Sample records for pandemic flu preparations

  1. Pandemic Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the recent rise in flu outbreaks both across the United States and the rest of the world, the United States government has developed a broad range of strategies for keeping citizens up to date on the current status of these developments. The Pandemic Flu website is the official US government website for information on the subject (along with coverage of avian influenza) and should be of interest both to the general public and to those working in the fields of public health and policy. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the general information area on the homepage. Here they will find answers to basic questions as â??What is an influenza pandemic?â?ť and also be able to peruse materials about avian flu and vaccines and medications designed to treat both conditions. Most visitors will also want to learn about the official national strategy designed to both prepare and respond to an influenza pandemic. This document is available from the siteâ??s homepage in its entirety, as is information about what agencies (nationally and internationally) are monitoring outbreaks of these diseases.

  2. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  3. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ritvo; Kumanan Wilson; JL Gibson; C Guglietti; CS Tracy; JX Nie; AR Jadad; REG Upshur

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in

  4. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  5. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  6. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  7. Pandemic Flu: What To Know and

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Pandemic Flu: What To Know and What To DoWhat To Do Michele Johnson, MPH #12;What causes pandemic flu? · Appearance of a new flu virus · New virus passes easily from person top y p person · Few of CDC #12;World Experience With Flu Pandemics #12;20th Century "Pandemic Flu"y H1N1 H1N1H2N2 H3N2 1920

  8. Hawaii Community College Pandemic Flu Plan

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    Hawaii Community College Pandemic Flu Plan April 2009 #12;HawCC Pandemic Influenza Plan 2 04 ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU.................................................. 15 #12;HawCC Pandemic Influenza Plan 3 04/09 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU? According

  9. Flu...Bird flu...Flu Pandemic What does it all mean?

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Flu...Bird flu...Flu Pandemic What does it all mean? Human influenza (flu): · More severe than the common "cold" · Periodic outbreaks are caused by flu viruses that circulate among people Bird flu, or avian influenza: · Viruses affect wild birds and typi- cally do NOT infect humans · Current outbreak

  10. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels. PMID:20300402

  11. Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions

    E-print Network

    Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions Joshua M. Epstein1 is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions, Wagener DK, et al (2007) Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions. PLo

  12. What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new

    E-print Network

    What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when as many as 40 million deaths worldwide. What is swine flu? H1N1 Influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from

  13. Pandemics and networks: the case of the Mexican flu

    E-print Network

    Van Mieghem, Piet

    Pandemics and networks: the case of the Mexican flu Jasmina Omi´c and Piet Van Mieghem Abstract--The recent widespread of the new Mexi- can flu and SARS show the high dependency on con- temporary traveling the spreading param- eters of the Mexican flu estimated in Mexico City, we determine the necessary speed

  14. WHO and the pandemic flu “conspiracies”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Cohen; Philip Carter

    2010-01-01

    Key scientists advising the World Health Organization on planning for an influenza pandemic had done paid work for pharmaceutical firms that stood to gain from the guidance they were preparing. These conflicts of interest have never been publicly disclosed by WHO, and WHO has dismissed inquiries into its handling of the A\\/H1N1 pandemic as “conspiracy theories.” Deborah Cohen and Philip

  15. NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY human flu pandemic could cause 20%

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 419 A human flu pandemic could cause 20 optimistic predictions of how the next flu pandemic might unfold. Like most emerging virus infections that threaten human health, flu outbreaks originate from animal reservoirs. Because of rapidly changing human

  16. ARE YOU PREPARED FOR FLU SEASON? Seasonal Flu

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    ARE YOU PREPARED FOR FLU SEASON? Seasonal Flu: Tufts Members are covered for the seasonal flu 9191 Watertown, MA 024719191 o http://www.brandeis.edu/humanresources/documents/2009/benefits/flu_shot_member_reimbursement_form.pdf Members who receive the flu shot between 10/1/09 ­ 3/31/10 will be reimbursed the amount they paid

  17. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Goldstein; Mario dos Reis; Asif U. Tamuri; Alan Hay

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The devastating “Spanish flu” of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic\\u000a in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before\\u000a the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing ’non-homogeneous’ substitution models\\u000a that consider that substitution patterns may

  18. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  19. Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman

    E-print Network

    Osborne, Miles

    Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman School using a Prediction Market specifically concern- ing the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009 the Hubdub online prediction market1 to model public belief about the possibility that H1N1 (Swine Flu) virus

  20. Waiting for the Flu: Cognitive Inertia and the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2014-06-22

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  1. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  2. Understanding social amplification of risk : possible impact of an avian flu pandemic

    E-print Network

    Sundrani, Aamir (Aamir Sultan)

    2007-01-01

    Today, stakeholders expect organizations to be able to endure external shocks. Hence, the real potential of an avian flu pandemic has many corporations developing business continuity plans for the disruptions that a pandemic ...

  3. Avian Flu Pandemic OCTOBER 1, 2006

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    of avian influenza in Asia and Europe, caused by the H5N1 strain of the Influenza A virus. While the H5N1 of mortality with the current H5N1 virus only serves to heighten the need for proper planning for the next new global pandemic. Should a highly contagious and highly fatal form of the H5N1 virus enter the global

  4. E-16. PANDEMIC FLU PLAN According to the World Health Organization, Avian Influenza refers to "a large group of

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    E-16. PANDEMIC FLU PLAN According to the World Health Organization, Avian Influenza refers to "a not previously circulated in humans. "For this reason, Avian (Flu) H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential information and resources on the Avian Flu virus and possible pandemic, please refer to these governmental

  5. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  6. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences. PMID:20182961

  7. Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joshua M.; Goedecke, D. Michael; Yu, Feng; Morris, Robert J.; Wagener, Diane K.; Bobashev, Georgiy V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. Methods and Findings A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT) to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. Conclusions International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while their costs are minimal, dismissal of travel restrictions as an aid in dealing with a global pandemic seems premature. PMID:17476323

