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Sample records for pancreatic islet isolation

  1. Isolation of Mouse Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Domínguez, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of any pancreatic islet isolation is obtaining pure, viable and functional pancreatic islets, either for in vitro or in vivo purposes. The islets of Langerhans are complex microorgans with the important role of regulating glucose homeostasis. Imbalances in glucose homeostasis lead to diabetes, which is defined by the American Diabetes Association as a "group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both" (American Diabetes Association 2011). Currently, the rising demand of human islets is provoking a shortage of this tissue, limiting research and clinical practice on this field. In this scenario, it is essential to investigate and improve islet isolation procedures in animal models, while keeping in mind the anatomical and functional differences between species. This chapter discusses the main aspects of mouse islet isolation research, highlighting the critical factors and shortcomings to take into account for the selection and/or optimization of a mouse islet isolation protocol. PMID:27586420

  2. Historical Background of Pancreatic Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Domínguez, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Until the discovery of insulin in the twentieth century, diabetes mellitus was a mortal disease with an unclear origin and physiology. Despite the appearance of the concept in an Egyptian papyrus dated c.1550 BC, and the documentation of its study by ancient Chinese, the term "diabetes" was only coined by the Greek Aretaeus in the second century AD. In Europe, the study of diabetes was largely ignored until the seventeenth century, when the characteristic sweet flavor of diabetic urine was first described. However, the link between diabetes and the pancreas was not discovered until 1889 by Minkowski and von Mering, long after the first description of the pancreatic islets by Paul Langerhans in 1869. One of the most significant milestones in the field was the discovery of insulin by Banting and collaborators in 1922, which led to the therapeutic development of insulin administration as a life-saving intervention for type 1 diabetic patients. On the other hand, the isolation of islets was first reported by Bensley in 1911, a critical technical achievement that paved the way for clinical islet transplantation. Here we discuss the history of islet isolation, since the firsts studies of diabetes by ancient civilizations to the birth and parallel evolution of islet isolation and transplantation. PMID:27586418

  3. One hundred human pancreatic islet isolations at Baylor Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Takita, Morihito; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chujo, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Koji; Itoh, Takeshi; Lamont, Jeffrey P; Lara, Luis F; Onaca, Nicholas; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Klintmalm, Goran B; Levy, Marlon F

    2010-10-01

    The effectiveness of pancreatic islet isolation must be maximized to make islet cell transplantation (ICT) a standard therapy. We have performed 100 human islet isolations at Baylor Research Institute including islet isolations for research, for clinical allogeneic transplantation, and for autologous islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed the results of these isolations. First, we assessed 79 islet isolations using brain-dead donors to determine variables associated with successful islet isolation. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seven variables influenced the success of islet isolation for allogeneic ICT: cause of death, mechanism of death, techniques for pancreas procurement and preservation, heavy fatty infiltration, collagenase type, dilution time, and islet purification method. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that only the current isolation protocol, the Baylor Islet Isolation Method (BIIM)-with its four required elements of pancreas procurement by the team, pancreatic ductal injection, the two-layer method with perfluorocarbon, and density-adjusted density gradient purification-had a significant positive impact on successful islet isolation (P = 0.02). Second, we compared allogeneic and autologous ICT using the BIIM. There were no significant differences in islet yields between allogeneic and autologous ICT using the BIIM; total islet yield after purification was 628 ± 84 × 10(3) IE in allogeneic ICT vs. 576 ± 49 × 10(3) IE in autologous ICT (P = 0.59). This retrospective study revealed that the BIIM provided favorable outcomes for both autologous and allogeneic ICT. PMID:20944753

  4. Isolation of Pancreatic Islets from Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Berman, Dora M

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) constitute a highly relevant pre-clinical animal model to develop strategies for beta cell replacement. The close phylogenetic and immunologic relationship between NHP and humans results in cross-reactivity of various biological agents with NHP cells, as well as a very similar cytoarchitecture between islets from human and NHP that is strikingly different from that observed in rodent islets. The composition and location of endocrine cells in human or NHP islets, randomly distributed and associated with blood vessels, have functional consequences and a predisposition for paracrine interactions. Furthermore, translation of approaches that proved successful in rodent models to the clinic has been limited. Consequently, data collected from NHP studies can form the basis for an IND submission to the FDA. This chapter describes in detail the key aspects for isolation of islets from NHP, from organ procurement up to assessment of islet function, comparing and emphasizing the similarities between isolation procedures for human and NHP islets. PMID:27586422

  5. Pancreatic Islets: Methods for Isolation and Purification of Juvenile and Adult Pig Islets.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Heide; Johnson, Paul R V; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of organ transplantation is mainly determined by the disbalance between the number of available organs and the number of patients on the waiting list. This obvious dilemma might be solved by the transplantation of porcine organs into human patients. The metabolic similarities which exist between both species made pancreatic islets of Langerhans to that donor tissue which will be most likely transplanted in human recipients. Nevertheless, the successful isolation of significant yields of viable porcine islets is extremely difficult and requires extensive experiences in the field. This review is focussing on the technical challenges, pitfalls and particularities that are associated with the isolation of islets from juvenile and adult pigs considering donor variables that can affect porcine islet isolation outcome. PMID:27586421

  6. Pancreatic Ductal Perfusion at Organ Procurement Enhances Islet Yield in Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanak, Mazhar A.; Shahbazov, Rauf; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreas preservation is a major factor influencing the results of islet cell transplantation. This study evaluated the effects of two different solutions for pancreatic ductal perfusion (PDP) at organ procurement. Methods Eighteen human pancreases were assigned to three groups: non-PDP (control), PDP with ET-Kyoto solution, and PDP with cold storage/purification stock solution. Pancreatic islets were isolated according to the modified Ricordi method. Results No significant differences in donor characteristics, including cold ischemia time, were observed between the three groups. All islet isolations in the PDP groups had >400,000 IEQ in total islet yield post-purification, a significant increase when compared with the control (P = 0.04 and <0.01). The islet quality assessments—including an in vivo diabetic nude mice assay and the response of high-mobility group box protein 1 to cytokine stimulation—also showed no significant differences. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells showing apoptosis in islets in the PDP groups was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Both ET-Kyoto solution and cold storage/purification stock solution are suitable for PDP and consistently resulted in isolation success. Further studies with a larger number of pancreas donors should be done to compare the effects of the PDP solutions. PMID:25058879

  7. Improved pancreatic islet isolation outcome in autologous transplantation for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Naziruddin, Bashoo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Fujita, Yasutaka; Chujo, Daisuke; Tate, Chad; Onaca, Nicholas; Lamont, Jeffrey; Kobayashi, Naoya; Levy, Marlon F

    2012-01-01

    Total or partial pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation is a therapeutic option for the treatment of refractory chronic pancreatitis (CP). Maximization of islet yields from fibrotic and inflamed organs is crucial for prevention of posttransplant diabetes. We adapted technical advancements developed for islet allotransplantation toward islet autotransplantation. Eight patients (two men, six women; ages 24-58 years) underwent total (n = 7) or partial (n = 1) pancreatectomy for the treatment of CP refractory to maximal medical management. Pancreata were preserved in UW solution (UW group) in initial three cases and the last five pancreata were preserved with pancreatic ductal injection followed by ET-Kyoto/oxygenated PFC solutions (DI+TLM group). Islets were isolated by modified Ricordi method and were purified only in one case. All islet infusions were performed under general anesthesia via direct vein injection into the portal venous system with pressure monitoring. Total islet yields (129,314 ± 51,627 vs. 572,841 ± 116,934 IEQ, p < 0.04), islet yield/pancreas weight (1,233 ± 359 vs. 6,848 ± 847 IEQ/g, p < 0.003), and islet yield/patient body weight (1,951 ± 762 vs. 7,305 ± 1,531 IEQ/kg, p < 0.05) were significantly higher in the DI+TLM group when compared to the UW group. Pellet size was also higher (5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 13.5 ± 3.4 ml) in the DI+TLM group, suggesting that this method of preservation effectively protected pancreatic tissue against autolysis. First month posttransplant basal C-peptide and the secretory unit of islet transplant objects (SUITO) index were also higher in the DI+TLM group when compared to the UW group (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.4 ng/ml and 42.6 ± 12.7 vs. 14.6 ± 5.6, respectively). There were no technical complications related to the infusion. Our results suggest that higher islet yields can be achieved even from chronically inflamed and fibrotic organs using DI+TLM. The techniques applied for islet isolations from

  8. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of immunosuppressive medications?" [ Top ] Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry Data In its 2010 annual report, 1 the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry presented data on 571 patients who received pancreatic islet allo- ...

  9. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Raposo do Amaral, Alexandre S

    2009-01-01

    Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR) from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of severe hypoglycemic episodes

  10. Biosynthesis of glucagon in isolated pancreatic islets of guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hellerström, Claes; Howell, Simon L.; Edwards, John C.; Andersson, Arne; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    1974-01-01

    1. The biosynthesis of glucagon in guinea-pig A2 cells was investigated by incubation of isolated islets of Langerhans in the presence of [3H]tryptophan for periods of up to 14 days. Proteins were extracted from islets and incubation media and analysed by gel filtration. 2. In addition to very-high-molecular-weight (100000) proteins, the principal tryptophan-containing biosynthetic product after incubation for up to 17h was a protein of minimum mol.wt. 9000, which co-eluted on gel filtration with a peak of glucagon-like immunoreactivity, but was apparently devoid of biological activity in a fat-cell assay. A discrete peak of labelled glucagon was only recovered after incubation for at least 6 days. Losses of glucagon during the extraction and rapid secretion of newly synthesized glucagon into incubation media were excluded as reasons for the lack of recovery of labelled hormone from islets after shorter incubations. 3. The 9000-mol.wt. protein was localized to A2 cells in experiments using B-cell-depleted islets, and to A2-cell granules by subcellular fractionation and electron-microscopic radioautography. Only glucagon was secreted into the incubation medium. 4. Possible relationships between the 9000-mol.wt. protein and glucagon are discussed in the light of postulated mechanisms of glucagon biosynthesis. PMID:4615708

  11. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... allo-transplantation?" For each pancreatic islet allo-transplant infusion, researchers use specialized enzymes to remove islets from ... in a lab. Transplant patients typically receive two infusions with an average of 400,000 to 500, ...

  12. An effective purification method using large bottles for human pancreatic islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Itoh, Takeshi; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Takita, Morihito; Sugimoto, Koji; Kanak, Mazhar A; Chujo, Daisuke; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F; Grayburn, Paul A; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    The purification process is one of the most difficult procedures in pancreatic islet isolation. It was demonstrated that the standard purification method using a COBE 2991 cell processor with Ficoll density gradient solution harmed islets mechanically by high shear force. We reported that purification using large bottles with a lower viscosity gradient solution could improve the efficacy of porcine islet purification. In this study, we examined whether the new bottle purification method could improve the purification of human islets. Nine human pancreata from brain-dead donors were used. After pancreas digestion, the digested tissue was divided into three groups. Each group was purified by continuous density gradient using ET-Kyoto and iodixanol gradient solution with either the standard COBE method (COBE group) or the top loading (top group) or bottom loading (bottom group) bottle purification methods. Islet yield, purity, recovery rate after purification, and in vitro and in vivo viability were compared. Islet yield per pancreas weight (IE/g) and the recovery rate in the top group were significantly higher than in the COBE and bottom groups. Furthermore, the average size of purified islets in the top group was significantly larger than in the COBE group, which indicated that the bottle method could reduce the shear force to the islets. In vivo viability was also significantly higher in the top group compared with the COBE group. In conclusion, the top-loading bottle method could improve the quality and quantity of human islets after purification. PMID:23221740

  13. Collagen V Is a Potential Substrate for Clostridial Collagenase G in Pancreatic Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Hiroki; Inagaki, Akiko; Imura, Takehiro; Yamagata, Youhei; Watanabe, Kimiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Masafumi; Murayama, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The clostridial collagenases, H and G, play key roles in pancreatic islet isolation. Collagenases digest the peptide bond between Yaa and the subsequent Gly in Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats. To fully understand the pancreatic islet isolation process, identification of the collagenase substrates in the tissue is very important. Although collagen types I and III were reported as possible substrates for collagenase H, the substrate for collagenase G remains unknown. In this study, collagen type V was focused upon as the target for collagenases. In vitro digestion experiments for collagen type V were performed and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Porcine pancreatic tissues were digested in vitro under three conditions and observed during digestion. The results revealed that collagen type V was only digested by collagenase G and that the digestion was initiated from the N-terminal part. Tissue degradation during porcine islet isolation was only observed in the presence of both collagenases H and G. These findings suggest that collagen type V is one of the substrates for collagenase G. The enzymatic activity of collagenase G appears to be more important for pancreatic islet isolation in large mammals such as pigs and humans. PMID:27195301

  14. Assessment of benzene induced oxidative impairment in rat isolated pancreatic islets and effect on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Benzene (C6H6) is an organic compound used in petrochemicals and numerous other industries. It is abundantly released to our environment as a chemical pollutant causing widespread human exposure. This study mainly focused on benzene induced toxicity on rat pancreatic islets with respect to oxidative damage, insulin secretion and glucokinase (GK) activity. Benzene was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally at doses 200, 400 and 800mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In rats, benzene significantly raised the concentration of plasma insulin. Also the effect of benzene on the release of glucose-induced insulin was pronounced in isolated islets. Benzene caused oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, and also reduced the cell viability and total thiols groups, in the islets of exposed rats. In conclusion, the current study revealed that pancreatic glucose metabolism is susceptible to benzene toxicity and the resultant oxidative stress could lead to functional abnormalities in the pancreas. PMID:25935538

  15. The Different Faces of the Pancreatic Islet.

    PubMed

    Abdulreda, Midhat H; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Cabrera, Over; Caicedo, Alejandro; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients who receive pancreatic islet transplant experience significant improvement in their quality-of-life. This comes primarily through improved control of blood sugar levels, restored awareness of hypoglycemia, and prevention of serious and potentially life-threatening diabetes-associated complications, such as kidney failure, heart and vascular disease, stroke, nerve damage, and blindness. Therefore, beta cell replacement through transplantation of isolated islets is an important option in the treatment of T1D. However, lasting success of this promising therapy depends on durable survival and efficacy of the transplanted islets, which are directly influenced by the islet isolation procedures. Thus, isolating pancreatic islets with consistent and reliable quality is critical in the clinical application of islet transplantation.Quality of isolated islets is important in pre-clinical studies as well, as efforts to advance and improve clinical outcomes of islet transplant therapy have relied heavily on animal models ranging from rodents, to pigs, to nonhuman primates. As a result, pancreatic islets have been isolated from these and other species and used in a variety of in vitro or in vivo applications for this and other research purposes. Protocols for islet isolation have been somewhat similar across species, especially, in mammals. However, given the increasing evidence about the distinct structural and functional features of human and mouse islets, using similar methods of islet isolation may contribute to inconsistencies in the islet quality, immunogenicity, and experimental outcomes. This may also contribute to the discrepancies commonly observed between pre-clinical findings and clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is prudent to consider the particular features of pancreatic islets from different species when optimizing islet isolation protocols.In this chapter, we explore the structural and functional features of pancreatic islets from

  16. Porcine islet isolation: prospective comparison of automated and manual methods of pancreatic collagenase digestion.

    PubMed

    Toomey, P; Chadwick, D R; Contractor, H; Bell, P R; James, R F; London, N J

    1993-02-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare an automated method of porcine pancreatic digestion with a simpler manual procedure. These techniques have not previously been compared directly. After intraductal distension with collagenase, seven porcine pancreata were divided longitudinally; half of each was digested by the automated method and half by the manual technique. Islet yield and purity were measured. Compared with the manual technique, the automated method isolated a significantly greater total volume of islet tissue (median (range) 3.56 (1.39-5.30) versus 1.07 (0.46-1.92) mm3/g, P = 0.022), increased the median (range) number of 105-microns islet equivalents isolated (5875 (2294-8746) versus 1766 (759-3168) per g, P = 0.022) and improved the islet cleavage index (median (range) 92 (89-99) versus 82 (78-92) per cent, P = 0.035). It is concluded that, although the automated method is more complicated to set up, it greatly improves the yield of intact islets from the porcine pancreas. PMID:8443669

  17. A Method for Mouse Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Intracellular cAMP Determination

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Joshua C.; Truchan, Nathan A.; Joseph, Jamie W.; Kimple, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled glycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus and promotes morbidities like neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, both immune-mediated type 1 and obesity-linked type 2, studies aimed at delineating diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutic mechanisms are of critical importance. The β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for appropriately secreting insulin in response to elevated blood glucose concentrations. In addition to glucose and other nutrients, the β-cells are also stimulated by specific hormones, termed incretins, which are secreted from the gut in response to a meal and act on β-cell receptors that increase the production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Decreased β-cell function, mass, and incretin responsiveness are well-understood to contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and are also being increasingly linked with type 1 diabetes. The present mouse islet isolation and cAMP determination protocol can be a tool to help delineate mechanisms promoting disease progression and therapeutic interventions, particularly those that are mediated by the incretin receptors or related receptors that act through modulation of intracellular cAMP production. While only cAMP measurements will be described, the described islet isolation protocol creates a clean preparation that also allows for many other downstream applications, including glucose stimulated insulin secretion, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, protein abundance, and mRNA expression. PMID:24998772

  18. A method for mouse pancreatic islet isolation and intracellular cAMP determination.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Joshua C; Truchan, Nathan A; Joseph, Jamie W; Kimple, Michelle E

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled glycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus and promotes morbidities like neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, both immune-mediated type 1 and obesity-linked type 2, studies aimed at delineating diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutic mechanisms are of critical importance. The β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for appropriately secreting insulin in response to elevated blood glucose concentrations. In addition to glucose and other nutrients, the β-cells are also stimulated by specific hormones, termed incretins, which are secreted from the gut in response to a meal and act on β-cell receptors that increase the production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Decreased β-cell function, mass, and incretin responsiveness are well-understood to contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and are also being increasingly linked with type 1 diabetes. The present mouse islet isolation and cAMP determination protocol can be a tool to help delineate mechanisms promoting disease progression and therapeutic interventions, particularly those that are mediated by the incretin receptors or related receptors that act through modulation of intracellular cAMP production. While only cAMP measurements will be described, the described islet isolation protocol creates a clean preparation that also allows for many other downstream applications, including glucose stimulated insulin secretion, [3(H)]-thymidine incorporation, protein abundance, and mRNA expression. PMID:24998772

  19. Three-dimensional image study on the vascular structure after angiopoietin-1 transduction in isolated mouse pancreatic islets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Su, Dongming; Trucco, Massimo

    2008-02-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is essential for remodeling the primitive vascular plexus during embryonic development and for reducing plasma leakage in inflammation of adult vasculature. However, the role for Ang-1 in maintenance of vascular stability in isolated pancreatic islets is not fully understood. In this study, we compared the difference of vascular morphology between Ang-1 treated (n=5) and control mouse islets (n=5) using both two- and three-dimensional optical image analysis. Isolated mouse islets were transduced with Ang-1 or Lac Z (control) vector at 37°C for 16 hours. Islets were incubated with both rat anti-CD31 antibody and rabbit anti-insulin antibody followed by incubation with Rhodamine-conjugated goat anti-rat IgG and Alexa-488 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. Islets were viewed under a Nikon confocal microscope. Serial optical section images were captured and reconstructed using Nikon EZ-C1 software. Individual two-D and reconstructed three-D images were analyzed using MetaMorph Image Analysis software. Islet vascular density was determined. In two-D images, there was no significant difference of vascular density between the two groups. The vascular morphology didn't show any obvious differences in two-D images either. However, in the three-D images, we found higher vascular density and more vascular branches in the Ang-1 transducted islets and vascular dilation in control group. In conclusion, using three-D image analysis, Ang-1 displayed functions in maintenance of vascular stability and in stimulating growth of vascular branches in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. In order to study further the regeneration of different cell contents in the spherical pancreatic islet, three-D image analysis is an effective method to approach this goal.

  20. The effect of curcumin on insulin release in rat-isolated pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed T; El-Asmar, Mohamed F; El Nadi, Essam G; Wassef, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Hanan H; Rashed, Laila A; Obaia, Eman M; Sabry, Dina; Hassouna, Amira A; Abdel Aziz, Ahmed T

    2010-08-01

    Curcumin exerts a hypoglycemic action and induces heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated the effect of curcumin on isolated islets of Langerhans and studied whether its action on insulin secretion is mediated by inducible HO-1. Islets were isolated from rats and divided into control islets, islets incubated in different curcumin concentrations, islets incubated in hemin, islets incubated in curcumin and HO inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP), islets incubated in hemin and SnMP, islets incubated in SnMP only, and islets incubated in 16.7 mmol/L glucose. Heme-oxygenase activity, HO-1 expression, and insulin estimation was assessed. Insulin secretion, HO-1 gene expression and HO activity were significantly increased in islets incubated in curcumin, hemin, and glucose compared with controls. This increase in insulin secretion was significantly decreased by incubation of islets in SnMP. The action of curcumin on insulin secretion from the isolated islets may be, in part, mediated through increased HO-1 gene expression. PMID:20395228

  1. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0–120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48–120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs

  2. Optogenetic Control of Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, Thomas M; Mollet, Inês G

    2016-01-01

    In light of the emerging diabetes epidemic, new experimental approaches in islet research are needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind pancreatic islet dysfunction and to facilitate the development of more effective therapies. Optogenetics has created numerous new experimental tools enabling us to gain insights into processes little was known about before. The spatial and temporal precision that it can achieve is also attractive for studying the cells of the pancreatic islet and we set out to explore the possibilities of this technology for our purposes. We here describe how to use the islets of an "optogenetic beta-cell" mouse line in islet batch incubations and Ca(2+) imaging experiments. This protocol enables light-induced insulin release and provides an all-optical solution to control and measure intracellular Ca(2+) levels in pancreatic beta-cells. The technique is easy to set up and provides a useful tool for controlling the activity of distinct islet cell populations. PMID:26965119

  3. The isolated pancreatic islet as a micro-organ and its transplantation to cure diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Over the past three decades the pancreatic islet of Langerhans has taken center stage as an endocrine microorgan whose glucoregulatory function is highly explicable on the basis of the increasingly well understood activities of three highly interactive secretory cells. Islet dysfunction underlies both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); its protection from immune attack and gluco-and lipo-toxicity may prevent the development of DM; and its replacement by non-surgical transplantation may be curative of DM. During a career marked by vision, focus and tenacity, Paul Lacy contributed substantially to the development of each of these concepts. In this review we focus on Lacy's contribution to the development of the concept of the islet as a micro-organ, how this foreshadowed our current detailed understanding of single cell function and cell-cell interactions and how this led to a reduced model of islet function encouraging islet transplantation. Next, we examine how clinical allotransplantation, first undertaken by Lacy, has contributed to a more complex view of the interaction of islet endocrine cells with its circulation and neighboring tissues, both “in situ” and after transplantation. Lastly, we consider recent developments in some alternative approaches to treatment of DM that Lacy could glimpse on the horizon but did not have the chance to participate in. PMID:21099316

  4. Improvement in The Function of Isolated Rat Pancreatic Islets through Reduction of Oxidative Stress Using Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mahroui, Neda; Mirzaei, Sanaz; Siahpoosh, Zahra; D.4, Pharm.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Baeeri, Maryam; Hajiaghaie, Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic islets have fewer antioxidant enzymes than other tissues and thus are vulnerable to oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of nine specifically selected Iranian medical plants on the mitochondria function and survival of isolated rat islets were examined. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, following laparotomy, pancreases of rats were removed and the islets isolated and incubated in vitro for 24 hours. Logarithmic doses of plant materials were added to the islets and incubated for an additional 24 hours after which the viability of the cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. Levels of insulin production in relation to static and stimulated glucose concen- trations were also determined. Results The tested compounds markedly increased survival of the islet cells, their mi- tochondrial activity, and insulin levels at the same time as reducing production of ROS. Greatest effects were observed in the following order: Peganum harmala, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Satureja hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Teucrium scordium, Aloe vera, Zingiber officinale, Silybum marianum, and Hypericum perforatum at doses of 10, 103, 104, 10, 102, 102, 10-1, 10 and 103μgmL-1, respectively. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that pretreatment with these select- ed Iranian medical plants can improve the outcomes of pancreas transplants and grafts through the control of oxidative stress damage. PMID:24567945

  5. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  6. Clinical Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Wayne J; Williams, Lindy; Chew, Yi Vee

    2016-01-01

    The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed. After decades of improvements, islet cell isolation and transplantation now clearly offer a safe, effective and feasible therapeutic treatment option for an increasing number of patients suffering from type 1 diabetes specifically for those with severe hypoglycaemic unawareness. PMID:27586424

  7. Nonenzymatic cryogenic isolation of therapeutic cells: novel approach for enzyme-free isolation of pancreatic islets using in situ cryopreservation of islets and concurrent selective freeze destruction of acinar tissue.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Baicu, Simona C

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapies, which all involve processes for procurement and reimplantation of living cells, currently rely upon expensive, inconsistent, and even toxic enzyme digestion processes. A prime example is the preparation of isolated pancreatic islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by transplantation. To avoid the inherent pitfalls of these enzymatic methods, we have conceptualized an alternative approach based on the hypothesis that cryobiological techniques can be used for differential freeze destruction of the pancreas (Px) to release islets that are selectively cryopreserved in situ. Pancreata were procured from juvenile pigs using approved procedures. The concept of cryoisolation is based on differential processing of the pancreas in five stages: 1) infiltrating islets in situ preferentially with a cryoprotectant (CPA) cocktail via antegrade perfusion of the major arteries; 2) retrograde ductal infusion of water to distend the acinar; 3) freezing the entire Px solid to < -160°C for storage in liquid nitrogen; 4) mechanically crushing and pulverizing the frozen Px into small fragments; 5) thawing the frozen fragments, filtering, and washing to remove the CPA. Finally, the filtered effluent (cryoisolate) was stained with dithizone for identification of intact islets and with Syto 13/PI for fluorescence viability testing and glucose-stimulated insulin release assessment. As predicted, the cryoisolate contained small fragments of residual tissue comprising an amorphous mass of acinar tissue with largely intact and viable (>90%) embedded islets. Islets were typically larger (range 50-500 µm diameter) than their counterparts isolated from juvenile pigs using conventional enzyme digestion techniques. Functionally, the islets from replicate cryoisolates responded to a glucose challenge with a mean stimulation index = 3.3 ± 0.7. An enzyme-free method of islet isolation relying on in situ cryopreservation of islets with simultaneous freeze

  8. The role of pancreatic islets in experimental pancreatic carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, O.; Ohigashi, H.; Imaoka, S.; Nakai, I.; Mitsuo, M.; Weide, L.; Pour, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that the presence of intact islets is essential for the induction of pancreatic exocrine tumors in the Syrian hamster model. To validate this, we investigated the effect of the carcinogen, N-nitrosobis(2-oxo-propyl)amine (BOP) in hamsters, in which homologous isolated intact islets were transplanted into the submandibular gland (SMG). Freshly isolated pure islets from hamster donors were transplanted into the left SMG of 20 female host hamsters. Ten of these hamsters (group 1) received BOP (40 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks. Another 10 hamsters (group 2) were kept untreated. In groups 3 and 4 (10 hamsters each) the salt solution or isolated pancreatic ductal cells, respectively, was injected into the gland. In other groups (10 hamsters each) islets were transplanted into the peri-SMG connective tissue (group 5) or into the renal subcapsular space (group 6). Hamsters of group 1 (40 mg/kg, weekly for 3 weeks) as were group 7 hamsters, which served as BOP-treated controls. All BOP-treated hamsters developed pancreatic lesions. Similar hyperplastic and atypical ductal/ductular proliferation and in situ carcinoma were found in the SMG of many group 1 hamsters. No such lesions were found in the SMG, peri-SMG, or renal subcapsular space of the other groups. Islets appear to be involved in carcinogenicity of BOP. The mechanism is obscure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7485408

  9. Neuromedin U receptor 1 expression in the rat endocrine pancreas and evidence suggesting neuromedin U suppressive effect on insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Przemyslaw; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Szkudelski, Tomasz; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2006-11-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a regulatory peptide found in significant concentrations in both the brain and gut of the rat and is named according to its ability to powerfully contract the uterus. Two types of NmU receptors were recently identified and subsequent studies evidenced NmU involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Such a role of neuromedin U suggests that a polypeptide may also be involved in the regulation of adipoinsular axis function. Therefore in the present study we examined the expression of NmU receptors in pancreatic islets using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. We also investigated the role of NmU in regulation of insulin secretion in vitro using isolated pancreatic islets. We have confirmed that NmUR1 but not NmUR2 is specifically expressed in isolated rat pancreatic islets. In all tested doses (1, 10, 100 nmol/l) NmU dose- dependently decreased insulin output by isolated pancreatic islets. These inhibitory effects of NmU on insulin secretion may suggest the involvement of NmU in regulating the pancreatic branch of adipoinsular axis function. Thus, NmU can be included in that group of anorectic peptides, which are also involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:17016626

  10. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, reported their findings in the New England Journal ... transplantation as therapeutic. In other countries, such as Canada and Scandinavia, islet allo-transplantation is no longer ...

  11. Unraveling pancreatic islet biology by quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Liew, Chong W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Qian, Weijun

    2011-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans play a critical role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin and several other important peptide hormones. Impaired insulin secretion due to islet dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis underlying both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past 5 years, emerging proteomic technologies have been applied to dissect the signaling pathways that regulate islet functions and gain an understanding of the mechanisms of islet dysfunction relevant to diabetes. Herein, we briefly review some of the recent quantitative proteomic studies involving pancreatic islets geared towards gaining a better understanding of islet biology relevant to metabolic diseases.

  12. Pancreatic islet autotransplantation for nonmalignant and malignant indications.

    PubMed

    Tanhehco, Yvette C; Weisberg, Stuart; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    The standard therapy for patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and severe abdominal pain is total pancreatectomy (TP) followed by islet autotransplantation (IAT) to prevent the development of brittle diabetes. In adult patients, narcotic independence is achieved in up to 73% of patients 1 to 5 years after transplantation whereas insulin independence is achieved in up to 40% of patients 1 to 2 years after transplantation. Pediatric patients have shown similar outcomes for narcotic independence (up to 79%) but better outcomes for insulin independence (up to 56% 1 year after transplantation). The quality of life of both adult and pediatric patients improved significantly after TP-IAT using the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 survey. IAT after pancreatectomy is also performed for patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas. The limited studies in this patient population suggest that IAT may be potentially beneficial for carefully selected patients when sufficient numbers of islet cells can be isolated. Further studies involving a larger number of patients are needed to determine the risks and benefits of IAT in patients with malignancy. The feasibility of IAT depends on the availability of a laboratory that can isolate the pancreatic islet cells. An on-site laboratory is the traditional model; however, remote processing of pancreatic islets has been reported to result in successful outcomes. This review discusses the outcomes of adult and pediatric autologous pancreatic islet cell transplantation for CP and pancreatic tumors as well as laboratory processing of pancreatic islet cells. PMID:26593636

  13. Artificial islets from hybrid spheroids of three pancreatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Jang, I J; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Kim, B Y; Nam, B M; Yang, W; Lee, K M; Kim, H; Takebe, T; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2014-05-01

    Pancreatic islets have been the focus of recent studies exploring the pathologic mechanisms of diabetes mellitus as well as more effective and radical treatments for this disease. Islet transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy; however, isolation of pancreatic islets for this purpose has been challenging, because the technique is time consuming and technically difficult, and tissue handling can be variable. Pseudo-islets can be used as an alternative to naïve islets, but require cellular sources or artificial materials. In this study, pancreas-derived cells were used to generate pseudo-islets. Because the pancreas is composed of a variety of cell types, namely α cells, β cells, δ cells, and other pancreatic cells that perform different functions, we used 3 different cell lines-NIT-1 (a β-cell line), α TC1 clone 6 (an α-cell line), and TGP52 (a pancreatic epithelial-like cell line)-which we cocultured in nonadhesive culture plates to produce hybrid cellular spheroids. These pseudo-islets had an oval shape and were morphologically similar to naïve islets; additionally, they expressed and secreted the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrate that pseudo-islets that mimic naïve islets can be successfully generated by a coculture method. These artificial islets can potentially be used for in vitro tests related to diabetes mellitus, specifically, in drug discovery or for investigating pathology. Moreover, they can be useful for examining basic questions pertaining to cell-cell interactions and tissue development. PMID:24815150

  14. Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future. PMID:27124642

  15. Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future. PMID:27124642

  16. Pancreatic Islet Responses to Metabolic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Burke, Susan J; Karlstad, Michael D; Collier, J Jason

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism are largely controlled by the interplay of various hormones, which includes those secreted by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. While typically representing only 1% to 2% of the total pancreatic mass, the islets have a remarkable ability to adapt to disparate situations demanding a change in hormone release, such as peripheral insulin resistance. There are many different routes to the onset of insulin resistance, including obesity, lipodystrophy, glucocorticoid excess, and the chronic usage of atypical antipsychotic drugs. All of these situations are coupled to an increase in pancreatic islet size, often with a corresponding increase in insulin production. These adaptive responses within the islets are ultimately intended to maintain glycemic control and to promote macronutrient homeostasis during times of stress. Herein, we review the consequences of specific metabolic trauma that lead to insulin resistance and the corresponding adaptive alterations within the pancreatic islets. PMID:26974425

  17. Pancreatic islet plasticity: Interspecies comparison of islet architecture and composition

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Donald J.; Kim, Abraham; Miller, Kevin; Hara, Manami

    2010-01-01

    The pancreatic islet displays diverse patterns of endocrine cell arrangement. The prototypic islet, with insulin-secreting β-cells forming the core surrounded by other endocrine cells in the periphery, is largely based on studies of normal rodent islets. Recent reports on large animals, including humans, show a difference in islet architecture, in which the endocrine cells are randomly distributed throughout the islet. This particular species difference has raised concerns regarding the interpretation of data based on rodent studies to humans. On the other hand, further variations have been reported in marsupials and some nonhuman primates, which possess an inverted ratio of β-cells to other endocrine cells. This review discusses the striking plasticity of islet architecture and cellular composition among various species including changes in response to metabolic states within a single species. We propose that this plasticity reflects evolutionary acquired adaptation induced by altered physiological conditions, rather than inherent disparities between species. PMID:20657742

  18. Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Arrojo e Drigo, Rafael; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Jeon, Won Bae; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islets secrete hormones that play a key role in regulating blood glucose levels (glycemia). Age-dependent impairment of islet function and concomitant dysregulation of glycemia are major health threats in aged populations. However, the major causes of the age-dependent decline of islet function are still disputed. Here we demonstrate that aging of pancreatic islets in mice and humans is notably associated with inflammation and fibrosis of islet blood vessels but does not affect glucose sensing and the insulin secretory capacity of islet beta cells. Accordingly, when transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of young mice with diabetes, islets from old mice are revascularized with healthy blood vessels, show strong islet cell proliferation, and fully restore control of glycemia. Our results indicate that beta cell function does not decline with age and suggest that islet function is threatened by an age-dependent impairment of islet vascular function. Strategies to mitigate age-dependent dysregulation in glycemia should therefore target systemic and/or local inflammation and fibrosis of the aged islet vasculature. PMID:25404292

  19. Characterization of the uptake of the methylxanthines theophylline and caffeine in isolated pancreatic islets and their effect on D-glucose transport.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, M L; Weaver, D C; Roth, C E; Fink, C J; Swanson, J A; Lacy, P E

    1977-12-01

    The uptake of theophylline and caffeine was determined in isolated pancreatic islets employing a dual isotope procedure with sucrose as an extracellular marker. Islets rapidly accumulated caffeine and theophylline with apparent dissociation constants of approximately 23 and 6 mM, respectively. Theophylline inhibited the uptake of caffeine and caused displacement of caffein from islets. These results indicated a competition by theophylline and caffeine for a common site (binding and/or transport carrier). In addition, theophylline and caffeine inhibited D-glucose transport in a dose-dependent manner and within the limits of the experimental system, this inhibition appeared to be non-competitive. (Bu)2cAMP under similar experimental conditions exerted no effect on D-glucose transport. These results present evidence for a rapid uptake of theophylline and caffeine in pancreatic islets, which is compatible with their immediate cellular effects. In addition, these results demonstrate a direct effect by theophylline and caffeine on D-glucose transport which appears independent of their ability to alter intracellular cAMP levels. PMID:338288

  20. In vitro reconstitution of pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The lack of transplantable pancreatic islets is a serious problem that affects the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Beta cells can be induced from various sources of stem or progenitor cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells in the near future; however, the reconstitution of islets from β cells in culture dishes is challenging. The generation of highly functional islets may require three-dimensional spherical cultures that resemble intact islets. This review discusses recent advances in the reconstitution of islets. Several factors affect the reconstitution of pseudoislets with higher functions, such as architectural similarity, cell-to-cell contact, and the production method. The actual transplantation of naked or encapsulated pseudoislets and islet-like cell clusters from various stem cell sources is also discussed. Advancing our understanding of the methods used to reconstitute pseudoislets should expand the range of potential strategies available for developing de novo islets for therapeutic applications. PMID:24589751

