitis, and vomiting secondary to duodenal stenosis is the main feature. It is postulated that pancreatitis in the groove area arises from obstruction of pancreatic juices in the ductal system, causing fibrosis and stasis with resultant inflammation of surrounding structures. The minor papilla is frequently the anatomic area of preferential involvement. Groove pancreatitis poses diagnostic challenges, forming a "pseudotumor" that mimics pancreatic carcinoma. The distinction is important, although often impossible to make because of their similar presentation, with groove pancreatitis usually affecting younger patients. Most patients are successfully treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy when definitive pathologic diagnoses can be made. PMID:25724040

  10. Removal of a large stone growing around and encasing a plastic biliary stent: respect the ductal axis.

    PubMed

    Dokas, S; Kalampakas, A; Delivorias, P; Sion, M; Tsitouridis, I

    2009-04-01

    Plastic biliary stents are commonly used during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP). The main indication for biliary stenting is benign or malignant obstruction. Plastic stents, among others, can be used as an escape route in patients with large common bile duct stones, or in cases of acute cholangitis with or without sphincterotomy to provide drainage until definitive treatment. Stent occlusion is the main disadvantage, limiting their patency to around 3 months, after which replacement is recommended. We present a case of a large, close to 2cm, stone developing around and encasing the proximal end of a plastic biliary stent. The stent/stone complex was successfully removed en bloc. The stent was placed in the common bile duct without sphincterotomy, and remained in situ for 2 years. The presented case highlights the importance of definitive treatment for common bile duct stones, the need to respect the ductal axis especially when dealing with large stones and the significance of biliary sphincterotomy during endoscopic interventions in the bile duct. PMID:18083076

  11. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  12. Pancreatic tuberculosis or autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Ayesha; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  13. Duct Joining System

    DOEpatents

    Proctor, John P. (Fairfax, CA)

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  14. Technical knacks and outcomes of extended extrahepatic bile duct resection in patients with mid bile duct cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Mid bile duct cancers often involve the proximal intrapancreatic bile duct, and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) can result in a tumor-positive distal resection margin (RM). We attempted a customized surgical procedure to obtain a tumor-free distal RM during EHBD resection, so that R0 resection can be achieved without performing pancreaticoduodenectomy through extended EHBD resection. Methods We previously reported the surgical procedures of extended EHBD resection, in which the intrapancreatic duct excavation resembles a ?2 cm-long funnel. This unique procedure was performed in 11 cases of mid bile duct cancer occurring in elderly patients between the ages of 70 and 83 years. Results The tumor involved the intrapancreatic duct in all cases. Deep pancreatic excavation per se required about 30-60 minutes. Cancer-free hepatic duct RM was obtained in 10 patients. Prolonged leakage of pancreatic juice occurred in 2 patients, but all were controlled with supportive care. Adjuvant therapies were primarily applied to RM-positive or lymph node-positive patients. Their 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 90.9% and 60.6%, respectively. Conclusions We suggest that extended EHBD resection can be performed as a beneficial option to achieve R0 resection in cases in which pancreaticoduodenectomy should be avoided due to various causes including old age and expectation of a poor outcome.

  15. [Stent, endovascular prosthesis, net or strut? What would British dentist Charles Stent (1807-1885) have to say on all this?].

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Josip; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The word stent appears in the Index Medicus as of 1952, while in Croatian articles as of 1993. The origin of the word has been attributed to British dentist Charles. T. Stent (1807-1885), maker of the compound for dental impressions (Stent's compound). Viennese surgeon, Johannes F. S. Esser (1877-1946) used the compound in plastic surgery of the face calling it an eponym Stent's mould. During the 1950's, William H. ReMine and John H. Grindlay used Stent's principle for omentum lined plastic tubes in the bile duct of a dog. The development of today's vascular stents began in 1912 when French Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) implanted glass tubes in the arteries of dogs. The first metal spirals were implanted in the arteries of dogs by Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985), while the first stents in human arteries were implanted by French doctors Ulrich Sigwart and Jacques Puel in Toulouse in 1986. Some authors claim that the origin of the word stent is associated with the Scotish word stynt or stent, meaning stretched out river fishing nets. PMID:19348354

  16. Prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lin-Lee; Tsai, Her-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Post-procedure pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) and carries a high morbidity and mortality occurring in at least 3%-5% of all procedures. We reviewed the available literature searching for “ERCP” and “pancreatitis” and “post-ERCP pancreatitis”. in PubMed and Medline. This review looks at the diagnosis, risk factors, causes and methods of preventing post-procedure pancreatitis. These include the evidence for patient selection, endoscopic techniques and pharmacological prophylaxis of ERCP induced pancreatitis. Selecting the right patient for the procedure by a risk benefits assessment is the best way of avoiding unnecessary ERCPs. Risk is particularly high in young women with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD). Many of the trials reviewed have rather few numbers of subjects and hence difficult to appraise. Meta-analyses have helped screen for promising modalities of prophylaxis. At present, evidence is emerging that pancreatic stenting of patients with SOD and rectally administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in a large unselected trial reduce the risk of post-procedure pancreatitis. A recent meta-analysis have demonstrated that rectally administered indomethecin, just before or after ERCP is associated with significantly lower rate of pancreatitis compared with placebo [OR = 0.49 (0.34-0.71); P = 0.0002]. Number needed to treat was 20. It is likely that one of these prophylactic measures will begin to be increasingly practised in high risk groups. PMID:24891970

  17. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

  18. Changes in pancreatic morphology associated with aging

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, Louis; Sandin, Brenda

    1973-01-01

    Retrograde pancreatography has been carried out at necropsy in 120 cases and the results have been analysed in statistical detail. With increasing age, changes in pancreatic anatomy occur which must not be taken to indicate pathology. These changes are: (1) low or ptotic position of the pancreas so that the papilla of Vater is below the level of L3; (2) calcification of the splenic and superior mesenteric arteries which produce calcific densities around the pancreas; (3) increasing width of main pancreatic duct along its whole length at about 8% per decade; in the elderly, widths of 1 cm can occur in the main duct in the head of the pancreas without evidence of obstruction; (4) formation of ductular ectasia which affects mainly the interlobular ductules but also intralobular ductules; (5) some ectatic ducts reach the dimensions of cysts, ie, 1-2 cm in diameter. Other morphological changes which have been demonstrated and which may produce difficulties in radiological interpretation are: (a) narrowed ducts not due to stricture; (b) space-occupying lesions due to superior mesenteric artery, splenic artery, aorta, vertebral osteophytes, sympathetic ganglion, and lymph nodes; (c) metastases in the pancreas—these must be distinguished from primary pancreatic carcinoma. The implications of these findings for endoscopy and isotope pancreatic scanning will be mentioned. ImagesFig 3Fig 1Fig 4aFig 4bFig 5Fig 7 (a and b) PMID:4785285

  19. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  20. Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of pancreatic cancer, and it is now clear that pancreatic cancer is a disease of inherited (germ-line) and somatic gene mutations. The genes mutated in pancreatic cancer include KRAS2, p16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4, and these are accompanied by a substantial compendium of genomic and transcriptomic alterations that facilitate cell cycle deregulation, cell survival, invasion, and metastases. Pancreatic cancers do not arise de novo, and three distinct precursor lesions have been identified. Experimental models of pancreatic cancer have been developed in genetically engineered mice, which recapitulate the multistep progression of the cognate human disease. Although the putative cell of origin for pancreatic cancer remains elusive, minor populations of cells with stem-like properties have been identified that appear responsible for tumor initiation, metastases, and resistance of pancreatic cancer to conventional therapies. PMID:18039136

  1. Placement of 125I seed strands and stents for a type IV Klatskin tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Shen; Zhou, Wei-Zhong; Zhao, Lin-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a new technique that consists of placing two 125I seed strands and two stents in the right and left intrahepatic bile ducts for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. A 75-year-old man presented with jaundice and was diagnosed with Bismuth type IV Klatskin tumor. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation and a soft tissue mass in the hepatic hilum. Because curative surgical resection was not possible, we placed 125I seed strands and stents in the right and left intrahepatic bile ducts. Three months later, abdominal CT showed less intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation than before the procedure. This technique was feasible and could be considered for the treatment of patients with Bismuth type IV tumors. PMID:25574114

  2. Update on ureteral stent technology

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Dirk; Chew, Ben H.

    2009-01-01

    Ureteral stents are commonly used in urology but are frequently associated with patient discomfort, stent encrustation and stent-related infection. New biomaterials, coatings and designs have been designed to attempt to reduce these problems. This article reviews coatings to reduce bacterial adhesion and encrustation. In addition, metal ureteral stents, the triclosan and ketorolac drug eluting ureteral stents, and biodegradable ureteral stents are discussed. In summary there is no perfect ureteral stent that avoids all morbidity but there have been significant advances in the last few years in stent technology. PMID:21789062

  3. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as the sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  4. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How many people get pancreatic cancer? What is pancreatic cancer? To understand pancreatic cancer, it helps to know ... about these tumors, see our document Pancreatic Cancer . Pancreatic cancers Both the exocrine and endocrine cells of the ...

  5. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Last Updated: May 15, 2013 What is pancreatic cancer?Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic cancer, making up more than

  6. Utility of Stent-Grafts in Treatment of Porto-Biliary Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora; Cwikiel, Wojciech [University of Michigan Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: cwikiel@med.umich.edu

    2006-12-15

    A porto-biliary fistula causing hemobilia is a known complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). We present two patients with hemobilia secondary to porto-biliary fistula, treated successfully by percutaneous placement of stent-grafts. In one case, the stent-graft was placed in the bile duct, and in the other case, it was placed in the intrahepatic portal vein branch. Hemobilia stopped and there were no complications except a small area of hepatic infarction, distal to the stent-graft in the portal vein.

  7. Estrogen-Eluting Stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Kee Ryu; Ehtisham Mahmud; Sotirios Tsimikas

    2009-01-01

    Coronary stenting is routinely utilized to treat symptomatic obstructive coronary artery disease. However, the efficacy of\\u000a bare metal coronary stents has been historically limited by restenosis, which is primarily due to excessive neointima formation.\\u000a Drug-eluting stents (DES) are composed of a stainless steel backbone encompassed by a polymer in which a variety of drugs\\u000a that inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation

  8. Abstract In view of the evidence for a role for extracellu-lar ATP in both pancreatic endocrine and exocrine func-

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    Abstract In view of the evidence for a role for extracellu- lar ATP in both pancreatic endocrine with age af- ter birth. In contrast, the greatest expression of P2Y1 in cells from the duct system endocrine and exo- crine functions. The pancreatic duct and acinar cells se- crete most of the fluid

  9. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase regulates pancreatic ductal, but not ??cell, regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cheng?Ho; Miller, Amber; Panopoulos, Andreas; Hao, Ergeng; Margolis, Robert; Terskikh, Alexey; Levine, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is expressed in stem/progenitor cells in some adult tissues, where it has been implicated in diverse biological processes, including the control of cell proliferation. Here, we described studies on its role in adult pancreatic regeneration in response to injury induced by duct ligation and ??cell ablation. MELK expression was studied using transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the MELK promoter, and the role of MELK was studied using transgenic mice deleted in the MELK kinase domain. Pancreatic damage was initiated using duct ligation and chemical beta?cell ablation. By tracing MELK expression using a MELK promoter?GFP transgene, we determined that expression was extremely low in the normal pancreas. However, following duct ligation and ??cell ablation, it became highly expressed in pancreatic ductal cells while remaining weakly expressed in ??cells and ?? cells. In a mutant mouse in which the MELK kinase domain was deleted, there was no effect on pancreatic development. There was no apparent effect on islet regeneration, either. However, following duct ligation there was a dramatic increase in the number of small ducts, but no change in the total number of duct cells or duct cell proliferation. In vitro studies indicated that this was likely due to a defect in cell migration. These results implicate MELK in the control of the response of the pancreas to injury, specifically controlling cell migration in normal and transformed pancreatic duct cells. PMID:25194022

  10. Polyurethane-Covered Nitinol Strecker Stents as Primary Palliative Treatment of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu Shiga, 520-2192 (Japan); Kane, Teruyuki [Department of Internal Medicine, Yujinkai Yamazaki Hospital, Takegahana-cho 80, Hikone Shiga (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu Shiga, 520-2192 (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyurethane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n = 5), pancreatic cancer (n = 6), gallbladder cancer (n = 4), metastatic lymph nodes (n = 2), and tumor of the papilla (n 1).Results: The mean patency period of the stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed in two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.

  11. A case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Rei; Kamata, Noriko; Miyake, Hideo; Fujino, Masahiko; Itoh, Shigeki

    2015-03-01

    We report here a rare case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. In an 80-year-old woman, an approximately 8-mm papillary mass was incidentally detected at the downstream edge of a dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen on CT and MRI. Main pancreatic duct dilatation in the pancreatic body and tail and parenchymal atrophy were observed in the upstream of the mass. Histopathologically, the tumor protruded into the downstream edge of the dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen in the pancreatic body. The tumor cells had highly atypical nuclei and abundant polymorphic structures, and showed positive staining for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which led to the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. A total of 13 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with intraductal tumor growth have been reported to date. The case report by Bergmann et al. has been the smallest in histopathological specimen, and the present case is the smallest in size detected by radiological images. Since early undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas can resemble those of main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in cross-sectional images, we have to consider undifferentiated carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of the solitary and papillary mass with low contrast enhancement in early phase in the main pancreatic duct. PMID:25526684

  12. S100P and XIAP Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Potential Novel Biomarkers as a Diagnostic Adjunct to Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ognjen Kosarac; Hidehiro Takei; Qihui Jim Zhai; Mary R. Schwartz; Dina R. Mody

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The usefulness of 2 novel biomarkers in pancreatic surgical and cytological specimens that could reliably differentiate non-neoplastic pancreatic duct and benign gut epithelium from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) was evaluated. Study Design: A total of 14 pancreatic resection specimens (RSs), 23 endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNAs) of PDA and 8 benign pancreatic EUS-FNAs were selected. Twelve of 14

  13. Unusual exocrine complication of pancreatitis in mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Akihiko; Komaki, Hirofumi; Saito, Takashi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Itagaki, Yusuke; Matsuzaki, Koji; Nakura, Michiaki; Nishino, Ichizo; Goto, Yu-ichi; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    No association between mitochondrial disease and pancreatitis has yet been established, although diabetes mellitus and diseases caused by exocrine insufficiency, such as Pearson syndrome, are the commonest pancreatic complications of mitochondrial diseases. Here, we report 2 cases of mitochondrial disease complicated by pancreatitis as an unusual pancreatic exocrine manifestation. One patient was a 10-year-old girl with mild retardation of psychomotor development who had experienced recurrent pancreatitis since the age of 4years. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) due to m.8344A>G mutation was diagnosed when the patient was 10years old. The other patient was a 28-year-old woman who was diagnosed with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) due to m.3243A>G mutation at 10years of age. She had experienced regular recurrent vomiting since the age of 16 and suffered an episode of critical pancreatitis at 23years. In both cases, no possible etiological, morphological, or genetic factors for pancreatitis were identified, including anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct. A combination therapy of the standard treatment for chronic pancreatitis and supportive therapy for mitochondrial energy production may be beneficial to prevent the recurrence of acute pancreatitis complicating mitochondrial diseases. The pathophysiological mechanism of pancreatitis in mitochondrial disease has not been adequately established; however, our observations suggest that pancreatitis should be included in the list of pancreatic complications of mitochondrial disease. PMID:23182449

  14. Animal models of exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rao, M S

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the evolution, histogenesis, and biological behaviour of exocrine pancreatic carcinoma, some reproducible experimental models have been developed in certain rodent species. To date, more than 16 chemicals, many of them structurally unrelated, have been shown to induce pancreatic tumors. Although some of these chemicals appear species specific in their effect on the pancreas, others have been shown to be capable of inducing pancreatic tumors in more than one species. In hamsters, the administration of diisopropylnitrosamine or its oxidized metabolites leads to the development of ductal adenocarcinomas that histologically resemble human pancreatic carcinomas. The histogenesis of the ductal type of adenocarcinoma in hamsters is complex, and appears to involve both the duct cells and dedifferentiated acinar cells. All pancreatic tumors in rats develop from acinar cells showing variable degrees of differentiation, regardless of the type of carcinogen used. The type of pancreatic lesions that develop in mice are also of acinar cell origin. In guinea pigs the tumors are adenocarcinomas of the ductal type and are shown to be derived from dedifferentiated acinar cells that have undergone duct-like transformation. Irrespective of the type of tumor that develops in these experimental animals, all of these models can be successfully used to evaluate the various modifying (risk) factors and biological behaviour of these neoplasms. PMID:3127071

  15. Similar morphological and intracellular biochemical changes in alcoholic acute pancreatitis and ischemic acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Siech, M; Weber, H; Letko, G; Dummler, W; Schoenberg, M H; Beger, H G

    1997-01-01

    Pancreatic hyperstimulation with simultaneous duct obstruction does not cause the typical features of acute pancreatitis, therefore the role of an additional challenge, such as either ethanol intoxication or short-term ischemia, was studied. Alcoholic pancreatitis was induced in 28 rats by acute ethanol intoxication (0.25 LD50) and an obstruction/hyperstimulation mechanism (clip of the biliopancreatic duct for 20 min and intravenous stimulation with 5 U of cholecystokinin and secretin each). Ischemic pancreatitis was performed by obstruction/hyperstimulation and subsequent pancreatic ischemia by clamping the supplying arteries for 40 min. The macro- and microscopic alterations were evaluated and graded by a scoring system. Additionally, the pancreas was removed in 50% of the animals and the pancreatic acini were prepared. From those acini the intracellular enzymes trypsinogen, kallikreinogen, amylase, lipase, glucuronidase, and acidic phosphatases were determined. While obstruction/hyperstimulation, 40 min of ischemia, or ethanol alone did not induce acute pancreatitis, a combination of obstruction/hyperstimulation with either ethanol or ischemia resulted in acute pancreatitis in 68 and 60% of treated rats, respectively. Similarly, both models were characterized by extrapancreatic fat necrosis and acinar necrosis at the periphery of the lobules. Almost all intracellular enzymes were elevated in both pancreatitis models compared to sham-operated controls. Both alcohol and ischemia were insults that sensitize the pancreas to develop acute pancreatitis after obstruction/hyperstimulation. Since the observed morphologic and enzymatic alterations in both models are very similar, alcohol and ischemia might have some common pathways by which they make the pancreas vulnerable to enzymatic attacks. PMID:8981505

  16. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  17. A case of autoimmune pancreatitis with metachronous appearance of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Sawai; Hiroyuki Matsubayashi; Masaki Tanaka; Yuichiro Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Ono

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is often associated with systemic disorders, but a case accompanied with idiopathic thrombocytopenic\\u000a purpura (ITP) is very rare. A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution with complaints of abdominal pain and jaundice.\\u000a Multiple images showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas, narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, stenosis of the lower common\\u000a bile duct and thickness of

  18. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-14

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  19. Lightweight Valve Closes Duct Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Walter L.; Burgy, N. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Expanding balloon serves as lightweight emergency valve to close wide duct. Uninflated balloon stored in housing of duct. Pad resting on burst diaphragm protects balloon from hot gases in duct. Once control system triggers valve, balloon inflates rapidly to block duct. Weighs much less than does conventional butterfly, hot-gas, or poppet valve capable of closing duct of equal diameter.

  20. Differentiating Autoimmune Pancreatitis from Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Dual-phase Computed Tomography: An Inter-observer Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Atif; Singh, Vikesh K.; Akshintala, Venkata S.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Tsai, Salina D.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study features on dual phase CT that help differentiate autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) from pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). Methods The CTs of 32 patients with AIP were matched with equal number of PA and independently evaluated by 3 radiologists who assigned a diagnosis of AIP, PA, or unsure. Interobserver agreement between radiologists was evaluated using kappa statistics. Results The mean accuracy for diagnosing AIP and PA was 68% and 83%, respectively. There was moderate agreement between radiologists (?: 0.58, p<0.0001). The most common findings for AIP: CBD stricture (63%), bile duct wall hyperenhancement (47%), and diffuse parenchymal enlargement (41%). The most common findings for PA: Focal mass (78%, ?: 0.58, p<0.0001) and pancreatic ductal dilatation (69%, ?: 0.7, p<0.0001). Findings helpful for diagnosing AIP were diffuse enlargement, parenchymal atrophy as well as absence of pancreatic duct dilatation and focal mass. Findings helpful for diagnosing PA were focal mass and pancreatic ductal dilatation. Misdiagnosis of PA in patients with AIP was due to focal mass, pancreatic duct dilatation and pancreatic atrophy and AIP in patients with PA was due to absence of atrophy, presence of diffuse enlargement and peripancreatic halo. Conclusion Diffuse enlargement, hypoenhancement and characteristic peripancreatic halo are strong indicators for a diagnosis of AIP. Radiologists demonstrated moderate agreement in distinguishing AIP from PA on the basis of CT imaging. PMID:24424563

  1. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Audrey; Herman, Joseph; Schulick, Rich; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patients’ management have also taken place. Evidence is beginning to show that screening first-degree relatives of individuals with several family members affected by pancreatic cancer can identify non-invasive precursors of this malignant disease. The incidence of and number of deaths caused by pancreatic tumours have been gradually rising, even as incidence and mortality of other common cancers have been declining. Despite developments in detection and management of pancreatic cancer, only about 4% of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localised to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Unfortunately, 80–85% of patients present with advanced unresectable disease. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer responds poorly to most chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, we need to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to development and progression of pancreatic tumours. In this Seminar we will discuss the most common and deadly form of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:15051286

  2. Infected pancreatic fluid collections: percutaneous catheter drainage.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C; Lewis, G P; Traverso, L W; Ryan, J A

    1988-05-01

    Thirty-eight infected pancreatic fluid collections in 23 patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis were drained percutaneously following initial diagnosis with computed tomography and fine-needle aspiration. Fifteen (65.2%) patients were cured completely without surgery. Eight (34.8%) patients required some type of surgery despite successful treatment of the fluid collection, and in two (6.5%) the collection recurred after catheter removal. Complications occurred in three (13%) patients, but only one complication (4%), empyema, was a direct result of catheter drainage. Catheter drainage time averaged 29 days for 16 patients with isolated collections and 96 days and 104 days for patients with collections with pancreatic duct fistulas (nine patients) or gastrointestinal fistulas (14 patients), respectively. This study confirms that infected pancreatic fluid collections can be safely and effectively treated with percutaneous catheter techniques in most patients. PMID:3357952

  3. Stent-graft treatment for extrahepatic portal vein hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Igami, Tsuyoshi; Komada, Tomohiro; Mori, Yoshine; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Naganawa, Shinji; Nagino, Masato

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of intraperitoneal hemorrhage from the extrahepatic portal vein after pancreaticoduodenectomy for distal bile duct carcinoma. A stent-graft was deployed from the superior mesenteric vein to the main portal vein using a transhepatic approach. After the procedure, the patient remained free of intraperitoneal hemorrhage and was discharged 2 months later. PMID:26137314

  4. Adenomas of the common bile duct in familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Pan, Jun-Yong; Bai, Yan-Nan; Lai, Zhi-De; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner’s syndrome is often accompanied by adenomas of the stomach and duodenum. We experienced a case of adenomas of the common bile duct in a 40-year-old woman with FAP presenting with acute cholangitis. Only 8 cases of adenomas or adenocarcinoma of the common bile duct have been reported in the literature in patients with FAP or Gardner’s syndrome. Those patients presented with acute cholangitis or pancreatitis. Local excision or Whipple procedure may be the reasonable surgical option. PMID:25780319

  5. Immunohistochemistry for cell polarity protein lethal giant larvae 2 differentiates pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Lisovsky, Mikhail; Dresser, Karen; Woda, Bruce; Mino-Kenudson, Mari

    2010-06-01

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor to ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas that shows gastric differentiation. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 has the highest potential to progress to adenocarcinoma, and its distinction from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias is important for clinical management. However, morphologic grading of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia suffers from significant interobserver variability. A product of cell polarity gene lethal giant larvae 2 is a marker of gastric foveolar epithelium expressed in a basolateral fashion, which is lost or mislocalized in gastric epithelial dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated a role of lethal giant larvae 2 expression in differentiating low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, that is, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1 and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-2, from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemical patterns of lethal giant larvae 2 expression were examined in normal pancreatic ducts, 48 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of all histologic grades, and 91 adenocarcinomas on a tissue microarray or conventional sections. The expression pattern was recorded as basolateral, cytoplasmic, negative, or combinations of any of them. Whereas normal duct epithelia did not exhibit lethal giant larvae immunoreactivity, all but one lesion of low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed basolateral lethal giant larvae staining. Conversely, all lesions of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma showed loss of lethal giant larvae 2 staining and/or its cytoplasmic localization. Interestingly, a basolateral expression was focally seen in 4 adenocarcinomas with a foamy gland pattern and was always admixed with negatively stained areas. In conclusion, our results show that low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias express lethal giant larvae 2 in a basolateral fashion recapitulating expression in normal gastric epithelium. Loss or abnormal lethal giant larvae 2 expression is seen in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma and might be useful in separating them from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias. PMID:20233622

  6. Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar joints were inspected monthly, while the sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints were inspected weekly. The baking test specimens were visually inspected weekly, and the durability was judged by the observed deterioration in terms of brittleness, cracking, flaking and blistering (the terminology used in the UL 181B-FX test procedure).

  7. Pancreatitis Associated with Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Balthazar

    2005-01-01

    The combined occurrence of pancreatic carcinoma with acute or chronic pancreatitis is seldom seen in medical practice, but when present it is a challenging dilemma, plagued by confusing overlapping clinical findings and pitfalls in diagnostic imaging tests. This article reviews the presumptive pathophysiological aspects of this relationship, the perplexing clinical presentations and the advantages and limitations of the noninvasive imaging

  8. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis: New technical developments

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Barbara; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and necrosis occurring in the clinical context of acute and chronic pancreatitis has shifted towards minimally invasive endoscopic interventions. Surgical procedures can be avoided in many cases by using endoscopically placed, Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided techniques and drainages. Endoscopic ultrasound enables the placement of transmural plastic and metal stents or nasocystic tubes for the drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections. The development of self-expanding metal stents and exchange free delivering systems have simplified the drainage of pancreatic fluid collections. This review will discuss available therapeutic techniques and new developments. PMID:25473173

  9. Acute Pancreatitis after Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberger, Richard C., E-mail: rihershberger@lumc.edu; Bornak, Arash; Aulivola, Bernadette; Mannava, Krishna [Loyola University Chicago Medical Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: We describe a case of severe acute pancreatitis after percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) and review the literature for the occurrence of this complication. Materials and Methods: A 53-year-old man with a history of bilateral external iliac artery stent placement sought care for acute onset of lifestyle-limiting left claudication. Angiography confirmed left external iliac stent occlusion, and PMT with the AngioJet Xpeedior catheter (Possis Medical, Minneapolis MN) was performed. Results: After PMT of the occluded external iliac artery, a residual in-stent stenosis required the placement of a second iliac stent. The procedure was complicated by severe acute pancreatitis. Other causes of pancreatitis were eliminated during the patient's hospital stay. A literature review revealed nine cases of acute pancreatitis after PMT. Conclusion: Although rare, pancreatitis can be a devastating complication of PMT. The development of pancreatitis seems to be related to the products of extensive hemolysis triggering an inflammatory process. To prevent this complication, we recommend that close attention be paid to the duration and extent of PMT, thereby avoiding extensive hemolysis and subsequent complications.

  10. Granulomatous pancreatitis - granulomas in chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Stürmer; Volker Becker

    1987-01-01

    Granulomatous pancreatitis can be described only in infectious granulomas and pancreatic involvement by systemic granulomatosis. The presence of classical chronic tryptic pancreatitis in addition to individual sarcoidosis granulomas in one of our cases of sarcoidosis, shows that pancreatitis in a patient with generalized granulomatosis should not necessarily be considered granulomatous pancreatitis. A variety of foreign-body granulomas found in the pancreas

  11. Expression of pancreatic trypsinogen\\/trypsin and cathepsin B in human cholangiocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Terada; Tetsuo Ohta; Hiroshi Minato; Yasuni Nakanuma

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated in situ expression of pancreatic trypsinogen (PT) and cathepsin B (CB) in 10 normal livers, 37 cholangiocarcinomas (CCs), and 36 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). In normal livers, PT was expressed in intrahepatic large bile ducts, septal bile ducts, and peribiliary glands, and CB was present in hepatocytes and all epithelial cells of the intrahepatic biliary system. In CCs, PT

  12. Pancreatic and biliary calculi: percutaneous treatment with tunable dye laser lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R K; Freeny, P C; Kozarek, R A

    1990-03-01

    Percutaneous tunable dye laser lithotripsy was used in two patients to successfully fragment a 2-cm left hepatic duct calculus and a 5-mm main pancreatic duct calculus. Tunable dye laser lithotripsy may prove to be a more effective alternative to mechanical lithotripsy. PMID:1968280

  13. Groove Pancreatitis: Four Cases from a Single Center and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Cynthia D.; White, Rebekah R.; Obando, Jorge; Burbridge, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis that affects the groove anatomical area between the head of the pancreas, duodenum, and common bile duct. We provide a summary of the clinical findings of 4 groove pancreatitis cases diagnosed at a tertiary academic medical center over a 5-year period. A detailed review of the current literature surrounding this clinical entity is also provided. Although rare, groove pancreatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with pancreatic head mass lesions, as appropriate diagnosis can help avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.

  14. Minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts

    PubMed Central

    Zerem, Enver; Hauser, Goran; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Kunosi?, Suad; Jovanovi?, Predrag; Crnki?, Dino

    2015-01-01

    A pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC) is typically a complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis, trauma or pancreatic duct obstruction. The diagnosis of PPC can be made if an acute fluid collection persists for 4 to 6 wk and is enveloped by a distinct wall. Most PPCs regress spontaneously and require no treatment, whereas some may persist and progress until complications occur. The decision whether to treat a patient who has a PPC, as well as when and with what treatment modalities, is a difficult one. PPCs can be treated with a variety of methods: percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), endoscopic transpapillary or transmural drainage, laparoscopic surgery, or open pseudocystoenterostomy. The recent trend in the management of symptomatic PPC has moved toward less invasive approaches such as endoscopic- and image-guided PCD. The endoscopic approach is suitable because most PPCs lie adjacent to the stomach. The major advantage of the endoscopic approach is that it creates a permanent pseudocysto-gastric track with no spillage of pancreatic enzymes. However, given the drainage problems, the monitoring, catheter manipulation and the analysis of cystic content are very difficult or impossible to perform endoscopically, unlike in the PCD approach. Several conditions must be met to achieve the complete obliteration of the cyst cavity. Pancreatic duct anatomy is an important factor in the prognosis of the treatment outcome, and the recovery of disrupted pancreatic ducts is the main prognostic factor for successful treatment of PPC, regardless of the treatment method used. In this article, we review and evaluate the minimally invasive approaches in the management of PPCs. PMID:26078561

  15. Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm--where is the challenge?