  8. flu preparations Wash your hands, cover

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    SPEED READING flu preparations Wash your hands, cover your sneeze UVic readies for an expected increase in the number of H1N1 (swine flu) cases, providing a wealth of information and direction on how to avoid the flu and what to do if you catch it. Story, page 2 CaMpus raBBits Community help sought

  9. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shona Hilton; Emily Smith

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first cases of influenza A\\/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings

  10. The global swine flu pandemic 2: infection control measures and preparedness strategies.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This second in a two-part unit on swine flu looks at infection control measures for nurses. During late spring and early summer, increasing numbers of people became infected with novel swine origin influenza type A virus (influenza A(H1N1)v 2009) and a global pandemic started. Part 1 of this unit explored the biology of influenza viruses and the origins and characteristics of flu pandemics. This part reviews viral transmission, infection prevention and control and pandemic preparedness. PMID:19791672

  11. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

  12. [Organization of intensive care in situation of avian flu pandemic].

    PubMed

    Guery, B; Guidet, B; Beloucif, S; Floret, D; Legall, C; Montravers, P; Chouaid, C; Jarreau, P H; Régnier, B

    2008-12-01

    The influenza pandemic will create a major increase in demand for hospital admissions, particularly for critical care services. The recommendations detailed herein have been elaborated by experts from medical societies potentially involved in this situation and focus on general hospital organization. Intensive care units will initially face high demand for admission; the Healthcare Authorities must therefore study how ICU capacity can be expanded. Pediatric intensive care units will be particularly affected by this situation of relative bed shortage, since young children, particularly infants, are expected to be affected by severe clinical forms of avian flu. Therefore, the weight threshold for admission to the adult ICU was lowered to 20 kg. Neonatal intensive care units (NICU) should remain, if possible, low viral density areas. Mixed (neonatal and pediatric) intensive care units could be dedicated to infants and children only. NICU admission of extreme premature babies should be limited in this difficult situation. Pediatric intensive care units (PICU) admission capacity could be doubled by using intermediate care and postoperative care units. The staff could be increased by doctors and nurses involved in canceled programmed activities. Healthcare workers transferred to PICU should be given special training. PMID:18995996

  13. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems ... make sure you understand all the talk about bird (avian) flu and pandemics. The flu season in ...

  14. Lessons from the swine flu: pandemic, panic and/or pandemonium?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2010-11-01

    The 2009 pandemic of swine-origin A/H1N1 influenza (swine flu) spread rapidly in Australia and there was a prolonged winter outbreak lasting 18 weeks. For Australian children, the case fatality rate of swine flu was no higher than for severe seasonal influenza. Because of the high number of children infected with swine flu, however, there were more children admitted to hospital than usual and more children died. Health-care services (emergency departments, medical wards and intensive care units) were stretched. The introduction of special influenza clinics helped services cope. Pregnant women were at high risk of severe swine flu and seven pregnant women and seven of their babies died. Future pandemic planning should consider severity of influenza, in addition to rapidity of spread, as a criterion for escalating interventions. PMID:21121084

  15. Psychological Predictors of Anxiety in Response to the H1N1 (Swine Flu) Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Wheaton; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Noah C. Berman; Laura E. Fabricant; Bunmi O. Olatunji

    Pandemic illnesses, such as the H1N1 influenza (swine flu) are often highly publicized in the mass media and can be associated\\u000a with high levels of anxiety and compensatory behavior (e.g., using hand sanitizers). The present research sought to investigate\\u000a the psychological processes associated with swine-flu related anxiety during the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009–2010. Participants\\u000a were 315 college students who

  16. Pandemic influenza: Experience in a flu OPD of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, S.H.; Kushwaha, A.S.; Kotwal, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2009, Mexican health authorities announced an outbreak of a novel H1N1 influenza virus, which subsequently caused a pandemic. The world is now moving into the post-pandemic period. The experience gained in handling this pandemic at various levels under different settings has provided us many lessons for the future. Objective To study the profile of various activities undertaken at flu screening centre as a response to pandemic influenza in a tertiary care hospital. Methods Record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pune. Required data was collected from records of flu OPD, ward and local health authority and interviewing related staff. Study included data from October 2009 to October 2010. Results A total of 8020 people presenting with influenza like illness (ILI) were screened in the flu OPD under study. Out of these, only 388 (4.84%) met clinical criteria where throat samples were collected, out of which only 81 were found to be positive (20.88%). Total three fatalities (3.7%) occurred out of 81 who had tested positive. Most cases of flu were managed at home (76.54%) while only 19 (23.4%) lab confirmed cases of H1N1 required hospitalisation. Conclusion Majority of cases of H1N1 (2009) were managed at home. Early diagnosis, quick initiation of treatment, infection control measures, and good care at the hospital can effectively reduce morbidity and mortality in H1N1 pandemic. PMID:24623946

  17. Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2006-01-01

    Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

  18. Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

  19. Department of Statistics: Teaching plans in the event of a swine flu pandemic Summary: The overall message in Oxford in respect of the pandemic is that it is "business as usual",

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    1 Department of Statistics: Teaching plans in the event of a swine flu pandemic Summary into effect in the event of a swine flu pandemic within the University. MPLS has asked that we draft mechanism is possible. Illness of students Students should follow the University's official guidance (http://www.ox.ac.uk/flu

  20. SWINE FLU - Are We on The Verge of a Pandemic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep Rai; Anirban Dasgupta; Shivkumar Narwade

    2009-01-01

    Swine flu is a respiratory disease, caused by influenza type A which infects pigs. There are many types, and the infection is constantly changing. Until now it has normally not infected humans, but the latest form clearly does, and can be spread from person to person - probably through coughing and sneezing. The World Health Organization has confirmed that at

  1. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn B Myers; Robin Goodwin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An

  2. Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and illustrative information on health care resource capacities during future pandemics. The tool can inform both preparedness plans and simulation exercises and can help increase the general understanding of dynamics in resource capacities during a pandemic. The combination of a mathematical model with multiple resources and the linkage to GIS for creating maps makes the tool unique compared to other available software. PMID:23061807

  3. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued. PMID:17038194

  4. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

  5. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19545404

  6. Pandemic Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as schools, may serve as medical facilities. Disrupted Economy and Society Travel bans, event cancellations, and school ... Potential for severe impact on domestic and world economy Manageable impact on domestic and world economy A ...