  1. Activation of GPR119 by fatty acid agonists augments insulin release from clonal β-cells and isolated pancreatic islets and improves glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Moran, Brian M; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2014-04-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is emerging as a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study assessed the insulin-secreting properties of various GPR119 agonists and the distribution of GPR119 in pancreatic islets. Endogenous ligands [oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamine (PEA)] and chemically synthetic analogues (AS-1269574, PSN-375963) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Secondary messenger assays such as intracellular Ca²⁺ and cAMP in response to agonists at normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions were assessed. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release. AS-1269574 was the most potent and selective agonist tested in isolated islets, with an EC₅₀ value of 9.7×10⁻⁷ mol/l, enhancing insulin release maximally by 63.2%. Stimulation was also observed with GPR119 ligands; OEA (3.0×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 37.5%), PSN-375963 (2.4×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 28.7%) and PEA (1.2×10⁻⁶ mol/l; 22.2%). Results were corroborated by studies using BRIN-BD11 cells, which revealed augmentation of intracellular Ca²⁺ and cAMP. Both OEA and AS-1269574 enhanced insulin release and improved glucose tolerance in vivo in NIH Swiss mice. These results demonstrate the cellular localisation of GPR119 on islet cells (β and pancreatic polypeptide cells), its activation of the β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling pathway and glucose lowering effects in vivo. PMID:24323890

  2. Activated pancreatic stellate cells can impair pancreatic islet function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Guangxiang; Sandberg, Monica; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Welsh, Nils; Jansson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic or islet fibrosis is often associated with activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). PSCs are considered not only to promote fibrosis, but also to be associated with glucose intolerance in some diseases. We therefore evaluated morphological and functional relationships between islets and PSCs in the normal mouse pancreas and transplanted islets. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to map the presence of PSCs in the normal mouse pancreas and islets implanted under the renal capsule. We isolated and cultured mouse PSCs and characterized them morphologically by immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, we measured their cytokine production and determined their effects on insulin release from simultaneously cultured islets. Results PSCs were scattered throughout the pancreas, with occasional cells within the islets, particularly in the islet capsule. In islet transplants they were found mainly in the graft periphery. Cultured PSCs became functionally activated and produced several cytokines. Throughout the culture period they linearly increased their production of interleukin-6 and mammalian keratinocyte-derived chemokine. PSC cytokine production was not affected by acute hyperglycemia. Syngeneic islets co-cultured with PSCs for 24–48 h increased their insulin release and lowered their insulin content. However, short-term insulin release in batch-type incubations was unaffected after 48 h of co-culture. Increased islet cell caspase-3 activation and a decreased islet cell replication were consistently observed after co-culture for 2 or 7 days. Conclusion Activated PSCs may contribute to impaired islet endocrine function seen in exocrine pancreatitis and in islet fibrosis associated with some cases of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25854824

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of single pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Waanders, Leonie F.; Chwalek, Karolina; Monetti, Mara; Kumar, Chanchal; Lammert, Eckhard; Mann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Technological developments make mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics a central pillar of biochemical research. MS has been very successful in cell culture systems, where sample amounts are not limiting. To extend its capabilities to extremely small, physiologically distinct cell types isolated from tissue, we developed a high sensitivity chromatographic system that measures nanogram protein mixtures for 8 h with very high resolution. This technology is based on splitting gradient effluents into a capture capillary and provides an inherent technical replicate. In a single analysis, this allowed us to characterize kidney glomeruli isolated by laser capture microdissection to a depth of more than 2,400 proteins. From pooled pancreatic islets of Langerhans, another type of “miniorgan,” we obtained an in-depth proteome of 6,873 proteins, many of them involved in diabetes. We quantitatively compared the proteome of single islets, containing 2,000–4,000 cells, treated with high or low glucose levels, and covered most of the characteristic functions of beta cells. Our ultrasensitive analysis recapitulated known hyperglycemic changes but we also find components up-regulated such as the mitochondrial stress regulator Park7. Direct proteomic analysis of functionally distinct cellular structures opens up perspectives in physiology and pathology. PMID:19846766

  4. Differences between Human and Rodent Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Michael J.; Longacre, Melissa J.; Stoker, Scott W.; Kendrick, Mindy; Thonpho, Ansaya; Brown, Laura J.; Hasan, Noaman M.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Hanson, Matthew S.; Fernandez, Luis A.; Odorico, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Anaplerosis, the net synthesis in mitochondria of citric acid cycle intermediates, and cataplerosis, their export to the cytosol, have been shown to be important for insulin secretion in rodent beta cells. However, human islets may be different. We observed that the enzyme activity, protein level, and relative mRNA level of the key anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) were 80–90% lower in human pancreatic islets compared with islets of rats and mice and the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1 832/13. Activity and protein of ATP citrate lyase, which uses anaplerotic products in the cytosol, were 60–75% lower in human islets than in rodent islets or the cell line. In line with the lower PC, the percentage of glucose-derived pyruvate that entered mitochondrial metabolism via carboxylation in human islets was only 20–30% that in rat islets. This suggests human islets depend less on pyruvate carboxylation than rodent models that were used to establish the role of PC in insulin secretion. Human islets possessed high levels of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase, an enzyme that forms acetoacetate in the mitochondria, and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase, which uses acetoacetate to form acyl-CoAs in the cytosol. Glucose-stimulated human islets released insulin similarly to rat islets but formed much more acetoacetate. β-Hydroxybutyrate augmented insulin secretion in human islets. This information supports previous data that indicate beta cells can use a pathway involving succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase to synthesize and use acetoacetate and suggests human islets may use this pathway more than PC and citrate to form cytosolic acyl-CoAs. PMID:21454710

  5. Pancreatic Islet Cell Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Anthony I.; Sussel, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This review will discuss recent advances in understanding mouse and human pancreatic islet cell development, novel concepts related to β cell dysfunction and improved approaches for replenishing β cells to treat diabetes. Recent Findings Considerable knowledge about pancreatic islet development and function has been gained using model systems with subsequent validation in human tissues. Recently, several rodent studies have revealed that differentiated adult islet cells retain remarkable plasticity and can be converted to other islet cell types by perturbing their transcription factor profiles. Furthermore, significant advances have been made in the generation of β-like cells from stem cell populations. Therefore, the generation of functionally mature β cells by the in situ conversion of non-β cell populations or by the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells could represent novel mechanisms for replenishing β cells in diabetic patients. Summary The overall conservation between mouse and human pancreatic development, islet physiology and etiology of diabetes encourages the translation of novel β cell replacement therapies to humans. Further deciphering the molecular mechanisms that direct islet cell regeneration, plasticity and function could improve and expand the β cell replacement strategies for treating diabetes. PMID:26087337

  6. Isolated human islets require hyperoxia to maintain islet mass, metabolism, and function.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hirotake; Kang, Dongyang; Medrano, Leonard; Barriga, Alyssa; Mendez, Daniel; Rawson, Jeffrey; Omori, Keiko; Ferreri, Kevin; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kandeel, Fouad; Mullen, Yoko

    2016-02-12

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been recognized as an effective treatment for Type 1 diabetes; however, there is still plenty of room to improve transplantation efficiency. Because islets are metabolically active they require high oxygen to survive; thus hypoxia after transplant is one of the major causes of graft failure. Knowing the optimal oxygen tension for isolated islets would allow a transplant team to provide the best oxygen environment during pre- and post-transplant periods. To address this issue and begin to establish empirically determined guidelines for islet maintenance, we exposed in vitro cultured islets to different partial oxygen pressures (pO2) and assessed changes in islet volume, viability, metabolism, and function. Human islets were cultured for 7 days in different pO2 media corresponding to hypoxia (90 mmHg), normoxia (160 mmHg), and hyerpoxia (270 or 350 mmHg). Compared to normoxia and hypoxia, hyperoxia alleviated the loss of islet volume, maintaining higher islet viability and metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion responses. We predict that maintaining pre- and post-transplanted islets in a hyperoxic environment will alleviate islet volume loss and maintain islet quality thereby improving transplant outcomes. PMID:26801563

  7. Structural characterization of peptides derived from prosomatostatins I and II isolated from the pancreatic islets of two species of teleostean fish: the daddy sculpin and the flounder.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1987-11-01

    The primary structures of three peptides from extracts from the pancreatic islets of the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius) and three analogous peptides from the islets of the flounder (Platichthys flesus), two species of teleostean fish, have been determined by automated Edman degradation. The structures of the flounder peptides were confirmed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptides show strong homology to residues (49-60), (63-96) and (98-125) of the predicted sequence of preprosomatostatin II from the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). The amino acid sequences of the peptides suggest that, in the sculpin, prosomatostatin II is cleaved at a dibasic amino acid residue processing site (corresponding to Lys61-Arg62 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). The resulting fragments are further cleaved at monobasic residue processing sites (corresponding to Arg48 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). In the flounder the same dibasic residue processing site is utilised but cleavage at different monobasic sites takes place (corresponding to Arg50 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). A peptide identical to mammalian somatostatin-14 was also isolated from the islets of both species and is presumed to represent a cleavage product of prosomatostatin I. PMID:2889597

  8. Experimental studies on islets isolation, purification and function in rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xinlu; Xue, Wujun; Feng, Xinshun; Tian, Xiaohui; Teng, Yan; Ding, Xiaoming; Pan, Xiaoming; Guo, Qi; He, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    To develop a simple and effective method of islet isolation and purification in rats. Collagenase P was injected into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath to digest the pancreas and isolate islet, then discontinuous gravity gradient purification was used to purify the islet. The purified islets were identified by dithizone staining. The viability of islets was assessed by fluorescence staining of acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI). The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test and transplantation of rat with streptozocin-induced diabetes. 738±193 islets were recovered after purification. The average purity was 77±13%, the viability of islets was more than 95%. When inspected by glucose stimulation, the secreted insulin concentration was 24.31±5.47 mIU/L when stimulated by low concentration glucose and 37.62±4.29 mIU/L by high concentration glucose. There was significant difference between the two phases (P<0.05). The blood sugar concentration recovered to normal level after two days in the animals with islet transplantation. In conclusion, islets can be procured with good function and shape by using the method of injecting collagenase into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath and purification using discontinuous gravity gradient. PMID:26885021

  9. Experimental studies on islets isolation, purification and function in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xinlu; Xue, Wujun; Feng, Xinshun; Tian, Xiaohui; Teng, Yan; Ding, Xiaoming; Pan, Xiaoming; Guo, Qi; He, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    To develop a simple and effective method of islet isolation and purification in rats. Collagenase P was injected into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath to digest the pancreas and isolate islet, then discontinuous gravity gradient purification was used to purify the islet. The purified islets were identified by dithizone staining. The viability of islets was assessed by fluorescence staining of acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI). The function of purified islets was determined by glucose-stimulated insulin release test and transplantation of rat with streptozocin-induced diabetes. 738±193 islets were recovered after purification. The average purity was 77±13%, the viability of islets was more than 95%. When inspected by glucose stimulation, the secreted insulin concentration was 24.31±5.47 mIU/L when stimulated by low concentration glucose and 37.62±4.29 mIU/L by high concentration glucose. There was significant difference between the two phases (P<0.05). The blood sugar concentration recovered to normal level after two days in the animals with islet transplantation. In conclusion, islets can be procured with good function and shape by using the method of injecting collagenase into pancreatic duct followed by incubation in water bath and purification using discontinuous gravity gradient. PMID:26885021

  10. Ischaemia is linked to inflammation and induction of angiogenesis in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Linn, T; Schmitz, J; Hauck-Schmalenberger, I; Lai, Y; Bretzel, R G; Brandhorst, H; Brandhorst, D

    2006-01-01

    β-cell replacement is the only way to restore euglycaemia in patients with type-1 diabetes. Pancreatic tissue, processed for subsequent clinical islet transplantation, is exposed to ischaemia causing injury and death in a large number of islets before and after transplantation. In this review we summarize what is known on the sources of environmental stress for pancreatic islets, such as insufficient oxygen supply during pancreas procurement and in culture prior to intraportal transplantation, nutritional and oxygen deprivation during the isolation process, and the consequences of hyperglycaemia. An increasingly recognized role in the modulation of β-cell function and these environmental stress factors plays the vascular network of the pancreatic islets. Islet revascularization by angiogenesis is relevant for the survival of the graft subsequent to transplantation. Potential strategies offered by therapeutic induction of revascularization to ameliorate the detrimental impact of these factors on the quality of islet transplants are discussed. PMID:16634789

  11. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Go ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. Discovery of novel glucose-regulated proteins in isolated human pancreatic islets using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Fontes, Ghislaine; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Anderson, David J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Poitout, Vincent; Metz, Thomas O.

    2012-07-06

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically throughout the world, and the disease has become a major public health issue. The most common form of the disease, type 2 diabetes, is due in part to insufficient insulin production from the pancreatic beta-cell. Since glucose is the most potent and physiologically important regulators of beta-cell function under physiological conditions, understanding the insulin secretory defect underlying type 2 diabetes requires a better understanding of glucose regulation of beta-cell function. To this aim, a bottom-up LC-MS/MS-based proteomics approach was used to profile pooled islets from multiple donors under basal (5 mM) or high (15 mM) glucose conditions. Our analysis discovered 256 differentially abundant proteins ({approx}p < 0.05) after 24 h of high glucose exposure from more than 4500 identified in total. Several novel glucose-regulated proteins were elevated under high glucose conditions, including regulators of mRNA splicing (Pleiotropic regulator 1), processing (Retinoblastoma binding protein 6), and function (Nuclear RNA export factor 1), in addition to Neuron navigator 1 and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Proteins whose abundances markedly decreased during incubation at 15 mM glucose included Bax inhibitor 1 and Synaptotagmin-17. Many proteins found to be differentially abundant after high glucose stimulation were uncharacterized or hypothetical. These findings expand our knowledge of glucose regulation of the human islet proteome and suggest many hitherto unknown responses to glucose that require additional studies to explore novel functional roles.

  13. Pancreatic Islet Survival and Engraftment Is Promoted by Culture on Functionalized Spider Silk Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ulrika; Dekki Shalaly, Nancy; Zaitsev, Sergei V.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedhammar, My

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is one approach for treatment of diabetes, however, hampered by the low availability of viable islets. Islet isolation leads to disruption of the environment surrounding the endocrine cells, which contributes to eventual cell death. The reestablishment of this environment is vital, why we herein investigated the possibility of using recombinant spider silk to support islets in vitro after isolation. The spider silk protein 4RepCT was formulated into three different formats; 2D-film, fiber mesh and 3D-foam, in order to provide a matrix that can give the islets physical support in vitro. Moreover, cell-binding motifs from laminin were incorporated into the silk protein in order to create matrices that mimic the natural cell environment. Pancreatic mouse islets were thoroughly analyzed for adherence, necrosis and function after in vitro maintenance on the silk matrices. To investigate their suitability for transplantation, we utilized an eye model which allows in vivo imaging of engraftment. Interestingly, islets that had been maintained on silk foam during in vitro culture showed improved revascularization. This coincided with the observation of preserved islet architecture with endothelial cells present after in vitro culture on silk foam. Selected matrices were further evaluated for long-term preservation of human islets. Matrices with the cell-binding motif RGD improved human islet maintenance (from 36% to 79%) with preserved islets architecture and function for over 3 months in vitro. The islets established cell-matrix contacts and formed vessel-like structures along the silk. Moreover, RGD matrices promoted formation of new, insulin-positive islet-like clusters that were connected to the original islets via endothelial cells. On silk matrices with islets from younger donors (<35 year), the amount of newly formed islet-like clusters found after 1 month in culture were almost double compared to the initial number of islets

  14. Staining Protocols for Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Thompson, Martha L.; Heiple, Tiffany; Montgomery, Emily; Zhang, Li; Schneider, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of islet area and numbers and endocrine cell composition in the adult human pancreas vary from several hundred thousand to several million and beta mass ranges from 500 to 1500 mg 1-3. With this known heterogeneity, a standard processing and staining procedure was developed so that pancreatic regions were clearly defined and islets characterized using rigorous histopathology and immunolocalization examinations. Standardized procedures for processing human pancreas recovered from organ donors are described in part 1 of this series. The pancreas is processed into 3 main regions (head, body, tail) followed by transverse sections. Transverse sections from the pancreas head are further divided, as indicated based on size, and numbered alphabetically to denote subsections. This standardization allows for a complete cross sectional analysis of the head region including the uncinate region which contains islets composed primarily of pancreatic polypeptide cells to the tail region. The current report comprises part 2 of this series and describes the procedures used for serial sectioning and histopathological characterization of the pancreatic paraffin sections with an emphasis on islet endocrine cells, replication, and T-cell infiltrates. Pathology of pancreatic sections is intended to characterize both exocrine, ductular, and endocrine components. The exocrine compartment is evaluated for the presence of pancreatitis (active or chronic), atrophy, fibrosis, and fat, as well as the duct system, particularly in relationship to the presence of pancreatic intraductal neoplasia4. Islets are evaluated for morphology, size, and density, endocrine cells, inflammation, fibrosis, amyloid, and the presence of replicating or apoptotic cells using H&E and IHC stains. The final component described in part 2 is the provision of the stained slides as digitized whole slide images. The digitized slides are organized by case and pancreas region in an online pathology database

  15. Enzymes for Pancreatic Islet Isolation Impact Chemokine-Production and Polarization of Insulin-Producing β-Cells with Reduced Functional Survival of Immunoisolated Rat Islet-Allografts as a Consequence

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Paul; Smink, Alexandra M.; Paredes, Genaro; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; de Haan, Bart J.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether normal variations in enzyme-activities of collagenases applied for rat-islet isolation impact longevity of encapsulated islet grafts. Also we studied the functional and immunological properties of rat islets isolated with different enzyme preparations to determine whether this impacts these parameters. Rat-islets were isolated from the pancreas with two different collagenases with commonly accepted collagenase, neutral protease, and clostripain activities. Islets had a similar and acceptable glucose-induced insulin-release profile but a profound statistical significant difference in production of the chemokines IP-10 and Gro-α. The islets were studied with nanotomy which is an EM-based technology for unbiased study of ultrastructural features of islets such as cell-cell contacts, endocrine-cell condition, ER stress, mitochondrial conditions, and cell polarization. The islet-batch with higher chemokine-production had a lower amount of polarized insulin-producing β-cells. All islets had more intercellular spaces and less interconnected areas with tight cell-cell junctions when compared to islets in the pancreas. Islet-graft function was studied by implanting encapsulated and free islet grafts in rat recipients. Alginate-based encapsulated grafts isolated with the enzyme-lot inducing higher chemokine production and lower polarization survived for a two-fold shorter period of time. The lower survival-time of the encapsulated grafts was correlated with a higher influx of inflammatory cells at 7 days after implantation. Islets from the same two batches transplanted as free unencapsulated-graft, did not show any difference in survival or function in vivo. Lack of insight in factors contributing to the current lab-to-lab variation in longevity of encapsulated islet-grafts is considered to be a threat for clinical application. Our data suggest that seemingly minor variations in activity of enzymes applied for islet-isolation

  16. Improving pancreatic islet in vitro functionality and transplantation efficiency by using heparin mimetic peptide nanofiber gels.

    PubMed

    Uzunalli, Gozde; Tumtas, Yasin; Delibasi, Tuncay; Yasa, Oncay; Mercan, Sercan; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, viability and functionality of the islets after transplantation are limited due to loss of integrity and destruction of blood vessel networks. Thus, it is important to provide a proper mechanically and biologically supportive environment for enhancing both in vitro islet culture and transplantation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that heparin mimetic peptide amphiphile (HM-PA) nanofibrous network is a promising platform for these purposes. The islets cultured with peptide nanofiber gel containing growth factors exhibited a similar glucose stimulation index as that of the freshly isolated islets even after 7 days. After transplantation of islets to STZ-induced diabetic rats, 28 day-long monitoring displayed that islets that were transplanted in HM-PA nanofiber gels maintained better blood glucose levels at normal levels compared to the only islet transplantation group. In addition, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test revealed that animals that were transplanted with islets within peptide gels showed a similar pattern with the healthy control group. Histological assessment showed that islets transplanted within peptide nanofiber gels demonstrated better islet integrity due to increased blood vessel density. This work demonstrates that using the HM-PA nanofiber gel platform enhances the islets function and islet transplantation efficiency both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25931015

  17. Pancreatic Islet APJ Deletion Reduces Islet Density and Glucose Tolerance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Song; Englander, Ella W; Gomez, Guillermo A; Rastellini, Cristiana; Quertermous, Thomas; Kundu, Ramendra K; Greeley, George H

    2015-07-01

    Protection and replenishment of a functional pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) are key goals of all diabetes therapies. Apelin, a small regulatory peptide, is the endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APJ) receptor. The apelin-APJ signaling system is expressed in rodent and human islet cells. Apelin exposure has been shown to inhibit and to stimulate insulin secretion. Our aim was to assess the influence of a selective APJ deletion in pancreatic islet cells on islet homeostasis and glucose tolerance in mice. Cre-LoxP strategy was utilized to mediate islet APJ deletion. APJ deletion in islet cells (APJ(Δislet)) resulted in a significantly reduced islet size, density and BCM. An ip glucose tolerance test showed significantly impaired glucose clearance in APJ(Δislet) mice. APJ(Δislet) mice were not insulin resistant and in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was reduced modestly. In vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed a significantly reduced insulin secretion by islets from APJ(Δislet) mice. Glucose clearance in response to ip glucose tolerance test in obese APJ(Δislet) mice fed a chronic high-fat (HF) diet, but not pregnant APJ(Δislet) mice, was impaired significantly. In addition, the obesity-induced adaptive elevations in mean islet size and fractional islet area were reduced significantly in obese APJ(Δislet) mice when compared with wild-type mice. Together, these findings demonstrate a stimulatory role for the islet cell apelin-APJ signaling axis in regulation of pancreatic islet homeostasis and in metabolic induced β-cell hyperplasia. The results indicate the apelin-APJ system can be exploited for replenishment of BCM. PMID:25965959

  18. Protein phosphatases in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Ortsäter, Henrik; Grankvist, Nina; Honkanen, Richard E.; Sjöholm1, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly world-wide. A cardinal feature of most forms of diabetes is the lack of insulin-producing capability, due to the loss of insulin-producing β-cells, impaired glucose-sensitive insulin secretion from the β-cell, or a combination thereof, the reasons for which largely remain elusive. Reversible phosphorylation is an important and versatile mechanism for regulating the biological activity of many intracellular proteins, which, in turn, controls a variety of cellular functions. For instance, significant changes in protein kinase activities and in protein phosphorylation patterns occur subsequent to stimulation of insulin release by glucose. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms regulating phosphorylation of proteins involved in the insulin secretory process by the β-cell have been extensively investigated. However, far less is known about the role and regulation of protein dephosphorylation by various protein phosphatases. Herein we review extant data implicating serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases in various aspects of healthy and diabetic islet biology, ranging from control of hormonal stimulus-secretion coupling to mitogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:24681827

  19. Multifunctional in vivo imaging of pancreatic islets during diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Wu, Binlin; Ward, Meliza G; Chong, Angie C N; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Chen, Shuibing; Hao, Mingming

    2016-07-15

    Pancreatic islet dysfunction leading to insufficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion triggers the clinical onset of diabetes. How islet dysfunction develops is not well understood at the cellular level, partly owing to the lack of approaches to study single islets longitudinally in vivo Here, we present a noninvasive, high-resolution system to quantitatively image real-time glucose metabolism from single islets in vivo, currently not available with any other method. In addition, this multifunctional system simultaneously reports islet function, proliferation, vasculature and macrophage infiltration in vivo from the same set of images. Applying our method to a longitudinal high-fat diet study revealed changes in islet function as well as alternations in islet microenvironment. More importantly, this label-free system enabled us to image real-time glucose metabolism directly from single human islets in vivo for the first time, opening the door to noninvasive longitudinal in vivo studies of healthy and diabetic human islets. PMID:27270669

  20. Stimulation by ATP of proinsulin to insulin conversion in isolated rat pancreatic islet secretory granules. Association with the ATP-dependent proton pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.J.; Lucas, C.A.; Mutkoski, R.L.; Orci, L.; Halban, P.A.

    1987-08-05

    Isolated rat pancreatic islets were pulse-labeled for 5 min with (/sup 3/H)leucine then chased for 25 min, during which time endogenously labeled (/sup 3/H)proinsulin becomes predominantly compartmented in immature secretory granules. The islets were then homogenized in isotonic sucrose (pH 7.4) and a beta-granule preparation obtained by differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. This preparation was enriched 8-fold in beta-granules. Aside from contamination with mitochondria and a limited number of lysosomes, the beta-granule preparation was essentially free of any other organelles involved in proinsulin synthesis and packaging (i.e. microsomal elements and, more particularly, Golgi complex). Conversion of endogenously labeled (/sup 3/H)proinsulin was followed in this beta-granule fraction for up to 2 h at 37 degrees C in a buffer (pH 7.3) that mimicked the cationic constituents of B-cell cytosol, during which time 92% of the beta-granules remained intact. Proinsulin conversion was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The rate of proinsulin conversion to insulin was stimulated by 2.2 +/- 0.1-fold (n = 6) (at a 60-min incubation) in the presence of ATP (2 mM) and an ATP regenerating system compared to beta-granule preparations incubated without ATP. This ATP stimulation was abolished in the presence of beta-granule proton pump ATPase inhibitors (tributyltin, 2.5 microM, or 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 50 microM). Inhibitors of mitochondrial proton pump ATPases had no effect on the ATP stimulation of proinsulin conversion. When granules were incubated in a more acidic buffer, proinsulin conversion was increased relative to that at pH 7.3. At pH 5.5, ATP no longer stimulated conversion, and tributyltin and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide had no effect.

  1. A Combinatorial Protein Microarray for Probing Materials Interaction with Pancreatic Islet Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Rojas-Canales, Darling M; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Waibel, Michaela; Harding, Frances J; Penko, Daniella; Drogemuller, Christopher J; Loudovaris, Thomas; Coates, Patrick T H; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has become a recognized therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. During isolation from pancreatic tissue, the islet microenvironment is disrupted. The extracellular matrix (ECM) within this space not only provides structural support, but also actively signals to regulate islet survival and function. In addition, the ECM is responsible for growth factor presentation and sequestration. By designing biomaterials that recapture elements of the native islet environment, losses in islet function and number can potentially be reduced. Cell microarrays are a high throughput screening tool able to recreate a multitude of cellular niches on a single chip. Here, we present a screening methodology for identifying components that might promote islet survival. Automated fluorescence microscopy is used to rapidly identify islet derived cell interaction with ECM proteins and immobilized growth factors printed on arrays. MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells, mouse islets and, finally, human islets are progressively screened. We demonstrate the capability of the platform to identify ECM and growth factor protein candidates that support islet viability and function and reveal synergies in cell response. PMID:27600088

  2. Isolation, Characterization and Potential Role in Beta Cell-Endothelium Cross-Talk of Extracellular Vesicles Released from Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    De Lena, Michela; Beltramo, Silvia; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro; Melzi, Raffaella; Nano, Rita; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Tetta, Ciro; Biancone, Luigi; Camussi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The cross-talk between beta cells and endothelium plays a key role in islet physiopathology and in the revascularization process after islet transplantation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this cross-talk are not fully elucidated. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted membrane nanoparticles involved in inter-cellular communication through the transfer of proteins and nucleic acids. The aims of this study were: 1) isolation and characterization of EVs from human islets; 2) evaluation of the pro-angiogenic effect of islet-derived EVs on human islet endothelial cells (IECs). EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation from conditioned medium of human islets and characterized by nanotrack analysis (Nanosight), FACS, western blot, bioanalyzer, mRNA/microRNA RT-PCR array. On IECs, we evaluated EV-induced insulin mRNA transfer, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, in vitro angiogenesis, migration, gene and protein profiling. EVs sized 236±54 nm, expressed different surface molecules and islet-specific proteins (insulin, C-peptide, GLP1R) and carried several mRNAs (VEGFa, eNOS) and microRNAs (miR-27b, miR-126, miR-130 and miR-296) involved in beta cell function, insulin secretion and angiogenesis. Purified EVs were internalized into IECs inducing insulin mRNA expression, protection from apoptosis and enhancement of angiogenesis. Human islets release biologically active EVs able to shuttle specific mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) into target endothelial cells. These results suggest a putative role for islet-derived EVs in beta cell-endothelium cross-talk and in the neoangiogenesis process which is critical for engraftment of transplanted islets. PMID:25028931

  3. Isolation, characterization and potential role in beta cell-endothelium cross-talk of extracellular vesicles released from human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Figliolini, Federico; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo; De Lena, Michela; Beltramo, Silvia; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro; Melzi, Raffaella; Nano, Rita; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Tetta, Ciro; Biancone, Luigi; Camussi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The cross-talk between beta cells and endothelium plays a key role in islet physiopathology and in the revascularization process after islet transplantation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this cross-talk are not fully elucidated. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted membrane nanoparticles involved in inter-cellular communication through the transfer of proteins and nucleic acids. The aims of this study were: 1) isolation and characterization of EVs from human islets; 2) evaluation of the pro-angiogenic effect of islet-derived EVs on human islet endothelial cells (IECs). EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation from conditioned medium of human islets and characterized by nanotrack analysis (Nanosight), FACS, western blot, bioanalyzer, mRNA/microRNA RT-PCR array. On IECs, we evaluated EV-induced insulin mRNA transfer, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, in vitro angiogenesis, migration, gene and protein profiling. EVs sized 236±54 nm, expressed different surface molecules and islet-specific proteins (insulin, C-peptide, GLP1R) and carried several mRNAs (VEGFa, eNOS) and microRNAs (miR-27b, miR-126, miR-130 and miR-296) involved in beta cell function, insulin secretion and angiogenesis. Purified EVs were internalized into IECs inducing insulin mRNA expression, protection from apoptosis and enhancement of angiogenesis. Human islets release biologically active EVs able to shuttle specific mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) into target endothelial cells. These results suggest a putative role for islet-derived EVs in beta cell-endothelium cross-talk and in the neoangiogenesis process which is critical for engraftment of transplanted islets. PMID:25028931

  4. Transcriptional Regulation of the Pancreatic Islet: Implications for Islet Function

    PubMed Central

    Stitzel, Michael L.; Kycia, Ina; Kursawe, Romy; Ucar, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans contain multiple hormone-producing endocrine cells controlling glucose homeostasis. Transcription establishes and maintains islet cellular fates and identities. Genetic and environmental disruption of islet transcription triggers cellular dysfunction and disease. Early transcriptional regulation studies of specific islet genes, including insulin (INS) and the transcription factor PDX1, identified the first cis-regulatory DNA sequences and trans-acting factors governing islet function. Here, we review how human islet “omics” studies are reshaping our understanding of transcriptional regulation in islet (dys)function and diabetes. First, we highlight the expansion of islet transcript number, form, and function and of DNA transcriptional regulatory elements controlling their production. Next, we cover islet transcriptional effects of genetic and environmental perturbation. Finally, we discuss how these studies’ emerging insights should empower our diabetes research community to build mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and to equip clinicians with tailored, precision medicine options to prevent and treat islet dysfunction and diabetes. PMID:26272056

  5. Filtration is a time-efficient option to Histopaque, providing good-quality islets in mouse islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Domínguez, Miriam; Castaño, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy for Type I Diabetes. For many years the method used worldwide for islet purification in both rodent and human islet isolation has been Ficoll-based density gradients, such as Histopaque. However, it is difficult to purify islets in laboratories with staff limitations when large scale isolations are required. We hypothesized that filtration could be a more simple and fast alternative to obtain good quality islets. Four separate islet isolations were performed per method, comparing filtration and Histopaque purification with handpicking as the gold standard method for islet purity. Different parameters of quality were assessed: yield in number of islets per pancreas, purity by dithizone staining, viability by Fluorescein Diacetate/Propidium Iodide vital staining and in vitro functionality assessed by Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion. Time efficiency and cost were also analyzed. The overall quality of the islets obtained both by Histopaque and filtration was good. Filtration saved almost 90 % of the time consumed by Histopaque purification, and was also cheaper. However, one-third of the islets were lost. Since human and rodent islets share similar size but different density, filtration appears as a purification method with potential interest in translation to clinic. PMID:24443076

  6. The influence of porcine pancreas digestion parameters and islet histomorphology on islet isolation outcome.

    PubMed

    Kinasiewicz, J; Sabat, M; Antosiak-Iwańska, M; Godlewska, E; Sitarek, E; Orłowski, T

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of the pig islets of Langerhans is considered as the future treatment for patients suffering from type I diabetes mellitus. Despite the adaptation of modified Ricordi method and highly purified collagenase, the results of pancreas digestions are precarious. Selection of proper donor and optimal digestion procedure are fundamental. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pancreas procuring parameters on pig islets yield. The pancreata were harvested from 69 market sows weighting over 150 kg. After intraductal injection of cold collagenase solution pancreata were transported in UW solution or under conditions of two layer method (TLM). In laboratory pancreata were digested at 37 degrees C according to Ricordi isolation method or stationary in the bottle. The particular parameters of isolation procedure were considered as substantial. Pig weight, volume of infused collagenase solution, TLM application and pancreas dividing before digestion positively affected islet yield. Additionally, the influence of pancreatic islet tissue histomorphology on isolation outcome was studied. Proper donor selection as well as adequate digestion parameters could improve pig islet recovery during islet isolation. PMID:21721406

  7. Human islet isolation--a prospective randomized comparison of pancreatic vascular perfusion with hyperosmolar citrate or University of Wisconsin solution.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Thirdborough, S; Swift, S; Davies, J; James, R; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-09-01

    University of Wisconsin solution has become the most commonly used vascular perfusate during multiorgan donation world-wide. In the UK however, hyperosmolar citrate remains in common use. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the effect of systemic perfusion with UW or HOC on subsequent islet yield and purification for pancreata with short cold ischemic times. Seven pancreata were randomized to each group, with the donor age, pancreas weight, and period of cold ischemia being similar in both. Perfusion with UW was shown to inhibit collagenase digestion, and a higher concentration of this enzyme was needed to achieve comparable numbers of islets with good separation of exocrine and islet tissue after a similar period of digestion. There were no differences in the number, size, purity, or viability of islets between the two groups. In conclusion, UW solution offers no benefits over HOC for pancreata with short cold ischemic times, and because of its expense and need to use greater amounts of collagenase enzyme, we continue to use HOC. PMID:8212148

  8. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ target cells in immature pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.A.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-07-01

    Target cells of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ were identified by autoradiography in islets from rats of different ages. Nuclei of pancreatic islet cells selectively concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ but not 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Developmental studies of pancreatic islets indicated that target cells, as revealed by significant nuclear concentration of 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, are present in islet cells of fetal rats. The percentage of islet cells that concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ increased from 10 to 15% in the fetus to 60% at 1 day of age. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that insulin-containing cells but not glucagon or somatostatin cells concentrated 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Peak uptake of 1,25(/sup 3/H) dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ was calculated to be 400 pmol/mg DNA, with no significant difference in nuclear accumulation between islets cells from neonatal and adult rats or between islets in vivo and isolated islets in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that (1) 1,25-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ target cells are present in islets before pancreatic ..beta..-cells are morphologically or functionally mature; (2) islet ..beta..-cells concentrate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ or 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. The authors conclude that only the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ metabolite of vitamin D is accumulated by nuclei of developing and mature ..beta..-cells and suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ plays a role in the maturation of islet ..beta..-cells.

  9. Isolation and purification of islet cells from adult pigs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, A-Y; Zhang, W-H; Chen, X-J; Zhang, J; Xiao, G-H; Hu, Y-X; Tang, D-C

    2010-06-01

    We used in situ perfusion and a multiple-organ harvesting technique to collect islets from adult pig pancreata. The tissues were digested with collagenase P followed by purification in a lympholyte discontinuous gradient using a COBE2991 cell separator. The yield and purity of isolated islets were evaluated with a light microscope after dithizone (DTZ) staining. Islet function was assessed using an in vitro insulin release assay. The results showed that before purification 275,000 +/- 20,895 islet equivalents (IEQ) were obtained from 1 digested pancreas. After purification with gradient centrifugation, the islet yield was 230,350 +/- 26,679 IEQ/pancreas. Each gram of the purified pancreatic tissues yielded 2710 +/- 229 IEQ with an average purity of 50.2 +/- 2.0%. The purified islet cells responded to stimulation with high glucose concentrations (16.7 mmol/L), namely, 4.74-fold greater than the insulin secretion with exposure to the basal level of glucose (3.3 mmol/L; P < .001). These results suggested that the established isolation method can be applied to large-scale purification of fully functional islets from pig pancreata. PMID:20620533

  10. Using selective withdrawal to encapsulate pancreatic islets for immunoisolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Jason; Murphy, William; Mrksich, Milan

    2005-11-01

    We apply selective-withdrawal for encapsulating insulin-producing pancreatic islets within thin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coats. Islets placed in an aqueous PEG solution are drawn into the selective-withdrawal spout which then breaks up, leaving the islets surrounded by a thin, 20μm, polymer coat. These coats, whose thickness is independent of the size of the encapsulated islet, are photo-crosslinked to form hydrogel capsules. We can apply multiple coats of varying chemical composition. These coats provide a semi-permeable membrane which allows the islets to respond to changes in glucose concentration by producing insulin in a manner similar to that of unencapsulated islets. Furthermore, the hydrogel capsules exclude large molecules the size of the smallest antibodies. Our results suggest that this microencapsulation technique may be useful for the transplantation of islets for treatment of Type I diabetes.