    PubMed

    Fritz, Stefan; Hackert, Thilo; Büchler, Markus W

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are increasingly recognized due to the widespread use of modern abdominal imaging technologies. The majority of these lesions display pseudocysts and mucinous cystic neoplasms. In contrast to pseudocysts, it is well established that mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas exhibit a significant potential for malignant transformation over time. Among mucinous cystic tumors, the most frequently observed entity is pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). IPMNs are characterized by cystic dilation of pancreatic ducts and the production of mucus and by an adenoma-carcinoma sequence eventually culminating in invasive carcinoma in some patients. Due to the high risk of harboring malignancy, there is international consensus that IPMNs with involvement of the main pancreatic duct should be recommended for surgical resection. To date, the indication for surgery of branch-duct IPMNs is controversially discussed because of the overall lower risk of malignant transformation compared to main-duct IPMNs. Particularly for small and asymptomatic side-branch IPMNs, the indication for surgical resection remains challenging. In addition to the international consensus guidelines, a number of potential preoperative features predicting malignant transformation have been discussed recently. Moreover, novel surgical pancreatic parenchyma-sparing techniques such as enucleations or segmental pancreatic resections have been reported in order to treat IPMNs. The present article aims to demonstrate the current scientific knowledge in this field and to highlight the current controversy. PMID:25531503

  16. Drug-eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaodong; Wu, Tim; Robich, Michael P; Wang, Xingwei; Wu, Hao; Buchholz, Bryan; McCarthy, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently a leading cause of death worldwide. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been dominant for the treatment of CAD in the interventional cardiology world owing to their efficacy in significantly reducing restenosis. However, late stage stent thrombosis has become a major concern. Stent platform, drug delivery vehicle and type of drug are three parts of DES and each part affects the performance of the DES. Aiming to provide a clue for the design of future DES, this review focuses on the development of the three major components of DES and their roles in restenosis and thrombosis PMID:20827317

  17. Classification and Management of Pancreatic Pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Gang; Wan, Mei Hua; Xie, Kun-Lin; Li, Wei; Hu, Wei-Ming; Liu, Xu-Bao; Tang, Wen-Fu; Wu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to elucidate the classification of and optimal treatment for pancreatic pseudocysts.Various approaches, including endoscopic drainage, percutaneous drainage, and open surgery, have been employed for the management of pancreatic pseudocysts. However, no scientific classification of pancreatic pseudocysts has been devised, which could assist in the selection of optimal therapy.We evaluated the treatment modalities used in 893 patients diagnosed with pancreatic pseudocysts according to the revision of the Atlanta classification in our department between 2001 and 2010. All the pancreatic pseudocysts have course of disease >4 weeks and have mature cysts wall detected by computed tomography or transabdominal ultrasonography. Endoscopic drainage, percutaneous drainage, or open surgery was selected on the basis of the pseudocyst characteristics. Clinical data and patient outcomes were reviewed.Among the 893 patients, 13 (1.5%) had percutaneous drainage. Eighty-three (9%) had type I pancreatic pseudocysts and were treated with observation. Ten patients (1%) had type II pseudocysts and underwent the Whipple procedure or resection of the pancreatic body and tail. Forty-six patients (5.2%) had type III pseudocysts: 44 (4.9%) underwent surgical internal drainage and 2 (0.2%) underwent endoscopic drainage. Five hundred six patients (56.7%) had type IV pseudocysts: 297 (33.3%) underwent surgical internal drainage and 209 (23.4%) underwent endoscopic drainage. Finally, 235 patients (26.3%) had type V pseudocysts: 36 (4%) underwent distal pancreatectomy or splenectomy and 199 (22.3%) underwent endoscopic drainage.A new classification system was devised, based on the size, anatomical location, and clinical manifestations of the pancreatic pseudocyst along with the relationship between the pseudocyst and the pancreatic duct. Different therapeutic strategies could be considered based on this classification. When clinically feasible, endoscopic drainage should be considered the optimal management strategy for pancreatic pseudocysts. PMID:26091462

  18. Process for making electroformed stents

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Richard A. (Stilwell, KS)

    2000-02-01

    This invention is directed to an expandable stent useful for implantation into an artery or the like. The stents are made using electroforming techniques in which an electrically-conductive mandrel is coated with a suitable resist material, after which the resist is exposed to an appropriate light pattern and frequency so as to form a stent pattern in the resist. The mandrel is then electroplated with a suitable stent material. The mandrel is etched away once a sufficient layer of stent material is deposited, leaving a completed stent.

  19. Relapsing autoimmune pancreatitis in a 14-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Takase, Masato; Imai, Takehide; Nozaki, Fumiko

    2010-02-01

    We present a case of acute pancreatitis in a 14-year-old girl which fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and responded to corticosteroid therapy. Imaging studies revealed that the main pancreatic duct was narrow in the head of the pancreas but had been dilated in the body at an earlier stage. The pancreatitis recurred twice when the prednisolone dose was reduced to 10 mg or less but responded each time to an increased dose and has been kept under control with low-dose prednisolone therapy for 3 years since onset. Repeated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography during steroid therapy revealed an improvement of the narrowing of the main pancreatic duct in the head and dilation of the duct in the body. AIP in younger patients has distinct clinical features, such as presentation with epigastralgia, back pain without jaundice, and elevated serum amylase levels. The serum level of IgG4 is rarely increased in young patients, indicating a different disease mechanism than for cases in elderly patients. Given the excellent response of this condition to steroid therapy, AIP should be considered even in young children and adolescents when the diagnosis of idiopathic pancreatitis is suggested. PMID:20154455

  20. Stent-grafts for the treatment of TIPS dysfunction: Fluency stent vs Wallgraft stent

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xue-Feng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Liu, Ling-Jun; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Biao; Tang, Cheng-Wei; Li, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of an expanded polytetrafluoro-ethylene-covered Fluency stent compared with that of a polyethylene terephthalate-covered Wallgraft stent for the management of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent TIPS revision with stent-grafts between May 2007 and June 2011 was conducted. The patients were divided into two groups according to the stent-grafts implanted: the Fluency stent (Bard Incorporated, Karlsruhe, Germany) and the Wallgraft stent (Boston Scientific, Galway, Ireland). The primary patency rates were calculated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A total of 73 patients were evaluated in this study: 33 with Fluency stents and 40 with Wallgraft stents. The primary patency rates at 12 and 24 mo were 91% and 85%, respectively, in the Fluency stent group and 78% and 63%, respectively, in the Wallgraft stent group. The primary shunt patency rates after TIPS revision were significantly better with the Fluency stent than with the Wallgraft stent (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: TIPS revision with the Fluency stent has higher medium-term patency rates than that with the Wallgraft stent. PMID:23946607

  1. Endoscopic Treatment of Pancreatic Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Sung Ill; Rhee, Kwangwon

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that destroys pancreatic parenchyma and alters ductal stricture, leading to ductal destruction and abdominal pain. Pancreatic duct stones (PDSs) are a common complication of chronic pancreatitis that requires treatment to relieve abdominal pain and improve pancreas function. Endoscopic therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and surgery are treatment modalities of PDSs, although lingering controversies have hindered a consensus recommendation. Many comparative studies have reported that surgery is the superior treatment because of reduced duration and frequency of hospitalization, cost, pain relief, and reintervention, while endoscopic therapy is effective and less invasive but cannot be used in all patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice when endoscopic therapy has failed, malignancy is suspected, or duodenal stricture is present. However, in patients with the appropriate indications or at high-risk for surgery, endoscopic therapy in combination with ESWL can be considered a first-line treatment. We expect that the development of advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment will expand the role of endoscopic treatment in PDS removal. PMID:24944986

  2. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic calculi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Sung Ill; Rhee, Kwangwon; Lee, Dong Ki

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that destroys pancreatic parenchyma and alters ductal stricture, leading to ductal destruction and abdominal pain. Pancreatic duct stones (PDSs) are a common complication of chronic pancreatitis that requires treatment to relieve abdominal pain and improve pancreas function. Endoscopic therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and surgery are treatment modalities of PDSs, although lingering controversies have hindered a consensus recommendation. Many comparative studies have reported that surgery is the superior treatment because of reduced duration and frequency of hospitalization, cost, pain relief, and reintervention, while endoscopic therapy is effective and less invasive but cannot be used in all patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice when endoscopic therapy has failed, malignancy is suspected, or duodenal stricture is present. However, in patients with the appropriate indications or at high-risk for surgery, endoscopic therapy in combination with ESWL can be considered a first-line treatment. We expect that the development of advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment will expand the role of endoscopic treatment in PDS removal. PMID:24944986

  3. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max H. Sherman; Iain S. Walker; Darryl J. Dickerhoff

    2000-01-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field

  4. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  5. Endoscopic prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Do Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is not an uncommon adverse event but may be an avoidable complication. Although pancreatitis of severe grade is reported in 0.1%-0.5% of ERCP patients, a serious clinical course may be lethal. For prevention of severe PEP, patient risk stratification, appropriate selection of patients using noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and avoidance of unnecessary invasive procedures, are important measures to be taken before any procedure. Pharmacological prevention is also commonly attempted but is usually ineffective. No ideal agent has not yet been found and the available data conflict. Currently, rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to prevent PEP in high-risk patients, but additional studies using larger numbers of subjects are necessary to confirm any prophylactic effect. In this review, we focus on endoscopic procedures seeking to prevent or decrease the severity of PEP. Among various cannulation methods, wire-guided cannulation, precut fistulotomy, and transpancreatic septostomy are reviewed. Prophylactic pancreatic stent placement, which is the best-known prophylactic method, is reviewed with reference to the ideal stent type, adequate duration of stent placement, and stent-related complications. Finally, we comment on other treatment alternatives, and make the point that further advances in EUS-guided techniques may afford useful PEP prophylaxis. PMID:25469026

  6. Stent Thrombosis After Successful Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen Jeremias; Brett Sylvia; Jonathan Bridges; Ajay J. Kirtane; Brian Bigelow; Duane S. Pinto; Kalon K. L. Ho; David J. Cohen; Lawrence A. Garcia; Donald E. Cutlip

    2011-01-01

    Background—Stent thrombosis (ST) is a rare but devastating complication of coronary stent implantation, occurring in 0.5% to 1.9% of patients with bare metal stents. The incidence of ST with drug-eluting stents is less well studied, particularly among patients outside of clinical trials. Methods and Results—The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and potential risk factors for ST

  7. Treatment of pain with pancreatic extracts in chronic pancreatitis: results of a prospective placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Mössner, J; Secknus, R; Meyer, J; Niederau, C; Adler, G

    1992-01-01

    According to the theory of negative feedback regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion by proteases, treatment with pancreatic extracts has been proposed to lower pain in chronic pancreatitis by decreasing pancreatic duct pressure. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled double blind multicenter study to investigate the effect of porcine pancreatic extracts on pain in chronic pancreatitis. 47 patients with pain (41 males, 6 females) due to chronic pancreatitis documented by sonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and CT were included. Exclusion criteria were steatorrhea above 30 g/day, gastric or pancreatic resections in the history, and serum bilirubin above 1.5 mg/dl. Patients received pancreatic extracts (acid-protected microtablets; Panzytrat -20,000; 5 x 2 capsules/day; proteases/capsule 1,000 Pharmacopoea europaea units) for 14 days followed by treatment with placebo for another 14 days or vice versa. Pain (graded from 0 to 3) and concomitant use of analgesics (N-butylscopolaminiumbromide and tramadol) were recorded by diary. Physical examination and blood chemistry were done at day -1, 15 and 29. Quantitative stool fat was determined at days -2/-1, 13/14 and 27/28. 43 patients completed the studies. Pain improved in most patients irrespective of whether they started with placebo or verum. There was no significant difference between both treatment arms. We conclude that pancreatic extracts are not very efficient in lowering pain. PMID:1289173

  8. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J. D.; Morton, D. G.; Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis is very important as the management and prognosis of these two diseases is different. In most patients with pancreatic disease, the diagnosis can be established but there is a subgroup of patients in whom it is difficult to differentiate between these conditions because the clinical presentation is often similar and currently available diagnostic tests may be unable to distinguish between an inflammatory or neoplastic pancreatic mass. This paper reviews the aetiology, pathology and clinical features of these diseases and discusses the limitations of conventional diagnostic methods and how newer techniques may be of value in the differential diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9373592

  9. Clinical application of percutaneous drainage in treating hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Wen, Feng; Liang, Hongyuan; Shan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study This study aimed to evaluate the effect of percutaneous interventional treatment on obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus. Material and methods A total of 16 patients with bile duct tumor thrombus were included in the current retrospective study. All the patients were subjected to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Treatment included permanent external drainage, internal drainage and routine tube adjustment, and covered stents according to the patients’ clinical manifestations. Results The success rate of PTBD was 100%. Among all the patients, two were treated with permanent external drainage, seven were treated with internal drainage and routine tube adjustment, and seven were treated with detaining covered stents. All the drainage tubes were successfully pulled out from the patients receiving covered stents. Among all the 16 patients, the clinical symptoms and life quality of 12 patients (12/16, 75%) were improved. The average survival time of all the patients was 203.7 days (ranging from 30 days to 391 days) with the median survival time of 199.5 days. Conclusions Percutaneous interventional therapy for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is a good choice. It improves patients’ life quality. Permanent external drainage, internal drainage, and covered stents are alternative methods which should be chosen according to the patient's condition. PMID:23788987

  10. Future developments in biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

  11. Esophageal stenting in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; White, Russell E

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on nutritional support during chemoradiation, esophageal stents before surgery, and stenting the cervical esophagus. PMID:25266018

  12. Recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with cystic fibrosis with normal pancreatic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shwachman, H; Lebenthal, E; Khaw, K T

    1975-01-01

    Ten adolescent and young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have had well-documented recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis. The diagnosis of CF in each patient was delayed because they did not have pancreatic insufficiency. The diagnosis of CF was documented by the typical pulmonary involvement and elevated sweat sodium and chloride levels in all cases and a positive family history in six of the ten patients. Two patients were diagnosed as having acute pancreatitis before the diagnosis of CF was made, thus indicating that acute pancreatitis may be the presenting complaint in the young adult with CF. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was based on the presence of severe abdominal pain, usually with vomiting, tenderness in the mid-epigastrium, elevated serum and urinary amylase and serum lipase. Attacks were precipitated by fatty meals, alcohol ingestion; postcholecystectomy and tetracycline administration. In some patients no precipitating event could be elicited. Intravenous secretin-pancreozymin stimulation tests revealed a diminished bicarbonate secretion with little effect on the secretion of the zymogen enzymes. A mild attack of pancreatitis occurred after secretin-pancreozymin stimulation. The endocrine pancreatic function tested in four patients was normal as revealed by the glucose tolerance tests and determinations of serum insulin, growth hormone and free fatty acid. Transduodenal pancreatograms were performed in three patients; one showed a normal pancreatic duct, one showed duct obstruction and in the third patient a beady type of narrowing was found. The selenomethionine Se 75 uptake of the pancreas was noted only in the head of the pancreas. This suggests that loss of function occurs initially to a greater extent in the tail and body of the pancreas. Three patients died and showed characteristic lesions of CF. PMID:1110867

  13. Bile Acids Induce Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury and Pancreatitis by Activating Calcineurin*

    PubMed Central

    Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Wang, Dong; Orabi, Abrahim I.; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Luo, Yuhuan; Javed, Tanveer A.; Eisses, John F.; Mahmood, Syeda M.; Jin, Shunqian; Singh, Vijay P.; Ananthanaravanan, Meena; Perides, George; Williams, John A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute pancreatitis in both children and adults. A proposed mechanism is the reflux of bile into the pancreatic duct. Bile acid exposure causes pancreatic acinar cell injury through a sustained rise in cytosolic Ca2+. Thus, it would be clinically relevant to know the targets of this aberrant Ca2+ signal. We hypothesized that the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin is such a Ca2+ target. To examine calcineurin activation, we infected primary acinar cells from mice with an adenovirus expressing the promoter for a downstream calcineurin effector, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). The bile acid taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate (TLCS) was primarily used to examine bile acid responses. TLCS caused calcineurin activation only at concentrations that cause acinar cell injury. The activation of calcineurin by TLCS was abolished by chelating intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM) or the three specific calcineurin inhibitors FK506, cyclosporine A, or calcineurin inhibitory peptide prevented bile acid-induced acinar cell injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake. The calcineurin inhibitors reduced the intra-acinar activation of chymotrypsinogen within 30 min of TLCS administration, and they also prevented NF-?B activation. In vivo, mice that received FK506 or were deficient in the calcineurin isoform A? (CnA?) subunit had reduced pancreatitis severity after infusion of TLCS or taurocholic acid into the pancreatic duct. In summary, we demonstrate that acinar cell calcineurin is activated in response to Ca2+ generated by bile acid exposure, bile acid-induced pancreatic injury is dependent on calcineurin activation, and calcineurin inhibitors may provide an adjunctive therapy for biliary pancreatitis. PMID:23148215

  14. Palliation of Malignant Biliary and Duodenal Obstruction with Combined Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com; Akhan, Okan; Ozkan, Fuat; Ciftci, Turkmen; Ozkan, Orhan S.; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa N. [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction with combined metallic stenting under fluoroscopy guidance. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 9 patients (6 men and 3 women) who underwent biliary and duodenal stenting was performed. The mean age of patients was 61 years (range: 42-80 years). The causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma in 7 patients, cholangiocellular carcinoma in one, and duodenal carcinoma in the other. Biliary and duodenal stents were placed simultaneously in 4 patients. In other 5 patients dudodenal stents were placed after biliary stenting when the duodenal obstruction symptoms have developed. In two patients duodenal stents were advanced via transgastric approach. Results. Technical success rate was 100 %. After percutaneous biliary drainage and stenting bilirubin levels decreased to normal levels in 6 patients and in remaining 3 patients mean reduction of 71% in bilirubin levels was achieved. Tumoral ingrowth occurred in one patient and percutaneous biliary restenting was performed 90 days after the initial procedure. Of the 9 patients, 6 patients were able to tolerate solid diet, whereas 2 patients could tolerate liquid diet and one patient did not show any improvement. Mean survival periods were 111 and 73 days after biliary and duodenal stenting, respectively. Conclusion. Combined biliary and duodenal stent placement which can be performed under fluoroscopic guidance without assistance of endoscopy is feasible and an effective method of palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions. If transoral and endoscopic approaches fail, percutaneous gastrostomy route allows duodenal stenting.

  15. The Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gheonea, D.I.; Vilmann, P.; S?ftoiu, A.; Ciurea, T.; Pîrvu, D.; Ionescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with a physiopathology that is yet to be fully understood, with a multifactorial etiology, of which alcohol abuse causes the majority of cases. PATIENTS AND METHOD We included 80 patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis, admitted in the Gastroenterology Clinic of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova. In each patient, demographic parameters, family and personal history were recorded. All patients were initially evaluated by transabdominal ultrasound. In selected cases other imagistic methods were used: computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. RESULTS The mean age in the studied group ranged between 26 and 76 years with a mean age of 52.9 years. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1. The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (93.75%), followed by fatigue (70%), anorexia (50%); fewer patients presented with emesis, loss of weight, diarrhea, meteorism and flatulence. The most frequent etiologic factor of chronic pancreatitis in the studied group was alcohol abuse. Using imaging methods the following complications of chronic pancreatitis were diagnosed in the studied group: complicated or uncomplicated pseudocysts (31.57%), pancreatic cancer (18.75%), obstructive jaundice (10%), segmental portal hypertension (2.5%), and pseudoaneurysm (1.25%).CONCLUSSIONS Transabdominal ultrasound is quite accurate in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis and its morbidities and its non-invasiveness makes it the method of choice in the initial assessment of the disease. EUS has the advantage of visualizing not just the modifications of the pancreatic ducts, but also the parenchyma. Moreover, it can be used as EUS-FNA in order to increase the sensitivity of the differential diagnosis between pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:24778818

  16. The differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gheonea, D I; Vilmann, P; S?ftoiu, A; Ciurea, T; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, M

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with a physiopathology that is yet to be fully understood, with a multifactorial etiology, of which alcohol abuse causes the majority of cases. PATIENTS AND METHOD We included 80 patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis, admitted in the Gastroenterology Clinic of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova. In each patient, demographic parameters, family and personal history were recorded. All patients were initially evaluated by transabdominal ultrasound. In selected cases other imagistic methods were used: computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. RESULTS The mean age in the studied group ranged between 26 and 76 years with a mean age of 52.9 years. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1. The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (93.75%), followed by fatigue (70%), anorexia (50%); fewer patients presented with emesis, loss of weight, diarrhea, meteorism and flatulence. The most frequent etiologic factor of chronic pancreatitis in the studied group was alcohol abuse. Using imaging methods the following complications of chronic pancreatitis were diagnosed in the studied group: complicated or uncomplicated pseudocysts (31.57%), pancreatic cancer (18.75%), obstructive jaundice (10%), segmental portal hypertension (2.5%), and pseudoaneurysm (1.25%).CONCLUSSIONS Transabdominal ultrasound is quite accurate in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis and its morbidities and its non-invasiveness makes it the method of choice in the initial assessment of the disease. EUS has the advantage of visualizing not just the modifications of the pancreatic ducts, but also the parenchyma. Moreover, it can be used as EUS-FNA in order to increase the sensitivity of the differential diagnosis between pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:24778818

  17. [Thoracic duct cyst].

    PubMed

    Manasterski, J; Szmeja, Z; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Turczuk-Bier?a, I

    1999-01-01

    Patient aged 48 with the cyst of the cervical part of thoracic duct was described. Cyst appeared as the result of inflammation. Histopathological examination excluded the cystic lymphangioma. PMID:10689924

  18. Computer Aided Duct Design 

    E-print Network

    Clark, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    The circular slide rule is the industry standard for duct design. It is the simplest, most convenient way to take into account the many variables of ductwork analysis. The slide rule, however, is also relatively inaccurate. This means the ductwork...

  19. Small bowel perforation due to a migrated esophageal stent: Report of a rare case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karagul, Servet; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Ara, Cengiz; Tardu, Ali; Ertugrul, Ismail; Kirmizi, Serdar; Sumer, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic esophageal stent placement is used to treat benign strictures, esophageal perforations, fistulas and for palliative therapy of esophageal cancer. Although stent placement is safe and effective method, complications are increasing the morbidity and mortality rate. We aimed to present a patient with small bowel perforation as a consequence of migrated esophageal stent. Presentation of case A 77-years-old woman was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and vomiting for two days. Her past medical history included a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic tumor 11 years ago, a partial esophagectomy for distal esophageal cancer 6 months ago and an esophageal stent placement for esophageal anastomotic stricture 2 months ago. On abdominal examination, there was generalized tenderness with rebound. Computed tomography showed the stent had migrated. Laparotomy revealed a perforation localized in the ileum due to the migrated esophageal stent. About 5 cm perforated part of gut resected and anastomosis was done. The patient was exitus fifty-five days after operation due to sepsis. Discussion Small bowel perforation is a rare but serious complication of esophageal stent migration. Resection of the esophagogastric junction facilitates the migration of the stent. The lumen of stent is often allow to the passage in the gut, so it is troublesome to find out the dislocation in an early period to avoid undesired results. In our case, resection of the esophagogastric junction was facilitated the migration of the stent and late onset of the symptoms delayed the diagnosis. Conclusion Patients with esophageal stent have to follow up frequently to preclude delayed complications. Additional technical procedures are needed for the prevention of stent migration. PMID:25967554

  20. Effect of duct obstruction on histology and on activities of ?-glutamyl transferase, adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and amylase in rat pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Graves; Doris R. G. Holmquist; Sherwood Githens

    1986-01-01

    The effect of pancreatic duct obstruction on the activities of amylase and three nonexocrine pancreatic enzymes was studied in the rat. ?-Glutamyl transferase (GGTase) activity, which is localized primarily in the plasma membrane of acinar cells, disappeared from the acinar basolateral plasma membrane and declined in specific activity by 80% over a seven-day experimental period. Mg-ATPase, localized primarily in the

  1. Culturing primary mouse pancreatic ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Maximilian; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    The most common subtype of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC resembles ductal cells morphologically. To study pancreatic ductal cell (PDC) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN)/PDAC biology, it is essential to have reliable in vitro culture conditions. Here we describe a methodology to isolate, culture, and passage PDCs and duct-like cells from the mouse pancreas. It can be used to isolate cells from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), providing a valuable tool to study disease models in vitro to complement in vivo findings. The culture conditions allow epithelial cells to outgrow fibroblast and other "contaminating" cell types within a few passages. However, the resulting cultures, although mostly epithelial, are not completely devoid of fibroblasts. Regardless, this protocol provides guidelines for a robust in vitro culture system to isolate, maintain, and expand primary pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. It can be applied to virtually all GEMMs of pancreatic disease and other diseases and cancers that arise from ductal structures. Because most carcinomas resemble ductal structures, this protocol has utility in the study of other cancers in addition to PDAC, such as breast and prostate cancers. PMID:26034301

  2. [Drug-eluting coronary stents].

    PubMed

    Fontos, Géza

    2006-10-29

    The first method of percutaneously treating a diseased vessel was developed by Dotter and Judkins in 1964. Andreas Grüntzig performed the first coronary angioplasty in 1977. In 1985 Palmaz et al. implanted the first balloon-mounted stent in a peripheral artery. Puel and Sigwart implanted the first human coronary stent in March 1986; it was a self-expanding mesh-like device. Schatz et al. applied some small modifications to the original Palmaz stent, which resulted in the first coronary stent available on the market, called Palmaz-Schatz stent. In 1987 Sigwart was the first to suggest the use of coronary stents in acute vessel occlusions during unsuccessful PTCA. Using the device it became possible to cover the intimal flap and to prevent elastic recoil. Because of the high incidence of subacute stent thromboses and the bleeding complications (aggressive anticoagulation regimens) these times the coronary stents were implanted only in order to avoid emergency CABG surgery. In 1993 BENESTENT and STRESS trials have proved that elective stent implantation can significantly reduce the incidence of restenosis. The dual antiplatelet therapy and the high pressure stent implantation technique dramatically reduced the incidence of subacute stent thrombosis. The treatment of coronary artery disease has undergone revolutionary changes in the past decade but remained the leading cause of mortality in the developed world. The most important limitation of PCI has been in-stent restenosis, which occurs in 20-40% of stent implantations. Clinically it results in recurrent ischemic episodes most often requiring repeat revascularisation (rePCI or CABG). With the use of drug-eluting stents the incidence of in-stent restenosis can be reduced dramatically, based on the currently available clinical trials it remains below 10%. PMID:17297752

  3. Techniques for prevention of pancreatic leak after pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schoellhammer, Hans F.; Fong, Yuman

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic resections are some of the most technically challenging operations performed by surgeons, and post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) are not uncommon, developing in approximately 13% of pancreaticoduodenectomies and 30% of distal pancreatectomies. Multiple trials of various operative techniques in the creation of the pancreatic ductal anastomosis have been conducted throughout the years, and herein we review the literature and outcomes data regarding these techniques, although no one technique of pancreatic ductal anastomosis has been shown to be superior in decreasing rate of POPF. Similarly, we review the literature regarding techniques of pancreatic closure after distal pancreatectomy. Again, no one technique has been shown to be superior in preventing POPF; however the use of buttressing material on the pancreatic staple line in the future may be a successful means of decreasing POPF. We review adjunctive techniques to decrease POPF such as pancreatic ductal stenting, the use of various topical biologic glues, and the use of somatostatin analogue medications. We conclude that future trials will need to be conducted to find optimal techniques to decrease POPF, and meticulous attention to intra-operative details and post-operative care by surgeons is necessary to prevent POPF and optimally care for patients undergoing pancreatic resection. PMID:25392839

  4. Efficiency of Calcium Selective Antagonist under Chronic Relapsing Pancreatitis (CRP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Gubergrits; O. A. Chelomanova; G. M. Lukashevich; Y. A. Zagorenko

    Calcium selective antagonist Pinaverium bromide (Dicetel, Beaufor Ipsen Int, France) obstruct L-type calcium channels localizing in the digestive tract. The experiment showed that the preparation reduces Gastrin production, gastric and pancreatic secre- tion, contraction ability of small and large intestines, bile ducts and sphincter Oddi. Aim: To study Dicetel efficiency in treatment of CRP. Material and Methods: 60 CRP patients

  5. Comparison of scanning electron microscopy findings regarding biofilm colonization with microbiological results in nasolacrimal stents for external, endoscopic and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Yilmaz, Tolga; Cetinel, Sule; Taskin, Umit; Banu Esen, Ayse; Taskapili, Muhittin; Kose, Timur

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare bacterial biofilm colonization in lacrimal stents following external dacryocystorhinostomy (EX-DCR), endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR), and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (TC-DCR) with multidiode laser. METHODS This prospective study included 30 consecutive patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction who underwent EXT-, EN-, or TC-DCR. Thirty removed lacrimal stent fragments and conjunctival samples were cultured. The lacrimal stent biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS Eleven (36.7%) of the 30 lacrimal stent cultures were positive for aerobic bacteria (most commonly Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). However anaerobic bacteria and fungi were not identified in the lacrimal stent cultures. Twenty-seven (90%) patients had biofilm-positive lacrimal stents. The conjunctival culture positivity after the DCR, biofilm positivity on stents, the grade of biofilm colonization, and the presence of mucus and coccoid and rod-shaped organisms did not significantly differ between any of the groups (P>0.05). However, a significant difference was found when the SEM results were compared to the results of the lacrimal stent and conjunctival cultures (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Type of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery did not affect the biofilm colonization of the lacrimal stents. SEM also appears to be more precise than microbiological culture for evaluating the presence of biofilms on lacrimal stents. PMID:24967205

  6. Development of acute pancreatitis after Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Okigami, Masato; Maji, Tomoaki; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis subsequent to Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an extremely rare adverse event. We describe a pediatric case of acute pancreatitis resulting from superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) and gas bloat after fundoplication. Gas bloat is one of the known postoperative complications after Nissen fundoplication. Poor nutrition status, which is often associated with severe pediatric GERD, is a risk factor for SMAS. In this case, development of gas bloat and SMAS led to the formation of a closed loop and increased intraluminal pressure of the duodenum and pancreatic duct. Many pediatric patients who need anti-reflux surgery face the risk of developing this entity. Preventive measures, such as treatment with prokinetics and frequent small-volume meals, should be considered until improvement of nutritional status after fundoplication. PMID:25868962

  7. Managing acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Skipworth, James R A; Shankar, Arjun; Pereira, Stephen P

    2010-10-01

    Pancreatitis may be acute or chronic. Although both can be caused by similar aetiologies, they tend to follow distinct natural histories. Around 80% of acute pancreatitis (AP) diagnoses occur secondary to gallstone disease and alcohol misuse. AP is commonly associated with sudden onset of upper abdominal pain radiating to the back that is usually severe enough to warrant the patient seeking urgent medical attention. Onset of pain may be related to a recent alcohol binge or rich, fatty meal. The patient may appear unwell, be tachycardic and have exquisite tenderness in the upper abdomen. Overall, 10-25% of AP episodes are classified as severe, leading to an associated mortality rate of 7.5%. Disease severity is best predicted from a number of clinical scoring systems which can be applied at diagnosis in association with repeated clinical assessment, measurement of acute inflammatory markers, and CT. All patients with suspected AP should be referred urgently. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) follows continued, repetitive or sustained injury to the pancreas and 70% of diagnoses occur secondary to alcohol abuse. The characteristic presenting feature of CP is insidious progression of chronic, severe, upper abdominal pain, radiating to the back, caused by a combination of progressive pancreatic destruction, inflammation and duct obstruction. Signs and symptoms include weight loss and steatorrhoea and later on diabetes. CP patients may also present with recurrent episodes mimicking AP, both symptomatically and metabolically. Diagnosis of CP should be based on symptom profile, imaging and assessment of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. CT should be the first-line imaging investigation. PMID:21141249