  7. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Flu and Flu Vaccines . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  8. Regulating the 1918-19 pandemic: flu, stoicism and the Northcliffe press.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Social historians have argued that the reason the 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was ‘overshadowed’ by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the ‘forgotten’ pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played by wartime propaganda. Instead, I put emotion words, emotives and metaphors at the heart of my analysis in an attempt to understand the interplay between propaganda and biopolitical discourses that aimed to regulate civilian responses to the pandemic. Drawing on the letters of Wilfred Owen, the diaries of the cultural historian Caroline Playne and the reporting in the Northcliffe press, I argue that the stoicism exhibited by Owen and amplified in the columns of The Times and the Daily Mail is best viewed as a performance, an emotional style that reflected the politicisation of ‘dread’ in war as an emotion with the potential to undermine civilian morale. This was especially the case during the final year of the conflict when war-weariness set in, leading to the stricter policing of negative emotions. As a protean disease that could present as alternately benign and plague-like, the Spanish flu both drew on these discourses and subverted them, disrupting medical efforts to use the dread of foreign pathogens as an instrument of biopower. The result was that, as dread increasingly became attached to influenza, it destabilised medical attempts to regulate the civilian response to the pandemic, undermining Owen’s and the Northcliffe press’s emotives of stoicism. PMID:24070344

  9. A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) Preparing for the Flu

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) #12;Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit Schools and Teachers Action Steps for Schools to Prevent the Spread of Flu Action Steps for Teachers

  10. Preparing for an influenza pandemic in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Jeffery

    2008-06-01

    The national strategy against pandemic influenza essentially consists of 3 prongs: (i) effective surveillance, (ii) mitigation of the pandemic's impact, and (iii) render the population immune through vaccination. When the pandemic hits Singapore, the response plan aims to achieve the following 3 outcomes: (i) maintenance of essential services to limit social and economic disruption, (ii) reduction of morbidity and mortality through antiviral treatment, and (iii) slow and limit the spread of influenza to reduce the surge on healthcare services. The biggest challenge will come from managing the surge of demand on healthcare services. A high level of preparedness will help healthcare services better cope with the surge. PMID:18618062

  11. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  12. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... your flu knowledge." /> Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  13. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2005-08-01

    In the near future, experts predict, an influenza pandemic will likely spread throughout the world. Many countries have been creating a contingency plan in order to mitigate the severe health and social consequences of such an event. Examination of the pandemic plans of Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, from an ethical perspective, raises several concerns. One: scarcity of human and material resources is assumed to be severe. Plans focus on prioritization but do not identify resources that would be optimally required to reduce deaths and other serious consequences. Hence, these plans do not facilitate a truly informed choice at the political level where decisions have to be made on how much to invest now in order to reduce scarcity when a pandemic occurs. Two: mass vaccination is considered to be the most important instrument for reducing the impact of infection, yet pandemic plans do not provide concrete estimates of the benefits and burdens of vaccination to assure everyone that the balance is highly favorable. Three: pandemic plans make extraordinary demands on health care workers, yet professional organizations and unions may not have been involved in the plans' formulation and they have not been assured that authorities will aim to protect and support health care workers in a way that corresponds to the demands made on them. Four: all sectors of society and all individuals will be affected by a pandemic and everyone's collaboration will be required. Yet, it appears that the various populations have been inadequately informed by occasional media reports. Hence, it is essential that plans are developed and communication programs implemented that will not only inform but also create an atmosphere of mutual trust and solidarity; qualities that at the time of a pandemic will be much needed. PMID:16222857

  14. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

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  15. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009), representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics). Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06), an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25), at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews), and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males). In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups). The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the reporting rate. The finding of a low Re (close to unity threshold), combined with identification of social groups with high transmission rates would have enabled the containment of swine flu during the summer in Israel. Our unique use of contact data provided new insights into the differential dynamics of influenza in different ages and sexes, and should be promoted in future epidemiological studies. Thus our work highlights the importance of conducting a comprehensive study of the initial stage of a pandemic in real time. PMID:21492430

  16. OctOber 2009 n the origins of swine flu

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Picture Big Picture Big OctOber 2009 Free n the origins of swine flu n the history of flu pandemics n Flu vaccines and drugs n Swine flu and Spanish flu compared Flu Your guide to H1N1 and other pandemics Special iSSUe 'SwineFlu'sculpturebyLukeJerram #12;2 Big Picture: Special Issue Picture Big big

  17. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Kin Lim; Yong Loo

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day

  18. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bat Flu Canine Flu Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... viruses remain unknown. A different animal (such as pigs, horses, dogs or seals) would need to serve ...

  19. Putting Pandemics in Perspective: England and the Flu, 1889-1919

    E-print Network

    Adams, David Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Authors who examine the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 fail to grasp its full context. Placing it alongside the Great War or other diseases only provides a partial construction, dramatically altering the narrative. With these limitations authors make...