  11. Microfluidic platform for assessing pancreatic islet functionality through dielectric spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Heileman, K.; Daoud, J.; Hasilo, C.; Gasparrini, M.; Paraskevas, S.; Tabrizian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Human pancreatic islets are seldom assessed for dynamic responses to external stimuli. Thus, the elucidation of human islet functionality would provide insights into the progression of diabetes mellitus, evaluation of preparations for clinical transplantation, as well as for the development of novel therapeutics. The objective of this study was to develop a microfluidic platform for in vitro islet culture, allowing the multi-parametric investigation of islet response to chemical and biochemical stimuli. This was accomplished through the fabrication and implementation of a microfluidic platform that allowed the perifusion of islet culture while integrating real-time monitoring using impedance spectroscopy, through microfabricated, interdigitated electrodes located along the microchamber arrays. Real-time impedance measurements provide important dielectric parameters, such as cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity, representing proliferation, differentiation, viability, and functionality. The perifusion of varying glucose concentrations and monitoring of the resulting impedance of pancreatic islets were performed as proof-of-concept validation of the lab-on-chip platform. This novel technique to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that dictate islet functionality is presented, providing new information regarding islet function that could improve the evaluation of islet preparations for transplantation. In addition, it will lead to a better understanding of fundamental diabetes-related islet dysfunction and the development of therapeutics through evaluation of potential drug effects. PMID:26339324

  12. Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersson, Gustaf; Henriksnäs, Johanna; Johansson, Lars; Rolny, Charlotte; Ahlström, Håkan; Caballero-Corbalan, José; Segersvärd, Ralf; Permert, Johan; Korsgren, Olle; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Phillipson, Mia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Curing type 1 diabetes by transplanting pancreatic islets into the liver is associated with poor long-term outcome and graft failure at least partly due to inadequate graft revascularization. The aim of the current study was to evaluate striated muscle as a potential angiogenic site for islet transplantation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The current study presents a new experimental model that is found to be applicable to clinical islet transplantation. Islets were implanted into striated muscle and intraislet vascular density and blood flow were visualized with intravital and confocal microscopy in mice and by magnetic resonance imaging in three autotransplanted pancreatectomized patients. Mice were rendered neutropenic by repeated injections of Gr-1 antibody, and diabetes was induced by alloxan treatment. RESULTS Contrary to liver-engrafted islets, islets transplanted to mouse muscle were revascularized with vessel densities and blood flow entirely comparable with those of islets within intact pancreas. Initiation of islet revascularization at the muscular site was dependent on neutrophils, and the function of islets transplanted to muscle was proven by curing diabetic mice. The experimental data were confirmed in autotransplanted patients where higher plasma volumes were measured in islets engrafted in forearm muscle compared with adjacent muscle tissue through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSIONS This study presents a novel paradigm in islet transplantation whereby recruited neutrophils are crucial for the functionally restored intraislet blood perfusion following transplantation to striated muscle under experimental and clinical situations. PMID:20651296

  13. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K{sub m}, low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  14. A New Method for Generating Insulin-Secreting Cells from Human Pancreatic Epithelial Cells After Islet Isolation Transformed by NeuroD1

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Chen, Shuyuan; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Takita, Morihito; Sugimoto, Koji; Itoh, Takeshi; Chujo, Daisuke; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The generation of insulin-secreting cells from nonendocrine pancreatic epithelial cells (NEPEC) has been demonstrated for potential clinical use in the treatment of diabetes. However, previous methods either had limited efficacy or required viral vectors, which hinder clinical application. In this study, we aimed to establish an efficient method of insulin-secreting cell generation from NEPEC without viral vectors. We used nonislet fractions from both research-grade human pancreata from brain-dead donors and clinical pancreata after total pancreatectomy with autologous islet transplantation to treat chronic pancreatitis. It is of note that a few islets could be mingled in the nonislet fractions, but their influence could be limited. The NeuroD1 gene was induced into NEPEC using an effective triple lipofection method without viral vectors to generate insulin-secreting cells. The differentiation was promoted by adding a growth factor cocktail into the culture medium. Using the research-grade human pancreata, the effective method showed high efficacy in the differentiation of NEPEC into insulin-positive cells that secreted insulin in response to a glucose challenge and improved diabetes after being transplanted into diabetic athymic mice. Using the clinical pancreata, similar efficacy was obtained, even though those pancreata suffered chronic pancreatitis. In conclusion, our effective differentiation protocol with triple lipofection method enabled us to achieve very efficient insulin-secreting cell generation from human NEPEC without viral vectors. This method offers the potential for supplemental insulin-secreting cell transplantation for both allogeneic and autologous islet transplantation. PMID:24845703

  15. Controlled aggregation of primary human pancreatic islet cells leads to glucose-responsive pseudoislets comparable to native islets

    PubMed Central

    Hilderink, Janneke; Spijker, Siebe; Carlotti, Françoise; Lange, Lydia; Engelse, Marten; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, Eelco; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2015-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation is a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatic islets vary in size and shape affecting their survival and function after transplantation because of mass transport limitations. To reduce diffusion restrictions and improve islet cell survival, the generation of islets with optimal dimensions by dispersion followed by reassembly of islet cells, can help limit the length of diffusion pathways. This study describes a microwell platform that supports the controlled and reproducible production of three-dimensional pancreatic cell clusters of human donor islets. We observed that primary human islet cell aggregates with a diameter of 100–150 μm consisting of about 1000 cells best resembled intact pancreatic islets as they showed low apoptotic cell death (<2%), comparable glucose-responsiveness and increasing PDX1, MAFA and INSULIN gene expression with increasing aggregate size. The re-associated human islet cells showed an a-typical core shell configuration with beta cells predominantly on the outside unlike human islets, which became more randomized after implantation similar to native human islets. After transplantation of these islet cell aggregates under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice, human C-peptide was detected in the serum indicating that beta cells retained their endocrine function similar to human islets. The agarose microwell platform was shown to be an easy and very reproducible method to aggregate pancreatic islet cells with high accuracy providing a reliable tool to study cell–cell interactions between insuloma and/or primary islet cells. PMID:25782016

  16. Controlled aggregation of primary human pancreatic islet cells leads to glucose-responsive pseudoislets comparable to native islets.

    PubMed

    Hilderink, Janneke; Spijker, Siebe; Carlotti, Françoise; Lange, Lydia; Engelse, Marten; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, Eelco; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart

    2015-08-01

    Clinical islet transplantation is a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatic islets vary in size and shape affecting their survival and function after transplantation because of mass transport limitations. To reduce diffusion restrictions and improve islet cell survival, the generation of islets with optimal dimensions by dispersion followed by reassembly of islet cells, can help limit the length of diffusion pathways. This study describes a microwell platform that supports the controlled and reproducible production of three-dimensional pancreatic cell clusters of human donor islets. We observed that primary human islet cell aggregates with a diameter of 100-150 μm consisting of about 1000 cells best resembled intact pancreatic islets as they showed low apoptotic cell death (<2%), comparable glucose-responsiveness and increasing PDX1, MAFA and INSULIN gene expression with increasing aggregate size. The re-associated human islet cells showed an a-typical core shell configuration with beta cells predominantly on the outside unlike human islets, which became more randomized after implantation similar to native human islets. After transplantation of these islet cell aggregates under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice, human C-peptide was detected in the serum indicating that beta cells retained their endocrine function similar to human islets. The agarose microwell platform was shown to be an easy and very reproducible method to aggregate pancreatic islet cells with high accuracy providing a reliable tool to study cell-cell interactions between insuloma and/or primary islet cells. PMID:25782016

  17. Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Pancreatic Islet Cells and Non-Endocrine Tissue in L-Arginine-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Masuda, Yuichi; Takasu, Chie; Takasu, Mizuki; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Michael J.; Ichii, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it an interesting drug to test on other inflammatory conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of DMF on islet cells and non-endocrine tissue in a rodent model of L-Arginine-induced CP. Methods Male Wistar rats fed daily DMF (25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage were given 5 IP injections of L-Arginine (250 mg/100 g×2, 1 hr apart). Rats were assessed with weights and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT, 2 g/kg). Islets were isolated and assessed for islet mass and viability with flow cytometry. Non-endocrine tissue was assessed for histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). In vitro assessments included determination of heme oxygenase (HO-1) protein expression by Western blot. Results Weight gain was significantly reduced in untreated CP group at 6 weeks. IPGTT revealed significant impairment in untreated CP group and its restoration with DMF therapy (P <0.05). Untreated CP rats had pancreatic atrophy, severe acinar architectural damage, edema, and fatty infiltration as well as elevated MDA and MPO levels, which were significantly improved by DMF treatment. After islet isolation, the volume of non-endocrine tissue was significantly smaller in untreated CP group. Although islet counts were similar in the two groups, islet viability was significantly reduced in untreated CP group and improved with DMF treatment. In vitro incubation of human pancreatic tissue with DMF significantly increased HO-1 expression. Conclusion Administration of DMF attenuated L-Arginine-induced CP and islet function in rats. DMF treatment could be a possible

  18. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Islet Vascularization Are Necessary in Developing, but Not Adult, Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Brissova, Marcela; Shostak, Alena; Pan, Fong Cheng; Poffenberger, Greg; Cai, Qing; Hundemer, Gregory L.; Kantz, Jeannelle; Thompson, Courtney S.; Dai, Chunhua; McGuinness, Owen P.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are highly vascularized mini-organs, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A is a critical factor in the development of islet vascularization. To investigate the role of VEGF-A and endothelial cells (ECs) in adult islets, we used complementary genetic approaches to temporally inactivate VEGF-A in developing mouse pancreatic and islet progenitor cells or in adult β-cells. Inactivation of VEGF-A early in development dramatically reduced pancreatic and islet vascularization, leading to reduced β-cell proliferation in both developing and adult islets and, ultimately, reduced β-cell mass and impaired glucose clearance. When VEGF-A was inactivated in adult β-cells, islet vascularization was reduced twofold. Surprisingly, even after 3 months of reduced islet vascularization, islet architecture and β-cell gene expression, mass, and function were preserved with only a minimal abnormality in glucose clearance. These data show that normal pancreatic VEGF-A expression is critical for the recruitment of ECs and the subsequent stimulation of endocrine cell proliferation during islet development. In contrast, although VEGF-A is required for maintaining the specialized vasculature observed in normal adult islets, adult β-cells can adapt and survive long-term reductions in islet vascularity. These results indicate that VEGF-A and islet vascularization have a lesser role in adult islet function and β-cell mass. PMID:23884891

  19. A matching algorithm for the distribution of human pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Dajun; Kaddis, John; Niland, Joyce C.

    2011-01-01

    The success of human pancreatic islet transplantation in a subset of type 1 diabetic patients has led to an increased demand for this tissue in both clinical and basic research, yet the availability of such preparations is limited and the quality highly variable. Under the current process of islet distribution for basic science experimentation nationwide, specialized laboratories attempt to distribute islets to one or more scientists based on a list of known investigators. This Local Decision Making (LDM) process has been found to be ineffective and suboptimal. To alleviate these problems, a computerized Matching Algorithm for Islet Distribution (MAID) was developed to better match the functional, morphological, and quality characteristics of islet preparations to the criteria desired by basic research laboratories, i.e. requesters. The algorithm searches for an optimal combination of requesters using detailed screening, sorting, and search procedures. When applied to a data set of 68 human islet preparations distributed by the Islet Cell Resource (ICR) Center Consortium, MAID reduced the number of requesters that a) did not receive any islets, and b) received mis-matched shipments. These results suggest that MAID is an improved more efficient approach to the centralized distribution of human islets within a consortium setting. PMID:22199413

  20. Mesobiliverdin IXα Enhances Rat Pancreatic Islet Yield and Function.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taihei; Chen, Dong; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Kenmochi, Takashi; Saito, Tomonori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Takemoto, Jon Y

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce mesobiliverdin IXα, an analog of anti-inflammatory biliverdin IXα, and to test its ability to enhance rat pancreatic islet yield for allograft transplantation into diabetic recipients. Mesobiliverdin IXα was synthesized from phycocyanobilin derived from cyanobacteria, and its identity and purity were analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Mesobiliverdin IXα was a substrate for human NADPH biliverdin reductase. Excised Lewis rat pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα and biliverdin IXα-HCl (1-100 μM) yielded islet equivalents as high as 86.7 and 36.5%, respectively, above those from non-treated controls, and the islets showed a high degree of viability based on dithizone staining. When transplanted into livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, islets from pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα lowered non-fasting blood glucose (BG) levels in 55.6% of the recipients and in 22.2% of control recipients. In intravenous glucose tolerance tests, fasting BG levels of 56 post-operative day recipients with islets from mesobiliverdin IXα infused pancreata were lower than those for controls and showed responses that indicate recovery of insulin-dependent function. In conclusion, mesobiliverdin IXα infusion of pancreata enhanced yields of functional islets capable of reversing insulin dysfunction in diabetic recipients. Since its production is scalable, mesobiliverdin IXα has clinical potential as a protectant of pancreatic islets for allograft transplantation. PMID:23630498

  1. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  2. Isles within islets: The lattice origin of small-world networks in pancreatic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Amlan K.; Goel, Pranay

    2016-02-01

    The traditional computational model of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans is a lattice of β-cells connected with gap junctions. Numerous studies have investigated the behavior of networks of coupled β-cells and have shown that gap junctions synchronize bursting strongly. This simplistic architecture of islets, however, seems increasingly untenable at the face of recent experimental advances. In a microfluidics experiment on isolated islets, Rocheleau et al. (2004) showed a failure of penetration of excitation when one end received high glucose and other end was not excited sufficiently; this suggested that gap junctions may not be efficient at inducing synchrony throughout the islet. Recently, Stozer et al. (2013) have argued that the functional networks of β-cells in an islet are small world. Their results implicate the existence of a few long-range connections among cells in the network. The physiological reason underlying this claim is not well understood. These studies cast doubt on the original lattice model that largely predict an all-or-none synchrony among the cells. Here we have attempted to reconcile these observations in a unified framework. We assume that cells in the islet are coupled randomly to their nearest neighbors with some probability, p. We simulated detailed β-cell bursting in such islets. By varying p systematically we were led to network parameters similar to those obtained by Stozer et al. (2013). We find that the networks within islets break up into components giving rise to smaller isles within the super structure-isles-within-islets, as it were. This structure can also account for the partial excitation seen by Rocheleau et al. (2004). Our updated view of islet architecture thus explains the paradox how islets can have strongly synchronizing gap junctions, and be weakly coordinated at the same time.

  3. Pancreatic islet and stem cell transplantation: new strategies in cell therapy of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bretzel, R G; Eckhard, M; Brendel, M D

    2004-03-01

    Long-term studies strongly suggest that tight control of blood glucose can prevent the development and retard the progression of chronic complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In contrast to conventional insulin treatment, replacement of a patient's islets of Langerhans either by pancreas organ transplantation of by isolated islet transplantation is the only treatment to achieve a constant normoglycemic state and avoiding hypoglycemic episodes, a typical adverse event of multiple daily insulin injections. However, the expense of this benefit is still the need for immunosuppressive treatment of the recipient with all its potential risks. Islet cell transplantation offers the advantage of being performed as a minimally invasive procedure, in which islets can be perfused percutaneously into the liver via the portal vein. As of June 2003, 705 pancreatic islet transplants worldwide have been reported to the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR) at our Third Medical Department, University of Giessen/Germany. Data analysis shows at 1 year after adult islet transplantation a patient survival rate of 97%, a functioning islet graft in 54% of the cases, whereas insulin independence was meanwhile achieved in 20% of the cases. However, using a novel protocol established by the Edmonton Center/Canada, the insulin independence rates have improved significantly reaching meanwhile a 50-80% level. Finally, the concept of islet cell or stem cell transplantation is most attractive since it offers many perspectives: islet cell availability could become unlimited and islet or stem cells my be transplanted without life-long immunosuppressive treatment of the recipient, just to mention 2 of them. PMID:15238879

  4. Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autologous Transplantation: The Cure for Chronic Pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Kesseli, Samuel J; Smith, Kerrington A; Gardner, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a debilitating disease that leads to varying degrees of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. One of the most difficult symptoms of CP is severe abdominal pain, which is often challenging to control with available analgesics and therapies. In the last decade, total pancreatectomy with autologous islet cell transplantation has emerged as a promising treatment for the refractory pain of CP and is currently performed at approximately a dozen centers in the United States. While total pancreatectomy is not a new procedure, the endocrine function-preserving autologous islet cell isolation and re-implantation have made the prospect of total pancreatectomy more acceptable to patients and clinicians. This review will focus on the current status of total pancreatectomy with autologous islet cell transplant including patient selection, technical considerations, and outcomes. As the procedure is performed at an increasing number of centers, this review will highlight opportunities for quality improvement and outcome optimization. PMID:25630865

  5. Metabolomics applied to the pancreatic islet

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Jessica R.; Jensen, Mette V.; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics, the characterization of the set of small molecules in a biological system, is advancing research in multiple areas of islet biology. Measuring a breadth of metabolites simultaneously provides a broad perspective on metabolic changes as the islets respond dynamically to metabolic fuels, hormones, or environmental stressors. As a result, metabolomics has the potential to provide new mechanistic insights into islet physiology and pathophysiology. Here we summarize advances in our understanding of islet physiology and the etiologies of type-1 and type-2 diabetes gained from metabolomics studies. PMID:26116790

  6. Metabolomics applied to the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Jessica R; Jensen, Mette V; Newgard, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics, the characterization of the set of small molecules in a biological system, is advancing research in multiple areas of islet biology. Measuring a breadth of metabolites simultaneously provides a broad perspective on metabolic changes as the islets respond dynamically to metabolic fuels, hormones, or environmental stressors. As a result, metabolomics has the potential to provide new mechanistic insights into islet physiology and pathophysiology. Here we summarize advances in our understanding of islet physiology and the etiologies of type-1 and type-2 diabetes gained from metabolomics studies. PMID:26116790

  7. Engineered VEGF-releasing PEG-MAL hydrogel for pancreatic islet vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Edward A.; Templeman, Kellie L.; Thulé, Peter M.; García, Andrés J.

    2013-01-01

    Biofunctionalized polyethylene glycol maleimide (PEG-MAL) hydrogels were engineered as a platform to deliver pancreatic islets to the small bowel mesentery and promote graft vascularization. VEGF, a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, was incorporated into the hydrogel to be released in an on-demand manner through enzymatic degradation. PEG-MAL hydrogel enabled extended in vivo release of VEGF. Isolated rat islets encapsulated in PEG-MAL hydrogels remained viable in culture and secreted insulin. Islets encapsulated in PEG-MAL matrix and transplanted to the small bowel mesentery of healthy rats grafted to the host tissue and revascularized by 4 weeks. Addition of VEGF release to the PEG-MAL matrix greatly augmented the vascularization response. These results establish PEG-MAL engineered matrices as a vascular-inductive cell delivery vehicle and warrant their further investigation as islet transplantation vehicles in diabetic animal models. PMID:25787738

  8. Fetal endocannabinoids orchestrate the organization of pancreatic islet microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Malenczyk, Katarzyna; Keimpema, Erik; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Calvigioni, Daniela; Björklund, Peyman; Mackie, Kenneth; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Harkany, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are implicated in the control of glucose utilization and energy homeostasis by orchestrating pancreatic hormone release. Moreover, in some cell niches, endocannabinoids regulate cell proliferation, fate determination, and migration. Nevertheless, endocannabinoid contributions to the development of the endocrine pancreas remain unknown. Here, we show that α cells produce the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in mouse fetuses and human pancreatic islets, which primes the recruitment of β cells by CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) engagement. Using subtractive pharmacology, we extend these findings to anandamide, a promiscuous endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligand, which impacts both the determination of islet size by cell proliferation and α/β cell sorting by differential activation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and CB1Rs. Accordingly, genetic disruption of TRPV1 channels increases islet size whereas CB1R knockout augments cellular heterogeneity and favors insulin over glucagon release. Dietary enrichment in ω-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation in mice, which permanently reduces endocannabinoid levels in the offspring, phenocopies CB1R−/− islet microstructure and improves coordinated hormone secretion. Overall, our data mechanistically link endocannabinoids to cell proliferation and sorting during pancreatic islet formation, as well as to life-long programming of hormonal determinants of glucose homeostasis. PMID:26494286

  9. Fetal endocannabinoids orchestrate the organization of pancreatic islet microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Malenczyk, Katarzyna; Keimpema, Erik; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Calvigioni, Daniela; Björklund, Peyman; Mackie, Kenneth; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Harkany, Tibor

    2015-11-10

    Endocannabinoids are implicated in the control of glucose utilization and energy homeostasis by orchestrating pancreatic hormone release. Moreover, in some cell niches, endocannabinoids regulate cell proliferation, fate determination, and migration. Nevertheless, endocannabinoid contributions to the development of the endocrine pancreas remain unknown. Here, we show that α cells produce the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in mouse fetuses and human pancreatic islets, which primes the recruitment of β cells by CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) engagement. Using subtractive pharmacology, we extend these findings to anandamide, a promiscuous endocannabinoid/endovanilloid ligand, which impacts both the determination of islet size by cell proliferation and α/β cell sorting by differential activation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and CB1Rs. Accordingly, genetic disruption of TRPV1 channels increases islet size whereas CB1R knockout augments cellular heterogeneity and favors insulin over glucagon release. Dietary enrichment in ω-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation in mice, which permanently reduces endocannabinoid levels in the offspring, phenocopies CB1R(-/-) islet microstructure and improves coordinated hormone secretion. Overall, our data mechanistically link endocannabinoids to cell proliferation and sorting during pancreatic islet formation, as well as to life-long programming of hormonal determinants of glucose homeostasis. PMID:26494286

  10. Histopathology and ex vivo insulin secretion of pancreatic islets in gestational diabetes: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, Mariella; Marselli, Lorella; Lencioni, Cristina; Masini, Matilde; Bugliani, Marco; Suleiman, Mara; Masiello, Pellegrino; Boggi, Ugo; Filipponi, Franco; Dotta, Francesco; Marchetti, Piero; Di Cianni, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    Gestational diabetes (GD) results from insufficient endogenous insulin supply. No information is available on features of islet cells in human GD. Herein, we describe several properties of islets from a woman with GD. Immunohistochemical stainings and EM analyses were performed on pancreatic samples. Islet isolation was achieved by enzymatic dissociation and density gradient centrifugation. Ex vivo insulin secretion was studied in response to fuel secretagogues. Control islets were obtained from matched non-pregnant, non-diabetic women. Total insulin positive area was lower in GD, mainly due to the presence of smaller islets. β-cell apoptosis and the presence of Ki67 positive islet cells were similar in GD and controls, whereas the amount of insulin positive cells in or close to the ducts was decreased in GD. Ex vivo insulin secretion did not differ between GD and non-pregnant, non-diabetic islets. These findings suggest that in this case of human GD there might mainly be a defect of β-cell amount, not due to increased apoptosis, but possibly to insufficient regeneration. PMID:21765242

  11. Characterization of the Human Pancreatic Islet Proteome by Two-Dimensional LC/MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Thomas O.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fontès, Ghislaine; Qian, Wei-Jun; Camp, David G.; Poitout, Vincent; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The pancreatic beta-cell plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Elucidation of the insulin secretory defects observed in diabetes first requires a better understanding of the complex mechanisms regulating insulin secretion, which are only partly understood. While there have been reports detailing proteomic analyses of islet cell lines or isolated rodent islets, the information gained is not always applicable to humans. Therefore, definition of the human islet proteome could contribute to a better understanding of islet biology and lead to more effective treatment strategies. We have applied a two-dimensional LC-MS/MS-based analysis to the characterization of the human islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 29,021 different tryptic peptides covering 3,365 proteins (≥ 2 unique peptide identifications per protein). As expected, the three major islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) were detected, as well as various beta-cell enriched secretory products, ion channels, and transcription factors. In addition, significant proteome coverage of metabolic enzymes and cellular pathways was observed, including the integrin signaling cascade and the MAP kinase, NF-κβ, and JAK/STAT pathways. The resulting peptide reference library provides a resource for future higher throughput and quantitative studies of islet biology. PMID:17137336

  12. Exciting Times for Pancreatic Islets: Glutamate Signaling in Endocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Otter, Silke; Lammert, Eckhard

    2016-03-01

    Glutamate represents a key excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and also modulates the function and viability of endocrine cells in pancreatic islets. In insulin-secreting beta cells, glutamate acts as an intracellular messenger, and its transport into secretory granules promotes glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. Mitochondrial degradation of glutamate also contributes to insulin release when glutamate dehydrogenase is allosterically activated. It also signals extracellularly via glutamate receptors (AMPA and NMDA receptors) to modulate glucagon, insulin and somatostatin secretion, and islet cell survival. Its degradation products, GABA and γ-hydroxybutyrate, are released and also influence islet cell behavior. Thus, islet glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptors, might serve as possible drug targets to develop new medications for adjunct treatment of diabetes. PMID:26740469

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells for pancreatic islet transplants.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Valeria; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic islet transplantation serves as a source of insulin-secreting beta-cells for the maintenance of normal glucose levels and treatment of diabetes. However, limited availability of islets, high rates of islet graft failure, and the need for life-long non-specific immunosuppressive therapy are major obstacles to the widespread application of this therapeutic approach. To overcome these problems, pancreatic islet transplantation was recently suggested as a potential target of the "therapeutic plasticity" of adult stem cells. In fact, new results suggest that stem/precursor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in particular, co-transplanted with islets can promote tissue engraftment and beta-cell survival via bystander mechanisms, mainly exerted by creating a milieu of cytoprotective and immunomodulatory molecules. This evidence consistently challenges the limited view that stem/precursor cells work exclusively through beta-cell replacement in diabetes therapy. It proposes that stem cells also act as "feeder" cells for islets, and supporter of graft protection, tissue revascularization, and immune acceptance. This article reviews the experience of using stem cell co-transplantation as strategy to improve islet transplantation. It highlights that comprehension of the mechanisms involved will help to identify new molecular targets and promote development of new pharmacological strategies to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:21060972

  14. Survival of isolated human islets of Langerhans maintained in tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, A; Borg, H; Groth, C G; Gunnarsson, R; Hellerström, C; Lundgren, G; Westman, J; Ostman, J

    1976-01-01

    Transplantation of human pancreatic islets to diabetic patients may require that donor islets be kept viable in vitro for extended time periods before transfer to the recipient. We have maintained isolated pancreatic islets obtained from the human cadaveric pancreas in tissue culture for 1-3 wk, after which we studied the structure and function of the islets. Electron micrographs of the cultured islets showed a satisfactory preservation of both beta-cells and alpha 2-cells. After culture for 1 wk, the islet oxygen uptake proceeded at a constant rate at a low glucose concentration (3.3 mM) and was significantly enhanced by raising the glucose concentration to 16.7 mM. Likewise, after culture for 1 wk, the islets responded with an increased insulin release when exposed to 16.7 mM glucose with or without added theophylline (10 mM). Islets cultured for 1-3 wk were able to incorporate [3H]leucine into proinsulin, as judged by gel filtration of acid-alcohol extracts. Glucagon release from the cultured islets was reduced significantly by 16.7 mM glucose alone, but stimulated by glucose (16.7 mM) plus theophylline (10 MM). It is concluded that viable pancreatic islets can be isolated from the pancreas of adult human donors and maintained in tissue culture for at least 1 wk without loss of the specific functions of the alpha 2- and beta-cells. It remains to be established whether such islets will survive and remain functionally competent after transplantation to human recipients. Images PMID:770504

  15. Islet neogenesis-associated protein-related pentadecapeptide enhances the differentiation of islet-like clusters from human pancreatic duct cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Xiaozhu; Chen, Haiyan; Wu, Ying; Han, Xiao; Guo, Xirong; Zhang, Chenyu; Chen, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Yang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    The differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into beta-cells has been considered as an alternative method for increasing the number of islets for transplantation. Critical factors have been introduced into the in vitro differentiation protocol for pancreatic duct cells in order to enhance the production of beta-cells. Islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) is an initiator of islet neogenesis and the peptide sequence 104-118 of INGAP has been shown to stimulate an increase in beta-cell mass in animals and also found in human pathological states involving islet neogenesis. To establish a novel method for the differentiation of beta-cells from human pancreatic duct cells with INGAP-related pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP), the pancreatic duct cells were isolated, purified and expanded in vitro and differentiated using a four-step protocol that included nicotinamide, exendin-4, transforming growth factor beta(1) and INGAP-PP/Scrambled peptide (Scrambled-P). The production of islet-like clusters (ILCs) in the INGAP-PP group was significantly higher than that in the Scrambled-P control group after differentiation from an equal number of duct cells. The duct cells showed positive staining and expression for cytokeratin 19, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, nestin, and were negative for insulin and glucagon, as detected by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Following differentiation the cells became insulin and glucagon positive. In addition, the ILCs from the INGAP-PP group secreted higher levels of insulin and C-peptide than the Scrambled-P group under a high glucose challenge. We conclude that INGAP peptide enhances the in vitro differentiation of pancreatic duct cells into islet-like clusters. PMID:19747955

  16. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  17. RNA-sequencing of WFS1-deficient pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Ivask, Marilin; Hugill, Alison; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-04-01

    Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, is caused by mutations in theWFS1gene.WFS1encodes an endoplasmic reticulum resident transmembrane protein. TheWfs1-null mice exhibit progressive insulin deficiency and diabetes. The aim of this study was to describe the insulin secretion and transcriptome of pancreatic islets inWFS1-deficient mice.WFS1-deficient (Wfs1KO) mice had considerably less pancreatic islets than heterozygous (Wfs1HZ) or wild-type (WT) mice. Wfs1KOpancreatic islets secreted less insulin after incubation in 2 and 10 mmol/L glucose and with tolbutamide solution compared toWTand Wfs1HZislets, but not after stimulation with 20 mmol/L glucose. Differences in proinsulin amount were not statistically significant although there was a trend that Wfs1KOhad an increased level of proinsulin. After incubation in 2 mmol/L glucose solution the proinsulin/insulin ratio in Wfs1KOwas significantly higher than that ofWTand Wfs1HZRNA-seq from pancreatic islets found melastatin-related transient receptor potential subfamily member 5 protein gene (Trpm5) to be downregulated inWFS1-deficient mice. Functional annotation ofRNAsequencing results showed thatWFS1 deficiency influenced significantly the pathways related to tissue morphology, endocrine system development and function, molecular transport network. PMID:27053292

  18. Revascularization of pancreatic islet allografts is enhanced by α-1-antitrypsin under anti-inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bellacen, Keren; Kalay, Noa; Ozeri, Eyal; Shahaf, Galit; Lewis, Eli C

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are a highly vascularized entity, and their transplantation into diabetic individuals requires optimal revascularization. In addition, β-cells in islets are extremely sensitive to inflammation. α-1-Antitrypsin (AAT), a circulating serine-protease inhibitor that is available for clinical use as an affinity-purified human product, has been shown to protect islets from graft failure in mouse transplantation models and to achieve readily vascularized islet grafts. AAT is known to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and release, as well as protect from proteolytic cleavage of VEGF by elastase, promote viability of endothelial cells, and enhance migration of myocytes. Our aim was to examine whether AAT enhances vasculogenesis toward islet grafts. We employed Matrigel-islet plugs as means to introduce islets in an explantable isolated compartment and examined vessel formation, vessel maturation, and inflammatory profile of explants 9 days after implantation. Also, we examined primary epithelial cell grafts that were prepared from lungs of mice that are transgenic for human AAT. In addition, aortic ring sprouting assay was performed, and HUVEC tube formation assays were studied in the presence of AAT. Our findings indicate that islet grafts exhibit mature vessels in the presence of AAT, as demonstrated by morphology, as well as expression of endothelial CD31, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Epithelial cells that express human AAT achieved a similar positive outcome. Aortic ring sprouting was enhanced in AAT-treated cultures and also in cultures that contained primary epithelial cells from human AAT transgenic animals in the absence of added AAT. According to the tube formation assay, HUVECs exhibited superior responses in the presence of AAT. We conclude that vasculogenesis toward islet grafts is enhanced in the presence of AAT. Together with the remarkable safety profile of AAT, the study supports its

  19. Autologous islet transplantation to prevent diabetes after pancreatic resection.

    PubMed Central

    Wahoff, D C; Papalois, B E; Najarian, J S; Kendall, D M; Farney, A C; Leone, J P; Jessurun, J; Dunn, D L; Robertson, R P; Sutherland, D E

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensive pancreatic resection for small-duct chronic pancreatitis is often required for pain relief, but the risk of diabetes is a major deterrent. OBJECTIVE: Incidence of pain relief, prevention of diabetes, and identification of factors predictive of success were the goals in this series of 48 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation for chronic pancreatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 48 patients, 43 underwent total or near-total (> 95%) pancreatectomy and 5 underwent partial pancreatectomy. The resected pancreas was dispersed by either old (n = 26) or new (n = 22) methods of collagenase digestion. Islets were injected into the portal vein of 46 of the 48 patients and under the kidney capsule in the remaining 2. Postoperative morbidity, mortality, pain relief, and need for exogenous insulin were determined, and actuarial probability of postoperative insulin independence was calculated based on several variables. RESULTS: One perioperative death occurred. Surgical complications occurred in 12 of the 48 patients (25%): of these, 3 had a total (n = 27); 8, a near-total (n = 16); and 1, a partial pancreatectomy (p = 0.02). Most of the 48 patients had a transient increase in portal venous pressure after islet infusion, but no serious sequelae developed. More than 80% of patients experienced significant pain relief after pancreatectomy. Of the 39 patients who underwent total or near-total pancreatectomy, 20 (51%) were initially insulin independent. Between 2 and 10 years after transplantation, 34% were insulin independent, with no grafts failing after 2 years. The main predictor of insulin independence was the number of islets transplanted (of 14 patients who received > 300,000 islets, 74% were insulin independent at > 2 years after transplantation). In turn, the number of islets recovered correlated with the degree of fibrosis (r = -0.52, p = 0.006) and the dispersion method (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Pancreatectomy can relieve

  20. Decreased basal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of pups in a rat model of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Elena; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin; Calzada, Lizbeth; Ibáñez, Carlos A; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Carmen A; Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) is a deleterious condition that enhances susceptibility of adult offspring to metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The objective is to study the effect of MO on in vitro insulin secretion and pancreatic cellular population in offspring. We hypothesize that a harmful antenatal metabolic environment due to MO diminishes the basal glucose-responsive secretory function of pancreatic beta cells in offspring. Mothers were fed a control (C) or high-fat diet from weaning through pregnancy (120 days) and lactation. At postnatal days (PNDs) 36 and 110, pups were killed, peripheral blood was collected and pancreatic islets were isolated. Basal insulin secretion was measured in vitro in islets for 60 min. It was found that blood insulin, glucose and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were unaffected by maternal diet and age in females. However, male MO offspring at PND 110 showed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance compared with C. Body weight was not modified by MO, but fat content was higher in MO pups compared with C pups. Triglycerides and leptin concentrations were higher in MO than in C offspring in all groups except in females at PND 36. Pancreatic islet cytoarchitecture was unaffected by MO. At PND 36, islets of male and female C and MO offspring responded similarly to glucose, but at PND 110, male and female MO offspring islets showed a 50% decrease in insulin secretion. It was concluded that MO impairs basal insulin secretion of offspring with a greater impact on males than females, and this effect mainly manifests in adulthood. PMID:27496224

  1. Dielectric spectroscopy for monitoring human pancreatic islet differentiation within cell-seeded scaffolds in a perfusion bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Daoud, J; Heileman, K; Shapka, S; Rosenberg, L; Tabrizian, M

    2015-09-21

    The long-term in vitro culture and differentiation of human pancreatic islets is still hindered by the inability to emulate a suitable microenvironment mimicking physiological extracellular matrix (ECM) support and nutrient/oxygen perfusion. This is further amplified by the current lack of a non-invasive and rapid monitoring system to readily evaluate cellular processes. In this study, we realized a viable method for non-invasively monitoring isolated human pancreatic islets in vitro. Islets are induced to dedifferentiate into proliferative duct-like structures (DLS) in preparation for potential and subsequent re-differentiation into functional islet-like structures (ILS) in a process reminiscent of islet regeneration strategies. This long-term in vitro process is conducted within a three-dimensional microenvironment involving islets embedded in an optimized ECM gel supported by microfabricated three-dimensional scaffolds. The islet-scaffold is then housed and continuously perfused within chambers of a bioreactor platform. The process in its entirety is monitored through dielectric spectroscopy measurements, yielding an accurate representation of cellular morphology, functionality, and volume fraction. This non-invasive and real-time monitoring tool can be further manipulated to elucidate important information about the optimized cellular microenvironment required for maintaining long-term culture and achieve efficient differentiation for islet regeneration. PMID:26280028

  2. Research Resource: The Pdx1 Cistrome of Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Cynthia; Yang, Juxiang; Weinrott, Samuel A.; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Naji, Ali; Schug, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor pancreas duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1, also known as insulin promoter factor 1) is a master regulator of pancreas development, as mice or humans lacking Pdx1 function are a pancreatic. Importantly, heterozygous mutations in Pdx1 cause early and late onset forms of diabetes in humans. Despite these central roles in development and adult β-cell function, we have only rudimentary knowledge of the transcriptome targets of Pdx1 that mediate these phenotypes. Therefore, we performed global location analysis of Pdx1 occupancy in pancreatic islets. We used evolutionary conservation of target genes to identify the most relevant Pdx1 targets by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing on both human and mouse islets. Remarkably, the conserved target set is highly enriched for genes annotated to function in endocrine system and metabolic disorders, various signaling pathways, and cell survival, providing a molecular explanation for many of the phenotypes resulting from Pdx1 deficiency. PMID:22322596

  3. Caprine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation into diabetic immunosuppressed BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul N; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Ibrahim, Tengku A Tengku; Othman, Abas M

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a devastating disease for which there is currently no cure, but only lifetime management. Islet xenotransplantation is a promising technique for the restoration of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of caprine (goat) islet cells as xenogeneic grafts in the treatment for diabetes in a mouse model. Methods Caprine pancreases were harvested and transported to the laboratory under conditions optimized to prevent ischemia. Islets were isolated, purified, and tested for functionality. Caprine islets (2000 islet equivalent) were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of diabetic BALB/c mice under thalidomide-induced immunosuppression. Blood glucose and insulin levels of grafted mice were evaluated by glucometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. The functionality and quality of caprine pancreatic islet grafts were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Results The viability of purified islet cells exceeded 90%. Recipient mice exhibited normoglycemia (<11 mm glucose) for 30 days. In addition, weight gain negatively correlated with blood glucose level. The findings verified diabetes reversal in caprine islet recipient mice. A significant drop in non-fasting blood glucose level (from 23.3 ± 5.4 to 8.04 ± 0.44 mm) and simultaneous increase in serum insulin level (from 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.56 ± 0.17 μg/l) and body weights (from 23.64 ± 0.31 to 25.85 ± 0.34 g) were observed (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis verified insulin production in the transplanted islets. Conclusions Purified caprine islets were demonstrated to successfully sustain viability and functionality for controlling blood glucose levels in an immunosuppressed mouse model of diabetes. These results suggest the use of caprine islets as an addition to the supply of xenogeneic islets for diabetes research. PMID:24645790

  4. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    de Vos, P; Hamel, A F; Tatarkiewicz, K

    2002-02-01

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical islet transplantation because it allows animal islets or insulin-producing cells engineered from stem cells to be used. During the past two decades three major approaches to encapsulation have been studied. These include intravascular macrocapsules, which are anastomosed to the vascular system as AV shunt; extravascular macrocapsules, which are mostly diffusion chambers transplanted at different sites; and extravascular microcapsules transplanted in the peritoneal cavity. The advantages and pitfalls of these three approaches are discussed and compared in the light of their applicability to clinical islet transplantation. All systems have been shown to be successful in preclinical studies but not all approaches meet the technical or physiological requirements for application in human beings. The extravascular approach has advantages over the intravascular because since it is associated with less complications such as thrombosis and infection. Microcapsules, due to their spatial characteristics, have a better diffusion capacity than macrocapsules. Recent progress in biocompatibility of microcapsules has brought this technology close to clinical application. Critical issues such as limitations in the functional performance and survival are being discussed. The latest results show that both issues can be solved by the transplantation of microencapsulated islets close to blood vessels in prevascularized solid supports. PMID:11935147

  5. Origin of induced pancreatic islet tumors: a radioautographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, J.E.; Bauer, G.E.; Dixit, P.K.