  8. Extraintestinal manifestations of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Tomica; Kostic-Milosavljevic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Ivan; Krstic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because clinical, serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism. Most affected patients have hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum levels of IgG, particularly IgG4. Recently published International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis include Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology, classifying AIP into types 1 and 2, using five cardinal features of AIP, namely imaging of pancreatic parenchyma and duct, serology, other organ involvement, pancreatic histology, and an optional criterion of response to steroid therapy. Extrapancreatic presentations can include sclerosing cholangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner tumor), lymphadenopathy, nephritis, and interstitial pneumonia. Increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate has been reported in sclerosing lesions from other organ sites, including inflammatory pseudotumors of the liver, breast, mediastinum, orbit, and aorta, and it has been observed with hypophysitis and IgG4-associated prostatitis. Abundant IgG4+ plasma cells were also confirmed in Riedel thyroiditis, sclerosing mesenteritis, and inflammatory pseudotumor of the orbit and stomach. Extrapancreatic lesions could be synchronously or metachronously diagnosed with AIP, sharing the same pathological conditions, showing also a favorable result to corticosteroid therapy and distinct differentiation between IgG4-related diseases from the inherent lesions of the corresponding organs. PMID:22722443

  9. Recent Advances in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Zen, Yoh; Chari, Suresh T

    2015-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice, histologically by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with fibrosis, and therapeutically by a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy. Two distinct diseases, type 1 and type 2 AIP, share these features. However, these 2 diseases have unique pancreatic histopathologic patterns and differ significantly in their demographic profiles, clinical presentation, and natural history. Recognizing the popular and long-standing association of the term "AIP" with what is now called "type 1 AIP," we suggest using "AIP" solely for type 1 AIP and to acknowledge its own distinct disease status by using "idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis" (IDCP) for type 2 AIP. AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). The etiopathogenesis of AIP and IgG4-RD is largely unknown. However, the remarkable effectiveness of B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab in patients with AIP and IgG4-RD highlights the crucial role of B cells in its pathogenesis. IDCP is less commonly recognized, and little is known about its pathogenesis. IDCP has no biomarker but is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in ?25% of patients. Recently, the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP identified combinations of features that are diagnostic of both diseases. Both AIP and IDCP are corticosteroid responsive; however, relapses are common in AIP and rare in IDCP. Therefore, maintenance therapy with either an immunomodulator (eg, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or mycophenolate mofetil) or rituximab is often necessary for patients with AIP. Long-term survival is excellent for both patients with AIP and patients with IDCP. PMID:25770706

  10. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with rendezvous cannulation reduces pancreatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Fredrik; Regnér, Sara; Enochsson, Lars; Lundell, Lars; Permert, Johan; Nilsson, Magnus; Thorlacius, Henrik; Arnelo, Urban

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether rendezvous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is associated with less pancreatic damage, measured as leakage of proenzymes, than conventional ERCP. METHODS: Patients (n = 122) with symptomatic gallstone disease, intact papilla and no ongoing inflammation, were prospectively enrolled in this case-control designed study. Eighty-one patients were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy and if intraoperative cholangiography suggested common bile duct stones (CBDS), rendezvous ERCP was performed intraoperatively (n = 40). Patients with a negative cholangiogram constituted the control group (n = 41). Another 41 patients with CBDS, not subjected to surgery, underwent conventional ERCP. Pancreatic proenzymes, procarboxypeptidase B and trypsinogen-2 levels in plasma, were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. The proenzymes were determined in-house with a double-antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Pancreatic amylase was measured by an enzymatic colourimetric modular analyser with the manufacturer’s reagents. All samples were blinded at analysis. RESULTS: Post ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) occurred in 3/41 (7%) of the patients cannulated with conventional ERCP and none in the rendezvous group. Increased serum levels indicating pancreatic leakage were significantly higher in the conventional ERCP group compared with the rendezvous ERCP group regarding pancreatic amylase levels in the 4- and 8-h samples (P = 0.0015; P = 0.03), procarboxypeptidase B in the 4- and 8-h samples (P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001) and trypsinogen-2 in the 24-hour samples (P = 0.03). No differences in these markers were observed in patients treated with rendezvous cannulation technique compared with patients that underwent cholecystectomy alone (control group). Post procedural concentrations of pancreatic amylase and procarboxypeptidase B were significantly correlated with pancreatic duct cannulation and opacification. CONCLUSION: Rendezvous ERCP reduces pancreatic enzyme leakage compared with conventional ERCP cannulation technique. Thus, laparo-endoscopic technique can be recommended with the ambition to minimise the risk for post ERCP pancreatitis. PMID:24106403

  11. Efficacy of endoscopic guided anterograde 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty with silicone intubation in treatment of acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To report the outcomes of endoscopic guided anterograde 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty with silicone intubation in patients with acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions in adults. Methods Retrospective case series, included 21 eyes with partially obstructed nasolacrimal ducts of 12 patients. All the 21 ducts were initially probed and the probe confirmed with an endoscope in the inferior meatus. After confirming the presence of probe in the inferior meatus, a 3 mm balloon was used for dilating the distal and proximal portions of nasolacrimal duct, followed by stenting of ducts with Crawford tubes. Main outcome measures were anatomical patency of the passage and resolution of epiphora. Results Of the 12 patients, 9 had bilateral and 3 had unilateral acquired partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions. All the patients underwent bicanalicular stenting under endoscopic guidance which were retained for a period of 12 weeks. A minimum follow up of 6 months following stent removal was considered for final analysis. 15 of the 21 ducts (71%) were freely patent on irrigation but 13 of the 21 reported improvement of epiphora. Two nasolacrimal ducts showed similar partial regurgitation and partial patency on syringing as before with no improvement of symptoms. Four nasolacrimal ducts were completely obstructed with complete regurgitation of fluid on syringing with worsening of the epiphora. Two eyes persisted with symptoms of epiphora despite patent nasolacrimal duct with grade 2 dye retention on dye disappearance test. Conclusions 3 mm balloon dacryoplasty is an alternative and safe way to manage partial nasolacrimal duct obstructions with an anatomical success in 71% and functional success in 62% of the patients. Further studies with a large sample size and longer follow-up are required to ascertain the long term benefits. PMID:24526857

  12. Signet ring cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct diagnosed by preoperative biopsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kita, Emiri; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Sudo, Kentaro; Hara, Taro; Kainuma, Osamu; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Itami, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Y

    2014-09-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted because of obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed a stricture in the lower bile duct with enhanced bile duct wall. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a tapering stenosis at the lower bile duct. Transpapillary histological biopsy using biopsy forceps through ERCP was performed; the diagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the bile duct was established. Regional lymph node enlargement and distant metastases were not detected on diagnostic imaging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with pylorus preservation was performed. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct coexisting with adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the extrahepatic bile duct with negative resection margins. However, tumor cells directly invaded the pancreatic parenchyma and the muscle layer of the duodenum, prompting us to administer adjuvant chemotherapy to the patient, with no sign of tumor recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Almost all tumors originating from the extrahepatic bile duct are ADC and other histological variants are rare. Of these, SRCC is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding the preoperative diagnosis of SRCC of the bile duct. Current reports indicate that younger age and Asian ethnicity are the clinical features of SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct. Immunohistochemical staining of CK7, CK20 and MUC2 may be useful for predicting prognosis. Chemotherapy has not resulted in increased survival rates and only surgical resection currently serves as a curative treatment. PMID:25520605

  13. Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct Diagnosed by Preoperative Biopsy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Emiri; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Sudo, Kentaro; Hara, Taro; Kainuma, Osamu; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Itami, Makiko; Yamaguchi, y

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted because of obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography revealed a stricture in the lower bile duct with enhanced bile duct wall. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a tapering stenosis at the lower bile duct. Transpapillary histological biopsy using biopsy forceps through ERCP was performed; the diagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the bile duct was established. Regional lymph node enlargement and distant metastases were not detected on diagnostic imaging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with pylorus preservation was performed. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct coexisting with adenocarcinoma (ADC) of the extrahepatic bile duct with negative resection margins. However, tumor cells directly invaded the pancreatic parenchyma and the muscle layer of the duodenum, prompting us to administer adjuvant chemotherapy to the patient, with no sign of tumor recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Almost all tumors originating from the extrahepatic bile duct are ADC and other histological variants are rare. Of these, SRCC is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report regarding the preoperative diagnosis of SRCC of the bile duct. Current reports indicate that younger age and Asian ethnicity are the clinical features of SRCC of the extrahepatic bile duct. Immunohistochemical staining of CK7, CK20 and MUC2 may be useful for predicting prognosis. Chemotherapy has not resulted in increased survival rates and only surgical resection currently serves as a curative treatment. PMID:25520605

  14. Aortopulmonary Fistula after Multiple Pulmonary Artery Stenting and Dilatation for Postarterial Switch Supravalvular Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Maude; Nastase, Oana; Maes, Frédéric; Kefer, Joëlle; Sluysmans, Thierry; Poncelet, Alain; Rubay, Jean; Pasquet, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of iatrogenic aortopulmonary fistula following pulmonary artery (PA) stenting late after arterial switch operation (ASO) for D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA), an unusual complication that may be encountered more frequently in contemporary adult cardiology clinics. The diagnosis should be sought in the face of unexplained heart failure in patients who underwent ASO and subsequent PA angioplasty. Treatment should be instituted in a timely fashion, and options include surgical correction or implantation of a duct occluder or covered stent. PMID:26075107

  15. Dedicated bifurcation stents

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Ajith Ananthakrishna; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2012-01-01

    Bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still a difficult call for the interventionist despite advancements in the instrumentation, technical skill and the imaging modalities. With major cardiac events relate to the side-branch (SB) compromise, the concept and practice of dedicated bifurcation stents seems exciting. Several designs of such dedicated stents are currently undergoing trials. This novel concept and pristine technology offers new hope notwithstanding the fact that we need to go a long way in widespread acceptance and practice of these gadgets. Some of these designs even though looks enterprising, the mere complex delivering technique and the demanding knowledge of the exact coronary anatomy makes their routine use challenging. PMID:22572498

  16. Dedicated bifurcation stents.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ajith Ananthakrishna; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2012-01-01

    Bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still a difficult call for the interventionist despite advancements in the instrumentation, technical skill and the imaging modalities. With major cardiac events relate to the side-branch (SB) compromise, the concept and practice of dedicated bifurcation stents seems exciting. Several designs of such dedicated stents are currently undergoing trials. This novel concept and pristine technology offers new hope notwithstanding the fact that we need to go a long way in widespread acceptance and practice of these gadgets. Some of these designs even though looks enterprising, the mere complex delivering technique and the demanding knowledge of the exact coronary anatomy makes their routine use challenging. PMID:22572498

  17. Primary adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla with mass-forming chronic pancreatitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Suzumura, Kazuhiro; Hai, Seikan; Kuroda, Nobukazu; Hirano, Tadamichi; Asano, Yasukane; Okada, Toshihiro; Iimuro, Yuji; Tanaka, Shogo; Nakasho, Keiji; Fujimoto, Jiro

    2015-04-01

    A 70-year-old male was treated for gastric ulcers. Follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an irregular, elevated tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. Upon pathological inspection of a biopsy specimen, a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made, and the patient was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography showed an irregular mass in the pancreatic head and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and bile duct. Pancreatic head carcinoma with infiltration of the duodenum was diagnosed, and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. A histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in the minor duodenal papilla and chronic pancreatitis in the pancreatic head. Therefore, primary adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla with mass-forming chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. Currently, the patient is alive without recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Primary adenocarcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla is extremely rare. We herein report this case, and also provide a review of the literature. PMID:24522893

  18. Synchronous gallbladder and pancreatic cancer associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction

    PubMed Central

    Rungsakulkij, Narongsak; Boonsakan, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with chronic intermittent abdominal pain without jaundice; abdominal ultrasonography showed thickening of the gallbladder wall and dilatation of the bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography showed pancreatobiliary maljunction with proximal common bile duct dilatation. Pancreatobiliary maljunction was diagnosed. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed suspected gallbladder cancer and distal common bile duct obstruction. A pancreatic head mass was incidentally found intraoperative. Radical cholecystectomy with pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The pathological report showed gallbladder cancer that was synchronous with pancreatic head cancer. In the pancreatobiliary maljunction with pancreatobiliary reflux condition, double primary cancer of the pancreatobiliary system should be awared. PMID:25339838

  19. [Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of an acute biliary pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Vasylyuk, S M; Ivanyna, V V

    2015-02-01

    In 126 patients, suffering an acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), clinical examination was conducted. In 65 patients (1-st group) the isolated cholecystolithiasis was noted; in 35 (2-nd group)--cholelithiasis, which did not cause obturation of common biliary duct; in 26 (3-rd group)--cholelithiasis, which caused the biliary ways obturation (including calculi, which were incorporated into the duodenal papilla magna ostium). Clinical course of an ABP have differed depending on localization of calculi of extrahepatic biliary ducts. In patients, suffering ABP, a biochemical signs of hepatocytes functional disorders were observed, impacting the need for hepatoprotector preparations inclusion into complex of perioperative conservative therapy. Determination of activity of pancreatic ?-amylase in the blood serum and conduction of the ACTIM Pancreatitis test con- stitute the most sensitive and specific methods of the ABP biochemical diagnosis. PMID:25985693

  20. CORNICE DUCT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd; TC Howard

    2002-12-01

    SYNERGETICS, INC., is in the process of designing, developing, and testing an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building. Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. A patent has been submitted, refined based on feedback from the patent office, and resubmitted. Additional refinements to the design will lead to additional claims being added to the patent in the near future. Designs are being finalized for a refined version that will be fabricated and tested in the same residential laboratory house. Work is expected to be complete on this project in April of 2003.

  1. Polyorethaoe-covered nitinol strecker stents as primary palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzo Kanasaki; Akira Furukawa; Teruyuki Kane; Kiyoshi Murata

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyure-thane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant\\u000a biliary obstruction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused\\u000a by cholangiocarcinoma (n=5), pancreatic Cancer (n=6), gallbladder Cancer (n=4), metastatic lymph nodes (n=2), and tumor of the papilla (n=1).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Resulrs:

  2. Stent-Graft Treatment for Bleeding Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kojiro, E-mail: kojiro@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Mori, Yoshine; Komada, Tomohiro; Matsushima, Masaya; Ota, Toyohiro; Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We report two cases of intraperitoneal bleeding from superior mesenteric artery (SMA) pseudoaneurysm after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head carcinoma. In both cases, a stent-graft was deployed on the main SMA to exclude pseudoaneurysm and to preserve blood flow to the bowel. Bleeding stopped after the procedure. One patient was able to be discharged but died from carcinoma recurrence 4 months later. The other patient died of sepsis and stent-graft infection 5 months later. These patients remained free of intraperitoneal rebleeding during the follow-up period.

  3. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  4. Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors More than 95% of pancreatic cancers are classified as exocrine tumors. These tumors start in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The following table describes the most common pancreatic ...

  5. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information About Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease ... life . Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points After extrahepatic bile duct cancer has been diagnosed, ...

  7. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... General Information About Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare disease ... life . Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Key Points After extrahepatic bile duct cancer has been diagnosed, ...

  8. Turbofan Duct Propagation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Justin H.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The CDUCT code utilizes a parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation in order to efficiently model acoustic propagation in acoustically treated, complex shaped ducts. The parabolic approximation solves one-way wave propagation with a marching method which neglects backwards reflected waves. The derivation of the parabolic approximation is presented. Several code validation cases are given. An acoustic lining design process for an example aft fan duct is discussed. It is noted that the method can efficiently model realistic three-dimension effects, acoustic lining, and flow within the computational capabilities of a typical computer workstation.

  9. Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like? View larger with caption In these procedures, x-ray imaging equipment, a balloon catheter, sheath , stent and guide wire are used. The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor that is ...

  10. Stent-Induced Esophageal Perforation: Treatment by Means of Placing a Second Stent After Removal of the Original Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Gyoo-Sik [Kosin University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: gsjung@medimail.co.kr; Park, Sung-Dal [Kosin University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A case of esophageal perforation caused by a retrievable covered stent is presented. The distal end of the stent was protruding into the mediastinum, which made it impossible to negotiate a guidewire through the stent into the distal esophagus. The stent was successfully removed with use of a stent retrieval set, and esophageal perforation was treated with a second, covered stent with a good result. Fatality associated with this complication might be prevented by virtue of the retrievability of the stent we used. This result points to the effectiveness of a retrievable stent for the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal stricture.

  11. What Is Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bile duct cancer. The rest of this document refers only to cholangiocarcinomas. Benign bile duct tumors ... tumors, which aren’t discussed further in this document. Other cancers in the liver The most common ...

  12. Direct stent implantation without predilatation using the multilink stent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Pentousis; Yves Guérin; François Funck; Hong Zheng; Marcel Toussaint; Thierry Corcos; Xavier Favereau

    1998-01-01

    The standard coronary stent implantation technique requires routine predilatation of the target lesion with a balloon catheter. In this study, we prospectively studied the feasibility and efficiency of elective coronary stent implantation without predilatation. In 94 patients who presented with various ischemic syndromes, direct implantation of 100 balloon expandable ACS MultiLink stents (7 over-the-wire, 93 rapid exchange) was attempted in

  13. Can early endoscopic ultrasound predict pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder S.; Bhasin, Deepak K.; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Ravi; Chaudhary, Vinita; Chhabra, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Background Presence of pancreatic/extrapancreatic necroses (PN/EPN) is an important prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis (AP) and their early detection is a challenge. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) provides high resolution images of pancreas but there is paucity of data on its role in AP. Methods Consecutive patients with AP seen at our center from December 2012-November 2013 and presenting within 5 days of onset of symptoms were prospectively enrolled. EUS was done on the day of admission with a radial echoendoscope and pancreatic/peripancreatic findings were compared with the abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings performed on day 7. Results Of the 46 patients evaluated, 14 were excluded, and 32 patients (22 male; age 40.68±12.46 years) underwent EUS at admission. The etiology of AP was alcohol in 16, gallstones in 13, and idiopathic in 3 patients. Necrotizing pancreatitis was present in 20 (62%) patients, and mean CT severity index was 6.45±2.96. In patients without PN (n=12), EUS revealed normal echo pattern in 6 patients and diffusely hyperechoic and enlarged pancreas in 6 patients. In patients with PN/EPN, EUS revealed multiple hypoechoic areas (>5 mm) in 5 patients, multiple hyperechoic areas (>5 mm) in 7 patients and mixed hypo and hyperechoic areas in 8 patients. Also, 13 of these patients had peripancreatic hypoechoic areas that correlated with EPN. Moreover, EUS detected common bile duct (CBD) stones in two patients, pleural effusion in 17 patients, and ascites in 15 patients. Conclusion EUS done at admission can reliably detect PN and co-existent disorders like CBD stones. PMID:25331790

  14. Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Sadao, E-mail: hayashi@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  15. Laparoscopic management of bile duct and bowel injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-Hon Kwon; Hiroyuki Inui; Yasuo Kamiyama

    2001-01-01

    Accidentai injuries to the bile duct and bowel are significant risks of laparoscopic surgery and sometimes require conversion\\u000a to open surgery. Although some of the injuries related to laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be managed by endoscopic techniques,\\u000a laparoscopic surgery is not yet sufficiently perfected. We investigated the efficacy of laparoscopic management combined with\\u000a endoscopic tube or stent insertion in cases of

  16. A new self-expandable and removable metal stent for biliary obstruction--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Goldin, E; Beyar, M; Safra, T; Globerman, O; Verstandig, A; Wengrower, D; Fich, A

    1993-11-01

    We report our experience with a new self expandable metallic stent, a coil spring made from a nickel-titanium alloy. The super elastic characteristic of this metal offers a very strong radial force and previous dilatation of biliary strictures is not necessary. The stent is endoscopically inserted constricted over an introducing catheter, expanding spontaneously after release to its original 8 mm diameter. During the last six months, eleven stents were inserted in nine patients with pancreatic carcinoma to relieve jaundice. Another stent was percutaneously implanted treating a benign stricture in a patient with a choledochojejunostomy after a Whipple operation. Clinical improvement was achieved in all the patients except in one who died from liver metastases 5 weeks later. In two patients, although stents were obstructed after 2 and 4 months from insertion, they were easily removed by pulling their distal end through the endoscopic working channel. After a mean follow up of 4.5 months, patients had no evidence of biliary reobstruction. Although follow-up is short, these results are encouraging, and this new metallic stent seems to have several advantages over the current commercially available ones. PMID:8119211

  17. Adult bile duct strictures: role of MR imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography in characterization.

    PubMed

    Katabathina, Venkata S; Dasyam, Anil K; Dasyam, Navya; Hosseinzadeh, Keyanoosh

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct strictures in adults are secondary to a wide spectrum of benign and malignant pathologic conditions. Benign causes of bile duct strictures include iatrogenic causes, acute or chronic pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, liver transplantation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, Mirizzi syndrome, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Malignant causes include cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and periampullary carcinomas. Rare causes include biliary inflammatory pseudotumor, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases to bile ducts, and extrinsic bile duct compression secondary to periportal or peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography is extremely helpful in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice, an obstructive pattern of liver function, or incidentally detected biliary duct dilatation. Some of these conditions may show characteristic findings at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography that help in making a definitive diagnosis. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with tissue biopsy or surgery is needed for the definitive diagnosis of many of these strictures, certain MR imaging characteristics of the narrowed segment (eg, thickened wall, long-segment involvement, asymmetry, indistinct outer margin, luminal irregularity, hyperenhancement relative to the liver parenchyma) may favor a malignant cause. Awareness of the various causes of bile duct strictures in adults and familiarity with their appearances at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography are important for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management. PMID:24819781

  18. Admission mixing duct assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A variable cycle jet engine is provided with a mixing duct assembly which mixes core engine exhaust gas with bypass air when the engine is operating in a turbofan mode and which blocks flow from the core engine and isolates the core engine from the bypass flow when the engine is operating as a ramjet.

  19. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePLUS

    A blocked tear duct is a partial or complete blockage in the pathway that carries tears from the surface of the eye into the ... Tears are constantly being made to help protect the surface of your eye. They drain into a ...

  20. Pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains largely an incurable disease necessitating the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-transduced T cells represents an alternative treatment with curative potential. We present an overview of the engineering of novel CARs targeting prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), implications for the development of immunotherapies, and potential strategies to circumvent on-target/off-tumor toxicities. PMID:25083334

  1. Imaging of early pancreatic cancer on multidetector row helical computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Kutomi, K; Haruyama, T; Watanabe, A; Furui, S; Fukushima, J; Asano, T

    2010-10-01

    Early pancreatic cancer is small and limited to the pancreas. In contrast, small pancreatic cancer may include peripancreatic vasculature or metastasis involvement. This study evaluates images of early pancreatic cancer on multidetector CT (MDCT) using contrast-enhanced multiphasic imaging, and post-processed pancreatic duct images. CT findings and pathological features were analysed in eight patients with early pancreatic cancer. Pathological evaluation included location, size and histological grading of the tumour. MDCT evaluation covered the maximum diameter of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), stenosis or obstruction of the MPD, loss of normal lobar texture and associated pancreatitis. Attenuation differences between normal pancreatic parenchyma and the tumour (AD-PT) were also measured. Focal stenosis or obstruction of the MPD with dilatation of the distal MPD was demonstrated in all patients. Associated pancreatitis occurred in six patients with tumours measuring 12 mm or greater. Loss of normal lobar texture was recognised in four cases with the tumour measuring 14 mm or greater. Statistically, low-attenuated lesions and high-attenuated lesions differed with respect to the tumour size (p<0.01), and a positive relationship was demonstrated between the tumour size and AD-PT (r = 0.84). In seven cases, AD-PT is higher during the arterial phase than the pancreatic phase. Early pancreatic cancer appears as low attenuation on early phase, and as high- to iso-attenuation during the pancreatic and delayed phases in respect to the tumour size. Focal stenosis or obstruction of the MPD with dilatation of the distal MPD observed on curved reformation imaging seems important in the diagnosis of early pancreatic cancer. PMID:20442278

  2. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis in pancreatic disease.

    PubMed

    Boyd, E J; Clark, G; Dunbar, J; Wormsley, K G

    1985-08-01

    In a prospective evaluation of patients suspected of having chronic pancreatitis, synthesis of pancreatic enzymes was measured by means of the incorporation of selenium-75-labelled methionine into the proteins of duodenal aspirate during stimulation of pancreatic secretion with secretin (1 CU X kg-1 X h-1) plus cholecystokinin (CCK) (1 IDU X kg-1 X h-1). The rate of pancreatic enzyme synthesis was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Measurement of pancreatic enzyme synthesis was more sensitive in the detection of chronic pancreatitis than either the bicarbonate or the trypsin secretory response to secretin plus CCK. A combination of the bicarbonate secretory response with measurement of the rate of enzyme synthesis provided a positive predictive power of 100% when both tests were abnormal and a negative predictive power of 100% when both tests were normal, so that the combined test can be recommended both for excluding and confirming the presence of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:4035292

  3. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred.

  4. Autoimmune pancreatitis in the context of IgG4-related disease: Review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Leslie K; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) recognizes a histopathological subtype of the disease to fall within the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. Along with clinical, laboratory, and histopathological data, imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of AIP, and more broadly, within the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. In addition to the defined role of imaging in consensus diagnostic protocols, an array of imaging modalities can provide complementary data to address specific clinical concerns. These include contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for pancreatic parenchymal lesion localization and characterization, endoscopic retrograde and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (ERCP and MRCP) to assess for duct involvement, and more recently, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to assess for extra-pancreatic sites of involvement. While the imaging appearance of AIP varies widely, certain imaging features are more likely to represent AIP than alternate diagnoses, such as pancreatic cancer. While nonspecific, imaging findings which favor a diagnosis of AIP rather than pancreatic cancer include: delayed enhancement of affected pancreas, mild dilatation of the main pancreatic duct over a long segment, the “capsule” and “penetrating duct” signs, and responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy. Systemic, extra-pancreatic sites of involvement are also often seen in AIP and IgG4-related disease, and typically respond to corticosteroid therapy. Imaging by CT, MR, and PET also play a role in the diagnosis and monitoring after treatment of involved sites. PMID:25386067

  5. Nitinol Stents for Palliative Treatment of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice: Should We Stent the Sphincter of Oddi in Every Case?

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Tsetis, Dimitris; Chrysou, Evangelia [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71500 Heraklion-Stavrakia, Crete (Greece); Sanidas, Elias [Clinic for Surgical Oncology, University Hospital Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71500 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Petrakis, John [Clinic for General Surgery, University Hospital Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71500 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71500 Heraklion-Stavrakia, Crete (Greece)

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the necessity of metallic stenting of the sphincter of Oddi in malignant obstructive jaundice when the tumor is more than 2 cm from the papilla of Vater.Methods: Sixty-seven self-expandable biliary stents were used in 60 patients with extrahepatic lesions of the common hepatic or common bile duct and with the distal margin of the tumor located more than 2 cm from the papilla of Vater. Stents were placed above the papilla in 30 cases (group A) and in another 30 with their distal part protruding into the duodenum (group B).Results: The 30-day mortality was 15%, due to the underlying disease. The stent occlusion rate was 17% after a mean period of 4.3 months. No major complications were noted. Average survival was 132 days for group A and 140 days for group B. In group A, 19 patients survived {<=} 90 days and in eight of these, cholangitis occurred at least once. Of 11 patients in group A with survival > 90 days, only two developed cholangitis. In group B, 13 patients who survived {<=} 90 days had no episodes of cholangitis and in 17 with survival > 90 days, cholangitis occurred in three. There is a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) regarding the incidence of cholangitis in favor of group A.Conclusions: In patients with extrahepatic lesions more than 2 cm from the papilla and with a relative poor prognosis ({<=} 3 months), due to more advanced disease or to a worse general condition, the sphincter of Oddi should also be stented in order to reduce the postprocedural morbidity.

  6. Reducing In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert A.; Halliday, Crawford A.; Miller, Ashley M.; Diver, Louise A.; Dakin, Rachel S.; Montgomery, Jennifer; McBride, Martin W.; Kennedy, Simon; McClure, John D.; Robertson, Keith E.; Douglas, Gillian; Channon, Keith M.; Oldroyd, Keith G.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis, but they result in delayed arterial healing and are associated with a chronic inflammatory response and hypersensitivity reactions. Identifying novel interventions to enhance wound healing and reduce the inflammatory response may improve long-term clinical outcomes. Micro–ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are noncoding small ribonucleic acids that play a prominent role in the initiation and resolution of inflammation after vascular injury. Objectives This study sought to identify miRNA regulation and function after implantation of bare-metal and drug-eluting stents. Methods Pig, mouse, and in vitro models were used to investigate the role of miRNA in in-stent restenosis. Results We documented a subset of inflammatory miRNAs activated after stenting in pigs, including the miR-21 stem loop miRNAs. Genetic ablation of the miR-21 stem loop attenuated neointimal formation in mice post-stenting. This occurred via enhanced levels of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages coupled with an impaired sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to respond to vascular activation. Conclusions MiR-21 plays a prominent role in promoting vascular inflammation and remodeling after stent injury. MiRNA-mediated modulation of the inflammatory response post-stenting may have therapeutic potential to accelerate wound healing and enhance the clinical efficacy of stenting. PMID:26022821

  7. Micromachined Antenna Stents and Cuffs for Monitoring Intraluminal Pressure and Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Takahata; Yogesh B. Gianchandani; Kensall D. Wise

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes two stainless steel microstructures that are microelectrodischarge machined from 50-mum-thick planar foil for intraluminal measurements of pressure and flow (with potential for applications ranging from blood vessels to bile ducts). The first structure is an inductive antenna stent (stentenna) with 20-mm length and 3.5-mm expanded diameter. It is coupled with capacitive elements to form resonant LC tanks

  8. Nasal packing and stenting

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue. PMID:22073095

  9. [Portal vein thrombosis with sepsis caused by inflammation at colonic stent insertion site].

    PubMed

    Choi, Su Jin; Min, Ji Won; Yun, Jong Min; Ahn, Hye Shin; Han, Deok Jae; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-05-25

    Portal vein thrombosis is an uncommon but an important cause of portal hypertension. The most common etiological factors of portal vein thrombosis are liver cirrhosis and malignancy. Albeit rare, portal vein thrombosis can also occur in the presence of local infection and inflammation such as pancreatitis or cholecystitis. A 52-year-old male was admitted because of general weakness and poor oral intake. He had an operation for colon cancer 18 months ago. However, colonic stent had to be inserted afterwards because stricture developed at anastomosis site. Computed tomography taken at admission revealed portal vein thrombosis and inflammation at colonic stent insertion site. Blood culture was positive for Escherichia coli. After antibiotic therapy, portal vein thrombosis resolved. Herein, we report a case of portal vein thrombosis with sepsis caused by inflammation at colonic stent insertion site which was successfully treated with antibiotics. PMID:25998979

  10. Duodenum-preserving resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy in benign pancreatic head tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Hui; Tao, Ming; Jia, Yi-Mu; Xiong, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Tong-Lin; Xiu, Dian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of partial pancreatic head resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy for the treatment of benign tumors of the pancreatic head (BTPH). From November 2006 to February 2009, four patients (three female and one male) with a mean age of 34.3 years (range: 21-48 years) underwent partial pancreatic head resection and Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy for the treatment of BTPH (diameters of 3.2-4.5 cm) using small incisions (5.1-7.2 cm). Preoperative symptoms include one case of repeated upper abdominal pain, one case of drowsiness and two cases with no obvious preoperative symptoms. All four surgeries were successfully performed. The mean operative time was 196.8 min (range 165-226 min), and average blood loss was 138.0 mL (range: 82-210 mL). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.5 d (range: 7-8 d). In one case, the main pancreatic duct was injured. Pathological examination confirmed that one patient suffered from mucinous cystadenoma, one exhibited insulinoma, and two patients had solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. There were no deaths or complications observed during the perioperative period. All patients had no signs of recurrence of the BTPH within a follow-up period of 48-76 mo and had good quality of life without diabetes. Partial pancreatic head resection with Roux-en-Y pancreatic jejunostomy is feasible in selected patients with BTPH. PMID:25469053

  11. Dexamethasone down-regulates the inflammatory mediators but fails to reduce the tissue injury in the lung of acute pancreatitis rat models.