  20. Flu Symptoms & Severity

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    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... 65 years and older. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  1. Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

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  2. Seasonal Flu Shot

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  3. Reassessing Google Flu Trends data for detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza: a comparative epidemiological study at three geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Konty, Kevin J; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data and computational methods for continued model-fitting and ongoing evaluation and improvement. PMID:24146603

  4. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  5. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J Coburn; Bradley G Wagner; Sally Blower

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0

  6. How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics – a scent of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires two major innovations. First, data that is obtained should be shared with the global community instantly. The strength of rapid integration of simple signals is exemplified by Google’sTM Flu Trend, which could predict the incidence of influenza-like illness based on online search engine queries. Second, omics technologies need to be fast and high-throughput. We postulate that analysis of the exhaled breath would be a simple, rapid and non-invasive alternative. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are altered by infection and inflammation. The molecular fingerprint of breath (breathprint) can be obtained using an electronic nose, which relies on sensor technology. These breathprints can be stored in an online database (a “breathcloud”) and coupled to clinical data. Comparison of the breathprint of a suspected subject to the breathcloud allows for a rapid decision on the presence or absence of a pathogen. PMID:24795745

  7. How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics - a scent of influenza.

    PubMed

    Bos, Lieuwe D J; de Jong, Menno D; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires two major innovations. First, data that is obtained should be shared with the global community instantly. The strength of rapid integration of simple signals is exemplified by Google's(TM) Flu Trend, which could predict the incidence of influenza-like illness based on online search engine queries. Second, omics technologies need to be fast and high-throughput. We postulate that analysis of the exhaled breath would be a simple, rapid and non-invasive alternative. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are altered by infection and inflammation. The molecular fingerprint of breath (breathprint) can be obtained using an electronic nose, which relies on sensor technology. These breathprints can be stored in an online database (a "breathcloud") and coupled to clinical data. Comparison of the breathprint of a suspected subject to the breathcloud allows for a rapid decision on the presence or absence of a pathogen. PMID:24795745

  8. Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bat Flu Canine Flu Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... American Veterinary Medical Association Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  9. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  10. Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Â Top of Page Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  11. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Â Top of Page Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  12. Flu and People with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Site Pneumonia (Pneumococcal) Vaccine Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  13. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Patients, and Healthcare Professionals Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  14. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... information about this initiative. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  15. 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic among professional basketball players: data from 18 countries.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2014-12-01

    Although influenza may be propagated in innumerable occasions and daily situations involving exposure, basketball may create many chances for close contact in which influenza could spread. This study aims to quantify and assess the impact of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic among professional basketball players. A multi-step strategy was followed to gather the relevant data during the 2009-10 basketball season. Possible risk factors were recorded; logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of the former. Where data were only available in the press, cases were also verified by subsequent communication with the national basketball federations. Relevant data were available for 18 countries (218 teams, 3,024 players). In all, 52 H1N1 cases in 19 teams were reported. A larger number of players presented as a risk factor for the emergence of H1N1 cases to a borderline extent (Odds Ratio, OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.41, p 0.056). A borderline association also implicated the population of the city-basis (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, p 0.094). On the other hand, no significant association with risk of H1N1 emergence was demonstrated regarding latitude and longitude of the city-basis. Even in environments where the best possible preventive and other medical care is provided influenza continues to be a threat. The microenvironment (crowding index, players per team) seemed to represent the most meaningful predictor regarding H1N1 emergence in a basketball team. PMID:25551846

  16. VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Graeme Laver (Australian National University; )

    2001-09-07

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What would happen if a flu pandemic as devastating as the 1918 Spanish flu arrived tomorrow. As Laver explains in a Perspective, preparation of the appropriate subunit vaccine (which depends on accurate identification of the flu virus strain) would take too long. He suggests that stockpiling antiviral drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, which block the action of the flu neuraminidase enzyme preventing spread of the virus throughout the host's body, would be a good place to start.

  17. Anticipating or Precipitating Crisis? Health Agencies May Not be Heeding Best Practice Advice in Avian Flu Press Releases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Johnson Avery; Sora Kim

    2009-01-01

    Precrisis information disseminated by public health information officers (PIOs) will play a critical role in preparing and safeguarding publics amidst a possible avian flu pandemic. This article analyzes avian flu press releases issued by leading health agencies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health

  18. Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

  19. Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... on the current FluView . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  20. Applying machine learning techniques to classify H1N1 viral strains occurring in 2009 flu pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan K. Attaluri; Ximeng Zheng; Zhengxin Chen; Guoqing Lu

    A phase 6 alert has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) in response to the ongoing global spread of the influenza H1N1 virus in humans. Genetic sequence analysis suggests that this pandemic strain evolves from reassortment of swine viruses. The objective of this research is to conduct a series of bioinformatics analyses to characterize currently circulating pandemic influenza

  1. Influenza pandemic plan: integrated wild bird\\/domestic avian\\/swine\\/human flu surveillance systems in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chwan-Chuen King; Yi-Jen Liao; Hui-Lin Yen; Ming-Chu Cheng; Ching-Ping Tsai; Chuan-Liang Kao; Tsung-Shu Wu; C. H Lin; S. C Chiou; I. J Su; N Cox; R. G Webster

    2004-01-01

    Background: Integrated virological surveillance systems along the transmission chains from animals to humans in areas with large swine\\/chicken\\/duck populations and numerous wild migrating birds grasps the frontline timing to detect novel flu viruses. Materials and methods: Animal and human virological surveillance systems have been established to monitor evolutional changes of flu viruses in the same and different hosts\\/geographical areas over

  2. Swine Flu (Swine Influenza-A (H1N1) Virus): A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Shekhar; Pooja Sharma; Lalit Kumar Tyagi; A. K. Gupta; M. L. Kori

    2009-01-01

    4 Abstract: Swine flu has been confirmed in a number of countries and it is spreading from human to human, which could lead to what is referred to as a pandemic flu outbreak. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it's a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. The

