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1

Pandemic Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the recent rise in flu outbreaks both across the United States and the rest of the world, the United States government has developed a broad range of strategies for keeping citizens up to date on the current status of these developments. The Pandemic Flu website is the official US government website for information on the subject (along with coverage of avian influenza) and should be of interest both to the general public and to those working in the fields of public health and policy. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the general information area on the homepage. Here they will find answers to basic questions as âÂÂWhat is an influenza pandemic?â and also be able to peruse materials about avian flu and vaccines and medications designed to treat both conditions. Most visitors will also want to learn about the official national strategy designed to both prepare and respond to an influenza pandemic. This document is available from the siteâÂÂs homepage in its entirety, as is information about what agencies (nationally and internationally) are monitoring outbreaks of these diseases.

2

Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

Dittbenner, Richard

2009-01-01

3

Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

4

Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

Stover, Del

2006-01-01

5

Pandemic Flu: What To Know and  

E-print Network

Pandemic Flu: What To Know and What To DoWhat To Do Michele Johnson, MPH #12;What causes pandemic flu? · Appearance of a new flu virus · New virus passes easily from person top y p person · Few of CDC #12;World Experience With Flu Pandemics #12;20th Century "Pandemic Flu"y H1N1 H1N1H2N2 H3N2 1920

Tipple, Brett

6

Hawaii Community College Pandemic Flu Plan  

E-print Network

Hawaii Community College Pandemic Flu Plan April 2009 #12;HawCC Pandemic Influenza Plan 2 04 ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU.................................................. 15 #12;HawCC Pandemic Influenza Plan 3 04/09 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU? According

Olsen, Stephen L.

7

Flu...Bird flu...Flu Pandemic What does it all mean?  

E-print Network

Flu...Bird flu...Flu Pandemic What does it all mean? Human influenza (flu): · More severe than the common "cold" · Periodic outbreaks are caused by flu viruses that circulate among people Bird flu of bird flu that began in Southeast Asia is caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) · Millions of birds have

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

8

How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs annually, usually in winter, in temperate climates Occurs rarely (three times in 20th century—last in 1968) Usually some immunity built up from previous exposure No previous exposure; ...

9

[The military role in a flu pandemic].  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) policy for the pandemic was stricter than the policy of the Ministry of Health. Defense systems in Israel and the world should prepare, the sooner the better, for the possibility of a worse pandemic, in which the army may take a major role, especially since regular life in the country, in such a case, would be disturbed. PMID:20422833

Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

2010-01-01

10

Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions  

E-print Network

Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions Joshua M. Epstein1 is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions, Wagener DK, et al (2007) Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions. PLo

11

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new  

E-print Network

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when as many as 40 million deaths worldwide. What is swine flu? H1N1 Influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from

12

Pandemics and networks: the case of the Mexican flu  

E-print Network

Pandemics and networks: the case of the Mexican flu Jasmina Omi´c and Piet Van Mieghem Abstract--The recent widespread of the new Mexi- can flu and SARS show the high dependency on con- temporary traveling the spreading param- eters of the Mexican flu estimated in Mexico City, we determine the necessary speed

Van Mieghem, Piet

13

WHO and the pandemic flu “conspiracies”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key scientists advising the World Health Organization on planning for an influenza pandemic had done paid work for pharmaceutical firms that stood to gain from the guidance they were preparing. These conflicts of interest have never been publicly disclosed by WHO, and WHO has dismissed inquiries into its handling of the A\\/H1N1 pandemic as “conspiracy theories.” Deborah Cohen and Philip

Deborah Cohen; Philip Carter

2010-01-01

14

Bird flu: if or when? Planning for the next pandemic  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza or “bird flu” is causing increasing concern across the world as experts prepare for the possible occurrence of the next human influenza pandemic. Only influenza A has ever been shown to have the capacity to cause pandemics. Currently A/H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, is of particular concern. Outbreaks of this disease in birds, especially domestic poultry, have been detected across Southeast Asia at regular intervals since 2003, and have now affected parts of Africa and Europe. Many unaffected countries across the world are preparing for the possible arrival of HPAI A/H5N1 in wild birds and poultry within their territories. All such countries need to prepare for the rare possibility of a small number of human cases of HPAI A/H5N1, imported through foreign travel. Although it is by no means certain that HPAI A/H5N1 will be the source of the next pandemic, many countries are also preparing for the inevitable occurrence of human pandemic influenza. PMID:17621612

Sellwood, Chloe; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Salimee, Sultan

2007-01-01

15

ARE YOU PREPARED FOR FLU SEASON? Seasonal Flu  

E-print Network

ARE YOU PREPARED FOR FLU SEASON? Seasonal Flu: Tufts Members are covered for the seasonal flu 9191 Watertown, MA 024719191 o http://www.brandeis.edu/humanresources/documents/2009/benefits/flu_shot_member_reimbursement_form.pdf Members who receive the flu shot between 10/1/09 ­ 3/31/10 will be reimbursed the amount they paid

Fraden, Seth

16

Avian Flu Pandemic OCTOBER 1, 2006  

E-print Network

and medical capabilities globally. This type of outbreak could potentially result in hundreds of thousands reports indicate, a pandemic, or worldwide outbreak of a new influenza virus, could overwhelm health in the last three influenza pandemics. The current pandemic threat stems from an unprecedented outbreak

Boynton, Walter R.

17

Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

St. Gerard, Vanessa

2007-01-01

18

Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman  

E-print Network

Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman School using a Prediction Market specifically concern- ing the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009 the Hubdub online prediction market1 to model public belief about the possibility that H1N1 (Swine Flu) virus

Osborne, Miles

19

Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

20

Two-sided messages and pandemic flu: persuading the public to follow contradictory government directives.  

E-print Network

??This study investigates effective ways of persuading the public to follow two inherently-contradictory but critical government health directives during a flu pandemic. ???Social distancing??? asks… (more)

Hilyard, Karen M.

2008-01-01

21

Two-sided messages and pandemic flu: persuading the public to follow contradictory government directives.  

E-print Network

??This study investigates effective ways of persuading the public to follow two inherently-contradictory but critical government health directives during a flu pandemic. “Social distancing” asks… (more)

Hilyard, Karen M.

2008-01-01

22

Understanding social amplification of risk : possible impact of an avian flu pandemic  

E-print Network

Today, stakeholders expect organizations to be able to endure external shocks. Hence, the real potential of an avian flu pandemic has many corporations developing business continuity plans for the disruptions that a pandemic ...

Sundrani, Aamir (Aamir Sultan)

2007-01-01

23

Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

Guterman, Lila

2005-01-01

24

E-16. PANDEMIC FLU PLAN According to the World Health Organization, Avian Influenza refers to "a large group of  

E-print Network

E-16. PANDEMIC FLU PLAN According to the World Health Organization, Avian Influenza refers to "a not previously circulated in humans. "For this reason, Avian (Flu) H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential information and resources on the Avian Flu virus and possible pandemic, please refer to these governmental

Olsen, Stephen L.

25

Anticipating crisis: Towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production

Rudi Daems; Giuseppe Del Giudice; Rino Rappuoli

2005-01-01

26

Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The first cases of influenza A\\/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings

Shona Hilton; Emily Smith

2010-01-01

27

Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

Honawar, Vaishali

2005-01-01

28

NATURE MEDICINE VOLUME 11 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2005 909 Threat of pandemic brings flu drug back to life  

E-print Network

NEWS NATURE MEDICINE VOLUME 11 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2005 909 Threat of pandemic brings flu drug of Relenza as part of its bird flu preparedness strategy."Germany's purchase shows that countries flu drug market. The drug has suffered from lackadaisical marketing efforts, according toalawsuitthat

Cai, Long

29

Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the hypothesis that social media such as Twitter encodes the belief of a large number of people about some concrete statement about the world. Here, these beliefs are aggregated using a Prediction Market specically concerning the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009. Using a regression framework, we are able to show that simple features extracted from

Joshua Ritterman; Miles Osborne; Ewan Klein

30

Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

2006-01-01

31

Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

2006-01-01

32

Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For  

E-print Network

Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf October 15 for the Deaf #12;Overview Fever Different "bugs" Common infections Seasonal Flu H1N1 ("Swine") Flu Prevention ­ Example is the common cold or flu Fungus ­ Small organism ­ Example is mold or yeast #12;Common Cold

Goldman, Steven A.

33

Department of Statistics: Teaching plans in the event of a swine flu pandemic Summary: The overall message in Oxford in respect of the pandemic is that it is "business as usual",  

E-print Network

1 Department of Statistics: Teaching plans in the event of a swine flu pandemic Summary into effect in the event of a swine flu pandemic within the University. MPLS has asked that we draft mechanism is possible. Illness of students Students should follow the University's official guidance (http://www.ox.ac.uk/flu

Goldschmidt, Christina

34

Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.  

PubMed

This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. PMID:21470893

Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

2012-07-01

35

Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An

Lynn B Myers; Robin Goodwin

2011-01-01

36

Tracking the flu pandemic by monitoring the Social Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking the spread of an epidemic disease like seasonal or pandemic influenza is an important task that can reduce its impact and help authorities plan their response. In particular, early detection and geolocation of an outbreak are important aspects of this monitoring activity. Various methods are routinely employed for this monitoring, such as counting the consultation rates of general practitioners.

Vasileios Lampos; Nello Cristianini

2010-01-01

37

PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE,  

E-print Network

11/5/10 PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, · New medical condition, the person should be vaccinated. ASSEMBLE YOUR FLU TOOLKIT NOW 1. Thermometer 2 is ok) 5. Cough syrup (similar to Robitussin DM, generic is ok) 6. Tissues Students can purchase a "Flu

Saldin, Dilano

38

Canadian national surveys on pandemic influenza preparations: pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic findings  

PubMed Central

Background Prior to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic, public health authorities in Canada and elsewhere prepared for the future outbreak, partly guided by an ethical framework developed within the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP). We developed a telephone-based survey based on that framework, which was delivered across Canada in late 2008. In June, 2009, the WHO declared pandemic Phase 6 status and from the subsequent October (2009) until May 2010, the CanPREP team fielded a second (revised) survey, collecting another 1,000 opinions from Canadians during a period of pre-pandemic anticipation and peri-pandemic experience. Methods Surveys were administered by telephone with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification approximating provincial percentages of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes, and to identify divergences (between the pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic surveys). Results N = 1,029 interviews were completed from 1,986 households, yielding a gross response rate of 52% (AAPOR Standard Definition 3). Over 90% of subjects indicated the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% indicating that saving lives solely in Canada was the highest priority and 50% indicating saving lives globally was the highest priority. About 90% of respondents supported the obligation of health care workers to report to work and face influenza pandemic risks excepting those with serious health conditions which that increased risks. Strong majorities favoured stocking adequate protective antiviral dosages for all Canadians (92%) and, if effective, influenza vaccinations (95%). Over 70% agreed Canada should provide international assistance to poorer countries for pandemic preparation, even if resources for Canadians were reduced. Conclusions Results suggest Canadians trust public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis is maintained on reciprocity and respect for individual rights. Canadians also support international obligations to help poorer countries and associated efforts to save lives outside the country, even if intra-national efforts are reduced. PMID:23530550

2013-01-01

39

Assessing and responding in real time to online anti-vaccine sentiment during a flu pandemic.  

PubMed

The perceived safety of vaccination is an important explanatory factor for vaccine uptake and, consequently, for rates of illness and death. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate Canadian attitudes around the safety of the H1N1 vaccine during the fall 2009 influenza pandemic and (2) to consider how public health communications can leverage the Internet to counteract, in real time, anti-vaccine sentiment. We surveyed a random sample of 175,257 Canadian web users from October 27 to November 19, 2009, about their perceptions of the safety of the HINI vaccine. In an independent analysis, we also assessed the popularity of online flu vaccine-related information using a tool developed for this purpose. A total of 27,382 unique online participants answered the survey (15.6% response rate). Of the respondents, 23.4% considered the vaccine safe, 41.4% thought it was unsafe and 35.2% reported ambivalence over its safety. Websites and blog posts with anti-vaccine sentiment remained popular during the course of the pandemic. Current public health communication and education strategies about the flu vaccine can be complemented by web analytics that identify, track and neutralize anti-vaccine sentiment on the Internet, thus increasing perceived vaccine safety. Counter-marketing strategies can be transparent and collaborative, engaging online "influencers" who spread misinformation. PMID:20959725

Seeman, Neil; Ing, Alton; Rizo, Carlos

2010-01-01

40

Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud  

PubMed Central

The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

2011-01-01

41

PREPARING FOR THE FLU—TIMES TWO Officials Announce Distribution Plans for Seasonal and H1N1 Flu Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHAT: County health officials and local medical providers will participate in a Flu Kick Off event to encourage the public to prepare for seasonal and H1N1 flu, announce plans for distribution of seasonal and H1N1 flu vaccines, and offer tips on how people can protect themselves against both types of influenza. At the Flu Kick Off event, seasonal flu vaccine

B. Zwass; P. Hitchcock; Mark Sawyer

42

Are All Crises Opportunities? A Comparison of How Corporate and Government Organizations Responded to the 2009 Flu Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a quantitative content analysis, this study applies situational crisis communication theory (SCCT) to investigate how 13 corporate and government organizations responded to the first phase of the 2009 flu pandemic. The results indicate that government organizations emphasized providing instructing information to their primary publics such as guidelines about how to respond to the crisis. On the other hand, organizations

Sora Kim; Brooke Fisher Liu

2012-01-01

43

Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGoogle Flu Trends (GFT) uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1) pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was

Samantha Cook; Corrie Conrad; Ashley L. Fowlkes; Matthew H. Mohebbi

2011-01-01

44

Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include Body or muscle aches Chills Cough Fever Headache Sore ...

45

PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season  

E-print Network

1/2013 PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season GET THE FLU VACCINE cardiovascular disease, or other long term medical condition. ASSEMBLE YOUR FLU TOOLKIT NOW 1. Thermometer 2 at 2607 Downer (near E. Bellview Place). KNOW what to do if you get sick: · The signs and symptoms of flu

Saldin, Dilano

46

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY human flu pandemic could cause 20%  

E-print Network

. In southeast Asia, several countries are cur- rently affected by the H5N1 strain of flu virus. Animal health for Animal Health (OIE) based in Paris. However, there is geo- graphical variation in production and distrib effective outbreak- containment measures is also variable; culling and vaccine-deployment strategies

Cai, Long

47

Pandemic influenza planning: using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control FluAid Software for small area estimation in the Canadian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed software (FluAid 2.0) to provide estimates of pandemic impact (deaths, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits). We wished to develop inputs for Alberta, Canada to use in place of program default values. We also wished to examine how FluAid output could be better contextualized for local users.

Donald P Schopflocher; Margaret L Russell; Lawrence W Svenson; Thu-Ha Nguyen; Irene Mazurenko

2004-01-01

48

A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) Preparing for the Flu  

E-print Network

A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) #12;Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit Schools and Teachers Action Steps for Schools to Prevent the Spread of Flu Action Steps for Teachers

Cinabro, David

49

An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic  

SciTech Connect

Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

2006-03-10

50

Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic in Israel  

PubMed Central

Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009), representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics). Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06), an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25), at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews), and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males). In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups). The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the reporting rate. The finding of a low Re (close to unity threshold), combined with identification of social groups with high transmission rates would have enabled the containment of swine flu during the summer in Israel. Our unique use of contact data provided new insights into the differential dynamics of influenza in different ages and sexes, and should be promoted in future epidemiological studies. Thus our work highlights the importance of conducting a comprehensive study of the initial stage of a pandemic in real time. PMID:21492430

2011-01-01

51

Preparing for an influenza pandemic: ethical issues.  

PubMed

In the near future, experts predict, an influenza pandemic will likely spread throughout the world. Many countries have been creating a contingency plan in order to mitigate the severe health and social consequences of such an event. Examination of the pandemic plans of Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, from an ethical perspective, raises several concerns. One: scarcity of human and material resources is assumed to be severe. Plans focus on prioritization but do not identify resources that would be optimally required to reduce deaths and other serious consequences. Hence, these plans do not facilitate a truly informed choice at the political level where decisions have to be made on how much to invest now in order to reduce scarcity when a pandemic occurs. Two: mass vaccination is considered to be the most important instrument for reducing the impact of infection, yet pandemic plans do not provide concrete estimates of the benefits and burdens of vaccination to assure everyone that the balance is highly favorable. Three: pandemic plans make extraordinary demands on health care workers, yet professional organizations and unions may not have been involved in the plans' formulation and they have not been assured that authorities will aim to protect and support health care workers in a way that corresponds to the demands made on them. Four: all sectors of society and all individuals will be affected by a pandemic and everyone's collaboration will be required. Yet, it appears that the various populations have been inadequately informed by occasional media reports. Hence, it is essential that plans are developed and communication programs implemented that will not only inform but also create an atmosphere of mutual trust and solidarity; qualities that at the time of a pandemic will be much needed. PMID:16222857

Kotalik, Jaro

2005-08-01

52

Bench-to-bedside review: Vaccine protection strategies during pandemic flu outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to

Joel V Chua; Wilbur H Chen

2010-01-01

53

OctOber 2009 n the origins of swine flu  

E-print Network

Picture Big Picture Big OctOber 2009 Free n the origins of swine flu n the history of flu pandemics n Flu vaccines and drugs n Swine flu and Spanish flu compared Flu Your guide to H1N1 and other pandemics Special iSSUe 'SwineFlu'sculpturebyLukeJerram #12;2 Big Picture: Special Issue Picture Big big

Rambaut, Andrew

54

Early reporting of pandemic flu and the challenge of global surveillance: a lesson for Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Abstract. An important issue at the start of the H1N1/2009 pandemic is global reporting of pandemic cases. Reports during the first few weeks of the pandemic showed spread of the disease from Mexico to many countries, but few cases were reported from low and middle income countries. Analysis of the data of international passengers departing from Mexican airports early in the H1N1/2009 outbreak shows a strong association between the number of passengers and reports of confirmed cases. In developing countries first case detection was slower and the chance of reporting the influenza cases after controlling for air traveller intensity was significantly lower. Delays in detection and reporting can jeopardize the success of a global response to a pandemic. A number of implications can be drawn from this, including the need to strengthen health system surveillance capacities in developing countries in Southeast Asia and globally for a better regional and global response. PMID:22299434

Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Coker, Richard

2011-09-01

55

Putting Pandemics in Perspective: England and the Flu, 1889-1919  

E-print Network

Authors who examine the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 fail to grasp its full context. Placing it alongside the Great War or other diseases only provides a partial construction, dramatically altering the narrative. With these limitations authors make...

Adams, David Lynn

2008-01-01

56

Framing Flu Prevention—An Experimental Field Test of Signs Promoting Hand Hygiene During the 2009–2010 H1N1 Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: During the 2009–2010 H1N1 flu pandemic, many institutions installed alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers in public settings in an effort to prevent the spread of the virus. Yet, usage of these dispensers remained low. Method: Point-of-use reminder signs were designed to emphasize four theoretically grounded health beliefs: perceived susceptibility, social norms, consequences of the behavior framed as gains, and consequences

John A. Updegraff; Amber S. Emanuel; Kristel M. Gallagher; Christopher T. Steinman

2011-01-01

57

Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0

Brian J Coburn; Bradley G Wagner; Sally Blower

2009-01-01

58

Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

2010-01-01

59

Avian Flu  

SciTech Connect

Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

Eckburg, Paul

2006-11-06

60

VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What would happen if a flu pandemic as devastating as the 1918 Spanish flu arrived tomorrow. As Laver explains in a Perspective, preparation of the appropriate subunit vaccine (which depends on accurate identification of the flu virus strain) would take too long. He suggests that stockpiling antiviral drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, which block the action of the flu neuraminidase enzyme preventing spread of the virus throughout the host's body, would be a good place to start.

Graeme Laver (Australian National University;); Elspeth Garman (University of Oxford;Department of Biochemistry)

2001-09-07

61

Hospital Stockpiling for Influenza Pandemics with Pre-Determined Response Levels  

E-print Network

of critical medical supplies in preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. We consider a regional network other during medical emergencies. We assume that the attack rate is a random variable with known event than at any time since the Hong Kong flu (H3N2) outbreak of 1968. A pandemic may happen quickly

Adida, Elodie

62

Immunization against A/H1N1 pandemic flu (2009-2010) in pediatric patients at risk. What might be the most effective strategy? The experience of an health district of Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccination coverage rates against pandemic flu were far below those required by Italian Public Health Authorities. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess how the management of vaccination against pandemic flu in the Health District of Piacenza (Northern Italy) had conditioned the adherence of patients at risk to the H1N1flu immunization program. Methods From a population of 27.018 children aged between 6?months and 16?years, 2361 pediatric patients considered at risk according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health were enrolled to receive pandemic flu vaccination. Children enrolled in the immunization program were vaccinated with one of the following three options: A) by their pediatrician in his office after contacting him directly or by phone B) by their pediatrician in his office or in a public Health District office with the assistance of a nurse after an appointment had been booked by patient’s parents using a dedicated free of charge phone number C) by a doctor of the public Health District after an appointment had been booked as for option B Results The best outcomes of population vaccination coverage for pandemic flu were achieved when patients were vaccinated with option B (44.2%). For options A and C rates coverage results were 22.8% (OR 2,69) and 24.9% (OR 2, 39) respectively. Conclusion The results of this study may be taken into account by the public health Authorities when planning the management of future immunization campaigns out of the usual vaccination schedule or in an emergency event. PMID:22594575

2012-01-01

63

Determinants of individuals' risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level. Methods From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. Results In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of???80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ? 25 years and the elderly, ?65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths???25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Conclusion Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable individuals such as students and those working in groups indoors. It is concluded that the lack of robust data provided by surveillance systems in southern countries could be responsible for the underestimation of the epidemiological burden, although the main characteristics are essentially similar to what has been observed in developed countries. PMID:24468218

2014-01-01

64

The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

Kelly, Elaine

2011-01-01

65

Children, avian influenza H5N1 and preparing for the next pandemic.  

PubMed

The emergence of avian influenza A/H5N1 viruses has driven pandemic preparations to become government priorities across Europe. To date these viruses have remained poorly adapted to humans and the risk of a pandemic based on H5N1 is unquantifiable. However, the risk of a future pandemic is 100%. Preparations are essential and without these many avoidable deaths will occur. Children will be affected at least as much as adults and may play an important role in amplifying transmission. Pharmacological and public health interventions focused on children will save lives through suggested community measures such as pre-emptive closures of schools, and need to be considered carefully, balancing benefits against negative consequences. Child health services will be hugely stressed by any pandemic but also have the potential to save many lives. The challenge will be to deliver core services in the face of major staff illnesses. Detailed local business continuity planning will be essential. PMID:18192315

Nicoll, A

2008-05-01

66

Integrative study of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza infections: design and methods of the CoPanFlu-France cohort  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of influenza infection depends on biological characteristics, individual or collective behaviors and the environmental context. The Cohorts for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu) France study was set up in 2009 after the identification of the novel swine-origin A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. This cohort of 601 households (1450 subjects) representative for the general population aims at using an integrative approach to study the risk and characteristics of influenza infection as a complex combination of data collected from questionnaires regarding sociodemographic, medical, behavioral characteristics of subjects and indoor environment, using biological samples or environmental databases. Methods/Design Households were included between December 2009 and July 2010. The design of this study relies on systematic follow-up visits between influenza seasons and additional visits during influenza seasons, when an influenza-like illness is detected in a household via an active surveillance system. During systematic visits, a nurse collects individual and environmental data on questionnaires and obtains blood samples from all members of the household. When an influenza-like-illness is detected, a nurse visits the household three times during the 12 following days, and collects data on questionnaires regarding exposure and symptoms, and biological samples (including nasal swabs) from all subjects in the household. The end of the follow-up period is expected in fall 2012. Discussion The large amount of data collected throughout the follow-up will permit a multidisciplinary study of influenza infections. Additional data is being collected and analyzed in this ongoing cohort. The longitudinal analysis of these households will permit integrative analyses of complex phenomena such as individual, collective and environmental risk factors of infection, routes of transmission, or determinants of the immune response to infection or vaccination. PMID:22676272

2012-01-01

67

How should we plan for pandemics?  

E-print Network

WHO has revised its definition of pandemic flu in response to current experience with A/H1N1. Peter Doshi argues that our plans for pandemics need to take into account more than the worst case scenarios

Doshi, Peter

68

Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

Steinhardt, Bernice

2009-01-01

69

The Efficacy of Echinacea Compound Herbal Tea Preparation on the Severity and Duration of Upper Respiratory and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an echinacea compound herbal tea preparation (Echinacea Plus®) given at early onset of cold or flu symptoms in a ran- dom assignment double-blind placebo-controlled study. Design and Subjects: A total of 95 subjects with early symptoms of cold or flu (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) were randomly assigned

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Elise B. Lindenmuth

2000-01-01

70

Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Farsi (?????) French (français) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hindi (??????) Hmong (Hmoob) ... Seattle and King County Return to top French (français) Home Care for Pandemic Flu Soins ŕ domicile ...

71

DavidCyranoski,Tokyo A bird flu virus is the subject of intense  

E-print Network

DavidCyranoski,Tokyo A bird flu virus is the subject of intense scrutiny amid fears that it could spark a human flu pandemic. Virologists increased their vigilance after the avian virus infected two people in Hong Kong last month. Flu pandemics, which can kill millions of people, are thought to arise

Cai, Long

72

Flu Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Do I Know if I Have the Flu? Flu symptoms appear anywhere from 1 to 4 days after ... have only vomiting and diarrhea without the other flu symptoms, you probably have gastroenteritis . Though some kinds of ...

73

How Lou Got the Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series traces the spread of the flu virus from a duck in China to a young girl in Kansas. The article begins by introducing kids to Louise and the symptoms of influenza. On a series of clickable screens, they learn how the flu virus traveled from a duck to a pig to a farmer to a shopper to a student to Louise. A sidebar (But I Got a Flu Shot Last Year...) explains why influenza is trickier to outsmart than smallpox and polio. Another sidebar (Microbes on the Go) explains the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic.

74

Updated preparedness and response framework for influenza pandemics.  

PubMed

The complexities of planning for and responding to the emergence of novel influenza viruses emphasize the need for systematic frameworks to describe the progression of the event; weigh the risk of emergence and potential public health impact; evaluate transmissibility, antiviral resistance, and severity; and make decisions about interventions. On the basis of experience from recent influenza responses, CDC has updated its framework to describe influenza pandemic progression using six intervals (two prepandemic and four pandemic intervals) and eight domains. This updated framework can be used for influenza pandemic planning and serves as recommendations for risk assessment, decision-making, and action in the United States. The updated framework replaces the U.S. federal government stages from the 2006 implementation plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (US Homeland Security Council. National strategy for pandemic influenza: implementation plan. Washington, DC: US Homeland Security Council; 2006. Available at http://www.flu.gov/planning-preparedness/federal/pandemic-influenza-implementation.pdf). The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. The following eight domains are used to organize response efforts within each interval: incident management, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory, community mitigation, medical care and countermeasures, vaccine, risk communications, and state/local coordination. Compared with the previous U.S. government stages, this updated framework provides greater detail and clarity regarding the potential timing of key decisions and actions aimed at slowing the spread and mitigating the impact of an emerging pandemic. Use of this updated framework is anticipated to improve pandemic preparedness and response in the United States. Activities and decisions during a response are event-specific. These intervals serve as a reference for public health decision-making by federal, state, and local health authorities in the United States during an influenza pandemic and are not meant to be prescriptive or comprehensive. This framework incorporates information from newly developed tools for pandemic planning and response, including the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool and the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework, and has been aligned with the pandemic phases restructured in 2013 by the World Health Organization. PMID:25254666

Holloway, Rachel; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Zaza, Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Jernigan, Daniel B

2014-09-26

75

How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

Turner, James C.