    PubMed

    Yubero, Sara; Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; Vicente, Secundino; De Dios, Isabel

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary complications are frequent in the course of acute pancreatitis. We investigate the effects of dexamethasone on lung injury in mild and severe AP. Mild and severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction and infusion of 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) was given by intramuscular injection 1 h after acute pancreatitis. Plasma amylase activity was measured to evaluate the pancreas damage. Lungs were harvested for analysing mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (as index of neutrophil infiltration) and histological examination. Dexamethasone reduced the hyperamylasemia and hindered the pulmonary upregulation of MCP-1, CINC, P-selectin and ICAM-1, in both mild and severe acute pancreatitis. Despite this, dexamethasone treatment failed to reduce MPO activity and histological alterations developed in lungs during acute pancreatitis, either in bile-pancreatic duct obstruction or sodium taurocholate model. We conclude that pulmonary local factors different from inflammatory mediators contribute to leukocyte recruitment, so that although dexamethasone down-regulated the lung expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules during acute pancreatitis it was not able to prevent leukocyte infiltration, which could be responsible for maintaining the lung injury in either mild or severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:22691809

  12. Extracorporeal lithotripsy of pancreatic stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pain: a prospective follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbruch, T; Holl, J; Sackmann, M; Paumgartner, G

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones (largest stone 12 (SD) 6 mm) was performed in 24 patients with abdominal pain and a dilated duct system (main pancreatic duct 10 (3) mm). The procedure was well tolerated in all but two patients, who had a mild pancreatitic attack immediately after lithotripsy. Disintegration of the stones was achieved in 21 patients. This allowed complete clearance of the duct system by an endoscopic approach in 10 (42%) patients and partial clearance in 7 (29%) patients. Within a mean follow up period of 24 (14) months half of the patients showed complete or considerable relief of pain and alleviation of symptoms was achieved in seven patients. Relief of pain occurred more often after complete ductal clearance. There were no fatalities within the follow up period. These findings underline the value of a combined non-surgical approach, using endoscopy and adjuvant shock wave lithotripsy to patients with large pancreatic calculi and pain attacks. Images p970-a PMID:1644340

  13. Extended distal pancreatectomy for advanced pancreatic neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Young; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Ahn, Seung-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We investigated the clinical application of extended distal pancreatectomy in patients with pancreatic neck cancer accompanied by distal pancreatic atrophy. In this study, we have emphasized on the technical aspects of using the linear stapling device for a bulky target organ. Methods From March 2010 to September 2013, 46 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, who underwent pancreatic resection with radical intent at our institute, were reviewed retrospectively. Among them, three patients (6.5%) underwent extended distal pancreatectomy. A linear stapling device and vise-grip locking pliers were used for en bloc resection of the distal pancreas, first duodenal portion, and distal common bile duct. The results were compared with those after standard pancreatectomy. Results All three patients presented with jaundice, and the ratio of pancreatic duct to parenchymal thickness of the pancreatic body was greater than 0.5. Grade A pancreatic fistula developed in all of the cases, but none of these fistulae were lethal. Pathological staging was T3N1M0 in all of the patients. The postoperative daily serum glucose fluctuations and insulin requirements were comparable to those in patients who received pancreaticoduodenectomy or distal pancreatectomy. At the last follow-up, two patients were alive with liver metastasis at 4 and 10 months postoperatively, respectively, and one patient died of liver metastasis at 5 months postoperatively. Conclusions While the prognosis of advanced pancreatic neck adenocarcinoma is still dismal, extended distal pancreatectomy is a valid treatment option, especially when there is atrophy of the distal pancreas. Also, the procedure is technically feasible, and further refinement is necessary to improve patient survival.

  14. Inlets, ducts, and nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, James R.; Abbott, John M.

    1991-03-01

    The internal fluid mechanics research program in inlets, ducts, and nozzles is a balanced effort between the development and application of computational tools and the conduct of experimental research. The computational effort involves the development and validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes through comparison with data, the modification of existing codes to extend their range and accuracy, and the application of codes to practical problems to demonstrate their value in design. The experimental research involves both simplified and realistic complex geometries and is used for developing flow physics understanding, for validating advanced numerical analysis codes, and for developing physical models of flow phenomena. The inlet, duct, and nozzle research program is described according to three major classifications of flow phenomena: highly three-dimensional flow fields; shock and high-speed-mixing flow fields; and shear flow control. Specific examples of current and future elements of the research program are described for each of these phenomena. In particular, the highly three-dimensional flow field phenomenon is highlighted by describing the experimental and computational research program in transition ducts having a round-to-rectangular area variation. In the case of shock and high-speed-mixing flow fields, both experimental and computational results are presented for the mixing of a high-speed stream injected into a second high-speed stream. For shear flow control, research in the use of aerodynamic excitation to enhance the jet mixing process is described. In addition, results that stem from using small tabs protruding into a nozzle exit flow stream to enhance mixing are also presented. A three-dimensional, unsteady viscous code development effort that will provide a well-documented, user-friendly flow solver for computing inlet, duct, and nozzle flow fields in the future is described.

  15. Lacrimal duct cyst abscess.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Sobajo, Cassandra; Irion, Luciane; Ataullah, Sajid

    2014-12-01

    Cystic dilatation within the lacrimal gland is thought to be related to chronic inflammation and scarring of the lacrimal gland ductules. We review the literature and discuss a case and of lacrimal duct cyst suppuration presenting with visual loss, external ophthalmoplegia, proptosis and ptosis. To our knowledge, only one other report of a lacrimal ductal cyst abscess has been reported in the literature so far. PMID:25208223

  16. Fatigue and durability of Nitinol stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Pelton; V. Schroeder; M. R. Mitchell; Xiao-Yan Gong; M. Barney; S. W. Robertson

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol self-expanding stents are effective in treating peripheral artery disease, including the superficial femoral, carotid, and renal arteries. However, fracture occurrences of up to 50% have been reported in some stents after one year. These stent fractures are likely due to in vivo cyclic displacements. As such, the cyclic fatigue and durability properties of Nitinol-based endovascular stents are discussed in

  17. Duct type charge eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    1984-09-18

    At least one planar type plasma ion source is positioned in a main duct through which charged materials pass in a manner whereby its active surface producing plasma faces the flow channel of charged materials inside the duct. The plasma ion source has at least one dielectric sheet, at least one corona electrode in operative proximity with one surface of the dielectric sheet and at least one planar type exciting electrode affixed to the opposite surface of the dielectric sheet and covering the entire area facing the corona electrode. A high voltage AC power supply energizes the plasma ion source by producing a high AC voltage and being connected to apply the voltage between the corona and the exciting electrode across the dielectric sheet whereby AC surface coronas serving as an active planar type plasma containing copious positive and negative ions are produced by the corona electrode along the one surface of the dielectric sheet and charged materials entering the flow channel inside the duct are bombarded by ions of opposite polarity from the plasma and are rapidly neutralized in charge during passage through the flow channel.

  18. Contemporary stent treatment of coronary bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Ioannis; Ge, Lei; Colombo, Antonio

    2005-10-18

    Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions represents a challenging area in interventional cardiology. The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) reduced restenosis in the main branch (MB). However, restenosis at the ostium of the side branch (SB) remains a problem. Although stenting the MB with provisional SB stenting seems to be the prevailing approach, in the era of DES various two-stent techniques emerged (crush) or were re-introduced (V or simultaneous kissing stents, crush, T, culottes, Y, skirt) to allow stenting in the SB when needed. This review describes in detail various techniques used for implantation of two stents by intention to treat. PMID:16226167

  19. Ureteral stents: new ideas, new designs

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Kyriazis, Iason; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kraniotis, Pantelis; Rigopoulos, Christos; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Petsas, Theodore; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Ureteral stents represent a minimally invasive alternative to preserve urinary drainage whenever ureteral patency is deteriorated or is under a significant risk to be occluded due to extrinsic or intrinsic etiologies. The ideal stent that would combine perfect long-term efficacy with no stent-related morbidity is still lacking and stent usage is associated with several adverse effects that limit its value as a tool for long-term urinary drainage. Several new ideas on stent design, composition material and stent coating currently under evaluation, foreseen to eliminate the aforementioned drawbacks of ureteral stent usage. In this article we review the currently applied novel ideas and new designs of ureteral stents. Moreover, we evaluate potential future prospects of ureteral stent development adopted mostly by the pioneering cardiovascular stent industry, focusing, however, on the differences between ureteral and endothelial tissue. PMID:21789086

  20. Peptidomics-based Approach Reveals the Secretion of the 29Residue COOH- Terminal Fragment of the Putative Tumor Suppressor Protein DMBT1 from Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuki Sasaki; Kae Sato; Yasuto Akiyama; Kazuyoshi Yanagihara; Masaaki Oka; Ken Yamaguchi

    2002-01-01

    Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 is a putative tumor suppressor protein in brain, lung, esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer. Here we report the mass spectrometric identification of a 3335 Da peptide, which was found in serum-free conditioned medium from 5 of 15 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines but not from 35 carcinoma cell lines and 2 nonmalignant pancreatic duct cell

  1. CXCL12 Chemokine Expression Suppresses Human Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ishan; Zimmerman, Noah P.; Mackinnon, A. Craig; Tsai, Susan; Evans, Douglas B.; Dwinell, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an unsolved health problem with nearly 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease and an overall 5-year survival rate near 5%. Despite the strong link between mortality and malignancy, the mechanisms behind pancreatic cancer dissemination and metastasis are poorly understood. Correlative pathological and cell culture analyses suggest the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a biological role in pancreatic cancer progression. In vivo roles for the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in pancreatic cancer malignancy were investigated. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were consistently expressed in normal and cancerous pancreatic ductal epithelium, established cell lines, and patient-derived primary cancer cells. Relative to healthy exocrine ducts, CXCL12 expression was pathologically repressed in pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and patient-derived cell lines. To test the functional consequences of CXCL12 silencing, pancreatic cancer cell lines stably expressingthe chemokine were engineered. Consistent with a role for CXCL12 as a tumor suppressor, cells producing the chemokine wereincreasingly adherent and migration deficient in vitro and poorly metastatic in vivo, compared to control cells. Further, CXCL12 reintroduction significantly reduced tumor growth in vitro, with significantly smaller tumors in vivo, leading to a pronounced survival advantage in a preclinical model. Together, these data demonstrate a functional tumor suppressive role for the normal expression of CXCL12 in pancreatic ducts, regulating both tumor growth andcellulardissemination to metastatic sites. PMID:24594697

  2. [Surgery for lesions at risk for pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Sauvanet, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Preventive surgery of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is warranted by the substantial benefit in prognosis observed in some diseases at high-risk for malignant transformation. The main indication is intraductal papillary and mucinous neoplasms, in which surgical resection must be proposed in case of main duct involvement. Conversely, in branch-duct IPMN, surgical indications are selective and based mainly on imaging findings. Mucinous cystadenoma is almost exclusively observed in female, and often localized in the distal pancreas and amenable to a limited resection. Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis results in a moderately increased risk of pancreatic cancer but screening by imaging is difficult. Concerning familial chronic pancreatitis, risk of cancer is very important and warrants resection up to total pancreatectomy. Familial pancreatic cancer and some others genetic predispositions are less known. The first step of their management is an oncogenetician counsel. If screening is indicated, it should rely mainly on MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. However, indications of preventive pancreatectomy are difficult to established, both concerning time and extent of resection. PMID:26016199

  3. Radiologic diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C

    1989-01-01

    IBD CT is the single best modality for diagnosis and staging of patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. While carefully performed real-time US is an excellent technique for determining the level and etiology of bile duct obstruction, it is of more limited value for diagnosis of tumors in the body and tail of the gland, and is less accurate than IBD CT for assessment of tumor resectability. Thus, most patients require IBD CT for accurate, nonoperative staging. ERCP and angiography continue to be useful adjunctive procedures for evaluation of patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma, particularly for evaluation of equivocal CT or US findings. An isolated pancreatic mass, that is, a mass with no ancillary CT or US findings of carcinoma (local extension, distant metastases), is a non-specific finding and requires further evaluation with either ERCP or angiography, and perhaps most importantly, with FNAB. Other neoplasms may mimic pancreatic ductal carcinoma, particularly islet cell carcinoma and lymphoma. Pancreatitis also can result in a focal pancreatic mass, simulating a neoplasm. These diseases usually respond to therapy and thus it is essential to confirm the radiologic diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma with biopsy, particularly if surgery is not planned or if chemoradiation therapy is anticipated. PMID:2535684

  4. Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Harper, Simon J F; Cheslyn-Curtis, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the annual incidence appears to be increasing. It presents as a mild self-limiting illness in 80% of patients. However, one-fifth of these develop a severe complicated life-threatening disease requiring intensive and prolonged therapeutic intervention. Alcohol and gallstone disease remain the commonest causes of AP but metabolic abnormalities, obesity and genetic susceptibility are thought be increasingly important aetiological factors. The prompt diagnosis of AP and stratification of disease severity is essential in directing rapid delivery of appropriate therapeutic measures. In this review, the range of diagnostic and prognostic assays, severity scoring systems and radiological investigations used in current clinical practice are described, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Increased understanding of the complex pathophysiology of AP has generated an array of new potential diagnostic assays and these are discussed. The multidisciplinary approach to management of severe pancreatitis is outlined, including areas of controversy and novel treatments. PMID:20926469

  5. Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Javali, Tarun; Prathvi; Ramesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus. PMID:24497695

  6. Endoscopic Management of Pancreatic Pseudocysts

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, K. D.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, endoscopic interventional procedures were introduced for nonsurgical therapy of symptomatic pancreas pseudocysts. We reported 25 patients treated by endoscopic retrograde pancreas drainage (ERPD), endoscopic cystogastrostomy (ECG), or endosopic cystoduodenostomy (ECD). ERPD was performed in 9 patients by placement of a 5 Fr. or 7 Fr. endoprosthesis transpapillary into the cyst or the main pancreatic duct. ECG was carried out in 10 cases, in 7 of these, a double pigtail catheter was additionally inserted. Three patients suffering from pseudocysts of the pancreas head were treated by ECD. In a further 3 cases, ERPD and ECG were combined. All patients reported a dramatic reduction of pain with a simultaneous increase of appetite and body weight. The drainage tubes were removed after disappearance of symptoms, and abnormal clinical and endoscopic findings within 2 to 12 months. In 4 cases, a recurrence of the cyst was found 10 and 22 months later, in 3 cases the endoprostheses had to be renewed because of catheter occlusion or dislocation. 2 patient underwent surgical treatment after insufficient endoscopic drainage due to haemorrhage or recurrence. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts yielded good results with low rates of recurrence and complications. According to our experiences we think endoscopic interventional techniques will oust surgery from its present dominant position in the next years. PMID:18493338

  7. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2000-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

  8. Polyorethaoe-covered nitinol strecker stents as primary palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kane, Teruyuki [Yujinkai Yamazaki Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyure-thane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n=5), pancreatic Cancer (n=6), gallbladder Cancer (n=4), metastatic lymph nodes (n=2), and tumor of the papilla (n=1).Resulrs: The mean patency period of the Stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed in two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.

  9. [Coronary stents: 30 years of medical progress].

    PubMed

    Silvain, Johanne; Cayla, Guillaume; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Fargeot, Catherine; Montalescot, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    The history of interventional cardiology has been marked by several technologic revolutions since the late 1970s. The first key step was the use of inflatable balloon angioplasty as an alternative to CABG surgery for coronary revascularization, followed by intracoronary delivery of bare metal stent (BMS) and drug eluting stents (DES) to drastically reduce intracoronary restenosis observed with BMS. Improved stents platforms and polymers (absorbable or biocompatible) led to a dramatic reduction in the rate of late stent thrombosis. Self-expanding stents are now available to improve stent a position especially in acute myocardial infarction. The emergence of new fully bioabsorbable stents that can be combined with antiproliferative drugs is the ongoing revolution. A new generation of stents is continuously improving and likely to become the ideal stent for coronary revascularization in the near future. PMID:24685222

  10. Occurrence of longitudinal stent compression before stent deployment: Two case studies.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Adel; Lalmand, Jacques; Dolatabadi, Dariouch

    2014-01-26

    Several recent reports have described the occurrence of longitudinal stent deformation (LSD, defined as the distortion or shortening of a stent along the longitudinal axis), following its successful deployment. However, few reports have described LSD prior to any stent deployment. This previously unrecognized complication is the result of modifications to stent design. It has been noted that the new-generation stent platforms have a reduced number of connectors, which in turn causes a reduction in longitudinal stent strength. To corroborate previous findings by our lab and others (Vijayvergiya et al, 2013), we describe here two cases of LSD prior to stent deployment that occurred due to crushing of the proximal stent edge by the guide catheter while attempting to withdraw the crimped stent. In addition, we discuss the associated risk factors, such as the length of the stent, and specific management strategies, including technical guidelines and use of fluoroscopic guidance for maneuvering the stent during the procedure. PMID:24527185

  11. Expandable Metallic Stent Treatment for Malignant Colorectal Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Kazuya; Sawada, Satoshi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Okuda, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-01 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masami [Department of Radiology, Tottori University Hospital, 36-1 Nishimachi, Yonago 683 (Japan); Koyama, Tsukasa [Department of Radiology, Yohka Hospital, 1878-1 Yohka, Hyougo 667 (Japan)

    1999-03-15

    Four patients were treated by placement of an expandable metallic stent (two Gianturco Z-stents, two Ultraflex stents) for malignant colorectal strictures. All four patients were able to defecate after stent placement. Stent migration was recognized in one patient. Two patients suffered from tenesmus after stent placement.

  12. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Eversman

    1992-01-01

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular

  13. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a signi?cant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  14. [Epidemiology of pancreatic adenocarcinomas].

    PubMed

    Partensky, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer, mostly represented by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is a major public health burden in developed countries. More than half a million people are expected to die from pancreatic cancer, worldwide, in 2030. Age and tobacco are the main identified risk factors in sporadic cases, when many genetic syndromes increase the risk significantly. History of pancreatic cancer is a significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer for any first-degree related individual, known as familial pancreatic cancer. The genetic signature of this syndrome is probably due to a still not identified autosomal dominantly inherited gene with reduced penetrance. The risk increases with the number of first-degree relatives involved. Precursor lesions are known to give rise to invasive pancreatic cancer. These particular lesions are either macroscopic (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia and mucinous cystic neoplasms), or microscopic (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia). It is possible to identify a orouo of hig h-risk individuals who could be candidate for screening. PMID:26016196

  15. In Stent Restenosis Predictors after Carotid Artery Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Cosottini, Mirco; Michelassi, Maria Chiara; Bencivelli, Walter; Lazzarotti, Guido; Picchietti, Silvia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Parenti, Giuliano; Puglioli, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The long-term efficacy of carotid artery stenting is debated. Predictors of stent restenosis are not fully investigated. Our aim was to assess the incidence of long term restenosis after CAS and to identify some predictors of restenosis. Methods. We retrospectively selected 189 treated patients and we obtained the survival Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival, for freedom from stroke or death and from restenosis. To correlate clinical, radiological, and procedural variables to stent restenosis, an univariate analysis was performed while to determine independent predictors of restenosis, a multivariate analysis was applied. Results. At 1, 3, and 5 years, the cumulative overall survival rate was 98%, 94%, and 92% with a cumulative primary patency rate of 87%, 82.5%, and 82.5%. The percentage residual stenosis after CAS and multiple stents deployment were independent predictors of restenosis, while diabetes and tumors are suggestive but not significant predictors of restenosis. Conclusions. In our CAS experience, encouraging long-term results seem to derive from both neurological event free rate and restenosis incidence. Adequate recanalization of the treated vessel is important to limit the development of stent restenosis. Multiple stents deployment, and with less evidence, diabetes, or neoplasms has to be considered to facilitate restenosis. PMID:20798894

  16. Problems of pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Warshaw

    1986-01-01

    Pancreatitis is not one disease but several and perhaps many. Diagnosis is imperfect in all forms and the usual lack of histologic\\u000a material has hampered attempts to understand the pathogenesis and possible interrelationships of the different forms of pancreatic\\u000a inflammation. Acute pancreatitis does not as a rule evolve into chronic pancreatitis, even after multiple recurrences. Recurrent\\u000a acute attacks can be

  17. Development of braided fiber-based stents.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Rita; Vila, Nívea; Fangueiro, Raul; Carvalho, Sandra; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of stents is one of the important factors involved in ensuring their function in maintaining an open blood vessel. This study aims to study the development of different kinds of fiber-based stents, using braiding technology. Moreover, the impact of braiding angle and mandrel's diameter in the mechanical behavior of the stent is also analyzed. Furthermore, stent's mechanical properties like radial and longitudinal compression, bending and porosity will be measured and discuss. The results show that fibrous stents present suitable mechanical properties, when compared to those of commercial ones, and may reduce the disadvantages of commercial metallic stents. PMID:25488219

  18. The future of drug eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    Anis, R R; Karsch, K R

    2006-01-01

    In?stent restenosis (ISR) is the major drawback of percutaneous coronary interventions, occurring in 10–40% of patients. Drug eluting stents (DES) are successful in a large majority of patients in preventing restenosis for the first year after implantation. Recently, new stents have emerged that are loaded with anti?inflammatory, antimigratory, antiproliferative, or pro?healing drugs. These drugs are supposed to inhibit inflammation and neointimal growth and subsequently ISR. The future of DES lies in the development of better stents with new stent designs, better polymers including biological polymers and biological biodissolvable stent coatings, and new, better drugs. PMID:16216857

  19. Prevalence of Incidental Pancreatic Cysts on 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patricia Bedesco; Puchnick, Andrea; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Goldman, Suzan Menasce

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the prevalence of pancreatic cysts detected incidentally on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and correlate this prevalence with patient age and gender; assess the number, location, and size of these lesions, as well as features suspicious for malignancy; and determine the prevalence of incidentally detected dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). Methods Retrospective analysis of 2,678 reports of patients who underwent abdominal MRI between January 2012 and June 2013. Patients with a known history of pancreatic conditions or surgery were excluded, and the remaining 2,583 reports were examined for the presence of pancreatic cysts, which was then correlated with patient age and gender. We also assessed whether cysts were solitary or multiple, as well as their location within the pancreatic parenchyma, size, and features suspicious for malignancy. Finally, we calculated the prevalence of incidental MPD dilatation, defined as MPD diameter ? 2.5 mm. Results Pancreatic cysts were detected incidentally in 9.3% of patients (239/2,583). The prevalence of pancreatic cysts increased significantly with age (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in prevalence between men and women (p=0.588). Most cysts were multiple (57.3%), distributed diffusely throughout the pancreas (41.8%), and 5 mm or larger (81.6%). In 12.1% of cases, cysts exhibited features suspicious for malignancy. Overall, 2.7% of subjects exhibited incidental MPD dilatation. Conclusions In this sample, the prevalence of pancreatic cysts detected incidentally on 3T MRI of the abdomen was 9.3%. Prevalence increased with age and was not associated with gender. The majority of cysts were multiple, diffusely distributed through the pancreatic parenchyma, and ? 5 mm in size; 12.1% were suspicious for malignancy. An estimated 2.7% of subjects had a dilated MPD. PMID:25798910

  20. Classification of pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Sarner; P B Cotton

    1984-01-01

    An international group of doctors interested in pancreatic disease met in Cambridge in March 1983, under the auspices of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, to discuss the classification of pancreatitis in the light of developments that have taken place in the 20 years since the crucial conference in Marseille.

  1. Management of necrotizing pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Slavin; Paula Ghaneh; Robert Sutton; Mark Hartley; Peter Rowlands; Conall Garvey; Mark Hughes; John Neoptolemos

    Infection complicating pancreatic necrosis leads to persisting sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and accounts for about half the deaths that occur following acute pancreatitis. Severe cases due to gallstones require urgent endoscopic sphincterotomy. Patients with pancreatic necrosis should be followed with serial contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) and if infection is suspected fine needle aspiration of the necrotic area for

  2. Experimental Models of Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by interstitial edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and acinar cell necrosis, depending on its severity. Regardless of the extent of tissue injury, acute pancreatitis is a completely reversible process with evident normal tissue architecture after recovery. Its pathogenic mechanism has been known to be closely related to intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In contrast to acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irreversible tissue damage such as acinar cell atrophy and pancreatic fibrosis that results in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Recently, many studies of chronic pancreatitis have been prompted by the discovery of the pancreatic stellate cell, which has been identified and distinguished as the key effector cell of pancreatic fibrosis. However, investigations into the pathogenesis and treatment of pancreatitis face many obstacles because of its anatomical location and disparate clinical course. Due to these difficulties, most of our knowledge on pancreatitis is based on research conducted using experimental models of pancreatitis. In this review, several experimental models of pancreatitis will be discussed in terms of technique, advantages, and limitations. PMID:24944983

  3. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Rosendahl; Hans Bödeker; Joachim Mössner; Niels Teich

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic

  4. Endoscopic ultrasonography in chronic pancreatitis: a comparative prospective study with conventional ultrasonography, computed tomography, and ERCP.

    PubMed

    Buscail, L; Escourrou, J; Moreau, J; Delvaux, M; Louvel, D; Lapeyre, F; Tregant, P; Frexinos, J

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness and accuracy rate of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) were prospectively evaluated in 81 patients with suspected pancreatic disease. All underwent EUS, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS), and computed tomography (CT), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in 55 of the cases. The diagnosis of CP was established in 44 patients (CP group) including 24 with a calcified form. No pancreatic disease was observed in 18 patients (control group), and 19 patients had a pancreatic tumor. In the CP group AUS was less accurate than EUS in visualizing the pancreas, performances of CT scan being identical to EUS in this respect. A good correlation was observed between EUS and ERCP for visualization and measurement of the Wirsung duct. The most significant changes observed by EUS in the CP group were dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, heterogeneous echogenicity of the pancreatic parenchyma, and cysts < 20 mm in size even in noncalcified CP or with normal pancreatograms. Sensitivity of EUS for diagnosis of CP was 88% (AUS, 58%; ERCP, 74%; CT scan, 75%), the specificity being 100% for ERCP and EUS, 95% for CT scan, and 75% for AUS. The good performances of EUS allow early diagnosis of CP in symptomatic patients since heterogeneous echogenicity of the pancreatic parenchyma seems to be almost specifically associated with the disease. PMID:7624302

  5. Colonic strictures: dilation and stents.

    PubMed

    Adler, Douglas G

    2015-04-01

    Colonic strictures, both benign and malignant, are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Benign strictures are most commonly treated by balloon dilation and less frequently with stents. Balloon dilation can help forestall or obviate surgery in some patients. Colonic strictures of malignant etiology generally need to be managed by stents and/or surgery. This article reviews endoscopic approaches to the management of colonic strictures. PMID:25839690

  6. Failure of somatostatin or an analog to promote closure of end pancreatic fistulae.

    PubMed

    Miller, B M; Traverso, L W; Freeny, P C; Abumrad, N N

    1989-02-01

    Somatostatin has been reported to promote closure of pancreatic fistulae, but use of the analog SMS 201-995 (Sandoz, Inc.) has not previously been published. We used this analog to treat two patients with end pancreatic fistulae refractory to conventional therapy. One patient had disruption of a pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy and the other had acute necrotizing gallstone pancreatitis and disruption of the pancreatic duct in the tail. SMS 201-995 (100-150 micrograms/d) abruptly decreased fistula output by 50% in both patients but further increases in dosage had no further effect on output. Neither fistula healed after 3-4 wk of therapy. Treatment with somatostatin or its analogs alone will not lead to closure of a pancreatic fistula complicated by factors such as distal obstruction, infection, or foreign body. Somatostatin may promote closure of lateral fistulae and may simplify the management of patients with high output fistulae. PMID:2466917

  7. New stent for laser microanastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Martin J.; Bass, Lawrence S.; Siebert, John W.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a stent specifically for use in the laser welded anastomosis of small blood vessels (outer diameter 0.8 - 1.2 mm). The stent consists of a core composed of a 50% (v/v) mixture of polyethylene glycol 4000 and polyethylene glycol 20,000. This mixture (PEG 4/20), is covered with a coating of mono/diglyceride. Among the properties of PEG 4/20 is a melting point of 60 - 70 C and a high solubility in water. The glyceride portion of the stent has a melting point of 36.0 - 38.0 C and is insoluble in water. The PEG 4/20 center provides a rigid frame to the stent for easy insertion into the artery, while the glyceride component prevents early dissolution. Upon the application of laser energy, the glyceride coating melts and the PEG 4/20 center remains intact until completion of the anastomosis. Following laser anastomosis, the blood flow through the repaired vessel dissolves the PEG 4/20 center leaving no trace of the stent. We have used these stents successfully in pilot studies utilizing an indocyanine green laser solder with an 810 nm diode laser (gallium-aluminum-arsenide).

  8. Improvement of stenting therapy with a silicon carbide coated tantalum stent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Amon; A. Bolz; M. Schaldach

    1996-01-01

    State of the art cardiovascular stent materials are a compromise between bulk properties and surface related properties. As a consequence, deficiencies in both characteristics lead to serious limitations of stenting therapy. Beside a dissatisfying X-ray visibility of current stent materials, which hinders precise angiographic control of the stent during implantation, insufficient hemocompatibility causes subacute vessel occlusions despite stringent anticoagulant medication.

  9. Prospective study of ultrasonography in chronic pancreatic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, W R; Vallon, A G; Denyer, M E; Vahl, S P; Cotton, P B

    1979-01-01

    Grey-scale ultrasonography was used in 212 unselected patients in whom the presence or absence of pancreatic disease was subsequently confirmed by other means. Ultrasonographic criteria were established in the first 92 patients and by reference to previous experience. The remaining 120 patients were studied prospectively. The accuracy and clinical impact of the ultrasonographic diagnosis were judged alongside a standard clinical assessment. Clinical diagnoses were tentative and inaccurate. Ultrasound failed in three cases; otherwise it detected all the 33 patients with chronic pancreatic disease and correctly distinguished cancer from chronic pancreatitis. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of a normal pancreas was always correct, but four false-positive diagnoses were made in patients subsequently judged to have no pancreatic disease. Ultrasonography gave more accurate or more confident and accurate information than the clinical assessment in 57 of the 98 patients studied as problems in diagnosis. With this degree of accuracy ultrasonography should be the first imaging investigation in patients suspected of suffering from pancreatic disease. In our gastrointestinal unit the combination of grey-scale ultrasonography with techniques designed to outline the duct systems (such as endoscopic pancreatography) provides precise diagnosis and documentation of pancreatic disease. PMID:420999

  10. Prospective risk of pancreatic cancer in familial pancreatic cancer kindreds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison P. Klein; Kieran A. Brune; Gloria M. Petersen; Michael Goggins; Anne C. Tersmette; G. J. A. Offerhaus; C. Griffin; J. L. Cameron; C. H. J. Yeo; S. Kern; R. H. Hruban

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer have an in- creased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Quantification of this risk provides a rational basis for cancer risk counseling and for screening for early pancreatic cancer. In a prospective registry-based study, we esti- mated the risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer. Standardized incidence

  11. Two Cases of Immediate Stent Fracture after Zotarolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the standard treatment for various types of coronary artery disease. However, previous reports indicate that stent fractures, which usually occur after a period of time from the initial DES implantation, have increased during the DES era; stent fractures can contribute to unfavorable events such as in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. In our present report, we describe two cases of zotarolimus-eluting stent fracture: one that was detected six hours after implementation, and the other case that was detected immediately after deployment. Both anatomical and technical risk factors contributed to these unusual cases of immediate stent fracture. PMID:25653706

  12. Sealing ducts to save energy

    SciTech Connect

    Siuru, B.