  3. Determinants of individuals’ risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level. Methods From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. Results In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of???80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ? 25 years and the elderly, ?65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths???25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Conclusion Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable individuals such as students and those working in groups indoors. It is concluded that the lack of robust data provided by surveillance systems in southern countries could be responsible for the underestimation of the epidemiological burden, although the main characteristics are essentially similar to what has been observed in developed countries. PMID:24468218

  4. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

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  5. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

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  6. Post-Pandemic Seroprevalence of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection (Swine Flu) among Children <18 Years in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Wirth, Stephan; Kaiser, Petra; Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Schroten, Horst; Streng, Andrea; Liese, Johannes; Shai, Sonu; Niehues, Tim; Girschick, Hermann; Kuscher, Ellen; Sauerbrey, Axel; Peters, Jochen; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz; Rückinger, Simon; Hampl, Walter; Michel, Detlef; Mertens, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1st to July 31st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT) and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1–4 and 5–17 years the prevalence of HI titers (?1?10) was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5–31.3) and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9–56.2) compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3–30.5) in children aged 1–4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6–52.0) in 5–17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ?1?10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5–28.8) reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0–96.6) of the 5–17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5–66.5) of the 1–4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009. Conclusion Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5–17 years) infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03B-adjuvanted split virion vaccine need further scrutiny. PMID:21915270

  7. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

  8. [Fighting the flu with soap and water. Hand washing as an infection control recommendation to the population--7 hypotheses from a qualitative study about hygiene, flu and pandemic].

    PubMed

    Meilicke, G; Weissenborn, A; Biederbick, W; Bartels, C

    2008-11-01

    Medical interventions like vaccination and antiviral prophylaxis are only two ways of protecting the population from infectious diseases. A third and decisive method is to apply non-pharmaceutical interventions like hand hygiene. A qualitative study identified the role hand washing actually plays in the daily life of the population. Based on the results, seven hypotheses are proposed which point to the need for further research about promotion of hand hygiene, e.g. the conception and evaluation of hand washing advertising campaigns. HYPOTHESIS 1: Health tips are more likely to be followed if they communicate clearly and understandably the personal relevance of the information to the recipients. HYPOTHESIS 2: For many, hygiene serves above all to make them feel good and more comfortable around others. HYPOTHESIS 3: The feeling of disgust is an emotional connection between health and hygiene. HYPOTHESIS 4: People mainly wash their hands ritually and when they actually feel the need to clean their hands. HYPOTHESIS 5: As far as most people are aware, the means of transmission of influenza and other respiratory diseases are only the ones they can observe, namely coughing, sneezing, and the resulting visible droplets. HYPOTHESIS 6: People are more motivated to wash their hands after learning that infections can be spread via the hands. HYPOTHESIS 7: A pandemic situation increases the population's demand for information and people's willingness to protect themselves from infection. PMID:19043755

  9. How should we plan for pandemics?

    E-print Network

    Doshi, Peter

    WHO has revised its definition of pandemic flu in response to current experience with A/H1N1. Peter Doshi argues that our plans for pandemics need to take into account more than the worst case scenarios

  10. Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Nabil A. NIMER

    E-print Network

    Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Nabil A. NIMER Dept . Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Faculty of Science Philadelphia University #12;Different species harbour different strains of the flu virus Bird flu;#12;14.514.51.45%1.45%505043794379As ofAs of 10/510/5 20092009 #12;The question is: Is Swine flu PANIC or PANDEMIC ? FICTION or REALITY

  11. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

  12. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Indians and Alaska Natives Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  13. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... 448 KB, 2 pages] Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  14. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... guide for more information. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  15. Study Shows Flu Vaccination Prevents Hospitalizations in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Â Top of Page Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  16. Thimerosal and 2014-2015 Seasonal Flu Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Â Top of Page Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  17. Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

  18. The Efficacy of Echinacea Compound Herbal Tea Preparation on the Severity and Duration of Upper Respiratory and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Frank Lindenmuth; Elise B. Lindenmuth

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an echinacea compound herbal tea preparation (Echinacea Plus®) given at early onset of cold or flu symptoms in a ran- dom assignment double-blind placebo-controlled study. Design and Subjects: A total of 95 subjects with early symptoms of cold or flu (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) were randomly assigned

  19. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context - Analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control

    PubMed Central

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as “swine flu”, since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term “swine flu” to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: “Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them,” wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  20. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    PubMed

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  1. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Farsi (?????) French (français) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hindi (??????) Hmong ( ... Health - Seattle and King County Return to top French (français) Home Care for Pandemic Flu Soins ŕ ...

  2. DavidCyranoski,Tokyo A bird flu virus is the subject of intense

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    DavidCyranoski,Tokyo A bird flu virus is the subject of intense scrutiny amid fears that it could spark a human flu pandemic. Virologists increased their vigilance after the avian virus infected two people in Hong Kong last month. Flu pandemics, which can kill millions of people, are thought to arise

  3. How Lou Got the Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series traces the spread of the flu virus from a duck in China to a young girl in Kansas. The article begins by introducing kids to Louise and the symptoms of influenza. On a series of clickable screens, they learn how the flu virus traveled from a duck to a pig to a farmer to a shopper to a student to Louise. A sidebar (But I Got a Flu Shot Last Year...) explains why influenza is trickier to outsmart than smallpox and polio. Another sidebar (Microbes on the Go) explains the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic.

  4. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

  5. NATURE|Vol. 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY Aweapontheworldneeds

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    NATURE|Vol. 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 417 Aweapontheworldneeds Both bottom-up and top, the avian flu strain of such concern in Asia; it could even rival the devas- tation of the 1918 Spanish flu means pro- duction could not be immediately ramped up if a global flu pandemic became reality. The 20

  6. Flu Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to May, millions of people all across the United States come down with the flu. Kids get the flu most often. But people in every age group — including teens — can catch it. What Is the Flu? Flu is the common name for influenza . It's a virus that infects the respiratory system. ...