    1987-02-01

    Endocrine tumors of the pancreas are induced in a high percentage of young rats by injections of streptozotocin and nicotinamide (SZ/NA). Benign tumors first appear 20 to 36 weeks after drug injections. To determine the possible site of their origin, the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into islets, ducts, acini, microtumors, and gross tumors was examined by radioautography of histologic sections at 1 to 36 weeks after drug injection. Drug treatment led to early (1- to 6-week) increases in nuclear /sup 3/H labeling of exocrine pancreatic structures (ductal and acinar cells), which may involve DNA repair processes. A secondary increase in labeling of duct cells during the period of tumor emergence supports the assumption that SZ/NA-induced tumors are of ductal origin. Microtumors and gross tumors also exhibited markedly elevated rates of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation compared to control islets. Nontumorous islet tissue, which exhibited a gradual decrease in volume due to B-cell destruction by the drug injection, showed about 10-fold higher /sup 3/H labeling than islets of controls at all time points. The results suggest that in addition to ductal precursors, islets that survive SZ/NA-induced injury may also provide sites of focal endocrine cell differentiation to tumor tissue. Once established, both microtumors and gross tumors continue to grow by accelerated cell division.

  6. FEM-based oxygen consumption and cell viability models for avascular pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background The function and viability of cultured, transplanted, or encapsulated pancreatic islets is often limited by hypoxia because these islets have lost their vasculature during the isolation process and have to rely on gradient-driven passive diffusion, which cannot provide adequate oxygen transport. Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) are particularly susceptible due to their relatively large size, large metabolic demand, and increased sensitivity to hypoxia. Here, finite element method (FEM) based multiphysics models are explored to describe oxygen transport and cell viability in avascular islets both in static and in moving culture media. Methods Two- and three-dimensional models were built in COMSOL Multiphysics using the convection and diffusion as well as the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics application modes. Oxygen consumption was assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics and to cease when local concentrations fell below a critical threshold; in a dynamic model, it was also allowed to increase with increasing glucose concentration. Results Partial differential equation (PDE) based exploratory cellular-level oxygen consumption and cell viability models incorporating physiologically realistic assumptions have been implemented for fully scaled cell culture geometries with 100, 150, and 200 μm diameter islets as representative. Calculated oxygen concentrations and intra-islet regions likely to suffer from hypoxia-related necrosis obtained for traditional flask-type cultures, oxygen-permeable silicone-rubber membrane bottom cultures, and perifusion chambers with flowing media and varying incoming glucose levels are presented in detail illustrated with corresponding colour-coded figures and animations. Conclusion Results of the computational models are, as a first estimate, in good quantitative agreement with existing experimental evidence, and they confirm that during culture, hypoxia is often a problem for non-vascularised islet

  7. IFN-{gamma} gene expression in pancreatic islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells correlates with autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, A.; Suarez-Pinzon, W.L.; Sorensen, O.

    1995-05-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice results from selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta}-cells following islet filtration by mononuclear leukocytes. Cytokines produced by islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells may be involved in {beta}-cell destruction. Therefore, we analyzed cytokine mRNA expression, by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay, in mononuclear leukocytes isolated from pancreatic islets of four groups of mice: diabetes-prone female NOD mice; female NOD mice protected from diabetes by injection of CFA at an early age; male NOD mice with a low diabetes incidence; and female BALB/c mice that do not develop diabetes. We found that mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-{gamma} in mononuclear cells from islets of diabetes-prone female NOD mice increased progressively as these cells infiltrated the islets from age 5 wk to diabetes onset (>13 wk). However, only IFN-{gamma} mRNA levels were significantly higher in islet mononuclear cells from 12-wk-old diabetes-prone female NOD mice than from less diabetes-prone NOD mice (CFA-treated females, and males) and normal mice (BALB/c). In contrast, IL-4 mRNA levels were lower in islet mononuclear cells from diabetes-prone female NOD mice than from NOD mice with low diabetes incidence (CFA-treated females and males). Splenic cell mRNA levels of IFN-{gamma} and IL-4 were not different in the four groups of mice. These results suggest that islet {beta}-cell destruction and diabetes in female NOD mice are dependent upon intra-islet IFN-{gamma} production by mononuclear cells, and that CFA-treated female NOD mice and male NOD mice may be protected from diabetes development by down-regulation of IFN-{gamma} production in the islets. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Placental insufficiency decreases pancreatic vascularity and disrupts hepatocyte growth factor signaling in the pancreatic islet endothelial cell in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Rozance, Paul J; Anderson, Miranda; Martinez, Marina; Fahy, Anna; Macko, Antoni R; Kailey, Jenai; Seedorf, Gregory J; Abman, Steven H; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are paracrine hormones that mediate communication between pancreatic islet endothelial cells (ECs) and β-cells. Our objective was to determine the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on pancreatic vascularity and paracrine signaling between the EC and β-cell. Vessel density was less in IUGR pancreata than in controls. HGF concentrations were also lower in islet EC-conditioned media (ECCM) from IUGR, and islets incubated with control islet ECCM responded by increasing insulin content, which was absent with IUGR ECCM. The effect of ECCM on islet insulin content was blocked with an inhibitory anti-HGF antibody. The HGF receptor was not different between control and IUGR islets, but VEGFA was lower and the high-affinity VEGF receptor was higher in IUGR islets and ECs, respectively. These findings show that paracrine actions from ECs increase islet insulin content, and in IUGR ECs, secretion of HGF was diminished. Given the potential feed-forward regulation of β-cell VEGFA and islet EC HGF, these two growth factors are highly integrated in normal pancreatic islet development, and this regulation is decreased in IUGR fetuses, resulting in lower pancreatic islet insulin concentrations and insulin secretion. PMID:25249573

  9. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Laychock, S.G.

    1986-03-01

    Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreata were incubated with (/sup 14/C)choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDP choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDPcholine pathway. Recovery of (/sup 14/C)PC in islet membranes was time-related, and stimulated by glucose (17mM) during 60 min. The rate of PC synthesis was constant during 60 min with glucose stimulation. In contrast, the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (2 mM) reduced the recovery of (/sup 14/C)choline in PC, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (5 mM) did not significantly affect (/sup 14/C)PC recovery. Incubation of islets in Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium enhanced glucose-stimulated recovery of (/sup 14/C)choline-labeled PC due to the inhibition of phospholipase and phospholipid hydrolysis. Inhibition of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase with 5-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine (SIBA) reduced (/sup 14/C)PC levels and insulin release in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with SIBA also reduced Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity in islet microsomes. Quantitation of membrane PC showed that glucose stimulation did not alter islet P levels. Thus, islet PC biosynthesis is linked to glucose stimulation and contributes to the maintenance of PC levels in membranes undergoing exocytosis and phospholipid hydrolysis. Adequate PC levels support Ca/sup 2 +/ pump activity and secretory mechanisms.

  10. Inflammation-mediated dysfunction and apoptosis in pancreatic islet transplantation: implications for intrahepatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Barshes, Neal R; Wyllie, Samuel; Goss, John A

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in clinical protocols have improved the outcomes of pancreatic islet transplantation (PIT), yet PIT recipients typically require pancreatic islet grafts derived from multiple donors to achieve insulin independence. This along with experimental models of syngeneic PIT, showing that up to 60% of pancreatic islet tissue undergoes apoptosis within the first several days post-transplantation, strongly suggest the involvement of nonalloantigen-specific, inflammatory events in partial destruction of the graft following PIT. Interleukin-1beta appears to be among the most important inflammatory mediators, causing pancreatic islet dysfunction and apoptosis through the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Kupffer cells secrete many molecules, including cytokines, NO, and free radicals, which are known to be directly toxic to the pancreatic islets, and depletion or inhibition of Kupffer cells improves outcomes following experimental PIT. Immediately after transplantation, the pancreatic islets are perfused only by portal vein blood until the process of angiogenesis restores arterial blood flow some 7-10 days later. This delayed vascularization may have implications for the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules, the effects of free radicals, and the role of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Finally, in the immediate post-transplant period, hepatocytes may contribute to pancreatic islet injury through the production of NO. This paper reviews literature regarding the inflammatory events that follow PIT as well as the pathogenesis of diabetes and the pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and their relation to the survival and function of intrahepatic pancreatic islet grafts. PMID:15728243

  11. Menin immunoreactivity in secretory granules of human pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Debelenko, Larisa V; Agarwal, Sunita; Du, Qiang; Yan, Wusheng; Erickson, Heidi S; Abu-Asab, Mones; Raffeld, Mark A; Libutti, Steven K; Marx, Stephen J; Emmert-Buck, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The protein product of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) gene is thought to be involved in predominantly nuclear functions; however, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis data on cellular localization are conflicting. To further investigate menin expression, we analyzed human pancreas (an MEN1 target organ) using IHC analyses and 6 antibodies raised against full-length menin or its peptides. In 10 normal pancreas specimens, 2 independently raised antibodies showed unexpected cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in peripheral cells in each islet examined (over 100 total across all 10 patients). The staining exhibited a distinct punctate pattern and subsequent immunoelectron microscopy indicated the target antigen was in secretory granules. Exocrine pancreas and pancreatic stroma were not immunoreactive. In MEN1 patients, unaffected islets stained similar to those in normal samples but with a more peripheral location of positive cells, whereas hyperplastic islets and tumorlets showed increased and diffuse cytoplasmic staining, respectively. Endocrine tumors from MEN1 patients were negative for menin, consistent with a 2-hit loss of a tumor suppressor gene. Secretory granule localization of menin in a subset of islet cells suggests a function of the protein unique to a target organ of familial endocrine neoplasia, although the IHC data must be interpreted with some caution because of the possibility of antibody cross-reaction. The identity, cellular trafficking, and role of this putative secretory granule-form of menin warrant additional investigation. PMID:25153502

  12. Chaotic electrical activity of living β-cells in the mouse pancreatic islet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Miyano, Takaya; Tokuda, Isao; Galvanovskis, Juris; Wakui, Makoto

    2007-02-01

    To test for chaotic dynamics of the insulin producing β-cell and explore its biological role, we observed the action potentials with the perforated patch clamp technique, for isolated cells as well as for intact cells of the mouse pancreatic islet. The time series obtained were analyzed using nonlinear diagnostic algorithms associated with the surrogate method. The isolated cells exhibited short-term predictability and visible determinism, in the steady state response to 10 mM glucose, while the intact cells did not. In the latter case, determinism became visible after the application of a gap junction inhibitor. This tendency was enhanced by the stimulation with tolbutamide. Our observations suggest that, thanks to the integration of individual chaotic dynamics via gap junction coupling, the β-cells will lose memory of fluctuations occurring at any instant in their electrical activity more rapidly with time. This is likely to contribute to the functional stability of the islet against uncertain perturbations.

  13. Prevention of pancreatic islet xenograft rejection by dietary vitamin E.

    PubMed Central

    Vajkoczy, P.; Lehr, H. A.; Hübner, C.; Arfors, K. E.; Menger, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    In pancreatic islet transplantation, the adhesion of activated leukocytes to endothelial cells and the loss of microvascular integrity represent the critical microcirculatory events, which promote loss of graft function due to rejection. With the view that oxygen radicals may contribute to graft rejection, we studied the effect of the antioxidant vitamin E on microvascular rejection of islet grafts. Islets were transplanted syngeneically and xenogeneically (rat) into dorsal skin-fold chambers of hamsters, which received a non-vitamin-E-supplemented laboratory chow. Treated animals with xenografts were fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E in a low (150 mg/kg) and high (8000 mg/kg) concentration. Intravital fluorescence microscopy demonstrated complete vascularization of syngeneic grafts at day 10 after transplantation, intact islet microcirculation at day 20 with a functional capillary density of 653 +/- 6 cm-1, and only few leukocytes adherent to the endothelial lining of the islets' microvasculature (88 +/- 23 mm-2). Xenogeneic islets showed initial signs of rejection at day 6, including adhesion of leukocytes to the microvascular endothelium (610 +/- 110 mm-2) and loss of endothelial integrity. After 20 days, functional capillary density was significantly lower (173 +/- 68 cm-1) when compared with syngeneic grafts, indicating failure of graft acceptance. Supplementation of the diet with low and high concentrations of vitamin E resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of xenograft leukocyte-endothelium interaction (146 +/- 29 mm-2 and 109 +/- 42 mm-2) at day 6 after transplantation and and adequate development of functional capillary density at day 20 (478 +/- 36 cm-1 and 539 +/- 86 cm-1; P < 0.05), indicating prevention of microvascular rejection. We conclude that dietary supplementation of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, preserves microvascular integrity, and thus inhibits microvascular

  14. Functional implications of long non-coding RNAs in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Esguerra, Jonathan L. S.; Eliasson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by insulin resistance in target tissues and impaired insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, the pancreatic islet continues to be an important focus of research to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. The increased access to human pancreatic islets has resulted in improved knowledge of islet function, and together with advances in RNA sequencing and related technologies, revealed the transcriptional and epigenetic landscape of human islet cells. The discovery of thousands of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts highly enriched in the pancreatic islet and/or specifically expressed in the beta-cells, points to yet another layer of gene regulation of many hitherto unknown mechanistic principles governing islet cell functions. Here we review fundamental islet physiology and propose functional implications of the lncRNAs in islet development and endocrine cell functions. We also take into account important differences between rodent and human islets in terms of morphology and function, and suggest how species-specific lncRNAs may partly influence gene regulation to define the unique phenotypic identity of an organism and the functions of its constituent cells. The implication of primate-specific lncRNAs will be far-reaching in all aspects of diabetes research, but most importantly in the identification and development of novel targets to improve pancreatic islet cell functions as a therapeutic approach to treat T2D. PMID:25071836

  15. An encapsulation system for the immunoisolation of pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Lacík, I; Brissová, M; Anilkumar, A V; Prokop, A; Hunkeler, D; Green, R; Shahrokhi, K; Powers, A C

    1997-04-01

    Over a thousand combinations of polyanions and polycations were tested to search for new polymer candidates that would be suitable for encapsulation of living cells. The combination of sodium alginate, cellulose sulfate, poly (methylene-co-guanidine) hydrochloride, calcium chloride, and sodium chloride was most promising. In parallel, a novel multiloop chamber reactor was developed to control the time of complex formation and to negate gravitational effects such as pancreatic islet sedimentation and droplet deformation during the encapsulation process. Encapsulated rat islets demonstrated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, and reversed diabetes in mice. This new capsule formulation and encapsulation system allows independent adjustments of capsule size, wall thickness, mechanical strength, and permeability, which may offer distinct advantages for immunoisolating cells. PMID:9094138

  16. Characterization of a novel functional protein in the pancreatic islet: IHoP regulation of glucagon synthesis in alpha-cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Darwiche, Houda; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Shupe, Thomas; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We have identified a novel protein in bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Here we characterize this protein, hereby named Islet Homeostasis Protein (IHoP), in the pancreatic islet. Methods Detection of IHoP mRNA and protein were performed using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and in-situ hybridization. IHoP functions were utilizing proliferation, insulin secretion by in vitro assays, and as well as following siRNA protocols for suppression of IHoP. Results We found that IHoP did not homologue with known pancreatic hormones. IHoP expression was seen in both BM-derived IPCs and isolated pancreatic islets. Immunohistochemistry on pancreatic islet revealed that IHoP localized to the glucagon synthesizing α (alpha)-cells. Inhibition of IHoP by siRNA resulted in the loss of glucagon expression, which induced low blood glucose levels (63–85 mg/dL). Subsequently, cellular apoptosis was observed throughout the islet, including the insulin-producing β (beta)-cells. Islets of pre-onset diabetic patients showed normal expression of IHoP and glucagon; however IHoP was lost upon onset of the disease. Conclusion These data suggest that IHoP could be a new functional protein in the islet, and may play a role in islet homeostasis. PMID:22143342

  17. α1-antitrypsin increases interleukin-1 receptor antagonist production during pancreatic islet graft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, Avishag; Schuster, Ronen; Shahaf, Galit; Ozeri, Eyal; Green, Ross; Ochayon, David E; Rider, Peleg; Lewis, Eli C

    2014-07-01

    Although islet transplantation for individuals with type 1 diabetes has been shown to yield superior blood glucose control, it remains inadequate for long-term control. This is partly due to islet injuries and stresses that can lead to beta cell loss. Inhibition of excess IL-1β activity might minimize islet injuries, thus preserving function. The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1β, protects islets from cytokine-induced necrosis and apoptosis. Therefore, an imbalance between IL-1β and IL-1Ra might influence the courses of allogeneic and autoimmune responses to islets. Our group previously demonstrated that the circulating serine-protease inhibitor human alpha-1-antitrypsin (hAAT), the levels of which increase in circulation during acute-phase immune responses, exhibits anti-inflammatory and islet-protective properties, as well as immunomodulatory activity. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the pancreatic islet allograft-protective activity of hAAT was mediated by IL-1Ra induction. Our results demonstrated that hAAT led to a 2.04-fold increase in IL-1Ra expression in stimulated macrophages and that hAAT-pre-treated islet grafts exhibited a 4.851-fold increase in IL-1Ra transcript levels, which were associated with a moderate inflammatory profile. Unexpectedly, islets that were isolated from IL-1Ra-knockout mice and pre-treated with hAAT before grafting into wild-type mice yielded an increase in intragraft IL-1Ra expression that was presumably derived from infiltrating host cells, albeit in the absence of hAAT treatment of the host. Indeed, hAAT-pre-treated islets generated hAAT-free conditioned medium that could induce IL-1Ra production in cultured macrophages. Finally, we demonstrated that hAAT promoted a distinct phosphorylation and nuclear translocation pattern for p65, a key transcription factor required for IL-1Ra expression. PMID:25000533

  18. Islet-1 Is Essential for Pancreatic β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Ediger, Benjamin N.; Du, Aiping; Liu, Jingxuan; Hunter, Chad S.; Walp, Erik R.; Schug, Jonathan; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Stein, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Islet-1 (Isl-1) is essential for the survival and ensuing differentiation of pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Isl-1 remains expressed in all adult pancreatic endocrine lineages; however, its specific function in the postnatal pancreas is unclear. Here we determine whether Isl-1 plays a distinct role in the postnatal β-cell by performing physiological and morphometric analyses of a tamoxifen-inducible, β-cell–specific Isl-1 loss-of-function mouse: Isl-1L/L; Pdx1-CreERTm. Ablating Isl-1 in postnatal β-cells reduced glucose tolerance without significantly reducing β-cell mass or increasing β-cell apoptosis. Rather, islets from Isl-1L/L; Pdx1-CreERTm mice showed impaired insulin secretion. To identify direct targets of Isl-1, we integrated high-throughput gene expression and Isl-1 chromatin occupancy using islets from Isl-1L/L; Pdx1-CreERTm mice and βTC3 insulinoma cells, respectively. Ablating Isl-1 significantly affected the β-cell transcriptome, including known targets Insulin and MafA as well as novel targets Pdx1 and Slc2a2. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and luciferase reporter assays, we found that Isl-1 directly occupies functional regulatory elements of Pdx1 and Slc2a2. Thus Isl-1 is essential for postnatal β-cell function, directly regulates Pdx1 and Slc2a2, and has a mature β-cell cistrome distinct from that of pancreatic endocrine progenitors. PMID:25028525

  19. Pancreatic islet enhancer clusters enriched in type 2 diabetes risk–associated variants

    PubMed Central

    Mularoni, Loris; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Akerman, İldem; Tena, Juan J.; Morán, Ignasi; Gómez-Marín, Carlos; van de Bunt, Martijn; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Castro, Natalia; Nammo, Takao; Cebola, Inês; García-Hurtado, Javier; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Pattou, François; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Berney, Thierry; Gloyn, Anna L.; Ravassard, Philippe; Skarmeta, José Luis Gómez; Müller, Ferenc; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ferrer, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects over 300 million people, causing severe complications and premature death, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Pancreatic islet dysfunction is central for type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, and therefore understanding islet genome regulation could provide valuable mechanistic insights. We have now mapped and examined the function of human islet cis-regulatory networks. We identify genomic sequences that are targeted by islet transcription factors to drive islet-specific gene activity, and show that most such sequences reside in clusters of enhancers that form physical 3D chromatin domains. We find that sequence variants associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glycemia are enriched in these clustered islet enhancers, and identify trait-associated variants that disrupt DNA-binding and islet enhancer activity. Our studies illustrate how islet transcription factors interact functionally with the epigenome, and provide systematic evidence that dysregulation of islet enhancers is relevant to the mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes. PMID:24413736

  20. Pancreatic islet enhancer clusters enriched in type 2 diabetes risk-associated variants.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Lorenzo; Gaulton, Kyle J; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A; Mularoni, Loris; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Akerman, Ildem; Tena, Juan J; Morán, Ignasi; Gómez-Marín, Carlos; van de Bunt, Martijn; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Castro, Natalia; Nammo, Takao; Cebola, Inês; García-Hurtado, Javier; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Pattou, François; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Berney, Thierry; Gloyn, Anna L; Ravassard, Philippe; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Müller, Ferenc; McCarthy, Mark I; Ferrer, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects over 300 million people, causing severe complications and premature death, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Pancreatic islet dysfunction is central in type 2 diabetes pathogenesis, and understanding islet genome regulation could therefore provide valuable mechanistic insights. We have now mapped and examined the function of human islet cis-regulatory networks. We identify genomic sequences that are targeted by islet transcription factors to drive islet-specific gene activity and show that most such sequences reside in clusters of enhancers that form physical three-dimensional chromatin domains. We find that sequence variants associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glycemia are enriched in these clustered islet enhancers and identify trait-associated variants that disrupt DNA binding and islet enhancer activity. Our studies illustrate how islet transcription factors interact functionally with the epigenome and provide systematic evidence that the dysregulation of islet enhancers is relevant to the mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes. PMID:24413736

  1. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Che, Yongzhe; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong; Gao, Ying-Tang; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K(+)-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K(+)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:26559003

  2. Severely Fibrotic Pancreases from Young Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis: Evidence for a Ductal Origin of Islet Neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, S.M.; O’Brien, T.D.; Loganathan, G.; Bellin, M.D.; Anazawa, T.; Tiwari, M.; Papas, K.K.; Vickers, S.M.; Kumaravel, V.; Hering, B.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Balamurugan, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    While it is known that islet cell mass increases considerably after birth, general uncertainty surrounds the source of new beta cells in humans. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) presents a natural injury model for studying postnatal beta-cell regeneration in the human pancreas. In this report, we present histological evidence from human CP pancreases to support the theory that islet neogenesis can occur from ductal precursor cells after birth. Three young patients (ages 16, 12, and 28 years) underwent total pancreatectomy for the management of CP followed by islet isolation and autologous transplantation to prevent or minimize post-surgical diabetes. In all cases, the pancreases had extensive fibrosis, a rock-like consistency, and calcifications in the ducts. During islet isolations, we observed the unusual release of islets with many ductal fragments. In histopathological evaluation of these pancreases, solid cords of cells sometimes formed islet like structures intraductally or extending from ductal structures. Immunofluorescence staining for chromogranin, insulin, proinsulin, PDX1, glucagon and cytokeratins confirmed these structures to be composed of chromogranin-positive endocrine cells which included both β-cells and α-cells. Labeling for Ki67 to demonstrate mitotic activity showed frequent labeling of duct epithelial cells and of some periductal cells. Using insulin and wide-spectrum cytokeratin double-immunofluorescent labeling, we found insulin positive cells to be present within the ductal lumens, among the cytokeratin positive ductal epithelium, and extending from the ductal epithelium into surrounding connective tissues, providing evidence for a ductal origin of islet neogenesis. PMID:21773756

  3. Mouse islet of Langerhans isolation using a combination of purified collagenase and neutral protease.

    PubMed

    Stull, Natalie D; Breite, Andrew; McCarthy, Robert; Tersey, Sarah A; Mirmira, Raghavendra G

    2012-01-01

    The interrogation of beta cell gene expression and function in vitro has squarely shifted over the years from the study of rodent tumorigenic cell lines to the study of isolated rodent islets. Primary islets offer the distinct advantage that they more faithfully reflect the biology of intracellular signaling pathways and secretory responses. Whereas the method of islet isolation using tissue dissociating enzyme (TDE) preparations has been well established in many laboratories(1-4), variations in the consistency of islet yield and quality from any given rodent strain limit the extent and feasibility of primary islet studies. These variations often occur as a result of the crude partially purified TDEs used in the islet isolation procedure; TDEs frequently exhibit lot-to-lot variations in activity and often require adjustments to the dose of enzyme used. A small number of reports have used purified TDEs for rodent cell isolations(5, 6), but the practice is not widespread despite the routine use and advantages of purified TDEs for human islet isolations. In collaboration with VitaCyte, LLC (Indianapolis, IN), we developed a modified mouse islet isolation protocol based on that described by Gotoh(7, 8), in which the TDEs are perfused directly into the pancreatic duct of mice, followed by crude tissue fractionation through a Histopaque gradient(9), and isolation of purified islets. A significant difference in our protocol is the use of purified collagenase (CIzyme MA) and neutral protease (CIzyme BP) combination. The collagenase was characterized by the use of a(6) fluorescence collagen degrading activity (CDA) assay that utilized fluorescently labeled soluble calf skin fibrils as substrate(6). This substrate is more predictive of the kinetics of collagen degradation in the tissue matrix because it relies on native collagen as the substrate. The protease was characterized with a sensitive fluorescent kinetic assay(10). Utilizing these improved assays along with more

  4. Mouse Islet of Langerhans Isolation using a Combination of Purified Collagenase and Neutral Protease

    PubMed Central

    Stull, Natalie D.; Breite, Andrew; McCarthy, Robert; Tersey, Sarah A.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.

    2012-01-01

    The interrogation of beta cell gene expression and function in vitro has squarely shifted over the years from the study of rodent tumorigenic cell lines to the study of isolated rodent islets. Primary islets offer the distinct advantage that they more faithfully reflect the biology of intracellular signaling pathways and secretory responses. Whereas the method of islet isolation using tissue dissociating enzyme (TDE) preparations has been well established in many laboratories1-4, variations in the consistency of islet yield and quality from any given rodent strain limit the extent and feasibility of primary islet studies. These variations often occur as a result of the crude partially purified TDEs used in the islet isolation procedure; TDEs frequently exhibit lot-to-lot variations in activity and often require adjustments to the dose of enzyme used. A small number of reports have used purified TDEs for rodent cell isolations5, 6, but the practice is not widespread despite the routine use and advantages of purified TDEs for human islet isolations. In collaboration with VitaCyte, LLC (Indianapolis, IN), we developed a modified mouse islet isolation protocol based on that described by Gotoh7, 8, in which the TDEs are perfused directly into the pancreatic duct of mice, followed by crude tissue fractionation through a Histopaque gradient9, and isolation of purified islets. A significant difference in our protocol is the use of purified collagenase (CIzyme MA) and neutral protease (CIzyme BP) combination. The collagenase was characterized by the use of a6 fluorescence collagen degrading activity (CDA) assay that utilized fluorescently labeled soluble calf skin fibrils as substrate6. This substrate is more predictive of the kinetics of collagen degradation in the tissue matrix because it relies on native collagen as the substrate. The protease was characterized with a sensitive fluorescent kinetic assay10. Utilizing these improved assays along with more traditional

  5. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  6. Pancreatic islet cell therapy for type I diabetes: understanding the effects of glucose stimulation on islets in order to produce better islets for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiaqiang; Jin, Ping; Wang, Ena; Liu, Eric; Harlan, David M; Li, Xin; Stroncek, David F

    2007-01-01

    While insulin replacement remains the cornerstone treatment for type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans has the potential to become an important alternative. And yet, islet transplant therapy is limited by several factors, including far too few donor pancreases. Attempts to expand mature islets or to produce islets from stem cells are far from clinical application. The production and expansion of the insulin-producing cells within the islet (so called beta cells), or even creating cells that secrete insulin under appropriate physiological control, has proven difficult. The difficulty is explained, in part, because insulin synthesis and release is complex, unique, and not entirely characterized. Understanding beta-cell function at the molecular level will likely facilitate the development of techniques to manufacture beta-cells from stem cells. We will review islet transplantation, as well as the mechanisms underlying insulin transcription, translation and glucose stimulated insulin release. PMID:17201925

  7. Multi-detector row CT of pancreatic islet cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karen M; Hruban, Ralph H; Yeo, Charles; Fishman, Elliot K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) are neuroendocrine neoplasms that produce and secrete hormones to a variable degree. These neoplasms can present a diagnostic challenge, both clinically and radiologically. ICTs can be classified as either syndromic or nonsyndromic on the basis of their clinical manifestations. Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of both syndromic and nonsyndromic ICTs. In general, syndromic ICTs are less than 3 cm in size. They are typically hyperenhancing and are usually best seen on CT scans obtained during the arterial phase. Nonsyndromic ICTs tend to be larger than syndromic ICTs at presentation and are more likely to be cystic or necrotic. It is important for the radiologist to be familiar with appropriate CT protocol for the evaluation of patients with suspected pancreatic ICT and to understand the variable CT appearances of these neoplasms. PMID:16549609

  8. Can pancreatic duct-derived progenitors be a source of islet regeneration?

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Bing; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Yi, Ran; Yang, Baofeng

    2009-06-12

    The regenerative process of the pancreas is of interest because the main pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is an inadequate number of insulin-producing {beta}-cells. The functional mass of {beta}-cells is decreased in type 1 diabetes, so replacing missing {beta}-cells or triggering their regeneration may allow for improved type 1 diabetes treatment. Therefore, expansion of the {beta}-cell mass from endogenous sources, either in vivo or in vitro, represents an area of increasing interest. The mechanism of islet regeneration remains poorly understood, but the identification of islet progenitor sources is critical for understanding {beta}-cell regeneration. One potential source is the islet proper, via the dedifferentiation, proliferation, and redifferentiation of facultative progenitors residing within the islet. Neogenesis, or that the new pancreatic islets can derive from progenitor cells present within the ducts has been reported, but the existence and identity of the progenitor cells have been debated. In this review, we focus on pancreatic ductal cells, which are islet progenitors capable of differentiating into islet {beta}-cells. Islet neogenesis, seen as budding of hormone-positive cells from the ductal epithelium, is considered to be one mechanism for normal islet growth after birth and in regeneration, and has suggested the presence of pancreatic stem cells. Numerous results support the neogenesis hypothesis, the evidence for the hypothesis in the adult comes primarily from morphological studies that have in common the production of damage to all or part of the pancreas, with consequent inflammation and repair. Although numerous studies support a ductal origin for new islets after birth, lineage-tracing experiments are considered the 'gold standard' of proof. Lineage-tracing experiments show that pancreatic duct cells act as progenitors, giving rise to new islets after birth and after injury. The identification of differentiated pancreatic ductal cells as

  9. [Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].

    PubMed

    Godehardt, Antonia W; Schilling-Leiß, Dagmar; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Tönjes, Ralf R

    2015-11-01

    In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment. In particular, porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells have already entered the field of experimental therapy for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Thereby, xCT depict challenging products with a glance on medical, ethical, and regulatory questions. With cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), the risk of immunological graft rejection as well as the risk of infectious transmission of microbial and viral pathogens must be considered. This includes the bidirectional transmission of microorganisms from graft to host as well as from host to graft. Crossing the border of species requires a critical risk-benefit evaluation as well as a thorough longtime surveillance of transplant recipients after treatment. The international legal and regulatory requirements for xCT are inter alia based on the World Health Organization criteria summarized in the Changsha Communiqué (2008). In the European Union, they were reflected by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Xenogeneic Cell-based Medicinal Products following the implementation of the Regulation on Advanced Therapies (ATMP). On the basis of this regulation, the first non-clinical and clinical experiences were obtained for porcine islets. The results suggest that supportive treatment of T1DM risk patients with xCT may be an alternative to established allogeneic organ transplantation in the future. PMID:26369761

  10. Regenerating islet-derived protein 1 inhibits the activation of islet stellate cells isolated from diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Li, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zha, Min; Yao, Honghong; Jones, Peter M; Sun, Zilin

    2015-11-10

    Emerging evidence indicates that the islet fibrosis is attributable to activation of islet stellate cells (ISCs). In the present study, we compared the differences in biological activity of ISCs isolated from diabetic db/db and non-diabetic db/m mice, and the effects of the regenerating islet-derived protein 1 (Reg1) on ISC function. We showed that ISCs isolated from db/db mice were activated more rapidly than those from db/m mice during culture. Both Reg1 and its putative receptor exostosin-like glycosyltransferase 3 (EXTL3) were highly expressed by diabetic ISCs. Treatment with Reg1 inhibited migration, viability, and synthesis and secretion of Type I Collagen(Col-I), Type III Collagen(Col-III) and Fibronectin(FN) by diabetic ISCs, and this was associated with deactivation of the PI3K/Akt, MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathway in an EXTL3-dependent manner. In conclusion, our observations (i) confirmed the presence of fibrogenic stellate cells within pancreatic islets, which are prone to be activated in Type 2 diabetes, and (ii) revealed a potential role for Reg1 in preventing ISC activation. PMID:26496027

  11. Modeling K,ATP-Dependent Excitability in Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jonathan R.; Cooper, Paige; Nichols, Colin G.