    1996-07-01

    Large amounts of energy are wasted when heat leaks through ductwork located in uninsulated spaces. The Electric Power Research INstitute recently did a study that accurately measured these losses, then substantially reduced them by sealing the leaky ductwork. Six homes in the Pacific Northwest with significant duct leakage to the outside were selected for the study. The homes had electric resistance or heat pump, forced-air heating systems with a major portion of the supply and return ductwork in crawl spaces, attics, garages, etc. Measurements of duct leakage and heating system efficiency were done on all the homes before starting the duct sealing. Retrofitting included finding holes, gaps, cracks and disconnected joints in supply and return ducts as well as in plenums. When necessary, plenums were cut open for repairs. Leaks were sealed with Latex mastic and fiberglass tape. Outside ducts were covered or wrapped with insulation. Unducted returns were sealed with duct board. In some cases, leakage was corrected by merely reconnecting ducts and boots.

  13. Colorectal Stents: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Mi

    2015-01-01

    A self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is an effective and safe method for the decompression of colon obstruction. Based on recent evidence, colorectal SEMS is now recommended for the palliation of patients with colonic obstruction from incurable colorectal cancer or extracolonic malignancy and also as a bridge to surgery in those who are a high surgical risk. Prophylactic SEMS insertion in patients with no obstruction symptoms is not recommended. Most colorectal SEMS are inserted endoscopically under fluoroscopic guidance. The technical and clinical success rates of colorectal SEMS are high, and the complication rate is acceptable. Advances in this technology will make the insertion of colorectal SEMS better and may expand the indications of colorectal SEMS in the future. PMID:26064818

  14. Colorectal Stents: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Mi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2015-05-01

    A self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is an effective and safe method for the decompression of colon obstruction. Based on recent evidence, colorectal SEMS is now recommended for the palliation of patients with colonic obstruction from incurable colorectal cancer or extracolonic malignancy and also as a bridge to surgery in those who are a high surgical risk. Prophylactic SEMS insertion in patients with no obstruction symptoms is not recommended. Most colorectal SEMS are inserted endoscopically under fluoroscopic guidance. The technical and clinical success rates of colorectal SEMS are high, and the complication rate is acceptable. Advances in this technology will make the insertion of colorectal SEMS better and may expand the indications of colorectal SEMS in the future. PMID:26064818

  15. Favorable Response After Gemcitabine-Radiotherapy for Invasive Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Takanori; Igari, Kimihiro; Furuyama, Takaki; Ito, Hiromitsu; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Aihara, Arihiro; Kumagai, Yoichi; Iida, Michio; Odajima, Hajime; Tanaka, Shinji; Arii, Shigeki; Yamazaki, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of chemoradiotherapy for invasive pancreatic ductal carcinoma derived from an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) has not been established. The subject of the present report was a 53-year-old man admitted for the treatment of IPMN. The tumor, located in the pancreatic body, was of the mixed type of IPMN, and it involved the branch duct, where it was 38 mm in diameter, and the main duct, where it was 6 mm in diameter. Distal pancreatectomy was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful; however, histopathologic diagnosis revealed invasive ductal carcinoma with a positive surgical margin in the pancreatic duct. Although total pancreatectomy was recommended, chemoradiotherapy (50.4-Gy irradiation and gemcitabine) was preferred by the patient. At 9-month follow up, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic mass at the surgical margin of the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a 44-mm cystic lesion with nodules in the remnant pancreas, on the basis of which he underwent total pancreatectomy. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed absence of the epithelium at the surgical margin of the main pancreatic duct, and malignant cells were not detected. PMID:24229021

  16. Is intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasia a new entity in the spectrum of familial pancreatic cancer syndrome?

    PubMed

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Mucelli, Raffaella Pozzi; Blomberg, John; Segersvärd, Ralf; Verbeke, Caroline

    2014-06-01

    We report on a 78-year old male with a positive family history for pancreatic cancer, who underwent total pancreatectomy for a suspected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with extensive involvement of the main pancreatic duct and multiple branch ducts. The post operative course was uneventful. Macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed multiple solid non-mucinous tumour nodules throughout the main pancreatic duct and within multiple branch ducts. The microscopic appearance of the tumour, in particular its tubulopapillary growth pattern and immunohistochemical mucin profile (MUC1, MUC6 positive; MUC2, MUC5AC negative) were consistent with intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasia (ITPN) showing high-grade dysplasia. No evidence of stromal invasion was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on ITPN in a high-risk patient based on a history of familial pancreatic cancer (FPC). The potential association between this entity and the spectrum of neoplastic lesions in FPC should be investigated with particular consideration of the lower biological aggressiveness of ITPN. PMID:24317685

  17. New Insights Into the Cell Lineage of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Evidence for Tumor Stem Cells in

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    inhibit PanIN formation3,6,7 support the notion that acinar cells play a major role in tumor initiationNew Insights Into the Cell Lineage of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Evidence for Tumor Stem that Kras-induced transformation of acinar cells into duct-like cells is the primary event in PDA initiation

  18. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography in the Preoperative Assessment of Patients with Biliary Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. De Waele; B. Op de Beeck; B. De Waele; G. Delvaux

    2007-01-01

    Background: The ultimate treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is undoubtedly laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but controversy remains about the optimal imaging method in the preoperative assessment of these patients. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting common bile duct (CBD) stones and associated pathologies in patients with ABP. At the same time, we tried

  19. Pathogenesis of Chronic Pancreatitis: An Evidence-Based Review of Past Theories and Recent Developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Stevens; Darwin L. Conwell; Gregory Zuccaro

    2004-01-01

    In the past several decades, four prominent theories of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis have emerged: the toxic-metabolic theory, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the stone and duct obstruction theory, and the necrosis-fibrosis hypothesis. Although these traditional theories are formulated based on compelling scientific observations, substantial contradictory data also exist for each. Furthermore, the basic premises of some of these theories are directly

  20. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  1. Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia: a syndrome reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J; Chandra, M; Creswell, J; Kahn, E; Malouf, N N; McVicar, M; Weinberg, A G; Wybel, R E

    1987-02-01

    Five infants, three dying neonatally and two later in the first year of life, had renal, hepatic, and pancreatic dysplasia, a combination of abnormalities first described by Ivemark et al [1959]. The renal malformation consisted of cystic dysplasia, with abnormally differentiated ducts, deficient nephron differentiation, and glomerular cysts. The hepatic abnormality consisted of enlarged portal areas containing numerous elongated biliary "profiles," with a tendency to perilobular fibrosis. Serial liver biopsies in one child with cholestasis from birth showed a progression from bile duct paucity at 1 1/2 wk to typical biliary "dysgenesis" at 7 mo. Four of the five children had intrahepatic ductal dilatation, diagnosed ante mortem in the two older children as Caroli disease. The pancreatic abnormality consisted of fibrosis and cysts, with a diminution of parenchymal tissue. The clinical and functional reflection of these abnormalities in the two children surviving the newborn period included renal insufficiency, chronic jaundice, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Similar renal, hepatic, and pancreatic abnormalities occur in other syndromes, including trisomy 9, Meckel syndrome, Jeune, Saldino-Noonan, and Elejalde types of chondrodysplasia, and glutaric aciduria II. After exclusion of identifiable syndromes, the remaining cases of renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia do not necessarily constitute a homogeneous group. PMID:3812591

  2. Exocrine pancreatic secretions in growing pigs fed diets containing fish oil, rapeseed oil or coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Gabert, V M; Jensen, M S; Jørgensen, H; Engberg, R M; Jensen, S K

    1996-09-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the effect of feeding diets containing oils with different fatty acid composition on exocrine pancreatic secretions in growing pigs using two different methods to collect pancreatic juice. In the first experiment, three barrows (initial weight 37 kg) were fitted with a pancreatic pouch re-entrant cannula. An isolated pouch was prepared where the pancreatic duct enters the duodenum. In the second experiment, also using three barrows (initial weight 32 kg), a catheter was inserted into the pancreatic duct. Three wheat starch and fish meal-based diets were formulated to contain either 15 g fish oil, rapeseed oil or coconut oil/100 g. In both experiments, the diets were fed according to a 3 times 3 Latin square design. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted, pH and secretion of bicarbonate, protein, amylase, trypsin, lipase and colipase were not significantly affected by the diets in the first experiment. In the second experiment, chymotrypsin secretion was significantly greater in pigs fed the coconut oil diet, and secretion of carboxyl ester hydrolase was significantly higher in pigs fed the fish oil diet. When compared qualitatively, pigs in Experiment 2 secreted more pancreatic juice; the pancreatic juice had a higher pH, and trypsin, carboxyl ester hydrolase and colipase secretions were substantially higher whereas amylase secretion was lower than for pigs in Experiment 1. The fatty acid composition of the different oils had minor effects on exocrine pancreatic secretion in growing pigs. However, there were considerable differences between the two surgical methods used to collect pancreatic juice, and these differences may be explained by physiological changes induced by the two methods. PMID:8814194

  3. The Development of Carotid Stent Material

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongsheng; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular angioplasty with stenting is a promising option for treating carotid artery stenosis. There exist a rapidly increasing number of different stent types with different materials. The bare-metal stent is the most commonly used stent with acceptable results, but it leaves us with the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. The drug-eluting stent is a breakthrough as it has the ability to reduce the restenosis rate, but the problem of late thrombosis still has to be addressed. The biodegradable stent disappears after having served its function. However, restenosis and degradation rates remain to be studied. In this article, we review every stent material with its characteristics, clinical results and complications and point out the standards of an ideal carotid stent. PMID:26019710

  4. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral stent is a...

  5. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral stent is a...

  6. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral stent is a...

  7. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral stent is a...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4620 - Ureteral stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4620 Ureteral stent. (a) Identification. A ureteral stent is a...

  9. The development of carotid stent material.

    PubMed

    He, Dongsheng; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Endovascular angioplasty with stenting is a promising option for treating carotid artery stenosis. There exist a rapidly increasing number of different stent types with different materials. The bare-metal stent is the most commonly used stent with acceptable results, but it leaves us with the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. The drug-eluting stent is a breakthrough as it has the ability to reduce the restenosis rate, but the problem of late thrombosis still has to be addressed. The biodegradable stent disappears after having served its function. However, restenosis and degradation rates remain to be studied. In this article, we review every stent material with its characteristics, clinical results and complications and point out the standards of an ideal carotid stent. PMID:26019710

  10. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  11. Cholangiocarcinoma and malignant bile duct obstruction: A review of last decades advances in therapeutic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mangiafico, Santi; Caruso, Angelo; Manno, Mauro; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Pigò, Flavia; Barbera, Carmelo; Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades many advances have been achieved in endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma, however blood test, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan may fail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usually at unresectable stage. In the last decades the role of endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role to an invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affected by malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the major issues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion, leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure. Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work up of cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable to surgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgery or not amenable to immediate surgical curative resection owing to locally advanced or advanced disease, with palliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliary drainage and stenting in more than 90% of patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapid reduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis. When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achieved with endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage represents an effective alternative method affording successful biliary drainage in more than 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is to focus on the currently available endoscopic management options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26078827

  12. Decreased survival rate of pancreatic acinar cells isolated from rats with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H U; Letko, G; Spormann, H

    1990-04-01

    Viable acinar cells were isolated from normal rat pancreas as well as from pancreata pretreated in situ by a short-term ischemia without and with reperfusion, induction of a pancreatic juice edema, and acute pancreatitis (AP), respectively. The isolated cells were incubated at 37 degrees C in an oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer lacking any nutrient. As an analog to in vivo acinar cell necrosis, the decline of the isolated cells was followed up in vitro. During the first 5-6 h of incubation, the percentage of damaged cells increased only slightly. A second phase of about 30 min followed, during which nearly all residual cells died. The mean half-life (t50) of the cells in all experimental groups ran to about 330 min, with the exception of the AP group (t50 = 132 min). The importance of an intact energy metabolism to prevent premature cell killing was underlined indirectly by the diminished t50 (about 120 min in all groups) of the cells exposed to excess 2,4-dinitrophenol, an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. The results suggest that experimental AP induced by a combination of biliary-pancreatic duct obstruction, stimulation of pancreatic secretion, and short-term pancreatic ischemia with subsequent reperfusion finds a reflection within the acinar cells themselves and that these effects are not clouded by the isolation procedure. Thus, the application of acinar cells isolated from pancreatic glands pretreated in situ may offer a new tool for pathophysiological research into AP at the cellular level. PMID:2398282

  13. Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Wolin; Noah L. Ryder; Frederic Leprince; James A. Milke; Frederick W. Mowrer; Jose L. Torero

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end of the duct and is capable of inducing airflow rates that range from 0 to 1.5

  14. Heritable disorders of the bile ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binita M. Kamath; David A. Piccoli

    2003-01-01

    Diseases of the bile ducts encompass a wide range of disorders. These include those disorders primarily affecting extra and intrahepatic bile ducts and those that may be classified as panbiliary. A simple classification of bile duct disorders is represented in Box 1. This discussion focuses on heritable disorders of the bile ducts. For a discussion of so-called ''isolated'' or ''sporadic''

  15. Impact of Stent Design on In-Stent Stenosis in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Sommer; L. Grenacher; U. Stampfl; F. U. Arnegger; C. Rehnitz; H. Thierjung; S. Stampfl; I. Berger; G. M. Richter; H. U. Kauczor; B. A. Radeleff

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of stent design on in-stent stenosis in rabbit iliac arteries. Four different\\u000a types of stent were implanted in rabbit iliac arteries, being different in stent design (crown or wave) and strut thickness\\u000a (50 or 100 ?m). Ten stents of each type were implanted. Each animal received one crown and one wave

  16. CT of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts: Wall Thickness and Contrast Enhancement in Normal and Abnormal Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Schulte; Richard L. Baron; Sharlene A. Teefey; Charles A. Rohrmann; Patrick C. Freeny; William P. Shuman; Michael A. Foster

    duct wall on CT, and to develop a differential diagnosis for thickening of the duct wall. Routine CT examinations of 100 patients without biliary disease were evaluated pro- spectively. The common hepatic duct and common bile duct could be visualized in 66% and 82% of cases, respectively; the walls of these ducts could be separately discerned in 59% and 52%.

  17. Recent Advances in Gastrointestinal Stent Development.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng

    2015-05-01

    Endoscopic stenting is increasingly being used in the management of gastrointestinal luminal obstruction, and has become the current treatment of choice for the palliation of blockage caused by malignant or benign growths. A variety of stents have been developed to enhance the efficacy of the procedure, and improvements are ongoing. In this article, we review the history of, and recent advances in, gastrointestinal stenting. We describe the rationale behind the design as well as the resulting outcome for each stent type. PMID:26064820

  18. Recent Advances in Gastrointestinal Stent Development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Seok

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic stenting is increasingly being used in the management of gastrointestinal luminal obstruction, and has become the current treatment of choice for the palliation of blockage caused by malignant or benign growths. A variety of stents have been developed to enhance the efficacy of the procedure, and improvements are ongoing. In this article, we review the history of, and recent advances in, gastrointestinal stenting. We describe the rationale behind the design as well as the resulting outcome for each stent type. PMID:26064820

  19. Measurement of duodenal tryptic activity and 75Se-selenomethionine pancreatic scanning compared as tests of pancreatic function.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, D M; Brown, P

    1969-11-01

    The results of a subjective assessment of pancreatic function, based on the appearance of a (75)Se-pancreatic scan, were compared with measurements of the tryptic activity of duodenal aspirates in 16 normal and 38 abnormal subjects. In normals and in abnormals whose scans showed a generalized rather than a localized abnormality there was close agreement between the results of the two sets. In patients with a localized abnormality of the pancreatic head on scanning the tryptic activity of the aspirate was useful in differentiating carcinoma of the pancreas from that of the common bile duct. In general the scan was the more discriminative test though otherwise the places of the two tests in diagnosis are rather similar. The particular situations in which each test is valuable, or in which one or other test can be omitted, are discussed. PMID:5358582

  20. Investigating MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda S; Szafranska-Schwarzbach, Anna E; Wylie, Dennis; Doyle, Leona A; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Kadiyala, Vivek; Suleiman, Shadeah; Banks, Peter A; Andruss, Bernard F; Conwell, Darwin L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current diagnostic tools for pancreatic cysts fail to reliably differentiate mucinous from nonmucinous cysts. Reliable biomarkers are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNA) may offer insights into pancreatic cysts. Our aims were to (1) identify miRNAs that distinguish benign from both premalignant cysts and malignant pancreatic lesions using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathology specimens; (2) identify miRNAs that distinguish mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) from branch duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN). METHODS: A total of 69 FFPE pancreatic specimens were identified: (1) benign (20 serous cystadenoma (SCA)), (2) premalignant (10 MCN, 10 BD-IPMN, 10 main duct IPMN (MD-IPMN)), and (3) malignant (19 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)). Total nucleic acid extraction was performed followed by miRNA expression profiling of 378 miRNAs interrogated using TaqMan MicroRNA Arrays Pool A and verification of candidate miRNAs. Bioinformatics was used to generate classifiers. RESULTS: MiRNA profiling of 69 FFPE specimens yielded 35 differentially expressed miRNA candidates. Four different 4-miRNA panels differentiated among the lesions: one panel separated SCA from MCN, BD-IPMN, MD-IPMN, and PDAC with sensitivity 85% (62, 97), specificity 100% (93, 100), a second panel distinguished MCN from SCA, BD-IPMN, MD-IPMN, and PDAC with sensitivity and specificity 100% (100, 100), a third panel differentiated PDAC from IPMN with sensitivity 95% (76, 100) and specificity 85% (72, 96), and the final panel diagnosed MCN from BD-IPMN with sensitivity and specificity approaching 100%. CONCLUSIONS: MiRNA profiling of surgical pathology specimens differentiates serous cystadenoma from both premalignant pancreatic cystic neoplasms and PDAC and MCN from BD-IPMN. PMID:24476997

  1. A review of animal models of nonneoplastic pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Foster, John R

    2014-01-01

    The nonneoplastic diseases of the human pancreas generally comprise the inflammatory and degenerative conditions that include acute and chronic pancreatitis, with cystic fibrosis being arguably one of the most important diseases that induce the condition. Both acute and chronic conditions vary in severity, but both can be life threatening; and because of this fact, the study of their progression, and their responsiveness to therapy, is largely conducted by indirect means using serum markers of damage and repair such as amylase and lipase activities that normally occur at very low levels in the circulation but can be significantly increased during inflammatory episodes. Progress in the understanding the pathogenesis of both conditions has therefore been largely due to time course studies in animal models of pancreatitis, and it is in this context that animal model development has been so significant. In general terms, the animal models can be divided into the invasive, surgical procedures, and those induced by the administration of chemical secretagogues that induce hypersecretion of the pancreatic enzymes. The former include ligation and/or cannulation of the biliopancreatic ducts with infusion of solutions of various kinds, or the formation of closed duodenal loops. Secretagogue administration includes administration of caerulein or l-arginine in various protocols. An additional model involves administration of dibutyltin dichloride, which induces a partial blockage of the pancreatic ducts to induce pancreatic disease through enzymic reflux into the gland. The models have been invaluable in generating testable hypotheses for the human diseases. These hypotheses for the production of cellular damage as the initiating events in the disease include (1) intracellular chemical activation, (2) pancreatic secretion reflux, (3) intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, and (4) intracellular production of free radicals. PMID:24178571

  2. A comparison of alcoholic pancreatitis in rat and man

    PubMed Central

    Sarles, H.; Lebreuil, G.; Tasso, F.; Figarella, C.; Clemente, F.; Devaux, M. A.; Fagonde, B.; Payan, H.

    1971-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication was studied in 38 Wistar rats, 18 on a balanced diet and 20 on a high fat diet, fed by gavage on 47% ethanol in a dosage of from 3 to 12 g/kg body weight daily for periods ranging from three to 16 days. No macroscopic changes in pancreas or liver were found in any of these animals. Histological changes (venous congestion of the pancreas, the liver, and the kidneys) were found in rats given 4 g or more per kilogram. The only difference between the findings in rats given a balanced diet and those given a high fat diet was the development of fatty livers in the latter group. Chronic ethanol intoxication was studied in 45 Wistar rats, on a balanced diet, which were given 20% ethanol freely for 20 to 30 months. More than half the animals developed pancreatic lesions very similar to those of human chronic pancreatitis. The pathological changes, in foci surrounded by normal pancreatic tissue, were a reduction in acini, duct multiplication (probably by neogenesis), protein plugs, sometimes calcified in the ducts and sclerosis. Samples of pancreatic juice from four animals exposed to ethanol contained significantly higher protein concentrations than samples taken from two control animals. Protein precipitates appeared spontaneously in the pancreatic juice of the animals exposed to ethanol, but not in that of the controls. These findings are very similar to those in alcoholic pancreatitis in man, which has thus been reproduced for the first time in experimental animals. Beta-cell adenomata of the islets of Langerhans were observed in four of the rats exposed to ethanol. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:4329553

  3. Endoscopic and operative palliation strategies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alexander; Hines, O Joe

    2015-02-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction, duodenal, and gastric outlet obstruction, and tumor-related pain are the complications of unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma that most frequently require palliative intervention. Surgery involving biliary bypass with or without gastrojejunostomy was once the mainstay of treatment in these patients. However, advances in non-operative techniques-most notably the widespread availability of endoscopic biliary and duodenal stents-have shifted the paradigm of treatment away from traditional surgical management. Questions regarding the efficacy and durability of endoscopic stents for biliary and gastric outlet obstruction are reviewed and demonstrate high rates of therapeutic success, low rates of morbidity, and decreased cost. Surgery remains an effective treatment modality, and still produces the most durable relief in appropriately selected patients. PMID:25726060

  4. Carotid Artery Stenting versus Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gahremanpour, Amir; Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    For about 2 decades, investigators have been comparing carotid endarterectomy with carotid artery stenting in regard to their effectiveness and safety in treating carotid artery stenosis. We conducted a systematic review to summarize and appraise the available evidence provided by randomized trials, meta-analyses, and registries comparing the clinical outcomes of the 2 procedures. We searched the MEDLINE, SciVerse Scopus, and Cochrane databases and the bibliographies of pertinent textbooks and articles to identify these studies. The results of clinical trials and, consequently, the meta-analyses of those trials produced conflicting results regarding the comparative effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. These conflicting results arose because of differences in patient population, trial design, outcome measures, and variability among centers in the endovascular devices used and in operator skills. Careful appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses, particularly the most recent and largest National Institutes of Healthsponsored trial (the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stenting Trial [CREST]), showed that carotid stenting and endarterectomy were associated with similar rates of death and disabling stroke. Within the 30-day periprocedural period, carotid stenting was associated with higher risks of stroke, especially for patients aged >70 years, whereas carotid endarterectomy was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction. The slightly higher cost of stenting compared with endarterectomy was within an acceptable range by cost-effectiveness standards. We conclude that carotid artery stenting is an equivalent alternative to carotid endarterectomy when patient age and anatomy, surgical risk, and operator experience are considered in the choice of treatment approach. PMID:22949763

  5. [A case of main-duct IPMN with multicentric invasive carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Eri; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Otsuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masayuki; Okamura, Daiki; Sakai, Nozomu; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-11-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas often contains multifocal lesions, and total pancreatectomy is sometimes needed for curative resection. We report here our experience with a case of IPMN with multiple invasive carcinoma foci that was successfully treated with total pancreatectomy. A 66-year-old man had jaundice, and a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypovascular mass in the pancreas head in conjunction with calcification and dilation of the entire main pancreatic duct. He was diagnosed with pancreas head cancer and chronic pancreatitis, and a pancreaticoduodenectomy was planned. Intraoperative pathological examination revealed papillary growth of high grade dysplasia in the main and branch duct epithelium and perineural invasion of the atypical glands. After 2 additional resections, we performed a total pancreatectomy. Pathological findings showed that the pancreas head tumor was an invasive carcinoma derived from main-duct IPMN of the pancreas. It was a mucinous carcinoma with calcification. Moreover, we found other multiple, discontinuous invasive foci in the body and tail of the pancreas which were undetectable by preoperative imaging. This case was highly suggestive for preoperative diagnosis for pancreas tumor and developmental pattern of main-duct IPMN. PMID:25731469

  6. Biodegradation of the Copolymeric Polylactide Stent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eeva-Maija Hietala; Ulla-Stina Salminen; Anders Ståhls; Tero Välimaa; Paula Maasilta; Pertti Törmälä; Markku S. Nieminen; Ari L. J. Harjula

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of biodegradable polylactide as a stent material has not yet been fully established in small vessels such as arteries with a diameter <3 mm. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of a copolymeric polylactide (PLA96) stent. Appropriately sized spiral PLA96 stents were implanted into the infrarenal aortas of 20 rabbits. Intraoperative systemic heparinization

  7. On the production of radioactive stents.

    PubMed

    Fehsenfeld, P; Golombeck, M; Kleinrahm, A; Schlösser, K; Schüssler, B; Schweickert, H; Hehrlein, C

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, radioactive stents has been proved to inhibit neointima formation. This paper describes the actual status of producing such radioactive stents. After a short discussion of the different radioisotopes suitable for radioactive stents, potential production methods are discussed. The ion beam implantation of P-32 applied at the Karlsruhe Research Centre shall be described in more detail. PMID:10406687

  8. On the production of radioactive stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlösser, K.; Schweickert, H.

    2001-07-01

    In the last years radioactive stents proved to inhibit neointima formation. This paper describes the actual status of producing such radioactive stents. After a short discussion of the different radioisotopes suitable for radioactive stents, potential production methods are discussed. The ion beam implantation of P-32 applied at the Karlsruhe Research Center shall be described in more detail.

  9. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN) with Extra-Pancreatic Mucin: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Louis H.; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Kennedy, Eugene P.; Yeo, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is an increasingly recognized pancreatic neoplasm characterized by excessive mucin secretion by ductal epithelial cells resulting in a cystic dilation of the pancreatic duct. Aim The objective of this study was to review Thomas Jefferson University’s experience and the literature to determine the significance of extra-pancreatic mucin when associated with an IPMN. Results A retrospective analysis at our institution revealed only two cases of IPMN associated with extra-pancreatic mucin, which were classic IPMNs with rupture of the pancreatic duct and peritoneal mucin spillage. This specific finding is not previously described, although is assumed as five cases were reported in the literature with IPMN and mucin extension demonstrated by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). We propose IPMN of the pancreas may be grossly compared to a mucocele of the appendix, as both are characterized by excessive secretion of mucin by ductal epithelial cells. A morbid complication of a mucocele is PMP. The presence of extra-pancreatic mucin with an IPMN could present a rare but important marker of the eventual seeding of tumor outside the primary IPMN. This has been documented with cases of iatrogenic spilling of pancreatic mucin, as well as multiple cases of IPMN associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Conclusions At this time, there is scant reporting and consensus for the treatment of IPMN with extra-pancreatic mucin. PMID:22258877

  10. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  11. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfu

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis. PMID:25493260

  12. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer ... Pancreatic Cancer Drugs Approved for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized ...

  13. Update on Pancreatobiliary Stents: Stent Placement in Advanced Hilar Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ill

    2015-01-01

    Palliative drainage is the main treatment option for inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma to improve symptoms, which include cholangitis, pruritus, high-grade jaundice, and abdominal pain. Although there is no consensus on the optimal method for biliary drainage due to the paucity of large-scale randomized control studies, several important aspects of any optimal method have been studied. In this review article, we discuss the liver volume to be drained, stent type, techniques to insert self-expanding metal stents, and approaches for proper and effective biliary drainage based on previous studies and personal experience.

  14. Recent advances in endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic treatment is now recognized worldwide as the first-line treatment for bile duct stones. Endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with basket and/or balloon catheter is generally carried out for stone extraction. However, some stones are refractory to treatment under certain circumstances, necessitating additional/other therapeutic modalities. Large bile duct stones are typically treated by mechanical lithotripsy. However, if this fails, laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) is carried out under the guidance of conventional mother-baby cholangioscopy. More recently, direct cholangioscopy using an ultrathin gastroscope and the newly developed single-use cholangioscope system - the SpyGlass direct visualization system - are also used. In addition, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has also been used for stone fragmentation. Such fragmentation techniques are effective in cases with impacted stones, including Mirizzi syndrome. Most recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilationhas been introduced as an easy and effective technique for treating large and multiple stones. In cases of altered anatomy, it is often difficult to reach the papilla; in such cases, a percutaneous transhepatic approach, such as EHL or laser lithotripsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy, can be a treatment option. Moreover, enteroscopy has recently been used to reach the papilla. Furthermore, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided procedure has been attempted most recently. In elderly patients and those with very poor general condition, biliary stenting only is sometimes carried out with or without giving subsequent dissolution agents. PMID:23650878

  15. Review: Pancreatic ?-Cell Neogenesis Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Maryline; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Plachot, Cédric

    2004-01-01

    ?-cell neogenesis triggers the generation of new ?-cells from precursor cells. Neogenesis from duct epithelium is the most currently described and the best documented process of differentiation of precursor cells into ?-cells. It is contributes not only to ?-cell mass expansion during fetal and nonatal life but it is also involved in the maintenance of the ?-cell mass in adults. It is also required for the increase in ?-cell mass in situations of increase insulin demand (obesity, pregnancy). A large number of factors controlling the differentiation of ?-cells has been identified. They are classified into the following main categories: growth factors, cytokine and inflamatory factors, and hormones such as PTHrP and GLP-1. The fact that intestinal incretin hormone GLP-1 exerts a major trophic role on pancreatic ?-cells provides insights into the possibility to pharmacologically stimulate ?-cell neogenesis. This could have important implications for the of treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Transdifferentiation, that is, the differentiation of already differentiated cells into ?-cells, remains controversial.However, more and more studies support this concept. The cells, which can potentially “transdifferentiate” into ?-cells, can belong to the pancreas (acinar cells) and even islets, or originate from extra-pancreatic tissues such as the liver. Neogenesis from intra-islet precursors also have been proposed and subpopulations of cell precursors inside islets have been described by some authors. Nestin positive cells, which have been considered as the main candidates, appear rather as progenitors of endothelial cells rather than ?-cells and contribute to angiogenesis rather than neogenesis. To take advantage of the different differentiation processes may be a direction for future cellular therapies. Ultimately, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in ?-cell neogenesis will allow us to use any type of differentiated and/or undifferentiated cells as a source of potential cell precursors. PMID:15203882

  16. Ureteral Stent Coatings: What's Here and What's Coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razvi, Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Ureteral stents have become an indispensable tool to the urologist in the management of various disorders afflicting the urinary tract. While the ideal stent remains elusive, novel technical advances in stent coating technology offer the potential of enhancing stent biocompatibility and clinical application. Currently available stent coatings as well as new and emerging devices will be reviewed.