2005-01-01

76

NATURE|Vol. 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY Aweapontheworldneeds  

E-print Network

NATURE|Vol. 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 417 Aweapontheworldneeds Both bottom-up and top, the avian flu strain of such concern in Asia; it could even rival the devas- tation of the 1918 Spanish flu means pro- duction could not be immediately ramped up if a global flu pandemic became reality. The 20

Cai, Long

77

Bird Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an âÂÂeducational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The âÂÂHot Topicsâ section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are âÂÂreceiving national attention.â Outbreaks of viruses have had detrimental effects on human populations throughout history. Recently, there has been a spotlight on the avian influenza virus (specifically the strain known as H5N1), which has infected over 100 people throughout the world. Concerned scientists and health officials are researching this virus, which many fear could escalate and contribute to a worldwide influenza outbreak. This site, created by Deanne Erdmann, MS, and Nancy Moreno, PhD, contains a brief discussion of the avian influenza virus, and includes links to references and further reading. Related news articles, and websites can be found. Be sure to check out the related slide set, âÂÂBird Flu: Is a Pandemic Looming in Our Future?" The slide show can be easily manipulated for use in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this âÂÂHot Topicâ from BioEd Online.

Erdmann, Deanne; Moreno, Nancy

2005-10-24

78

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY he emergence of the highly pathogenic  

E-print Network

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 423 T he emergence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in southeast Asia is a grim reminder of the deadly toll of flu pandemics throughout for pandemic flu is a global endeavour, with the World Health Organiza- tion (WHO) playing a pivotal role

Cai, Long

79

Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

Los Alamos National Lab

2009-05-01

80

Implications of Pandemic Influenza for Bioterrorism Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) had catastrophic effects upon urban pop- ulations in the United States. Large numbers of frightened, critically ill people overwhelmed health care providers. Mortuaries and cemeteries were severely strained by rapid accumulation of corpses of flu victims. Understanding of the outbreak's extent and effectiveness of con- tainment measures was obscured by the swiftness of the

Donald A. Henderson; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole; Monica Schoch-Spana

2000-01-01

81

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

82

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

83

FLU : teoria.  

E-print Network

??Opinnäytetyöni FLU on mykkäsarjakuva, joka on toteutettu sekä paperiversiona että digitaalisena älypuhelimelle tarkoitettuna versiona. Kirjallisessa osuudessa perehdyn tarinankerronnan perinteeseen ja käyn läpi sarjakuvan tekemisen prosessinkulkua.;… (more)

Ollikainen, Antti

2013-01-01

84

Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-? responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-? production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-? production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-? production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively different humoral and cellular immune responses as compared to infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. PMID:24916787

2014-01-01

85

E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

2009-01-01

86

Vaccine xxx (2006) xxxxxx Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu  

E-print Network

Vaccine xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic influenza pandemic known as the "Spanish Flu" has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide reserved. Keywords: Influenza; Spanish flu; Reproductive number 1. Introduction In the Canton of Geneva

Chowell, Gerardo

87

CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU NEWS FEATURE he pharmaceutical company Roche  

E-print Network

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU NEWS FEATURE 407 T he pharmaceutical company Roche didn't have Tamiflu in 1999. Flu is a fact of life, and doctors have been advising aspirin, hot lemon andbed against the threat of a pandemic flu virus that could arise at any time. Given

Cai, Long

89

ErikaCheck,Washington Alarmed by bird flu's grip on southeast Asia,  

E-print Network

ErikaCheck,Washington Alarmed by bird flu's grip on southeast Asia, the World Health Organization and government representatives in a bidtospeeduptheproductionof fluvaccines toavertaglobalpandemic. The three flu pandemics of last century -- in 1918, 1957 and 1968 -- were sparked when avian flu jumped the species

Cai, Long

90

[National plan for the prevention and control "influenza pandemic"].  

PubMed

France has developed a national plan for the prevention and control of an influenza pandemic with the aim of reducing its health impact and its consequences on the economic and social life of the country. The main objectives of the plan are to prepare the country to face an epizootic of avian influenza due to a highly pathogenic virus, to detect the first manifestation of a new flu virus, to curb its spread by adopting early and appropriate public health measures and to protect the French population, as well as French citizens abroad. Ensuring that the population has the best possible access to prevention and care, through the organisation and adaptation of the health system facing a pandemic, is one of the major goals of the plan. The plan, and organisation associated to it, forms the foundation of a coherent and adaptable system which every citizen should feel ownership of. PMID:19044053

Henry, Sabine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Escourolle, Dominique; Bessette, Dominique; Camus, Daniel; Houssin, Didier

2008-10-15

91

Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics  

PubMed Central

Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants’ views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers’ exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians’ concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians’ concerns about IT’s impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital’s preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation’s success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and local levels with insights to refine relevant public health policies for the planning and management of pandemics from the eHealth perspective. PMID:23611788

Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

2012-01-01

92

1918 Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science Update from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Yoshihiro Kawaoko a virologist at the University of Wisconsin. In this interview, Kawako describes what made 1918 flu virus, which killed 20 million people, so deadly.

Science Update;

2004-11-22

93

Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine Language: English ... vaccinated every flu season Influenza is dangerous for children Influenza (â??the fluâ?ť) is more dangerous than ...

94

Seasonal Influenza: Waiting for the Next Pandemic  

PubMed Central

With the ongoing cases of H1N1 influenza (aka Swine Flu) occurring around the globe, seasonal influenza has a tendency to be overlooked by the media and general population as a source of illness and death. Yet, these pandemic influenza viruses arise from these seasonal influenza viruses. This article will provide an overview of seasonal influenza, its prevention and treatment, and the global surveillance system in place, used to detect the next influenza pandemic. PMID:20300388

Clem, Angela; Galwankar, Sagar

2009-01-01

95

Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

2006-01-01

96

Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Preparation and Delivery of Critical Care Services  

PubMed Central

In a five week span during the 1918 influenza A pandemic, more than 2,000 patients were admitted to Cook County Hospital in Chicago with a diagnosis of either influenza or pneumonia; 642 patients, approximately 31% of those admitted, died with deaths occurring predominantly in patients twenty-five to thirty years of age.1 This review summarizes basic information on the biology, epidemiology, control, treatment and prevention of influenza overall, and then addresses the potential impact of pandemic influenza in an Intensive Care Unit setting. Issues that require consideration include workforce staffing and safety, resource management, alternate sites of care surge of patients, altered standards of care and crisis communication. PMID:21220275

Manuell, Mary-Elise; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Ellison, Richard T.

2014-01-01

97

A neighborhood susceptibility index for planning of local physical interventions in response to pandemic influenza outbreaks  

PubMed Central

The global spread of a novel A (H1N1) influenza virus in 2009 has highlighted the possibility of a devastating pandemic similar to the ‘Spanish flu’ of 1917–1918. Responding to such pandemics requires careful planning for the early phases where there is no availability of pandemic vaccine. We set out to compute a Neighborhood Influenza Susceptibility Index (NISI) describing the vulnerability of local communities of different geo-socio-physical structure to a pandemic influenza outbreak. We used a spatially explicit geo-physical model of Linköping municipality (pop. 136,240) in Sweden, and employed an ontology-modeling tool to define simulation models and transmission settings. We found considerable differences in NISI between neighborhoods corresponding to primary care areas with regard to early progress of the outbreak, as well as in terms of the total accumulated share of infected residents counted after the outbreak. The NISI can be used in local preparations of physical response measures during pandemics. PMID:21347087

Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Stromgren, Magnus; Eriksson, Olle; Ekberg, Joakim; Grimvall, Anders; Nyce, James; Gursky, Elin; Holm, Einar

2010-01-01

98

A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently, the promise of a new universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary. However, due to complacency behavior, it remains unclear whether the introduction of such vaccines would maintain high and stable levels of vaccination

Raffaele Vardavas; Romulus Breban; Sally Blower

2010-01-01

99

H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

Major, Arkady

100

Pregnant women unaware of Swine Flu danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study by WA researchers into the vaccination of pregnant women against pandemic, H1N1 influenza (Swine Flu), has revealed a number of patients were not aware of their specific vulnerability to the disease and opted out of preventative treatment, despite widespread public education campaigns throughout Australia.\\u000aThe collaborative study between The University of Notre Dame Australia, Edith Cowan University

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

101

Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 influenza pandemic known as the “Spanish Flu” has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide mortality ranging from 20 to 100 million deaths. Using epidemic modeling and hospital notification data during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, we estimated the reproductive numbers of the first and second waves of influenza infection to

G. Chowell; C. E. Ammon; N. W. Hengartner; J. M. Hyman

2006-01-01

102

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

SciTech Connect

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

103

Likely uptake of swine and seasonal flu vaccines among healthcare workers. A cross-sectional analysis of UK telephone survey data  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2009 flu pandemic, all frontline UK healthcare workers were encouraged to have both the seasonal and swine flu vaccines. Analysis of six national telephone surveys conducted in the run-up to the UK's swine flu vaccination campaign showed that NHS workers were no more likely to accept the swine flu vaccine than non-NHS workers (55.6% versus 52.4% respectively), although

G. James Rubin; Henry W. W. Potts; Susan Michie

2011-01-01

104

Modeling reduction of pandemic influenza using pharmaceutical and non pharmaceutical interventions in a heterogeneous population  

E-print Network

In an event of a pandemic influenza outbreak such as the great "Spanish Flu" of 1918 and the more recent 2009-2010 H1N1 "Swine Flu" scare, pharmaceutical as well as non-pharmaceutical resources are limited in availability ...

Teytelman, Anna

2012-01-01

105

Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu?  

E-print Network

Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu? "Swine flu" is a disease caused do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been. An investigation into these cases is ongoing. Is this swine flu virus contagious? CDC has determined

Olsen, Stephen L.

106

Pandemic Panic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students engage in an inquiry into influenza A (H1N1), considering the virus and the pandemic from multiple perspectives and acting as advisers to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

2010-01-01

107

Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza  

PubMed Central

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and associated human infections have led to a heightened level of awareness and preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the best option by which spread of a pandemic virus could be prevented and severity of disease reduced. Production of live attenuated and inactivated vaccine seed viruses against avian influenza viruses, which have the potential to cause pandemics, and their testing in preclinical studies and clinical trials will establish the principles and ensure manufacturing experience that will be critical in the event of the emergence of such a virus into the human population. Studies of such vaccines will also add to our understanding of the biology of avian influenza viruses and their behavior in mammalian hosts. PMID:16494720

Luke, Catherine J.

2006-01-01

108

Preventing the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... the flu season People who are living in nursing homes or long-term-care facilities Individuals who have ... in close contact with each other, such as nursing homes or hospitals. For example, during a flu outbreak ...

109

First Aid: Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Social Media: Connect With Us First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

110

Algorithmen Flu probleme  

E-print Network

EĂ?ziente Algorithmen II Einf uhrung 1 ' & $ % Inhalt 1. Flu#25;probleme 2. Matching 3. Lineares Algorithmen II Flu#25;probleme 4 ' & $ % Netzwerk u#25; Gegeben ist ein System von Wasserrohren: s t Quelle Senke ie#25;en? #12; EĂ?ziente Algorithmen II Flu#25;probleme 5 ' & $ % Netzwerk u#25; Antwort: Maximal

Popeea, Corneliu - Chair for Foundations of Software Reliability and Theoretical Computer Science

111

A Guide For Parents FLU INFORMATION  

E-print Network

THE FLU: A Guide For Parents FLU INFORMATION What is the flu? The flu (influenza) is an infection emerges and starts spreading among people. What is 2009 H1N1 flu? Last flu season a new influenza A H1N1 it was discovered and its subtype. (This virus was sometimes called "swine flu" or "novel flu".) This flu season

Burke, Peter

112

Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Share Compartir ... vaccine . The Flu Shot is Safe for Pregnant Women Flu shots are a safe way to protect ...

113

The Spanish Flu and Its Legacy: Science Cases for Classroom Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book offers an interdisciplinary approach to teaching about the events surrounding the Spanish flu in 1918. By presenting three case studies of the flu from different perspectives, students will be able to use scientific, historical and medical evidence as well as a developed sense of curiosity to investigate how this pandemic emerged. This resource is organized into different sections which offer teaching approaches, activities and resources to facilitate the understanding of a pandemicâÂÂits nature, transmission and prevention methods for middle school to high school students.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-24

114

The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.  

PubMed

The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

2011-07-01

115

The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review  

PubMed Central

The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

2011-01-01

116

Mapping the digitalisation of biosecurity: the case of swine flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 2009 will go down in history as the year of the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. The rapid worldwide spread of swine flu (H1N1) triggered national and international efforts to prevent the spread of the virus and develop effective treatment and vaccination programmes. However, the H1N1 virus sparked not only a global outbreak of disease and

Brigitte Nerlich

117

Tracking avian flu on the Web.  

PubMed

To some the term avian flu or H5N1 has become synonymous with the pandemic flu of 1918. Like the former pandemic, this current threat has the potential to cause up to 7.4 million deaths worldwide. Yet as of mid-2006, the viability of this threat is still unclear. There is no doubt that birds, especially poultry, have been the primary target of this particular strain of influenza. Human illnesses and deaths have resulted from direct contact with birds; farmers and food handlers are most at risk. Fortunately there has not been a shift to human-to-human transmission. However, it is imperative for public heath officers, health professionals, and other appropriate officials to keep current on the progress of this virus within the bird population, and its spread around the world. Preventative measures including worst case scenarios have been widely discussed and even resulted in a made-for-TV movie. The need for up-to-date information is essential in order to track the extent of transmission, location of current outbreaks, and most importantly steps for preparedness that could be vital for prevention and containment. This article explores and identifies major Web sites along with basic Internet search techniques to find informative and credible Webbased resources. doi:10.1300/J115v26n01_06. PMID:17210550

Gruwell, Cindy A

2007-01-01

118

The first influenza pandemic in the new millennium: lessons learned hitherto for current control efforts and overall pandemic preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses pose a permanent threat to human populations due to their ability to constantly adapt to impact immunologically susceptible individuals in the forms of epidemic and pandemics through antigenic drifts and antigenic shifts, respectively. Pandemic influenza preparedness is a critical step in responding to future influenza outbreaks. In this regard, responding to the current pandemic and preparing for future

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Peter Carrasco; Jose Ignacio Santos Preciado

2009-01-01

119

Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu  

E-print Network

Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual, high (100-102°) Headache be severe 5 STEPS TO TAKE IF YOU GET THE FLU: 1. Stay at home and rest. CDC recommends that you stay home a medical condition that puts you at higher risk of flu complications (like asthma...), call your doctor

O'Toole, Alice J.

120

BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics  

E-print Network

BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics Have Health Coverage Through Mason? Free Seasonal Flu Shots are Part of Your Wellness Benefit. For faculty and staff who are enrolled in COVA Care, COVA HealthAware, COVA HDHP, and Kaiser Permanente, seasonal flu shots are part of your wellness benefit

121

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

122

The Infectious Range of Flu  

E-print Network

The Infectious Range of Flu Since the H5N1 strain of avian flu started crossing into people since 1990. In graduate school, he studied the molecular complex that allows the flu virus to replicate strain of avian flu had never been known to cross into humans. The infections immediately raised alarm

Hill, Wendell T.

123

Pandemic mitigation: Bringing it home.  

PubMed

In the US, national, regional and even institutional plans for ameliorating the effects of pandemic influenza focus on stockpiling antiviral medications, early production and distribution of vaccine, mass and personal social distancing, and a number of personal hygiene activities. Essential personnel are the first scheduled to receive preventive and therapeutic pharmaceuticals, followed by high risk groups, the largest of which are the elderly. Specific recommendations for protection embody a bunker mentality with a time horizon of two weeks, emulating preparation for a natural disaster. The epidemiology of pandemic influenza is scarcely considered. We summarize here the envelope of mortality attributable to epidemic and pandemic influenza in the last 90 years of the last century as a lead in to a presentation of the multinational case age distribution of the novel H1N1 pandemic of 2009. We discuss the sparing of elderly subpopulations in pandemics and the subsequent abrupt resurgence of mortality in the spared age groups as drift variants emerge. The general decline in the baseline of age-specific excess mortality in economically developed countries is characterized and its importance assessed. Models of acute and chronic care facilities are discussed and an argument is advanced that society as a whole as well as acute care facilities cannot be protected against incursion and widespread infection in pandemics of severity above low moderate. The key findings of models of chronic care institutions and others that can control public access, such as corporations, are used to describe programs with a realistic chance of providing protection in even severe pandemics. These principles are further mapped onto individual residences. Materials directing institutional and home planning are cited. PMID:21361400

Reichert, Tom

2011-01-01

124

Pandemic planning in the shipping industry--lessons learnt from the 2009 Influenza Pandemic.  

PubMed

The events around the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic highlighted the need for better planning to ensure protection of those on vessels, protection for ports of call, and protection of business assets (business continuity). The variety of stakeholders involved in the management of a pandemic made it difficult to achieve a cohesive plan during the event itself. By considering the actions during the last pandemic, and the literature available for the shipping industry on pandemic planning, a pathway to better preparation is suggested. PMID:22258847

Bunyan, Kate

2011-01-01

125

Avian Flu and the Quest for Immunity: Not Just Chicken Feed  

PubMed Central

With the very real threat of a bird flu pandemic – and no natural immunity among humans – antiviral drug developers, the federal government, and academic researchers are racing to find innovative vaccines and therapies that are effective and can be mass produced. The commercial payoff, too, could be big. PMID:23424387

CARROLL, JOHN

2006-01-01

126

The general practice experience of the swine flu epidemic in Victoria — lessons from the front line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swine influenza (H1N1 09) outbreak in Victoria has provided an excellent opportunity to review the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) and to assess its performance in practice. • General practitioners play a major role in seasonal flu management, and it was expected that the AHMPPI would enable GPs on the front line to maintain this central

Peter Eizenberg

2009-01-01

127

Treating Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... the most common of these. Treatment with an influenza antiviral drug can mean the difference between having ... Why am I at greater risk of serious flu complications? Your medical condition makes it more likely ...

128

Influenza - "The Flu"  

MedlinePLUS

... also called influenza (in-floo- EN-zuh). This season there are vaccines available that include four strains ... included are the ones that are expected this season. It is important to get a new flu ...

129

Seasonal Flu Shot  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... the flu. People may be exposed to an influenza virus shortly before getting vaccinated or during the two- ...

130

VideoLab: Modeling a Pandemic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2009, H1N1 became the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, and prompted swift investigation of ways to control the virus. Vaccination can slow the flu's spread and reduce its attack rate and mortality, but the strategy's effectiveness depends on who gets the vaccine, and when. Yang et al. used household and school studies to model the effectiveness of two vaccination strategies on the spread of H1N1. They report that a 70% phased vaccination program in which the vaccine is universally available (first movie clip) is not as effective as a similar vaccination program in which children are vaccinated first, followed by adults (second clip).

Yang Yang (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;); Jonathan D. Sugimoto (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology); M. Elizabeth Halloran (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology and Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health); Nicole E. Basta (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology); Dennis L. Chao (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology); Laura Matrajt (University of Washington;Department of Applied Mathematics)

2009-10-30

131

Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases Office of Director Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an ... receive the nasal spray flu vaccine. Influenza (the flu) is a serious illness, especially when you are ...

132

From SARS in 2003 to H1N1 in 2009: lessons learned from Taiwan in preparation for the next pandemic.  

PubMed

In anticipation of a future pandemic potentially arising from H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and in large part in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the city of Taipei, Taiwan, has developed extensive new strategies to manage pandemics. These strategies were tested during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. This article assesses pandemic preparedness in Taipei in the wake of recent pandemic experiences in order to draw lessons relevant to the broader international public health community. Drawing on Taiwan and Taipei Centers for Disease Control data on pandemic response and control, we evaluated the effectiveness of the changes in pandemic response policies developed by these governments over time, emphasizing hospital and medical interventions with particular attention paid to Traffic Control Bundling. SARS and H1N1 2009 catalysed the Taiwan and Taipei CDCs to continuously improve and adjust their strategies for a future pandemic. These new strategies for pandemic response and control have been largely effective at providing interim pandemic containment and control, while development and implementation of an effective vaccination programme is underway. As Taipei's experiences with these cases illustrate, in mitigating moderate or severe pandemic influenza, a graduated process including Traffic Control Bundles accompanied by hospital and medical interventions, as well as school- and community-focused interventions, provides an effective interim response while awaiting vaccine development. Once a vaccine is developed, to maximize pandemic control effectiveness, it should be allocated with priority given to vulnerable groups, healthcare workers and school children. PMID:24996515

Yen, M-Y; Chiu, A W-H; Schwartz, J; King, C-C; Lin, Y E; Chang, S-C; Armstrong, D; Hsueh, P-R

2014-08-01

133

A crisis: fear toward a possible H5N1 pandemic.  

PubMed

This survey investigated individuals' fear when faced with a possible H5N1 human-to-human pandemic. It was conducted in Taiwan toward the end of 2005 with 452 participants, including physicians, nurses, and university students. The results showed that for physicians and nurses, the perceived possibility of an avian flu outbreak and the belief that hospitals lacked sufficient infection control measures contributed to their personal fear of an avian flu epidemic. For students, the perceived possibility of avian flu being a threat to humans contributed to their personal fear. With sufficient, up-to-date information, unnecessary fear, and/or panic can be avoided. PMID:18344785

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2008-01-01

134

Environmental Considerations for Common Burial Site Selection After Pandemic Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the increasing threat of an avian flu pandemic in the UK, the Home Office have been investigating a range of methods\\u000a for managing the potential problem of excess deaths that could exceed the capabilities of existing burial and funeral facilities.\\u000a There is currently unprecedented pressure on the Government to find an environmentally, ethically, socially and economically\\u000a sound

Anna Williams; Tracey Temple; Simon J. Pollard; Robert J. A. Jones; Karl Ritz

135

Immunogenicity and safety of a monovalent vaccine for the 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has caused significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Safety and immunogenicity studies of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in children and adolescents are limited. In this prospective, open-label study, 2 doses of a monovalent, unadjuvanted, inactivated, split-virus 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) vaccine (AdimFlu-S) were administered to 183 healthy children and

Chun-Yi Lu; Pei-Lan Shao; Luan-Yin Chang; Yhu-Chering Huang; Cheng-Hsun Chiu; Yu-Chia Hsieh; Tzou-Yien Lin; Li-Min Huang

2010-01-01

136

Cancer, the Flu, and You  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications Mold Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share Compartir ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Living with cancer increases your risk for complications ...

137

MDA's Flu Season Resource Center  

MedlinePLUS

... Ways to Help MDA Search form Search MDA's Flu Season Resource Center Individuals affected by neuromuscular disease ... serious and possibly life-threatening complications from the flu, so it's important that everyone stays informed and ...

138

Avian flu: sites seek to respond and reassure.  

PubMed

Avian flu outbreaks in Thailand and Vietnam, followed by a reported case of human-to-human transmission in Cambodia (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2005_02_02/en/) prompted rapid responses by health authorities around the world. The WHO and local health ministries launched investigations into the potential source(s) of the outbreaks, and millions of ducks and other farm poultry were slaughtered (http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/feb0205cambodian.html). The US Centers for Disease Control responded by elevating its previous advice to travellers about avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia from an Outbreak Notice to a Travel Health Precaution, and increased surveillance for the disease. Some experts predict that the world is on the brink of an avian flu pandemic; others say a pandemic may not be inevitable, but urge caution and ongoing monitoring. The following sites offer background information and the latest news on avian flu. PMID:15766646

Larkin, Marilynn

2005-03-01

139

Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... disease. What are the symptoms of the flu? Flu symptoms can include the following: • Fever (not everyone with ... be sick for weeks. People can spread the flu from one day before symptoms begin to 5-7 days after. This can ...

140

Flu Policy 20092010 Supervisory Guidelines  

E-print Network

1 Flu Policy 20092010 Supervisory Guidelines These HR guidelines will be implemented effective the reporting/notification guidelines outlined below. The employee should also be reminded to review the Flu. When Employees Exhibit FluLike Symptoms at Work Employees at work who have flulike symptoms (fever

Oklahoma, University of

141

NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU"  

E-print Network

H1N1 NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU" Student Health Service 200 West Kawili Street Campus Center of Health Epidemiologist ....................................933-0912 Websites www.flu.gov www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/general_info.htm www.hawaii.gov/health/aboutH1N1.html www.uhh.hawaii.edu (for links to other

Wiegner, Tracy N.

142

Flu: Teamwork Nothing could be  

E-print Network

UF Voices Flu: Teamwork needed Teamwork. Nothing could be more important when many stu- dents, faculty and staff will have been in some way af- fected by this year's flu virus. Various departments for university efforts this flu season -- including frequently asked questions and self-care guidelines. If you

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

143

September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine  

E-print Network

Number 12d September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Immunization has saved more lives in Canada against viruses that cause influenza, often called the flu. The vaccine does not protect against other viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach illness, such as `stomach flu'. The vaccine is approved

144

Outbreak of pandemic influenza A\\/H1N1 2009 in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed\\u000a a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A\\/H1N1 from mid\\u000a June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Out of 609

Bal Ram Adhikari; Geeta Shakya; Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay; Khagendra Prakash KC; Devi Sirjana Shrestha; Guna Raj Dhungana

2011-01-01

145

Is it a Cold or the Flu? -Know the Difference Signs & Symptoms Cold Flu  

E-print Network

Is it a Cold or the Flu? - Know the Difference Signs & Symptoms Cold Flu Onset Gradual Sudden Fever.rochester.edu/uhs (Check Care for Colds & Flu in "Health Topics.") Centers for Disease Control www.cdc.gov/flu University

Mahon, Bradford Z.

146

What Is Seasonal Flu?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, talks about the seasonal flu and when ... website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. ...

147

A history of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and its impact on Iran.  

PubMed

Approximately ninety two years ago, the worst influenza pandemic or "Spanish flu" occurred in 1918, at the end of the First World War (WWI, 1914-1918) which resulted in the deaths of millions of people worldwide. The death toll exceeded the total number of victims of WWI. The 1918 Spanish flu was a deadly, major global event that affected many countries, including Iran. In Iran, it was accompanied by a high mortality rate estimated to be more than one million. However, detailed information on the impact of this outbreak in Iran is scarce. The present paper describes a brief history of the influenza pandemics in the world as well as the spread of the 1918 Spanish flu to Iran. PMID:20433236

Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Raees Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Azizi, Farzaneh

2010-05-01

148

Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

2011-01-01

149

[Chronicle of an announced pandemic?].  

PubMed

In the last years our country has been affected by several outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Cholera and Hanta virus and recently, by pathogens associated to red tide. Chile was able to manage those emergencies using the local health system. The new threat that may emerge and could eventually overcome that capacity, is the possible H5N1 influenza virus outbreak. Influenza is responsible for the most destructive pandemic, the Spanish influenza, that killed over 40 million individuals in 1918. The new influenza strain (H5N1) is at present endemic in poultry in Asia and has been associated to human fatal cases in Hong Kong and Vietnam. Even though this strain is not able yet to be transmitted among humans, evidence has accumulated that such ability could be reached by the new strain, since it was already detected in pigs. That particular evidence may indicate that the virus could adapt to infect humans, since a similar situation was observed in several of the influenza pandemics. The World Health Organization set a "task force" to develop a strategy that may help to control the virus spread. Several countries are already stocking anti-flu drugs and others are developing new vaccine that are currently been assayed in human volunteers. It is possible that we may have a vaccine before the outbreak; this development is even faster than for SARS. The mayor question to be addressed for developing countries is: what will be done if we do not have the vaccine on time? PMID:16311690

Spencer, Eugenio

2005-09-01

150

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine.  

PubMed

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies. PMID:19549302

Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

2009-01-01

151

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies. PMID:19549302

Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

2009-01-01

152

Cold vs. Flu Know the Difference  

E-print Network

Cold vs. Flu Know the Difference Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual ­ can be 100 to 102or higher can help prevent the spread of colds or flu F � KEEP YOUR HANDS CLEAN ­ Wash with soap and water. � STAY HOME WHEN SICK � GET VACCINATED FOR FLU Getting a flu shot or the nasal spray every year

Burke, Peter

153

Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

2010-05-25

154

Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.  