  7. NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY he emergence of the highly pathogenic

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 423 T he emergence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in southeast Asia is a grim reminder of the deadly toll of flu pandemics throughout for pandemic flu is a global endeavour, with the World Health Organiza- tion (WHO) playing a pivotal role

  8. Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Lab

    2009-05-01

    Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

  9. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... antivirals/summary-clinicians.htm . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  10. What You Should Know and Do This Flu Season If You Are 65 Years and Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Vaccine in Older Adults Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  11. Bird Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Erdmann, Deanne

    2005-10-24

    BioEd Online is an â??educational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ?ť from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The â??Hot Topicsâ?ť section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are â??receiving national attention.â?ť Outbreaks of viruses have had detrimental effects on human populations throughout history. Recently, there has been a spotlight on the avian influenza virus (specifically the strain known as H5N1), which has infected over 100 people throughout the world. Concerned scientists and health officials are researching this virus, which many fear could escalate and contribute to a worldwide influenza outbreak. This site, created by Deanne Erdmann, MS, and Nancy Moreno, PhD, contains a brief discussion of the avian influenza virus, and includes links to references and further reading. Related news articles, and websites can be found. Be sure to check out the related slide set, â??Bird Flu: Is a Pandemic Looming in Our Future?" The slide show can be easily manipulated for use in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this â??Hot Topicâ?ť from BioEd Online.

  12. The Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) successfully predicts mortality and critical care resource utilization in H1N1 pandemic flu: a retrospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayode A Adeniji; Rebecca Cusack

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triage protocols are only initiated when it is apparent that resource deficits will occur across a broad geographical area despite efforts to expand or acquire additional capacity. Prior to the pandemic the UK Department of Health (DOH) recommended the use of a staged triage plan incorporating Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) developed by the Ontario Ministry of Health to

  13. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  14. PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    . Acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol) and/or ibuprofen (e.g. Motrin) for fever and body aches 3. Hand sanitizer (at least include: Fever over 100 degrees F, cough, sore throat, and body aches. · Most individuals who get the flu no longer have a fever or signs of a fever, without the use of fever-reducing medicines

  15. Implications of Pandemic Influenza for Bioterrorism Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Henderson; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole; Monica Schoch-Spana

    2000-01-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) had catastrophic effects upon urban pop- ulations in the United States. Large numbers of frightened, critically ill people overwhelmed health care providers. Mortuaries and cemeteries were severely strained by rapid accumulation of corpses of flu victims. Understanding of the outbreak's extent and effectiveness of con- tainment measures was obscured by the swiftness of the

  16. Forecasting Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... regular feature of the annual flu season. Adapting Weather Models Flu forecasting adapts approaches used by meteorologists ... when meteorologists seem to get it wrong, but weather prediction is actually very good," says Jeffrey Shaman, ...

  17. Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection caused by several flu viruses. Like the common cold , it infects the nose, throat, and lungs. Most ... The flu differs in several ways from the common cold (PDF). For example, people with colds rarely get ...

  18. The nonadaptive nature of the H1N1 2009 Swine Flu pandemic contrasts with the adaptive facilitation of transmission to a new host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juwaeriah Abdussamad; Stéphane Aris-Brosou

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic followed a multiple reassortment event from viruses originally circulating in swines and humans, but the adaptive nature of this emergence is poorly understood. RESULTS: Here we base our analysis on 1180 complete genomes of H1N1 viruses sampled in North America between 2000 and 2010 in swine and human hosts. We show

  19. INTRICACIES OF NEWLY EMERGED SWINE FLU PANDEMIC: A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL, MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH CHALLENGE-SHOULD THE NIGERIA BE ALARMED?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Okonko; B. A. Onoja; A. O. Adedeji; A. A. Ogun

    This review article reports on the newly emerged swine influenza pandemic: a global environemental, medical and public health challenge-should the Nigeria be alarmed? It also examines the features of H1N1, including incidence, infection, immunity, clinical management, prevention and control, and therapy globally. Swine influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Swine influenza

  20. Technologies to Mitigate Climate Change / Avian Flu Update

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Though the Kyoto Protocol went into effect in February of 2005, it will not be a quick fix: global temperatures are predicted to rise well into this century. This radio broadcast takes a look at some technologies - from wind power to hydrogen fuel cells - that could curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gases. There is discussion about what countries are doing to reduce global warming, such as supporting renewable energy, and what needs to be done in the United States. This climate change broadcast is 30 minutes in length. The broadcast also discusses preparations for a possible bird flu pandemic.

  1. "Stomach Flu"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their stomachs. ...

  2. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  3. Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-? responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-? production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-? production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-? production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively different humoral and cellular immune responses as compared to infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. PMID:24916787

  4. Initial Psychological Responses to Swine Flu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Goodwin; Stanley O. Gaines Jr; Lynn Myers; Felix Neto

    2011-01-01

    Background  The emergence of influenza A (“swine flu”) in early 2009 led to widespread public concern. However, little research has examined\\u000a the factors that underlie initial worry about infection and subsequent behavioral responses to such worry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study seeks to model some key predictors of worry and behavioral responses in the early stages of the swine flu pandemic\\u000a (WHO pandemic stage

  5. Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibody against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Preparations

    PubMed Central

    HONG, DAVID K.; TREMOULET, ADRIANA H.; BURNS, JANE C.; LEWIS, DAVID B.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-pandemic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and sera from Kawasaki disease (KD) patients treated with this IVIG were analyzed for 2009 H1N1-specific microneutralization and hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. All six different IVIG preparations tested had significant levels of cross-reactive specific antibody at a concentration of 2.0 g/dL of immunoglobulin. Sera from 18/19 of KD patients had significant increases of cross-reactive specific antibody after 2.0 g/kg of pre-pandemic IVIG. These results suggest a role for adjunctive IVIG therapy for severe and/or drug-resistant 2009 H1N1 virus and other highly antigenically drifted influenza strains, particularly in the immunocompromised. PMID:20724956