  17. Pathology of Acute and Chronic Coronary Stenting in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Farb; Giuseppe Sangiorgi; Andrew J. Carter; Virginia M. Walley; William D. Edwards; Robert S. Schwartz; Renu Virmani

    Background—Despite the increasing use of stents, few reports have described human coronary artery morphology early and late after stenting. Methods and Results—Histology was performed on 55 stents in 35 coronary vessels (32 native arteries and 3 vein grafts) from 32 patients. The mean duration of stent placement was 39682 days. Fibrin, platelets, and neutrophils were associated with stent struts #11

  18. Surgically proved visually isoattenuating pancreatic adenocarcinoma undetected in both dynamic CT and MRI. Was blind pancreaticoduodenectomy justified?

    PubMed Central

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Tselios, Dimitrios G.; Katsaouni, Stavroula P.; Mauroeidi, Basiliki; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Visually isoattenuating pancreatic adenocarcinoma is defined as a mass not directly visible on CT and recognizable only by secondary imaging signs. The frequency of isoattenuating pancreatic adenocarcinomas at dynamic-enhanced CT has been reported to range from 5.4% to 14%. Furthermore, 80% of the visually isoattenuating pancreatic adenocarcinomas are detectable in dynamic-enhanced MRI. Consequently, a pancreatic adenocarcinoma undetected in both the above imaging studies is an exceptionally rare event. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report describes a case of a histologically proved 3.5 cm pancreatic adenocarcinoma undetected in both dynamic-enhanced CT and MRI. The patient presented with progressive jaundice over the preceding 20 days. Initial abdominal CT showed a dilated pancreatic and common bile duct without demonstration of a lesion responsible for the clinical and imaging findings. Additional diagnostic work-up with dynamic CT and dynamic MRI failed to reveal a definitive mass. ERCP revealed an irregular interruption of the pancreatic and distal common bile duct with upstream dilation. Blind radical pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histologic examination showed a pT3pN1MO pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the head/neck. DISCUSSION Isoattenuating pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients represent a small but meaningful subset of patients with pancreatic cancer, as they have better survival. The more favorable postsurgical survival makes it even more imperative to correctly diagnose their cases at early stages by obtaining further diagnostic work-up with dynamic pancreatic CT, dynamic MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. CONCLUSION When the above studies fail to unmask the lesion, blind pancreaticoduodenectomy should be based on strong clinical suspicion and secondary imaging findings. PMID:23562894

  19. Primary duct closure versus T-tube drainage following exploration of the common bile duct.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Treacy, P J; Sidey, P; Worthley, C S; Townsend, N C; Russell, E A

    1994-12-01

    T-tube drainage of the common bile duct (CBD) following duct exploration has become standard surgical practice. This randomized prospective study has compared primary closure versus T-tube drainage of the CBD following exploration for calculous disease. Thirty-seven patients underwent primary closure and 26 underwent closure over T-tube. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, indications for surgery, associated illnesses, pre-operative bilirubin, amylase and white cell count. Forty-three per cent of operations were performed by a consultant in the primary closure group and 65% in the T-tube group. There was no significant difference in the duration of operation, incidence of wound infection, surgical or other complications following operation between the two groups. However, the postoperative stay was significantly prolonged in the T-tube group, to a median of 11 days, compared to 8 days in the primary closure group (P = 0.0001). This prolongation in stay was unrelated to whether admission was as an emergency or elective. T-tube drainage of the bile continued for a median of 7 days postoperative, whereas the bile drained via a wound drain in only 13 (35%) of the primary closure group, for a median of 5 days in these 13 patients. Long-term follow up was achieved in 48 patients, by a questionnaire sent at a median of 2.8 years following operation. Abdominal pains following recovery from the operation were experienced by 18% of the primary closure group and 20% of the T-tube group. No patient developed jaundice or pancreatitis, nor needed further biliary surgery following operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7980254

  20. Imaging diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: A state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sun; Lee, Jeong Min

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and has a poor, five-year survival rate of 5%. Although complete surgical resection is the only curative therapy for pancreatic cancer, less than 20% of newly-diagnosed patients undergo surgical resection with a curative intent. Due to the lack of early symptoms and the tendency of pancreatic adenocarcinoma to invade adjacent structures or to metastasize at an early stage, many patients with pancreatic cancer already have advanced disease at the time of their diagnosis and, therefore, there is a high mortality rate. To improve the patient survival rate, early detection of PC is critical. The diagnosis of PC relies on computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), or biopsy or fine-needle aspiration using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Although multi-detector row computed tomography currently has a major role in the evaluation of PC, MRI with MRCP facilitates better detection of tumors at an early stage by allowing a comprehensive analysis of the morphological changes of the pancreas parenchyma and pancreatic duct. The diagnosis could be improved using positron emission tomography techniques in special conditions in which CT and EUS are not completely diagnostic. It is essential for clinicians to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various pancreatic imaging modalities in order to be able to make optimal treatment and management decisions. Our study investigates the current role and innovative techniques of pancreatic imaging focused on the detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24976723

  1. A Case of Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Risperidone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis with antipsychotic treatment is rare but sometimes causes a fatal adverse effect. Most cases of acute pancreatitis due to atypical antipsychotic agents are reported to occur within six months of starting antipsychotic administration. Acute pancreatitis caused by risperidone is rare. The patient had a high fever, stomachache and vomiting. The results of the abdominal computed tomograhpy scan were negative. The results of the abdominal ultrasonography were positive for gallstones in gallbladder and distention of the common bile duct. She had been fasting and received antibiotic intravenous injections. Amylase and lipase titers were high. After risperidone discontinuation, both the levels of the amylase and the lipase were gradually decreased. Three months later, the patient still maintains a good clinical balance. Although atypical antipsychotic-induced pancreatitis has been reported in conjunction with hyperglycemia, the pathophysiologic mechanism of these adverse events remains unclear. This case got pancreatitis 6 month after risperidone treatment. Using the antipsychotic agents, it is necessary to monitor pancreas function. PMID:24851124

  2. Predictors of coronary stent thrombosis: the Dutch Stent Thrombosis Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. van Werkum; A. A. Heestermans; A. C. Zomer; J. C. Kelder; M. J. Suttorp; B. J. Rensing; J. J. Koolen; B. R. Brueren; J. H. Dambrink; R. W. Hautvast; F. W. A. Verheugt; J. M. ten Berg

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to comprehensively identify predictors of stent thrombosis (ST). BACKGROUND: Given the devastating consequences of ST, efforts should be directed toward risk stratification to identify patients at highest risk for ST. METHODS: Consecutive patients with angiographic ST were enrolled. Patients who did not suffer from a ST were randomly selected in a 2:1 ratio and were matched

  3. Folate therapy and in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Lange; Harry Suryapranata; Giuseppe De Luca

    2004-01-01

    background Vitamin therapy to lower homocysteine levels has recently been recommended for the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. We tested the effect of a combina- tion of folic acid, vitamin B 6 , and vitamin B 12 (referred to as folate therapy) on the risk of angiographic restenosis after coronary-stent placement in a double-blind, multi- center trial. methods A

  4. Evaluation of diagnostic cytology via endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage for pancreatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Tomoyuki; Kitamura, Katsuya; Yamamiya, Akira; Ishii, Yu; Sato, Yoshiki; Nomoto, Tomohiro; Ikegami, Akitoshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of cytology of the pancreatic juice obtained via the endoscopic naso-pancreatic drainage tube (ENPD-C). METHODS: ENPD was performed in cases where a diagnosis could not be made other than by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and in cases of pancreatic neoplasms or cystic tumors, including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) suspected to have malignant potential. 35 patients (21 males and 14 females) underwent ENPD between January 2007 and June 2013. The pancreatic duct was imaged and the procedure continued in one of ENPD-C or ENPD-C plus brush cytology (ENPD-BC). We checked the cytology result and the final diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 69 years (range, 48-86 years). ENPD-C was performed in 24 cases and ENPD-C plus brush cytology (ENPD-BC) in 11 cases. The ENPD tube was inserted for an average of 3.5 d. The final diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of the resected specimen in 18 cases and of follow-up findings at least 6 mo after ENPD in the 18 inoperable cases. Malignancy was diagnosed in 21 cases and 14 patients were diagnosed as having a benign condition. The ratios of class V/IV:III:II/I?findings were 7:7:7 in malignant cases and 0:3:11 in benign cases. The sensitivity and specificity for all patients were 33.3% and 100%, respectively. The cytology-positive rate was 37.5% (6/16) for pancreatic cancer. For IPMN cases, the sensitivity and specificity were 33% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity may be further increased by adding brush cytology. Although we can diagnosis cancer in cases of a positive result, the accuracy of ENPD-C remains unsatisfactory. PMID:25132920

  5. Comparison of a New Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Metallic Stent to a Noncovered Stent in Canine Ureters

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon, E-mail: chungmic@korea.ac.kr; Lee, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sung Bum [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong Suk [Korea University, Ansan Hospital, Department of Urology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Sik [Korea University, Ansan Hospital, Department of Pathology (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Women's University, Mokdong Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Frisoli, Joan K.; Razavi, Mahmood K. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a newly designed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered metallic stent in the ureter by comparing its effectiveness with that of the noncovered stent in a canine model. We placed 14 stents in the ureters of seven mongrel dogs that weighed 30-40 kg each. The covered and noncovered stents were deployed in the right and left ureters, respectively, of six dogs. In the seventh dog, a covered stent and a double-J catheter were inserted in the right ureter, and a covered stent only was inserted in the left ureter. The first six dogs were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after deployment of the stents (two for each follow-up period), and the seventh dog was sacrificed at 30 weeks. There was no migration or poor expansion of any of the stents observed on plain radiography. On intravenous pyelogram and retrograde pyelogram, all of the covered stents at each follow-up period had patent lumens at the stented segments without hydronephrosis, and the passage of contrast material through it was well preserved. The noncovered stents in the dogs sacrificed at 5 and 10 weeks and one of the two dogs sacrificed at 15 weeks showed near-complete occlusion of the stent lumen due to ingrowth of the soft tissue, and severe hydronephrosis was also noted. The noncovered stent in the other dog sacrificed at 15 weeks showed the passage of contrast material without hydronephrosis, but the lumen of the stent was still nearly occluded by the soft tissue. There was no evidence of hydronephrosis or passage disturbance of the contrast material in both ureters of the dog sacrificed at 30 weeks. We conclude that the newly designed PTFE-covered stent effectively prevented the luminal occlusion caused by urothelial hyperplasia compared to the near-total occlusion of the noncovered stents, and no migration of the covered stents was noted.

  6. MR Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Matthias C.; Bunck, Alexander C.; Seifarth, Harald; Buerke, Boris; Kugel, Harald; Hesselmann, Volker; Köhler, Michael; Heindel, Walter; Maintz, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate stent lumen visibility of a large sample of different peripheral arterial (iliac, renal, carotid) stents using magnetic resonance angiography in vitro. Materials and Methods. 21 different stents and one stentgraft (10 nitinol, 7 316L, 2 tantalum, 1 cobalt superalloy, 1 PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1 platinum alloy) were examined in a vessel phantom (vessel diameters ranging from 5 to 13?mm) filled with a solution of Gd-DTPA. Stents were imaged at 1.5 Tesla using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Image analysis was performed measuring three categories: Signal intensity in the stent lumen, lumen visibility of the stented lumen, and homogeneity of the stented lumen. The results were classified using a 3-point scale (good, intermediate, and poor results). Results. 7 stents showed good MR lumen visibility (4x nitinol, 2x tantalum, and 1x cobalt superalloy). 9 stents showed intermediate results (5x nitinol, 2x 316L, 1x PET + cobalt superalloy, and 1x platinum alloy) and 6 stents showed poor results (1x nitinol, and 5x 316L). Conclusion. Stent lumen visibility varies depending on the stent material and type. Some products show good lumen visibility which may allow the detection of stenoses inside the lumen, while other products cause artifacts which prevent reliable evaluation of the stent lumen with this technique. PMID:22091380

  7. In Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of a Wireless Magnetoelastic Sensor Array for Plastic Biliary Stent Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Green, Scott R.; Kwon, Richard S.; Elta, Grace H.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the in vivo and in situ evaluation of a system that wirelessly monitors the accumulation of biliary sludge in a plastic biliary stent. The sensing element, located within the stent, is a passive array of magnetoelastic resonators that is queried by a wireless electromagnetic signal. The in vivo and in situ testing uses commercially-available plastic biliary stents, each enhanced with an array of ribbon sensors (formed from Metglas™ 2826MB). The sensor array is approximately 70 mm long and contains individual resonators that are 1 mm in width and have lengths of 10 mm, 14 mm, and 20 mm. The array is anchored into the 2.8 mm inner-diameter stent using a thermal staking technique. For the in situ testing, an instrumented stent is placed in various locations within the abdominal cavity of a female domestic swine carcass to evaluate the wireless range of the system; these results show that a wireless signal can be obtained from a range of at least 7.5 cm from a sensor array covered in bile. The in vivo testing includes the endoscopic implantation of an instrumented stent into the bile duct of a swine. After implantation, the swine was housed for a period of 4 weeks, during which the animal showed no ill effects and followed the expected growth curve from 29 kg to 42 kg. At the conclusion of the in vivo test, the animal was euthanized, and the instrumented stent explanted and examined. The results presented in this paper indicate that the monitoring system does not adversely affect the health of the animal and can feasibly provide sufficient wireless range after implantation. PMID:23460136

  8. Endovascular Removal of the Viatorr Stent-Grafts. Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergenfeldt, Magnus; Keussen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The dysfunction of misplaced or dislodged endovascular endoprostheses, may be a serious complication, and endovascular removal may be attempted in some cases. Case Report A Viatorr® stent-graft (Gore, Flagstaff, AR, USA) is an endoprosthesis designed and commonly used for creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Two Viatorrs were accidentally dislodged during TIPS procedure. In another patient, the Viatorr was malpositioned, with its distal end being placed in the bile duct. All endoprostheses were successfully removed without serious complications. Conclusions Removal of a misplaced or dislodged Viatorr endoprosthesis is possible using interventional methods.

  9. Pancreatitis is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Bansal; Amnon Sonnenberg

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) maintains a computerized file of all hospital discharges since 1970. In taking advantage of this large database, the present study aimed to determine whether pancreatitis is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Methods: A case control study compared the occurrence of pancreatitis in 2639 patients with pancreatic cancer and a matched

  10. Multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to pancreatic cystic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Clores, Michael J; Thosani, Amar; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are commonly encountered today with the routine use of cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The majority of patients discovered to have a pancreatic cyst are completely asymptomatic; yet the presence of such a finding instills fear in the minds of both patient and physician, as the concern for malignant transformation to pancreatic cancer is great despite the relatively low overall likelihood of cyst progression. Not all cysts in the pancreas represent pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs), and not all PCNs have significant malignant potential. Mucinous PCNs are the most concerning, as these lesions have the greatest potential for cancerous transformation to adenocarcinoma. Within the group of mucinous PCNs, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) involving the main pancreatic duct are the most worrisome, and surgical resection should be pursued if the patient has appropriate operative risks. IPMN lesions involving the branch ducts, and mucinous cystadenomas, have a lower likelihood for malignancy, and they may be closely followed for the development of any worrisome or high-risk features. Surveillance of known PCNs is performed with a combination of CT, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may be used to assess cyst fluid cytology, and also to detect cyst fluid amylase level, carcinoembryonic antigen level, and DNA molecular analysis in certain cases. The presence or absence of specific cyst morphological features, as well as the cyst fluid analysis, is what enables the physician to guide the patient towards continued surveillance, versus the pursuit of surgical resection. PMID:24520195

  11. De-novo cholangiocarcinoma in native common bile duct remnant following OLT for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Landaverde, Carmen; Ng, Vivian; Sato, Alisa; Tabibian, James; Durazo, Francisco; Busuttil, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory and obstructive disease of the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts of unknown etiology. Currently, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only definitive treatment for PSC-related end-stage liver disease. However, PSC has been known to recur in the grafted liver. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is more commonly performed than choledochocholedochostomy for PSC, although choledochocholedochostomy has been found to be safe and efficacious for PSC if the distal common bile duct is uninvolved at the time of OLT. Our case is unique in that it describes a patient who developed de-novo cholangiocarcinoma in the remnant portion of the native common bile duct six years after OLT with choledochocholedochostomy for PSC-associated end-stage liver disease without having PSC recurrence. In conclusion, our case report indicates that choledochocholedochostomy may not be desirable in PSC due to an increased risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma in the native common bile duct. This risk exists as well with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in the remaining intra-duodenal and intra-pancreatic biliary epithelium, although in theory to a lesser extent. Therefore, the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma in the recipient common bile duct can only be completely eliminated by performing a Whipple procedure at the time of OLT. PMID:20009140

  12. Roles of Cav3.2 and TRPA1 channels targeted by hydrogen sulfide in pancreatic nociceptive processing in mice with or without acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuka; Fujimura, Mayuko; Nishimura, Sachiyo; Tsubota, Maho; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), formed by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), targets Ca(v)3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T channels) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), facilitating somatic pain. Pancreatitis-related pain also appears to involve activation of T channels by H(2)S formed by the upregulated CSE. Therefore, this study investigates the roles of the Ca(v)3.2 isoform and/or TRPA1 in pancreatic nociception in the absence and presence of pancreatitis. In anesthetized mice, AP18, a TRPA1 inhibitor, abolished the Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn caused by injection of a TRPA1 agonist into the pancreatic duct. As did mibefradil, a T-channel inhibitor, in our previous report, AP18 prevented the Fos expression following ductal NaHS, an H(2)S donor. In the mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, the referred hyperalgesia was suppressed by NNC 55-0396 (NNC), a selective T-channel inhibitor; zinc chloride; or ascorbic acid, known to inhibit Ca(v)3.2 selectively among three T-channel isoforms; and knockdown of Ca(v)3.2. In contrast, AP18 and knockdown of TRPA1 had no significant effect on the cerulein-induced referred hyperalgesia, although they significantly potentiated the antihyperalgesic effect of NNC at a subeffective dose. TRPA1 but not Ca(v)3.2 in the dorsal root ganglia was downregulated at a protein level in mice with cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The data indicate that TRPA1 and Ca(v)3.2 mediate the exogenous H(2)S-induced pancreatic nociception in naïve mice and suggest that, in the mice with pancreatitis, Ca(v)3.2 targeted by H(2)S primarily participates in the pancreatic pain, whereas TRPA1 is downregulated and plays a secondary role in pancreatic nociceptive signaling. PMID:25267397

  13. What Are the Key Statistics about Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for bile duct cancer? What are the key statistics about bile duct cancer? Bile duct cancer is ... it is when it is found. For survival statistics, see the section “ Survival statistics for bile duct ...

  14. Changes in hemodynamics after placing intracranial stents.

    PubMed

    Tanemura, Hiroshi; Ishida, Fujimaro; Miura, Yoichi; Umeda, Yasuyuki; Fukazawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Hidenori; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimosaka, Shinichi; Taki, Waro

    2013-01-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization has enabled the endovascular treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms. Moreover, recent reports demonstrated that stent-assisted coil embolization was associated with a significant decrease in angiographic recurrences of coiled cerebral aneurysms. One of the possible explanations for this adjunctive effect of stent-assisted coil embolization is changes in the local hemodynamics caused by placing intracranial stents. This study investigated the hemodynamic effect of intracranial stents using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The geometry of the intracranial stent, Enterprise(TM) VRD, was acquired by using micro computed tomography and virtually placed across the aneurysm orifice of a saccular aneurysm model (saccular model) and a blister-like aneurysm model (blister-like model) constructed from patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography data. Transient CFD analysis was performed with these models with and without stents. Stent placement induced no significant changes in the 3D streamline in the saccular model and slight changes in the blister-like model. Both saccular and blister-like models with stents had lower wall shear stress (WSS) and flow velocity, and higher oscillatory shear index, WSS gradient, and relative residence time than the equivalent models without stents, indicating the possibility that stent placement induced stagnant and disturbed blood flow. Cross-sectional vector velocity around the stent strut revealed complex blood flow patterns with variable direction and velocity. Although this study was a simulation under limited conditions, similar hemodynamic changes might be induced in the neck remnants treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. PMID:23524501

  15. Staining Protocols for Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha L.; Heiple, Tiffany; Montgomery, Emily; Zhang, Li; Schneider, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of islet area and numbers and endocrine cell composition in the adult human pancreas vary from several hundred thousand to several million and beta mass ranges from 500 to 1500 mg 1-3. With this known heterogeneity, a standard processing and staining procedure was developed so that pancreatic regions were clearly defined and islets characterized using rigorous histopathology and immunolocalization examinations. Standardized procedures for processing human pancreas recovered from organ donors are described in part 1 of this series. The pancreas is processed into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by transverse sections. Transverse sections from the pancreas head are further divided, as indicated based on size, and numbered alphabetically to denote subsections. This standardization allows for a complete cross sectional analysis of the head region including the uncinate region which contains islets composed primarily of pancreatic polypeptide cells to the tail region. The current report comprises part 2 of this series and describes the procedures used for serial sectioning and histopathological characterization of the pancreatic paraffin sections with an emphasis on islet endocrine cells, replication, and T-cell infiltrates. Pathology of pancreatic sections is intended to characterize both exocrine, ductular, and endocrine components. The exocrine compartment is evaluated for the presence of pancreatitis (active or chronic), atrophy, fibrosis, and fat, as well as the duct system, particularly in relationship to the presence of pancreatic intraductal neoplasia4. Islets are evaluated for morphology, size, and density, endocrine cells, inflammation, fibrosis, amyloid, and the presence of replicating or apoptotic cells using H&E and IHC stains. The final component described in part 2 is the provision of the stained slides as digitized whole slide images. The digitized slides are organized by case and pancreas region in an online pathology database creating a virtual biobank. Access to this online collection is currently provided to over 200 clinicians and scientists involved in type 1 diabetes research. The online database provides a means for rapid and complete data sharing and for investigators to select blocks for paraffin or frozen serial sections. PMID:22665223

  16. Reintervention for occluded biliary metal stent for patients with malignant distal biliary stricture.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kei; Ogawa, Takahisa; Horaguchi, Jun; Koshita, Shinsuke; Fujita, Naotaka

    2013-05-01

    A metal stent has a longer stent patency than a plastic stent in patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary stricture. However, treatment for stent dysfunction of a metal stent remains unresolved. A review of reported articles regarding reintervention for metal stent dysfunction showed that causes of stent dysfunction included tumor ingrowth/overgrowth, stone/sludge/food impaction, and stent migration. Cleaning of the stent is associated with an early relapse of stent dysfunction. Additional placement of a covered metal stent is expected to have a longer stent patency than that of other stents such as uncovered metal stents or plastic stents. It is recommended that occluded covered metal stents be removed if possible. Stent trimming with argon plasma coagulation is sometimes useful for the treatment of stent displacement. No strategy for occluded metal stents has been established yet. Further clinical trials regarding proper treatments are necessary. PMID:23617663

  17. Flat Oval Spiral Duct Deflection 

    E-print Network

    Daugherty, Matthew

    2014-03-10

    . [18] Ducts can be used in many applications some; applications might be high temperature or even corrosive or abrasive. Ducts are generally used in industrial ventilation, air pollution, and dust collecting systems. Metals can corrode from chemicals... 3. A Blower System 4. A Data Acquisition and Control System 5. Fork Extenders 3.1 Truss Structure A 16x16 inch truss was constructed for the backbone of the structure. The struc- ture was built from 2x2x1/8 inch angle iron and 3/8 inch rod A36 steel...

  18. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Outstanding problems.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Olga P; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Egorov, Viacheslav I

    2012-05-27

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment but is only possible for 15%-20% of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. About 40% of patients have locally advanced nonresectable disease. In the past, determination of pancreatic cancer resectability was made at surgical exploration. The development of modern imaging techniques has allowed preoperative staging of patients. Institutions disagree about the criteria used to classify patients. Vascular invasion in pancreatic cancers plays a very important role in determining treatment and prognosis. There is no evidence-based consensus on the optimal preoperative imaging assessment of patients with suspected pancreatic cancer and a unified definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer is also lacking. Thus, there is much room for improvement in all aspects of treatment for pancreatic cancer. Multi-detector computed tomography has been widely accepted as the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing and staging pancreatic cancer. With improved surgical techniques and advanced perioperative management, vascular resection and reconstruction are performed more frequently; patients thought once to be unresectable are undergoing radical surgery. However, when attempting heroic surgery, a realistic approach concerning the patient's age and health status, probability of recovery after surgery, perioperative morbidity and mortality and life quality after tumor resection is necessary. PMID:22655124

  19. Hyperamylasaemia: pathognomonic to pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Burden, Sam; Poon, Anna Sau Kuk; Masood, Kausar; Didi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman, presented with a history of vomiting, abdominal mass and a significantly raised amylase, but no clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans showed an ovarian tumour, and no evidence of pancreatitis-as is often associated with a raised amylase. The patient underwent bilateral ovariectomy and hysterectomy and made a good recovery. PMID:24132440

  20. Pancreatic imaging. New modalities.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the techniques and applications of the newest pancreatic cross-sectional imaging modalities. The specific modalities that are discussed include helical computed tomography with dual phase imaging and three-dimensional computer rendering techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic and intraductal pancreatic sonography, and radionuclide scintigraphy using positron emission scanning and somatostatin-receptor imaging. PMID:10503147

  1. Performance Study of a Ducted Fan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with the objective of determining the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The model was an annular duct with a 38-in diameter, 10-in chord, and a 5-bladed fixed-pitch fan. Model variations included duct angle of attack, exit vane flap length, flap deflection angle, and duct chord length. Duct performance data were obtained for axial and forward flight test conditions. Axial flow test data showed figure of merit decreases with increasing advance ratio. Forward flight data showed an increasing propulsive force with decreasing duct angle of attack. Exit vane flap deflection angle and flap chord length were shown to be an effective way of providing side force. Extending the duct chord did not effect the duct performance.

  2. Loss of Fbw7 Reprograms Adult Pancreatic Ductal Cells into ?, ?, and ? Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Rocio; Gruber, Ralph; Gu, Guoqiang; Behrens, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The adult pancreas is capable of limited regeneration after injury but has no defined stem cell population. The cell types and molecular signals that govern the production of new pancreatic tissue are not well understood. Here, we show that inactivation of the SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate recognition component Fbw7 induces pancreatic ductal cells to reprogram into ?, ?, and ? cells. Loss of Fbw7 stabilized the transcription factor Ngn3, a key regulator of endocrine cell differentiation. The induced ? cells resemble islet ? cells in morphology and histology, express genes essential for ? cell function, and release insulin after glucose challenge. Thus, loss of Fbw7 appears to reawaken an endocrine developmental differentiation program in adult pancreatic ductal cells. Our study highlights the plasticity of seemingly differentiated adult cells, identifies Fbw7 as a master regulator of cell fate decisions in the pancreas, and reveals adult pancreatic duct cells as a latent multipotent cell type. PMID:25105579

  3. Diagnosis and management of relapsing pancreatitis associated with cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, William R

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important causes of relapsing pancreatitis is a cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. These low grade malignancies may cause pancreatitis by obstructing or communicating with a pancreatic duct. Patients with relapsing pancreatitis and a focal fluid fluid collection should be investigated for the possibility of a mucinous cystic neoplasm. Cross sectional imaging can provide a diagnosis with the imaging findings of a low attenuation cystic lesion containing mural calcification (CT scanning) or a lobular T2 enhancing lesion (MRCP). Endoscopic ultrasound can provide more detailed imaging with the ability to guide fine needle aspiration of the cyst fluid. Cyst fluid analysis can provide a diagnosis of a mucinous cystic lesion with the combination of cytology (mucinous epithelium), elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the presence of DNA mutations. Management of these patients consists of surgical resection and monitoring in patients not able to withstand surgery. PMID:18286685

  4. Metastasis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okutur, Kerem; Bozkurt, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Taner; Karaaslan, Ercan; Guner, Levent; Goksel, Suha; Demir, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Although involvement of pancreas is a common finding in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP) is very rare. A 50-year-old female with SCLC who had limited disease and achieved full response after treatment presented with acute pancreatitis during her follow-up. The radiologic studies revealed a small area causing obliteration of the pancreatic duct without mass in the pancreatic neck, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) confirmed the metastasis of SCLC. The patient was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivered to pancreatic field. In SCLC, cases of MIAP can be encountered with conventional computed tomography with no mass image, and positron emission tomography and EUS-FNA can be useful for diagnosis of such cases. Aggressive systemic and local treatment can prolong survival, especially in patients with good performance status.