SciTech Connect

Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

2010-04-01

155

A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu  

SciTech Connect

People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed poly

Hazi, A U

2007-02-12

156

Influence of the Cold War upon Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958  

E-print Network

Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958, also called Asian Flu Pandemic, was one of the most widespread pandemics in history. In this paper, we model the pandemic, considering the effect of the Cold War. There were some restrictions between Western and Eastern nations due to the Cold War during the pandemic. We expect that such restrictions influenced the spread of the pandemic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. The model combines the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. First, we reproduce the situation in 19 countries. Then, we run another experiment to find the influence of the war in the spread of the pandemic; simulation considering international relationships in different years. The simulation results show that the impact of the pandemic in each country was much influenced by international relationships. This study indicates that if there was less effect of the Cold War, Western nations would have larger n...

Yoneyama, Teruhiko

2010-01-01

157

Study of Prevalence of Bird flu by using RT-PCR at Central Veterinary Laboratory, Nepal, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by strain A of influenza viruses also known as bird flu viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild, aquatic birds in their intestines without making them sick. Among 144 subtypes of influenza A virus, H5N1 is highly pathogenic and possess threat of becoming a pandemic disease. Viral strains can be detected and

Dipesh Dhakal; Pawan Dulal; Rewati Man Shrestha; Salina Manandhar; Janardan Lamichhane

158

Decoding the Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" was designed to develop students' ability to read and interpret information stored in DNA. Making use of personal response systems ("clickers") along with a PowerPoint presentation, students follow the story of "Jason," a student intern at the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). While working with a CDC team in Mexico, Jason is the only person who does not get sick from a new strain of flu. It is up to Jason to use molecular data collected from different local strains of flu to identify which one may be causing the illness. Although designed for an introductory biology course for science or non-science majors, the case could be adapted for upper-level courses by including more complex problems and aspects of gene expression, such as the excision of introns.

Armstrong, Norris

2011-01-01

159

Flu in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this Web site provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Infectious Diseases will find detailed, authoritative answers to any questions they may have about the flu. In addition to explanations of flu transmission, treatment, vaccination, etc., this Web site offers updated surveillance reports on the status of influenza in the US. The Questions and Answers page is a good source for quick, easy-to-absorb information, and it clears up many misconceptions regarding the flu and the flu shot. Visitors looking for more detailed information will find many useful links, particularly for recent news and reports.

1999-01-01

160

Pandemic Influenza: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay, written ten years after the first human death from avian influenza, reviews scientific, social, and policy aspects of pandemic influenza, and asks whether the near-crisis level of concern is justified. That there will be another influenza pandemic is certain, and a number of factors suggest it will occur sooner rather than later. It is impossible, however, to predict

Landis MacKellar

2007-01-01

161

Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

2008-01-01

162

Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (“flu”) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 2009–2010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 2009–2010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs. PMID:23687999

2013-01-01

163

Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is

Q. Mai Le; Maki Kiso; Kazuhiko Someya; Yuko T. Sakai; T. Hien Nguyen; Khan H. L. Nguyen; N. Dinh Pham; Ha H. Ngyen; Shinya Yamada; Yukiko Muramoto; Taisuke Horimoto; Ayato Takada; Hideo Goto; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2005-01-01

164

Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It is an ... 49 who want to be protected from the flu virus. Unlike the regular vaccine, it is a live virus. Therefore, it is ...

165

Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare

Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

2009-01-01

166

Nurses' fears and professional obligations concerning possible human-to-human avian flu.  

PubMed

This survey aimed to illustrate factors that contribute to nurses' fear when faced with a possible human-to-human avian flu pandemic and their willingness to care for patients with avian flu in Taiwan. The participants were nursing students with a lesser nursing credential who were currently enrolled in a bachelor degree program in a private university in southern Taiwan. Nearly 42% of the nurses did not think that, if there were an outbreak of avian flu, their working hospitals would have sufficient infection control measures and equipment to prevent nosocomial infection in their working environment. About 57% of the nurse participants indicated that they were willing to care for patients infected with avian influenza. Nurses' fear about an unknown infectious disease, such as the H5N1 influenza virus, could easily be heightened to levels above those occurring during the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Taiwan. PMID:16961111

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2006-09-01

167

Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu  

E-print Network

Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu and other regular exercise. Manage stress. Being healthy helps fight the flu. Get a flu vaccination. Protect yourself against seasonal illness. It's the single best way to prevent the flu. Stay informed. These simple

Ferrara, Katherine W.

168

Here to assist you GET THE FLU SHOT, NOT THE FLU!  

E-print Network

Human Resources Here to assist you GET THE FLU SHOT, NOT THE FLU! Influenza is a common respiratory illness affecting millions of Canadians each year. When you get the flu, it's more than your own health that is at risk. You risk transmitting the flu to your friends, family and co-workers. A flu vaccine is your best

Kambhampati, Patanjali

169

What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection  

E-print Network

What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection caused by the influenza known as "swine flu") in humans causes similar symptoms to the seasonal flu but may also include. What are the symptoms? Flu symptoms start 1-4 days after exposure. Symptoms usually start suddenly

Virginia Tech

170

RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS  

E-print Network

RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS If you start exhibiting flu-like symptoms, call SU Health Services because of flu-like symptoms: Tell your RA. Tell your roommate (if you have one). Socially distance in their rooms or apartments because of flu-like symptoms, the sick meal policy is being expanded. When students

McConnell, Terry

171

Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Is Associated with Severe Disease in India  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. In absence of reliable information on severity of the disease, the nations are unable to decide on the appropriate response against this disease. Methods Based on the results of laboratory investigations, attendance in outpatient department, hospital admissions and mortality from the cases of influenza like illness from 1 August to 31 October 2009 in Pune urban agglomeration, risk of hospitalization and case fatality ratio were assessed to determine the severity of pandemic H1N1 and seasonal influenza-A infections. Results Prevalence of pandemic H1N1 as well as seasonal-A cases were high in Pune urban agglomeration during the study period. The cases positive for pandemic H1N1 virus had significantly higher risk of hospitalization than those positive for seasonal influenza-A viruses (OR: 1.7). Of 93 influenza related deaths, 57 and 8 deaths from Pune (urban) and 27 and 1 death from Pune (rural) were from pandemic H1N1 positive and seasonal-A positive cases respectively. The case fatality ratio 0.86% for pandemic H1N1 was significantly higher than that of seasonal-A (0.13%) and it was in category 3 of the pandemic severity index of CDC, USA. The data on the cumulative fatality of rural and urban Pune revealed that with time the epidemic is spreading to rural areas. Conclusions The severity of the H1N1 influenza pandemic is less than that reported for ‘Spanish flu 1918’ but higher than other pandemics of the 20th century. Thus, pandemic influenza should be considered as serious health threat and unprecedented global response seems justified. PMID:20479875

Mishra, Akhilesh C.; Chadha, Mandeep S.; Choudhary, Manohar L.; Potdar, Varsha A.

2010-01-01

172

Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

173

Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Nabil A. NIMER  

E-print Network

Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Nabil A. NIMER Dept . Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Faculty of Science Philadelphia University #12;Different species harbour different strains of the flu virus Bird flu Swine flu Human flu #12;Antigenetic shift in pigs Flu viruses are able to swap genetic material #12

174

Comparison: Flu Prescription Sales Data from a Retail Pharmacy in the US with Google Flu Trends and US ILINet (CDC) Data as Flu Activity Indicator  

PubMed Central

The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) for five years' aggregate data (2007–2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). PMID:22952719

Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

2012-01-01

175

[Pandemic influenza A/H1N1v, pregnancy and vaccination].  

PubMed

Seasonal flu is potentially more severe during pregnancy especially when it occurs in the last three months. Pregnant women were shown to be especially exposed to severe forms of the flu and death in the first weeks of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1v. For the first time in history, adequate vaccines were available in the early phase of the pandemic and recommended by WHO as a priority for pregnant women. In France, vaccination with the non-adjuvanted vaccine (Panenza®) was recommended after three months of pregnancy. However, the pandemic vaccines were discredited by the mass media and the population even before they were available. This was due to several factors, and especially to the lack of information on the vaccine and its potential toxicity and, in case of pregnancy, potential risk of adverse fetal events, despite the fact that available data shows the seasonal flu vaccine is effective and well tolerated in pregnant women. This article aimed to provide decisional elements for influenza A/H1N1v vaccination in pregnant women. PMID:20832212

Bulifon, S; Tsatsaris, V; Goffinet, F; Mignon, A; Batteux, F; Delfraissy, J-F; Launay, O

2010-12-01

176

PROCEEDINGS Open Access FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment  

E-print Network

PROCEEDINGS Open Access FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment finder based on phylogenetic in the evolution of the genome of influenza (flu), whereby segments of the genome are exchanged between different, researchers and health authorities are building up enormous databases of genomic sequences for every flu

Moret, Bernard

177

Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women Questions & Answers Language: English Español Share Compartir ... including premature labor and delivery. Why should pregnant women get the seasonal flu vaccine? Pregnant women have ...

178

Should I Get a Flu Shot?  

MedlinePLUS

... to make antibodies that protect it against flu (influenza) virus infection. In most people, the flu causes body ... body to make antibodies that protect it against influenza virus infection. It takes up to 2 weeks after ...

179

Clinical Professionals Brief on Swine Flu Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

I encourage all clinical staff to consider carefully the evidence for swine flu vaccination in order to protect their patients, colleagues, families and themselves. This is particularly important at a time when demand on clinical services within the NHS may be high. Vaccination of frontline healthcare workers against swine flu remains a key aspect of the NHS swine flu resilience

Bruce Keogh

180

Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English Español Share Compartir ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

181

H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... and lungs. It is caused by the H1N1 influenza virus. ... Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... doorknob, desk, computer, or counter with the flu virus on it and ... while taking care of a child or adult who is ill with the flu.

182

Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine  

E-print Network

Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine IT IS GOOD TO SEE THAT THE CENTERS FOR Disease Control are seeking ethical guid- ance about the rationing of flu shots this year ("Ethicists to guide rationing of flu vaccine," J. Couzin, News of the Week, 5 Nov., p. 960). They should also be seeking ways to reduce

Duesberg, Peter

183

Ecology and evolution of the flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza (flu) is a common infectious disease, but it is unusual in that the primary timescales for disease dynamics (epidemics) and viral evolution (new variants) are roughly the same. Recently, extraordinarily reliable phylogenetic reconstructions of flu virus evolution have been made using samples from both extant and extinct strains. In addition, because of their public health importance, flu epidemics have

David J. D. Earn; Jonathan Dushoff; Simon A. Levin

2002-01-01

184

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

185

September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic  

E-print Network

September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic The Health System's Non-Clinical Labor Pool is coordinating employee volunteers to assist with the kick off of Employee Health Services Flu Vaccination Season. Two Flu Clinics will be conducted simultaneously on Friday, October 1, 2010 at the PSSB courtyard

Leistikow, Bruce N.

186

Public Health and Medical Responses to the 1957-58 Influenza Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the U.S. prepares to respond this fall and winter to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, a review of the 1957-58 pandemic of Asian influenza (H2N2) could be useful for planning purposes because of the many similarities between the 2 pandemics. Using historical surveillance reports, published literature, and media coverage, this article provides an overview of the epidemiology of and response to

D. A. Henderson; Brooke Courtney; Thomas V. Inglesby; Eric Toner; Jennifer B. Nuzzo

2009-01-01

187

Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Two LAIV Strains against Potentially Pandemic H2N2 Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

H2N2 Influenza A caused the Asian flu pandemic in 1957, circulated for more than 10 years and disappeared from the human population after 1968. Given that people born after 1968 are naďve to H2N2, that the virus still circulates in wild birds and that this influenza subtype has a proven pandemic track record, H2N2 is regarded as a potential pandemic threat. To prepare for an H2N2 pandemic, here we developed and tested in mice and ferrets two live attenuated influenza vaccines based on the haemagglutinins of the two different H2N2 lineages that circulated at the end of the cycle, using the well characterized A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus as the backbone. The vaccine strains containing the HA and NA of A/California/1/66 (clade 1) or A/Tokyo/3/67 (clade 2) showed a temperature sensitive and cold adapted phenotype and a reduced reproduction that was limited to the respiratory tract of mice, suggesting that the vaccines may be safe for use in humans. Both vaccine strains induced haemagglutination inhibition titers in mice. Vaccination abolished virus replication in the nose and lung and protected mice from weight loss after homologous and heterologous challenge with the respective donor wild type strains. In ferrets, the live attenuated vaccines induced high virus neutralizing, haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition titers, however; the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 wt virus induced higher homologous and better cross-reactive antibody responses than the A/Tokyo/3/67 based vaccine. In line with this observation, was the higher virus reduction observed in the throat and nose of ferrets vaccinated with this vaccine after challenge with either of the wild type donor viruses. Moreover, both vaccines clearly reduced the infection-induced rhinitis observed in placebo-vaccinated ferrets. The results favor the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 isolate, which will be evaluated in a clinical study. PMID:25058039

Smolonogina, Tatiana; Rekstin, Andrey; van Amerongen, Geert; van Dijken, Harry; Mouthaan, Justin; Roholl, Paul; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Doroshenko, Elena; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Rudenko, Larisa

2014-01-01

188

Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic. PMID:21747909

Savard, Christian; Guerin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilene; Laliberte-Gagne, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

2011-01-01

189

Social justice in pandemic preparedness.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies. PMID:22397337

DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

2012-04-01

190

Social Justice in Pandemic Preparedness  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies. PMID:22397337

Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

2012-01-01

191

Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu  

E-print Network

Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu CDC recommends a three-step approach to fighting the flu. CDC recommends a three-step approach to fighting influenza (flu). The first and most important step is to get a flu vaccination each year. But if you get the flu

Tipple, Brett

192

CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: Monitoring Severe Illness Among Pregnant Women with Influenza.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line (PFL) during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010-2011 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and ten deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010-2011). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

Ailes, Elizabeth C; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L; McIntyre, Anne F; Jamieson, Denise J; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A

2014-09-01

193

UK Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Strategy Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Team  

E-print Network

Dentists and other specific consultees as listed in the consultation document #VALUE! Description This document describes proposals for an updated, UK-wide strategic approach to planning for and responding to the demands of an influenza pandemic. It takes account of the experience and lessons learned in the H1N1 (2009) influenza pandemic and the latest scientific evidence.

Dh Information; Reader Box; Hr Workforce; Cross Ref; Superseded Docs; Pandemic Infuenza; Preparedness Programme

2011-01-01

194

Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

2011-01-01

195

Avian and pandemic influenza: Progress and problems with global health governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has intensified the health risks posed by pandemic influenza. Effective governance to prepare for, and respond to, a pandemic depends on four key functions: surveillance, protection, response, and communication. Although the global nature of the threat posed is recognized, efforts to strengthen cooperation have only made limited progress. Disease surveillance and communication have benefited from new technologies and harnessing

K. Lee; D. Fidler

2007-01-01

196

Pandemics in the Age of Twitter: Content Analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSurveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary “infoveillance” approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1) monitor the use of the terms “H1N1” versus “swine flu” over time; 2) conduct a content analysis of “tweets”; and 3) validate Twitter

Cynthia Chew; Gunther Eysenbach; Margaret Sampson

2010-01-01

197

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure  

E-print Network

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack arthritis prostate disease bladder infection incontinence cancer varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu

Diggle, Peter J.

198

High-Dose Flu Vaccine May Better Protect the Elderly  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. High-Dose Flu Vaccine May Better Protect the Elderly: Study It might also reduce flu ... 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The high-dose flu shot protects seniors better than the standard dose does, a ...

199

2014 Flu Shot Clinic Schedule Sponsored by UW Benefits  

E-print Network

2014 Flu Shot Clinic Schedule Sponsored by UW Benefits Date Time Location Room Links Monday.m. Seattle HUB 214 View Campus Map Download Printable Flyer Flu Resources: www.uw.edu/admin/hr/benefits/wellness/healthy/flu

Manchak, John

200

Understanding influenza transmission, immunity and pandemic threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current pandemic threat can be best understood within an ecological framework that takes account of the history of past pandemics caused by influenza A, the relationships between pandemic and seasonal spread of influenza viruses, and the importance of immunity and behavioural responses in human populations. Isolated populations without recent exposure to seasonal influenza seem more susceptible to new pandemic

John D. Mathews; Joanne M. Chesson; James M. McCaw; Jodie McVernon

2009-01-01

201

INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu  

E-print Network

INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu Sudden onset of fever/chills, coughing, muscle aches, headache by nausea and/or vomiting, minor symptoms e.g. fatigue may last a few weeks Self-care if you get the flu

Abolmaesumi, Purang

202

Students and Staff The next flu  

E-print Network

1 Attn: UMR Students and Staff The next flu shot clinic will be held on Tuesday, Oct. 26 from 12's issue of Student Health 101 online at http:// readsh1 01.com/ umn.ht ml FLU SHOT CLINIC Where: Soldiers

Jiang, Tiefeng

203

Lessons from pandemic influenza A(H1N1): The research-based vaccine industry's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As A(H1N1) influenza enters the post-pandemic phase, health authorities around the world are reviewing the response to the pandemic. To ensure this process enhances future preparations, it is essential that perspectives are included from all relevant stakeholders, including vaccine manufacturers. This paper outlines the contribution of R&D-based influenza vaccine producers to the pandemic response, and explores lessons that can be

Atika Abelin; Tony Colegate; Stephen Gardner; Norbert Hehme; Abraham Palache

2011-01-01

204

Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices  

SciTech Connect

The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

205

Behavioural responses to influenza pandemics  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the novel A/H1N1 virus has made pandemic preparedness a crucial issue for public health worldwide. Although the epidemiological aspects of the three 20th century influenza pandemics have been widely investigated, little is known about population behaviour in a pandemic situation. Such knowledge is however critical, notably for predicting population compliance with non pharmaceutical interventions. This paper reviews the relevant scientific literature for the 1918-1920, 1957-1958, 1969-1969 influenza epidemics and the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although the evidence base of most non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and personal protection measures is debated, it appears on the basis of past experience that NPIs implemented the most systematically, the earliest, and for the longest time could reduce overall mortality rates and spread out epidemic peaks. Adequate, transparent, and targeted communication on the part of public health authorities would be also of crucial importance in the event of a serious influenza pandemic. PMID:20025201

Balinska, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina

2009-01-01

206

Fish farming and influenza pandemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human influenza pandemics commonly arise by genetic reassortment between human and avian viruses in pigs. Yet global developments in aquaculture - the so-called 'Blue Revolution' - will mean increased colocation of people, ducks and pigs.

Christoph Scholtissek; Ernest Naylor

1988-01-01

207

Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.  

PubMed

Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. PMID:25321142

Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

2014-01-01

208

Pandemic influenza planning by videoconference.  

PubMed

Collaboration between nations and sectors is crucial to improve regional preparedness against pandemic influenza. In 2008, a Virtual Symposium was organized in the Asia-Pacific region by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Emerging Infections Network (APEC EINet) to discuss pandemic preparedness. The multipoint videoconference lasted approximately 4.5 hours and was attended by 16 APEC members who shared best practices in public-private partnerships for pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Twelve of the 16 APEC members who participated responded to a post-event survey. The overall experience of the event was rated highly. Partnering public health, technology and business communities to discuss best practices in preparedness using videoconferencing may be an effective way to improve regional preparedness. Utilization of videoconferencing on a routine basis should be considered to improve preparedness among APEC members and enhance its usability during a pandemic. PMID:19815907

Kimball, Ann Marie; Arima, Yuzo; French, H Matthew; Osaki, Carl S; Hoff, Rodney; Lee, Soo-Sim; Schafer, Lisa; Nabae, Koji; Chen, Chang-Hsun; Hsun, Chang; Hishamuddin, Pengiran; Nelson, Rodney; Woody, Karalee; Brown, Jacqueline; Fox, Louis

2009-01-01

209

Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03883.001 PMID:25321142

Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

2014-01-01

210

H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Avian/Bird Flu) H1N1 (originally referred to as Swine Flu) The H1N1 flu virus caused a world- ... human seasonal flu virus that also circulates in pigs. While the H1N1 viruses have continued to circulate ...

211

Flu Shots Program 2002 Fall 2003 Vol. 7 No. 2  

E-print Network

Flu Shots Program 2002 Fall 2003 Vol. 7 No. 2 This is a publication for the staff of The University of Texas at Dallas In This Issue: FLU SHOTS POINSETTIA SALES TECHNOLOGY FAIR CENTRAL STORES FAIR FLU SHOTS The Staff Council is again sponsoring flu shots for UTD staff. The shots will be available on November 11

O'Toole, Alice J.

212

What You Can Do to Stop the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

213

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS  

E-print Network

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS At this time of year, flu is becoming more common and, even with swine flu, is usually not a severe disease. However, the symptoms of meningitis can superficially resemble those of flu, so beware. Below is a brief summary of how

Oxford, University of

214

YOU DON'T HAVE TIME FOR THE FLU.  

E-print Network

YOU DON'T HAVE TIME FOR THE FLU. HUMAN RESOURCES Programs Check www.purdue.edu/worklife to register will partner with Maxim Health Systems to provide seasonal flu shot appointments on the West Lafayette campus partner at least 24 hours in advance. Then show up with your PUID and get your flu shot. Seasonal flu

Pittendrigh, Barry

215

2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

216

Team work project 1A The bird flu  

E-print Network

Team work project 1A The bird flu By Huy Quang Nguyen Kari Johanne Kihle Attramadal Brattøra................................................................................................................. 3 2. What is the bird flu? And which virus cause bird flu? What is the situation now?.... 3 3. How be expected from Norwegian Food Safety Authority on field work area that have bird flu or in areas

Bech, Claus

217

October 24, 2012 Deadline for Flu Vaccine October 31, 2012  

E-print Network

October 24, 2012 Deadline for Flu Vaccine ­ October 31, 2012 This year's deadline to get a flu shot is October 31, 2012. Employees who have not received a flu shot by then are required to wear a mask starting on November 1st and continuing through the end of flu season. Employees in academic and administrative offices

Leistikow, Bruce N.

218

UHH Flu Vaccination Information 112409 Dear UH Hilo Students,  

E-print Network

UHH Flu Vaccination Information 112409 Dear UH Hilo Students, As part of the ongoing the vaccinations first. For more information please visit the CDC H1N1 website at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/, or the UHH Flu Information Page: http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/uhh/ehso/FluInformation.php. On behalf

Wiegner, Tracy N.

219

Is systems biology the key to preventing the next pandemic?  

PubMed Central

Sporadic outbreaks of epizootics including SARS coronavirus and H5N1 avian influenza remind us of the potential for communicable diseases to quickly spread into worldwide epidemics. To confront emerging viral threats, nations have implemented strategies to prepare for pandemics and to control virus spread. Despite improved surveillance and quarantine measures, we find ourselves in the midst of a H1N1 influenza pandemic. Effective therapeutics and vaccines are essential to protect against current and future pandemics. The best route to effective therapeutics and vaccines is through a detailed and global view of virus–host interactions that can be achieved using a systems biology approach. Here, we provide our perspective on the role of systems biology in deepening our understanding of virus–host interactions and in improving drug and vaccine development. We offer examples from influenza virus research, as well as from research on other pandemics of our time – HIV/AIDS and HCV – to demonstrate that systems biology offers one possible key to stopping the cycle of viral pandemics. PMID:20352075

Tisoncik, Jennifer R; Belisle, Sarah E; Diamond, Deborah L; Korth, Marcus J; Katze, Michael G

2010-01-01

220

University Health Services 01/14/2014 Flu activity increasing; H1N1 strain; get your flu shot  

E-print Network

University Health Services 01/14/2014 Flu activity increasing; H1N1 strain; get your flu shot and staff to take simple preventive actions to limit the spread of seasonal influenza (flu). Health officials throughout the nation and Wisconsin are seeing increasing levels of flu-related illnesses

Balser, Teri C.

221

Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Dictionary En Espańol What Other Kids Are Reading Moving to Middle School Going Back to School ... drops that spray out of an infected person's mouth and nose when he or she sneezes, coughs, ...

222

How organizations framed the 2009 H1N1 pandemic via social and traditional media: Implications for U.S. health communicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a quantitative content analysis, this study reveals how 13 organizations differently framed the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic crisis via their traditional (n=211) and social media (n=534) responses. When framing the crisis as a disaster, a health crisis, or a general health issue organizations relied more on traditional than social media. However, they tended to use social media as much

Brooke Fisher Liu; Sora Kim

2011-01-01

223

Flu: Caring for Someone Sick at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... limit (maximum dose) for certain medicines. Never give aspirin to children age 18 or under if they ... younger might have the flu? Never give them aspirin or products with aspirin in them. Check all ...

224

Controlling avian flu at the source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global agricultural authorities should harmonize with the public-health sector to ensure the exchange of flu virus samples, and establish a single international standard for vaccines, say Robert Webster and Diane Hulse.

Robert Webster; Diane Hulse

2005-01-01

225

Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals  

MedlinePLUS

... by more than $500 billion. Exploring Flu Protein Biology to Improve Antivirals A representation of the structure ... combat this drug resistance by exploiting the virus's biology. One target is pocket-shaped structures on the ...

226

HIV/AIDS and the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

227

The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza  

E-print Network

The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza Troy Day1,2,*, Jean-Baptiste Andre´2,3 and Andrew¨bendorf, Switzerland 5 Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland Pandemic influenza of pandemic influenza strains remain incompletely understood. Here, we develop a stochastic model

Day, Troy

228

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

HCTT-CHE

2011-04-14

229

Antibody Recognition of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. This potential threat was realized in 2009 when an H1N1 virus emerged that resembled the 1918 virus in antigenicity but fortunately was not nearly as deadly. 5J8 is a human antibody that potently neutralizes a broad spectrum of H1N1 viruses, including the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses. Here, we present the crystal structure of 5J8 Fab in complex with a bacterially expressed and refolded globular head domain from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus. 5J8 recognizes a conserved epitope in and around the receptor binding site (RBS), and its HCDR3 closely mimics interactions of the sialic acid receptor. Electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions of 5J8 Fab in complex with an HA trimer from a 1986 H1 strain and with an engineered stabilized HA trimer from the 2009 H1 pandemic virus showed a similar mode of binding. As for other characterized RBS-targeted antibodies, 5J8 uses avidity to extend its breadth and affinity against divergent H1 strains. 5J8 selectively interacts with HA insertion residue 133a, which is conserved in pandemic H1 strains and has precluded binding of other RBS-targeted antibodies. Thus, the RBS of divergent HAs is targeted by 5J8 and adds to the growing arsenal of common recognition motifs for design of therapeutics and vaccines. Moreover, consistent with previous studies, the bacterially expressed H1 HA properly refolds, retaining its antigenic structure, and presents a low-cost and rapid alternative for engineering and manufacturing candidate flu vaccines. PMID:24027321

Hong, Minsun; Lee, Peter S.; Hoffman, Ryan M. B.; Zhu, Xueyong; Krause, Jens C.; Laursen, Nick S.; Yoon, Sung-il; Song, Langzhou; Tussey, Lynda; Crowe, James E.; Ward, Andrew B.