  6. CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary

  7. ErikaCheck,Washington Alarmed by bird flu's grip on southeast Asia,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ErikaCheck,Washington Alarmed by bird flu's grip on southeast Asia, the World Health Organization and government representatives in a bidtospeeduptheproductionof fluvaccines toavertaglobalpandemic. The three flu pandemics of last century -- in 1918, 1957 and 1968 -- were sparked when avian flu jumped the species

  8. NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU NEWS FEATURE he pharmaceutical company Roche

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU NEWS FEATURE 407 T he pharmaceutical company Roche didn't have Tamiflu in 1999. Flu is a fact of life, and doctors have been advising aspirin, hot lemon andbed against the threat of a pandemic flu virus that could arise at any time. Given

  9. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  10. Risk factors of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in a prospective household cohort in the general population: results from the CoPanFlu-France cohort

    PubMed Central

    Delabre, Rosemary M; Lapidus, Nathanael; Salez, Nicolas; Mansiaux, Yohann; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Carrat, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Background The CoPanFlu-France household cohort was set up in 2009 to identify risk factors of infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus in the general population. Objectives To investigate the determinants of infection during the 2010–2011 season, the first complete influenza season of study follow-up for this cohort. Patients/Methods Pre- and post-epidemic blood samples were collected for all subjects, and nasal swabs were obtained in all subjects from households where an influenza-like illness was reported. Cases were defined as either a fourfold increase in the serological titer or a laboratory-confirmed H1N1pdm09 on a nasal swab, with either RT-PCR or multiplex PCR. Risk factors for H1N1pdm09 infections were explored, without any pre-specified hypothesis, among 167 individual, collective and environmental covariates via generalized estimating equations modeling. We adopted a multimodel selection procedure to control for model selection uncertainty. Results This analysis is based on a sample size of 1121 subjects. The final multivariable model identified one risk factor (history of asthma, OR = 2·17; 95% CI: 1·02–4·62) and three protective factors: pre-epidemic serological titer (OR = 0·51 per doubling of the titer; 95% CI: 0·39–0·67), green tea consumption a minimum of two times a week (OR = 0·39; 95% CI: 0·18–0·84), and proportion of subjects in the household always covering their mouth while coughing/sneezing (OR = 0·93 per 10% increase; 95% CI: 0·86–1·00). Conclusion This exploratory study provides further support of previously reported risk factors and highlights the importance of collective protective behaviors in the household. Further analyses will be conducted to explore these findings. PMID:25495468

  11. 2009 Pandemic influenza in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jacob John; Mahesh Moorthy

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic-09-H1N1 virus caused the pandemic starting in the second quarter of 2009. The world was prepared to face the pandemic\\u000a since it was anticipated for over one decade. Most countries, including India, had made detailed pandemic preparedness plans\\u000a well ahead of its actual occurrence. The infection rapidly spread to the whole country within 2-3 months. The national tactics\\u000a were to

  12. Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants’ views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers’ exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians’ concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians’ concerns about IT’s impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital’s preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation’s success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and local levels with insights to refine relevant public health policies for the planning and management of pandemics from the eHealth perspective. PMID:23611788

  13. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    PubMed Central

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that ?-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified ?-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (?-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of ?-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal ?-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  14. Preparing for pandemic vaccination: an international policy agenda for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Fedson, David S

    2005-04-01

    The international use of influenza vaccine is growing, especially in developing countries. Since 1997, avian H5N1 influenza in Southeast Asia has caused several human infections and high mortality. Experts warn that the next influenza pandemic is imminent and could be severe. Prevention and control will depend on the rapid production and worldwide distribution of specific pandemic vaccines. If the vaccine supply is to be sufficient to meet global demand, issues related to the intellectual property rights for the reverse genetics technology essential for vaccine production must be resolved. In addition, candidate "pandemic-like" vaccines must be developed and tested in clinical trials to determine the most antigen sparing formulation and the best vaccination schedule. These studies must involve all vaccine companies and will require international coordination and public funding. Whether this international policy agenda for pandemic vaccine development will succeed is uncertain, but it will provide a good indication of whether "good governance" for global public health can be achieved. PMID:15906873

  15. Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

  16. 1918 Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-11-22

    In this Science Update from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Yoshihiro Kawaoko a virologist at the University of Wisconsin. In this interview, Kawako describes what made 1918 flu virus, which killed 20 million people, so deadly.

  17. Association between the 2008–09 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Pandemic H1N1 Illness during Spring–Summer 2009: Four Observational Studies from Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danuta M. Skowronski; Gaston De Serres; Natasha S. Crowcroft; Naveed Z. Janjua; Nicole Boulianne; Travis S. Hottes; Laura C. Rosella; James A. Dickinson; Rodica Gilca; Pam Sethi; Najwa Ouhoummane; Donald J. Willison; Isabelle Rouleau; Martin Petric; Kevin Fonseca; Steven J. Drews; Anuradha Rebbapragada; Hugues Charest; Marie-Čve Hamelin; Guy Boivin; Jennifer L. Gardy; Yan Li; Trijntje L. Kwindt; David M. Patrick; Robert C. Brunham

    2010-01-01

    In three case-control studies and a household transmission cohort, Danuta Skowronski and colleagues find an association between prior seasonal flu vaccination and increased risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu.