    2014-01-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, K,ATP channels respond to changes in glucose to regulate cell excitability and insulin release. Confirming a high sensitivity of electrical activity to K,ATP activity, mutations that cause gain of K,ATP function cause neonatal diabetes. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the contribution of K,ATP current to the regulation of glucose-dependent bursting by reproducing experimentally observed changes in excitability when K,ATP conductance is altered by genetic manipulation. A recent detailed computational model of single cell pancreatic β-cell excitability reproduces the β-cell response to varying glucose concentrations. However, initial simulations showed that the model underrepresents the significance of K,ATP activity and was unable to reproduce K,ATP conductance-dependent changes in excitability. By altering the ATP and glucose dependence of the L-type Ca2+ channel and the Na-K ATPase to better fit experiment, appropriate dependence of excitability on K,ATP conductance was reproduced. Because experiments were conducted in islets, which contain cell-to-cell variability, we extended the model from a single cell to a three-dimensional model (10×10×10 cell) islet with 1000 cells. For each cell, the conductance of the major currents was allowed to vary as was the gap junction conductance between cells. This showed that single cell glucose-dependent behavior was then highly variable, but was uniform in coupled islets. The study highlights the importance of parameterization of detailed models of β-cell excitability and suggests future experiments that will lead to improved characterization of β-cell excitability and the control of insulin secretion. PMID:25418087

  12. GPRC6A mediates the effects of L-arginine on insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Pi, Min; Wu, Yunpeng; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Gerling, Ivan; Quarles, L Darryl

    2012-10-01

    L-arginine (l-Arg) is an insulin secretagogue, but the molecular mechanism whereby it stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells is not known. The possibility that l-Arg regulates insulin secretion through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated mechanism is suggested by the high expression of the nutrient receptor GPCR family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) in the pancreas and TC-6 β-cells and the finding that Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice have abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. To test the direct role of GPRC6A in regulating insulin secretion, we evaluated the response of pancreatic islets derived from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice to L-Arg. We found that the islet size and insulin content were decreased in pancreatic islets from Gprac6a(-/]minus]) mice. These alterations were selective for β-cells, because there were no abnormalities in serum glucagon levels or glucagon content of islets derived from Gprac6a(-/]minus]) mice. Significant reduction was observed in both the pancreatic ERK response to L-Arg administration to Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice in vivo and L-Arg-induced insulin secretion and production ex vivo in islets isolated from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice. L-Arg stimulation of cAMP accumulation in isolated islets isolated from Gprc6a(-/]minus]) mice was also diminished. These findings suggest that l-Arg stimulation of insulin secretion in β-cells is mediated, at least in part, through GPRC6A activation of cAMP pathways. PMID:22872579

  13. GPRC6A Mediates the Effects of l-Arginine on Insulin Secretion in Mouse Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunpeng; Lenchik, Nataliya I; Gerling, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) is an insulin secretagogue, but the molecular mechanism whereby it stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells is not known. The possibility that l-Arg regulates insulin secretion through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated mechanism is suggested by the high expression of the nutrient receptor GPCR family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) in the pancreas and TC-6 β-cells and the finding that Gprc6a−/]minus] mice have abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. To test the direct role of GPRC6A in regulating insulin secretion, we evaluated the response of pancreatic islets derived from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice to l-Arg. We found that the islet size and insulin content were decreased in pancreatic islets from Gprac6a−/]minus] mice. These alterations were selective for β-cells, because there were no abnormalities in serum glucagon levels or glucagon content of islets derived from Gprac6a−/]minus] mice. Significant reduction was observed in both the pancreatic ERK response to l-Arg administration to Gprc6a−/]minus] mice in vivo and l-Arg-induced insulin secretion and production ex vivo in islets isolated from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice. l-Arg stimulation of cAMP accumulation in isolated islets isolated from Gprc6a−/]minus] mice was also diminished. These findings suggest that l-Arg stimulation of insulin secretion in β-cells is mediated, at least in part, through GPRC6A activation of cAMP pathways. PMID:22872579

  14. Is Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation A Reasonable Choice for Pediatric Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Azhari, Hassan; Rahhal, Riad; Uc, Aliye

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an emerging and poorly understood disease in childhood. Total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation is being proposed as a treatment for chronic pancreatitis and recent studies report a more favorable outcome in children compared to adults. Herein, we review the therapeutic alternatives for pediatric chronic pancreatitis, focusing primarily on TP/IAT. PMID:26523129

  15. The effectiveness of components of University of Wisconsin solution in improving human pancreatic islet purification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D R; Davies, J; Rose, S; Contractor, H; James, R F; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1994-02-01

    The purification of human pancreatic islets before transplantation relies on the density-dependent separation of islets from exocrine fragments after collagenase digestion of the donor pancreas. The results vary among pancreases despite increasing automation of the digestion and purification processes, reflecting variations in the overlapping densities of islets and contaminating exocrine tissue. Hypothermic storage of both the pancreas and the pancreatic digest alters cell volumes and tissue densities, thereby affecting islet purification. By biochemical analysis of the isopycnic distribution of islets and exocrine tissue fragments from 23 human pancreases on linear continuous density gradients, the effect of various solutions for cold storage of pancreatic digest was studied. The use of the University of Wisconsin cold storage solution, which resulted in a significant decrease in digest volume (P = 0.006) and increase in the densities of both exocrine tissue (P = 0.001) and islets (P = 0.005), produced a significant improvement in islet purity compared with tissue culture medium (P = 0.035), predominantly due to the inclusion of a colloid, which increased the difference in density between exocrine tissue and islets. The addition of large molecular weight cellular impermeants without alteration in the concentration of permeable anions produced no effect. The results of this study support the concept that the use of solutions that minimize cell swelling throughout the process of islet purification would result in significant improvements in density-dependent islet separation, and that such solutions should contain a colloid. PMID:8108869

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus ssp.).

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Myers, Mark A; Forbes, Briony E; Grützner, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Monotremes have undergone remarkable changes to their digestive and metabolic control system; however, the monotreme pancreas remains poorly characterized. Previous work in echidna demonstrated the presence of pancreatic islets, but no information is available for platypus and the fine structure has not been described for either monotreme. Based on our recent finding that monotremes lack the ghrelin gene, which is expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islets, we investigated the structure of monotreme islets in more detail. Generally, as in birds, the islets of monotremes were smaller but greater in number compared with mouse. β-cells were the most abundant endocrine cell population in platypus islets and were located peripherally, while α-cells were observed both in the interior and periphery of the islets. δ-cells and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-cells were mainly found in the islet periphery. Distinct PP-rich (PP-lobe) and PP-poor areas (non-PP-lobe) are present in therian mammals, and we identified these areas in echidna but not platypus pancreas. Interestingly, in some of the echidna islets, α- and β-cells tended to form two poles within the islets, which to our knowledge is the first time this has been observed in any species. Overall, monotreme pancreata share the feature of consisting of distinct PP-poor and PP-rich islets with other mammals. A higher number of islets and α- or β-cell only islets are shared between monotremes and birds. The islets of monotremes were larger than those of birds but smaller compared with therian mammals. This may indicate a trend of having fewer larger islets comprising several endocrine cell types during mammalian evolution. PMID:25682842

  17. Transplantation of Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets as a Treatment for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Meirigeng

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets has been proposed and investigated for over three decades to improve islet transplantation outcomes and to eliminate the side effects of immunosuppressive medications. Of the numerous encapsulation systems developed in the past, microencapsulation have been studied most extensively so far. A wide variety of materials has been tested for microencapsulation in various animal models (including nonhuman primates or NHPs) and some materials were shown to induce immunoprotection to islet grafts without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Despite the initial success of microcapsules in NHP models, the combined use of islet transplantation (allograft) and microencapsulation has not yet been successful in clinical trials. This review consists of three sections: introduction to islet transplantation, transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets as a treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and present challenges and future perspectives. PMID:26556410

  18. Trimeprazine increases IRS2 in human islets and promotes pancreatic β cell growth and function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Yu, Yue; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Opare-Addo, Lynn; Rozzo, Aldo; Sadagurski, Marianna; Norquay, Lisa; Reed, Jessica E.; El Khattabi, Ilham; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.; Sharma, Arun; White, Morris F.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of pancreatic β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis during chronic physiologic and immunologic stress is important for cellular and metabolic homeostasis. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is a regulated adapter protein that links the insulin and IGF1 receptors to downstream signaling cascades. Since strategies to maintain or increase IRS2 expression can promote β cell growth, function, and survival, we conducted a screen to find small molecules that can increase IRS2 mRNA in isolated human pancreatic islets. We identified 77 compounds, including 15 that contained a tricyclic core. To establish the efficacy of our approach, one of the tricyclic compounds, trimeprazine tartrate, was investigated in isolated human islets and in mouse models. Trimeprazine is a first-generation antihistamine that acts as a partial agonist against the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and other GPCRs, some of which are expressed on human islets. Trimeprazine promoted CREB phosphorylation and increased the concentration of IRS2 in islets. IRS2 was required for trimeprazine to increase nuclear Pdx1, islet mass, β cell replication and function, and glucose tolerance in mice. Moreover, trimeprazine synergized with anti-CD3 Abs to reduce the progression of diabetes in NOD mice. Finally, it increased the function of human islet transplants in streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic mice. Thus, trimeprazine, its analogs, or possibly other compounds that increase IRS2 in islets and β cells without adverse systemic effects might provide mechanism-based strategies to prevent the progression of diabetes. PMID:27152363

  19. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Lumelsky, N; Blondel, O; Laeng, P; Velasco, I; Ravin, R; McKay, R

    2001-05-18

    Although the source of embryonic stem (ES) cells presents ethical concerns, their use may lead to many clinical benefits if differentiated cell types can be derived from them and used to assemble functional organs. In pancreas, insulin is produced and secreted by specialized structures, islets of Langerhans. Diabetes, which affects 16 million people in the United States, results from abnormal function of pancreatic islets. We have generated cells expressing insulin and other pancreatic endocrine hormones from mouse ES cells. The cells self-assemble to form three-dimensional clusters similar in topology to normal pancreatic islets where pancreatic cell types are in close association with neurons. Glucose triggers insulin release from these cell clusters by mechanisms similar to those employed in vivo. When injected into diabetic mice, the insulin-producing cells undergo rapid vascularization and maintain a clustered, islet-like organization. PMID:11326082

  20. Islet Culture/Preservation Before Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-12-17

    Although islet culture prior to transplantation provides flexibility for the evaluation of isolated islets and the pretreatment of patients, it is well known that isolated islets deteriorate rapidly in culture. Human serum albumin (HSA) is used for medium supplementation instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is typically used for islet culture research, to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic materials. However, FBS contains several factors that are beneficial to islet viability and which also neutralize the endogenous pancreatic enzymes or exogenous enzymes left over from the isolation process. Several groups have reported the comparison of cultures at 22°C and 37°C. Recent studies have demonstrated the superiority of 4°C preservation to 22°C and 37°C cultures. We herein review the current research on islet culture/preservation for clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26858905

  1. Microfabricated biocapsules for the immunoisolation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Tejal Ashwin

    1998-08-01

    A silicon-based microfabricated biocapsule was developed and evaluated for use in the immunoisolation of transplanted cells, specifically pancreatic islets of Langerhans for the treatment of Type I diabetes. The transplantation of cells with specific functions is a promising therapy for a wide variety of pathologies including diabetes, Parkinson's, and hemophilia. Such transplanted cells, however, are sensitive to both cellular and humoral immune rejection as well as damage by autoimmune activity, without chronic immunosuppression. The research presented in this dissertation investigated whether microfabricated silicon-based biocapsules, with uniform membrane pore sizes in the tens of nanometer range, could provide an immunoprotective environment for pancreatic islets and other insulin-secreting cell lines, while maintaining cell viability and functionality. By utilizing fabrication techniques commonly employed in the microelectronics industry (MEMS), membranes were fabricated with precisely controlled and uniform pore sizes, allowing the optimization of biocapsule membrane parameters for the encapsulation of specific hormone-secreting cell types. The biocapsule-forming process employed bulk micromachining to define cell-containing chambers within single crystalline silicon wafers. These chambers interface with the surrounding biological environment through polycrystalline silicon filter membranes, which were surface micromachined to present a high density of uniform pores to allow sufficient permeability to oxygen, glucose, and insulin. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments established the biocompatibility of the microfabricated biocapsule, and demonstrated that encapsulated cells could live and function normally in terms of insulin-secretion within microfabricated environments for extended periods of time. This novel research shows the potential of using microfabricated biocapsules for the encapsulation of several different cell xenografts. The semipermeability

  2. Robot-assisted pancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of the vascular supply for autologous islet cell isolation and transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction For patients with chronic pancreatitis presenting with medically intractable abdominal pain, surgical intervention may be the only treatment option. However, extensive pancreatic resections are typically performed open and are associated with a substantial amount of postoperative pain, wound complications and long recovery time. Minimally invasive surgery offers an avenue to improve results; however, current limitations of laparoscopic surgery render its application in the setting of chronic pancreatitis technically demanding. Additionally, pancreatic resections are associated with a high incidence of diabetes. Transplantation of islets isolated from the resected pancreas portion offers a way to prevent post-surgical diabetes; however, preservation of the vascular supply during pancreatic resection, which determines islet cell viability, is technically difficult using current laparoscopic approaches. With recent advances in the surgical field, robotic surgery now provides a means to overcome these obstacles to achieve the end goals of pain relief and preserved endocrine function. We present the first report of a novel, minimally invasive robotic approach for resection of the pancreatic head that preserves vascular supply and enables the isolation of a high yield of viable islets for transplantation. Case presentation A 35-year old Caucasian woman presented with intractable chronic abdominal pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, with a stricture of her main pancreatic duct at the level of the ampulla of Vater and distal dilatation. She was offered a robotic-assisted pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and subsequent islet transplantation, to both provide pain relief and preserve insulin-secretory reserves. Conclusion We present a novel, minimally invasive robotic approach for resection of the pancreatic head with complete preservation of the vascular supply, minimal warm ischemia time (less than three minutes) and excellent islet recovery (134

  3. Implication of Mitochondrial Cytoprotection in Human Islet Isolation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Mendoza-Elias, Joshua E.; Qi, Meirigeng; Harvat, Tricia A.; Ahn, Sang Joon; Lee, Dongyoung; Gutierrez, Diana; Jeon, Hyojin; Paushter, Daniel; Oberholzer, José

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, success rates in achieving both short- and long-term insulin independence are not consistent, due in part to inconsistent islet quality and quantity caused by the complex nature and multistep process of islet isolation and transplantation. Since the introduction of the Edmonton Protocol in 2000, more attention has been placed on preserving mitochondrial function as increasing evidences suggest that impaired mitochondrial integrity can adversely affect clinical outcomes. Some recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve islet cytoprotection by maintaining mitochondrial function and subsequently to improve islet transplantation outcomes. However, the benefits of mitoprotection in many cases are controversial and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This article summarizes the recent progress associated with mitochondrial cytoprotection in each step of the islet isolation and transplantation process, as well as islet potency and viability assays based on the measurement of mitochondrial integrity. In addition, we briefly discuss immunosuppression side effects on islet graft function and how transplant site selection affects islet engraftment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22611495

  4. Data on morphometric analysis of the pancreatic islets from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Lemes, Robertha Mariana; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Almeida, Aline da Silva; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo

    2016-09-01

    The endocrine portion of the pancreas, which is characterized by pancreatic islets, has been widely investigated among different species. The BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are extensively used in experimental research, and the morphometric differences in the pancreatic islets of these animals have not been evaluated so far. Thus, our data have a comparative perspective related to the morphometric analysis of area, diameters, circularity, and density of pancreatic islets from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The data presented here are focused to evaluate the differences in morphology of pancreatic islets of two common laboratory mouse strains. PMID:27508270

  5. Storage of human pancreatic digest in University of Wisconsin solution significantly improves subsequent islet purification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Contractor, H; Rose, S; Chamberlain, R; Clayton, H; Bell, P R; James, R F; London, N J

    1992-09-01

    Density-gradient purification of human pancreatic islets from the collagenase-digested pancreas relies on the exocrine tissue being denser than the islets. Cold storage of the pancreas before and after digestion causes cell swelling, which can decrease the density of pancreatic exocrine tissue and adversely affect subsequent purification. Using 14 human pancreata (seven perfused in situ with hyperosmolar citrate (HOC) and seven with University of Wisconsin solution (UW)), it is shown that storage of the pancreatic digest in UW significantly increases the density of pancreatic exocrine tissue compared with storage in minimal essential medium (MEM) (P = 0.009). This results in an improvement in islet purity (P = 0.036) for HOC- but not UW-perfused pancreata. Storage in UW for 1 h not only prevented the deterioration that occurred in MEM, but resulted in an improvement in islet purity for five of the seven HOC-perfused pancreata. Most pancreata in the UK are perfused with HOC, but storage of the digest in UW results in significantly better islet purity and, when islets cannot be purified immediately, a period of storage will often improve separation and allow islets to be purified. PMID:1422750

  6. Light scattering as an intrinsic indicator for pancreatic islet cell mass and secretion.

    PubMed

    Ilegems, E; van Krieken, P P; Edlund, P K; Dicker, A; Alanentalo, T; Eriksson, M; Mandic, S; Ahlgren, U; Berggren, P-O

    2015-01-01

    The pancreatic islet of Langerhans is composed of endocrine cells producing and releasing hormones from secretory granules in response to various stimuli for maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis. In order to adapt to a variation in functional demands, these islets are capable of modulating their hormone secretion by increasing the number of endocrine cells as well as the functional response of individual cells. A failure in adaptive mechanisms will lead to inadequate blood glucose regulation and thereby to the development of diabetes. It is therefore necessary to develop tools for the assessment of both pancreatic islet mass and function, with the aim of understanding cellular regulatory mechanisms and factors guiding islet plasticity. Although most of the existing techniques rely on the use of artificial indicators, we present an imaging methodology based on intrinsic optical properties originating from mature insulin secretory granules within endocrine cells that reveals both pancreatic islet mass and function. We demonstrate the advantage of using this imaging strategy by monitoring in vivo scattering signal from pancreatic islets engrafted into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye, and how this versatile and noninvasive methodology permits the characterization of islet morphology and plasticity as well as hormone secretory status. PMID:26030284

  7. Pancreatic islet blood flow in conscious rats during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Iwase, M; Tashiro, K; Uchizono, Y; Goto, D; Yoshinari, M

    2001-06-01

    Anesthesia affects general hemodynamics and regulation of organ perfusion. We used colored microspheres to measure pancreatic islet blood flow in conscious rats at two time points, during either hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. This method, using black and green microspheres, was validated by comparison with previous microsphere experiments and by lack of effect of a nonmetabolizable glucose analog, 3-O-methylglucose, on islet perfusion. Basal and glucose-stimulated islet blood flow levels were similar in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized and conscious rats. However, the basal distribution of pancreatic blood flow was altered by anesthesia (fractional islet blood flow 5.8 +/- 0.4% in conscious rats, 7.9 +/- 0.8% in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, P < 0.05). Insulin-induced hypoglycemia significantly increased whole pancreatic blood flow in conscious rats, whereas islet blood flow remained unchanged and fractional islet blood flow was decreased (5.8 +/- 0.5% in the basal state, 4.2 +/- 0.4% during hypoglycemia, P < 0.001). Methylatropine pretreatment significantly increased islet blood flow during hypoglycemia by 181%. This result suggests that prevention of hypoglycemia-induced increase in islet perfusion may be mediated, at least in part, by a cholinergic, vagal muscarinic mechanism. PMID:11353660

  8. Decreased 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 Level and Activity in Murine Pancreatic Islets Caused by Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Subrata; Grimm, Larson; Gong, Ying Jia Kate; Wang, Beixi; Li, Bing; Srikant, Coimbatore B.; Gao, Zu-hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2015-01-01

    We have reported a high expression of IGF-I in pancreatic islet β-cells of transgenic mice under the metallothionein promoter. cDNA microarray analysis of the islets revealed that the expression of 82 genes was significantly altered compared to wild-type mice. Of these, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which is responsible for the conversion of inert cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone, DHC in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone) in the liver and adipose tissues, has not been identified previously as an IGF-I target in pancreatic islets. We characterized the changes in its protein level, enzyme activity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In freshly isolated islets, the level of 11β-HSD1 protein was significantly lower in MT-IGF mice. Using dual-labeled immunofluorescence, 11β-HSD1 was observed exclusively in glucagon-producing, islet α-cells but at a lower level in transgenic vs. wild-type animals. MT-IGF islets also exhibited reduced enzymatic activities. Dexamethasone (DEX) and DHC inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from freshly isolated islets of wild-type mice. In the islets of MT-IGF mice, 48-h pre-incubation of DEX caused a significant decrease in insulin release, while the effect of DHC was largely blunted consistent with diminished 11β-HSD1 activity. In order to establish the function of intracrine glucocorticoids, we overexpressed 11β-HSD1 cDNA in MIN6 insulinoma cells, which together with DHC caused apoptosis and a significant decrease in proliferation. Both effects were abolished with the treatment of an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor. Our results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of IGF-I on 11β-HSD1 expression and activity within the pancreatic islets, which may mediate part of the IGF-I effects on cell proliferation, survival and insulin secretion. PMID:26305481

  9. Prior Surgery Determines Islet Yield and Insulin Requirement in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjun; Desai, Krupa D; Dong, Huansheng; Owzarski, Stefanie; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Morgan, Katherine A; Adams, David B

    2013-01-01

    Background Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) is safe and effective in the management of intractable pain associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Prevention of pancreatogenic diabetes after TP-IAT is related to islet yield from the diseased pancreas. The purpose of this study is to compare islet yield and insulin requirement in the 76 patients who underwent different surgical procedures prior to TP-IAT at the Medical University of South Carolina between the years 2009 to 2011. Methods Patients were grouped into four categories based on the operation they had before TP-IAT: transduodenal sphincteroplasty or no prior surgery (TDS/NPS, n=50), Whipple or Beger procedure (WB, n=14), distal pancreatectomy (DP, n=8) or lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ, n=4). Islets were harvested from pancreases of those patients at our cGMP facility. Total unpurified islets were transplanted into patients via portal vein infusion. Pancreatic fibrosis, islet yield, cell viability and insulin requirement were measured. Results The pancreases of TDS/NPS and WB patients were less fibrotic, and had higher islet yield compared to those who had DP or LPJ. Higher islet yield also correlated with a greater diabetes free rate and a lesser insulin requirement at the following intervals: pre-operative, post-operative and 6 months after TP-IAT. Conclusions Prior surgery is strongly correlated with the extent of pancreatic fibrosis, islet yield and insulin requirements in CP patients undergoing TP-IAT. The history of prior pancreatic resection and drainage procedures may be used to predict post-operative islet function and help to determine the optimal timing for TP-IAT in CP patients. PMID:23411743

  10. Asymmetrical distribution of δ and PP cells in human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Barbieux, Charlotte; Parnaud, Géraldine; Lavallard, Vanessa; Brioudes, Estelle; Meyer, Jérémy; Alibashe Ahmed, Mohamed; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Berney, Thierry; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the location of PP and δ cells in relation to the vascularization within human pancreatic islets. To this end, pancreas sections were analysed by immunofluorescence using antibodies against endocrine islet and endothelial cells. Staining in different islet areas corresponding to islet cells adjacent or not to peripheral or central vascular channels was quantified by computerized morphometry. As results, α, PP and δ cells were preferentially found adjacent to vessels. In contrast to α cells, which were evenly distributed between islet periphery and intraislet vascular channels, PP and δ cells had asymmetric and opposite distributions: PP staining was higher and somatostatin staining was lower in the islet periphery than in the area around intraislet vascular channels. Additionally, frequencies of PP and δ cells were negatively correlated in the islets. No difference was observed between islets from the head and the tail of the pancreas, and from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic donors. In conclusion, the distribution of δ cells differs from that of PP cells in human islets, suggesting that vessels at the periphery and at the centre of islets drain different hormonal cocktails. PMID:26931137

  11. Novel Stable Isotope Analyses Demonstrate Significant Rates of Glucose Cycling in Mouse Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Lynley D.; Trenary, Irina; O’Brien, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    A polymorphism located in the G6PC2 gene, which encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit, is the most important common determinant of variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in humans. Studies of G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice suggest that G6pc2 represents a negative regulator of basal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) that acts by hydrolyzing glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), thereby reducing glycolytic flux. However, this conclusion conflicts with the very low estimates for the rate of glucose cycling in pancreatic islets, as assessed using radioisotopes. We have reassessed the rate of glucose cycling in pancreatic islets using a novel stable isotope method. The data show much higher levels of glucose cycling than previously reported. In 5 mmol/L glucose, islets from C57BL/6J chow-fed mice cycled ∼16% of net glucose uptake. The cycling rate was further increased at 11 mmol/L glucose. Similar cycling rates were observed using islets from high fat–fed mice. Importantly, glucose cycling was abolished in G6pc2 KO mouse islets, confirming that G6pc2 opposes the action of the glucose sensor glucokinase by hydrolyzing G6P. The demonstration of high rates of glucose cycling in pancreatic islets explains why G6pc2 deletion enhances GSIS and why variants in G6PC2 affect FBG in humans. PMID:25552595

  12. Effect of low temperature cultivation on insulin secretory of human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, D M; Djordjevic, P B; Lackovic, V B; Stojiljkovic, V; Stanojevic, B

    2013-01-01

    The experiment compared the physiological function (insulin secretory capacity) and membrane integrity of human adult pancreatic islets incubated in culture at 37°C and 24°C. Pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated at 37°C and 24°C. Secretory capacity of the islets is determined by measuring of the stimulation index (SI) on the 1st, 3rd and 7th day of cultivation. Membrane integrity of the islets was determined by dithizone staining. Both groups of examined cultures show a slight increase in SI during the incubation. However islets incubated at 24°C show higher SI values than those incubated at 37°C on the 1st, 3rd and 7th day of incubation. And on the first day of incubation, this difference was statistically significant (p <0.05). Islets incubated at 37°C showed preservation of membrane integrity, the islets are regular spherical shape, while those incubated at 24°C lose such an organization. During the seven-day cultivation, islets incubated at a standard temperature of 37°C show less preserve physiological functions in relation to cultures incubated at 24°C, but islets incubated at 37°C show more regular morphological forms. PMID:23489685

  13. Microfluidic glucose stimulation reveals limited coordination of intracellular Ca2+ activity oscillations in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Walker, Glenn M.; Head, W. Steven; McGuinness, Owen P.; Piston, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The pancreatic islet is a functional microorgan involved in maintaining normoglycemia through regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. Extracellular glucose stimulates insulin secretion from islet β cells through an increase in redox state, which can be measured by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. Glucose concentrations over ≈7 mM generate synchronous oscillations in β cell intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which lead to pulsatile insulin secretion. Prevailing models assume that the pancreatic islet acts as a functional syncytium, and the whole islet [Ca2+]i response has been modeled in terms of islet bursting and pacemaker models. To test these models, we developed a microfluidic device capable of partially stimulating an islet, while allowing observation of the NAD(P)H and [Ca2+]i responses. We show that β cell [Ca2+]i oscillations occur only within regions stimulated with more than ≈6.6 mM glucose. Furthermore, we show that tolbutamide, an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, allows these oscillations to travel farther into the nonstimulated regions of the islet. Our approach shows that the extent of Ca2+ propagation across the islet depends on a delicate interaction between the degree of coupling and the extent of ATP-sensitive K+-channel activation and illustrates an experimental paradigm that will have utility for many other biological systems. PMID:15317941

  14. Physical exercise and pancreatic islets: acute and chronic actions on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe N; Proença, André R G; Chimin, Patrícia; Marçal, Anderson C; Bessa-Lima, Fábio; Carvalho, Carla R O

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a great public health problem, which attacks part of the world population, being characterized by an imbalance in body glucose homeostasis. Physical exercise is pointed as a protective agent and is also recommended to people with DM. As pancreatic islets present an important role in glucose homeostasis, we aim to study the role of physical exercise (chronic adaptations and acute responses) in pancreatic islets functionality in Wistar male rats. First, animals were divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and aerobic trained (T). At the end of 8 weeks, half of them (S and T) were submitted to an acute exercise session (exercise until exhaustion), being subdivided as acute sedentary (AS) and acute trained (AT). After the experimental period, periepididymal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat pads, blood, soleus muscle and pancreatic islets were collected and prepared for further analysis. From the pancreatic islets, total insulin content, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, leucine, arginine and carbachol were analyzed. Our results pointed that body adiposity and glucose homeostasis improved with chronic physical exercise. In addition, total insulin content was reduced in group AT, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose was reduced in trained groups (T and AT) and insulin secretion stimulated by carbachol was increased in group AT. There were no significant differences in insulin secretion stimulated by arginine and leucine. We identified a possible modulating action on insulin secretion, probably related to the association of chronic adaptation with an acute response on cholinergic activity in pancreatic islets. PMID:22868676

  15. Prevention of oxidative stress in porcine islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Philipp; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Hackl, Florian; Schaffellner, Silvia; Iberer, Florian; Greilberger, Joachim; Strunk, Dirk; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Lackner, Carolin; Tscheliessnigg, Karlheinz

    2010-04-01

    High yields of pure and viable porcine islet cells (PICs) to be used for microencapsulation are crucial for successful xenotransplantation. Mechanical disruption of the pancreas, enzymes used for digestion, digestion temperature and time are among the factors known to cause oxidative stress and to impact on the yield, purity and viability of PICs. The aim of our study was to optimize conventional procedures in order to minimize the oxidative stress that occurs during the isolation and purification of PICs. Porcine pancreatic tissue was harvested at a local slaughterhouse, and 15 consecutive isolations of PICs were performed with a modified automated Ricordi method (Graz method) using a shorter digestion time, a lower digestion temperature and minimal mechanical stress. PICs were purified with the Lymphoprep density gradient medium. Purity and viability were assessed immediately after the isolation process and after overnight culture. PIC function was tested in glucose stimulation experiments and insulin concentration was determined by ELISA. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring isoprostanes (IP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipase levels using a HPLC-based, colorimetric liquid assay or ELISA, respectively. The mean yield of PICs was 3479 +/- 542 IEQs/g pancreas, with 96.4% viability and 97.7% purity. There was no significant loss in PIC viability after overnight culture. Insulin secretion in response to glucose was not impaired after isolation and purification. IP, MDA and lipase levels did not change significantly during the isolation procedure. With our new Graz method we seem to have succeeded in preventing oxidative stress and achieving high yields of pure and viable PICs. PMID:20204442

  16. The Detection of Glycosaminoglycans in Pancreatic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bogdani, Marika; Simeonovic, Charmaine; Nagy, Nadine; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Chan, Christina K.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this chapter, we describe the detection of the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronan and heparan sulfate in pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues. The identification of hyaluronan in tissues is achieved by utilizing a highly specific hyaluronan binding protein (HABP) probe that interacts with hyaluronan in tissue sections. The HABP probe is prepared by enzymatic digestion of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan aggrecan which is present in bovine nasal cartilage, and is then biotinylated in the presence of bound hyaluronan and the link protein. Hyaluronan is then removed by gel filtration chromatography. The biotinylated HABP - link protein complex is applied to tissue sections and binding of the complex to tissue hyaluronan is visualized by enzymatic precipitation of chromogenic substrates. To determine hyaluronan content in tissues, tissues are first proteolytically digested to release hyaluronan from the macromolecular complexes that this molecule forms with other extracellular matrix constituents. Digested tissue is then incubated with HABP. The hyaluronan - HABP complexes are extracted and the hyaluronan concentration in the tissue is determined using an ELISA-like assay. Heparan sulfate is identified in mouse tissues by Alcian blue histochemistry and indirect immunohistochemistry. In human tissues, heparan sulfate is best detected by indirect immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-heparan sulfate monoclonal antibody. A biotinylated secondary antibody is then applied in conjunction with streptavidin-peroxidase and its binding to the anti-heparan sulfate antibody is visualized by enzymatic precipitation of chromogenic substrates. PMID:25325969

  17. What difference exists in the pancreas of mammals with sanguivorous diet? A morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical study of the pancreatic islets of the hematophagous bat Diphylla ecaudata.

    PubMed

    Machado-Santos, Clarice; Aquino, Júlio César Fraulob; Mikalauka, Jefferson Simanas; Abidu-Figueiredo, Marcelo; Mendes, Rosa Maria Marcos; Sales, Armando

    2013-05-10

    Diphylla ecaudata is a vampire bat that mainly feeds on the blood of birds. This highly specialized diet - hematophagy - is accompanied by a series of morphological changes in the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, since the distribution and relative proportions of different pancreatic endocrine cell types can vary between species due to different physiological conditions and eating habits. The aim of this study was to examine for the first time the pancreas of the vampire bat D. ecaudata using morphological, stereological and immunohistochemical techniques. The pancreas of the D. ecaudata has an exocrine acinar portion in which the highest concentration of pancreatic islets is scattered. These pancreatic islets have irregular size and a mean diameter of 56.94 μm. The total number of islets in the pancreas was 23,900, with a volumetric density of 4.1%. Insulin-immunoreactive (IR) cells were located in the central pancreatic islet region and had the largest density (54.8%). Glucagon-IR cells were located mainly in the peripheral mantle region (16.2%), along with somatostatin-IR (SS) cells (14.3%). Cells immunoreactive to insulin, glucagon and somatostatin were also observed to have spread in isolated places in the exocrine pancreas. In the connective tissue near the pancreatic ducts, a high concentration was identified of insulin-IR cells and a low concentration of glucagon-IR and somatostatin-IR cells. These results indicate that although the pancreas of D. ecaudata has morphological similarities with that of other mammals, it has a differentiated islet structure, because there were a large number of islets and different volumetric densities of α, β and δ cells. PMID:23500834

  18. Diabetic ketoacidosis with concurrent pancreatitis, pancreatic β islet cell tumor, and adrenal disease in an obese ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Phair, Kristen A; Carpenter, James W; Schermerhorn, Thomas; Ganta, Chanran K; DeBey, Brad M

    2011-07-01

    A 5.5-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with a history of adrenal disease, respiratory disease, and chronic obesity was evaluated for progressive lethargy and ataxia, diminished appetite, and possible polyuria and polydipsia. Physical examination revealed obesity, lethargy, tachypnea, dyspnea, a pendulous abdomen, significant weakness and ataxia of the hindlimbs, prolonged skin tenting, and mild tail-tip alopecia. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed severe hyperglycemia, azotemia, an increased anion gap, glucosuria, ketonuria, proteinuria, and hematuria. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperechoic hepatomegaly, bilateral adrenomegaly, splenic nodules, mild peritoneal effusion, and thickened and mildly hypoechoic limbs of the pancreas with surrounding hyperechoic mesentery. Fine-needle aspirates of the liver were highly suggestive of hepatic lipidosis. In light of a diagnosis of concurrent diabetic ketoacidosis and pancreatitis, the ferret was treated with fluid therapy, regular and long-acting insulin administration, and pain medication. However, electrolyte derangements, metabolic acidosis, dyspnea, and the clinical appearance of the ferret progressively worsened despite treatment, and euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed severe hepatic lipidosis, severe suppurative pancreatitis and vacuolar degeneration of pancreatic islet cells, a pancreatic β islet cell tumor, bilateral adrenal cortical adenomas, and myocardial fibrosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of concurrent diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, pancreatic β islet cell tumor (insulinoma), and adrenal disease in a domestic ferret. The simultaneous existence of 3 endocrine diseases, pancreatitis, and their associated complications is a unique and clinically challenging situation. PMID:21838985

  19. Diabetic Ketoacidosis with Concurrent Pancreatitis, Pancreatic β Islet Cell Tumor, and Adrenal Disease in an Obese Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Phair, Kristen A; Carpenter, James W; Schermerhorn, Thomas; Ganta, Chanran K; DeBey, Brad M

    2011-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with a history of adrenal disease, respiratory disease, and chronic obesity was evaluated for progressive lethargy and ataxia, diminished appetite, and possible polyuria and polydipsia. Physical examination revealed obesity, lethargy, tachypnea, dyspnea, a pendulous abdomen, significant weakness and ataxia of the hindlimbs, prolonged skin tenting, and mild tail-tip alopecia. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed severe hyperglycemia, azotemia, an increased anion gap, glucosuria, ketonuria, proteinuria, and hematuria. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperechoic hepatomegaly, bilateral adrenomegaly, splenic nodules, mild peritoneal effusion, and thickened and mildly hypoechoic limbs of the pancreas with surrounding hyperechoic mesentery. Fine-needle aspirates of the liver were highly suggestive of hepatic lipidosis. In light of a diagnosis of concurrent diabetic ketoacidosis and pancreatitis, the ferret was treated with fluid therapy, regular and long-acting insulin administration, and pain medication. However, electrolyte derangements, metabolic acidosis, dyspnea, and the clinical appearance of the ferret progressively worsened despite treatment, and euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed severe hepatic lipidosis, severe suppurative pancreatitis and vacuolar degeneration of pancreatic islet cells, a pancreatic β islet cell tumor, bilateral adrenal cortical adenomas, and myocardial fibrosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of concurrent diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, pancreatic β islet cell tumor (insulinoma), and adrenal disease in a domestic ferret. The simultaneous existence of 3 endocrine diseases, pancreatitis, and their associated complications is a unique and clinically challenging situation. PMID:21838985

  20. Microfluidic perfusion systems for secretion fingerprint analysis of pancreatic islets: applications, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Castiello, F Rafael; Heileman, Khalil; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2016-02-01

    A secretome signature is a heterogeneous profile of secretions present in a single cell type. From the secretome signature a smaller panel of proteins, namely a secretion fingerprint, can be chosen to feasibly monitor specific cellular activity. Based on a thorough appraisal of the literature, this review explores the possibility of defining and using a secretion fingerprint to gauge the functionality of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. It covers the state of the art regarding microfluidic perfusion systems used in pancreatic islet research. Candidate analytical tools to be integrated within microfluidic perfusion systems for dynamic secretory fingerprint monitoring were identified. These analytical tools include patch clamp, amperometry/voltametry, impedance spectroscopy, field effect transistors and surface plasmon resonance. Coupled with these tools, microfluidic devices can ultimately find applications in determining islet quality for transplantation, islet regeneration and drug screening of therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:26732665

  1. Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Espes, Daniel; Eriksson, Olof; Lau, Joey; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2011-01-01

    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation. PMID:22174984

  2. Islet inflammation and hyperplasia induced by the pancreatic islet-specific overexpression of interleukin-6 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, I. L.; Hobbs, M. V.; Dockter, J.; Oldstone, M. B.; Allison, J.