2013-01-01

230

Pandemic influenza preparedness: an ethical framework to guide decision-making  

PubMed Central

Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. Summary The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust. PMID:17144926

Thompson, Alison K; Faith, Karen; Gibson, Jennifer L; Upshur, Ross EG

2006-01-01

231

Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza  

PubMed Central

Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was preceded by falling temperatures. Climate influences on pandemic spread seem important and should be further investigated. PMID:25011543

2014-01-01

232

A Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Facility Pandemic Response Plan  

PubMed Central

The potential of a severe influenza pandemic necessitates the development of an organized, rational plan for continued laboratory animal facility operation without compromise of the welfare of animals. A comprehensive laboratory animal program pandemic response plan was integrated into a university-wide plan. Preparation involved input from all levels of organizational hierarchy including the IACUC. Many contingencies and operational scenarios were considered based on the severity and duration of the influenza pandemic. Trigger points for systematic action steps were based on the World Health Organization's phase alert criteria. One extreme scenario requires hibernation of research operations and maintenance of reduced numbers of laboratory animal colonies for a period of up to 6 mo. This plan includes active recruitment and cross-training of volunteers for essential personnel positions, protective measures for employee and family health, logistical arrangements for delivery and storage of food and bedding, the removal of waste, and the potential for euthanasia. Strategies such as encouraging and subsidizing cryopreservation of unique strains were undertaken to protect valuable research assets and intellectual property. Elements of this plan were put into practice after escalation of the pandemic alerts due to influenza A (H1N1) in April 2009. PMID:20858365

Roble, Gordon S; Lingenhol, Naomi M; Baker, Bryan; Wilkerson, Amy; Tolwani, Ravi J

2010-01-01

233

All Pregnant Women Need Flu Shot: Ob/Gyn Group  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. All Pregnant Women Need Flu Shot: Ob/Gyn Group ... A group representing U.S. obstetricians is calling for all pregnant women to get a flu shot. According ...

234

Colds and the Flu: H1N1 Influenza  

MedlinePLUS

... is H1N1 influenza? H1N1 influenza (also known as swine flu) is an infection caused by a virus. ... spring 2009. At first, the infection was called swine flu because early tests showed that the virus ...

235

Avian Flu in Harbor Seals Could Infect People  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Avian Flu In Harbor Seals Could Infect People Mutations to ... MedlinePlus Pages Animal Diseases and Your Health Bird Flu FRIDAY, Sept. 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The avian ...

236

Flu Season Off to a Slow Start ... for Now  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Season Off to a Slow Start ... for Now ... November 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Flu Immunization FRIDAY, Nov. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- This ...

237

Study Suggests Why Pregnant Women Get Sicker from Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Study Suggests Why Pregnant Women Get Sicker From Flu An aggressive immune system response may worsen symptoms, ... Dallas Monday, September 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Infections and Pregnancy MONDAY, Sept. 22, 2014 (HealthDay ...

238

[Immunosuppression at pregnancy and flu].  

PubMed

The hypothesis of the development of immunosuppression at the pregnancy is put forward in this review. This hypothesis is explaining the complicated character of the pandemic H1N1pdm09 infection among pregnant women. Physiological immunosuppression at pregnancy is based on suppression of various T-lymphocyte subpopulations using a unique mechanism: dimerization blockade of TcR receptors by special domains known as immunosuppressive sequences. These protein sequences were recognized in placentary Syntcytins and in proteins of pathogenic viruses, including Ebola virus and retroviruses. Among H5N1 and H1N1pdm09 influenza virus homologs of immunosuppressive domains are revealed and identified as the pathogenicity factors. Synthetic peptides, homologs of these domains, suppress an antigen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting of TcR and NKG2D receptor activation. Integration of immunosuppressive domains into T-lymphocyte membrane leads to electrostatic pair formation and dimerization through interaction with transmembrane domains of TcR and NKG2D receptors. PMID:23477246

Kiselev, O I

2012-01-01

239

Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission

Siwi Padmawati; Mark Nichter

2008-01-01

240

Guidelines on Flu-Related Absences September 8, 2009  

E-print Network

Guidelines on Flu-Related Absences September 8, 2009 Students who suspect they have H1N1 influenza or who are experiencing flu symptoms should stay at home or in their residence room in order to help to record all flu-related absences through a new tool on the Student Web Service of ROSI (www

Boonstra, Rudy

241

Shot in the Dark? Debunking Myths About Swine Flu Vaccine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What precautions should you take against the H1N1 flu? Should you get the vaccine? In this lesson, students identify and debunk some of the myths surrounding H1N1 flu, or swine flu, and the new vaccine for it.

Hutchings, Catherine; Ojalvo, Holly E.

2009-10-16

242

Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu?  

E-print Network

Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu? Fever Body Aches, disinfectant wipes, antiseptic hand gel and tissue to avoid extra trips out while sick. What To Do If Flu EMPLOYEE SHOULD DEVELOP FLU SYMPTOMS Send employee home and have employee seek medical attention

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

243

A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer  

E-print Network

A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer A team of researchers from the State University strains that protect mice from wild-type flu virus.1 The researchers think the strategy could lead to generate strains for the one marketed product, the seasonal FluMist vaccine. Traditional techniques

244

Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.  

PubMed

During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza. PMID:24622286

Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

2014-03-14

245

Disaster planning: using an 'evolving scenario' approach for pandemic influenza with primary care doctors in training.  

PubMed

This project adopted an 'evolving scenario' approach of an influenza pandemic to enhance factual and attitudinal learning in general practice registrars. The one-day session, held before the current outbreak, was based around a sequence of four video clips that portrayed the development and evolution of pandemic influenza through news flashes and pieces to camera. A short factual presentation was included. Small group discussions with plenary feedback followed each of these. Registrars were encouraged to consider their own feelings, what they needed as professional support at each stage, and what professional and personal issues a pandemic produced. A course structured in this way allowed participants at a training level to identify the major issues and consequences of an influenza pandemic. It was recognised that constructive preparation and planning for business continuity were possible. However, family illness and social consequences were recognised as causing a dissonance with professional practice that needs open debate. PMID:19849900

Pitts, John; Lynch, Marion; Mulholland, Michael; Curtis, Anthony; Simpson, John; Meacham, Janet

2009-09-01

246

Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic  

SciTech Connect

Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

2012-02-13

247

F-BF Flu on Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose the swine flu, influenza H1N1, is spreading on a school campus. The following table shows the number of students, $n$, that have the flu $d$ da...

248

Pandemic Ventilator Rationing and Appeals Processes  

PubMed Central

In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans. PMID:20354793

Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

2014-01-01

249

Protecting residential care facilities from pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

It is widely believed that protecting health care facilities against outbreaks of pandemic influenza requires pharmaceutical resources such as antivirals and vaccines. However, early in a pandemic, vaccines will not likely be available and antivirals will probably be of limited supply. The containment of pandemic influenza within acute-care hospitals anywhere is problematic because of open connections with communities. However, other health care institutions, especially those providing care for the disabled, can potentially control community access. We modeled a residential care facility by using a stochastic compartmental model to address the question of whether conditions exist under which nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) alone might prevent the introduction of a pandemic virus. The model projected that with currently recommended staff-visitor interactions and social distancing practices, virus introductions are inevitable in all pandemics, accompanied by rapid internal propagation. The model identified staff reentry as the critical pathway of contagion, and provided estimates of the reduction in risk required to minimize the probability of a virus introduction. By using information on latency for historical and candidate pandemic viruses, we developed NPIs that simulated notions of protective isolation for staff away from the facility that reduced the probability of bringing the pandemic infection back to the facility to levels providing protection over a large range of projected pandemic severities. The proposed form of protective isolation was evaluated for social plausibility by collaborators who operate residential facilities. It appears unavoidable that NPI combinations effective against pandemics more severe than mild imply social disruption that increases with severity. PMID:18647829

Nuńo, M; Reichert, T A; Chowell, G; Gumel, A B

2008-07-29

250

The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths. PMID:19997956

Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

2010-12-01

251

A Study of the Swine Flu (H1N1) Epidemic Among Health Care Providers of a Medical College Hospital of Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers) was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach. PMID:22090671

Rajoura, Om Prakash; Roy, Rupali; Agarwal, Paras; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

2011-01-01

252

What Are the Symptoms of the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, talks about the symptoms of the flu ... website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. ...

253

How Do I Treat the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, talks about treating seasonal flu. 0:25 ... website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. ...

254

A Case of American Education Flu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that the American educational system's penchant for testing may be likened to an educational flu. Notes that teachers feel increasing pressure to abandon techniques that are engaging if they are not specifically aimed at performance on test day. Contends that the American educational system needs to keep pace with international…

Gross, Steven Jay

2002-01-01

255

Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

Thomson, Ian

2010-01-01

256

Public Response to Community Mitigation Measures for Pandemic Influenza  

PubMed Central

We report the results of a national survey conducted to help public health officials understand the public’s response to community mitigation interventions for a severe outbreak of pandemic influenza. Survey results suggest that if community mitigation measures are instituted, most respondents would comply with recommendations but would be challenged to do so if their income or job were severely compromised. The results also indicate that community mitigation measures could cause problems for persons with lower incomes and for racial and ethnic minorities. Twenty-four percent of respondents said that they would not have anyone available to take care of them if they became sick with pandemic influenza. Given these results, planning and public engagement will be needed to encourage the public to be prepared. PMID:18439361

Koonin, Lisa M.; Benson, John M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Pollard, William E.; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.; Weldon, Kathleen J.; Herrmann, Melissa J.

2008-01-01

257

Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 – 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept model with the addition of Google Flu Trends, predicted weekly influenza cases during 4 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 80% of estimates (Figure 1). Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by individual medical centers to provide advanced warning of future influenza cases.

Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

2013-01-01

258

Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA) toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI) response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission while preparation for later pandemic stages was limited. The interfaces and linkages between health system contexts and pandemic preparedness programmes in these countries were explored. Conclusion Health system context influences how the six countries have been preparing themselves for a pandemic. At the same time, investment in pandemic preparation in the six Asian countries has contributed to improvement in health system surveillance, laboratory capacity, monitoring and evaluation and public communications. A number of suggestions for improvement were presented to strengthen the pandemic preparation and mitigation as well as to overcome some of the underlying health system constraints. PMID:20529345

2010-01-01

259

Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends  

PubMed Central

Background We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Methods Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004–2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Results A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by individual medical centers to provide advanced warning of future influenza cases. PMID:23457520

Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E.

2013-01-01

260

Two Years after Pandemic Influenza A/2009/H1N1: What Have We Learned?  

PubMed Central

Summary: The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, medical and scientific communities have been more prepared in mindset and infrastructure. This preparedness has allowed for rapid and effective research on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the disease, with impacts on its control. A PubMed search using the keywords “pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009” yielded over 2,500 publications, which markedly exceeded the number published on previous pandemics. Only representative works with relevance to clinical microbiology and infectious diseases are reviewed in this article. A significant increase in the understanding of this virus and the disease within such a short amount of time has allowed for the timely development of diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures. These findings could prove useful for future randomized controlled clinical trials and the epidemiological control of future pandemics. PMID:22491771

Cheng, Vincent C. C.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.

2012-01-01

261

About seasonal flu vaccine It's the best way to reduce your risk  

E-print Network

About seasonal flu vaccine · It's the best way to reduce your risk of contracting seasonal flu. · Seasonal flu vaccine is currently avail- able as a shot or (for those eligible) inhaled flu mist. · Seasonal flu vaccine is FREE to en- rolled Cornell students, staff, and fac- ulty. Cornell retirees

262

PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA  

E-print Network

PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA Aflu pandemic is a global disease outbreak food Examples of medical, health and emergency supplies: Prescribed medical supplies such as glucose, such as ibuprofen Thermometer Anti-diarrheal medication Vitamins Fluids with electrolytes Cleansing agent

263

Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template  

SciTech Connect

This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

264

Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

Alberta Education, 2008

2008-01-01

265

Market incentives for pandemic influenza vaccines  

E-print Network

It has been estimated that 100 million plus individuals could perish if a virulent influenza pandemic were to occur. In wake of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic and in an era of economic austerity, however, industry lacks clear ...

Preis, Julia Kay

2012-01-01

266

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: setting up a multi-agency regional response centre--a toolkit for other public health emergencies.  

PubMed

The H1N1 pandemic emerged from Mexico in April 2009. In the UK, local Health Protection Units were quickly overwhelmed with calls from health professionals seeking public health advice on this novel virus. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) led the initial response and established regional flu response centres (FRCs). In London, the HPA's flu response moved swiftly from four in-house emergency operations centres to a fully functional multiagency response centre in rented office space, working with a new database, IT and telephone systems to provide a regional response. Surge capacity was sought from the National Health Service (NHS) and other agencies. The London FRC transferred to NHS leadership supported by the existing management team to assist the NHS in London prior to the opening of the National Pandemic Flu Service. Structured debriefs were undertaken, identifying lessons for future evolving incidents. This paper gives an overview of the activation, resilience and decommissioning of the London FRC, incorporating the lessons identified and key recommendations into a toolkit for future emergency evolving incidents that adopt a regional response centre model. PMID:20494880

Cleary, Vivien; Balasegaram, Sooria; McCloskey, Brian; Keeling, David; Turbitt, Deborah

2010-03-01

267

[Seasonal and pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination coverage among health-care workers in a French university hospital].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to highlight the perceived risk, behavioural changes and acceptance of the seasonal and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine by healthcare workers in a French teaching hospital. We surveyed healthcare workers from the Angers French teaching hospital (CHU) using a cross-sectional intercept design during phase 5A of the French National Plan for the Prevention and Control of the 2009 "Pandemic Influenza". Professionals were asked to take the survey in their workplace from November 2009 to February 2010. The primary endpoint was immunization coverage among healthcare workers who had contact with at-risk patients. Among the 532 workers responding, 22.3% were vaccinated against seasonal influenza and 36.5% against H1N1 influenza. The immunization coverage rate was significantly higher among physicians. For seasonal influenza, the 2 most-cited reasons for vaccination were "to protect the patient" and "to avoid getting sick"; arguments against vaccination were "I never get the flu" or "getting vaccinated is inconvenient and takes too long". For the pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 flu, the arguments for vaccination were "to protect the patient" and "to protect the family"; arguments against vaccination were linked to vaccine safety. Vaccination coverage against seasonal influenza was lower than that reported in the literature, possibly because of the time required between vaccination for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza and the priority often given to vaccination against H1N1. This study emphasizes the lack of perception of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza severity and lack of understanding about the process of developing the seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccines. Concerns about safety, the possibility of side effects and the vaccine development process need to be addressed. An information campaign stressing the necessity for healthcare workers to be vaccinated must be strengthened. PMID:21786736

Boyeau, Cécile; Tanguy, Maurice; Pean, Stéphanie; Delhumeau, Alain; Fanello, Serge

2011-01-01

268

Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

2009-01-01

269

[The influenza pandemic of 1782, with special reference to its occurrence in the Imperial City of Nuremberg].  

PubMed

In Germany, very little research has been done on the flu pandemic of 1782. The year before, in 1781, an epidemic of dysentery had ravaged Central Europe quite seriously. The flu pandemic began in Germany in spring 1782. It took its origin in the Far East, probably in Imperial China. From there it slowly traveled westward and finally hit Russia and Germany. In early 1782, it arrived in eastern Prussia. Mortality rose, in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) mainly people over 30 died. From the German coast on the Baltic Sea the virus soon crossed over to England and Scotland. Within Germany it slowly moved southward, to places like Berlin, Weimar and further south. In Berlin very many people became sick. In spring 1782, in many parts of Germany, from east to west, people were bed-ridden. In Nuremberg, a young doctor described the symptoms of the disease and the therapy he gave to his patients in a pamphlet but apart from that there are few sources. Probably not many people consulted a doctor. Mortality in Nuremberg, it seems, did not rise very much. The city had been in decline since the 1750s, its population now shrunk even further. When this scourge hit Central Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was in decline, after an attack of famine and pestilence in the early 1770s and that epidemic of dysentery in 1781. It finally collapsed some 25 years later, in 1806, and the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria. PMID:22400200

Vasold, Manfred

2011-01-01

270

Health Tip: When to Call the Doctor about A Cold or Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... to Call the Doctor About a Cold or Flu Signs they need medical attention (*this news item ... Kohnle Friday, November 7, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Flu (HealthDay News) -- Flu and the common cold share ...

271

Low Clinical Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection during Pregnancy on the Island of La R?union  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women have been identified as a group at risk, both for respiratory complications than for the admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pdm). The purpose of this prospective register-based cohort-study was to characterize the clinical virulence of the pdm (H1N1/09)v during pregnancy in La Réunion. Methods/Principal Findings Over a twelve-week pdm wave (13 July to 3 October 2009), 294 pregnant women presented with an influenza-like illness (ILI) to one of the three maternity departments of the South Reunion area, Indian Ocean. Out of these, 278 were checked by RT-PCR for influenza viruses (157 positive and 121 negative, of whom, 141 with pdm flu and 132 with ILIs of non pdm origin, 5 untyped). The median body temperature was higher in women experiencing pdm flu than in those with non pdm ILI (38.9°C versus 38.3°C, P<0.0001), without evidence linked to circulating viremia. Oseltamivir was given for 86% of pdm flu cases in a median time inferior than 48 hrs (range 0–7 days). The hospitalization rate for pdm flu was of 60% and not associated with underlying conditions. Six viral pneumonia and fourteen asthma attacks were observed among 84 hospitalized pdm flu cases, of whom, only one led to the ICU for an acute lung injury. No maternal death occurred during the pdm wave. None adverse pregnancy outcome was associated with pdm flu. No congenital birth defect, nor early-onset neonatal influenza infection was attributable to pdm flu exposure. Conclusions/Significance This report mitigates substantially the presumed severity of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza infection during pregnancy. The reasons for which the clinical burden of H1N1/09 influenza virus may differ worldwide raise questions about a differential local viral-strain effect and public health preparedness, notably in timely access to special care and antiviral treatments. PMID:20531946

Gerardin, Patrick; El Amrani, Rachid; Cyrille, Beatrice; Gabriele, Marc; Guillermin, Philippe; Boukerrou, Malik; Boumahni, Brahim; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Winer, Arnaud; Rouanet, Jean-Fabien; Bohrer, Michel; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Barau, Georges; Michault, Alain

2010-01-01

272

The national inventory of core capabilities for pandemic influenza preparedness and response: an instrument for planning and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Reviews of the global response to the 2009 pandemic of influenza A/H1N1 affirmed the importance of assessment of preparedness and response capabilities. Design The U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and partners developed the National Inventory of Core Capabilities for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/international/tools.htm) to collect data on coverage, quality, and timeliness in 12 domains: country planning, research and use of findings, communications, epidemiologic capability, laboratory capability, routine influenza surveillance, national respiratory disease surveillance and reporting, outbreak response, resources for containment, community-based interventions to prevent the spread of influenza, infection control, and health sector pandemic response. For each of the capabilities, we selected four indicators. Each indicator includes four levels of performance (0–3), ranging from no or limited capability to fully capable. Results In 2008, 40 countries in 6 regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) collected data using the instrument. In 2010 and 2012, 36 and 39 countries did so, respectively. Data collection at regular intervals allows changes in preparedness and response capabilities to be documented. In most countries, participants used the instrument and data collected to inform discussion and planning toward improving the country's level of preparedness for pandemic influenza. Conclusions The National Inventory provides countries with a systematic method to document the status of their capabilities with regard to pandemic influenza and to assess progress over time. The National Inventory produces data and findings that serve a wide range of users and uses. PMID:24373360

MacDonald, Goldie; Moen, Ann C; St Louis, Michael E

2014-01-01

273

Avian influenza pandemic preparedness: developing prepandemic and pandemic vaccines against a moving target  

PubMed Central

The unprecedented global spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses within the past ten years and their extreme lethality to poultry and humans has underscored their potential to cause an influenza pandemic. Combating the threat of an impending H5N1 influenza pandemic will require a combination of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies. The emergence of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 emphasised the unpredictable nature of a pandemic influenza. Undoubtedly, vaccines offer the most viable means to combat a pandemic threat. Current egg-based influenza vaccine manufacturing strategies are unlikely to be able to cater to the huge, rapid global demand because of the anticipated scarcity of embryonated eggs in an avian influenza pandemic and other factors associated with the vaccine production process. Therefore, alternative, egg-independent vaccine manufacturing strategies should be evaluated to supplement the traditional egg-derived influenza vaccine manufacturing. Furthermore, evaluation of dose-sparing strategies that offer protection with a reduced antigen dose will be critical for pandemic influenza preparedness. Development of new antiviral therapeutics and other, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies will further supplement pandemic preparedness. This review highlights the current status of egg-dependent and egg-independent strategies against an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:20426889

Singh, Neetu; Pandey, Aseem; Mittal, Suresh K.

2010-01-01

274

Chapter 6. Protection of patients and staff during a pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations\\u000a for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with a specific focus on protection of patients and staff.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential topics including protection\\u000a of patients and staff.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Key recommendations include:

Bruce L. Taylor; Hugh E. Montgomery; Andrew Rhodes; Charles L. Sprung

2010-01-01

275

Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.  

PubMed

The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials. PMID:20568574

Kraut, Alan M

2010-04-01

276

The HIV pandemic: a forgotten crisis?  

PubMed

The devastation caused by HIV and AIDS has touched virtually every world region. One concern is that the unrelenting nature of the HIV pandemic fosters a disposition, not of fear and determination, but of tolerance and complacency. PMID:16018770

Madzikanga, Maxwell; Kangwende, Abigail; Pfumojena, John; Slobod, Karen S; Hurwitz, Julia L

2005-06-01

277

Post-exposure prophylaxis during pandemic outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: With the rise of the second pandemic wave of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in the current season in the Northern Hemisphere, pandemic plans are being carefully re-evaluated, particularly for the strategic use of antiviral drugs. The recent emergence of oseltamivir-resistant in treated H1N1 patients has raised concerns about the prudent use of neuraminidase inhibitors for both treatment

Seyed M Moghadas; Christopher S Bowman; Gergely Röst; David N Fisman; Jianhong Wu

2009-01-01

278

Effective Detection of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Centers Using a National Electronic Biosurveillance System  

PubMed Central

Background The 2008–09 influenza season was the time in which the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) utilized an electronic biosurveillance system for tracking and monitoring of influenza trends. The system, known as ESSENCE or Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics, was monitored for the influenza season as well as for a rise in influenza cases at the start of the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. We also describe trends noted in influenza-like illness (ILI) outpatient encounter data in VA medical centers during the 2008–09 influenza season, before and after the recognition of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined prevalence of ILI coded visits using VA's ESSENCE for 2008–09 seasonal influenza (Sept. 28, 2008–April 25, 2009 corresponding to CDC 2008–2009 flu season weeks 40–16) and the early period of pandemic H1N1 2009 (April 26, 2009–July 31, 2009 corresponding to CDC 2008–2009 flu season weeks 17–30). Differences in diagnostic ICD-9-CM code frequencies were analyzed using Chi-square and odds ratios. There were 649,574 ILI encounters captured representing 633,893 patients. The prevalence of VA ILI visits mirrored the CDC's Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (ILINet) data with peaks in late December, early February, and late April/early May, mirroring the ILINet data; however, the peaks seen in the VA were smaller. Of 31 ILI codes, 6 decreased and 11 increased significantly during the early period of pandemic H1N1 2009. The ILI codes that significantly increased were more likely to be symptom codes. Although influenza with respiratory manifestation (487.1) was the most common code used among 150 confirmed pandemic H1N1 2009 cases, overall it significantly decreased since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions/Significance VA ESSENCE effectively detected and tracked changing ILI trends during pandemic H1N1 2009 and represents an important temporal alerting system for monitoring health events in VA facilities. PMID:20209055

Schirmer, Patricia; Lucero, Cynthia; Oda, Gina; Lopez, Jessica; Holodniy, Mark

2010-01-01

279

Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the ... What Drives Seasonal Flu Patterns This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

280

Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection against influenza virus infection develop in the body. Who Should Get ... The flu shot — an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given ... for "live attenuated influenza vaccine" or FluMist). LAIV is approved for use ...

281

September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts  

E-print Network

influenza or the `flu' is a safe, effective and healthy choice to make. The influenza virus can cause' to refer to any illness caused by a virus, such as `stomach flu'. However, the influenza virus causes illness that tends to be more severe than other viruses. This BC HealthFile provides information

282

42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

2012-10-01

283

Alberta family physicians' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Effective pandemic responses rely on frontline healthcare workers continuing to work despite increased risk to themselves. Our objective was to investigate Alberta family physicians willingness to work during an influenza pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Alberta prior to the fall wave of the H1N1 epidemic. Participants: 192 participants from a random sample of 1000 Alberta family physicians stratified by region. Main Outcome Measures: Willingness to work through difficult scenarios created by an influenza epidemic. Results The corrected response rate was 22%. The most physicians who responded were willing to continue working through some scenarios caused by a pandemic, but in other circumstances less than 50% would continue. Men were more willing to continue working than women. In some situations South African and British trained physicians were more willing to continue working than other groups. Conclusions Although many physicians intend to maintain their practices in the event of a pandemic, in some circumstances fewer are willing to work. Pandemic preparation requires ensuring a workforce is available. Healthcare systems must provide frontline healthcare workers with the support and resources they need to enable them to continue providing care. PMID:23800113

2013-01-01

284

Public perceptions of pandemic influenza resource allocation: a deliberative forum using Grid/Group analysis.  

PubMed

The emergence of virulent avian influenza A subtypes with potential to evolve into novel human subtypes prompted directives from the World Health Organisation recommending that countries prepare for a pandemic. In response the Australian government developed the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI), which includes strategies to contain and/or manage a pandemic. To implement these strategies successfully, community compliance is necessary. Our qualitative study investigated, through a deliberative forum, the extent to which the antiviral drug and vaccine allocation of the AHMPPI corresponds with community views about the priority groups. We used Mary Douglas' Grid/Group analysis to analyse the results, which suggested that the AHMPPI's allocation strategy corresponds well with community views with both based on a hierarchical structure. There are some differences concerning community involvement in the decision process and information provision to the public, for which our study provides recommendations. PMID:21228887

Docter, Stynke P; Street, Jackie; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; van der Wilt, Gert-Jan

2011-08-01

285

Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Fall 2014 Table of Contents Give Your ... protect/vaccine/index.htm Signs and Symptoms of Flu People who have the flu often feel some ...

286

What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu?  

E-print Network

What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu? Follow good practice regarding experience signs of flu-like symptoms you are advised to stay at home to limit contact with others, and seek medical advice. The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular seasonal flu

Davies, Christopher

287

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"  

E-print Network

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!" How to treat influenza, a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses For most healthy people, flu resolves on its own and requires only and how can it help? Medications such as Tamiflu and Relenza are used to prevent or treat flu viruses

Bushman, Frederic

288

UNC Charlotte Guidelines for H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Fall 2009 Dear Faculty and Staff  

E-print Network

UNC Charlotte Guidelines for H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Fall 2009 Dear Faculty and Staff: The H1N1 flu with H1N1 flu ­ either on or off campus ­ and contract the illness. On August 21, 2009, the CentersN1 flu in higher education institutions. Based on that information, the University has developed

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

289

This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu  

E-print Network

This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu www.direct.gov.uk/pandemicflu 0800 1 513 513 INFORMATION SWINE FLU www.direct.gov.uk/pandemicflu 0800 1 513 513 AM FFLIW MOCH GWYBODAETH Factsheet #12;What is swine flu? Swine Flu is a viral infection caused by a new virus which has

Davies, Christopher

290

Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Ankit Agrawal  

E-print Network

Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Kathy Lee Ankit Agrawal Alok Choudhary insights. In this paper, we describe an online re- source for real-time surveillance of flu that we have are subsequently reported vi- sually in terms of a US flu surveillance map, distribution and timelines of flu types

291

Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more  

E-print Network

Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more than 200,000 people are hospitalized and 36,000 people die from seasonal flu complications. This flu season could be worse. There is a new and very different flu virus spreading worldwide among people called novel or new

Ferrara, Katherine W.