  5. Pancreatic cancer...107 Chapter 10

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    NICR/NCRI Pancreatic cancer...107 Chapter 10: Pancreatic cancer (C25) KEY FINDINGS - INCIDENCE. #12;Cancer in Ireland 1994-2004: A comprehensive report 108...Pancreatic cancer 10.1: Incidence Pancreatic cancer made up 2.4% of all male and 2.6% of all female cancers (excluding NMSC) in Ireland during

  6. Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in a patient with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Meghan R; Jayaraj, Arjun; Xiong, Wei; Yeh, Matthew M; Raskind, Wendy H; Pillarisetty, Venu G

    2015-03-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that carries a risk of progression to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes such as MSH2 that lead to microsatellite instability and increased risk of tumor formation. Although families with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, a clear connection between Lynch syndrome and IPMN has not been drawn. We present a report of a 58 year-old Caucasian woman with multiple cancers and a germline mutation of MSH2 consistent with Lynch syndrome. A screening abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a dilated main pancreatic duct and cystic ductular structure in the uncinate process that were consistent with IPMN of the main pancreatic duct on excision. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction of the patient's pancreas specimen did not reveal microsatellite instability or mismatch repair gene loss of expression or function. Our findings may be explained by the fact that loss of mismatch repair function and microsatellite instability is a late event in neoplastic transformation. Given the relative rarity of main duct IPMN, its appearance in the setting of somatic MSH2 mutation suggests that IPMN may fit into the constellation of Lynch syndrome related malignancies. PMID:25759555

  7. Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in a patient with Lynch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Meghan R; Jayaraj, Arjun; Xiong, Wei; Yeh, Matthew M; Raskind, Wendy H; Pillarisetty, Venu G

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that carries a risk of progression to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes such as MSH2 that lead to microsatellite instability and increased risk of tumor formation. Although families with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, a clear connection between Lynch syndrome and IPMN has not been drawn. We present a report of a 58 year-old Caucasian woman with multiple cancers and a germline mutation of MSH2 consistent with Lynch syndrome. A screening abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a dilated main pancreatic duct and cystic ductular structure in the uncinate process that were consistent with IPMN of the main pancreatic duct on excision. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction of the patient’s pancreas specimen did not reveal microsatellite instability or mismatch repair gene loss of expression or function. Our findings may be explained by the fact that loss of mismatch repair function and microsatellite instability is a late event in neoplastic transformation. Given the relative rarity of main duct IPMN, its appearance in the setting of somatic MSH2 mutation suggests that IPMN may fit into the constellation of Lynch syndrome related malignancies. PMID:25759555

  8. Unrestricted Utilization of Sirolimus-Eluting Stents Compared With Conventional Bare Stent Implantation in the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro A. Lemos; Patrick W. Serruys; Ron T. van Domburg; Francesco Saia; Chourmouzios A. Arampatzis; Angela Hoye; Muzaffer Degertekin; Kengo Tanabe; Joost Daemen; Tommy K. K. Liu; Eugene McFadden; Georgios Sianos; Sjoerd H. Hofma; Pieter C. Smits; Willem J. van der Giessen; Pim J. de Feyter

    Background—The effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents in unselected patients treated in the daily practice is currently unknown. Methods and Results—Sirolimus-eluting stent implantation has been used as the default strategy for all percutaneous procedures in our hospital as part of the Rapamycin-Eluting Stent Evaluated At Rotterdam Cardiology Hospital (RESEARCH) registry. Consecutive patients with de novo lesions (n508) treated exclusively with sirolimus-eluting stents

  9. Review of idiopathic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Kihyuk; Enns, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of pancreatitis and advances in technology have uncovered the veils of idiopathic pancreatitis to a point where a thorough history and judicious use of diagnostic techniques elucidate the cause in over 80% of cases. This review examines the multitude of etiologies of what were once labeled idiopathic pancreatitis and provides the current evidence on each. This review begins with a background review of the current epidemiology of idiopathic pancreatitis prior to discussion of various etiologies. Etiologies of medications, infections, toxins, autoimmune disorders, vascular causes, and anatomic and functional causes are explored in detail. We conclude with management of true idiopathic pancreatitis and a summary of the various etiologic agents. Throughout this review, areas of controversies are highlighted. PMID:18081217

  10. LBNL -45423 Stopping Duct Quacks: Longevity of

    E-print Network

    of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics connections. Without these seals, duct systems would be extremely leaky and inefficient. Field studies (Jump that field studies (Walker at al. 1998) have shown that ducts located within the thermal envelope (e

  11. Surgical management of persistent müllerian duct syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Vandersteen; Amy K. Chaumeton; Karen Ireland; Edward S. Tank

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the optimal surgical management of the testes and müllerian duct structures in patients with persistent müllerian duct syndrome.Methods. We performed a comprehensive Medline literature search regarding the surgical management of persistent müllerian duct syndrome and extracted information regarding the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disorder. We specifically assessed the risks of retained müllerian structures versus surgical

  12. Changes of Flow Characteristics by Stenting in Aneurysm Models: Influence of Aneurysm Geometry and Stent Porosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyehan Rhee; Moon Hee Han; Sang Hoon Cha

    2002-01-01

    An endovascular technique using a stent has been developed and successfully applied in the treatment of wide neck aneurysms. A stent can facilitate thrombosis in the aneurysm pouch while maintaining biocompatible passage of the parent artery. Insertion of the stent changes the flow characteristics inside the aneurysm pouch, which can affect the intra-aneurysmal embolization process. The purpose of this study

  13. A Case of Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia That Was Difficult to Diagnose Preoperatively

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawashima, Yohei; Maruno, Atsuko; Ogawa, Masami; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Mine, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old female patient presented to a local physician with pain in her back and epigastric region. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a pancreatic tumor, and the patient was referred to our hospital. Multiple imaging studies that included ultrasonography (US), CT, MRI, and endoscopic US revealed a cystic lesion 3–4 cm in size with node-like projections in the body of the pancreas. The distal main pancreatic duct was also found to be dilated. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed an irregular stenosis of the main pancreatic duct proximal to the cystic lesion, and malignancy was suspected. The patient was preoperatively diagnosed with pancreatic ductal carcinoma concomitant with intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma, and a distal pancreatectomy was performed. Rapid pathological diagnosis during surgery revealed positive surgical margins for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Further resection was performed twice, her surgical margin was positive and total pancreatectomy was ultimately conducted. Histopathological findings revealed diffuse microinvasive cancerous lesions corresponding to PanIN-2 (moderate dysplasia) to PanIN-3 (carcinoma in situ) throughout the pancreas. PanIN involves microlesions of the ductal epithelium that may precede pancreatic cancer. Ascertaining changes in PanIN using images provided by diagnostic modalities such as CT and US is challenging. Ductal stenosis and distal cystic lesions resulting from atrophy and fibrosis of pancreatic tissue were noted around PanIN. Considering the possibility of PanIN, a precancerous lesion during differential diagnosis will help to improve early detection and prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25762925

  14. Small-Sized, Flat-Type Invasive Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Koji; Ueda, Junji; Aishima, Shinichi; Aso, Akira; Ohtsuka, Takao; Takahata, Shunichi; Ishigami, Kousei; Oda, Yoshinao; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in diagnostic modalities are increasing the frequency of detection of small-sized branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs). International consensus guidelines for IPMN recommend surveillance without immediate resection for small-sized (<3 cm) BD-IPMNs without malignant features on imaging. Our patient is the first to have undergone resection of a small-sized BD-IPMN containing invasive cancer, but without malignant features on imaging. We herein report a case involving a 70-year-old man with a small cystic lesion in the pancreas head detected by health screening ultrasonography. Detailed examination revealed that the cystic lesion was a BD-IPMN measuring about 2 cm, with no malignant features. However, cytological examination of the pancreatic juice showed atypical cells with high-grade dysplasia storing intracytoplasmic mucin, indicating malignant BD-IPMN. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a BD-IPMN measuring 16 mm with an associated invasive carcinoma that invaded the pancreatic parenchyma over a distance of 11 mm. In this patient, invasive cancer was present within a small BD-IPMN with no high-risk stigmata on imaging. Cytological examination of the pancreatic juice allowed for the detection of pancreatic cancer in such a small-sized IPMN. Although routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with cytology is not recommended in all patients with BD-IPMNs, ERCP may contribute to the detection of small pancreatic cancers in select cases. Accumulation of cases of pancreatic cancer within small BD-IPMNs may help establish the indications for ERCP with cytological examination for the purpose of early detection of small pancreatic cancer. PMID:24403884

  15. Prevention of stent thrombosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Reejhsinghani, Risheen; Lotfi, Amir S

    2015-01-01

    Stent thrombosis is an uncommon but serious complication which carries with it significant mortality and morbidity. This review analyzes the entity of stent thrombosis from a historical and clinical perspective, and chronicles the evolution of this condition through the various generations of stent development, from bare metal to first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation drug-eluting stents. It also delineates the specific risk factors associated with stent thrombosis and comprehensively examines the literature related to each of these risks. Finally, it highlights the preventative strategies that can be garnered from the existing data, and concludes that a multifactorial approach is necessary to combat the occurrence of stent thrombosis, with higher risk groups, such as patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, meriting further research. PMID:25657588

  16. The future of drug eluting stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R R Anis; K R Karsch

    2006-01-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is the major drawback of percutaneous coronary interventions, occurring in 10–40% of patients. Drug eluting stents (DES) are successful in a large majority of patients in preventing restenosis for the first year after implantation. Recently, new stents have emerged that are loaded with anti-inflammatory, antimigratory, antiproliferative, or pro-healing drugs. These drugs are supposed to inhibit inflammation and

  17. Peripheral Stent Placement in Hemodialysis Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: shuuji@ops.dti.ne.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Komemushi, Atsushi; Shomura, Yuzo [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Shiraishi, Tomokuni [Ishikiriseiki Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kawanaka, Toshiaki [Ishikiriseiki Hospital, Department of Urology (Japan); Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of peripheral stent placement after failed balloon angioplasty in patients with grafts who are on hemodialysis. We examined 30 Wallstents that were placed in 26 patients because balloon angioplasty failed or early restenosis (<3 months) occurred within 3 months. We retrospectively reviewed 267 consecutive balloon angioplasties performed in 71 patients with graft access between August 2000 and March 2007. Stent placements accounted for 30 (11.2%) of the 267 balloon angioplasties. The clinical success rate of stent placement was 93.3% (28 of 30 stent placements). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary patency rates were 73.3%, 39.3%, and 17.7%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year secondary patency rates were 90.2%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Primary patency was significantly prolonged by stent placement after early restenosis compared with previous balloon angioplasty alone (P = 0.0059). Primary patency after stent placement was significantly lower than after successful balloon angioplasty without indications for stent placement (P = 0.0279). Secondary patency rates did not significantly differ between stent placement and balloon angioplasty alone. The mean number of reinterventions required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement was significantly larger than that after balloon angioplasty alone (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0419). We concluded that peripheral stent placement for graft access is effective for salvaging vascular access after failed balloon angioplasty and for prolonging patency in early restenosis after balloon angioplasty. However, reinterventions are required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement. Furthermore, peripheral stent placement for graft access cannot achieve the same primary patency as balloon angioplasty alone.

  18. Ducted propeller design and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The theory and implementation of the design of a ducted propeller blade are presented and discussed. Straightener (anti-torque) vane design is also discussed. Comparisons are made to an existing propeller design and the results and performance of two example propeller blades are given. The inflow velocity at the propeller plane is given special attention and two dimensionless parameters independent of

  19. Duct injection technology prototype development

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Proton Pump Inhibitors Inhibit Pancreatic Secretion: Role of Gastric and Non-Gastric H+/K+-ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Marco; Giannuzzo, Andrea; Sørensen, Christiane E.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which pancreas secretes high HCO3- has not been fully resolved. This alkaline secretion, formed in pancreatic ducts, can be achieved by transporting HCO3- from serosa to mucosa or by moving H+ in the opposite direction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether H+/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HK?1 and HK? subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HK?2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar localizations in duct cell monolayers (Capan-1) and human pancreas, and notably the gastric pumps are localized on the luminal membranes. In Capan-1 cells, PPIs inhibited recovery of intracellular pH from acidosis. Furthermore, in rats treated with PPIs, pancreatic secretion was inhibited but concentrations of major ions in secretion follow similar excretory curves in control and PPI treated animals. In addition to HCO3-, pancreas also secretes K+. In conclusion, this study calls for a revision of the basic model for HCO3- secretion. We propose that proton transport is driving secretion, and that in addition it may provide a protective pH buffer zone and K+ recirculation. Furthermore, it seems relevant to re-evaluate whether PPIs should be used in treatment therapies where pancreatic functions are already compromised. PMID:25993003

  1. In vivo imaging of pancreatic endocrine islets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiger, Martin; Goulley, Joan; Pache, Christophe; Friedrich, Michael; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Meda, Paolo; Leitgeb, Rainer; Lasser, Theo

    2009-07-01

    Extended focus optical coherence microscope (xfOCM) circumvents the compromise between lateral resolution and depth of field by us of a Bessel-like illumination beam. The high sensitivity and parallel depth profiling of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography are preserved, and combined with high isotropic resolution of 1.5 - 2 ?m. To comply with the requirements for in vivo measurements, beam scanning had to be implemented. We then performed measurements, first of excised pancreas, validated by standard immunohistochemistry, to investigate the structures that can be observed. For a quantitative analysis, a semi-automatic islet detection algorithm evaluated the islet size, position, contrast and homogeneity. The influence of streptozotocin on the signature of the islets was investigated in a next step. Finally, xfOCM was applied to make measurements of the murine pancreas in situ and in vivo, visualizing pancreatic lobules, ducts, blood vessels and individual islets of Langerhans.

  2. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic and biliary tract disease in Korean children

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Joo Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the indications, findings, therapeutic procedures, safety, and complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed in Korean children. METHODS: The demographic characteristics, indications for ERCP, findings, therapeutic procedures, and complications of 122 pediatric patients who underwent 245 ERCPs in the Asan Medical Center between June 1994 and March 2008 were investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the 122 patients was 8.0 ± 4.2 years. Indications were biliary pathology in 78 (64.0%), pancreatic pathology in 43 (35.2%), and chronic abdominal pain in one. Biliary indications included choledochal cysts in 40, choledocholithiasis in 24, suspected sclerosing cholangitis in 8, trauma in 2, and other conditions in 4. Pancreatic indications included acute pancreatitis in 7, acute recurrent pancreatitis in 11, chronic pancreatitis in 20, trauma in 3, and pancreatic mass in 2. Of the 245 ERCPs, success rate was 98.4% and 190 (77.6%) were for therapeutic purposes, including endoscopic nasal drainage (51.8%), biliary sphincterotomy (38.0%), pancreatic sphincterotomy (23.3%), stent insertion (15.1%), stone extraction (18.8%), and balloon dilatation (11.0%). Complications were post-ERCP pancreatitis in 16 (6.5%), ileus in 23 (9.4%), hemorrhage in 2 (0.8%), perforation in 2 (0.8%), sepsis in 1 (0.4%), and impacted basket in 1 (0.4%). There were no procedure-related deaths, and most complications improved under supportive care. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is a high incidence of choledochal cyst and diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP for the management of various biliary and pancreatic diseases was safe and effective in Korean children. PMID:20101777

  3. Fatal Pancreatic Panniculitis Associated with Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Sun; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Woo; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare disease in which necrosis of fat in the panniculus and other distant foci occurs in the setting of pancreatic diseases; these diseases include acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, pseudocyst, and other pancreatic diseases. This malady is manifested as tender erythematous nodules on the legs, buttock, or trunk. Histopathologically, it shows the pathognomonic findings of focal subcutaneous fat necrosis and ghost-like anucleated cells with a thick shadowy wall. We herein report a case of fatal pancreatic panniculitis that was associated with acute pancreatitis in a 50-yr-old man. He presented with a 3-week history of multiple tender skin nodules, abdominal pain and distension. Laboratory and radiologic findings revealed acute pancreatitis, and skin biopsy showed pancreatic panniculitis. Despite intensive medical care, he died of multi-organ failure 3 weeks after presentation. PMID:17982246

  4. Pleuropulmonary complications of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Michael D.

    1968-01-01

    Pancreatitis, in common with many other upper abdominal diseases, often leads to pleuropulmonary complications. Radiological evidence of pleuropulmonary abnormality was found in 55% of 58 cases examined retrospectively. The majority of such abnormalities are not specific for pancreatitis; but a particular category of pleural effusions, rich in pancreatic enzymes, is a notable exception. A patient with this type of effusion, complicated by a spontaneous bronchopleural fistula and then by an empyema, is reported. The literature relating to pancreatic enzyme-rich pleural effusions (pathognomonic of pancreatitis) is reviewed. Of several possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, transdiaphragmatic lymphatic transfer of pancreatic enzymes, intrapleural rupture of mediastinal extensions of pseudocysts, and diaphragmatic perforation are the most important. The measurement of pleural fluid amylase, at present little employed in this country, has considerable diagnostic value. Enzyme-rich effusions are more commonly left-sided, are often blood-stained, are frequently associated with pancreatic pseudocysts, and—if long standing—may be complicated by a bronchopleural fistula. Images PMID:4872925

  5. Spontaneous Bile Duct Rupture in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Liechty, R. Dale

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous bile duct rupture occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration, T-tube placement, and Roux-En-Y ductal anastomosis if disruption is extensive. PMID:2152327

  6. Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer Can pancreatic cancer be found early? Pancreatic cancer is hard to ... Testing: What You Need to Know . Testing for pancreatic cancer in people at high risk For people in ...

  7. Molecular Profiling of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and Chronic Pancreatitis Identifies Multiple Genes Differentially Regulated in Pancreatic Cancer 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. Logsdon; Diane M. Simeone; Charles Binkley; Thiruvengadam Arumugam; Joel K. Greenson; Thomas J. Giordano; David E. Misek; Samir Hanash

    2003-01-01

    The molecular basis of pancreatic cancer is not understood. Previous attempts to determine the specific genes expressed in pancreatic cancer have been hampered by similarities between adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. In the current study, microarrays (Affymetrix) were used to profile gene expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (10), pancreatic cancer cell lines (7), chronic pancreatitis (5), and normal pancreas (5). Molecular profiling

  8. Inhibition of KL-6/MUC1 glycosylation limits aggressive progression of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan-Li; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Ming; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the significance of KL-6/MUC1 (a type of MUC1) glycosylation in pancreatic cancer progression. METHODS: KL-6/MUC1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 48 patients with pancreatic duct cell carcinoma. The N-/O-glycosylation inhibitors (tunicamycin and benzyl-N-acetyl-?-galactosaminide) were then used to interfere with KL-6/MUC1 glycosylation in two pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, and the effects on KL-6/MUC1 expression, and cell adhesion and invasion were determined. In addition, protein expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers, E-cadherin and vimentin, were evaluated in cells after treatment with glycosylation inhibitors. RESULTS: Overexpression of KL-6/MUC1 was found in all pancreatic cancer tissues, but not in the surrounding normal pancreatic tissues. The expression profile of KL-6/MUC1 was significantly decreased after treatment with the inhibitors. The adhesion and invasive ability of cancer cells were significantly decreased after drug treatment, and increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin expression were found. CONCLUSION: KL-6/MUC1 glycosylation is involved in pancreatic cancer metastasis and invasion. Therapeutic strategies which target this may help control the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:25232251

  9. The regulatory role of immunosuppressants on immune abnormalities in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    DUAN, LIGENG; MA, YU; CHI, JUNLIN; WANG, XU; WESLEY, ALEXANDER J.; CHEN, XIAOLI

    2014-01-01

    The uncontrolled progression of the inflammatory cascade is the main cause underlying the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in acute pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effects of several immunosuppressants on mitigating the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome (SIRS) and the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) associated with acute pancreatitis. A total of 93 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 was the sham group and group 2 underwent laparoscopic intrapancreatic duct injection of sodium taurocholate to induce pancreatitis. The remaining 3 groups were the same as group 2, with the addition of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide or methotrexate treatment (metastab, CTX or MTX groups, respectively). Following establishment of the acute pancreatitis model, the serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were found to be significantly elevated. Following immunosuppressant administration, the levels of all inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines investigated in groups 3, 4 and 5 were decreased compared to those in group 2. The pancreatic amylase levels and pancreatic wet weight (PWW) were also decreased in groups 3, 4 and 5 compared to those in group 2. Therefore, immunosuppressants may reduce inflammation-related cytokine levels in acute pancreatitis and relieve disease progression. PMID:24649095

  10. Role of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle tattooing of a pancreatic head insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Leelasinjaroen, Pornchai; Manatsathit, Wuttiporn; Berri, Richard; Barawi, Mohammed; Gress, Frank G

    2014-10-16

    Although insulinomas are rare, they are the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, with an incidence of four cases per million population. Insulinomas are generally benign indolent intrapancreatic tumors. Surgical resection remains the main option for treatment. However, up to 67% of a pancreatic head insulinomas are nonpalpable, thus surgical resection of the nonplapable insulinoma in this area could become problematic resulting in prolonged surgical time, increased risk of pancreatic duct injury and need for pancreaticoduodenectomy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine- needle tattooing (EUS-FNT), has been shown to have a crucial role for localization of pancreatic body and tail lesions, facilitating laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and helping surgeons identify the location of the tumor. EUS-FNT might have a role for preoperative localization of pancreatic head insulinomas which are likely to be nonpalpable. We report a case of preoperative EUS-FNT for localization of a nonplapable pancreatic head insulinoma. This report demonstrates that EUS-FNT of pancreatic head insulinomas may facilitate surgical resection, reduce operative time and decrease surgical complications. PMID:25324923

  11. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    ?urlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-11-28

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

  12. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surlin, Valeriu; S?ftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end, bile duct microscopic analysis may be performed by bile harvested during ERCP in case of recurrent attacks of ABP and these should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25469022

  13. Computed tomography in the diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current techniques and results of helical CT in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma of the intra and extrahepatic biliary ducts. CT has a diagnostic accuracy rate of over 95% for detection and diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and close to 100% in staging unresectable tumors. The accuracy of staging surgically resectable tumors is about 80%. Accuracy of determining the level of biliary obstruction caused by cholangiocarcinoma is close to 100%. The accuracy of making a specific diagnosis is about 78%. PMID:10436776

  14. Interlocking Stents for Improving Stent Fixation at Graft-Venous Anastomosis

    SciTech Connect

    Eyal, Abraham; Hebron, Dan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, 7 Michal Street, Haifa 34362 (Israel)

    1998-03-15

    To lower the risk of stent migration in a graft-venous anastomosis stenosis following failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, two Strecker stents of different caliber were placed in partly overlapping fashion across the stenosis. In contrast to other methods, stent 'floating' on the venous side was eliminated by using a stent with a caliber matching the tapering postanastomotic vein and anchoring it to both the venous wall and the second stent. Using this method we believe we accomplished better fixation of the stent placed mostly in the venous side of the anastomosis, thus lowering its risk of migration. At 6 months follow-up the stents are in place and the anastomosis is patent.

  15. Carotid artery stenting: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Morr, Simon; Lin, Ning; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting technologies are rapidly evolving. Options for endovascular surgeons and interventionists who treat occlusive carotid disease continue to expand. We here present an update and overview of carotid stenting devices. Evidence supporting carotid stenting includes randomized controlled trials that compare endovascular stenting to open surgical endarterectomy. Carotid technologies addressed include the carotid stents themselves as well as adjunct neuroprotective devices. Aspects of stent technology include bare-metal versus covered stents, stent tapering, and free-cell area. Drug-eluting and cutting balloon indications are described. Embolization protection options and new direct carotid access strategies are reviewed. Adjunct technologies, such as intravascular ultrasound imaging and risk stratification algorithms, are discussed. Bare-metal and covered stents provide unique advantages and disadvantages. Stent tapering may allow for a more fitted contour to the caliber decrement between the common carotid and internal carotid arteries but also introduces new technical challenges. Studies regarding free-cell area are conflicting with respect to benefits and associated risk; clinical relevance of associated adverse effects associated with either type is unclear. Embolization protection strategies include distal filter protection and flow reversal. Though flow reversal was initially met with some skepticism, it has gained wider acceptance and may provide the advantage of not crossing the carotid lesion before protection is established. New direct carotid access techniques address difficult anatomy and incorporate sophisticated flow-reversal embolization protection techniques. Carotid stenting is a new and exciting field with rapidly advancing technologies. Embolization protection, low-risk deployment, and lesion assessment and stratification are active areas of research. Ample room remains for further innovations and developments. PMID:25349483

  16. Comparison of bare metal stent and paclitaxel-eluting stent using a novel rat aorta stent model

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin Sook; Park, Rho Kwan; Shim, Tae Jin; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to create a novel rat aorta stent implantation model. Stainless steel bare metal stents (BMS) or paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (BW 400 ± 20 g). Two and four weeks after stent implantation, the aorta were collected, fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde, and cut into two segments. One segment was used for scanning electron microscopy analysis to evaluate re-endothelialization, and the other segment was used to calculate the neointimal area. At 2 weeks after stenting, the appearance of neointimal hyperplasia was less in the PES group than in the BMS group. At 4 weeks after stenting, no significant difference in neointimal hyperplasia was observed between two groups. On the other hand, the PES group showed more thrombus formation and less re-endothelialization compared to the BMS group. This study demonstrated the ability of a novel rat model of aorta stenting via a common carotid artery to measure the efficacy and safety of commercially available drug-eluting stents. PMID:21586873

  17. Pancreatic fistula and postoperative pancreatitis after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudis, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The most serious complication after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is pancreatic fistula (PF) type C, either as a consequence or independently from postoperative pancreatitis (PP). Differentiating between these two types of complications is often very difficult, if not impossible. The most significant factor in early diagnosis of PP after PD is an abrupt change in clinical status. In our retrospective study we also observed significantly higher levels of serum concentrations of CRP and AMS comparing to PF without PP. Based on our findings, CT scan is not beneficial in the early diagnosis of PP. Meantime PF type C is indication to operative revision with mostly drainage procedure which is obviously not much technically demanding, there are no definite guidelines on how to proceed in PP. Therefore the surgeon’s experience determines not only whether PP will be diagnosed early enough and will be differentiated from PF without PP, but also whether a completion pancreatectomy will be performed in indicated cases. PMID:25392838

  18. Ductal Stent Implantation in Tetralogy of Fallot with Aortic Arch Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Ergul, Yakup; Saygi, Murat; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Odemis, Ender

    2015-06-01

    Stenting of patent ductus arteriosus is an alternative to palliative cardiac surgery in newborns with duct-dependent or decreased pulmonary circulation; however, the use of this technique in patients with an aortic arch abnormality presents a challenge. Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is frequently associated with anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches. The association is even more common in patients with chromosome 22q11 deletion. We present the case of an 18-day-old male infant who had cyanosis and a heart murmur. After an initial echocardiographic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and right-sided aortic arch. The pulmonary annulus and the main pulmonary artery and its branches were slightly hypoplastic; the ductus arteriosus was small. Conventional and computed tomographic angiograms revealed a double aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. The right aortic arch branched into the subclavian arteries and continued into the descending aorta, whereas the left aortic arch branched into the common carotid arteries and ended with the patent ductus arteriosus. After evaluation of the ductal anatomy, we implanted a 3.5 × 15-mm coronary stent in the duct. Follow-up injections showed augmented pulmonary flow and an increase in oxygen saturation from 65% to 94%. The patient was also found to have chromosome 22q11 deletion. PMID:26175649

  19. Initial Experience with the Resonance Metallic Stent for Antegrade Ureteric Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Tze M., E-mail: Tze.Wah@leedsth.nhs.uk; Irving, Henry C. [St. James's University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Cartledge, Jon [St. James's University Hospital, Department of Urology (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Background and purpose. We describe our initial experience with a new metallic ureteric stent which has been designed to provide long-term urinary drainage in patients with malignant ureteric strictures. The aim is to achieve longer primary patency rates than conventional polyurethane ureteric stents, where encrustation and compression by malignant masses limit primary patency. The Resonance metallic double-pigtail ureteric stent (Cook, Ireland) is constructed from coiled wire spirals of a corrosion-resistant alloy designed to minimize tissue in-growth and resist encrustation, and the manufacturer recommends interval stent change at 12 months. Methods. Seventeen Resonance stents were inserted via an antegrade approach into 15 patients between December 2004 and March 2006. The causes of ureteric obstruction were malignancies of the bladder (n = 4), colon (n = 3), gynecologic (n = 5), and others (n = 3). Results. One patient had the stent changed after 12 months, and 3 patients had their stents changed at 6 months. These stents were draining adequately with minimal encrustation. Four patients are still alive with functioning stents in situ for 2-10 months. Seven patients died with functioning stents in place (follow-up periods of 1 week to 8 months). Three stents failed from the outset due to bulky pelvic malignancy resulting in high intravesical pressure, as occurs with conventional plastic stents. Conclusion. Our initial experience with the Resonance metallic ureteric stent indicates that it may provide adequate long-term urinary drainage (up to 12 months) in patients with malignant ureteric obstruction but without significantly bulky pelvic disease. This obviates the need for regular stent changes and would offer significant benefit for these patients with limited life expectancy.

  20. [Acute hypertrygliceridemic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Senosiain Lalastra, Carla; Tavío Hernández, Eduardo; Moreira Vicente, Victor; Maroto Castellanos, Maite; García Sánchez, Maria Concepción; Aicart Ramos, Marta; Téllez Vivajos, Luis; Cuño Roldán, José Luis

    2013-04-01

    Acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis is the third cause of acute pancreatitis in the Western population. There is usually an underlying alteration in lipid metabolism and a secondary factor. Clinical presentation is similar to that of pancreatitis of other etiologies, but the course of acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis seems to be worse and more recurrent. Some laboratory data can be artefacts, leading to diagnostic errors. This is the case of amylase, which can show false low levels. Treatment is based on intense fluidotherapy and analgesia. When there is no response to conservative management, other methods to lower triglyceride levels should be used. Several options are available, such as plasmapheresis, insulin, and heparin. The present article provides a review of the current literature on this entity. PMID:23522394

  1. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allo-transplantation?" For each pancreatic islet allo-transplant infusion, researchers use specialized enzymes to remove islets from ... in a lab. Transplant patients typically receive two infusions with an average of 400,000 to 500, ...

  2. Oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity in pancreatic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shields, DJ; Murphy, EA; Desgrosellier, JS; Mielgo, A; Lau, SKM; Barnes, LA; Lesperance, J; Huang, M; Schmedt, C; Tarin, D; Lowy, AM; Cheresh, DA

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and is characterized by activating mutations of Kras, present in 95% of patients. More than 60% of pancreatic cancers also display increased c-Src activity, which is associated with poor prognosis. Although loss of tumor suppressor function (for example, p16, p53, Smad4) combined with oncogenic Kras signaling has been shown to accelerate pancreatic duct carcinogenesis, it is unclear whether elevated Src activity contributes to Kras-dependent tumorigenesis or is simply a biomarker of disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that in the context of oncogenic Kras, activation of c-Src through deletion of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) results in the development of invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) by 5–8 weeks. In contrast, deletion of CSK alone fails to induce neoplasia, while oncogenic Kras expression yields PDA at low frequency after a latency of 12 months. Analysis of cell lines derived from Ras/Src-induced PDA’s indicates that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity may lead to genomic instability, yet Ras/Src-driven tumor cells remain dependent on Src signaling and as such, Src inhibition suppresses growth of Ras/Src-driven tumors. These findings demonstrate that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperate to accelerate PDA onset and support further studies of Src-directed therapies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21242978

  3. Oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity in pancreatic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Shields, D J; Murphy, E A; Desgrosellier, J S; Mielgo, A; Lau, S K M; Barnes, L A; Lesperance, J; Huang, M; Schmedt, C; Tarin, D; Lowy, A M; Cheresh, D A

    2011-05-01

    Pancreas cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and is characterized by activating mutations of Kras, present in 95% of patients. More than 60% of pancreatic cancers also display increased c-Src activity, which is associated with poor prognosis. Although loss of tumor suppressor function (for example, p16, p53, Smad4) combined with oncogenic Kras signaling has been shown to accelerate pancreatic duct carcinogenesis, it is unclear whether elevated Src activity contributes to Kras-dependent tumorigenesis or is simply a biomarker of disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that in the context of oncogenic Kras, activation of c-Src through deletion of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) results in the development of invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) by 5-8 weeks. In contrast, deletion of CSK alone fails to induce neoplasia, while oncogenic Kras expression yields PDA at low frequency after a latency of 12 months. Analysis of cell lines derived from Ras/Src-induced PDA's indicates that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity may lead to genomic instability, yet Ras/Src-driven tumor cells remain dependent on Src signaling and as such, Src inhibition suppresses growth of Ras/Src-driven tumors. These findings demonstrate that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperate to accelerate PDA onset and support further studies of Src-directed therapies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21242978

  4. Stent Graft in Managing Juxta-Renal Aortoiliac Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhudesai, V., E-mail: v_prabhudesai@hotmail.com; Mitra, K.; West, D. J. [NorthStaffordshire Hospital NHS Trust, Newcastle-under-Lyme, ST4 6QG, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Dean, M. R. E. [Royal ShrewsburyHospital, Mytton Oak Road, Shrewsbury, SY3 8XQ (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    Endovascular procedures are frequently used as an alternative to surgical bypass in aortic and iliac occlusion. Stents have revolutionized the scope of such endovascular procedures, but there are few reports of stents or stent grafts in occlusive juxta-renal aortic occlusion. We present a case where such occlusion was managed by use of a stent graft with successful outcome.

  5. Tear-ducts in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John W. M.

    1999-11-01

    We examine the radial spoke pattern evident in the meniscus region in glasses of strong alcoholic beverages exhibiting the `tears-in-wine' phenomenon. We demonstrate that the pattern results from ridge-like elevations of the free surface which are supported by evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection in the meniscus region. Vortices associated with the convective motions are aligned in the radial direction by the surface tension gradient responsible for the generation of tears. The radial flow is focussed into the ridges, which thus serve as the principal conduits of fluid for the tears; consequently, we refer to the ridges as `tear-ducts'. The phenomenon is examined experimentally, and a numerical model of evaporatively-driven Marangoni convection is developed which reproduces the salient features of the tear-duct phenomenon.