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To examine this possibility, we developed two lines of transgenic mice (termed RIP-IL6) which overexpressed IL-6 in the pancreatic islet beta cells. RIP-IL6 mice, while showing a modest reduction in body weight, remained normoglycemic throughout their lives. Furthermore, insulin gene expression and glucose tolerance were similar to non-transgenic littermates. Histopathological examination revealed significant changes in the pancreas but not other organs of RIP-IL6 animals, with marked alterations in the architecture of the islets, in the islet cells, and in surrounding tissues. In younger animals these changes included islet hyperplasia with increased mitotic figures, neo-ductular formation, fibrosis, and a scant mononuclear cell infiltration (insulitis). In addition, immunostaining for islet hormones revealed changes in both the topography and density of beta and alpha cells. In older RIP-IL6 mice, a more florid insulitis was observed which was composed predominantly of B220+ B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, Mac-1+ macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Immunostaining for mouse IgG revealed significant numbers of plasma cells in the peri-islet infiltrates, which suggested that IL-6 induced differentiation of the recruited B lymphocytes. Therefore, islet overexpression of IL-6 produces a complex, localized host response implicating this cytokine in not only inflammatory processes that occur in autoimmune diabetes but also cellular neogenesis, which may indicate a role in tissue repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8030746

  3. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans and insulin-producing beta cells in particular play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and the islet dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To contribute to the understanding of the biology of the pancreatic islets we applied proteomic techniques based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Here as an initial step we present the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreas islets of the mouse, the commonly used animal model for diabetes research. Two-dimensional SCX LC/RP LC-MS/MS has been applied to characterize of the mouse islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins with at least two unique peptide identifications per protein. The dataset also allowed identification of a number of post-translational modifications including several modifications relevant to oxidative stress and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborates with previous known sites, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues potentially reveal novel information related to the role of oxidation stress in islet functions. Comparative analysis of the islet proteome database with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 68 proteins uniquely detected only in the pancreatic islets. Besides proteins with known functions, like islet secreted peptide hormones, this unique set contains a number of proteins with yet unknown functions. The resulting peptide and protein database will be available at ncrr.pnl.gov web site of the NCRR proteomic center (ncrr.pnl.gov).

  4. Expression of the kynurenine pathway enzymes in the pancreatic islet cells. Activation by cytokines and glucolipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Raynal, S; Bailbé, D; Gausseres, B; Carbonne, C; Autier, V; Movassat, J; Kergoat, M; Portha, B

    2015-05-01

    The tryptophan/kynurenine pathway (TKP) is the main route of tryptophan degradation and generates several neuroactive and immunomodulatory metabolites. Experimental and clinical data have clearly established that besides fat, muscle and liver, pancreatic islet tissue itself is a site of inflammation during obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore it is conceivable that pancreatic islet exposure to increased levels of cytokines may induce upregulation of islet kynurenine metabolism in a way resembling that seen in the brain in many neurodegenerative disorders. Using normal rat islets and the INS-1 β-cell line, we have demonstrated for the first time that: 1/only some TKP genes are constitutively expressed, both in β-cells as well as non β-cells; 2/ the regulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) is not constitutively expressed; 3/ IDO1 and kynurenine 3-monoxygenase (KMO) expression are potently activated by proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β) and glucolipotoxicity respectively, rather in β-cells than in non β-cells; 4/ Islet kynurenine/kynurenic acid production ratio is enhanced following IFN-γ and glucolipotoxicity; 5/ acute exposure to KYN potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion by normal islets; and 6/ oxidative stress or glucocorticoid modulates TKP genes only marginally. Pancreatic islets may represent a new target tissue for inflammation and glucolipotoxicity to activate the TKP. Since inflammation is now recognized as a crucial mechanism in the development of the metabolic syndrome and more specifically at the islet level, it is needed to evaluate the potential induction of the TKP in the endocrine pancreas during obesity and/or diabetes and its relationship to the islet cell functional alterations. PMID:25675848

  5. A pumpless microfluidic device driven by surface tension for pancreatic islet analysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yuan; Nourmohammadzadeh, Mohammad; Elias, Joshua E Mendoza; Chan, Manwai; Chen, Zequn; McGarrigle, James J; Oberholzer, José; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel pumpless microfluidic array driven by surface tension for studying the physiology of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Efficient fluid flow in the array is achieved by surface tension-generated pressure as a result of inlet and outlet size differences. Flow properties are characterized in numerical simulation and further confirmed by experimental measurements. Using this device, we perform a set of biological assays, which include real-time fluorescent imaging and insulin secretion kinetics for both mouse and human islets. Our results demonstrate that this system not only drastically simplifies previously published experimental protocols for islet study by eliminating the need for external pumps/tubing and reducing the volume of solution consumption, but it also achieves a higher analytical spatiotemporal resolution due to efficient flow exchanges and the extremely small volume of solutions required. Overall, the microfluidic platform presented can be used as a potential powerful tool for understanding islet physiology, antidiabetic drug development, and islet transplantation. PMID:27534648

  6. Stem cells: a promising source of pancreatic islets for transplantation in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Street, Cale N; Rajotte, Ray V; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease that affects millions and causes a major burden on the health care system. Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been managed with exogenous insulin therapy, however factors such as cost, lifestyle restriction, and life threatening complications necessitate the development of a more efficient treatment alternative. Pancreas transplantation, and more recently transplant of purified pancreatic islets, has offered the potential for independence from insulin injections. Islet transplantation is gaining acceptance as it has been shown to be effective for certain patients with type 1 diabetes. One obstacle, however, is the fact that there is an inadequate supply of cadaveric human islets to implement this procedure on a widespread clinical basis. A promising source of transplantable islets in the future will come through the use of adult or embryonic stem cells. This chapter presents an overview of the advancements made in the development of a stem cell based application to islet transplantation. Advantages and limitations are discussed regarding the use of embryonic stem cells, adult pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, and the use of nonpancreatic tissues based on current experimental models in the literature. It is concluded that stem cells offer the greatest potential for the development of an abundant source of pancreatic islets, although specific obstacles must be overcome before this can become a reality. PMID:14711014

  7. Pancreatic islet purification using bovine serum albumin: the importance of density gradient temperature and osmolality.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, D R; Robertson, G S; Toomey, P; Contractor, H; Rose, S; James, R F; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-01-01

    Euro-Ficoll and bovine serum albumin (BSA) are two of the most commonly used density gradient media for the purification of pancreatic islets. Euro-Ficoll is based upon Euro-Collins, a cold storage medium, and must, therefore, be used at 4 degrees C. The ionic composition of BSA, however, is likely to contribute to hypothermic cellular swelling, and this may influence the efficiency of islet purification using this medium at 4 degrees C. Experience in this laboratory also suggested that batch-to-batch variation in islet purity using BSA was related to differences in BSA osmolality. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of gradient medium temperature and osmolality on the purification of human and porcine islets using BSA. Pancreata were collagenase-digested, and islets were purified on continuous linear density gradients of BSA. The distribution of insulin and amylase in each gradient was assayed, and used to calculate the median density of islets and exocrine tissue, and the efficiency of islet purification (% amylase contamination at a fixed insulin yield), using: 1) gradient osmolalities of 300, 400, and 500 mOsm/kg H2O (seven porcine pancreata), and 2) gradients at 4 degrees C and at 22 degrees C (eight human and seven porcine pancreata). Increase in density gradient osmolality produced increases in porcine exocrine tissue density which exceeded changes in islet density, resulting in improved islet purity, maximal at a BSA osmolality of 400 mOsm/kg H2O. For human pancreata there was no significant change in pancreatic tissue densities nor islet purity with temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7512874

  8. Islet isolation from human pancreas with extended cold ischemia time.

    PubMed

    Kühtreiber, W M; Ho, L T; Kamireddy, A; Yacoub, J A W; Scharp, D W

    2010-01-01

    The general consensus among transplant centers is that a cold ischemia time (CIT) beyond 8 hours results in reduced yields and quality of human islets. We sought to optimize the isolation process and enzymes for pancreata with extended CIT. We processed 16 extended CIT pancreata (13.2 +/- 0.7 hours). Donors averaged 50.8 +/- 2.6 (standard error of the mean) years old with a body mass index of 28.6 +/- 1.5. Glands were shipped in cold organ preservation solution without oxygenated perfluorocarbon. Isolations were performed under a protocol optimized for digestion with the new cGMP collagenase from Roche. Purification used continuous Euroficoll/University of Wisconsin gradients. Islets were cultured in two types of Prodo cGMP islet culture media and/or in Miami 1A media. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assays were performed after 8 to 16 days of culture. Prepurification yield averaged 415 +/- 41 KIEQ postpurification, 359 +/- 29 KIEQ (purification loss 13.5%); and postculture 317 +/- 27 KIEQ (culture loss 11.7%). Our process liberated an average of 4278 IEQ/g of pancreas (97 +/- 5 g). Most islets were recovered in the purest fraction (purity 79.7% +/- 1.9%). Culture loss in our enhanced culture media was 11.7%. After 2 to 3 days in culture, viability was 92% +/- 1%. Islets exhibited compactness and dithizone staining. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assays performed after 3 to 23 days in our PIM(R) media resulted in a stimulation index of 6.8 +/- 1.7 (G50 to G350). We concluded that our human islet isolation process permitted the recovery of large numbers of high-quality human islets from extended CIT pancreata and that our cGMP islet culture media was superior to the current standard CMRL-based media. PMID:20692399

  9. Comparison of effects of phorbol esters and glucose on protein kinase C activation and insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Easom, R A; Hughes, J H; Landt, M; Wolf, B A; Turk, J; McDaniel, M L

    1989-01-01

    The tumour-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and this suggests a potential role for protein kinase C in the regulation of stimulus-secretion coupling in islets. In the present study, the hypothesis that the insulinotropic effect of TPA is mediated by activation of protein kinase C in pancreatic islets has been examined. TPA induced a gradual translocation of protein kinase C from the cytosol to a membrane-associated state which correlated with the gradual onset of insulin secretion. The pharmacologically inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not mimic this effect. TPA also induced a rapid time-dependent decline of total protein kinase C activity in islets and the appearance of a Ca2+- and phospholipid-independent protein kinase activity. Insulin secretion induced by TPA was completely suppressed (IC50 approximately 10 nM) by staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C inhibitor. Staurosporine also inhibited islet cytosolic protein kinase C activity at similar concentrations (IC50 approximately 2 nM). In addition, staurosporine partially (approximately 60%) inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion at concentrations (IC50 approximately 10 nM) similar to those required to inhibit TPA-induced insulin secretion, suggesting that staurosporine may act at a step common to both mechanisms, possibly the activation of protein kinase C. However, stimulatory concentrations of glucose did not induce down-regulation of translocation of protein kinase C, and the inhibition of glucose-induced insulin release by staurosporine was incomplete. Significant questions therefore remain unresolved as to the possible involvement of protein kinase C in glucose-induced insulin secretion. PMID:2690823

  10. Reduced insulin secretion function is associated with pancreatic islet redistribution of cell adhesion molecules (CAMS) in diabetic mice after prolonged high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Viviane Tannuri F L; Maschio, Daniela A; de Fontes, Camila Calvo; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Santos-Silva, Junia C; Almeida, Anna Carolina Soares; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Cartaxo, Maria Tereza; Carvalho, Carolina P F; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Intercellular junctions play a role in regulating islet cytoarchitecture, insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In this study, we investigated the animal metabolic state as well as islet histology and cellular distribution/expression of CAMs and F-actin in the endocrine pancreas of C57BL/6/JUnib mice fed a high-fat diet (HFd) for a prolonged time period (8 months). Mice fed a HFd became obese and type 2 diabetic, displaying significant peripheral insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and moderate hyperinsulinemia. Isolated islets of HFd-fed mice displayed a significant impairment of glucose-induced insulin secretion associated with a diminished frequency of intracellular calcium oscillations compared with control islets. No marked change in islet morphology and cytoarchitecture was observed; however, HFd-fed mice showed higher beta cell relative area in comparison with controls. As shown by immunohistochemistry, ZO-1, E-, N-cadherins, α- and β-catenins were expressed at the intercellular contact site of endocrine cells, while VE-cadherin, as well as ZO-1, was found at islet vascular compartment. Redistribution of N-, E-cadherins and α-catenin (from the contact region to the cytoplasm in endocrine cells) associated with increased submembranous F-actin cell level as well as increased VE-cadherin islet immunolabeling was observed in diabetic mice. Increased gene expression of VE-cadherin and ZO-1, but no change for the other proteins, was observed in islets of diabetic mice. Only in the case of VE-cadherin, a significant increase in islet content of this CAM was detected by immunoblotting in diabetic mice. In conclusion, CAMs are expressed by endocrine and endothelial cells of pancreatic islets. The distribution/expression of N-, E- and VE-cadherins as well as α-catenin and F-actin is significantly altered in islet cells of obese and diabetic mice. PMID:27020567

  11. Phase transitions in pancreatic islet cellular networks and implications for type-1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamper, I. J.; Jackson, Elais; Wang, Xujing

    2014-01-01

    In many aspects the onset of a chronic disease resembles a phase transition in a complex dynamic system: Quantitative changes accumulate largely unnoticed until a critical threshold is reached, which causes abrupt qualitative changes of the system. In this study we examine a special case, the onset of type-1 diabetes (T1D), a disease that results from loss of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β cells. Within each islet, the β cells are electrically coupled to each other via gap-junctional channels. This intercellular coupling enables the β cells to synchronize their insulin release, thereby generating the multiscale temporal rhythms in blood insulin that are critical to maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. Using percolation theory we show how normal islet function is intrinsically linked to network connectivity. In particular, the critical amount of β-cell death at which the islet cellular network loses site percolation is consistent with laboratory and clinical observations of the threshold loss of β cells that causes islet functional failure. In addition, numerical simulations confirm that the islet cellular network needs to be percolated for β cells to synchronize. Furthermore, the interplay between site percolation and bond strength predicts the existence of a transient phase of islet functional recovery after onset of T1D and introduction of treatment, potentially explaining the honeymoon phenomenon. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the onset of T1D may be the result of a phase transition of the islet β-cell network.

  12. Selection of polymers for application in scaffolds applicable for human pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Smink, Alexandra M; de Haan, Bart J; Paredes-Juarez, Genaro A; Wolters, Anouk H G; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N G; Schwab, Leendert; Engelse, Marten A; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The liver is currently the site for transplantation of islets in humans. This is not optimal for islets, but alternative sites in humans are not available. Polymeric scaffolds in surgically accessible areas are a solution. As human donors are rare, the polymers should not interfere with functional survival of human-islets. We applied a novel platform to test the adequacy of polymers for application in scaffolds for human-islet transplantation. Viability, functionality, and immune parameters were included to test poly(D,L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PDLLCL), poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/polybutylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer, and polysulfone. The type of polymer influenced the functional survival of human islets. In islets cultured on PDLLCL the glucagon-producing α-cells and insulin-producing β-cells contained more hormone granules than in islets in contact with PEOT/PBT or polysulfone. This was studied with ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy (nanotomy) during 7 d of culture. PDLLCL was also associated with statistically significant lower release of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, a so called danger-associate molecular pattern (DAMP)) from islets on PDLLCL when compared to the other polymers. DAMPs support undesired immune responses. Hydrophilicity of the polymers did not influence dsDNA release. Islets on PDLLCL also showed less cellular outgrowth. These outgrowing cells were mainly fibroblast and some β-cells undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition. None of the polymers influenced the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. As PDLLCL was associated with less release of DAMPs, it is a promising candidate for creating a scaffold for human islets. Our study demonstrates that for sensitive, rare cadaveric donor tissue such as pancreatic islets it might be necessary to first select materials that do not influence functionality before proposing the biomaterial for in vivo application. Our presented platform may facilitate

  13. Islet amyloid polypeptide is expressed in the pancreatic islet parenchyma of the teleostean fish, Myoxocephalus (cottus) scorpius.

    PubMed

    Westermark, Gunilla T; Falkmer, Sture; Steiner, Donald F; Chan, Shu Jin; Engström, Ulla; Westermark, Per

    2002-09-01

    The comparative endocrinology of the 37-amino-acid-residue islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is poorly known, possibly due to the fact that available antisera, raised against mammalian IAPP, fail to give immunoreactivity with islet parenchymal cells of non-mammalian vertebrates. Using reverse transcriptase-linked polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, IAPP was identified, and its deduced amino-acid sequence partially characterized, in three species of teleostean fish, i.e. Danio rerio (zebrafish), Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon), and Myoxocephalus (cottus) scorpius (daddy sculpin). The daddy sculpin is a species where the histophysiology of the pancreatic islet parenchyma has previously been comprehensively studied. From the deduced amino-acid sequence, a synthetic peptide, corresponding to positions 20-29 of Salmo IAPP, was synthesized. A mouse antiserum to this peptide gave a distinct immunoreactivity with the insulin-producing beta cells of the sculpin Brockmann bodies and salmon endocrine pancreas. Thus, IAPP belongs to the group of peptide hormones expressed by the islet parenchymal cells in both mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. Salmo salar IAPP(20-29) was found to give rise to amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. PMID:12223219

  14. Efficient gene delivery to pancreatic islets with ultrasonic microbubble destruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuyuan; Ding, Jia-Huan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Yang, Bing-Zhi; Shohet, Ralph V.; Johnston, Stephen A.; Hohmeier, Hans E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2006-05-01

    This study describes a method of gene delivery to pancreatic islets of adult, living animals by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). The technique involves incorporation of plasmids into the phospholipid shell of gas-filled microbubbles, which are then infused into rats and destroyed within the pancreatic microcirculation with ultrasound. Specific delivery of genes to islet beta cells by UTMD was achieved by using a plasmid containing a rat insulin 1 promoter (RIP), and reporter gene expression was regulated appropriately by glucose in animals that received a RIP-luciferase plasmid. To demonstrate biological efficacy, we used UTMD to deliver RIP-human insulin and RIP-hexokinase I plasmids to islets of adult rats. Delivery of the former plasmid resulted in clear increases in circulating human C-peptide and decreased blood glucose levels, whereas delivery of the latter plasmid resulted in a clear increase in hexokinase I protein expression in islets, increased insulin levels in blood, and decreased circulating glucose levels. We conclude that UTMD allows relatively noninvasive delivery of genes to pancreatic islets with an efficiency sufficient to modulate beta cell function in adult animals. diabetes | gene therapy | ultrasound

  15. Efficient gene delivery to pancreatic islets with ultrasonic microbubble destruction technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuyuan; Ding, Jia-huan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Yang, Bing-zhi; Shohet, Ralph V.; Johnston, Stephen A.; Hohmeier, Hans E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes a method of gene delivery to pancreatic islets of adult, living animals by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). The technique involves incorporation of plasmids into the phospholipid shell of gas-filled microbubbles, which are then infused into rats and destroyed within the pancreatic microcirculation with ultrasound. Specific delivery of genes to islet beta cells by UTMD was achieved by using a plasmid containing a rat insulin 1 promoter (RIP), and reporter gene expression was regulated appropriately by glucose in animals that received a RIP–luciferase plasmid. To demonstrate biological efficacy, we used UTMD to deliver RIP–human insulin and RIP–hexokinase I plasmids to islets of adult rats. Delivery of the former plasmid resulted in clear increases in circulating human C-peptide and decreased blood glucose levels, whereas delivery of the latter plasmid resulted in a clear increase in hexokinase I protein expression in islets, increased insulin levels in blood, and decreased circulating glucose levels. We conclude that UTMD allows relatively noninvasive delivery of genes to pancreatic islets with an efficiency sufficient to modulate beta cell function in adult animals. PMID:16709667

  16. The fractal spatial distribution of pancreatic islets in three dimensions: a self-avoiding growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Junghyo; Hörnblad, Andreas; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami; Ahlgren, Ulf; Periwal, Vipul

    2013-06-01

    The islets of Langerhans, responsible for controlling blood glucose levels, are dispersed within the pancreas. A universal power law governing the fractal spatial distribution of islets in two-dimensional pancreatic sections has been reported. However, the fractal geometry in the actual three-dimensional pancreas volume, and the developmental process that gives rise to such a self-similar structure, has not been investigated. Here, we examined the three-dimensional spatial distribution of islets in intact mouse pancreata using optical projection tomography and found a power law with a fractal dimension of 2.1. Furthermore, based on two-dimensional pancreatic sections of human autopsies, we found that the distribution of human islets also follows a universal power law with a fractal dimension of 1.5 in adult pancreata, which agrees with the value previously reported in smaller mammalian pancreas sections. Finally, we developed a self-avoiding growth model for the development of the islet distribution and found that the fractal nature of the spatial islet distribution may be associated with the self-avoidance in the branching process of vascularization in the pancreas.

  17. Fractal spatial distribution of pancreatic islets in three dimensions: a self-avoiding growth model

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyo; Hörnblad, Andreas; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami; Ahlgren, Ulf; Periwal, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans, responsible for controlling blood glucose levels, are dispersed within the pancreas. A universal power law governing the fractal spatial distribution of islets in two-dimensional pancreatic sections has been reported. However, the fractal geometry in the actual three-dimensional pancreas volume, and the developmental process that gives rise to such a self-similar structure, have not been investigated. Here, we examined the three-dimensional spatial distribution of islets in intact mouse pancreata using optical projection tomography and found a power law with a fractal dimension, 2.1. Furthermore, based on two-dimensional pancreatic sections of human autopsies, we found that the distribution of human islets also follows a universal power law with fractal dimension 1.5 in adult pancreata, which agrees with the value previously reported in smaller mammalian pancreas sections. Finally, we developed a self-avoiding growth model for the development of the islet distribution and found that the fractal nature of the spatial islet distribution may be associated with the self-avoidance in the branching process of vascularization in the pancreas. PMID:23629025

  18. Design Principles of Pancreatic Islets: Glucose-Dependent Coordination of Hormone Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Hara, Manami; Jo, Junghyo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islets are functional units involved in glucose homeostasis. The multicellular system comprises three main cell types; β and α cells reciprocally decrease and increase blood glucose by producing insulin and glucagon pulses, while the role of δ cells is less clear. Although their spatial organization and the paracrine/autocrine interactions between them have been extensively studied, the functional implications of the design principles are still lacking. In this study, we formulated a mathematical model that integrates the pulsatility of hormone secretion and the interactions and organization of islet cells and examined the effects of different cellular compositions and organizations in mouse and human islets. A common feature of both species was that islet cells produced synchronous hormone pulses under low- and high-glucose conditions, while they produced asynchronous hormone pulses under normal glucose conditions. However, the synchronous coordination of insulin and glucagon pulses at low glucose was more pronounced in human islets that had more α cells. When β cells were selectively removed to mimic diabetic conditions, the anti-synchronicity of insulin and glucagon pulses was deteriorated at high glucose, but it could be partially recovered when the re-aggregation of remaining cells was considered. Finally, the third cell type, δ cells, which introduced additional complexity in the multicellular system, prevented the excessive synchronization of hormone pulses. Our computational study suggests that controllable synchronization is a design principle of pancreatic islets. PMID:27035570

  19. Pancreatic and Islet Development and Function: The Role of Thyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2014-01-01

    A gradually expanding body of literature suggests that Thyroid Hormone (TH) and Thyroid Hormone Receptors (TRs) play a contributing role in pancreatic and islet cell development, maturation, and function. Studies using a variety of model systems capable of exploiting species-specific developmental paradigms have revealed the contribution of TH to cellular differentiation, lineage decisions, and endocrine cell specification. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that TH is involved in islet β cell proliferation and maturation; however, the signaling pathway(s) connected with this function of TH/TR are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature that has defined the effects of TH and TRs on pancreatic and islet cell development and function, describe the impact of hyper- and hypothyroidism on whole body metabolism, and highlight future and potential applications of TH in novel therapeutic strategies for diabetes. PMID:25506600

  20. Transplantation of bone marrow derived cells promotes pancreatic islet repair in diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xiaodong; Song Lujun; Shen Kuntang; Wang Hongshan; Niu Weixin Qin Xinyu

    2008-06-20

    The transplantation of bone marrow (BM) derived cells to initiate pancreatic regeneration is an attractive but as-yet unrealized strategy. Presently, BM derived cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were transplanted into diabetic mice. Repair of diabetic islets was evidenced by reduction of hyperglycemia, increase in number of islets, and altered pancreatic histology. Cells in the pancreata of recipient mice co-expressed BrdU and insulin. Double staining revealed {beta} cells were in the process of proliferation. BrdU{sup +} insulin{sup -} PDX-1{sup +} cells, Ngn3{sup +} cells and insulin{sup +} glucagon{sup +} cells, which showed stem cells, were also found during {beta}-cell regeneration. The majority of transplanted cells were mobilized to the islet and ductal regions. In recipient pancreas, transplanted cells simultaneously expressed CD34 but did not express insulin, PDX-1, Ngn3, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Pax4, Pax6, and CD45. It is concluded that BM derived cells especially CD34{sup +} cells can promote repair of pancreatic islets. Moreover, both proliferation of {beta} cells and differentiation of pancreatic stem cells contribute to the regeneration of {beta} cells.

  1. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Gary W.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Jakowski, Amy B.; Soeller, Walter C.; Treadway, Judith L.

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution

  2. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  3. Cytochrome P450 1A-like proteins expressed in the islets of Langerhans and altered pancreatic β-cell secretory responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jacqueline; Flatt, Peter R; Barnett, Christopher R

    1997-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) mixed-function oxidase system is widely distributed in body tissues and plays a key role in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Little attention has been paid to the expression of the system in the islets of Langerhans. The current study has examined the expression and potential role of the CYP1A family within the islets of Langerhans of control and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced Wistar rats. CYP1A expression within pancreatic slices and islets from 3-MC-induced and control rats demonstrated that CYP1A-like protein levels were induced by 3-MC pretreatment (25 mg kg−1 day−1; i.p. for 3 days). Effects of 3-MC-induction on β-cell secretory responsiveness were investigated by use of rat collagenase-isolated islets. Insulin release from control islets incubated with 3 mM glucose (basal) was 1.4±0.2 ng/islet h−1 (mean±s.e.mean, n=7). Incubation with 16.7 mM glucose, 25 mM KCl, 100 μM arachidonic acid, or 100 μM carbachol caused a 4.4, 7.0, 4.0 and 4.2 fold, respectively, increase in insulin release (P<0.001). Forskolin (2 μM), or phorbol 12-myristic 13-acetate (10 nM) potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin release 1.2 and 1.6 fold (P<0.01) whereas adenalin (1 μM) caused a 76% inhibition (P<0.01). Islets from 3-MC pretreated animals displayed similar responsiveness to all agents tested except arachidonic acid, carbachol and forskolin. Insulin release in response to arachidonic acid and carbachol was enhanced 5.2 and 5.0 fold, respectively, by 3-MC pretreatment (P<0.001 compared to control islets incubated with 3 mM glucose); the effect of forskolin on insulin output was significantly decreased (20%; P<0.01) compared to control islets. 3-MC pretreatment did not cause any significant differences in food intake, plasma glucose or total islet insulin content. Incubation of islets with 3-MC in vitro (1 μM–10 mM) did not affect basal or glucose-stimulated insulin release. These data

  4. FRET-based voltage probes for confocal imaging: membrane potential oscillations throughout pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Bindokas, Vytautas P; Marks, Jeremy D; Philipson, Louis H

    2005-07-01

    Insulin secretion is dependent on coordinated pancreatic islet physiology. In the present study, we found a way to overcome the limitations of cellular electrophysiology to optically determine cell membrane potential (V(m)) throughout an islet by using a fast voltage optical dye pair. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), we observed fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET) with the fluorescent donor N-(6-chloro-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carbonyl)-dimyristoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine and the acceptor bis-(1,3-diethylthiobarbiturate) trimethine oxonol in the plasma membrane of essentially every cell within an islet. The FRET signal was approximately linear from V(m) -70 to +50 mV with a 2.5-fold change in amplitude. We evaluated the responses of islet cells to glucose and tetraethylammonium. Essentially, every responding cell in a mouse islet displayed similar time-dependent changes in V(m). When V(m) was measured simultaneously with intracellular Ca2+, all active cells showed tight coupling of V(m) to islet cell Ca2+ changes. Our findings indicate that FRET-based, voltage-sensitive dyes used in conjunction with LSCM imaging could be extremely useful in studies of excitation-secretion coupling in intact islets of Langerhans. PMID:15758044

  5. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18).

  6. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami; Ripoche, Doriane; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Rehfeld, Jens F; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Pattou, François; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Bertolino, Philippe; Zhang, Chang Xian

    2015-10-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have migrated from the duodenum. In the current study, we further characterized previously described transient pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells using cell lineage tracing in a pan-pancreatic progenitor and a pancreatic endocrine progenitor model. We provide evidence showing that pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells, found from embryonic day 12.5 until postnatal day 7, are derived from pancreatic Ptf1a(+) and neurogenin 3-expressing (Ngn3(+)) progenitors. Importantly, the majority of them coexpress glucagon, with 4% coexpressing insulin, indicating that they are a temporary subpopulation of both alpha and beta cells. Interestingly, Men1 disruption in both Ngn3 progenitors and beta and alpha cells resulted in the development of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors, suggesting that the latter developed from islet cells. Finally, we detected gastrin expression using three human cohorts with pancreatic endocrine tumors (pNETs) that have not been diagnosed as gastrinomas (in 9/34 pNETs from 6/14 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in 5/35 sporadic nonfunctioning pNETs, and in 2/20 sporadic insulinomas), consistent with observations made in mouse models. Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. PMID:26169832

  7. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami; Ripoche, Doriane; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Pattou, François; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Bertolino, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have migrated from the duodenum. In the current study, we further characterized previously described transient pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells using cell lineage tracing in a pan-pancreatic progenitor and a pancreatic endocrine progenitor model. We provide evidence showing that pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells, found from embryonic day 12.5 until postnatal day 7, are derived from pancreatic Ptf1a+ and neurogenin 3-expressing (Ngn3+) progenitors. Importantly, the majority of them coexpress glucagon, with 4% coexpressing insulin, indicating that they are a temporary subpopulation of both alpha and beta cells. Interestingly, Men1 disruption in both Ngn3 progenitors and beta and alpha cells resulted in the development of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors, suggesting that the latter developed from islet cells. Finally, we detected gastrin expression using three human cohorts with pancreatic endocrine tumors (pNETs) that have not been diagnosed as gastrinomas (in 9/34 pNETs from 6/14 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in 5/35 sporadic nonfunctioning pNETs, and in 2/20 sporadic insulinomas), consistent with observations made in mouse models. Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. PMID:26169832

  8. Adaptation of pancreatic islet cyto-architecture during development.

    PubMed

    Striegel, Deborah A; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Plasma glucose in mammals is regulated by hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans embedded in the exocrine pancreas. Islets consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β, and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Varying demands and available nutrients during development produce changes in the local connectivity of β cells in an islet. We showed in earlier work that graph theory provides a framework for the quantification of the seemingly stochastic cyto-architecture of β cells in an islet. To quantify the dynamics of endocrine connectivity during development requires a framework for characterizing changes in the probability distribution on the space of possible graphs, essentially a Fokker-Planck formalism on graphs. With large-scale imaging data for hundreds of thousands of islets containing millions of cells from human specimens, we show that this dynamics can be determined quantitatively. Requiring that rearrangement and cell addition processes match the observed dynamic developmental changes in quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that there is a transient shift in preferred connectivity for β cells between 1-35 weeks and 12-24 months. PMID:27063927

  9. Adaptation of pancreatic islet cyto-architecture during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegel, Deborah A.; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    Plasma glucose in mammals is regulated by hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans embedded in the exocrine pancreas. Islets consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β, and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Varying demands and available nutrients during development produce changes in the local connectivity of β cells in an islet. We showed in earlier work that graph theory provides a framework for the quantification of the seemingly stochastic cyto-architecture of β cells in an islet. To quantify the dynamics of endocrine connectivity during development requires a framework for characterizing changes in the probability distribution on the space of possible graphs, essentially a Fokker-Planck formalism on graphs. With large-scale imaging data for hundreds of thousands of islets containing millions of cells from human specimens, we show that this dynamics can be determined quantitatively. Requiring that rearrangement and cell addition processes match the observed dynamic developmental changes in quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that there is a transient shift in preferred connectivity for β cells between 1–35 weeks and 12–24 months.