292

Economic analysis of pandemic influenza mitigation strategies for five pandemic severity categories  

PubMed Central

Background The threat of emergence of a human-to-human transmissible strain of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) is very real, and is reinforced by recent results showing that genetically modified A(H5N1) may be readily transmitted between ferrets. Public health authorities are hesitant in introducing social distancing interventions due to societal disruption and productivity losses. This study estimates the effectiveness and total cost (from a societal perspective, with a lifespan time horizon) of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies, under a range of pandemic severity categories. Methods An economic analysis was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ~30,000 in Australia. Data from the 2009 pandemic was used to derive relationships between the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and hospitalization rates for each of five pandemic severity categories, with CFR ranging from 0.1% to 2.5%. Results For a pandemic with basic reproduction number R0?=?1.8, adopting no interventions resulted in total costs ranging from $441 per person for a pandemic at category 1 (CFR 0.1%) to $8,550 per person at category 5 (CFR 2.5%). For severe pandemics of category 3 (CFR 0.75%) and greater, a strategy combining antiviral treatment and prophylaxis, extended school closure and community contact reduction resulted in the lowest total cost of any strategy, costing $1,584 per person at category 5. This strategy was highly effective, reducing the attack rate to 5%. With low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, whereas higher severity pandemic costs are dominated by healthcare costs and costs arising from productivity losses due to death. Conclusions For pandemics in high severity categories the strategies with the lowest total cost to society involve rigorous, sustained social distancing, which are considered unacceptable for low severity pandemics due to societal disruption and cost. PMID:23496898

2013-01-01

293

The 1918 influenza pandemic: Lessons for 2009 and the future  

PubMed Central

The 1918 to 1919 H1N1 influenza pandemic is among the most deadly events in recorded human history, having killed an estimated 50 to 100 million persons. Recent H5N1 avian influenza epizootics associated with sporadic human fatalities have heightened concern that a new influenza pandemic, one at least as lethal as that of 1918, could be developing. In early 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus appeared, but it has not exhibited unusually high pathogenicity. Nevertheless, because this virus spreads globally, some scientists predict that mutations will increase its lethality. Therefore, to accurately predict, plan, and respond to current and future influenza pandemics, we must first better-understand the events and experiences of 1918. Although the entire genome of the 1918 influenza virus has been sequenced, many questions about the pandemic it caused remain unanswered. In this review, we discuss the origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, the pandemic’s unusual epidemiologic features and the causes and demographic patterns of fatality, and how this information should impact our response to the current 2009 H1N1 pandemic and future pandemics. After 92 yrs of research, fundamental questions about influenza pandemics remain unanswered. Thus, we must remain vigilant and use the knowledge we have gained from 1918 and other influenza pandemics to direct targeted research and pandemic influenza preparedness planning, emphasizing prevention, containment, and treatment. PMID:20048675

Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Harvey, Hillery A.; Memoli, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

294

Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza.  

E-print Network

as warranted. In the event of the threat of an outbreak in the United States, TESC officials will implement of chronic medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, asthma or diabetes. Flu viruses spread

295

Comparison of the NOW Influenza A & B, NOW Flu A, NOW Flu B, and Directigen Flu A+B assays, and immunofluorescence with viral culture for the detection of influenza A and B viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the Binax NOW Influenza A & B combination assay, we tested upper respiratory tract samples in parallel with the Binax NOW Flu A and Binax NOW Flu B assays, the Becton–Dickinson Directigen Flu A+B assay, and immunofluorescence, and the results were compared with viral culture. Of the 521 samples tested, influenza A was cultured from 113 and influenza

Marita Smit; Kirsten A. Beynon; David R. Murdoch; Lance C. Jennings

2007-01-01

296

FluBlok, a recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

FluBlok, a recombinant trivalent hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine produced in insect cell culture using the baculovirus expression system, provides an attractive alternative to the current egg-based trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) manufacturing process. FluBlok contains three times more HA than TIV and does not contain egg-protein or preservatives. This review discusses the four main clinical studies that were used to support licensure of FluBlok under the 'Accelerated Approval' mechanism in the United States. PMID:19453397

Cox, Manon M J; Patriarca, Peter A; Treanor, John

2008-11-01

297

Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health\\u000aconsequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and\\u000apreventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the\\u000aNetherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been\\u000ainfected with avian flu during the outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003. \\u000aOne third of the poultry farmers whose holdings were cleared reported\\u000astress reactions,

Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma

2007-01-01

298

Colorado School of Mines Pandemic Influenza Response Plan  

E-print Network

Colorado School of Mines Pandemic Influenza Response Plan Level One: Pre planning upon report Influenza Committee 1. Director of Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) reconstitutes Pandemic Influenza training for identified campus personnel on pandemic influenza and PPE use 2. Provide influenza awareness

299

Emergency department capacity planning for a pandemic scenario: Nurse allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem considered in this research is the efficient allocation of resources in an emergency department during a large flow of patient consequent to a pandemic influenza breakout. Predicting the impact of a Pandemic Influenza is very complex due to the many unknown variables that may play a role to how severe a pandemic can be. Scenario planning is considered

Florentino Antonio Rico

2009-01-01

300

The Impact of Disparities in Health on Pandemic Preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apandemic illness would threaten family, community, and national security. Globally pandemics such as smallpox, polio, and more recently HIV\\/AIDS have left a trail of destruction of individuals, homes, communities, and institutions. Pandemics have destroyed educational, economic, and political stability and progress. Well over 15 million orphans have been left in Africa by AIDS alone. Thus pandemic preparedness is one of

David Satcher

2011-01-01

301

77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...first. Liability immunity for countermeasures...against other pandemic influenza A viruses and influenza...first. Liability immunity for Covered Countermeasures...against other pandemic influenza A viruses or influenza...provided liability immunity for vaccines against H5N1 pandemic influenza under the...

2012-03-06

302

State plans for containment of pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

This review assesses differences and similarities of the states in planning for pandemic influenza. We reviewed the recently posted plans of 49 states for vaccination, early epidemic surveillance and detection, and intraepidemic plans for containment of pandemic influenza. All states generally follow vaccination priorities set by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. They all also depend on National Sentinel Physician Surveillance and other passive surveillance systems to alert them to incipient epidemic influenza, but these systems may not detect local epidemics until they are well established. Because of a lack of epidemiologic data, few states explicitly discuss implementing nonpharmaceutical community interventions: voluntary self-isolation (17 states [35%]), school or other institutional closing (18 [37%]), institutional or household quarantine (15 [31%]), or contact vaccination or chemoprophylaxis (12 [25%]). This review indicates the need for central planning for pandemic influenza and for epidemiologic studies regarding containment strategies in the community. PMID:17073091

Holmberg, Scott D; Layton, Christine M; Ghneim, George S; Wagener, Diane K

2006-09-01

303

Influenza pneumonia among adolescents and adults: a concurrent comparison between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) in the post-pandemic period  

PubMed Central

Introduction Comparisons of the characteristics between the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and common seasonal influenza are important for both clinical management and epidemiological studies. However, the differences between pandemic and seasonal influenza during the post-pandemic period are poorly understood. Objectives The aim of our research was to investigate clinical and immune response differences between patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) pneumonia in the post-pandemic period. Methods During the first flu season in post-pandemic period, patients from Beijing Network for Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia present A (H1N1) pdm09 or A (H3N2) influenza were compared concurrently in the aspects of clinical characteristics and inflammatory profile in acute phase. Result Patients with A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza pneumonia showed a close mean age to A (H3N2) pneumonia (51 ± 20 vs 53 ± 16, mean ± standard deviation, years) but tended to have more underlying diseases (32.8% vs 10%, P = 0.036). Although clinical characteristics were similar, no statistical difference were found in pneumonia severity index (PSI) score or intensive care unit admission rate or mortality, patients in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort present higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactase dehydrogenase (P = 0.006, 0.018, respectively) in blood and also longer duration of fever than A (H3N2) cohort. Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 (p70) were higher in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort (P = 0.031, 0.047, respectively). Conclusios During the first post-pandemic flu season, patients with the A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia showed similar clinical characteristics but slightly higher disease severity and stronger systemic inflammatory response than A (H3N2) pneumonia. PMID:24106842

Yang, Shu Qiao; Qu, Jiu Xin; Wang, Chen; Yu, Xiao Min; Liu, Ying Mei; Cao, Bin

2014-01-01

304

Parkfield Quake / Flu Vaccine / Mt. St. Helens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains three radio broadcasts discussing: the Parkfield, California earthquake of October 2004; the Mount Saint Helens volcano; and the shortage of flu vaccine in 2004. The 15 minute Parkfield broadcast explains how the Parkfield earthquake was the most monitored earthquake in history. Scientists are studying the San Andreas Fault in the area. Data collected from the recent earthquake is expected to lead to improvements in: earthquake prediction; and understanding of how earthquake energy builds up as well as the mechanical laws that cause the shaking. The 15 minute Mount Saint Helens broadcast discusses why less seismic activity at the volcano has been observed in 2004, and that danger of an imminent eruption has passed - at least for now.

305

Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Klionsky, Bernard; Molina, J. T.; Nichols, Larry

2008-04-21

306

Scientists Aim to Improve Vaccines Against 'Bird Flu'  

MedlinePLUS

... older strain of bird flu known as the "Vietnam" strain. Researchers wanted to find out if, by ... after 72 participants had been inoculated against the Vietnam strain, researchers gave them a vaccine aimed at ...

307

Flu, the Common Cold, and Complementary Health Practices  

MedlinePLUS

... people aged 6 months and older. What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for the Flu ... the third most common among children. What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Colds About ...

308

Protect the Circle of Life: The Flu & You  

MedlinePLUS

... You need a flu vaccine each year because influenza viruses are always changing and immunity wanes over time. Each year, experts identify the influenza viruses that are the most likely to cause ...

309

Access to the NHS by telephone and Internet during an influenza pandemic: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine use of a novel telephone and Internet service—the National Pandemic Flu Service (NPFS)—by the population of England during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Setting National telephone and Internet-based service. Participants Service available to population of England (n=51.8 million). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: service use rate, by week. Numbers and age-specific and sex-specific rates of population who: accessed service; were authorised to collect antiviral medication; collected antiviral medication; were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment. Secondary: daily mean contacts by hour; proportion using service by telephone/Internet. Results The NPFS was activated on 23 July 2009, operated for 204?days and assessed 2.7 million patients (5200 consultations/100?000 population). This was six times the number of people who consulted their general practitioner with influenza-like illness during the same period (823 consultations/100?000 population, rate ratio (RR)=6.30, 95% CI 6.28 to 6.32). Women used the service more than men (52.6 vs 43.4 assessments/1000 population, RR1 21, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.22). Among adults, use of the service declined with age (16–29 years: 74.4 vs 65 years+: 9.9 assessments/1000 population (RR 7.46 95% CI 7.41 to 7.52). Almost three-quarters of those assessed met the criteria to receive antiviral medication (1?807?866/2?488?510; 72.6%). Most of the people subsequently collected this medication, although more than one-third did not (n=646?709; 35.8%). Just over one-third of those assessed were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment with a practitioner (951?332/2?488?504; 38.2%). Conclusions This innovative healthcare service operated at large scale and achieved its aim of relieving considerable pressure from mainstream health services, while providing appropriate initial assessment and management for patients. This offers proof-of-concept for such a service that, with further refinement, England can use in future pandemics. Other countries may wish to adopt a similar system as part of their pandemic emergency planning. PMID:24491382

Rutter, Paul; Mytton, Oliver; Ellis, Benjamin; Donaldson, Liam

2014-01-01

310

Swine flu vaccination: why won't women have it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPregnant women are high risk for severe influenza A H1N1\\/09 infection (‘Swine Flu’) and subsequent fetal and maternal complications. Trivalent seasonal flu vaccination offers protection against influenza A H1N1\\/09. Recent Department of Health and Health Protection Agency advice is to vaccinate all pregnant women with trivalent influenza vaccine (including H1N1\\/09). The CEMACE report into H1N1 infection related deaths showed that

L C Ashelby; J Trinder

2011-01-01

311

The age distribution of mortality due to influenza: pandemic and peri-pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic influenza is said to 'shift mortality' to younger age groups; but also to spare a subpopulation of the elderly population. Does one of these effects dominate? Might this have important ramifications? Methods We estimated age-specific excess mortality rates for all-years for which data were available in the 20th century for Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the UK, and the USA for people older than 44 years of age. We modeled variation with age, and standardized estimates to allow direct comparison across age groups and countries. Attack rate data for four pandemics were assembled. Results For nearly all seasons, an exponential model characterized mortality data extremely well. For seasons of emergence and a variable number of seasons following, however, a subpopulation above a threshold age invariably enjoyed reduced mortality. 'Immune escape', a stepwise increase in mortality among the oldest elderly, was observed a number of seasons after both the A(H2N2) and A(H3N2) pandemics. The number of seasons from emergence to escape varied by country. For the latter pandemic, mortality rates in four countries increased for younger age groups but only in the season following that of emergence. Adaptation to both emergent viruses was apparent as a progressive decrease in mortality rates, which, with two exceptions, was seen only in younger age groups. Pandemic attack rate variation with age was estimated to be similar across four pandemics with very different mortality impact. Conclusions In all influenza pandemics of the 20th century, emergent viruses resembled those that had circulated previously within the lifespan of then-living people. Such individuals were relatively immune to the emergent strain, but this immunity waned with mutation of the emergent virus. An immune subpopulation complicates and may invalidate vaccine trials. Pandemic influenza does not 'shift' mortality to younger age groups; rather, the mortality level is reset by the virulence of the emerging virus and is moderated by immunity of past experience. In this study, we found that after immune escape, older age groups showed no further mortality reduction, despite their being the principal target of conventional influenza vaccines. Vaccines incorporating variants of pandemic viruses seem to provide little benefit to those previously immune. If attack rates truly are similar across pandemics, it must be the case that immunity to the pandemic virus does not prevent infection, but only mitigates the consequences. PMID:23234604

2012-01-01

312

Epidemiologic Characterization of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Summer Wave in Copenhagen: Implications for Pandemic Control Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The 1918-1919 A\\/H1N1 influenza pandemic killed 50 million people worldwide. Historical records suggest that an early pandemic wave struck Europe during the summer of 1918. Methods. We obtained surveillance data that were compiled weekly, during 1910-1919, in Copenhagen, Den- mark; the records included medically treated influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), hospitalizations, and deaths by age. We used a Serfling seasonal regression

Viggo Andreasen; Cécile Viboud; Lone Simonsen

2008-01-01

313

Colleges and Universities Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the event of an influenza pandemic, colleges and universities will play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of students, employees and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist as a framework to assist colleges and…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

2006-01-01

314

Delaying the International Spread of Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The recent emergence of hypervirulent subtypes of avian influenza has underlined the potentially devastating effects of pandemic influenza. Were such a virus to acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, control would almost certainly be hampered by limited vaccine supplies unless global spread could be substantially delayed. Moreover, the large increases that have occurred in international air travel

Ben S. Cooper; Richard J. Pitman; W. John Edmunds; Nigel J. Gay

2006-01-01

315

Business Contingency Plan for Pandemic Avian Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grand Ballroom It has been generally agreed by most experts that a pandemic avian influenza is very likely to strike soon. It is just the matter of at what degree. The United Nations has recently highlighted the rapid escalation in the spread of avian influenza. There were confirmed cases in 15 countries in the past two and one-half years. Now

Rama Gardens Hotel

2006-01-01

316

Bosnia and Herzegovina Healthcare System Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza as of 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine if Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system is prepared for influenza pandemic; and to indicate strengths and weaknesses in planed resolution of pandemic influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system. Methodology: Qualitative systematic review, comparing established elements of healthcare systems with WHO’s guidelines on pandemic preparedness. Critical evaluations of available findings on preparedness of healthcare system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) compared in details to preparedness of healthcare system of United Kingdom (UK) but in certain elements with some other European countries. Results and Discussion: Analysis of preparedness plans of B&H and UK are presented in details, with comparison of B&H with eight other countries by WHO guidelines categories and phases of pandemic preparedness and contingency plans. Conclusions: Disregarding the obstacles in B&H health care system policy Bosnia and Herzegovina has preparedness plans, that are made based on WHO’s guidelines but unlike all other analyzed countries does not have contingency plan. This can be seen as strength while weaknesses of B&H’s healthcare system are: late forming of preparedness plan with poor implementation of set activities, and lack of contingency plan. PMID:24511267

Begic, Almir; Pilav, Aida; Dzananovic, Lejla; Cavaljuga, Semra

2013-01-01

317

Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Listen Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Article Body ... each year. How do I know if my child is at greater risk for flu-related complications? ...

318

Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks after vaccination, antibodies develop that protect against influenza virus infection. Flu vaccines will not protect against flu-like illnesses caused by non-influenza viruses. If you have questions about whether you ...

319

Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?  

MedlinePLUS

... Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? It's ... really work? What does the science say? The Flu Vaccination is the best protection against getting the ...

320

A social-cognitive model of pandemic influenza H1N1 risk perception and recommended behaviors in Italy.  

PubMed

The outbreak of the pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 (swine flu) between March and April 2009 challenged the health services around the world. Indeed, misconceptions and worries have led the public to refuse to comply with precautionary measures. Moreover, there have been limited efforts to develop models incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of compliance with recommended behaviors. The aim of this study was to apply a social-cognitive model of risk perception and individual response to pandemic influenza H1N1 in a representative sample of Italian population. A sample of 1,010 Italians of at least 18 years of age took part in a telephone survey. The survey included measures of perceived preparedness of institutions, family members and friends' levels of worry, exposure to media campaigns (social-contextual factors), perceived coping efficacy, likelihood of infection, perceived seriousness, personal impact, and severity of illness (cognitive evaluations), affective response and compliance with recommended behaviors. Results demonstrated that affective response fully mediated the relationship between cognitive evaluations and social-contextual factors (with the exception of exposure to media campaigns) and compliance with recommended behaviors. Perceived coping efficacy and preparedness of institutions were not related to compliance with recommended behaviors. PMID:21077927

Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Zani, Bruna

2011-04-01

321

A proposed non-consequentialist policy for the ethical distribution of scarce vaccination in the face of an influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

The current UK policy for the distribution of scarce vaccination in an influenza pandemic is ethically dubious. It is based on the planned outcome of the maximum health benefit in terms of the saving of lives and the reduction of illness. To that end, the population is classified in terms of particular priority groups. An alternative policy with a non-consequentialist rationale is proposed in the present work. The state should give the vaccination, in the first instance, to those who are at risk of catching the pandemic flu in the line of their duties of public employment. Thereafter, if there is not sufficient vaccine to give all citizens equally an effective dose, the state should give all citizens an equal chance of receiving an effective dose. This would be the just thing to do because the state has a duty to treat each and all of its citizens impartially and they have a corresponding right to such impartial treatment. Although this article specifically refers to the UK, it is considered that the suggested alternative policy would be applicable generally. The duty to act justly is not merely a local one. PMID:22411748

McLachlan, Hugh V

2012-05-01

322

Identifying prioritization criteria to supplement critical care triage protocols for the allocation of ventilators during a pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify supplementary criteria to provide direction when the Ontario Health Plan for an Influenza Pandemic (OHPIP) critical care triage protocol is rendered insufficient by its inability to discriminate among patients assessed as urgent, and there are insufficient critical care resources available to treat those in that category. To accomplish this task, a Supplementary Criteria Task Force for Critical Care Triage was struck at the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The task force reviewed publically available protocols and policies on pandemic flu planning, identified 13 potential triage criteria and determined a set of eight key ethical, legal and practical considerations against which it assessed each criterion. An online questionnaire was distributed to clinical, policy and community stakeholders across Canada to obtain feedback on the 13 potential triage criteria toward selecting those that best met the eight considerations. The task force concluded that the balance of arguments favoured only two of the 13 criteria it had identified for consideration: first come, first served and random selection. The two criteria were chosen in part based on a need to balance the clearly utilitarian approach employed in the OHPIP with equity considerations. These criteria serve as a defensible "fail safe" mechanism for any triage protocol. PMID:25191808

Winsor, Shawn; Bensimon, Cécile M; Sibbald, Robert; Anstey, Kyle; Chidwick, Paula; Coughlin, Kevin; Cox, Peter; Fowler, Robert; Godkin, Dianne; Greenberg, Rebecca A; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

2014-01-01

323

New health risks and sociocultural contexts: bird flu impacts on consumers and poultry businesses in Lao PDR.  

PubMed

Avian flu has been identified as one of the most challenging new risks, global in impact due to the "highly interconnected and integrated world economy along with other unpredictable events such as the Asian financial crisis and global terrorism." We have chosen the case of Lao PDR to shed light on an area in which local people consume chicken as one of their staple foods. Our research analyzes consumer behavior, poultry business modification patterns in a high-risk country, and government reaction for business resilience. The geographic choice is motivated by the 2006 EIU report on Catastrophe Risk Management that indicated that Asian-Pacific companies are better prepared for such risks as bird flu than European business is, despite the many cases found in both regions. PMID:18304102

Suder, Gabriele; Inthavong, Saynakhone

2008-02-01

324

How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

2012-01-01

325

Ethics, pandemics, and the duty to treat.  

PubMed

Numerous grounds have been offered for the view that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, including expressed consent, implied consent, special training, reciprocity (also called the social contract view), and professional oaths and codes. Quite often, however, these grounds are simply asserted without being adequately defended or without the defenses being critically evaluated. This essay aims to help remedy that problem by providing a critical examination of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these five grounds for asserting that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, especially as that duty would arise in the context of an infectious disease pandemic. Ultimately, it argues that none of the defenses is currently sufficient to ground the kind of duty that would be needed in a pandemic. It concludes by sketching some practical recommendations in that regard. PMID:18802849

Malm, Heidi; May, Thomas; Francis, Leslie P; Omer, Saad B; Salmon, Daniel A; Hood, Robert

2008-08-01

326

VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics  

SciTech Connect

The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2010-10-23

327

5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...payments during a pandemic health crisis. 550.409 Section 550...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...payments during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency...during a pandemic health crisis without regard...

2011-01-01

328

When Pictures Waste a Thousand Words: Analysis of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic on Television News  

PubMed Central

Objectives Effective communication by public health agencies during a pandemic promotes the adoption of recommended health behaviours. However, more information is not always the solution. Rather, attention must be paid to how information is communicated. Our study examines the television news, which combines video and audio content. We analyse (1) the content of television news about the H1N1 pandemic and vaccination campaign in Alberta, Canada; (2) the extent to which television news content conveyed key public health agency messages; (3) the extent of discrepancies in audio versus visual content. Methods We searched for “swine flu” and “H1N1” in local English news broadcasts from the CTV online video archive. We coded the audio and visual content of 47 news clips during the peak period of coverage from April to November 2009 and identified discrepancies between audio and visual content. Results The dominant themes on CTV news were the vaccination rollout, vaccine shortages, long line-ups (queues) at vaccination clinics and defensive responses by public health officials. There were discrepancies in the priority groups identified by the provincial health agency (Alberta Health and Wellness) and television news coverage as well as discrepancies between audio and visual content of news clips. Public health officials were presented in official settings rather than as public health practitioners. Conclusion The news footage did not match the main public health messages about risk levels and priority groups. Public health agencies lost control of their message as the media focused on failures in the rollout of the vaccination campaign. Spokespeople can enhance their local credibility by emphasizing their role as public health practitioners. Public health agencies need to learn from the H1N1 pandemic so that future television communications do not add to public confusion, demonstrate bureaucratic ineffectiveness and contribute to low vaccination rates. PMID:23691150

Luth, Westerly; Jardine, Cindy; Bubela, Tania

2013-01-01

329

Containing Pandemic Influenza at the Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (subtype H5N1) is threatening to cause a human pandemic of potentially devastating proportions. We used a stochastic influenza simulation model for rural Southeast Asia to investigate the effectiveness of targeted antiviral prophylaxis, quarantine, and pre-vaccination in containing an emerging influenza strain at the source. If the basic reproductive number (R0) was below 1.60, our simulations

Ira M. Longini; Azhar Nizam; Shufu Xu; Kumnuan Ungchusak; Wanna Hanshaoworakul; Derek A. T. Cummings; M. Elizabeth Halloran

2005-01-01

330

DeclanButler,Paris Tracking genetic changes in bird-flu viruses  

E-print Network

DeclanButler,Paris Tracking genetic changes in bird-flu viruses is vital for early warning anyformonths,andMichaelPerdue,headof Animal Influenza Liaison at the WHO flu programme,complains that the FAO, coordinator of the WHO's flu programme. "It's as if you hear a noise in your car engine, but you keep driving

Cai, Long

331

Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark Dredze  

E-print Network

Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark work has relied on simple content anal- ysis, which conflates flu tweets that report infection with those that express concerned awareness of the flu. By discriminating these categories, as well as tweets

Dredze, Mark

332

Genes from a flu strain created in a lab in 1940 have been found in samples  

E-print Network

ErikaCheck Genes from a flu strain created in a lab in 1940 have been found in samples taken from pigs in South Korea, a US biologist claims. Data from the flu virus samples were put last October company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, examined the data as part of an analysis of flu sequences. He

Cai, Long

333

Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do.  

E-print Network

Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do. IF YOU ARE Not at High Risk * High Risk Anybody medicine for flu. Don't go to a hospital. Get to a hospital right away. If you call 911, say you may have severe influenza. * PEOPLE AT HIGHER RISK OF FLU COMPLICATIONS INCLUDE: Babies under 2 I Seniors I

Tipple, Brett

334

INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused  

E-print Network

2009 H1N1 INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused by a new strain of influenza virus. It has spread to many countries. Like other flu viruses, 2009 H1N1 spreads from person should get 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine and when?4 Seasonal flu viruses change from year to year

Suzuki, Masatsugu

335

Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer  

E-print Network

Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer Kathy Lee Ankit and actionable healthcare insights. In this paper, we describe a novel real-time flu and can- cer surveillance such as flu, but also for monitoring distribution of cancer patients with different cancer types and symptoms

336

What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms include sudden onset of  

E-print Network

What are the symptoms of flu? · Symptoms include sudden onset of: o fever/chills o cough o muscle a doctor? Most people recover without needing to see a doctor; the flu usually lasts 7 ­ 10 days and goes · Disorientation or confusion · Pain or pressure in chest · Severe or persistent vomiting · Flu-like symptoms

Ellis, Randy

337

October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st  

E-print Network

October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st Deadline Approaches Employee Health Services has been providing free flu vaccinations to employees and students to multiple locations, EHS offers free flu vaccinations at its clinic in the Cypress Building, Suite A

Leistikow, Bruce N.

338

Academic Planning for H1N1 Flu: Strategies for Students at the University of Toronto  

E-print Network

/1 Academic Planning for H1N1 Flu: Strategies for Students at the University of Toronto As you have probably heard in the media, H1N1 flu is expected to recur this fall. For ongoing updates things we can all do to help reduce the risk of catching or spreading the flu: · Wash and/or sanitize

Boonstra, Rudy

339

Many health-care workers shun flu shots By SONJA ISGER  

E-print Network

Many health-care workers shun flu shots By SONJA ISGER Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 2:04 p patients to get flu shots. But it turns out that persuading the doctors - and nurses, and other clinicians, on the cusp of a new flu season, the hospital announced plans to improve that rate with a mandatory

Belogay, Eugene A.

340

Claim Form --Flu Shot Only One patient and one provider per claim form, please.  

E-print Network

Claim Form -- Flu Shot Only One patient and one provider per claim form, please. See reverse side is signed and dated. An incomplete form may delay the processing of your claim. Services other than flu vaccine must be submitted on a separate claim form. Phone number ( ) _____________________ 10. Name of flu

341

Erratic flu vaccination emerges from short-sighted behavior in contact networks  

E-print Network

Erratic flu vaccination emerges from short-sighted behavior in contact networks Daniel M. Cornforth disease dynamics become less variable. For some networks, we also find that higher flu transmission rates and individual decisions about the prevention and treatment of flu infections. However, until recently

Reluga, Tim

342

Innovative in silico approaches to address avian flu using grid technology Vincent BRETONa,*  

E-print Network

1 Innovative in silico approaches to address avian flu using grid technology Vincent BRETONa flu. Among the biggest challenges raised by infectious emerging diseases, one is related and animals around the earth, as recently demonstrated by the avian flu epidemics. For 3 years now

Boyer, Edmond

343

INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is  

E-print Network

2009 H1N1 INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is caused by a new strain of influenza virus. It has spread to many countries. Like other flu viruses, 2009 H1N1 spreads should get 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine and when?4 Seasonal flu viruses change from year to year

Suzuki, Masatsugu

344

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick  

E-print Network

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 1 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 20132014 Flu Season David Lazer,1,2 * Ryan Kennedy,1: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 2 Last year was difficult for Google Flu Trends (GFT). In early

345

SWINE FLU GUIDANCE FOR LINE MANAGERS MANAGING STAFF WHO ARE PREGNANT/OR IN  

E-print Network

SWINE FLU GUIDANCE FOR LINE MANAGERS MANAGING STAFF WHO ARE PREGNANT/OR IN OTHER HIGH RISK HEALTH GROUPS INTRODUCTION All line managers must ensure that all staff are aware that there is swine flu pages for advice/guidance regarding swine flu and inform their line managers if they are in the high

Davies, Christopher

346

November 15, 2010 Get a flu shot and be eligible to win an iPad!  