  6. Neonatal prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Kumar, Hemant; Sinha, C K; Patricolo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    A case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with vomiting and poor weight gain with partial intestinal obstruction and a flower like pink, prolapsing lesion at his umbilicus has been reported. A limited contrast study through the tubular structure confirmed it to be a PVID. He underwent transumbilical exploration and resection and anastomosis uneventfully. Persistence of the vitellointestinal duct as a whole or part of it leads to a wide variety of anomalies–Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest lesion and a PVID is the rarest. Umbilical cord clamping flush with the abdominal wall may convert a Meckel's diverticulum prolapsing in the base of umbilical ring into a PVID. Careful assessment should be made for associated anomalies. Transumbilical exploration gives the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23845681

  7. Curative Chemoradiotherapy of Primary Pancreatic Lymphoma with Vertebral Metastasis: Palliation of Persistent Biliary Stricture by Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Güven, Koray; Ozden, Ilgin; Do?an, Oner; Gök, Kaan; Demir, Cumhur; Emre, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare tumor that usually presents with the clinical picture of advanced adenocarcinoma but has a much better prognosis. A 38-year-old man was referred after percutaneous transhepatic external biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography had revealed a 5-cm pancreatic head mass that caused biliary tract dilation. Computed tomography angiography showed that the mass encased the celiac trunk as well as the common hepatic and splenic arteries. MRI also revealed a metastatic lesion at the third lumbar vertebra. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were within normal range. The initial diagnosis was inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; however, Tru-Cut pancreatic biopsy showed a large B cell lymphoma. After 6 sessions of chemotherapy and 21 sessions of radiotherapy, both the pancreatic mass and the vertebral metastasis had disappeared. However, he had persistent distal common bile duct stricture that could not be negotiated by either the endoscopic or percutaneous route. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. The patient stayed alive without recurrence for 52 months after the initial diagnosis and 45 months after completion of oncologic treatment. In conclusion, a large pancreatic mass with grossly involved peripancreatic lymph nodes, without ascites, liver or splenic metastasis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of PPL. Cure is possible by chemoradiotherapy even in the presence of vertebral metastasis. Persistent stricture in the distal common bile duct may require a biliodigestive anastomosis. PMID:22171216

  8. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... against the inside wall of your artery. This opens the artery and sends proper blood flow to your brain. A stent (a wire mesh tube) may also be placed in the blocked area. The stent is inserted ... keep the artery open. The surgeon then removes the balloon.

  9. Microfabrication and Nanotechnology in Stent Design

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Adam W.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular stents were first introduced in the 1980s as an adjunct to primary angioplasty for management of early complications, including arterial dissection, or treatment of an inadequate technical outcome due to early elastic recoil of the atherosclerotic lesion. Despite the beneficial effects of stenting, persistent high rates of restenosis motivated the design of drug eluting stents for delivery of agents to limit the proliferative and other inflammatory responses within the vascular wall that contribute to the development of a restenotic lesion. These strategies have yielded a significant reduction in the incidence of restenosis, but challenges remain, including incomplete repair of the endothelium at the site of vascular wall injury that may be associated with a late risk of thrombosis. A failure of vessel wall healing has been attributed to primarily to the use of polymeric stent coatings, but the effects of the eluted drug and other material properties or design features of the stent cannot be excluded. Improvements in stent microfabrication, as well as the introduction of alternative materials may help to address those limitations that inhibit stent performance. This review describes the application of novel microfabrication processes and the evolution of new nanotechnologies that hold significant promise in eliminating existing shortcomings of current stent platforms. PMID:21462356

  10. Changes in the Expression of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in the Occurrence and Progression of Pancreatic Cancer in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Zhe-Yu, Niu; Qiao-Fei, Liu; Meng-Yi, Wang; Li, Zhou; Lu-Tian, Yao; Quan, Liao; Yu-Pei, Zhao

    2015-06-30

    Objective To investigate the changes in the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the occurrence and progression of pancreatic cancer in mouse models.Methods The mouse models of chronic pancreatitis,pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN),and pancreatic cancer were successfully established by dimethyl benzene and anthracene (DMBA) embedding in situ. GRP78 expression was detected in various stages by immunohistochemistry. Results Of these 60 mouse models,18 mice (30%) died during the observation period. Two months after the embedding,the survived mice were sacrificed,and HE staining and IHC staining were performed. Among these mice,9 (15%) developed chronic pancreatitis;18 (30%) had PanIN [PanIN1,5 (8.3%);PanIN2,9 (15%);and PanIN 3,4 (6.7%)];15 (25%) developed pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of GRP78 in pancreatic cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous duct cells (?(2)=13.39,P =0.000). Also,GRP78 expression in pancreatic cancer tissue and high grade PanIN was significantly higher than that in low grade PanIN and chronic pancreatitis (?(2)=17.84,P=0.000). Conclusion The expression of GRP78 remarkably differs in different stages of pancreatic cancer and therefore is associated with the occurrence and progression of this disease. PMID:26149133

  11. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation alone without sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethal pancreatitis has been reported after treatment for common bile duct stones using small endoscopic papillary balloon dilation. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of using large balloon dilation alone without the use of sphincterotomy for the treatment of large common bile duct stones in Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. Success rate of stone clearance, procedure-related adverse events and incidents, frequency of mechanical lithotripsy use, and recurrent stones were recorded. Results A total of 247 patients were reviewed in the current study. The mean age of the patients was 71.2 years. Most of them had comorbidities. Mean stone size was 16.4 mm. Among the patients, 132 (53.4%) had an intact gallbladder and 121 (49%) had a juxtapapillary diverticulum. The mean size of dilating balloon used was 13.2 mm. The mean duration of the dilating procedure was 4.7 min. There were 39 (15.8%) patients required the help of mechanical lithotripsy while retrieving the stones. The final success rate of complete retrieval of stones was 92.7%. The rate of pancreatic duct enhancement was 26.7% (66/247). There were 3 (1.2%) adverse events and 6 (2.4%) intra-procedure bleeding incidents. All patients recovered completely after conservative and endoscopic treatment respectively, and no procedure-related mortality was noted. 172 patients had a follow-up duration of more than 6 months and among these, 25 patients had recurrent common bile duct stones. It was significantly correlated to the common bile duct size (p = 0.036) Conclusions Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation alone is simple, safe, and effective in dealing with large common bile duct stones in relatively aged and debilitated patients. PMID:21668994

  12. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    García-Cano, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Biliary fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are now being used to treat several benign biliary conditions. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters in addition to an easy insertion technique. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. In benign biliary strictures that usually require multiple procedures, despite the substantially higher cost of FCSEMS compared with plastic stents, the use of FCSEMS is offset by the reduced number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography interventions required to achieve stricture resolution. In the same way, FCSEMS have also been employed to treat complex bile leaks, perforation and bleeding after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and as an aid to maintain permanent drainage tracts obtained by means of Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. Good success rates have been achieved in all these conditions with an acceptable number of complications. FCSEMS were successfully removed in all patients. Comparative studies of FCSEMS and plastic stents are needed to demonstrate efficacy and cost-effectiveness PMID:22523615

  13. Combustion characteristics of ducted rockets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kubota; K. Miyata; T. Kuwahara; M. Mitsuno; I. Nakagawa

    1991-01-01

    Since ducted rockets operate with the combustion of fuel-rich hot gas generated in a primary combustor and the ram-air induced from the atmosphere to a secondary combustor, the operational condition is strongly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the fuel-rich gas and the mixing\\/reaction process of the air flow in the secondary combustor. In order to obtain high energy fuel-rich

  14. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion in Malignant and Benign Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly being used to manage upper GI obstructions. Initially developed for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, upper GI stents now play an emerging role in benign strictures of the upper GI tract. Because recurrent obstruction and stent-related complications are common, new modifications of stents have been implemented. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have replaced older plastic stents. In addition, newly designed SEMS have been developed to prevent complications. This review provides an overview of the various types, indications, methods, complications, and clinical outcomes of upper GI stents in a number of malignant and benign disorders dividing the esophagus and gastroduodenum.

  15. Pancreatic synthetic rates: a new test of pancreatic function.

    PubMed

    Boyd, E J; Wood, H; Clarke, G; Neill, G D; Hutchison, F; Wormsley, K G

    1982-03-01

    Synthesis of pancreatic enzymes was measured in 7 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 10 patients with no pancreatic disease, on the basis of the incorporation of 75Se-methionine into pancreatic exocrine proteins. Two of the patients with chronic pancreatitis had normal exocrine function. Pancreatic secretion was stimulated by intravenous infusion of secretin (1 clinical unit x kg-1 x h-1) and cholecystokinin (1 Ivy dog unit x kg-1 x h-1). 75Se-methionine (3.0 microCi x kg-1) was added to the infusion. Synthetic rates were significantly greater in all the patients with chronic pancreatitis, including the two individuals with normal responses to stimulation with secretin and cholecystokinin. Studies of synthetic rates may therefore be able to confirm the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis before exocrine insufficiency becomes manifest. PMID:7134848

  16. MSX2 in pancreatic tumor development and its clinical application for the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Kennichi; Hamada, Shin; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-01-01

    MSX2, a member of the homeobox genes family, is demonstrated to be the downstream target for ras signaling pathway and is expressed in a variety of carcinoma cells, suggesting its relevance to the development of ductal pancreatic tumors since pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) harbor frequent K-ras gene mutations. Recent studies revealed the roles of MSX2 in the development of carcinoma of various origins including pancreas. Among gastrointestinal tumors, PDAC is one of the most malignant. PDAC progresses rapidly to develop metastatic lesions, frequently by the time of diagnosis, and these tumors are usually resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The molecular mechanisms regulating the aggressive behavior of PDAC still remain to be clarified. On the other hand, IPMN of the pancreas is distinct from PDAC because of its intraductal growth in the main pancreatic duct or secondary branches with rare invasion and metastasis to distant organs. However, recent evidence indicated that once IPMN showed stromal invasion, it progresses like PDAC. Therefore, it is important to determin how IPMN progresses to malignant phenotype. In this review, we focus on the involvement of MSX2 in the enhancement of malignant behavior in PDAC and IPMN, and further highlight the clinical approach to differentiate PDAC from chronic pancreatitis by evaluating MSX2 expression level. PMID:23162473

  17. Classic crush and DK crush stenting techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-05-19

    Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China Clinical data have supported the advantages of the double kissing (DK) crush technique, which consists of stenting the side branch (SB), balloon crush, first kissing, stenting the main vessel (MV) and final kissing balloon inflation, for complex coronary bifurcation lesions compared to other stenting techniques. Careful rewiring from the proximal cell of the MV stent to make sure the wire is in the true lumen of the SB stent is key to acquiring optimal angiographic results. Balloon anchoring from the MV, alternative inflation and each kissing inflation using large enough non-compliant balloons at high pressure, and the proximal optimisation technique are mandatory to improve both angiographic and clinical outcomes. Stratification of a given bifurcation lesion is recommended before decision making. PMID:25983140

  18. Clinical experience with ureteral metal stents

    PubMed Central

    Al Aown, Abdulrahman; Iason, Kyriazis; Panagiotis, Kallidonis; Liatsikos, Evangelos N.

    2010-01-01

    Ureteral metal stents (MSs) present a minimally invasive tool to preserve the drainage of renal pelvis whenever ureteral patency is at risk to be obstructed due to extrinsic or intrinsic etiologies. Clinical experience with these stents demonstrates that they impose a promising alternative treatment option in ureteral pathologies that are difficult to be treated via common polymeric stents. Current application of MSs in the treatment of both benign and malignant ureteral obstruction reveals quite promising results. Nevertheless, the ideal MS that would provide uncomplicated long-term effectiveness is still lucking and current MS usage is facing several adverse effects between which stent obstruction, encrustation, infection, migration, and patient discomfort. Ongoing attempts to create more inert stent with sophisticated novel designs are expected to improve current MS efficiency. MSs will play a major role in the future as a routine management of a variety of ureteral pathologies. PMID:21369375

  19. [The bioresorbable coronary stent: a revolution].

    PubMed

    Koegler, Flora; De Benedetti, Edoardo

    2013-04-10

    Coronary angioplasty has undergone several technological revolutions: starting with balloon angioplasty, then with bare metal stent and finally with drug eluting stent (DES), this technique is now mature. However, once we thought the problem of instent restenosis solved with DES, new concerns arise with late and very late stent thrombosis. Should we therefore proscribe DES? How long should be the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy? And how should we manage the patients who need a surgery and are at high risk of bleeding? Are bioresorbable stents the final solution with their initial mechanical properties, then with their drug eluting effect against intra-stent restenosis, and finally with their complete resorption which leaves the artery free of any foreign material? PMID:23659156

  20. Temporary stent scaffolding during aneurysm coiling.

    PubMed

    Zumofen, Daniel W; Sahasrabudhe, Nikhil; Riina, Howard A; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Becske, Tibor; Nelson, Peter K

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of temporary Solitaire FR stent (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) scaffolding to reduce coil herniation during embolization of a large neck anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In contrast to classic stent-assisted coiling, the fully retrievable stent is recaptured prior to detachment of the last coil. The presented technical nuance hence does not require institution of prolonged antiplatelet coverage. But the door is left open for coil-repositioning in case of coil basket instability. Permanent stent redeployment remains a fall-back option if critical hardware conflict occurs. In comparison to classic balloon remodeling, the presented method may offer easier distal access, particularly in tortuous arterial anatomy. Temporary occlusion of the parent artery, side branches, and perforators is also avoided. Given its specific potential advantages, temporary stent scaffolding using the fully retrievable Solitaire FR device may find its niche as a bailout option, primarily in a very specific subset of distally located wide neck aneurysms. PMID:24331624

  1. [Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Analia; Oddi, Ricardo; Lancelotti, Toma's; Salgado, Roberto; Salgado, Roberto; Soifer, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasias (IPMN) are increasingly detected in medical diary practice because of increased awareness of their existence and because of increased use of cross-sectional imaging studies. IPMN are diagnosed incidentally in most cases and are classified as branch-duct IPMN, main-duct IPMN and combined-type IPMN. The last two types show a more aggressive biological behavior and surgery is recommended. Moreover, there are four subtypes of neoplastic epithelium in these tumours (intestinal, pancreatobiliary, gastric and oncocytic), which determine differences in the natural history of these neoplasms and this also seems to have prognostic relevance. We report a case of a patient who underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy due to a combined-type IPMN and whose anatomopathological study revealed an intestinal subtype IPMN with high grade dysplasia and colloid carcinoma. We also review the literature and describe the main aspects of this particular type ofcystic pancreatic tumours. PMID:26076521

  2. [The function of the hydrokinetic and ekbolic pancreas after acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Tympner, F; Domschke, W; Rösch, W; Koch, H; Demling, L

    1976-11-01

    Thirteen patients were investigated 3-4 weeks (I. examination) and 3-5 months (II. examination) after the ceasing of the signs symptoms of an acute pancreatitis concerning their hydrokinetic and ekbolic pancreas-functions. In addition, the pancreatic ducts were demonstrated by ERCP. Reduction of the secretion were shown in 31% at the I. examination and in 23% at the II. examination. There were significant differences in the outputs of bicarbonate, trypsine and chymotrypsine compared to healthy test persons at the I. examination. At the II. examination, however, no significant differences could be observed compared to healthy test persons. The exocrine function of the pancreas was getting worse during the interval between the I. and II. examination in 2 cases but it became normal in 5 cases. Pathological alterations at the pancreativ-duct-system were not demonstrable shown at all. PMID:1007339

  3. Late Stent Expansion and Neointimal Proliferation of Oversized Nitinol Stents in Peripheral Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hugh Q., E-mail: hugh.zhao@av.abbott.com; Nikanorov, Alexander [Abbott Vascular (United States); Virmani, Renu; Jones, Russell; Pacheco, Erica [CVPath (United States); Schwartz, Lewis B. [Abbott Vascular (United States)

    2009-07-15

    For peripheral endovascular intervention, self-expanding (SE) stents are commonly oversized in relation to target arteries to assure optimal wall apposition and prevent migration. However, the consequences of oversizing have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SE stent oversizing (OS) with respect to the kinetics of late stent expansion and the long-term histological effects of OS. Pairs of overlapped 8 x 28-mm Nitinol SE stents were implanted into the iliofemoral arteries of 14 Yucatan swine. Due to variations in target artery size, the stent-to-artery ratio ranged from 1.2:1 to 1.9:1. Lumen and stent diameters were assessed by quantitative angiography at the time of implantation. Following angiographic assessment at 6 months, stented arteries were perfusion-fixed, sectioned, and stained for histological analysis. Immediately following implantation, the stents were found to be expanded to a range of 4.7-7.1 mm, largely conforming to the diameter of the recipient target artery. The stents continued to expand over time, however, and all stents had enlarged to nearly their 8-mm nominal diameter by 6 months. The histological effects of OS were profound, with marked increases in injury and luminal area stenosis, including a statistically significant linear correlation between stent-to-artery ratio and area stenosis. In this experimental model of peripheral endovascular intervention, oversized Nitinol SE stents are constrained by their target artery diameter upon implantation but expand to their nominal diameter within 6 months. Severe OS (stent-to-artery ratio >1.4:1) results in a profound long-term histological response including exuberant neointimal proliferation and luminal stenosis.

  4. Pancreatic ductal system obstruction and acute recurrent pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Delhaye; C Matos; M Arvanitakis

    2008-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis is a clinical entity largely associated with pancreatic ductal obstruction. This latter includes congenital variants, of which pancreas divisum is the most frequent but also controversial, chronic pancreatitis, tumors of the pancreaticobiliary junction and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. This review summarizes current knowledge about diagnostic work-up and therapy of these conditions.

  5. Immunoregulation in pancreatic cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet M. D. Plate; Susan Shott; Jules E. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer known in man yet specific anti-tumor immunity has been\\u000a demonstrated in lymph nodes draining the sites of pancreatic tumors. Despite this immunity, pancreatic cancer patients suffer\\u000a a quick demise. To further define tumor immunity in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, we sought to characterize\\u000a helper T cell subsets, serum cytokines,

  6. Molecular mechanism of local drug delivery with Paclitaxel-eluting membranes in biliary and pancreatic cancer: new application for an old drug.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sookhee; Jang, Sung Ill; Lee, Su Yeon; Baek, Yi-Yong; Yun, Jieun; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Chang Woo; Jo, Eun Ae; Na, Kun; Yang, Sugeun; Lee, Don Haeng; Lee, Dong Ki

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is palliation for patients suffering from inoperable malignant obstructions associated with biliary and pancreatic cancers. Chemotherapeutic agent-eluting stents have been developed because SEMS are susceptible to occlusion by tumor in-growth. We reported recently that paclitaxel-eluting SEMS provide enhanced local drug delivery in an animal model. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which paclitaxel-eluting stents attenuate tumor growth. We investigated the signal transduction pathways underlying the antiproliferative effects of a paclitaxel-eluting membrane (PEM) implanted in pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma tumor bearing nude mice. Molecular and cellular alterations were analyzed in the PEM-implanted pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma xenograft tumors by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. The quantities of paclitaxel released into the tumor and plasma were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Paclitaxel from the PEM and its diffusion into the tumor inhibited angiogenesis, which involved suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) and increased apoptosis. Moreover, implantation of the PEM inhibited tumor-stromal interaction-related expression of proteins such as CD44, SPARC, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and vimentin. Local delivery of paclitaxel from a PEM inhibited growth of pancreatic/cholangiocarcinoma tumors in nude mice by suppressing angiogenesis via the mTOR and inducing apoptosis signal pathway. PMID:25983747

  7. Failures of welded titanium aircraft ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Lynch; B. Hole; Timotius Pasang

    1995-01-01

    An in-service failure of a thin-walled titanium bleed-air duct from a wide-bodied commercial aircraft has been investigated. Cracking had occurred in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to a circumferential weld joining two sections of the duct which was manufactured from commercially pure (grade 3) titanium sheet. Specimens were cut from the duct to include an intact weld and tested under

  8. Cathepsin L inactivates human trypsinogen whereas cathepsin L deletion reduces the severity of pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wartmann, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Kähne, Thilo; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Ruthenbürger, Manuel; Matthias, Rainer; Kruse, Anne; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Weiss, F. Ulrich; Sendler, Matthias; Hans-Lippert; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Aghdassi, Ali; Dummer, Annegret; Teller, Steffen; Halangk, Walter; Lerch, Markus M.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis is characterized by an activation cascade of digestive enzymes in the pancreas. The first of these, trypsinogen, can be converted to active trypsin by the peptidase cathepsin B (CTSB). We investigated whether cathepsin L (CTSL), the second most abundant lysosomal cysteine proteinase, can also process trypsinogen to active trypsin and has a role in pancreatitis. Methods In CTSL-deficient (Ctsl?/?) mice, pancreatitis was induced by injection of cerulein or infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Human tissue, pancreatic juice, mouse pancreatitis specimens, and recombinant enzymes were studied by enzyme assay, immunoblot, N-terminal sequencing, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses. Isolated acini from Ctsl?/? and Ctsb?/? mice were studied. Results CTSL was expressed in human and mouse pancreas, where it colocalized with trypsinogen in secretory vesicles and lysosomes and was secreted into pancreatic juice. Severity of pancreatitis was reduced in Ctsl?/? mice, compared with wild-type controls, whereas apoptosis and intrapancreatic trypsin activity were increased in Ctsl?/? mice. CTSL induced cleavage of trypsinogen occurred 3 amino acids toward the C terminus from the CTSB activation site and resulted in a truncated, inactive form of trypsin and an elongated propeptide (TAP). This elongated TAP was not detected by ELISA but was effectively converted to an immunoreactive form by CTSB. Levels of TAP thus generated by CTSB were not associated with disease severity, although this is what the TAP-ELISA is used to determine in the clinic. Conclusions CTSL inactivates trypsinogen and counteracts the ability of CTSB to form active trypsin. In mouse models of pancreatitis, absence of CTSL induces apoptosis and reduces disease severity. PMID:19900452

  9. Pancreatic ascariasis with periampullary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arulprakash, S; Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Dutta, Amit Kumar; Joseph, A; Chandy, George M

    2015-01-01

    Ascarias lumbricoides infestation is endemic in tropical countries. Most infections are asymptomatic, but it can produce a wide spectrum of manifestations including hepatobiliary and pancreatic complications. There are reports of association of biliary ascariasis with bilary malignancies in the past, but same is not known for pancreatic ascariasis. We report a case of association of periampullary malignancy with pancreatic ascariasis. PMID:25709954

  10. Small molecule XIAP inhibitors enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Meike; Walczak, Henning; Stadel, Dominic; Haas, Tobias L; Genze, Felicitas; Jovanovic, Marjana; Bhanot, Umesh; Hasel, Cornelia; Möller, Peter; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Simmet, Thomas; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fulda, Simone

    2009-03-15

    Evasion of apoptosis is a characteristic feature of pancreatic cancer, a prototypic cancer that is refractory to current treatment approaches. Hence, there is an urgent need to design rational strategies that counter apoptosis resistance. To explore X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer, we analyzed the expression of XIAP in pancreatic tumor samples and evaluated the effect of small molecule XIAP inhibitors alone and in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) against pancreatic carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that XIAP is highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples compared with normal pancreatic ducts. Small molecule XIAP inhibitors synergize with TRAIL to induce apoptosis and to inhibit long-term clonogenic survival of pancreatic carcinoma cells. In contrast, they do not reverse the lack of toxicity of TRAIL on nonmalignant cells in vitro or normal tissues in vivo, pointing to a therapeutic index. Most importantly, XIAP inhibitors cooperate with TRAIL to trigger apoptosis and suppress pancreatic carcinoma growth in vivo in two preclinical models, i.e., the chorioallantoic membrane model and a mouse xenograft model. Parallel immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue under therapy reveals that the XIAP inhibitor acts in concert with TRAIL to cause caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings provide, for the first time, evidence in vivo that XIAP inhibitors prime pancreatic carcinoma cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis and potentiate the antitumor activity of TRAIL against established pancreatic carcinoma. These findings build the rationale for further (pre)clinical development of XIAP inhibitors and TRAIL against pancreatic cancer. PMID:19258513

  11. Long-Term Placement of Subcutaneous Ruesch-Type Stents for Double Biliary Stenosis in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi, E-mail: adanigl@hotmail.com; Baccarani, Umberto; Lorenzin, Dario; Risaliti, Andrea [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Como, Giuseppe [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Italy); Gasparini, Daniele; Sponza, Massimo [AOSMM-Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Bresadola, Vittorio; Bresadola, Fabrizio [Udine University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Biliary reconstruction continues to be a major source of morbidity following liver transplantation. The spectrum of biliary complications is evolving due to the increasing number of split-liver and living-donor liver transplantation, which are even associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications. Bile duct strictures are the most common cause of late biliary complications and account for up to 40% of all biliary complications. Optimal therapy for posttransplantation anastomotic biliary strictures remains uncertain and requires a multidisciplinary approach. We report the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian male affected by hepatocarcinoma and hepatitis C-related cirrhosis who underwent right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation from his son complicated by double anastomotic stenosis of the main right hepatic duct and of an accessory biliary duct draining segments 6 and 7 of the graft that was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with long-term subcutaneous placement of two internal Ruesch-type biliary stents.

  12. Degradation Model of Bioabsorbable Cardiovascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiyi; Liu, Xiangkun; Li, Zhonghua; Huang, Chubo; Zhang, Wen; Meng, Juan; Chang, Zhaohua; Hua, Zezhao

    2014-01-01

    This study established a numerical model to investigate the degradation mechanism and behavior of bioabsorbable cardiovascular stents. In order to generate the constitutive degradation material model, the degradation characteristics were characterized with user-defined field variables. The radial strength bench test and analysis were used to verify the material model. In order to validate the numerical degradation model, in vitro bench test and in vivo implantation studies were conducted under physiological and normal conditions. The results showed that six months of degradation had not influenced the thermodynamic properties and mechanical integrity of the stent while the molecular weight of the stents implanted in the in vivo and in vitro models had decreased to 61.8% and 68.5% respectively after six month's implantation. It was also found that the degradation rate, critical locations and changes in diameter of the stents in the numerical model were in good consistency in both in vivo and in vitro studies. It implies that the numerical degradation model could provide useful physical insights and prediction of the stent degradation behavior and evaluate, to some extent, the in-vivo performance of the stent. This model could eventually be used for design and optimization of bioabsorbable stent. PMID:25365310

  13. A pooled analysis of data comparing sirolimus-eluting stents with bare-metal stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Spaulding; Joost Daemen; H. Boersma; Donald E. Cutlip; Patrick W. Serruys

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although randomized studies have shown a beneficial effect of drug-eluting stents in reducing the risk of repeated revascularization, these trials were underpowered to compare rates of death and myocardial infarction. The long-term safety of drug-eluting stents has been questioned recently. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 1748 patients in four randomized trials evaluating the safety of sirolimus-eluting stents

  14. A randomized comparison of a sirolimus eluting stent with a standard stent for coronary revascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Morice; P. W. Serruys; E. J. Sousa; F. Molnar; J. E. Sousa; J. Fajadet; E. Ban Hayashi; M. A. Perin; A. Colombo; G. Schuler; P. Barragan

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The need for repeated treatment of restenosis of a treated vessel remains the main limitation of percutaneous coronary revascularization. Because sirolimus (rapamycin) inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes and smooth-muscle cells, we compared a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard uncoated stent in patients with angina pectoris. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind trial to compare the two types of stents

  15. Characterization of a novel model of pancreatic fibrosis and acinar atrophy.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K M; Barent, B L; Gruber, M; Brooks, A; Eliason, S; Brunt, E M; Smith, G S

    1999-01-01

    Significant fibrosis and acinar atrophy are characteristics of chronic pancreatitis; however, because of the lack of a reproducible model, early phases of these changes are poorly understood. We have developed a model of severe hyperstimulation and obstruction pancreatitis (SHOP) to better define the mechanisms of early pancreatic fibrogenesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were used and SHOP was induced by complete pancreatic duct obstruction and daily cerulein hyperstimulation (50 microg/kg intraperitoneally). Animals were killed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Control animals underwent sham operation and received no cerulein. Pancreata were prepared for hematoxylin and eosin and sirius red (collagen-specific) staining and for hydroxyproline assay (measure of total collagen content). We found moderate amounts of edema and inflammation but minimal parenchymal necrosis. Significant loss of acinar cell mass was noted by 48 hours, and normal acinar cells were essentially absent by 96 hours. Tissue collagen content increased with time and large amounts of interstitial collagen were detected by 72 hours. In conclusion, SHOP is a novel model of early pancreatic fibrosis associated with minimal necrosis and a significant decrease in acinar cell mass, making it an ideal model to study the early cellular mechanisms of pancreatic fibrogenesis. PMID:10482695

  16. Optimization of the mechanical performance of a two-duct semicircular duct system--part 1: dynamics and duct dimensions.

    PubMed

    Muller, M; Verhagen, J H G

    2002-06-21

    The classical representation of the semicircular duct system consists of three separate duct circuits. The ducts are, however, in reality, hydrodynamically interconnected. Muller & Verhagen (1988a,b) derived equations for the mechanical behaviour of an interconnected system with three ducts (anterior, posterior and horizontal). An analytical solution of these equations would, however, be too complex to provide surveyable formulae. A system of two interconnected ducts avoids this complexity whilst keeping the essentials of the coupling of ducts intact. The solution of the equation of motion leads to expressions for time constants and maximal endolymph excursions which are functions of morphological parameters, viz. the ratios of radii (gamma) and lengths (lambda) of the common vestibular part (crus commune or utriculus) and the ducts. The system possesses two short time constants which are shown to have similar values. The maximum endolymph displacements in the two ducts after a steplike stimulus are the products of the respective initial velocities and combinations of time constants. The initial velocities depend strongly on the position of the labyrinth with respect to the excitating rotation vector. Measured data of gamma and lambda are compared with the theoretical results. For gamma, excellent agreement was found. lambda is treated elsewhere. PMID:12151258

  17. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile ... is tumor blood vessels. Bile duct tumors need new blood vessels to grow beyond a certain size. ...

  18. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  19. Stent overlapping and geometric curvature influence the structural integrity and surface characteristics of coronary nitinol stents.

    PubMed

    Kapnisis, Konstantinos K; Halwani, Dina O; Brott, Brigitta C; Anderson, Peter G; Lemons, Jack E; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary studies have revealed that some stents undergo corrosion and fatigue-induced fracture in vivo, with significant release of metallic ions into surrounding tissues. A direct link between corrosion and in-stent restenosis has not been clearly established; nonetheless in vitro studies have shown that relatively high concentrations of heavy metal ions can stimulate both inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, which are the main steps in the process of restenosis. To isolate the mechanical effects from the local biochemical effects, accelerated biomechanical testing was performed on single and overlapping Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) stents subjected to various degrees of curvature. Post testing, stents were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the type of surface alterations. Fretting wear was observed in overlapping cases, in both straight and curved configurations. Stent strut fractures occurred in the presence of geometric curvature. Fretting wear and fatigue fractures observed on stents following mechanical simulation were similar to those from previously reported human stent explants. It has been shown that biomechanical factors such as arterial curvature combined with stent overlapping enhance the incidence and degree of wear and fatigue fracture when compared to single stents in a straight tube configuration. PMID:23313643

  20. [Complications of double J ureteral stents].

    PubMed

    el Khader, K

    1996-01-01

    The double J ureteral stents have become an integral part of the urological armentarium. They allow good urinary drainage from kidney to the bladder and usually are safe and well tolerated. However, different complications may occur with short or long-term use of indwelling stents. These complications have varied from minor side effects such as hematuria, dysuria, frequency, flank and suprapubic pain to major complications such as vesico-ureteric reflux, migration, encrustation, urinary infection, stent fracture, necrosis and ureteroarterial fistula. Mostly of complications require removal of the indwelling catheter. PMID:9091568