  10. Functional studies of rat, porcine, and human pancreatic islets cultured in ten commercially available media.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M A; Clayton, H A; Chadwick, D R; Bell, P R; London, N J; James, R F

    1995-10-27

    There have been no extensive studies investigating the effect of tissue culture media on the in vitro functional characteristics of rat, porcine and human Islets of Langerhans. We therefore aimed to compare ten commercially available tissue culture media on the basis of their ability to maintain islet viability. Following isolation, islets were cultured free-floating in the ten media (RPMI 1640-11mM glucose (control), RPMI 1640-2.2mM glucose, Dulbecco's MEM, TCM 199, CMRL 1066, Iscove's MEM, Waymouth's MEM, Serum-Free medium, Ex-cell 300, Ham's F-12) and viability was assessed after 24 hr, 3 days, and 7 days on the basis of macroscopic appearance, cell membrane integrity, and insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation both by dynamic incubation and by perifusion. Each islet species demonstrated physiological insulin release characteristics in all media--however, it was possible to distinguish between the media by comparing the stimulation indices calculated from the insulin release studies. Significantly higher stimulation indices were produced in Iscove's MEM for rat islets, in Ham's F-12 for porcine islets and in CMRL 1066 for human islets. Over the entire culture period a significant deterioration in function was observed in all species cultured in the control media, although this was reversed when islets were cultured in the optimal media. Furthermore, in the case of porcine and human islets a significant improvement in function over the seven-day period was noted in the optimal media. In conclusion, of the commercially available media, the optimal tissue culture medium for rat islets is Iscove's MEM, for porcine islets is Ham's F-12, and for human islets is CMRL 1066. PMID:7482747

  11. Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate and University of Wisconsin Solutions Demonstrate Equal Effectiveness in Preventing Cellular Edema in Preserved Human Pancreata Intended for Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Pauster, Daniel; Qi, Meirigeng; Danielson, Kirstie K.; Harvat, Tricia A.; Kinzer, Katie; Barbaro, Barbara; Patel, Sonny; Hassan, Sarah Z.; Oberholzer, Jose; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that both Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution (HTK) and University of Wisconsin solution (UW) provide equal preservation of the pancreas for islet isolation, based upon the assessment of islet yield and function. In this study, we further assessed the ability of each solution to prevent cellular edema. This large-scale, retrospective analysis included the assessment of islet isolation outcomes influenced by cellular edema, such as pancreatic digestion efficacy, purification outcome, and islet size distribution. Multi-variable linear regression analysis, adjusted for donor age, sex, BMI, cold ischemia time, and enzyme, demonstrated similar results for the HTK group (n = 95) and the UW group (n = 157), including post-purification islet yields (the HTK: 289,702 vs. the UW: 283,036; p = 0.76), percentage of digested pancreatic tissue (the HTK: 66.9% vs. the UW: 64.1%; p = 0.18), and islet loss from post-digestion to post-purification (the HTK: 24,972 vs. the UW: 39,551; p = 0.38). Changes in islet size between the post-digestion and post-purification stages were comparable within each islet size category for the HTK and the UW groups (p = 0.14 - 0.99). Tissue volume distribution across purification fractions and islet purity in the top fractions were similar between the groups; however, the HTK group had significantly higher islet purity in the middle fractions (p = 0.003 - 0.008). Islet viability and stimulation indices were also similar between the HTK and the UW groups. In addition, we analyzed a small sample of patients transplanted either with HTK (n = 7) or UW (n = 8) preserved islets and found similar outcomes. This study demonstrates that HTK and UW solutions offer comparable pancreas preservation and are equally efficacious in the prevention of pancreatic tissue edema in islet transplantation. Future studies assessing in vivo islet outcomes in larger samples are needed for complete analysis of the effects of HTK on islet

  12. Experience of islet isolation without neutral protease supplementation

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, Doug; Senior, Peter; Shapiro, AM James

    2010-01-01

    We have reported improved islet isolation outcomes using a new digestion protocol where the pancreas is perfused only with collagenase, and neutral protease (NP) is administered during the digestion phase. Since the inception of this protocol, we have had some cases where administration of NP was not required. Our new protocol was utilized in 94 islet isolations. The timing of adding NP was dependent on the progression of digestion but in 10 cases the progression was rapid and most islets in the assessment samples were free from the exocrine tissue. As a result NP was not added at all for these isolations (no-NP group). In the remaining 84 isolations, NP was added during digestion phase (control group). Pancreata in the each group were digested with a similar collagenase dose. Digestion time was shorter in the no-NP (15.0 ± 1.8 vs. 19.5 ± 0.6 min, p = 0.004). At post-digestion, the no-NP had fewer trapped islets (10.9 ± 2.8 vs. 28.1 ± 2.4%, p = 0.009). Post-purification islet yield was similar (355 ± 45 × 103 vs. 318 ± 17 × 103 IE, p = 0.29). Five preparations in the no-NP were used for clinical transplantation, leading to a 64.3 ± 15.2% reduction in insulin usage. Interestingly, cold ischemia time was longer in the no-NP (10.3 ± 0.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.4 h, p = 0.04). One particular collagenase lot having the highest NP activity contamination was used in 7 isolations in the no-NP. Our experience indicates that supplementation of collagenase with NP is not always necessary for effective isolation. Cold ischemia time and NP contamination should be evaluated for optimal NP dosage. PMID:21099325

  13. Autologous Islet Transplantation in Patients Requiring Pancreatectomy: A Broader Spectrum of Indications Beyond Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Balzano, G; Maffi, P; Nano, R; Mercalli, A; Melzi, R; Aleotti, F; Zerbi, A; De Cobelli, F; Gavazzi, F; Magistretti, P; Scavini, M; Peccatori, J; Secchi, A; Ciceri, F; Del Maschio, A; Falconi, M; Piemonti, L

    2016-06-01

    Islet autotransplantation (IAT) is usually performed in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery for chronic pancreatitis. In the present series, IAT was offered also to patients undergoing pancreatic surgery for both nonmalignant and malignant diseases, having either completion pancreatectomy as treatment for severe pancreatic fistulas (n = 21) or extensive distal pancreatectomy for neoplasms of the pancreatic neck (n = 19) or pancreatoduodenectomy because of the high risk of pancreatic fistula (n = 32). Fifty-eight of 72 patients who were eligible to this broader spectrum of indication actually received IAT. There was no evidence of a higher-than-expected rate of major complications for pancreatectomy. Forty-five patients receiving IAT were still alive at the time of the last scheduled follow-up (1375 ± 365 days). Eighteen (95%) of 19 and 11 (28%) of 39 patients reached insulin independence after partial or total pancreatectomy, respectively. The metabolic results were dependent on the transplanted islet mass. Thirty-one of 58 patients had malignant diseases of the pancreas or periampullary region, and only three patients developed ex novo liver metastases after IAT (median follow-up 914 ± 382 days). Our data demonstrate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of IAT for a broader spectrum of clinical indications beyond chronic pancreatitis. PMID:26695701

  14. Copper addition prevents the inhibitory effects of interleukin 1-beta on rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Vinci, C; Caltabiano, V; Santoro, A M; Rabuazzo, A M; Buscema, M; Purrello, R; Rizzarelli, E; Vigneri, R; Purrello, F

    1995-01-01

    Since copper [Cu(II)] is a necessary cofactor for both intra-mitochondrial enzymes involved in energy production and hydroxyl scavenger enzymes, two hypothesised mechanisms for action of interleukin-I beta (IL-1 beta), we studied whether Cu(II) addition could prevent the inhibitory effect of IL-1 beta on insulin release and glucose oxidation in rat pancreatic islets. Islets were incubated with or without 50 U/ml IL-1 beta, in the presence or absence of various concentrations of Cu(II)-GHL (Cu(II) complexed with glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine, a tripeptide known to enhance copper uptake into cultured cells). CuSO4 (1-1000 ng/ml) was used as a control for Cu(II) effect when present as an inorganic salt. At the end of the incubation period, insulin secretion was evaluated in the presence of either 2.8 mmol/l (basal insulin secretion) or 16.7 mmol/l glucose (glucose-induced release). In control islets basal insulin secretion was 92.0 +/- 11.4 pg.islet-1 h-1 (mean +/- SEM, n = 7) and glucose-induced release was 2824.0 +/- 249.0 pg.islet-1 h-1. In islets pre-exposed to 50 U/ml IL-1 beta, basal insulin release was not significantly affected but glucose-induced insulin release was greatly reduced (841.2 +/- 76.9, n = 7, p < 0.005). In islets incubated with IL-1 beta and Cu-GHL (0.4 mumol/l, maximal effect) basal secretion was 119.0 +/- 13.1 pg.islet-1 h-1 and glucose-induced release was 2797.2 +/- 242.2, (n = 7, p < 0.01 in respect to islets exposed to IL-1 beta alone).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7744228

  15. Transduction of rat pancreatic islets with pseudotyped adeno-associated virus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Anthony T; Gavrilova, Oksana; Dwyer, Nancy K; Jou, William; Pack, Stephanie; Liu, Eric; Pechhold, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael; McAlister, Victor J; Chiorini, John A; Blanchette-Mackie, E Joan; Harlan, David M; Owens, Roland A

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus, but current immunosuppressive strategies do not consistently provide long-term survival of transplanted islets. We are therefore investigating the use of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as gene therapy vectors to transduce rat islets with immunosuppressive genes prior to transplantation into diabetic mice. Results We compared the transduction efficiency of AAV2 vectors with an AAV2 capsid (AAV2/2) to AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with AAV5 (AAV2/5), AAV8 (AAV2/8) or bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) capsids, or an AAV2 capsid with an insertion of the low density lipoprotein receptor ligand from apolipoprotein E (AAV2apoE), on cultured islets, in the presence of helper adenovirus infection to speed expression of a GFP transgene. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used. The AAV2/5 vector was superior to AAV2/2 and AAV2/8 in rat islets. Flow cytometry indicated AAV2/5-mediated gene expression in approximately 9% of rat islet cells and almost 12% of insulin-positive cells. The AAV2/8 vector had a higher dependence on the helper virus multiplicity of infection than the AAV 2/5 vector. In addition, the BAAV and AAV2apoE vectors were superior to AAV2/2 for transducing rat islets. Rat islets (300 per mouse) transduced with an AAV2/5 vector harboring the immunosuppressive transgene, tgfβ1, retain the ability to correct hyperglycemia when transplanted into immune-deficient diabetic mice. Conclusion AAV2/5 vectors may therefore be useful for pre-treating donor islets prior to transplantation. PMID:19450275

  16. Inactivation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Enhances Interferon Signaling in Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Stanley, William J; Litwak, Sara A; Quah, Hong Sheng; Tan, Sih Min; Kay, Thomas W H; Tiganis, Tony; de Haan, Judy B; Thomas, Helen E; Gurzov, Esteban N

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of an autoimmune assault against the insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, where chronic local inflammation (insulitis) leads to β-cell destruction. T cells and macrophages infiltrate into islets early in T1D pathogenesis. These immune cells secrete cytokines that lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and T-cell invasion and activation. Cytokine-signaling pathways are very tightly regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) to prevent excessive activation. Here, we demonstrate that pancreata from NOD mice with islet infiltration have enhanced oxidation/inactivation of PTPs and STAT1 signaling compared with NOD mice that do not have insulitis. Inactivation of PTPs with sodium orthovanadate in human and rodent islets and β-cells leads to increased activation of interferon signaling and chemokine production mediated by STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this exacerbated STAT1 activation-induced cell death in islets was prevented by overexpression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 or inactivation of the BH3-only protein Bim. Together our data provide a mechanism by which PTP inactivation induces signaling in pancreatic islets that results in increased expression of inflammatory genes and exacerbated insulitis. PMID:25732191

  17. Quantitative analysis of mouse pancreatic islet architecture by serial block-face SEM

    PubMed Central

    Aronova, M.A.; Zhang, G.; Cai, T.; Xu, H.; Notkins, A.L.; Leapman, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) to measure parameters that describe the architecture of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, microscopic endocrine organs that secrete insulin and glucagon for control of blood glucose. By analyzing entire mouse islets, we show that it is possible to determine (1) the distributions of alpha and beta cells, (2) the organization of blood vessels and pericapillary spaces, and (3) the ultrastructure of the individual secretory cells. Our results show that the average volume of a beta cell is nearly twice that of an alpha cell, and the total mitochondrial volume is about four times larger. In contrast, nuclear volumes in the two cell types are found to be approximately equal. Although the cores of alpha and beta secretory granules have similar diameters, the beta granules have prominent halos resulting in overall diameters that are twice those of alpha granules. Visualization of the blood vessels revealed that every secretory cell in the islet is in contact with the pericapillary space, with an average contact area of 9 ± 5% of the cell surface area. Our data show that consistent results can be obtained by analyzing small numbers of islets. Due to the complicated architecture of pancreatic islets, such precision cannot easily be achieved by using TEM of thin sections. PMID:25448885

  18. Ionic and secretory response of pancreatic islet cells to minoxidil sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, M.H.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A.; Lebrun, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Minoxidil sulfate is an antihypertensive agent belonging to the new class of vasodilators, the K+ channel openers. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of minoxidil sulfate on ionic and secretory events in rat pancreatic islets. The drug unexpectedly provoked a concentration-dependent decrease in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by glucose and tolbutamide. Minoxidil sulfate did not affect 45Ca outflow from islets perfused in the presence of extracellular Ca++ and absence or presence of glucose. However, in islets exposed to a medium deprived of extracellular Ca++, the drug provoked a rise in 45Ca outflow. Whether in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca++, minoxidil sulfate increased the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration of islet cells. Lastly, minoxidil sulfate increased the release of insulin from glucose-stimulated pancreatic islets. These results suggest that minoxidil sulfate reduces the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and promotes an intracellular translocation of Ca++. The latter change might account for the effect of the drug on the insulin-releasing process. However, the secretory response to minoxidil sulfate could also be mediated, at least in part, by a modest Ca++ entry.

  19. Regenerative Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: From Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Rekittke, Nadine E; Ang, Meidjie; Rawat, Divya; Khatri, Rahul; Linn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting in the permanent destruction of pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation to portal vein provides an approach to compensate for loss of insulin producing cells. Clinical trials demonstrated that even partial islet graft function reduces severe hypoglycemic events in patients. However, therapeutic impact is restrained due to shortage of pancreas organ donors and instant inflammation occurring in the hepatic environment of the graft. We summarize on what is known about regenerative therapy in type 1 diabetes focusing on pancreatic islet transplantation and new avenues of cell substitution. Metabolic pathways and energy production of transplanted cells are required to be balanced and protection from inflammation in their intravascular bed is desired. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have anti-inflammatory features, and so they are interesting as a therapy for type 1 diabetes. Recently, they were reported to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetic rodents, and they were even discussed as being turned into endodermal or pancreatic progenitor cells. MSCs are recognized to meet the demand of an individual therapy not raising the concerns of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells for therapy. PMID:27047547

  20. The Brain-to-Pancreatic Islet Neuronal Map Reveals Differential Glucose Regulation From Distinct Hypothalamic Regions.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Wilfredo; Singh, Inderroop; Wautlet, Arnaud; Patterson, Christa; Flak, Jonathan; Becker, Thomas C; Ali, Almas; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H; Enquist, Lynn W; Myers, Martin G; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    The brain influences glucose homeostasis, partly by supplemental control over insulin and glucagon secretion. Without this central regulation, diabetes and its complications can ensue. Yet, the neuronal network linking to pancreatic islets has never been fully mapped. Here, we refine this map using pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing, indicating that the pancreatic islets are innervated by efferent circuits that emanate from the hypothalamus. We found that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) significantly overlap PRV and the physiological glucose-sensing enzyme glucokinase. Then, experimentally lowering glucose sensing, specifically in the ARC, resulted in glucose intolerance due to deficient insulin secretion and no significant effect in the VMN, but in the LHA it resulted in a lowering of the glucose threshold that improved glucose tolerance and/or improved insulin sensitivity, with an exaggerated counter-regulatory response for glucagon secretion. No significant effect on insulin sensitivity or metabolic homeostasis was noted. Thus, these data reveal novel direct neuronal effects on pancreatic islets and also render a functional validation of the brain-to-islet neuronal map. They also demonstrate that distinct regions of the hypothalamus differentially control insulin and glucagon secretion, potentially in partnership to help maintain glucose homeostasis and guard against hypoglycemia. PMID:27207534

  1. Regenerative Therapy of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: From Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rekittke, Nadine E.; Ang, Meidjie; Rawat, Divya; Khatri, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting in the permanent destruction of pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation to portal vein provides an approach to compensate for loss of insulin producing cells. Clinical trials demonstrated that even partial islet graft function reduces severe hypoglycemic events in patients. However, therapeutic impact is restrained due to shortage of pancreas organ donors and instant inflammation occurring in the hepatic environment of the graft. We summarize on what is known about regenerative therapy in type 1 diabetes focusing on pancreatic islet transplantation and new avenues of cell substitution. Metabolic pathways and energy production of transplanted cells are required to be balanced and protection from inflammation in their intravascular bed is desired. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have anti-inflammatory features, and so they are interesting as a therapy for type 1 diabetes. Recently, they were reported to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetic rodents, and they were even discussed as being turned into endodermal or pancreatic progenitor cells. MSCs are recognized to meet the demand of an individual therapy not raising the concerns of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells for therapy. PMID:27047547

  2. Characterization of a pancreatic islet cell tumor in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jessica S; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a 25-year-old male polar bear suffering from a pancreatic islet cell tumor. The aim of this report is to present a case of this rare tumor in a captive polar bear. The implication of potential risk factors such as high carbohydrate diet or the presence of amyloid fibril deposits was assessed. Necropsy examination revealed several other changes, including nodules observed in the liver, spleen, pancreas, intestine, and thyroid glands that were submitted for histopathologic analysis. Interestingly, the multiple neoplastic nodules were unrelated and included a pancreatic islet cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry of the pancreas confirmed the presence of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) within the pancreatic islet cells. The IAPP gene was extracted from the paraffin-embedded liver tissue and sequenced. IAPP cDNA from the polar bear exhibits some differences as compared to the sequence published for several other species. Different factors responsible for neoplasms in bears such as diet, infectious agents, and industrial chemical exposure are reviewed. This case report raised several issues that further studies may address by evaluating the prevalence of cancers in captive or wild animals. PMID:25273481

  3. Obestatin Enhances In Vitro Generation of Pancreatic Islets through Regulation of Developmental Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Baragli, lessandra; Grande, Cristina; Gesmundo, Iacopo; Settanni, Fabio; Taliano, Marina; Gallo, Davide; Gargantini, Eleonora; Ghigo, Ezio; Granata, Riccarda

    2013-01-01

    Availability of large amounts of in vitro generated β-cells may support replacement therapy in diabetes. However, methods to obtain β-cells from stem/progenitor cells are limited by inefficient endocrine differentiation. We have recently shown that the ghrelin gene product obestatin displays beneficial effects on pancreatic β-cell survival and function. Obestatin prevents β-cell apoptosis, preserves β-cell mass and stimulates insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo, in both normal and diabetic conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether obestatin may promote in vitro β-cell generation from mouse pancreatic islet-derived precursor cells. Treatment of cultured islets of Langerhans with obestatin (i) enriched cells expressing the mesenchymal/neuronal marker nestin, which is associated with pancreatic precursors; (ii) increased cell survival and reduced apoptosis during precursor selection; (iii) promoted the generation of islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) with increased insulin gene expression and C-peptide secretion. Furthermore, obestatin modulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), Notch receptors and neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) during islet-derived precursor cell selection and endocrine differentiation. These results indicate that obestatin improves the generation of functional β-cells/ICCs in vitro, suggesting implications for cell-based replacement therapy in diabetes. Moreover, obestatin may play a role in regulating pathways involved in pancreas development and regeneration. PMID:23741322

  4. MEN1 tumorigenesis in the pituitary and pancreatic islet requires Cdk4 but not Cdk2.

    PubMed

    Gillam, M P; Nimbalkar, D; Sun, L; Christov, K; Ray, D; Kaldis, P; Liu, X; Kiyokawa, H

    2015-02-12

    Recent studies suggest that physiological and tumorigenic proliferation of mammalian cells is controlled by multiple cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) largely in tissue-specific manners. We and others previously demonstrated that adult mice deficient for the Cyclin D partner CDK4 (Cdk4(-/-) mice) exhibit hypoplasia in the pituitary and pancreatic islet due to primary postnatal defects in proliferation. Intriguingly, those neuroendocrine tissues affected in Cdk4(-/-) mice are the primary targets of tumorigenesis in the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN1). Mice with heterozygous disruption of the tumor suppressor Men1 gene (Men1(+/-)) develop tumors in the pituitary, pancreatic islets and other neuroendocrine tissues, which is analogous to humans with MEN1 mutations. To explore the genetic interactions between loss of Men1 and activation of CDKs, we examined the impact of Cdk4 or Cdk2 disruption on tumorigenesis in Men1(+/-) mice. A majority of Men1(+/-) mice with wild-type CDKs developed pituitary and islet tumors by 15 months of age. Strikingly, Men1(+/-); Cdk4(-/-) mice did not develop any tumors, and their islets and pituitaries remained hypoplastic with decreased proliferation. In contrast, Men1(+/-); Cdk2(-/-) mice showed pituitary and islet tumorigenesis comparable to those in Men1(+/-) mice. Pituitaries of Men1(+/-); Cdk4(-/-) mice showed no signs of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the Men1 locus, whereas tumors in Men1(+/-) mice and Men1(+/-); Cdk2(-/-) mice exhibited LOH. Consistently, CDK4 knockdown in INS-1 insulinoma cells inhibited glucose-stimulated cell cycle progression with a significant decrease in phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (RB) at specific sites including Ser780. CDK2 knockdown had minimum effects on RB phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. These data suggest that CDK4 is a critical downstream target of MEN1-dependent tumor suppression and is required for tumorigenic proliferation in the pituitary and

  5. Functional Proteomics Screen Enables Enrichment of Distinct Cell Types from Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Sharivkin, Revital; Walker, Michael D.; Soen, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    The current world-wide epidemic of diabetes has prompted attempts to generate new sources of insulin-producing cells for cell replacement therapy. An inherent challenge in many of these strategies is the lack of cell-surface markers permitting isolation and characterization of specific cell types from differentiating stem cell populations. Here we introduce an iterative proteomics procedure allowing tag-free isolation of cell types based on their function. Our method detects and associates specific cell-surface markers with particular cell functionality by coupling cell capture on antibody arrays with immunofluorescent labeling. Using this approach in an iterative manner, we discovered marker combinations capable of enriching for discrete pancreatic cell subtypes from human islets of Langerhans: insulin-producing beta cells (CD9high/CD56+), glucagon-producing alpha cells (CD9- /CD56+) and trypsin-producing acinar cells (CD9- /CD56-). This strategy may assist future beta cell research and the development of diagnostic tools for diabetes. It can also be applied more generally for function-based purification of desired cell types from other limited and heterogeneous biological samples. PMID:25706282

  6. Antidiabetic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H; Heidari, Z; Bokaeian, M; Moudi, B

    2010-05-01

    The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced damage in pancreatic islands by stereological methods. Fifty mature normoglycaemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): control; STZ-induced diabetic (D) - by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin; treated control (TC); and treated diabetic (TD1, 2), respectively, received 20 and 62.5 g/kg of eucalyptus in their diet, and 2.5 g/L aqueous extract of eucalyptus in their drinking water from one week after induction of diabetes. After four weeks of the experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of the islets and pancreas, and total number of islets were carried out. Administration of eucalyptus significantly decreased the weight loss and increase of water and food intake in the treated diabetic groups in comparison to the STZ-induced diabetic (D) group. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of islets, and mass of pancreas of both treated diabetic groups were higher than the D group. In TD2, these stereological parameters increased significantly compared to the D group (p < 0.001). Volume density and total volume of beta cells increased 21% and 65%, respectively, in the TD2 group, but it was not statistically significant compared to the diabetic group (p > 0.05). The results suggested that Eucalyptus globulus with a dose-dependent manner ameliorates diabetic states by partial restoration of pancreatic beta cells and repair of STZ-induced damage in rats. This study suggests a beneficial effect of eucalyptus in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20512762

  7. Effect of C-peptide Alone or in Combination with Nicotinamide on Insulin Levels from Pancreatic Islets in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Ali Akbari, Fatemeh Ramezani; Moghadam, Hadi Fathi

    2016-01-01

    Background Both c-peptide and nicotinamide are known to increase blood insulin in diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effect of c-peptide alone or in combination with nicotinamide on insulin levels in pancreatic islets in mice. Methods This study was conducted with 60 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMARI) mice weighing 25 to 30 g. Pancreatic islets from normal mice were isolated by the collagenase digestion method. Mice were divided into ten groups of six (n = 6): control, glyburide (1 and 10 μM), C-peptide (50 and 100 nM), nicotinamide (10, 25, and 100 mM), nicotinamide + C-peptide (100 mM and 100 nM), and buffer in different glucose concentrations (2.8, 5.6, and 16.7 mM). Insulin secretion was measured using insulin radioimmunoassay method. Results Insulin secretion significantly increased at 16.7 mM glucose concentration compared with 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations. Incubation of islets at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and nicotinamide + C-peptide, nicotinamide 25 and 100 mM, and C-peptide 100 nM significantly increased insulin secretion compared with the control group. In addition, incubation of islets at 16.7 mM glucose with nicotinamide + C-peptide significantly increased insulin secretion. Glyburide at 10 μM concentration was more effective than nicotinamide at 10 and 100 mM, C-peptide 50 and 100 nM in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose concentration. However, the combination of nicotinamide + C-peptide was more effective than glyburide at a concentration of 10 μM in the presence of a 16.7 mM glucose concentration. Conclusions This paper suggests that c-peptide, nicotinamide, and the combination of c-peptide and nicotinamide in-creases insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. PMID:27540321

  8. Differentiation of chicken umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into beta-like pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunyu; Gao, Yuhua; Li, Qian; Feng, Yuan; Yu, Yanze; Meng, Gentong; Zhang, Minghai; Guan, Weijun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of using in vitro differentiation to create functional beta-like islet cells from chicken umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Passaged UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into pancreatic beta-like islet cells. Differentiated cells were observed through dithizone staining, and Pdx1 and insulin expressed in differentiated cells were detected with immunofluorescence. Insulin and C-peptide production from differentiated cells were analyzed using ELISA and western blotting. Differentiated cells were found to not only express Pdx1, insulin, and C-peptide, but also to display a glucose-responsive secretion of these hormones. PMID:24303870

  9. Angiotensin type 2 receptor in pancreatic islets of adult rats: a novel insulinotropic mediator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chunhong; Zucker, Irving H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the relative abundance of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein in various tissues of adult rats. We found that pancreatic islets expressed the highest AT2R protein compared with all other tissues. Accordingly, we then determined the functional significance of AT2R in the endocrine pancreas in in vivo and in vitro experiments by using angiotensin II (ANG II) alone, losartan (Los; AT1R antagonist), compound 21 (C21; AT2R agonist), and PD-123319 (PD; AT2R antagonist). Experiments carried out in rats indicated that, 1) ANG II treatment significantly increased plasma insulin concentration (1.51 ± 0.20 vs. 0.82 ± 0.14 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.05) in the fed state. This insulinotropic effect was further augmented by combined treatment with ANG II + Los (2.31 ± 0.25 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.01). C21 also elevated insulin levels (2.13 ± 0.20 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.01), which was completely abolished by PD. 2) ANG II impaired glucose tolerance, whereas ANG II + Los or C21 improved this function. 3) All treated rats displayed an enhanced insulin secretory response to a glucose challenge. 4) All treated rats displayed upregulated proinsulin 2 mRNA and insulin protein expression in the pancreas. In in vitro experiments using INS-1E cells and isolated rat islets, we found that AT2R activation significantly improved insulin biosynthesis and secretion. These results suggest that the AT2R functions as an insulinotropic mediator. AT2R and its downstream signaling pathways may be potential therapeutic targets for diabetes. PMID:24085035

  10. PAX4 Defines an Expandable β-Cell Subpopulation in the Adult Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Petra I.; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Brun, Thierry; Cobo-Vuilleumier, Nadia; Jimenez-Moreno, Carmen María; G. Herrera Gomez, Irene; López Noriega, Livia; Mellado-Gil, José Manuel; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Soria, Bernat; Gauthier, Benoit R.

    2015-01-01

    PAX4 is a key regulator of pancreatic islet development whilst in adult acute overexpression protects β-cells against stress-induced apoptosis and stimulates proliferation. Nonetheless, sustained PAX4 expression promotes β-cell dedifferentiation and hyperglycemia, mimicking β-cell failure in diabetic patients. Herein, we study mechanisms that allow stringent PAX4 regulation endowing favorable β-cell adaptation in response to changing environment without loss of identity. To this end, PAX4 expression was monitored using a mouse bearing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cre recombinase construct under the control of the islet specific pax4 promoter. GFP was detected in 30% of islet cells predominantly composed of PAX4-enriched β-cells that responded to glucose-induced insulin secretion. Lineage tracing demonstrated that all islet cells were derived from PAX4+ progenitor cells but that GFP expression was confined to a subpopulation at birth which declined with age correlating with reduced replication. However, this GFP+ subpopulation expanded during pregnancy, a state of active β-cell replication. Accordingly, enhanced proliferation was exclusively detected in GFP+ cells consistent with cell cycle genes being stimulated in PAX4-overexpressing islets. Under stress conditions, GFP+ cells were more resistant to apoptosis than their GFP- counterparts. Our data suggest PAX4 defines an expandable β-cell sub population within adult islets. PMID:26503027

  11. Characterization of the Human Pancreatic Islet Proteome by Two-Dimensional LC/MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Thomas O.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fontes, Ghislaine; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Poitout, Vincent J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-01

    Research to elucidate the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus has traditionally focused on the genetic and immunological factors associated with the disease, and, until recently, has not considered the target cell. While there have been reports detailing proteomic analyses of established islet cell lines or isolated rodent islets, the information gained is not always easily extrapolated to humans. Therefore, extensive characterization of the human islet proteome could result in better understanding of islet biology and lead to more effective treatment strategies. We have applied a two-dimensional LC-MS/MS-based analysis to the characterization of the human islet proteome, resulting in the detection of 29,021 unique peptides corresponding to 4,925 proteins. As expected, major islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin), beta-cell enriched secretory products (IAPP), ion channels (K-ATP channel), and transcription factors (PDX-1, Nkx 6.1, HNF-1 beta) were detected. In addition, significant proteome coverage of metabolic enzymes and cellular pathways was obtained, including the insulin signaling cascade and the MAP kinase, NF-κβ, and JAK/STAT pathways. This work represents the most extensive characterization of the human islet proteome to date and provides a peptide reference library that may be utilized in future studies of islet biology and type 1 diabetes.

  12. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release

    PubMed Central

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  13. JANEX-1, a JAK3 inhibitor, protects pancreatic islets from cytokine toxicity through downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activation and the JAK/STAT pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Mi-Young; Choi, Ha-Na; Moon, Woo Sung; Park, Sung-Joo; Park, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2009-07-15

    JANEX-1/WHI-P131, a selective Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor, has been shown to delay the onset of diabetes in the NOD mouse model. However, the molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 protects pancreatic {beta}-cells is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of JANEX-1 on interleukin (IL)-1{beta} and interferon (IFN)-{gamma}-induced {beta}-cell damage using isolated islets. JANEX-1-pretreated islets showed resistance to cytokine toxicity, namely suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production, reduced inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) expression, and decreased islet destruction. The molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 inhibits iNOS expression was mediated through suppression of the nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways. Islets treated with the cytokines downregulated the protein levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and SOCS-3, but pretreatment with JANEX-1 attenuated these decreases. Additionally, islets from JAK3{sup -/-} mice were more resistant to cytokine toxicity than islets from control mice. These results demonstrate that JANEX-1 protects {beta}-cells from cytokine toxicity through suppression of the NF-{kappa}B and JAK/STAT pathways and upregulation of SOCS proteins, suggesting that JANEX-1 may be used to preserve functional {beta}-cell mass.

  14. Phase transitions in the multi-cellular regulatory behavior of pancreatic islet excitability.

    PubMed

    Hraha, Thomas H; Westacott, Matthew J; Pozzoli, Marina; Notary, Aleena M; McClatchey, P Mason; Benninger, Richard K P

    2014-09-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are multicellular micro-organs integral to maintaining glucose homeostasis through secretion of the hormone insulin. β-cells within the islet exist as a highly coupled electrical network which coordinates electrical activity and insulin release at high glucose, but leads to global suppression at basal glucose. Despite its importance, how network dynamics generate this emergent binary on/off behavior remains to be elucidated. Previous work has suggested that a small threshold of quiescent cells is able to suppress the entire network. By modeling the islet as a Boolean network, we predicted a phase-transition between globally active and inactive states would emerge near this threshold number of cells, indicative of critical behavior. This was tested using islets with an inducible-expression mutation which renders defined numbers of cells electrically inactive, together with pharmacological modulation of electrical activity. This was combined with real-time imaging of intracellular free-calcium activity [Ca2+]i and measurement of physiological parameters in mice. As the number of inexcitable cells was increased beyond ∼15%, a phase-transition in islet activity occurred, switching from globally active wild-type behavior to global quiescence. This phase-transition was also seen in insulin secretion and blood glucose, indicating physiological impact. This behavior was reproduced in a multicellular dynamical model suggesting critical behavior in the islet may obey general properties of coupled heterogeneous networks. This study represents the first detailed explanation for how the islet facilitates inhibitory activity in spite of a heterogeneous cell population, as well as the role this plays in diabetes and its reversal. We further explain how islets utilize this critical behavior to leverage cellular heterogeneity and coordinate a robust insulin response with high dynamic range. These findings also give new insight into emergent

  15. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and glucose utilization using the HARV low shear, gravity averaged vector, cell culture technique. Islets were isolated (1726 +/- 117, 150 micron islet equivalent units) from Wistar Furth rats and assigned to four treatment groups: 1) HARV, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. Following 48 hours of culture, insulin concentration was increased in both HARV and static cultures (p<0.05). Islet medium from HARV and static cultures were assayed for TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) and was measured at selected time points for 48 hours. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (p<0.05). This is a novel observation and indicates that TNF producing cells are present in islets and that LPS stimulates TNF secretion in isolated islets. A decrease in insulin concentration was demonstrated in the islet medium of the LPS stimulated HARV culture (p<0.05). That TNF-alpha is associated with a decreased insulin secretion is intriguing, both as it relates to in-flight investigations, and as it may provide insight into the pathophysiology of Type I and Type 11 diabetes. Glucose concentration in islet medium was lesser throughout the experiment in static cultures, suggesting a decreased reliance upon glucose as a metabolic substrate in the islets cultured in HARVS. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF production in the microgravity HARV paradigm. Additionally, alterations in fuel

  16. The role of renin-angiotensin system in cellular differentiation: implications in pancreatic islet cell development and islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Leung, Po Sing

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the well-characterized circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), local RAS has been identified recently in diverse tissues and organs. The presence of key components of the RAS in local tissues is important for our understanding of the patho-physiological mechanism(s) of several metabolic diseases, and may serve as a major therapeutic target for cardiometabolic syndromes. Locally generated and physiologically active RAS components have functions that are distinct from the classical vasoconstriction and fluid homeostasis actions of systemic RAS and cater specifically for local tissues. Local RAS can affect islet-cell function and structure in the adult pancreas as well as proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells during development. Differentiation of stem/progenitor cells into insulin-expressing cells suitable for therapeutic transplantation offers a desperately needed new approach for replacement of glucose-responsive insulin producing cells in diabetic patients. Given that the generation of functional and transplantable islet cells has proven to be difficult, elucidation of RAS involvement in cellular regeneration and differentiation may propel pancreatic stem/progenitor cell development and thus β-cell regeneration forward. This review provides a critical appraisal of current research progress on the role of the RAS, including the newly characterized ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. It is thus plausible to propose that the AT1 stimulation could be a repair mechanism involving the AT2R as well as the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in directing β-cell development in diabetic patients using genetic and pharmaceutical manipulation of the RAS. PMID:23994025

  17. Rap1 promotes multiple pancreatic islet cell functions and signals through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 to enhance proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick; Bailey, Candice L; Fueger, Patrick T; Newgard, Christopher B; Casey, Patrick J; Kimple, Michelle E

    2010-05-21

    Recent studies have implicated Epac2, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the Rap subfamily of monomeric G proteins, as an important regulator of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. Although the Epac proteins were originally identified as cAMP-responsive activators of Rap1 GTPases, the role of Rap1 in beta-cell biology has not yet been defined. In this study, we examined the direct effects of Rap1 signaling on beta-cell biology. Using the Ins-1 rat insulinoma line, we demonstrate that activated Rap1A, but not related monomeric G proteins, promotes ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Using isolated rat islets, we show that this signaling event is rapamycin-sensitive, indicating that it is mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1-p70 S6 kinase pathway, a known growth regulatory pathway. This newly defined beta-cell signaling pathway acts downstream of cAMP, in parallel with the stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, to drive ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Activated Rap1A promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, islet cell hypertrophy, and islet cell proliferation, the latter exclusively through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, suggesting that Rap1 is an important regulator of beta-cell function. This newly defined signaling pathway may yield unique targets for the treatment of beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:20339002

  18. Human fetal pancreatic islet-like structures as source material to treat type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Kudva, Yogish C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing worldwide. Current therapy continues to be suboptimal. An exciting therapeutic advance in the short term is closed loop technology development and application. However, cell and tissue therapy continues to be an unmet need for the disorder. Human islets isolated from deceased donors will be clinically available to treat type 1 diabetes within the next 1 to 2 years. Other approaches such as xenotransplantation and islet products derived from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are currently being pursued. The current commentary provides context and discusses future endeavors for transplantation of islet-like structures derived from fetal pancreas. PMID:24377429

  19. Total or near total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation for treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Najarian, J S; Sutherland, D E; Baumgartner, D; Burke, B; Rynasiewicz, J J; Matas, A J; Goetz, F C

    1980-01-01

    Total or near total pancreatectomy is the surest way to relieve the pain of chronic pancreatitis but is rarely applied because the metabolic consequences are so severe. For most patients drainage procedures are applicable, but pancreatectomy may be the only alternative for small duct disease or where procedures to improve duct drainage have failed. Preservation of endocrine function is a major problem in patients who require pancreatectomy. Experiments in pancreatectomized dogs have shown that intrasplenic or intraportal transplantation of unpurified pancreatic islet tissue dispersed by collagenase digestion can prevent diabetes. We have applied this technique to ten patients with chronic pancreatitis, small ducts, and intractable pain. The entire pancreas of > 95% of the pancrease was excised, minced, dispersed by collagenase digestion and infused into the portal vein < 2 1/2 hours after removal. Mean (+/- SD) rise in portal pressure was 17 +/- 8 cm of water. Liver function tests were altered minimally. All patients were relieved of pain. One patient died of a complication not related to the islet autotransplant; viable islets were identified in the liver at autopsy. Of the remaining nine patients, three have been insulin independent for 1, 9, and 38 months. One patient was insulin indpendent for 15 months and now takes 12 units of insulin daily. Three have nonketosis prone diabetes (tested by insulin withdrawal) and take 15--30 units of insulin per day. C-peptide studies in these patients show that functioning islets are present. Two patients are diabetic and require 35 and 60 units of insulin per day. In eight of nine patients tested serum insulin concentrations fell to undetectable levels during the interval between pancreatectomy and islet transplantation. Serum insulin levels during the first few hours after islet transplantation predicted success. In the insulin independent or in the patients with mild diabetes, insulin levels were persistently greater than

  20. Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Pancreatic Islets and Bone Marrow into Islet-Like Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zanini, Cristina; Bruno, Stefania; Mandili, Giorgia; Baci, Denisa; Cerutti, Francesco; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Izzi, Leo; Camussi, Giovanni; Forni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background Regarding regenerative medicine for diabetes, accessible sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) for induction of insular beta cell differentiation may be as important as mastering the differentiation process itself. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, stem cells from pancreatic islets (human islet-mesenchymal stem cells, HI-MSCs) and from human bone marrow (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, BM-MSCs) were cultured in custom-made serum-free medium, using suitable conditions in order to induce differentiation into Islet-like Cells (ILCs). HI-MSCs and BM-MSCs were positive for the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD29. Following this induction, HI-MSC and BM-MSC formed evident islet-like structures in the culture flasks. To investigate functional modifications after induction to ILCs, ultrastructural analysis and immunofluorescence were performed. PDX1 (pancreatic duodenal homeobox gene-1), insulin, C peptide and Glut-2 were detected in HI-ILCs whereas BM-ILCs only expressed Glut-2 and insulin. Insulin was also detected in the culture medium following glucose stimulation, confirming an initial differentiation that resulted in glucose-sensitive endocrine secretion. In order to identify proteins that were modified following differentiation from basal MSC (HI-MSCs and BM-MSCs) to their HI-ILCs and BM-ILCs counterparts, proteomic analysis was performed. Three new proteins (APOA1, ATL2 and SODM) were present in both ILC types, while other detected proteins were verified to be unique to the single individual differentiated cells lines. Hierarchical analysis underscored the limited similarities between HI-MSCs and BM-MSCs after induction of differentiation, and the persistence of relevant differences related to cells of different origin. Conclusions/Significance Proteomic analysis highlighted differences in the MSCs according to site of origin, reflecting spontaneous differentiation and commitment. A more detailed understanding of protein assets

  1. Inactivation of the dual Bmp/Wnt inhibitor Sostdc1 enhances pancreatic islet function

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Kathryn D.; Gooding, Kimberly A.; Economides, Aris N.