E-print Network

November 15, 2010 Get a flu shot and be eligible to win an iPad! To encourage employees and students to receive their flu vaccinations, UC Davis Health System will award iPads to five randomly employees and students who receive flu vaccinations, from either the health system or an external provider

Leistikow, Bruce N.

347

SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009  

E-print Network

SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009 Provided by the Office of the Vice established the following plan to respond to the emergence of swine flu (H1N1 virus). Our plan is based and will be updated as new information about swine flu becomes available. 1) Communication with the Campus Community a

348

Flu Trend Prediction -Regression Random Forest with GP leaves Algorithm and its Applications  

E-print Network

050 051 052 053 Flu Trend Prediction - Regression Random Forest with GP leaves Algorithm and its will be derived. Its applications in flu trend prediction and geology measurement regression will also smart life for human beings. For example, in terms of the recent hot topic of bird flu burst as spring

de Freitas, Nando

349

The Australian response: pandemic influenza preparedness.  

PubMed

Australia's preparedness for a potential influenza pandemic involves many players, from individual health carers to interdepartmental government committees. It embraces a wide number of strategies from the management of the disease to facilitating business continuity. The key strategy underlying Australia's planned response is an intensive effort to reduce transmission of the virus. This includes actions to reduce the likelihood of entry of the virus into the country and to contain outbreaks when they occur. Containment will provide time to allow production of a matched vaccine. The health strategies are outlined in the Australian health management plan for pandemic influenza. The plan is accompanied by technical annexes setting out key considerations and guidelines in the areas of clinical management and infection control. National plans present overall strategies and guidance, but the operational details can only be determined by individual states and territories, regions, and the services themselves. Primary health care practices will be on the frontline of an influenza pandemic. Every practice needs a plan that defines the roles of staff, incorporates infection control and staff protection measures, and considers business continuity. Most importantly, a practice needs to know how to implement that plan. PMID:17115949

Horvath, John S; McKinnon, Moira; Roberts, Leslee

2006-11-20

350

On pandemics and the duty to care: whose duty? who cares?  

PubMed Central

Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were exposed to serious risk of morbidity and mortality, as evidenced by the World Health Organization figures showing that approximately 30% of reported cases were among HCPs, some of whom died from the infection. Despite this challenge, professional codes of ethics are silent on the issue of duty to care during communicable disease outbreaks, thus providing no guidance on what is expected of HCPs or how they ought to approach their duty to care in the face of risk. Discussion In the aftermath of SARS and with the spectre of a pandemic avian influenza, it is imperative that we (re)consider the obligations of HCPs for patients with severe infectious diseases, particularly diseases that pose risks to those providing care. It is of pressing importance that organizations representing HCPs give clear indication of what standard of care is expected of their members in the event of a pandemic. In this paper, we address the issue of special obligations of HCPs during an infectious disease outbreak. We argue that there is a pressing need to clarify the rights and responsibilities of HCPs in the current context of pandemic flu preparedness, and that these rights and responsibilities ought to be codified in professional codes of ethics. Finally, we present a brief historical accounting of the treatment of the duty to care in professional health care codes of ethics. Summary An honest and critical examination of the role of HCPs during communicable disease outbreaks is needed in order to provide guidelines regarding professional rights and responsibilities, as well as ethical duties and obligations. With this paper, we hope to open the social dialogue and advance the public debate on this increasingly urgent issue. PMID:16626488

Ruderman, Carly; Tracy, C Shawn; Bensimon, Cecile M; Bernstein, Mark; Hawryluck, Laura; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Upshur, Ross EG

2006-01-01

351

Microdroplet Sandwich Real-Time RT-PCR for Detection of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Subtypes  

PubMed Central

As demonstrated by the recent 2012/2013 flu epidemic, the continual emergence of new viral strains highlights the need for accurate medical diagnostics in multiple community settings. If rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostics for influenza subtyping were available, it would help identify epidemics, facilitate appropriate antiviral usage, decrease inappropriate antibiotic usage, and eliminate the extra cost of unnecessary laboratory testing and treatment. Here, we describe a droplet sandwich platform that can detect influenza subtypes using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Using clinical samples collected during the 2010/11 season, we effectively differentiate between H1N1p (swine pandemic), H1N1s (seasonal), and H3N2 with an overall assay sensitivity was 96%, with 100% specificity for each subtype. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect viral loads as low as 104 copies/mL, which is two orders of magnitude lower than viral loads in typical infected patients. This platform performs diagnostics in a miniaturized format without sacrificing any sensitivity, and can thus be easily developed into devices which are ideal for small clinics and pharmacies. PMID:24066051

Angione, Stephanie L.; Inde, Zintis; Beck, Christina M.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Tripathi, Anubhav

2013-01-01

352

Students with the University-sponsored health insurance can now get a flu shot at participating pharmacies FREE!  

E-print Network

Students with the University-sponsored health insurance can now get a flu shot at participating pharmacies FREE! To receive a flu shot: 1. Go to your local pharmacy and ask if they participate in the Flu pharmacies 2. Show your Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Florida Member ID card. 3. Get a FREE Flu Shot! Over 3400

McQuade, D. Tyler

353

NATURE|VOL431|28OCTOBER2004|www.nature.com/nature 1023 Struggling with the flu  

E-print Network

NATURE|VOL431|28OCTOBER2004|www.nature.com/nature 1023 Struggling with the flu The shortages of flu that was supposedtosupplyhalf of it--graphicallydemonstratestheirpoint. The flu vaccine is tricky to produce, because it must on the private sector to distribute flu vaccines at grocery stores,pharmaciesanddoctors'surgeries. As a result

Cai, Long

354

HIGH-RISK GROUPS Some people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu, and  

E-print Network

HIGH-RISK GROUPS Some people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health or your line manager. High-Risk groups and the Swine flu vaccine A vaccine to protect against swine flu is being developed

Davies, Christopher

355

Find may yield flu early warning -The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING  

E-print Network

Find may yield flu early warning - The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Find may yield flu early warning By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff | January 7, 2008 For a decade, disease flu to easily infect people and ignite a firestorm of human illness akin to the 1918 global flu

Sasisekharan, Ram

356

Antiviral Resistance and the Control of Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The response to the next influenza pandemic will likely include extensive use of antiviral drugs (mainly oseltamivir), combined with other transmission-reducing measures. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that some strains of influenza may become resistant to oseltamivir while maintaining infectiousness (fitness). Use of antiviral agents on the scale anticipated for the control of pandemic influenza will create an

Marc Lipsitch; Ted Cohen; Megan Murray; Bruce R. Levin

2007-01-01

357

Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic  

E-print Network

Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic Short-circuited atmosphere convections Warming States of America www.pnas.org #12;Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised

Duisburg-Essen, Universität

358

Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide. With the recent availability of the complete 1918 influenza virus coding sequence, we used reverse genetics to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence. In stark contrast to contemporary human

Terrence M. Tumpey; Christopher F. Basler; Patricia V. Aguilar; Hui Zeng; Alicia Solórzano; David E. Swayne; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; Adolfo García-Sastre

2005-01-01

359

A Delay Differential Model for Pandemic Influenza with Antiviral Treatment  

E-print Network

A Delay Differential Model for Pandemic Influenza with Antiviral Treatment Murray E. Alexander1 as the primary public health strategy for mit- igating the severity of a new influenza pandemic strain. However of clinical symptoms. This requirement may be captured by a compartmental model that monitors the density

Röst, Gergely

360

Business Continuity Planning in Higher Education Due to Pandemic Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the role higher education faculty and staff should play in the continuity of operations process. Specifically, this article provides recommendations and considerations for drafting a response to a regional or worldwide pandemic. The recent emergence of H5N1 Avian Influenza has forced institutions of higher education to start planning for continuing operations and maintaining integrity during a pandemic.

Stephen Saravara III

2007-01-01

361

Employment and Compliance with Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of a serious pandemic influenza outbreak, businesses must play a key role in protecting employees' health and safety. With regard to pandemic influenza mitigation recommendations requiring social distancing, we examined whether some US employees would disproportionately fail to comply because of job insecurity and financial problems associated with missing work. We used the 2006 Harvard School of

Kelly D. Blake; Robert J. Blendon; Kasisomayajula Viswanath

2010-01-01

362

Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach  

PubMed Central

Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures. PMID:20718996

2010-01-01

363

What Hunters Should Know About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)  

E-print Network

What Hunters Should Know About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Quick Facts About Avian Influenza and H5N1 · Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A influenza viruses influenza viruses. · Avian influenza virus is common in wild waterfowl and shorebird populations

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

364

Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

Fischman, Josh

2012-01-01

365

"FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

2014-01-01

366

Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

367

Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... her household members receiving vaccinations with the killed influenza virus, preventative measures such as hand washing should be ... contact begins to have flu symptoms, anti-viral influenza drugs should be made available ... will not pass the virus to a person with immune deficiency. To the ...

368

Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy  

E-print Network

1 1663 Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy Dark Universe Mysteries WILL NOT NEED TESTING Expanding Nuclear Energy the Right Way GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS AND AN ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE sense.The Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy

369

Epidemiologic Characterization of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Summer Wave in Copenhagen: Implications for Pandemic Control Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background The 1918–1919 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic killed ~50 million people worldwide. Historical records suggest that an early pandemic wave struck Europe during the summer of 1918. Methods We obtained surveillance data that were compiled weekly, during 1910–1919, in Copenhagen, Denmark; the records included medically treated influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), hospitalizations, and deaths by age. We used a Serfling seasonal regression model to quantify excess morbidity and mortality, and we estimated the reproductive number (R) for the summer, fall, and winter pandemic waves. Results A large epidemic occurred in Copenhagen during the summer of 1918; the age distribution of deaths was characteristic of the 1918–1919 A/H1N1 pandemic overall. That summer wave accounted for 29%–34% of all excess ILIs and hospitalizations during 1918, whereas the case-fatality rate (0.3%) was many-fold lower than that of the fall wave (2.3%). Similar patterns were observed in 3 other Scandinavian cities. R was substantially higher in summer (2.0 –5.4) than in fall (1.2–1.6) in all cities. Conclusions The Copenhagen summer wave may have been caused by a precursor A/H1N1 pandemic virus that transmitted efficiently but lacked extreme virulence. The R measured in the summer wave is likely a better approximation of transmissibility in a fully susceptible population and is substantially higher than that found in previous US studies. The summer wave may have provided partial protection against the lethal fall wave. PMID:18194088

Andreasen, Viggo; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

2009-01-01

370

Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and plague pandemics.  

PubMed

Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric; Raoult, Didier

2004-09-01

371

Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and Plague Pandemics  

PubMed Central

Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Veronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubezy, Eric

2004-01-01

372

The 2009–2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual and national\\/cultural differences were apparent in response to the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Overall pandemic influenza immunization rates were low across all nations, including among healthcare workers. Among the reasons for the low coverage rates may have been a lack of concern about the individual risk of influenza, which may translate into a lack of willingness or urgency to be

Gregory A. Poland

2010-01-01

373

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urges you to take the following steps to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu)  

E-print Network

to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu): CDC URGES YOU TO TAKE 3 ACTIONS TO PROTECT AGAINST THE FLU. #1 Vaccinate #2 Stop Germs #3 Antiviral Drugs ·CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccine as the first and most important step in protecting against flu viruses. ·While there are many different flu viruses

Tipple, Brett

374

Threat of an influenza pandemic: family physicians in the front line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The chance of an influenza pandemic is real and clinicians should keep themselves informed about the rationale and science behind preventive and therapeutic principles relating to an (impending) influenza pandemic. DISCUSSION: Vaccination is considered the best prevention in case of a pandemic threat and first choice to contain the impact of a pandemic. Pending the availability of an effective

Wim Opstelten; Jim E van Steenbergen; Gerrit A van Essen; Marianne AB van der Sande

2009-01-01

375

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile.  

PubMed

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A; Viboud, Cécile

2014-11-01

376

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile  

PubMed Central

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cecile

2014-01-01

377

U.S. Faces Another Flu Vaccine Shortage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some 36,000 Americans die from flu complications every year so public alarm in reaction to the recent decision by British regulators to shut down the supplier of 46 million doses, or about the half this year's planned supply to the U.S., was hardly surprising. The action leaves only about 54 million flu shots available to Americans from a competing firm, and the U.S. government quickly decided that most healthy adults should delay or skip them to leave enough vaccine for the elderly and other high-risk patients. The government has urged voluntary rationing before, during a shortage in 2000. This year, however, will mark a record shortage just before flu season begins. Although the Bush administration offered assurances that anyone who needed a flu shot would get one, the shortage quickly developed into a political issue, with President Bush and Senator Kerry trading blame for the scarcity on the campaign trail. Meanwhile, U.S. and Canadian officials scrambled to come up with a plan to allow 1.2 million doses of Canadian-manufactured vaccine to be imported as an experimental drug.The first link offered here leads to an overview news story that summarizes the shortage situation so far and the outlook for fresh supplies of vaccine later in the flu season. The second link describes how the shortage has been playing out as a personal issue in a presidential campaign otherwise dominated by war and terrorism. The third link goes to a New York Times piece which notes that the shortage follows decades of warnings from health experts about problems with the flu vaccine supply and distribution system. The fourth link leads to the Centers for Disease Control influenza information page and a broad range of information targeted to both consumers and health care professionals. The fifth link describes the negotiations underway between the U.S. and Canadian governments to allow importation of vaccine from Canada under FDA regulations. The last link is the home page of the American Medical Association conference on influenza vaccine held in April and includes links to all speakers' presentations in either pdf or PowerPoint formats.

378

2009 H1N1 Flu and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... risk? Since H1N1 is a new type of influenza virus, we do not yet have studies looking at ... 1102. Siston A, et al. 2010. Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States. ...

379

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases in Nepal.  

PubMed

We analyzed the data available in Nepal during this pandemic in order to determine the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of pandemic influenza A in 2009. The test was conducted by real-time Reverse Transcription--Polymerase Chain Reaction on sample from patients with suspected influenza-like illnesses. Out of 538 cases were tested, 32% were positive for pandemic influenza A 2009 and the infection rate was highest for cases of 11-20 years and lowest in >50 years of age. PMID:23591254

Kandel, N; Shrestha, J M; Upadhyay, B; Shrestha, A K; Shakya, G

2012-01-01

380

Public preparedness guidance for a severe influenza pandemic in different countries: a qualitative assessment and critical overview  

PubMed Central

During a severe influenza pandemic individuals and families can, by following well-directed and scientifically-based measures, not only benefit themselves but also play an effective role in reducing transmission rates and the burden on public services. Such guidelines should be provided as clearly and comprehensively as possible by official sources. Here we examine the official recommendations issued by 10 countries to prepare their citizens for a severe pandemic. We have found the presence of hazardous guidelines – as the advice to personally visit a health center at the earliest symptoms – and shortage of practical advices for home isolation, business preparation and treatment to be widespread. Our review shows that, while many positive recommendations were provided, the set of recommendations issued by most countries was not comprehensive enough for severe influenza scenarios. This is a situation that needs revision PMID:20029666

Alonso, Wladimir J.; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia

2010-01-01

381

Evaluation of the xpert flu rapid PCR assay in high-risk emergency department patients.  

PubMed

We prospectively evaluated the performance of Cepheid's GeneXpert Xpert Flu assay in a target population of 281 adults presenting to the emergency department with an acute respiratory illness who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for recommended antiviral treatment. Compared with the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay, Xpert Flu had an overall sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.2%. PMID:25253792

Dugas, Andrea F; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Forman, Michael; Hardick, Justin; Kidambi, Pranav; Amin, Sharmeen; Gupta, Alisha; Rothman, Richard E

2014-12-01

382

Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

383

Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din

2009-01-01

384

Barriers to pandemic influenza vaccination and uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine in the post-pandemic season in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for certain target groups (e.g. persons aged ?60 years, chronically ill persons, healthcare workers (HCW)). In season 2009/10, vaccination against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, which was controversially discussed in the public, was recommended for the whole population. The objectives of this study were to assess vaccination coverage for seasonal (seasons 2008/09-2010/11) and pandemic influenza (season 2009/10), to identify predictors of and barriers to pandemic vaccine uptake and whether the controversial discussions on pandemic vaccination has had a negative impact on seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in Germany. Methods We analysed data from the ‘German Health Update’ (GEDA10) telephone survey (n=22,050) and a smaller GEDA10-follow-up survey (n=2,493), which were both representative of the general population aged ?18 years living in Germany. Results Overall only 8.8% of the adult population in Germany received a vaccination against pandemic influenza. High socioeconomic status, having received a seasonal influenza shot in the previous season, and belonging to a target group for seasonal influenza vaccination were independently associated with the uptake of pandemic vaccines. The main reasons for not receiving a pandemic vaccination were ‘fear of side effects’ and the opinion that ‘vaccination was not necessary’. Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in the pre-pandemic season 2008/09 was 52.8% among persons aged ?60 years; 30.5% among HCW, and 43.3% among chronically ill persons. A decrease in vaccination coverage was observed across all target groups in the first post-pandemic season 2010/11 (50.6%, 25.8%, and 41.0% vaccination coverage, respectively). Conclusions Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in Germany remains in all target groups below 75%, which is a declared goal of the European Union. Our results suggest that controversial public discussions about safety and the benefits of pandemic influenza vaccination may have contributed to both a very low uptake of pandemic vaccines and a decreased uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the first post-pandemic season. In the upcoming years, the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines should be carefully monitored in all target groups to identify if this trend continues and to guide public health authorities in developing more effective vaccination and communication strategies for seasonal influenza vaccination. PMID:23113995

2012-01-01

385

Virology research and virulent human pandemics.  

PubMed Central

The possibility that a devastating human pandemic could arise, causing massive loss of human life, is discussed. Such a major threat to the human species is likely to be a virus, and would spread by the respiratory route. It need not necessarily cause massive loss of life, but if it caused serious illness or incapacity it would still have a major impact. A possible source is from an existing respiratory pathogen, but it would more probably arise from an infection that is maintained in an arthropod or vertebrate host, but which at present either does not infect humans, or if it does it fails to be effectively transmitted between them. More research should therefore focus on the pathogenetic factors and the viral determinants that promote respiratory transmission. PMID:8557069

Mims, C. A.

1995-01-01

386

AT&T" flu, M/Lfi >B fi,U "" / @< Ml~fl  

E-print Network

· · · · · · · · · AT&T" flu, ¤M/Lfi £ « ~ ´ / ¶ ¤>B fi§,U¯ ""· / ·@¡N...s"x¶}fii· y¤ §@'M"º´ u/¤M ¤.AT&T " flu, ¤M/Lfi ¡M§@flu]¡NAT&T Business Exchange 'M AT&T OE ­M·" (AT&T VPN)¡M... ¤>`{¤ ,, "">­,, >­·|~.AT&T " flu, ¤M/Lfi ­N "M l W¡N> W

Greenberg, Albert

387

An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt  

E-print Network

Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

2010-01-01

388

Tennessee Department of Health Influenza Pandemic Response Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Planning will be integrated with bioterrorism activities. The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) is responsible for smallpox vaccination planning as part of its overall bioterrorism planning activities. The Department wor...

2003-01-01

389

Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.  

PubMed

Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic. PMID:17115957

Itzwerth, Ralf L; Macintyre, C Raina; Shah, Smita; Plant, Aileen J

2006-11-20

390

AVI FoodSystems, Inc. Pandemic Business Continuity Overview AVI Foodsystems, Inc. utilizes a Pandemic Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) which is a living  

E-print Network

as an overview of our business continuity plan as it relates to a pandemic event. Our primary focus is the safetyAVI FoodSystems, Inc. Pandemic Business Continuity Overview AVI Foodsystems, Inc. utilizes a Pandemic Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) which is a living document. This document serves

Cinabro, David

391

PhD in Public and Community Health Faculty Department/Institute Faculty Classification  

E-print Network

in shaping health, differential contextual influences associated with urban versus rural settings issues of justice, bioterrorism defense and response, childhood vaccinations, and pandemic flu prepare interventions, coalition building and public health policy; childhood asthma, health disparities, nutrition

392

Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised the specter of a devastating pandemic like that of 1917-1918, should this avian virus evolve to become readily transmissible among humans. We introduce and use a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S.

Timothy C. Germann; Kai Kadau; Ira M. Longini; Catherine A. Macken

2006-01-01

393

Vaccines for an influenza pandemic: scientific and political challenges.  

PubMed

So far, most published results from clinical trials using various avian influenza virus vaccine formulations have been disappointing. Should the pandemic strike, we still do not have the ability to provide an efficacious pandemic vaccine in time and in sufficient quantities for the world. The H5N1 enzootic could potentially give rise to a pandemic at any time. Transcontinental air traffic could seed the pandemic virus to most corners of the globe within a few weeks/months. We still have a unique window of opportunity to stimulate and support academia and the pharmaceutical industry to accelerate the urgently needed vaccine research. The political inertia is surprising, particularly as politicians, if and when a pandemic eventuates, will be asked why, despite repeated warnings, they did not take appropriate action in time. It is a governmental obligation--and not that of the WHO or the pharmaceutical industry--to protect their nationals. Moreover, when the poorer nations of this world realize that equitable quantities of the scarce supplies of vaccines, drugs and medical essentials will not come their way, the post-pandemic international scene will be one of even more deep distrust for many years. This scenario is not acceptable. PMID:19432635

Haaheim, Lars R

2007-03-01

394

Understanding the Influenza A H1N1 2009 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

A new strain of Influenza A virus, with quadruple segment translocation in its RNA, caused an outbreak of human infection in April 2009 in USA and Mexico. It was classified as Influenza A H1N1 2009. The genetic material originates from three different species: human, avian and swine. By June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) had classified this strain as a pandemic virus, making it the first pandemic in 40 years. Influenza A H1N1 2009 is transmitted by respiratory droplets; the transmissibility of this strain is higher than other influenza strains which made infection control difficult. The majority of cases of H1N1 2009 were mild and self limiting, but some people developed complications and others died. Most laboratory tests are insensitive except the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is expensive and labour intensive. The Influenza A H1N1 2009 virus is sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), but some isolates resistant to oseltamivir have been reported. A vaccine against the new pandemic strain was available by mid-September 2009 with very good immunogenicity and safety profile. Surveillance is very important at all stages of any pandemic to detect and monitor the trend of viral infections and to prevent the occurrence of future pandemics. The aim of this review is to understand pandemic influenza viruses, and what strategies can be used for surveillance, mitigation and control. PMID:21509228

Al-Muharrmi, Zakariya

2010-01-01

395

Flu Symptom Advisory for Outside Visitors to Princeton's Campus In light of continuing cases of H1N1 (swine) flu in New Jersey, the United States and around the  

E-print Network

Flu Symptom Advisory for Outside Visitors to Princeton's Campus In light of continuing cases of H1N1 (swine) flu in New Jersey, the United States and around the world, Princeton University wants to their visitors as they best deem appropriate: Stay at home if you're feeling sick. Persons with flu

Bou-Zeid, Elie

396

Erratic Flu Vaccination Emerges from Short-Sighted Behavior in Contact Networks  

E-print Network

Erratic Flu Vaccination Emerges from Short-Sighted Behavior in Contact Networks Daniel M. Cornforth) Erratic Flu Vaccination Emerges from Short-Sighted Behavior in Contact Networks. PLoS Comput Biol 7(1): e of America Abstract The effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination programs depends on individual

Myers, Lauren Ancel

397

Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInfluenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus

Mohammed Alsharifi; Yoichi Furuya; Timothy R. Bowden; Mario Lobigs; Aulikki Koskinen; Matthias Regner; Lee Trinidad; David B. Boyle; Arno Müllbacher; Derya Unutmaz

2009-01-01

398

H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

399

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 22 NUMBER 12 DECEMBER 2004 1487 Next generation flu vaccine boosted by Chiron debacle  

E-print Network

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 22 NUMBER 12 DECEMBER 2004 1487 N E W S Next generation flu vaccine the long-term security of flu vaccine supplies by funding research on alternative production methods than's license to produce its flu vaccine FlurVirin, on October 5, because of its failure to comply with Good

Cai, Long

400

What can you do to stop the flu? Cover your cough! Help stop the spread of germs by  

E-print Network

What can you do to stop the flu? · Cover your cough! Help stop the spread of germs by covering your 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine every year. All UC-sponsored medical plans offer to go to the doctor and get treated. Around 5-20% of the population becomes infected by the flu every

Burke, Peter

401

Description: Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that cause regular  

E-print Network

Description: Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that cause regular outbreaks in pigs. People do not usually get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from person to person

Blows, Mark

402

Predicting Flu Trends using Twitter Data Harshavardhan Achrekar Avinash Gandhe Ross Lazarus Ssu-Hsin Yu Benyuan Liu  

E-print Network

Predicting Flu Trends using Twitter Data Harshavardhan Achrekar Avinash Gandhe Ross Lazarus Ssu available in aggregate ILI reports. In this paper we present the Social Network Enabled Flu Trends (SNEFT) framework, which monitors messages posted on Twitter with a mention of flu indicators to track and predict

Liu, Benyuan

403

"When I have a cold or `flu' my mucus turns yellow. My mom always says that means I  

E-print Network

"When I have a cold or `flu' my mucus turns yellow. My mom always says that means I have a sinus and influenza) that cause colds and "flu" first infect the nose, sinuses and throat, the nose makes clear mucus or `flu'?" The best treatment is watchful waiting, 8 hours of sleep a night, fluids, and the use of cold

Virginia Tech

404

The Flu Buddy System To reduce the risk of a student with swine flu passing on the infection to others, they  

E-print Network

: as they will be discouraged from/instructed not to collect them themselves. #12;2) A flu buddy will collect paracetamol are custodians of packs of paracetamol which will be distributed free of charge during this time. Paracetamol

Davies, Christopher

405

Interatrial Block: A Virtual Pandemic Requiring Attention  

PubMed Central

Interatrial block (IAB) denotes a conduction delay between the two atria (P-wave duration ?110 ms). Depending on the severity of the block, IAB can be partial or advanced. Even though several studies have reported a high prevalence of IAB, it still remains a diagnosis many neglect without any follow-up. The crisis in IAB is undramatic until predictable complications appear. Nevertheless, the danger in IAB is real because of the major associations with multiple medical conditions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial ischemia, left atrial enlargement, and systemic emboli. There are different treatment options for IAB to eliminate its consequences, including pacing and medical management with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Pacing has been shown to give promising results and could potentially prevent conditions related to cardiovascular disease such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Given the high prevalence of IAB, together with its potentially serious consequences, and yet being largely ignored, we stress attention to this potentially dangerous pandemic and raise consideration for further investigations. PMID:24644376

Mehrzad, Raman; Spodick, David H.

2014-01-01

406

The pandemic potential of Nipah virus.  

PubMed

Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus whose wildlife reservoir is Pteropus bats, was first discovered in a large outbreak of acute encephalitis in Malaysia in 1998 among persons who had contact with sick pigs. Apparently, one or more pigs was infected from bats, and the virus then spread efficiently from pig to pig, then from pigs to people. Nipah virus outbreaks have been recognized nearly every year in Bangladesh since 2001 and occasionally in neighboring India. Outbreaks in Bangladesh and India have been characterized by frequent person-to-person transmission and the death of over 70% of infected people. Characteristics of Nipah virus that increase its risk of becoming a global pandemic include: humans are already susceptible; many strains are capable of limited person-to-person transmission; as an RNA virus, it has an exceptionally high rate of mutation: and that if a human-adapted strain were to infect communities in South Asia, high population densities and global interconnectedness would rapidly spread the infection. Appropriate steps to estimate and manage this risk include studies to explore the molecular and genetic basis of respiratory transmission of henipaviruses, improved surveillance for human infections, support from high-income countries to reduce the risk of person-to-person transmission of infectious agents in low-income health care settings, and consideration of vaccination in communities at ongoing risk of exposure to the secretions and excretions of Pteropus bats. PMID:23911335

Luby, Stephen P

2013-10-01

407

The AIDS pandemic in historic perspective.  

PubMed

Potent antiretroviral drugs (ART) have changed the nature of AIDS, a once deadly disease, into a manageable illness and offer the promise of reducing the spread of HIV. But the pandemic continues to expand and cause significant morbidity and devastation to families and nations as ART cannot be distributed worldwide to all who need the drugs to treat their infections, prevent HIV transmission, or serve as prophylaxis. Furthermore, conventional behavioral prevention efforts based on theories that individuals can be taught to modify risky behaviors if they have the knowledge to do so have been ineffective. Noting behavioral strategies targeting individuals fail to address broader social and political structures that create environments vulnerable to HIV spread, social scientists and public health officials insist that HIV policies must be comprehensive and also target a variety of structures at the population and environmental level. Nineteenth-century public health programs that targeted environmental susceptibility are the historical analogues to today's comprehensive biomedical and structural strategies to handle AIDS. Current AIDS policies underscore that those fighting HIV using scientific advances in virology and molecular biology cannot isolate HIV from its broader environment and social context any more than their nineteenth-century predecessors who were driven by the filth theory of disease. PMID:23090980

Kazanjian, Powel

2014-07-01

408

Interaction of FLU, a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, with the glutamyl-tRNA reductase requires the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of FLU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in plants has been attributed to feedback control of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GLU-TR) by heme. Recently, another negative regulator, the FLU protein, has been discovered that operates independently of heme. A truncated form of FLU that contains two domains implicated in protein–protein interaction was co-expressed in yeast with either GLU-TR or glutamate-1-semialdehyde-2-1-aminotransferase (GSA-AT), the second enzyme involved

Rasa Meskauskiene; Klaus Apel

2002-01-01

410

Racial Disparities in Exposure, Susceptibility, and Access to Health Care in the US H1N1 Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We conducted the first empirical examination of disparities in H1N1 exposure, susceptibility to H1N1 complications, and access to health care during the H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods. We conducted a nationally representative survey among a sample drawn from more than 60 000 US households. We analyzed responses from 1479 adults, including significant numbers of Blacks and Hispanics. The survey asked respondents about their ability to impose social distance in response to public health recommendations, their chronic health conditions, and their access to health care. Results. Risk of exposure to H1N1 was significantly related to race and ethnicity. Spanish-speaking Hispanics were at greatest risk of exposure but were less susceptible to complications from H1N1. Disparities in access to health care remained significant for Spanish-speaking Hispanics after controlling for other demographic factors. We used measures based on prevalence of chronic conditions to determine that Blacks were the most susceptible to complications from H1N1. Conclusions. We found significant race/ethnicity-related disparities in potential risk from H1N1 flu. Disparities in the risks of exposure, susceptibility (particularly to severe disease), and access to health care may interact to exacerbate existing health inequalities and contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in these populations. PMID:21164098

Kumar, Supriya; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Musa, Donald; Casteneda-Angarita, Nestor; Kidwell, Kelley

2011-01-01

411

Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic  

SciTech Connect

The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps)

2010-03-04

412

76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA64/A64_8-en.pdf) and additional planning for future possible pandemic influenza. DATES: Written comments must be...

2011-09-21

413

Prioritization of Critical Infrastructure for a Pandemic Outbreak in the United States Working Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Though its timing, severity, and ultimate strain remain a mystery, a pandemic promises to test the critical infrastructure of both the United States and the world. Public health officials have long maintained the potential for pandemic influenza is not a ...

B. A. Rohde, M. H. Marsh, R. F. Denlinger

2007-01-01

414

Public health intelligence and the detection of potential pandemics.  

PubMed

This article considers contemporary developments in public health intelligence (PHI), especially their focus on health events of pandemic potential. It argues that the sociological study of PHI can yield important insights for the sociology of pandemics. PHI aims to detect health events as (or even before) they unfold. Whilst its apparatuses envelope traditional public health activities, such as epidemiological surveillance, they increasingly extend to non-traditional public health activities such as data-mining in electronically mediated social networks. With a focus on non-traditional PHI activities, the article first situates the study of PHI in relation to the sociology of public health. It then discusses the conceptualisation and actualisation of pandemics, reflecting on how public health professionals and organisations must equip themselves with diverse allies in order to realise the claims they make about pandemic phenomena. Finally, using the analytic tools of actor-network theory, sites for future empirical research that can contribute to the sociology of pandemics are suggested. PMID:23278393

French, Martin; Mykhalovskiy, Eric

2013-02-01

415

Dear CSU students, faculty and staff, There has been a lot of attention recently paid to the severity of this flu season and the importance of  

E-print Network

to the severity of this flu season and the importance of taking steps to avoid getting sick or spreading the flu to others if you do get sick. Because of the severity of the current strains of flu, Larimer County Department of Public Health has requested that CSU employees and students stay home if they get the flu

Stephens, Graeme L.

416

Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over “swine flu,” as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

2013-01-01

417

Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia  

E-print Network

exist for interpandemic flu, candidate H5N1 vaccines have unproven effec- tiveness7 , and production the susceptibility of uninfected individuals (by vaccination or antiviral prophylaxis). Vaccination and antiviral drugs offer protection against infection and clinical disease. However, although effective vaccines

Cai, Long

418

Grandmothers' Productivity and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa  

E-print Network

Grandmothers' Productivity and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa John Bock Department and the HIV/AIDS pandemic Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 23(1) March 2008 DOI 10.1007/s10823-007-9054-2 http://www.springerlink.com/content/102929/ #12;Grandmothers and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic Bock & Johnson

Bock, John

419

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

Millar, Andrew J.

420

Early herald wave outbreaks of influenza in 1916 prior to the pandemic of 1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 outbreak dwarfed the immediately preceding pandemic of 1889 and the subsequent 1957 and 1968 pandemics in mortality and morbidity. In retrospect, much can be learnt about the source, the possibly subterranean spread of virus and the genetic basis of virulence.In the recent pandemics of 1957 and 1968, there were so-called ‘herald waves’ either in the summer months, or

J. S Oxford; A Sefton; R Jackson; W Innes; R. S Daniels; N. P. A. S Johnson

2001-01-01

421

Influenza pandemic: perception of risk and individual precautions in a general population. Cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An influenza pandemic may have considerable impact on health and societal functioning. The aim of this study was to explore people's reflections on the consequences of a pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional web-based survey of 1,168 Norwegians aged 16–82 years. The main outcome measures were answers to questions about a potential pandemic (\\

Ivar S Kristiansen; Peder A Halvorsen; Dorte Gyrd-Hansen

2007-01-01

422

Persuasiveness of online flu-vaccination promotional banners.  

PubMed

Young people appear to have relatively little motivation to participate in flu-vaccination programs. This study assessed the effectiveness of online banners in efforts to persuade young people to get vaccinated. Specifically, a 2 x 3 between-subjects factorial design was used to examine the effects of message framing (gain vs loss) and color configuration (white text on a red background, black text on a yellow background, and white text on a blue background) on 180 college students' perceptions of the persuasiveness of flu-vaccination promotional banners. Each participant completed a four-item questionnaire, and the results of an analysis of variance showed that persuasiveness scores were higher among participants exposed to a loss-framed than to a gain-framed message, but only when the loss-framed message was presented in white text on a red background. The theoretical and practical implications of manipulating these two factors in the development of effective health-promotion materials are discussed. PMID:23833868

Chien, Yu-Hung

2013-04-01

423

Molecular-level simulation of Pandemic Influenza Glycoproteins  

PubMed Central

Summary Computational simulation of pandemic diseases provides important insight into many disease features that may benefit public health. This is especially true for the influenza virus, a continuing global pandemic threat. Molecular or atomic-level investigation of influenza has predominantly focused on the two major virus glycoproteins, neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA). In this chapter, we walk the readers through major considerations for studying pandemic influenza glycoproteins, from choosing the most useful choice of system(s) to avoiding common pitfalls in experimental design and execution. While a brief discussion of several potential simulation and docking techniques is presented, we emphasize molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation techniques and molecular docking, within the context of biologically outstanding questions in influenza research. PMID:22183559

Amaro, Rommie E.; Li, Wilfred W.

2012-01-01

424

Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City  

PubMed Central

Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

2007-01-01

425

Employment and Compliance with Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Recommendations  

PubMed Central

In the event of a serious pandemic influenza outbreak, businesses must play a key role in protecting employees' health and safety. With regard to pandemic influenza mitigation recommendations requiring social distancing, we examined whether some US employees would disproportionately fail to comply because of job insecurity and financial problems associated with missing work. We used the 2006 Harvard School of Public Health Pandemic Influenza Survey and multivariable logistic regression to determine whether employment characteristics such as inability to work from home, lack of pay when absent from work, and self-employment would be associated with less ability to comply with recommendations. We found that inability to work from home, lack of paid sick leave, and income are associated with working adults’ ability to comply and should be major targets for workplace interventions in the event of a serious outbreak. PMID:20113549

Blendon, Robert J.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2010-01-01

426

The First Influenza Pandemic of the New Millennium  

PubMed Central

In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A virus of the H1N1 subtype emerged that transmitted efficiently among humans; by June of 2009, the outbreak reached pandemic status. The pandemic virus possesses six viral RNA segments from so-called triple reassortant swine viruses that emerged in North American pig populations in the late 1990s, and two viral RNA segments from Eurasian avian-like swine influenza viruses. Most human infections with the virus have been mild; however, severe and fatal infections occurred among certain risk groups, but also among those without any known risk factors. Here, we summarize the evolutionary, epidemiological, clinical, and molecular findings on the pandemic virus. We also discuss the arsenal of antiviral compounds and vaccines available to prevent and treat infections with the virus. PMID:21477134

Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2011-01-01

427

Effective health risk communication about pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations.  

PubMed

The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008. PMID:19797744

Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Timothy

2009-10-01

428

[Ethical principles of management and planning during influenza pandemic].  

PubMed

The article is dedicated to an actual problem of ethical component inclusion into the system of management and planning of epidemic control measures during threat emergence and in the course of influenza pandemic (epidemic) progress. Data regarding development of international ethical guidelines during influenza including WHO recommendations are presented and analysis of normative documents in Russian Federation is given. A necessity of comprehension and accounting of ethical values in pandemic preparedness is shown, main directions of action and responsibility are revealed. Key ethical positions of planning and implementation of measures during influenza pandemic are outlined, compliance with those determines the level of public support and thus provides the effectiveness of the implemented measures. PMID:22442981

Kubar', O I; Asatrian, A Zh

2012-01-01

429

The Alzheimer Pandemic: Is Paracetamol to Blame?  

PubMed Central

Historical Background: The clinical recognition of a form of dementia closely resembling Alzheimer's disease dates from around 1800. The role of analgesics derived from coal-tar in the spread of the pandemic is traced in terms of the introduction of phenacetin (PN) in 1887; its nephrotoxicity; the observation of lesions characteristic of the disease by Fischer and Alzheimer; the discovery of paracetamol (PA) as the major metabolite of PN; the linking of kidney injury and dementia with high PN usage; and the failure of PN replacement by PA to halt and reverse the exponential, inexorable rise in the incidence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Fischer observed his first case before Alzheimer; it is proposed to rename the syndrome Fischer-Alzheimer disease (F-AD). Disease development: PA-metabolising enzymes are localised in the synaptic areas of the frontal cortex and hippocampus, where F-AD lesions arise. The initiating chemical lesions in liver poisoning comprise covalent binding of a highly reactive product of PA metabolism to proteins; similar events are believed to occur in brain, where alterations in the antigenic profiles of cerebral proteins activate the microglia. ?-Amyloid forms, and, like PA itself, induces nitric oxide synthase. Peroxynitrite modifies cerebral proteins by nitrating tyrosine residues, further challenging the microglia and exacerbating the amyloid cascade. Spontaneous reinnervation, N-acetyl cysteine administration and tyrosine supplementation may attenuate the early stages of F-AD development. Conclusion: F-AD is primarily a man-made condition with PA as its principal risk factor. PMID:24350947

Jones, Gunther Robert Norman

2013-01-01

430

Mitigation Strategies for Pandemic Influenza A: Balancing Conflicting Policy Objectives  

PubMed Central

Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic) or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention), our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R0 and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies to mitigate the impact of an influenza pandemic. PMID:21347316

Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M.

2011-01-01

431

Reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu: Qualitative interviews with callers to NHS Direct  

PubMed Central

Background During the early stages of the 2009 swine flu (influenza H1N1) outbreak, the large majority of patients who contacted the health services about the illness did not have it. In the UK, the NHS Direct telephone service was used by many of these patients. We used qualitative interviews to identify the main reasons why people approached NHS Direct with concerns about swine flu and to identify aspects of their contact which were reassuring, using a framework approach. Methods 33 patients participated in semi-structured interviews. All patients had telephoned NHS Direct between 11 and 14 May with concerns about swine flu and had been assessed as being unlikely to have the illness. Results Reasons for seeking advice about swine flu included: the presence of unexpectedly severe flu-like symptoms; uncertainties about how one can catch swine flu; concern about giving it to others; pressure from friends or employers; and seeking 'peace of mind.' Most participants found speaking to NHS Direct reassuring or useful. Helpful aspects included: having swine flu ruled out; receiving an alternative explanation for symptoms; clarification on how swine flu is transmitted; and the perceived credibility of NHS Direct. No-one reported anything that had increased their anxiety and only one participant subsequently sought additional advice about swine flu from elsewhere. Conclusions Future major incidents involving other forms of chemical, biological or radiological hazards may also cause large numbers of unexposed people to seek health advice. Our data suggest that providing telephone triage and information is helpful in such instances, particularly where advice can be given via a trusted, pre-existing service. PMID:20678192

2010-01-01

432

Longitudinal Investigation of Public Trust in Institutions Relative to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009 H1N1 pandemic left a legacy of mistrust in the public relative to how outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are managed. To prepare for future outbreaks, it is crucial to explore the phenomenon of public trust in the institutions responsible for managing disease outbreaks. We investigated the evolution of public trust in institutions during and after the 2009 pandemic in Switzerland. We also explored respondents’ perceptions of the prevention campaign and the roles of the government and media. Methodology/Principal Findings A two-wave longitudinal survey was mailed to 2,400 members of the Swiss public. Wave 1 was in Spring 2009. Wave 2 was in Spring 2010. Six hundred and two participants responded in both waves. Participants indicated moderate to high levels of trust in medical organizations, the WHO, the Swiss government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the EU. On the other hand, trust in the media was low. Moreover, trust in almost all institutions decreased over time. Participants were satisfied with the amount of information received and indicated having followed official recommendations, but widespread concerns about the vaccine were evident. A large majority of participants agreed the vaccine might have unknown or undesirable side effects. Perceptions of the government’s and the media’s role in handling the outbreak were characterized by a substantial degree of skepticism and mistrust. Conclusions/Significance Results show clear patterns of skepticism and mistrust on the part of the public relative to various institutions and their actions. Results underscore the importance of systematically investigating trust of the public relative to epidemics. Moreover, studies investigating the evolution of the public’s memories of the pandemic over the coming years may be important to understand reactions to future pandemics. A systematic research program on trust can inform public health communication campaigns, enabling tailored communication initiatives. PMID:23185444

Bangerter, Adrian; Krings, Franciska; Mouton, Audrey; Gilles, Ingrid; Green, Eva G. T.; Clemence, Alain

2012-01-01

433

What have we learned from the novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in 2009 for strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness?  

PubMed

We need to apply lessons learned from previous influenza pandemics to continuously update preparedness and response plans. It has become evident that strengthening networks of international referral laboratories coupled with scaling-up efforts to expand epidemiological surveillance networks is critical for responding and mitigating the impact of influenza pandemics. The current swine-related influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has also shown that international collaboration remains a critical component to effectively respond to influenza pandemics in the current globalized world. PMID:20304255

Santos-Preciado, José; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Hernandez-Flores, Isabel; Tellez, Ildefonso; Del Rio, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

2009-11-01

434

Pandemic influenza planning, United States, 1978-2008.  

PubMed

During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community's response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises. PMID:23731839

Iskander, John; Strikas, Raymond A; Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Cox, Nancy J; Redd, Stephen C

2013-06-01

435

The global tobacco disease pandemic: Nature, causes, and cures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco use kills 5 million citizens globaly every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) projects that the number of deaths will double just 15 years from now. Tobacco will then constitute the leading cause of death in the developing world, as it already is in developed countries today. This paper describes the nature and extent of the tobacco pandemic, characteristics

K. E. Warner; J. MacKay

2006-01-01

436

Anatomy of a Pandemic: The 1918 Influenza in Hamilton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 influenza pandemic has fascinated scholars ever since it swept around the world in three waves in the spring and fall of 1918, and the winter of 1919. Although the origins of the epidemic are still debated, it spread in conjunction with troop movements associated with World War I and along trade routes. No matter where it struck, large

D Ann Herring; Lynn W Shen; Samantha Meyer; Peter Mayer; Cheryl Venus; Kiran Persaud; Andrea H. W. Chan; Hagen F Kluge; Katherine Wood; Ellen E Korol; Kirsty Bond; Anna Lisowska; Mara Pope; Adam Benn; Michael R Pennell; Alexandra Prescott; Lauara Fuller; Nurit Vizcardo; Caitlin Hoffman; Vanessa Manning

2006-01-01

437

Framing risk in pandemic influenza policy and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores differing understandings of ‘risk’ in relation to pandemic influenza policy and control. After a preliminary overview of methodological and practical problems in risk analysis, ways in which risk was framed and managed in three historical cases were examined. The interdependence between scientific empiricism and political decision-making led to the mismanagement of the 1976 swine influenza scare in

Theresa Seetoh; Marco Liverani; Richard Coker

2012-01-01

438

Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978-2008  

PubMed Central

During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community’s response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises. PMID:23731839

Strikas, Raymond A.; Gensheimer, Kathleen F.; Cox, Nancy J.; Redd, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

439

The influenza pandemic preparedness planning tool InfluSim  

PubMed Central

Background Planning public health responses against pandemic influenza relies on predictive models by which the impact of different intervention strategies can be evaluated. Research has to date rather focused on producing predictions for certain localities or under specific conditions, than on designing a publicly available planning tool which can be applied by public health administrations. Here, we provide such a tool which is reproducible by an explicitly formulated structure and designed to operate with an optimal combination of the competing requirements of precision, realism and generality. Results InfluSim is a deterministic compartment model based on a system of over 1,000 differential equations which extend the classic SEIR model by clinical and demographic parameters relevant for pandemic preparedness planning. It allows for producing time courses and cumulative numbers of influenza cases, outpatient visits, applied antiviral treatment doses, hospitalizations, deaths and work days lost due to sickness, all of which may be associated with economic aspects. The software is programmed in Java, operates platform independent and can be executed on regular desktop computers. Conclusion InfluSim is an online available software which efficiently assists public health planners in designing optimal interventions against pandemic influenza. It can reproduce the infection dynamics of pandemic influenza like complex computer simulations while offering at the same time reproducibility, higher computational performance and better operability. PMID:17355639

Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Brockmann, Stefan O

2007-01-01

440

Intergenerational Impact of the AIDS Pandemic in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper articulates and assesses the intergenerational impact of the AIDS pandemic in Nigeria based on literature reviews and mailed surveys. The findings reveal that, with the advent of colonialism in the 19th century, the wave of modernization, and the new idea of nuclear family system, intergenerational bonds and relationships were weakened to an extent. But the arrival of the

Bede Eke

2004-01-01

441

Detecting Pandemic and Endemic Incidents through Network Telescopes  

E-print Network

Telescopes are used to detect malicious traffic events generated from Denial of Service attacks, worm infected hosts and misconfiguration. This report is focused on endemic and pandemic incidents (DoS, Worm Tsikouras, Panos Elliopoulos and to all the friends that I forgot(sorry is 5 a.m. and my brain

Dent, Alexander W.

442

Lifelines Episode 13: Is Quercetin a Flu Fighter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion quetsions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking "collections" tab in the left hand column. J. Mark Davis (Starts at 3:55) of the University of South Carolina on stressful exercise, the flu and quercetin. Rick Lieber (Starts at 12:56) of the University of California San Diego and The VA Medical Center San Diego talks on elite athletes and muscles. Physiology in the News gives a quick look on a study that finds a possible link between your genes and activity level. Another looks at a benefit of hydrogen sulfide gas. We also talk to APS member Jim Hicks (Starts at 2:45) of the University of California Irvine about his involvement with the film, Wall-E.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Rick Lieber (UCSD); James W Hicks (UC-Irvine Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology); PhD J Mark Davis (University of South Carolina Exercise Science)

2008-09-01

443

Assessing Healthcare Utilization for Influenza-like Illness at an Emergency Department and a Student Health Service during the 2009-2010 H1N1 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Estimates of healthcare utilization during an influenza pandemic are needed in order to plan for the allocation of staff and resources. The aim of this study was to assess the number, age, and arrival time of patients with influenza-like-illness (ILI), and associations between their symptoms during the 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of electronic health records from the student health service (SHS) and an emergency department (ED) in Morgantown, West Virginia, between January 2009 and December 2010. During the 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic, patient arrivals at SHS and ED varied over the week. SHS patients arrived early in the week and primarily in the afternoon. ED patient arrivals were more evenly distributed, with busier evenings and weekends. Those with fever were more likely to experience cough, sore throat, vomiting/nausea, chills, congestion, headache, and body-ache. These results can assist health professionals in preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:24847173

Bhandari, Ruchi; Hartley, Tara A.; Lindsley, William G.; Fisher, Melanie A.; Palmer, Jan E.

2013-01-01

444

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"  

E-print Network

sports drinks, etc.) 3. Take care of yourself: Get plenty of rest! 4. Prevent the spread of flu Wash stomach. 2. Prevent dehydration: Drink plenty of clear liquids (water, ginger ale, Gatorade and other

Bushman, Frederic

445

2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick  

MedlinePLUS

... you have the emergency warning signs of flu sickness, you should go to the emergency room. If ... such as Tylenol®.) You should stay home from work, school, travel, shopping, social events, and public gatherings. ...

446

Pandemics and immune memory in the noisy Penna model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the noisy Penna model of ageing, instead of counting the number of defective loci which eventually kill an individual, the noise describing the health status of individuals is introduced. This white noise is composed of two components: the environmental one and the personal one. If the sum of both trespasses the limit set for the individuals homeodynamics the individual dies. The energy of personal fluctuations depends on the number of defective loci expressed in the individuals genome. Environmental fluctuations, the same for all individuals can include some signals, corresponding to the exposition to pathogens which could be dangerous for a fraction of the organisms. Personal noise and the component of random environmental fluctuations, when superimposed on the signal can be life threatening if they are stronger than the limit set for individuals homeodynamics. Nevertheless, some organisms survive the period of dangerous signal and they may remember the signal in the future, like antigens are remembered by our immune systems. Unfortunately, this memory weakens with time and, even worse, some additional defective genes are switched on during the ageing. If the same pathogens (signals) emerge during the lifespan of the population, a fraction of the population could remember it and could respond by increasing the resistance to it. Again, unfortunately for some individuals, their memory could be too weak and their own health status has worsened due to the accumulated mutations, they have to die. Though, a fraction of individuals can survive the pandemics due to the immune memory, but a fraction of population has no such a memory because they were born after the last pandemic or they didnt notice this pandemic. Our simple model, by implementing the noise instead of deterministic threshold of genetic defects, describes how the impact of pandemics on populations depends on the time which elapsed between the two incidents and how the different age groups of populations can respond for the second pandemic.

Cebrat, Stanis?aw; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Biecek, Przemys?aw

2007-06-01

447

Spatial Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza in the US.  

PubMed

The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic provides a unique opportunity for detailed examination of the spatial dynamics of an emerging pathogen. In the US, the pandemic was characterized by substantial geographical heterogeneity: the 2009 spring wave was limited mainly to northeastern cities while the larger fall wave affected the whole country. Here we use finely resolved spatial and temporal influenza disease data based on electronic medical claims to explore the spread of the fall pandemic wave across 271 US cities and associated suburban areas. We document a clear spatial pattern in the timing of onset of the fall wave, starting in southeastern cities and spreading outwards over a period of three months. We use mechanistic models to tease apart the external factors associated with the timing of the fall wave arrival: differential seeding events linked to demographic factors, school opening dates, absolute humidity, prior immunity from the spring wave, spatial diffusion, and their interactions. Although the onset of the fall wave was correlated with school openings as previously reported, models including spatial spread alone resulted in better fit. The best model had a combination of the two. Absolute humidity or prior exposure during the spring wave did not improve the fit and population size only played a weak role. In conclusion, the protracted spread of pandemic influenza in fall 2009 in the US was dominated by short-distance spatial spread partially catalysed by school openings rather than long-distance transmission events. This is in contrast to the rapid hierarchical transmission patterns previously described for seasonal influenza. The findings underline the critical role that school-age children play in facilitating the geographic spread of pandemic influenza and highlight the need for further information on the movement and mixing patterns of this age group. PMID:24921923

Gog, Julia R; Ballesteros, Sébastien; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Bjornstad, Ottar N; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chao, Dennis L; Khan, Farid; Grenfell, Bryan T

2014-06-01

448

Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

2009-01-01

449

Proceedings of the 2008 Industrial Engineering Research Conference J. Fowler and S. Mason, eds.  