    2012-01-01

    Current endeavors in the type 2 diabetes (T2D) field include gaining a better understanding of extracellular signaling pathways that regulate pancreatic islet function. Recent data suggest that both Bmp and Wnt pathways are operative in pancreatic islets and play a positive role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Our laboratory found the dual Bmp and Wnt antagonist Sostdc1 to be upregulated in a mouse model of islet dysmorphogenesis and nonimmune-mediated lean diabetes. Because Bmp signaling has been proposed to enhance β-cell function, we evaluated the role of Sostdc1 in adult islet function using animals in which Sostdc1 was globally deleted. While Sostdc1-null animals exhibited no pancreas development phenotype, a subset of mutants exhibited enhanced insulin secretion and improved glucose homeostasis compared with control animals after 12-wk exposure to high-fat diet. Loss of Sostdc1 in the setting of metabolic stress results in altered expression of Bmp-responsive genes in islets but did not affect expression of Wnt target genes, suggesting that Sostdc1 primarily regulates the Bmp pathway in the murine pancreas. Furthermore, our data indicate that removal of Sostdc1 enhances the downregulation of the closely related Bmp inhibitors Ctgf and Gremlin in islets after 8-wk exposure to high-fat diet. These data imply that Sostdc1 regulates expression of these inhibitors and provide a means by which Sostdc1-null animals show enhanced insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Our studies provide insights into Bmp pathway regulation in the endocrine pancreas and reveal new avenues for improving β-cell function under metabolic stress. PMID:22829579

  2. Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

  3. Use of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yurong; Kim, Jinrang; Ni, Min; Wei, Yi; Okamoto, Haruka; Lee, Joseph; Adler, Christina; Cavino, Katie; Murphy, Andrew J; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Gromada, Jesper

    2016-03-22

    This study provides an assessment of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells. The system combines microfluidic technology and nanoliter-scale reactions. We sequenced 622 cells, allowing identification of 341 islet cells with high-quality gene expression profiles. The cells clustered into populations of α-cells (5%), β-cells (92%), δ-cells (1%), and pancreatic polypeptide cells (2%). We identified cell-type-specific transcription factors and pathways primarily involved in nutrient sensing and oxidation and cell signaling. Unexpectedly, 281 cells had to be removed from the analysis due to low viability, low sequencing quality, or contamination resulting in the detection of more than one islet hormone. Collectively, we provide a resource for identification of high-quality gene expression datasets to help expand insights into genes and pathways characterizing islet cell types. We reveal limitations in the C1 Fluidigm cell capture process resulting in contaminated cells with altered gene expression patterns. This calls for caution when interpreting single-cell transcriptomics data using the C1 Fluidigm system. PMID:26951663

  4. Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Goalstone, Marc; Kamath, Vasudeva; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates small G-proteins [e.g., Cdc42 and Rac1] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] in the islet {beta}-cell. These signaling proteins undergo post-translational modifications [e.g., prenylation] at their C-terminal cysteine residue and appear to be essential for the transport and fusion of insulin-containing secretory granules with the plasma membrane and the exocytotic secretion of insulin. However, potential regulation of the prenylating enzymes by physiological insulin secretogues [e.g., glucose] has not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report immunological localization, sub-cellular distribution and regulation of farnesyltransferases [FTases] and geranylgeranyltransferase [GGTase] by glucose in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 {beta}-cells and normal rat islets. Our findings suggest that an insulinotropic concentration of glucose [20 mM] markedly stimulated the expression of the {alpha}-subunits of FTase/GGTase-1, but not the {beta}-subunits of FTase or GGTase-1 without significantly affecting the predominantly cytosolic distribution of these holoenzymes in INS 832/13 cells and rodent islets. Under these conditions, glucose significantly stimulated [2.5- to 4.0-fold over basal] the activities of both FTase and GGTase-1 in both cell types. Together, these findings provide the first evidence to suggest that GSIS involves activation of the endogenous islet prenyltransferases by glucose, culminating in the activation of their respective G-protein substrates, which is necessary for cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicular transport, fusion and secretion of insulin.

  5. Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon

    PubMed Central

    Peschke, Elmar; Bähr, Ina; Mühlbauer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from β-cells and in glucagon secretion from α-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin–insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes. PMID:23535335

  6. Protein disulfide isomerase ameliorates β-cell dysfunction in pancreatic islets overexpressing human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Montane, Joel; de Pablo, Sara; Obach, Mercè; Cadavez, Lisa; Castaño, Carlos; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Visa, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Comas, Júlia; Parrizas, Marcelina; Servitja, Joan Marc; Novials, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major component of amyloid deposits in islets of type 2 diabetic patients. hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may lead to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endogenous chaperones are described to be important for the folding and functioning of proteins. Here, we examine the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on β-cell dysfunction. Among other chaperones, PDI was found to interact with hIAPP in human islet lysates. Furthermore, intrinsically recovered PDI levels were able to restore the effect of high glucose- and palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction by increasing 3.9-fold the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and restoring insulin content up to basal control values. Additionally, PDI transduction decreased induced apoptosis by glucolipotoxic conditions. This approach could reveal a new therapeutic target and aid in the development of strategies to improve β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26607804

  7. Highly efficient adenoviral transduction of pancreatic islets using a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pamuditha N; Atto, Zaid; Regeenes, Romario; Tufa, Uilki; Chen, Yih Yang; Chan, Warren C W; Volchuk, Allen; Kilkenny, Dawn M; Rocheleau, Jonathan V

    2016-08-01

    Tissues are challenging to genetically manipulate due to limited penetration of viral particles resulting in low transduction efficiency. We are particularly interested in expressing genetically-encoded sensors in ex vivo pancreatic islets to measure glucose-stimulated metabolism, however poor viral penetration biases these measurements to only a subset of cells at the periphery. To increase mass transfer of viral particles, we designed a microfluidic device that holds islets in parallel hydrodynamic traps connected by an expanding by-pass channel. We modeled viral particle flow into the tissue using fluorescently-labelled gold nanoparticles of varying sizes and showed a penetration threshold of only ∼5 nm. To increase this threshold, we used EDTA to transiently reduce cell-cell adhesion and expand intercellular space. Ultimately, a combination of media flow and ETDA treatment significantly increased adenoviral transduction to the core of the islet. As proof-of-principle, we used this protocol to transduce an ER-targeted redox sensitive sensor (eroGFP), and revealed significantly greater ER redox capacity at core islet cells. Overall, these data demonstrate a robust method to enhance transduction efficiency of islets, and potentially other tissues, by using a combination of microfluidic flow and transient tissue expansion. PMID:27378588

  8. The role of interventional radiology and imaging in pancreatic islet cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, S; Tapping, C R; Walker, J N; Bratby, M; Anthony, S; Boardman, P; Phillips-Hughes, J; Uberoi, R

    2012-09-01

    Pancreatic islet cell transplantation (PICT) is a novel treatment for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes who have inadequate glycaemic control or hypoglycaemic unawareness, and who suffer from the microvascular/macrovascular complications of diabetes despite aggressive medical management. Islet transplantation primarily aims to improve the quality of life for type 1 diabetic patients by achieving insulin independence, preventing hypoglycaemic episodes, and reversing hypoglycaemic unawareness. The islet cells for transplantation are extracted and purified from the pancreas of brain-stem dead, heart-beating donors. They are infused into the recipient's portal vein, where they engraft into the liver to release insulin in order to restore euglycaemia. Initial strategies using surgical access to the portal vein have been superseded by percutaneous access using interventional radiology techniques, which are relatively straightforward to perform. It is important to be vigilant during the procedure in order to prevent major complications, such as haemorrhage, which can be potentially life-threatening. In this article we review the history of islet cell transplantation, present an illustrated review of our experience with islet cell transplantation by describing the role of imaging and interventional radiology, and discuss current research into imaging techniques for monitoring graft function. PMID:22554698

  9. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Ling L.; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H.; Lam, Kok W.; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl. PMID:27625609

  10. Effects of Tocotrienols on Insulin Secretion-Associated Genes Expression of Rat Pancreatic Islets in a Dynamic Culture.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ling L; Jantan, Ibrahim; Chua, Kien H; Lam, Kok W; Rullah, Kamal; Aluwi, Mohd F M

    2016-01-01

    Tocotrienols (T3) are well-known for their antioxidant properties besides showing therapeutic potential in clinical complications such as hyperlipidemia induced by diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of δ-T3, γ-T3, and α-T3 on insulin secretion-associated genes expression of rat pancreatic islets in a dynamic culture. Pancreatic islets freshly isolated from male Wistar rats were treated with T3 for 1 h at 37°C in a microfluidic system with continuous operation. The cells were collected for total RNA extraction and reverse-transcribed, followed by measurement of insulin secretion-associated genes expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain insights on how the T3 bind to the receptors. Short-term exposure of δ- and γ-T3 to pancreatic β cells in a stimulant glucose condition (16.7 mM) significantly regulated preproinsulin mRNA levels and insulin gene transcription. In contrast, α-T3 possessed less ability in the activation of insulin synthesis level. Essentially, potassium chloride (KCl), a β cell membrane depolarising agent added into the treatment further enhanced the insulin production. δ- and γ-T3 revealed significantly higher quantitative expression in most of the insulin secretion-associated genes groups containing 16.7 mM glucose alone and 16.7 mM glucose with 30 mM KCl ranging from 600 to 1200 μM (p < 0.05). The findings suggest the potential of δ-T3 in regulating insulin synthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through triggering pathway especially in the presence of KCl. PMID:27625609

  11. Characterization of integrin expression in islets isolated from hamster, canine, porcine, and human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wang, R N; Paraskevas, S; Rosenberg, L

    1999-04-01

    The reasons for the failure of clinical islet transplantation remain obscure. Islet isolation, however, exposes the islet to variety of cellular stresses, including disruption of the cell-matrix relationship, an event associated with apoptosis. The cell-matrix relationship is characterized by an interaction between cell surface integrin receptors and matrix molecules of the surrounding basement membrane (BM). The purpose of this study was to characterize integrin expression and the distribution of the peri-insular BM in human, porcine, canine, and hamster pancreas, and after routine islet isolation. Whereas islets in the porcine pancreas do not have a demonstrable BM, islets in the human, canine, and hamster pancreas have an almost continuous BM with very little direct exocrine to endocrine cell-cell contact. After islet isolation, the BM was destroyed, only to be reestablished during the period of culture. In the pancreas of all four species, integrin alpha3 was expressed only on islet cells, and integrin alpha5 was present on islet cells as well as on acinar, centroacinar, and duct cells. Integrin alphaV was detected only in human and canine pancreas. Integrin beta1 was demonstrated only in the human pancreas. In isolated islets, integrin alpha3, alpha5, and alphaV expression decreased during the culture period and the intensity of the staining was observed to be coincident with the distribution of the BM. In summary, this is the first report of integrin expression in hamster, canine, porcine, and human islets. After islet isolation, the altered islet cell-matrix relationship is reflected both in the decrease in integrin expression and in the destruction of the peri-insular BM. These profound changes will need to be considered as the process of islet isolation for transplantation is refined. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:499-506, 1999) PMID:10082751

  12. Biochemical characterization of two crotamine isoforms isolated by a single step RP-HPLC from Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom and their action on insulin secretion by pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Toyama, M H; Carneiro, E M; Marangoni, S; Barbosa, R L; Corso, G; Boschero, A C

    2000-03-01

    Crotamine, a neurotoxin present in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durrisus terrificus exists as several polymorphic variants, as demonstrated by recombinant DNA technology (Smith and Schmidt, Toxicon 28 (1990) 575-585). We have isolated native crotamine by chromatography on Sephadex G75, and have purified two crotamine isoforms (F2 and F3) by a single step of RP-HPLC. Native crotamine and RP-HPLC fractions F2 and F3 produced skeletal muscle spasms and spastic paralysis in mice. At low glucose concentrations (2.8-5.6 mmol/l), none of the crotamines altered the insulin secretion by rat isolated islets. In the presence of 16.7 mmol glucose/l, F2 (5 microg/ml), but not F3, increased insulin secretion two-fold, whereas native crotamine (1.5, 5 and 16.5 microg/ml) potentiated the secretion dose-dependently. The increase in insulin secretion induced by F2 fraction (5 microg/ml) was similar to that obtained with 16.5 microg of native crotamine/ml. These results indicate that the mode of action of the F2 and F3 isoforms in beta-cells is different from that in muscle cells. This difference may be related to the binding affinity of each isoform for the Na(+) channels located in the beta-cell membrane. Crotamine isoforms may be valuable tools for studying the involvement of Na(+) channels in the mechanism of insulin secretion. PMID:10699490

  13. Identification of alpha 2-adrenoceptors and of non-adrenergic idazoxan binding sites in pancreatic islets from young and adult hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, C; Viallard, V; Paris, H

    1993-07-01

    1. The current study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of alpha 2-adrenoceptors and to search for the presence of NAIBS in hamster pancreatic islets. 2. Pancreatic islets were isolated from young (6-7 weeks) and adult (14-15 weeks) animals. 3. The identification of alpha 2-adrenoceptors using [3H]RX821002 indicated that adults exhibited higher number of alpha 2-adrenoceptors than the young animals (194 +/- 20 vs 105 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein) while the Kd value was unchanged. 4. Glucose-evoked insulin release was completely inhibited by the alpha 2-agonist clonidine (0.1 microM) whatever the age of the animals. Agonist inhibition curves showed the following rank order of potency: clonidine > UK14304 > adrenaline. 5. Blockade of UK14304-elicited inhibition by various antagonists indicated that yohimbine has a low affinity for the receptor supporting the conclusion that the receptor is of the alpha 2-D subtype. 6. Binding experiments with [3H]idazoxan under conditions allowing to discriminate between alpha 2-adrenoceptors and NAIBS showed that hamster pancreatic islets express a high number of NAIBS. The density of NAIBS was similar in young and adult hamsters (1550 +/- 245 and 1342 +/- 332 fmol/mg protein). PMID:8103467

  14. Experimental islet isolation in porcine pancreas with new enzyme Liberase PI.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Han, D J; Kang, C H; We, Y M; Back, J H; Kim, Y H; Lim, D G

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the results of 20 consecutive porcine islet isolations using a new enzyme Liberase PI. Twenty pancreata were procured for islet isolation, which was performed using modified Ricordi's method with Liberase PI. Quantitation of islet viability staining, insulin stimulation assay, intracellular insulin content/DNA, and in vivo transplantability into diabetic nude mice were examined for quality control. The results were compared between a high-yield group (>2500 IEQ/g pancreas) and a low-yield group (<2500 IEQ/g pancreas). Sufficient amount of purified islets (3000 IEQ/g pancreas) were obtained using the new brand enzyme Liberase PI. These islets showed good quality in structure and functions, which were demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo standard assays. Isolation index (IEQ/number) of the low-yield group was lower than that of high-yield group (0.75 vs 0.86), which means more fragmentation of islets in the low-yield group. There were no differences in function between the two groups. In conclusion, we obtained sufficient numbers of viable, functional islets from porcine pancreas using a new brand enzyme Liberase PI and low-temperature isolation technique. However, overdigestion of islets during the isolation remains to be overcome. Advance in porcine islet isolation technique will in the future make the porcine islet xenotransplantation a reality for the cure of diabetes mellitus. PMID:15518798

  15. Autofluorescence Imaging of Living Pancreatic Islets Reveals Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 (FGF21)-Induced Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mark Y.; Yoo, Eunjong; Green, Brenda J.; Altamentova, Svetlana M.; Kilkenny, Dawn M.; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has therapeutic potential for metabolic syndrome due to positive effects on fatty acid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue. FGF21 also improves pancreatic islet survival in excess palmitate; however, much less is known about FGF21-induced metabolism in this tissue. We first confirmed FGF21-dependent activity in islets by identifying expression of the cognate coreceptor Klothoβ, and by measuring a ligand-stimulated decrease in acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression. To further reveal the effect of FGF21 on metabolism, we employed a unique combination of two-photon and confocal autofluorescence imaging of the NAD(P)H and mitochondrial NADH responses while holding living islets stationary in a microfluidic device. These responses were further correlated to mitochondrial membrane potential and insulin secretion. Glucose-stimulated responses were relatively unchanged by FGF21. In contrast, responses to glucose in the presence of palmitate were significantly reduced compared to controls showing diminished NAD(P)H, mitochondrial NADH, mitochondrial membrane potential, and insulin secretion. Consistent with the glucose-stimulated responses being smaller due to continued fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential was increased in FGF21-treated islets by using the fatty acid transport inhibitor etomoxir. Citrate-stimulated NADPH responses were also significantly larger in FGF21-treated islets suggesting preference for citrate cycling rather than acetyl-CoA carboxylase-dependent fatty acid synthesis. Overall, these data show a reduction in palmitate-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated metabolism and insulin secretion in FGF21-treated islets, and establish the use of autofluorescence imaging and microfluidic devices to investigate cell metabolism in a limited amount of living tissue. PMID:23283237

  16. Clostripain, the Missing Link in the Enzyme Blend for Efficient Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Ståhle, Magnus; Foss, Aksel; Gustafsson, Bengt; Lempinen, Marko; Lundgren, Torbjörn; Rafael, Ehab; Tufveson, Gunnar; Korsgren, Olle; Friberg, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective digestive enzymes are crucial for successful islet isolation. Supplemental proteases are essential as they synergize with collagenase for effective pancreas digestion. The presence of tryptic-like activity has been implicated in efficient enzyme blends and the present study aimed to evaluate if addition of clostripain, an enzyme with tryptic-like activity, could improve efficacy of the islet isolation procedure. Methods Clostripain was added to the enzyme blend just before pancreas perfusion. Islets were isolated per standard method and numerous isolation parameters, islet quality control, and the number of isolations fulfilling standard transplantation criteria were evaluated. Two control organs per clostripain organ were chosen by blindly matching against body mass index, cold ischemia time, hemoglobin A1c, donor sex, and donor age. Results There were no differences in pancreas weight, dissection time, digestion time, harvest time, percent digested pancreas, or total pellet volume before islet purification between control or clostripain pancreases. Glucose-stimulated insulin release results were similar between groups. Total isolation islet equivalents, purified tissue volume and islet equivalents/g pancreas as well as fulfillment of transplantation criteria favored clostripain processed pancreases. Conclusions The addition of clostripain to the enzyme blend soundly improved islet yields and transplantation rates. It gently aided pancreas digestion and maintained proper islet functionality. The addition of clostripain to the enzyme blend has now been implemented into standard isolation protocols at the isolation centers in Uppsala and in Oslo.

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate Phosphatase 2 Regulates Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yoshimitsu; Allende, Maria L; Mizukami, Hiroki; Cook, Emily K; Gavrilova, Oksana; Tuymetova, Galina; Clarke, Benjamin A; Chen, Weiping; Olivera, Ana; Proia, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid metabolite that regulates basic cell functions through metabolic and signaling pathways. Intracellular metabolism of S1P is controlled, in part, by two homologous S1P phosphatases (SPPases), 1 and 2, which are encoded by the Sgpp1 and Sgpp2 genes, respectively. SPPase activity is needed for efficient recycling of sphingosine into the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. SPPase 1 is important for skin homeostasis, but little is known about the functional role of SPPase 2. To identify the functions of SPPase 2 in vivo, we studied mice with the Sgpp2 gene deleted. In contrast to Sgpp1(-/-) mice, Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal skin and were viable into adulthood. Unexpectedly, WT mice expressed Sgpp2 mRNA at high levels in pancreatic islets when compared with other tissues. Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal pancreatic islet size; however, they exhibited defective adaptive β-cell proliferation that was demonstrated after treatment with either a high-fat diet or the β-cell-specific toxin, streptozotocin. Importantly, β-cells from untreated Sgpp2(-/-) mice showed significantly increased expression of proteins characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response compared with β-cells from WT mice, indicating a basal islet defect. Our results show that Sgpp2 deletion causes β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is a known cause of β-cell dysfunction, and reveal a juncture in the sphingolipid recycling pathway that could impact the development of diabetes. PMID:27059959

  18. Asperlicin antagonizes stimulatory effects of cholecystokinin on isolated islets

    SciTech Connect

    Zawalich, W.S.; Diaz, V.A.

    1987-03-01

    Asperlicin, a product derived from the fungus Aspergillus alliaceus, antagonized the multiple stimulatory effects of cholecystokinin (CCK-8S) on isolated islets. At a level of 10 uM, asperlicin completely inhibited insulin release in response to 25 nM CCK-8S. Increasing the level of CCK-8S to 100 nM partially restored a secretory response, while an even greater insulin stimulatory effect was noted with 500 nM CCK-8S. The inhibitory effect of asperlicin on CCK-8S-induced release was reversible. Asperlicin exposure had no effect on glucose or glyceraldehyde-induced secretion. Asperlicin reduced, in parallel with secretion, the increase in /sup 3/H efflux from (/sup 3/H) inositol prelabeled islets usually noted with CCK-8S addition. Asperlicin did not influence the small glucose-stimulated increase in /sup 3/H efflux. The results support the notion that asperlicin is a specific and potent antagonist of the multiple stimulatory effects of CCK-8S on islet tissue.

  19. Microgravity Separation of Alginate Empty Capsules from Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets Using a Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je; Hong, Jong Wook

    2015-10-01

    Although microencapsulated pancreatic islets have merits, such as ease of transplantation, viability and functionality improvement, and immune protection in vivo, the co-production of alginate empty capsules during the encapsulation of islets with alginate makes them unusable for biomedical application. In previous research, the removal of empty alginate capsules with high yield was achieved using density-gradient centrifugation. Here, we report advanced microgravity-based separation techniques in a microfluidic format for alginate empty capsules. The optimal separation conditions were mathematically evaluated using Stokes' law and the separation of the encapsulation product was accomplished. A microfluidic chip was designed with two inlets and two outlets at different elevations to mimic the vertical percoll gradient in density-gradient centrifugation. The separation of alginate empty capsules using microgravitational force resulted in effective separation of encapsulated islets from alginate empty capsules with more than 70% efficiency. Moreover, no loss of encapsulated islets was expected because the process is a one-pot separation, unlike the previous method. This type of microgravitational particle separation could be used both for the fractionization of heterogeneous encapsulated cells and to remove empty capsules. PMID:26726432

  20. Paradoxical inhibitory effect of cromakalim on sup 86 Rb outflow from pancreatic islet cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, P.; Antoine, M.H.; Devreux, V.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A. )

    1990-12-01

    Cromakalim appears to be the most potent pharmacologic agent belonging to the new class of smooth muscle relaxants: the K+ channel openers. The present study aimed at characterizing the effects of cromakalim on 86Rb outflow, 45Ca outflow and insulin release from prelabeled and perifused rat pancreatic islets. Cromakalim provoked a concentration-dependent reduction in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was attenuated in islets exposed throughout to glibenclamide or to a Ca+(+)-free medium. In islets exposed to glucose and extracellular Ca++, cromakalim induced a dose-dependent reduction in 45Ca outflow. The drug also inhibited the increase in 45Ca outflow mediated by K+ depolarization. Lastly, cromakalim elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of insulin release from islets perifused in the presence of glucose and extracellular Ca++. The present data suggest that the paradoxical inhibitory effect of cromakalim on 86Rb outflow probably reflects the capacity of the drug to reduce the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and to indirectly inhibit the Ca+(+)-activated K+ channels. Furthermore, the cromakalim-induced changes in 45Ca outflow are compatible with an inhibitory effect of the drug on the voltage-dependent Ca++ channels.

  1. Pancreatic polypeptide-rich islets in the posterior portion of the pancreatic head--a tumor mimic in somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Albers, Max Benjamin; Maurer, Elisabeth; Klöppel, Günter; Bartsch, Detlef Klaus

    2014-05-01

    A 74-year-old man with recurrent duodenal ulcers underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in suspicion of gastrinoma. A 2-cm area of focal uptake was visualized within the pancreatic head. Serum chromogranin A levels were elevated, but serum gastrin levels and the secretin test were normal. Computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography were not conclusive. After partial duodenopancreatectomy, pathological examination failed to reveal any neuroendocrine tumor. Instead, the dorsal portion of the pancreatic head was found to be densely populated by pancreatic polypeptide cell-rich islets. This area correlated with the site of tracer uptake seen on SRS. Thus, pancreatic polypeptide cell-rich islets in elderly patients should be kept in mind when interpreting SRS results to avoid unnecessary major pancreatic resections. PMID:24713672

  2. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Prasad, Shilpi Kumari; Pal, Swagata; Maji, Bithin; Syamal, Alak Kumar; Banerjee, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat. PMID:27486368

  3. Reg3α Overexpression Protects Pancreatic β Cells from Cytokine-Induced Damage and Improves Islet Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Xu, Yuemei; Shuai, Xuanyu; Shi, Xuhui; Chen, Xiang; Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    The process of islet transplantation for treating type 1 diabetes has been limited by the high level of graft failure. This may be overcome by locally delivering trophic factors to enhance engraftment. Regenerating islet-derived protein 3α (Reg3α) is a pancreatic secretory protein which functions as an antimicrobial peptide in control of inflammation and cell proliferation. In this study, to investigate whether Reg3α could improve islet engraftment, a marginal mass of syngeneic islets pretransduced with adenoviruses expressing Reg3α or control EGFP were transplanted under the renal capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Mice receiving islets with elevated Reg3α production exhibited significantly lower blood glucose levels (9.057 ± 0.59 mmol/L versus 13.48 ± 0.35 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (1.80 ± 0.17 ng/mL versus 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/mL, P < 0.05) compared with the control group. The decline of apoptotic events (0.57% ± 0.15% versus 1.06% ± 0.07%, P < 0.05) and increased β-cell proliferation (0.70% ± 0.10% versus 0.36% ± 0.14%, P < 0.05) were confirmed in islet grafts overexpressing Reg3α by morphometric analysis. Further experiments showed that Reg3α production dramatically protected cultured islets and pancreatic β cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis and the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, exposure to cytokines led to the activation of MAPKs in pancreatic β cells, which was reversed by Reg3α overexpression in contrast to control group. These results strongly suggest that Reg3α could enhance islet engraftments through its cytoprotective effect and advance the therapeutic efficacy of islet transplantation. PMID:25826674

  4. Rat monoclonal autoantibody to pancreatic islet cells recognizes a sugar sequence in paragloboside

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, S.L.; Uchigata, Y.; Selata, K.F.; Tachiwaki, O.; Notkins, A.L.

    1986-05-01

    The BB rat is an experimental model of spontaneously occurring diabetes mellitus (DM). To investigate the autoimmune pathogenesis of DM, spleen cells of newly diagnosed diabetic BB rats were fused with mouse myeloma cells. Hybridomas were screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and by /sup 51/Cr release assays using the RINm5F rat insulinoma cell line. One clone (E5C2) produced an IgM antibody cytotoxic for RINm5F cells but not other rat cells. By IF, neuraminidase (NASE) increased binding of E5C2 to RINm5F cells (10% to 80%). E5C2 bound specifically to normal rat and human pancreatic islets, but only after NASE treatment. Using direct immunostaining of thin-layer chromatography plates, E5C2 bound to glycolipids isolated from various tissues. With purified glycolipids E5C2 bound only to paragloboside (Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc..beta..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer) and higher polylactosamine containing structures. Periodate treatment or substitution of paragloboside (PG) with other sugars abolished antigenicity. By hapten-inhibition assays lactose (Gal..beta..1-4G1c) and Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc inhibited binding but Gal..beta..1-3GlcNAc was ineffective. PG or its sialylated derivatives were not found in RINm5F cells. However, glycoproteins were found on Western blots after NASE treatment. Lactose also inhibited this E5C2 binding. Similar autoantibodies may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM.

  5. Pancreatic acellular matrix supports islet survival and function in a synthetic tubular device: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    De Carlo, E; Baiguera, S; Conconi, M T; Vigolo, S; Grandi, C; Lora, S; Martini, C; Maffei, P; Tamagno, G; Vettor, R; Sicolo, N; Parnigotto, P P

    2010-02-01

    Increasing pancreatic islet survival and function is a starting point for obtaining a valuable bioartificial pancreas for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In this context, decellularized matrices, obtained after the removal of tissue cellular part, are known to support in vitro adhesion, growth, and function of several cell types. We demonstrate that a homologous acellular pancreatic matrix is a suitable scaffold for rat islet cultures maintaining their long-term viability and function. Islets adhered to the pancreatic matrix showed a constant glucose-induced insulin release during long-term in vitro incubation, while islets cultured without a matrix or on the liver matrix showed a progressive reduction. In order to obtain implantable devices, acellular matrix/islet cultures were entrapped into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/ poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tubes obtained by the freezing/thawing procedure. Under this condition, an in vitro constant insulin release was detected. The devices were then implanted into diabetic rats where reduced insulin requirement was noted suggesting insulin secretory activity of islets contained in the device. Indeed, immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells into the explanted devices. These data show that PVA/PEG semi-permeable membrane can obtain devices that restore, at least in part, insulin secretion. PMID:20043127

  6. Induction of beta-cell resistance to hypoxia and technologies for oxygen delivery to transplanted pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Daniel; Vardi, Pnina; Bloch, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Hypoxia is believed to be a crucial factor involved in cell adaptation to environmental stress. Islet transplantation, especially with immunoisolated islets, interrupts vascular connections, resulting in the substantially decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to islet cells. Insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are known to be highly susceptible to oxygen deficiency. Such susceptibility to hypoxia is believed to be one of the main causes of beta-cell death in the post-transplantation period. Different strategies have been developed for the protection of beta cells against hypoxic injury and for oxygen delivery to transplanted islets. The enhancement of beta-cell defense properties against hypoxia has been achieved using various techniques such as gene transfection, drug supplementation, co-culturing with stem cells and cell selection. Technologies for oxygen delivery to transplanted islets include local neovascularization of subcutaneous sites, electrochemical and photosynthetic oxygen generation, oxygen refuelling of bio-artificial pancreas and whole body oxygenation by using hyperbaric therapy. Progress in the field of oxygen technologies for islet transplantation requires a multidisciplinary approach to explore and optimize the interaction between components of the biological system and different technological processes. This review article focuses mainly on the recently developed strategies for oxygenation and protection from hypoxic injury - to achieve stable and long-term normoglycaemia in diabetic patients with transplanted pancreatic islets. PMID:22389124

  7. Improving function and survival of pancreatic islets by endogenous production of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

    PubMed

    Wideman, Rhonda D; Yu, Irene L Y; Webber, Travis D; Verchere, C Bruce; Johnson, James D; Cheung, Anthony T; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2006-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that has received significant attention as a therapy for diabetes because of its ability to stimulate insulin biosynthesis and release and to promote growth and survival of insulin-producing beta cells. While GLP-1 is produced from the proglucagon precursor by means of prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 activity in enteroendocrine L cells, the same precursor is differentially processed by PC2 in pancreatic islet alpha cells to release glucagon, leaving GLP-1 trapped within a larger fragment with no known function. We hypothesized that we could induce GLP-1 production directly within pancreatic islets by means of delivery of PC1/3 and, further, that this intervention would improve the viability and function of islets. Here, we show that adenovirus-mediated expression of PC1/3 in alpha cells increases islet GLP-1 secretion, resulting in improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and enhanced survival in response to cytokine treatment. PC1/3 expression in alpha cells also improved performance after islet transplantation in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes, possibly by enhancing nuclear Pdx1 and insulin content of islet beta cells. These results demonstrate a unique strategy for liberating GLP-1 from directly within the target organ and highlight the potential for up-regulating islet GLP-1 production as a means of treating diabetes. PMID:16938896

  8. MMTV/LTR Promoter-Driven Transgenic Expression of EpCAM Leads to the Development of Large Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Vercollone, Jeffrey R; Balzar, Maarten; Litvinov, Sergey V; Yang, Wendy; Cirulli, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    Our previous work demonstrated an important role of EpCAM in the regulation of pancreatic cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. Here we investigated the consequences of human EpCAM (hEpCAM) overexpression under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter, known to drive robust gene expression in a number of ductal epithelia, including the pancreas. In this animal model (MMTV-hEpCAM) we uncovered a striking pancreatic phenotype exhibiting a 12-fold increase in the islet cell mass, with normal expression patterns of insulin and the transcription factor PDX-1. Intriguingly, these large islet clusters revealed an altered architectural organization of α- and δ-cells that appeared interspersed with β-cells in the islet cores. This suggests an effect of the hEpCAM transgene on the function of other cell adhesion molecules that we have previously shown to regulate islet cell type segregation. Consistent with this finding, we show that the pancreatic epithelium in MMTV-hEpCAM transgenic mice exhibits a redistribution of β-catenin, a known regulator of E-cadherin-mediated adhesions. Collectively, these results provide an important in vivo validation of hEpCAM signaling properties in normal epithelia and offer unique opportunities to further explore the function of this glycoprotein in select pancreatic cell lineages to elicit islet cell expansion, and/or regeneration in diabetes. PMID:26216137

  9. Control of Insulin Secretion by Production of Reactive Oxygen Species: Study Performed in Pancreatic Islets from Fed and 48-Hour Fasted Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Ana Cláudia; Riva, Patrícia; Simões, Daniel; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and NADPH oxidase are important sources of reactive oxygen species in particular the superoxide radical (ROS) in pancreatic islets. These molecules derived from molecular oxygen are involved in pancreatic β-cells signaling and control of insulin secretion. We examined the involvement of ROS produced through NADPH oxidase in the leucine- and/or glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets from fed or 48-hour fasted rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets was evaluated at low (2.8 mM) or high (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations in the presence or absence of leucine (20 mM) and/or NADPH oxidase inhibitors (VAS2870-20 μM or diphenylene iodonium-DPI-5 μM). ROS production was determined in islets treated with dihydroethidium (DHE) or MitoSOX Red reagent for 20 min and dispersed for fluorescence measurement by flow cytometry. NADPH content variation was examined in INS-1E cells (an insulin secreting cell line) after incubation in the presence of glucose (2.8 or 16.7 mM) and leucine (20 mM). At 2.8 mM glucose, VAS2870 and DPI reduced net ROS production (by 30%) and increased GSIS (by 70%) in a negative correlation manner (r = -0.93). At 16.7 mM glucose or 20 mM leucine, both NADPH oxidase inhibitors did not alter insulin secretion neither net ROS production. Pentose phosphate pathway inhibition by treatment with DHEA (75 μM) at low glucose led to an increase in net ROS production in pancreatic islets from fed rats (by 40%) and induced a marked increase (by 144%) in islets from 48-hour fasted rats. The NADPH/NADP+ ratio was increased when INS-1E cells were exposed to high glucose (by 4.3-fold) or leucine (by 3-fold). In conclusion, increased ROS production through NADPH oxidase prevents the occurrence of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions, however, in the presence of high glucose or high leucine levels, the increased production of NADPH and the consequent enhancement of the activity of the antioxidant defenses mitigate

  10. Control of Insulin Secretion by Production of Reactive Oxygen Species: Study Performed in Pancreatic Islets from Fed and 48-Hour Fasted Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Patrícia; Simões, Daniel; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and NADPH oxidase are important sources of reactive oxygen species in particular the superoxide radical (ROS) in pancreatic islets. These molecules derived from molecular oxygen are involved in pancreatic β-cells signaling and control of insulin secretion. We examined the involvement of ROS produced through NADPH oxidase in the leucine- and/or glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets from fed or 48-hour fasted rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets was evaluated at low (2.8 mM) or high (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations in the presence or absence of leucine (20 mM) and/or NADPH oxidase inhibitors (VAS2870–20 μM or diphenylene iodonium—DPI—5 μM). ROS production was determined in islets treated with dihydroethidium (DHE) or MitoSOX Red reagent for 20 min and dispersed for fluorescence measurement by flow cytometry. NADPH content variation was examined in INS-1E cells (an insulin secreting cell line) after incubation in the presence of glucose (2.8 or 16.7 mM) and leucine (20 mM). At 2.8 mM glucose, VAS2870 and DPI reduced net ROS production (by 30%) and increased GSIS (by 70%) in a negative correlation manner (r = -0.93). At 16.7 mM glucose or 20 mM leucine, both NADPH oxidase inhibitors did not alter insulin secretion neither net ROS production. Pentose phosphate pathway inhibition by treatment with DHEA (75 μM) at low glucose led to an increase in net ROS production in pancreatic islets from fed rats (by 40%) and induced a marked increase (by 144%) in islets from 48-hour fasted rats. The NADPH/NADP+ ratio was increased when INS-1E cells were exposed to high glucose (by 4.3-fold) or leucine (by 3-fold). In conclusion, increased ROS production through NADPH oxidase prevents the occurrence of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions, however, in the presence of high glucose or high leucine levels, the increased production of NADPH and the consequent enhancement of the activity of the antioxidant defenses