E-print Network

This paper explores the problem of medical stockpiling at hospitals in preparing for a flu pandemic. Taking the problem of determining the stockpile quantity of one critical medical item. We take a game theoretical A pandemic influenza outbreak presents a threat to healthcare facilities and a challenge to public health

Adida, Elodie

450

Flu vaccination in nursing homes: a survey of nursing-home managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background This article describes the findings of a survey of nursing-home managers in the Sefton area of Merseyside about flu vaccination in their nursing homes during the 2002\\/2003 flu vaccination campaign. This followed concerns expressed that significant numbers of nursing-home residents may not have been offered the vaccine during the annual campaign. Methods A survey of all nursing homes in

Geoffrey J. Barnes; Catherine Quigley

2006-01-01

451

Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan  

PubMed Central

Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey) aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries) the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08%) participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92%) of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39%) of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92%) subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members. PMID:25105007

Bhat, Nagesh; Patel, Rahul; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Singh, Sopan; Sharma, Ashish; Multani, Suraj

2014-01-01

452

Characterization of the role of the FluG protein in asexual development of Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed Central

We showed previously that a DeltafluG mutation results in a block in Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation and that overexpression of fluG activates sporulation in liquid-submerged culture, a condition that does not normally support sporulation of wild-type strains. Here we demonstrate that the entire N-terminal region of FluG ( approximately 400 amino acids) can be deleted without affecting sporulation, indicating that FluG activity resides in the C-terminal half of the protein, which bears significant similarity with GSI-type glutamine synthetases. While FluG has no apparent role in glutamine biosynthesis, we propose that it has an enzymatic role in sporulation factor production. We also describe the isolation of dominant suppressors of DeltafluG(dsg) that should identify components acting downstream of FluG and thereby define the function of FluG in sporulation. The dsgA1 mutation also suppresses the developmental defects resulting from DeltaflbA and dominant activating fadA mutations, which both cause constitutive induction of the mycelial proliferation pathway. However, dsgA1 does not suppress the negative influence of these mutations on production of the aflatoxin precursor, sterigmatocystin, indicating that dsgA1 is specific for asexual development. Taken together, our studies define dsgA as a novel component of the asexual sporulation pathway. PMID:11454752

D'Souza, C A; Lee, B N; Adams, T H

2001-01-01

453

Pandemics in the Age of Twitter: Content Analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Background Surveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary “infoveillance” approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1) monitor the use of the terms “H1N1” versus “swine flu” over time; 2) conduct a content analysis of “tweets”; and 3) validate Twitter as a real-time content, sentiment, and public attention trend-tracking tool. Methodology/Principal Findings Between May 1 and December 31, 2009, we archived over 2 million Twitter posts containing keywords “swine flu,” “swineflu,” and/or “H1N1.” using Infovigil, an infoveillance system. Tweets using “H1N1” increased from 8.8% to 40.5% (R2?=?.788; p<.001), indicating a gradual adoption of World Health Organization-recommended terminology. 5,395 tweets were randomly selected from 9 days, 4 weeks apart and coded using a tri-axial coding scheme. To track tweet content and to test the feasibility of automated coding, we created database queries for keywords and correlated these results with manual coding. Content analysis indicated resource-related posts were most commonly shared (52.6%). 4.5% of cases were identified as misinformation. News websites were the most popular sources (23.2%), while government and health agencies were linked only 1.5% of the time. 7/10 automated queries correlated with manual coding. Several Twitter activity peaks coincided with major news stories. Our results correlated well with H1N1 incidence data. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential of using social media to conduct “infodemiology” studies for public health. 2009 H1N1-related tweets were primarily used to disseminate information from credible sources, but were also a source of opinions and experiences. Tweets can be used for real-time content analysis and knowledge translation research, allowing health authorities to respond to public concerns. PMID:21124761

Chew, Cynthia; Eysenbach, Gunther

2010-01-01

454

Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country  

PubMed Central

Objectives The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. Design A modelling study. Setting The towns of Madang in PNG (population ?35?000) and Albany (population ?30?000) in Australia. Outcome measures Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. Results The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60–70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18 and greater community-wide contact all contribute to this feature. PMID:23535701

Milne, George J; Baskaran, Pravin; Halder, Nilimesh; Karl, Stephan; Kelso, Joel

2013-01-01

455

Pandemic influenza - including a risk assessment of H5N1  

PubMed Central

Summary Influenza pandemics and epidemics have apparently occurred since at least the Middle Ages. When pandemics appear, 50% or more of an affected population can be infected in a single year, and the number of deaths caused by influenza can dramatically exceed what is normally expected. Since 1500, there appear to have been 13 or more influenza pandemics. In the past 120 years there were undoubted pandemics in 1889, 1918, 1957, 1968, and 1977. Although most experts believe we will face another influenza pandemic, it is impossible to predict when it will appear, where it will originate, or how severe it will be. Nor is there agreement about the subtype of influenza virus most likely to cause the next pandemic. The continuing spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses has heightened interest in pandemic prediction. Despite uncertainties in the historical record of the pre-virology era, study of previous pandemics may help guide future pandemic planning and lead to a better understanding of the complex ecobiology underlying the formation of pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. PMID:19618626

Taubenberger, J.K.; Morens, D.M.

2009-01-01

456

Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human host immune response following infection with the new variant of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nvH1N1) is poorly understood. We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1. Methods We profiled 29 cytokines and chemokines and evaluated the haemagglutination inhibition activity as quantitative and qualitative measurements of host immune responses in serum obtained during the first five days after symptoms onset, in two cohorts of nvH1N1 infected patients. Severe patients required hospitalization (n = 20), due to respiratory insufficiency (10 of them were admitted to the intensive care unit), while mild patients had exclusively flu-like symptoms (n = 15). A group of healthy donors was included as control (n = 15). Differences in levels of mediators between groups were assessed by using the non parametric U-Mann Whitney test. Association between variables was determined by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. Viral load was performed in serum by using real-time PCR targeting the neuraminidase gene. Results Increased levels of innate-immunity mediators (IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?), and the absence of anti-nvH1N1 antibodies, characterized the early response to nvH1N1 infection in both hospitalized and mild patients. High systemic levels of type-II interferon (IFN-?) and also of a group of mediators involved in the development of T-helper 17 (IL-8, IL-9, IL-17, IL-6) and T-helper 1 (TNF-?, IL-15, IL-12p70) responses were exclusively found in hospitalized patients. IL-15, IL-12p70, IL-6 constituted a hallmark of critical illness in our study. A significant inverse association was found between IL-6, IL-8 and PaO2 in critical patients. Conclusions While infection with the nvH1N1 induces a typical innate response in both mild and severe patients, severe disease with respiratory involvement is characterized by early secretion of Th17 and Th1 cytokines usually associated with cell mediated immunity but also commonly linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. The exact role of Th1 and Th17 mediators in the evolution of nvH1N1 mild and severe disease merits further investigation as to the detrimental or beneficial role these cytokines play in severe illness. PMID:20003352

2009-01-01

457

The H1N1 pandemic: media frames, stigmatization and coping  

PubMed Central

Background Throughout history, people have soothed their fear of disease outbreaks by searching for someone to blame. Such was the case with the April 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak. Mexicans and other Latinos living in the US were quickly stigmatized by non-Latinos as carriers of the virus, partly because of news reports on the outbreak’s alleged origin in Mexican pig farms. Methods In this exploratory study we examined the psychological processes of cue convergence and associative priming, through which many people likely conflated news of the H1N1 outbreak with pre-existing cognitive scripts that blamed Latino immigrants for a variety of social problems. We also used a transactional model of stress and coping to analyze the transcripts from five focus groups, in order to examine the ways in which a diverse collection of New England residents appraised the threat of H1N1, processed information about stereotypes and stigmas, and devised personal strategies to cope with these stressors. Results Twelve themes emerged in the final wave of coding, with most of them appearing at distinctive points in the stress and coping trajectories of focus group participants. Primary and secondary appraisals were mostly stressful or negative, with participants born in the USA reporting more stressful responses than those who were not. Latino participants reported no stressful primary appraisals, but spoke much more often than Whites or Non-Hispanic Blacks about negative secondary appraisals. When interactions between participants dealt with stigmas regarding Latinos and H1N1, Latinos in our focus groups reported using far more negative coping strategies than Whites or Non-Hispanic Blacks. When discussions did not focus on stereotypes or stigmas, Latino participants spoke much more often about positive coping strategies compared to members of these same groups. Conclusions Participants in all five focus groups went through a similar process of stress and coping in response to the threat of H1N1, though individual responses varied by race and ethnicity. Stigmatization has often been common during pandemics, and public health and emergency preparedness practitioners can help to mitigate its impacts by developing interventions to address the social stressors that occur during outbreaks in highly-localized geographic regions. PMID:24299568

2013-01-01

458

An Evaluation of Community Assessment Tools (CATs) in Predicting Use of Clinical Interventions and Severe Outcomes during the A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

During severe influenza pandemics healthcare demand can exceed clinical capacity to provide normal standards of care. Community Assessment Tools (CATs) could provide a framework for triage decisions for hospital referral and admission. CATs have been developed based on evidence that supports the recognition of severe influenza and pneumonia in the community (including resource limited settings) for adults, children and infants, and serious feverish illness in children. CATs use six objective criteria and one subjective criterion, any one or more of which should prompt urgent referral and admission to hospital. A retrospective evaluation of the ability of CATs to predict use of hospital-based interventions and patient outcomes in a pandemic was made using the first recorded routine clinical assessment on or shortly after admission from 1520 unselected patients (800 female, 480 children <16 years) admitted with PCR confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (the FLU-CIN cohort). Outcome measures included: any use of supplemental oxygen; mechanical ventilation; intravenous antibiotics; length of stay; intensive or high dependency care; death; and “severe outcome” (combined: use of intensive or high dependency care or death during admission). Unadjusted and multivariable analyses were conducted for children (age <16 years) and adults. Each CATs criterion independently identified both use of clinical interventions that would in normal circumstances only be provided in hospital and patient outcome measures. “Peripheral oxygen saturation ?92% breathing air, or being on oxygen” performed well in predicting use of resources and outcomes for both adults and children; supporting routine measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation when assessing severity of disease. In multivariable analyses the single subjective criterion in CATs “other cause for clinical concern” independently predicted death in children and in adults predicted length of stay, mechanical ventilation and “severe outcome”; supporting the role of clinical acumen as an important independent predictor of serious illness. PMID:24069409

Nicholson, Karl G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Brett, Stephen J.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

459

[Management of the pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Germany - results from an evaluation of the public health authorities].  

PubMed

In 2009, the health-care system was faced with numerous challenges resulting from the emergence and the worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. Public health authorities played a fundamental role in the management of the pandemic. The Advisory Committee for Infectious Disease Protection of the German Medical Association for Public Health Authorities (BVÖGD e.V.) requested the local public health authorities in Germany to take part in a written evaluation of the management of the new influenza pandemic in February 2010, before the official end of the influenza pandemic. The purpose of this timely analysis was to identify areas in need of improvement in preparation for similar incidents that may occur in the future. The survey showed that the communication between the various parties involved, the prompt and appropriate transmission of information, as well as the control over the overwhelming onslaught of information need to be optimised. The participants also found the practicability of the official recommendations to be lacking. The wide scale increase in workload, as seen on a national basis, required to deal with the pandemic indicates that the public health services have only very limited resources for handling crisis situations, and this must be taken into consideration when planning for coping with such matters in the future. The findings of the study participants for the national management of a pandemic coincide in most aspects with the results of other evaluations. Distinct differences in the assessment of policies were noticeable when comparing the experiences in the various German states (Bundesländer). A detailed analysis of the points at issue is necessary before possible best practice models can be developed. PMID:22113380

Bradt, K; Schütz-Langermann, A; Zeck, G; Winkel, I

2011-11-01

460

Occurrence of AH1N1 viral infection and clinical features in symptomatic patients who received medical care during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Central Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 a new influenza serotype (AH1N1) was identified in Mexico that spread rapidly generating worldwide alarm. San Luis Potosi (SLP) was the third state with more cases reported in that year. The clinical identification of this flu posed a challenge to medical staff. This study aimed at estimating the AH1N1 infection, hospitalization and mortality rates, and at identifying related clinical features in persons who received medical care during the influenza pandemic. Methods Retrospective study with persons with flu-like illness who received public or private medical care in SLP from 15.03.09 to 30.10.09. Physicians purposely recorded many clinical variables. Samples from pharyngeal exudate or bronchoalveolar lavage were taken to diagnose AH1N1 using real-time PCR. Clinical predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with infection as a dependent variable. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Analyses were stratified by age group based on the distribution of positive cases. Results From the 6922 persons with flu symptoms 6158 had available laboratory results from which 44.9% turned out to be positive for AH1N1. From those, 5.8% were hospitalized and 0.7% died. Most positive cases were aged 5–14 years and, in this subgroup, older age was positively associated with A H1N1 infection (95% CI 1.05-1.1); conversely, in patients aged 15 years or more, older age was negatively associated with the infection (95% CI 0.97-0.98). Fever was related in those aged 15 years or more (95% CI 1.4-3.5), and headache (95% CI 1.2-2.2) only in the 0–14 years group. Clear rhinorrhea and cough were positively related in both groups (p?

2012-01-01

461

Positive attitudes of French general practitioners towards A/H1N1 influenza pandemic vaccination: a missed opportunity to increase vaccination uptakes in the general public?  

E-print Network

: pandemic vaccination; influenza; healthcare workers; general practice Running headline: Acceptability where GPs administer pandemic vaccines in accordance with their pivotal role in seasonal influenza- 1 - Positive attitudes of French general practitioners towards A/H1N1 influenza pandemic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

Simulation model of pandemic influenza in the whole of Japan.  

PubMed

An influenza pandemic--an outbreak of a novel influenza virus that spreads around the world--is a real threat. To predict the spread of an influenza pandemic across the whole of Japan, this study applies a real individual-based model (ribm) to the whole of Japan and simulates how a single case of influenza could spark pandemic influenza throughout Japan. We used Person-Trip (PT) data for nine regions (the Tokyo metropolitan area, Kansai, Chukyo, Fukuoka, Sendai, Sapporo, Miyazaki, Okinawa, and northern Ibaragi). PT data were collected from randomly chosen persons and contain information on their locations and their uses of all transportation modes including trains, cars, buses, bicycles, and walking. In total, the nine regions have a population of about 72 million, of whom more than 2.20 million individuals participated in the PT surveys. Estimates on the probability of movement among the nine PT regions are based on the results of the Third National Survey for Movement in 2003. Disease transmission in each region or on a train is assumed to occur within a 1-m radius. The approximate numbers of new cases arising on day 14 after the arrival of the first infected person are estimated to be 322,000 in Tokyo, 25,000 in Kansai, 4,800 in Chukyo, 3,600 in Sapporo, 2,600 in Fukuoka, 600 in Sendai, 17 in Okinawa, and 300 in Miyazaki. The disease seems to spread more slowly in smaller cities such as Miyazaki and Okinawa than in big cities such as Tokyo and Kansai. Area quarantines may help to contain outbreaks in smaller cities, but probably not in larger cities. Because this study demonstrates that ribm is useful for simulating the spread of pandemic influenza in Japan, it is hoped that this modeling technique will be used in the creation of preparedness plans. PMID:19305048

Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie

2009-03-01

463

Reactive strategies for containing developing outbreaks of pandemic influenza  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 and the early part of 2010, the northern hemisphere had to cope with the first waves of the new influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Despite high-profile vaccination campaigns in many countries, delays in administration of vaccination programs were common, and high vaccination coverage levels were not achieved. This experience suggests the need to explore the epidemiological and economic effectiveness of additional, reactive strategies for combating pandemic influenza. Methods We use a stochastic model of pandemic influenza to investigate realistic strategies that can be used in reaction to developing outbreaks. The model is calibrated to documented illness attack rates and basic reproductive number (R0) estimates, and constructed to represent a typical mid-sized North American city. Results Our model predicts an average illness attack rate of 34.1% in the absence of intervention, with total costs associated with morbidity and mortality of US$81 million for such a city. Attack rates and economic costs can be reduced to 5.4% and US$37 million, respectively, when low-coverage reactive vaccination and limited antiviral use are combined with practical, minimally disruptive social distancing strategies, including short-term, as-needed closure of individual schools, even when vaccine supply-chain-related delays occur. Results improve with increasing vaccination coverage and higher vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Such combination strategies can be substantially more effective than vaccination alone from epidemiological and economic standpoints, and warrant strong consideration by public health authorities when reacting to future outbreaks of pandemic influenza. PMID:21356128

2011-01-01

464

Influenza Virus-Like Particles as Pandemic Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is an urgent need to develop novel approaches for vaccination against emerging pathogenic avian influenza viruses as\\u000a a priority for pandemic preparedness. Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) have been suggested and developed as a new generation\\u000a of non-egg-based cell culture-derived vaccine candidates against influenza infection. Influenza VLPs are formed by a self-assembly\\u000a process incorporating structural proteins into budding particles composed

S. M. Kang; P. Pushko; R. A. Bright; G. Smith; R. W. Compans

465

Clinical review: Mass casualty triage – pandemic influenza and critical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worst case scenarios for pandemic influenza planning in the US involve over 700,000 patients requiring mechanical ventilation.\\u000a UK planning predicts a 231% occupancy of current level 3 (intensive care unit) bed capacity. Critical care planners need to\\u000a recognise that mortality is likely to be high and the risk to healthcare workers significant. Contingency planning should,\\u000a therefore, be multi-faceted, involving a

Kirsty Challen; Andrew Bentley; John Bright; Darren Walter

2007-01-01

466

A Delay Differential Model for Pandemic Influenza with Antiviral Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of antiviral drugs has been recognized as the primary public health strategy for mitigating the severity of a new\\u000a influenza pandemic strain. However, the success of this strategy requires the prompt onset of therapy within 48 hours of the\\u000a appearance of clinical symptoms. This requirement may be captured by a compartmental model that monitors the density of infected

Murray E. Alexander; Seyed M. Moghadas; Gergely Röst; Jianhong Wu

2008-01-01

467

Optimal vaccination strategies for 2009 pandemic H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess whether the immunogenicity of seasonal and pandemic (H1N1\\/09) influenza vaccines is affected by the order of vaccine administration. 151 healthy adult volunteers were randomized into three groups. All groups received one dose (15?g haemagglutinin) each of a pandemic H1N1 vaccine and a seasonal trivalent vaccine. Group 1 received the pandemic H1N1 vaccine

Jiang Wu; Xiang Zhong; Chris Ka-fai Li; Jian-fang Zhou; Min Lu; Kuan-Ying Huang; Mei Dong; Yan Liu; Feng-Ji Luo; Ning Du; Cecilia Chui; Li-Qi Liu; Nicola M. G. Smith; Bo Li; Nian-Min Shi; Li-Fei Song; Yan Gao; Da-Yan Wang; Xu Wang; Wen-Fei Zhu; Yan Yan; Zi Li; Jiang-Ting Chen; Andrew J. McMichael; Wei-Dong Yin; Xiao-Ning Xu; Yuelong Shu

2011-01-01

468

2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)  

PubMed Central

In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in North America and spread worldwide to cause the first influenza pandemic since 1968. During the first 4 months, over 500 deaths in the United States had been associated with confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) [2009 H1N1] virus infection. Pathological evaluation of respiratory specimens from initial influenza-associated deaths suggested marked differences in viral tropism and tissue damage compared with seasonal influenza and prompted further investigation. Available autopsy tissue samples were obtained from 100 US deaths with laboratory-confirmed 2009 H1N1 virus infection. Demographic and clinical data of these case-patients were collected, and the tissues were evaluated by multiple laboratory methods, including histopathological evaluation, special stains, molecular and immunohistochemical assays, viral culture, and electron microscopy. The most prominent histopathological feature observed was diffuse alveolar damage in the lung in all case-patients examined. Alveolar lining cells, including type I and type II pneumocytes, were the primary infected cells. Bacterial co-infections were identified in >25% of the case-patients. Viral pneumonia and immunolocalization of viral antigen in association with diffuse alveolar damage are prominent features of infection with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Underlying medical conditions and bacterial co-infections contributed to the fatal outcome of this infection. More studies are needed to understand the multifactorial pathogenesis of this infection. PMID:20508031

Shieh, Wun-Ju; Blau, Dianna M.; Denison, Amy M.; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Adem, Patricia; Bhatnagar, Julu; Sumner, John; Liu, Lindy; Patel, Mitesh; Batten, Brigid; Greer, Patricia; Jones, Tara; Smith, Chalanda; Bartlett, Jeanine; Montague, Jeltley; White, Elizabeth; Rollin, Dominique; Gao, Rongbao; Seales, Cynthia; Jost, Heather; Metcalfe, Maureen; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Humphrey, Charles; Schmitz, Ann; Drew, Clifton; Paddock, Christopher; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Zaki, Sherif R.

2010-01-01

469

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14

470

Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

2013-06-01

471

Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses  

PubMed Central

Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2001-01-01

472

Thermoresponsive ophthalmic poloxamer/tween/carbopol in situ gels of a poorly water-soluble drug fluconazole: preparation and in vitro-in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to optimize the formulations of the thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gels of a poorly water-soluble drug fluconazole (FLU) and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo properties of the formulations. The thermoresponsive ophthalmic FLU in situ gels were prepared by mixing FLU, Poloxamer407, Tween80, benzalkonium chloride and carbopol934 in borate buffer solution. The in vivo eye irritation tests and ophthalmic absorption were carried out in rabbits. The formulation compositions influenced the physicochemical properties of FLU in situ gels. The amount of poloxamer407 in the formulation was the main factor that affected the sol-gel transition temperature of the products. Tween80 not only improved the solubility of the FLU but also affected the products' sol-gel transition temperature. In this study, sol-gel transition temperature was not affected by carbopol934. However, carbopol934 affected pH value, transparency and gelling capacity of the products. The product of the optimized formulation was a pseudoplastic fluid and its sol-gel transition temperature was 30.6?±?1.2?°C. The autoclaving test showed that the sol-gel transition temperature, the flow ability and the flow behavior of the test samples did not change obviously after autoclaving sterilization at 121?°C and 15?psi for 20?min, thus the autoclaving was an acceptable sterilization method for this preparation. The thermoresponsive ophthalmic FLU in situ gels' in vivo ophthalmic absorption was superior to the conventional FLU eye drop. In conclusion, the thermoresponsive ophthalmic FLU in situ gel is a better alternative than the FLU eye drop. PMID:23944837

Lihong, Wang; Xin, Che; Yongxue, Guo; Yiying, Bian; Gang, Cheng

2014-10-01

473

Properly Folded Bacterially Expressed H1N1 Hemagglutinin Globular Head and Ectodomain Vaccines Protect Ferrets against H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Background In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 “Spanish Flu”. The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA) of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1–330) and HA (1–480), were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1–330) protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1–330) protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1–480). Protein yield for the HA1 (1–330) ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1–480) yield was 0.4–0.8 mg/Liter. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large scale production of influenza vaccines in the face of influenza pandemic threat. PMID:20634959

Khurana, Surender; Verma, Swati; Verma, Nitin; Crevar, Corey J.; Carter, Donald M.; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R.; Ross, Ted M.; Golding, Hana

2010-01-01

474

Many of us have been urged to get lots of Vitamin C in order to stay healthy during flu season. Although Vitamin C has not been proven to prevent or cure the cold and flu, eating  

E-print Network

Many of us have been urged to get lots of Vitamin C in order to stay healthy during flu season. Although Vitamin C has not been proven to prevent or cure the cold and flu, eating Vitamin C rich foods help lessen the duration of your cold, as well as the severity of your symptoms. However, Vitamin C isn

Huang, Jianyu

475

The 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic: the role of threat, coping, and media trust on vaccination intentions in Canada.  

PubMed

Swine flu (H1N1) reached pandemic proportions in 2009, yet ambivalence was met concerning intentions to be vaccinated. The present investigation determined predictors of perceived H1N1 contraction risk and vaccination intentions among Canadian adults (N = 1,027) responding to an online questionnaire. The relatively low rate of vaccination intent (30.12%, and 34.99% being unsure of their intent) was related to a sense of invulnerability regarding illness contraction and symptom severity. Most individuals were skeptical that H1N1 would be widespread, believing that less than 10% of the population would contract H1N1. Yet, they also indicated that their attitudes would change once a single person they knew contracted the illness. Also, worry regarding H1N1 was related to self-contraction risk and odds of individuals seeking vaccination. Moreover, vaccination intent was related to the perception that the threat was not particularly great, mistrust of the media to provide accurate information regarding H1N1, and whether individuals endorsed problem-focused versus avoidant coping strategies. Given the role media plays in public perceptions related to a health crisis, trust in this outlet and credibility regarding the threat are necessary for adherence to recommended measures to minimize health risk. PMID:23301849

Taha, Sheena Aislinn; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

2013-01-01

476

Long-term effect of the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic: attitudes and preventive behaviours one year after the pandemic.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe changes in attitudes and behaviours regarding influenza A infection 1 year after the end of the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was performed based on two population-based telephone surveys including 1027 (February, 2010) and 1000 (February, 2011) participants in Spain. The percentages of the respondents who reported that they had adopted preventive measures to avoid Influenza infection declined 1 year after the pandemic. Influenza-related consultations decreased, whereas confidence in vaccination increased. Despite the decrease observed in adopting preventive measures, some behaviours were still being adopted long time after the pandemic in general population. PMID:23748851

Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Serral, Gemma; López, María José; Pérez, Anna; Nebot, Manel

2013-08-01

477

"If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness-to-pay question".  

E-print Network

"If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness alleviation of flu symptoms. However, a patient was significantly more likely to anchor his/her answer choice; Patient; proxy; anchoring; structural shift; influenza JEL Classification: I1, C2, H4 inserm

478

The information network of senior citizens in Geneva, Switzerland, and progress in flu vaccination coverage between 1991 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switzerland has lagged behind other industrialized countries in increasing vaccination coverage against flu in the elderly population. The information campaign “United against Flu”, started in Geneva in 1993, gradually extended to other French and Italian speaking cantons in Switzerland and indirectly affected German-speaking cantons. Activities developed include the production of TV spots, press conferences, information forwarded to health professionals, an

Letizia Toscani; Laurent Gauthey; Claude-François Robert

2003-01-01

479

http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000  

E-print Network

The Swiss authorities say they have no intention of relaxing preventive measures against bird flu despitehttp://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu and Sempach and at the Bolle di Magadino nature reserve in canton Ticino to check for bird flu. Similar checks

Alvarez, Nadir

480

Too little, too late? To win the fight against bird flu, the World Health Organization must forge partnerships with the governments of  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Too little, too late? To win the fight against bird flu, the World Health Organization eveloping nations such as Indonesia shoulder much of the world's bird flu burden, but do not have adequate countries to fight bird flu. However, as two recent exam- ples show, the WHO's actions don't make enough

Cai, Long

481

The Office of Human Resources is pleased to announce that free seasonal flu vaccines will again be available for active, benefits-  

E-print Network

The Office of Human Resources is pleased to announce that free seasonal flu vaccines will again appointments on four different days in half-hour increments. An appointment is required to be guaranteed a flu and bring the Consent Form to your scheduled appointment. The nurses cannot provide you with a flu shot

Subramanian, Venkat

482

A systematic review to identify areas of enhancements of pandemic simulation models for operational use at provincial and local levels  

E-print Network

of pre-pandemic influenza vaccines to reduce the infectionantivirals and vaccine in curtailing pandemic influenza:influenza modeling that aims at quantifying global disease spread [17-20], assessing the impact of global vaccine

Prieto, Diana M; Das, Tapas K; Savachkin, Alex A; Uribe, Andres; Izurieta, Ricardo; Malavade, Sharad

2012-01-01

483

Evaluating Syndromic surveillance systems at institutions of higher education (IHEs): A retrospective analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic at two universities  

PubMed Central

Background Syndromic surveillance has been widely adopted as a real-time monitoring tool for timely response to disease outbreaks. During the second wave of the pH1N1 pandemic in Fall 2009, two major universities in Washington, DC collected data that were potentially indicative of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in students and staff. In this study, our objectives were three-fold. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the impact of pH1N1 on the campuses as clearly as possible given the data available and their likely biases. In addition, we sought to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the data series themselves, in order to inform these two universities and other institutions of higher education (IHEs) about real-time surveillance systems that are likely to provide the most utility in future outbreaks (at least to the extent that it is possible to generalize from this analysis). Methods We collected a wide variety of data that covered both student ILI cases reported to medical and non-medical staff, employee absenteeism, and hygiene supply distribution records (from University A only). Communication data were retrieved from university broadcasts, university preparedness websites, and H1N1-related on campus media reports. Regional data based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (CDC ILINet) surveillance network, American College Health Association (ACHA) pandemic influenza surveillance data, and local Google Flu Trends were used as external data sets. We employed a "triangulation" approach for data analysis in which multiple contemporary data sources are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases as well as those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates. Results Medical personnel observed an early peak at both universities immediately after school began in early September and a second peak in early November; only the second peak corresponded to patterns in the community at large. Self-reported illness to university deans' offices was also relatively increased during mid-term exam weeks. The overall volume of pH1N1-related communication messages similarly peaked twice, corresponding to the two peaks of student ILI cases. Conclusions During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, both University A and B experienced a peak number of ILI cases at the beginning of the Fall term. This pattern, seen in surveillance systems at these universities and to a lesser extent in data from other IHEs, most likely resulted from students bringing the virus back to campus from their home states coupled with a sudden increase in population density in dormitories and lecture halls. Through comparison of data from different syndromic surveillance data streams, paying attention to the likely biases in each over time, we have determined, at least in the case of the pH1N1 pandemic, that student health center data more accurately depicted disease transmission on campus at both universities during the Fall 2009 pandemic than other available data sources. PMID:21791092

2011-01-01

484

Center for Disease Control and Prevention: H1N1 Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has created this uniformly excellent site to help the general public learn about the H1N1 flu. The homepage is well-organized, and it contains helpful social networking buttons, along with direct links to email updates, and their RSS feed. Here, visitors can also read the "Situation Update" section, which includes a map of the United States showing the we