  18. Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

    2006-12-01

    The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

  19. Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Preparation and Delivery of Critical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Manuell, Mary-Elise; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Ellison, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    In a five week span during the 1918 influenza A pandemic, more than 2,000 patients were admitted to Cook County Hospital in Chicago with a diagnosis of either influenza or pneumonia; 642 patients, approximately 31% of those admitted, died with deaths occurring predominantly in patients twenty-five to thirty years of age.1 This review summarizes basic information on the biology, epidemiology, control, treatment and prevention of influenza overall, and then addresses the potential impact of pandemic influenza in an Intensive Care Unit setting. Issues that require consideration include workforce staffing and safety, resource management, alternate sites of care surge of patients, altered standards of care and crisis communication. PMID:21220275

  20. Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

  1. Biocommunicability and the Biopolitics of Pandemic Threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Briggs; Mark Nichter

    2009-01-01

    In this article we assess accounts of the H1N1 virus or “swine flu” to draw attention to the ways in which discourse about biosecurity and global health citizenship during times of pandemic alarms supports calls for the creation of global surveillance systems and naturalizes forms of governance. We propose a medical anthropology of epidemics to complement an engaged anthropology aimed

  2. Swine flu panic shows how little we really care.

    PubMed

    Beckford-Ball, Jason

    I have to confess that when the first reports of swine flu started circulating, I did have a strong sense of déjŕ vu - after all, we've been here before. Back in 2003, the world was under threat from another potentially lethal virus that began in an economically deprived part of the world among animal stocks and briefly (according to some anyway) threatened to turn into a global pandemic--Avian flu. PMID:19448575

  3. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

  4. H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3

    E-print Network

    Major, Arkady

    H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

  5. Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chowell; C. E. Ammon; N. W. Hengartner; J. M. Hyman

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic known as the “Spanish Flu” has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide mortality ranging from 20 to 100 million deaths. Using epidemic modeling and hospital notification data during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, we estimated the reproductive numbers of the first and second waves of influenza infection to

  6. 75 FR 55776 - Request for Comments on Vaccine Production and Additional Planning for Future Possible Pandemic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...pandemic influenza? 3. Improving availability for developing countries. How can we support and stimulate demand for seasonal flu vaccine in middle and lower income countries? Are there other [[Page 55777

  7. Flu.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    Early Data Suggests Severe Flu Season Based on early data, the 2014-2015 flu season could be severe. Protect yourself and your family against seasonal ... Caring for children and infants Caring for seniors Flu Vaccine Finder http://www.flu.gov/stay-connected/ ...

  8. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  9. Impact of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza on critical care capacity in Victoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin E Lum; Alison J McMillan; Chris W Brook; Rosemary Lester; Leonard S Piers

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the demand for critical care hospital admissions in Victoria resulting from the rapid rise in the number of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza cases, and to describe the role of modelling tools to assist with the response to the pandemic. Design and setting: Prospective modelling with the tools FluSurge 2.0 and FluAid 2.0 (developed by the United States

  10. Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus: An Emerging Global Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil K. Lal; Vincent T. K. Chow

    2007-01-01

    The specter of avian influenza emerging from Asia and spreading all over the globe is causing deeper concern by the day. As we witness the H5N1 virus evolving and becoming increasingly dangerous, a major pandemic may be unavoidable. The bird flu virus has already claimed more than 140 lives worldwide as of August 2006. Should bird flu spark a global

  11. Modeling reduction of pandemic influenza using pharmaceutical and non pharmaceutical interventions in a heterogeneous population

    E-print Network

    Teytelman, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In an event of a pandemic influenza outbreak such as the great "Spanish Flu" of 1918 and the more recent 2009-2010 H1N1 "Swine Flu" scare, pharmaceutical as well as non-pharmaceutical resources are limited in availability ...

  12. Pandemic H1N1 influenza: zoonoses are a two-way street

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease representing a worldwide health and economic threat to humans and animals. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern United States in 1918 concurrent with the Spanish flu human pandemic. Since the first report that flu was caused ...

  13. Pandemic Panic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this lesson, students engage in an inquiry into influenza A (H1N1), considering the virus and the pandemic from multiple perspectives and acting as advisers to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

  14. Protect Yourself from Seasonal Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Yourself from Seasonal Flu Protect Yourself from Seasonal Flu The Basics Take Action! Ver en espańol Content ... 6 months and older needs to get a flu shot (vaccine) every year. The seasonal flu vaccine ...

  15. Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu?

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu? "Swine flu" is a disease caused do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been. An investigation into these cases is ongoing. Is this swine flu virus contagious? CDC has determined

  16. What Is Seasonal Flu?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Text Size A A A What is seasonal flu? YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/ ... 0&enablejsapi=1&modestbranding=1 What is seasonal flu? Dr. Bruce Gellin, Director of the National Vaccine ...

  17. Antiviral Strategies for Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Maria; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Fang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    While vaccines are the primary public health response to seasonal and pandemic flu, short of a universal vaccine there are inherent limitations to this approach. Antiviral drugs provide valuable alternative options for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Here, we will review drugs and drug candidates against influenza with an emphasis on the recent progress of a host-targeting entry-blocker drug candidate, DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein. PMID:21994706

  18. Algorithmen Flu probleme

    E-print Network

    Popeea, Corneliu - Chair for Foundations of Software Reliability and Theoretical Computer Science

    EĂ?ziente Algorithmen II Einf uhrung 1 ' & $ % Inhalt 1. Flu#25;probleme 2. Matching 3. Lineares Algorithmen II Flu#25;probleme 4 ' & $ % Netzwerk u#25; Gegeben ist ein System von Wasserrohren: s t Quelle Senke ie#25;en? #12; EĂ?ziente Algorithmen II Flu#25;probleme 5 ' & $ % Netzwerk u#25; Antwort: Maximal

  19. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  20. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... People Research Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... treatment, vaccine development... More Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  1. [The flu epidemic after World War I and homeopathy--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" began in 1918 and was the most devastating pandemic in human history that had ever been, claiming more lives than World War I. The flu virus had not yet been discovered, and the usual therapy measures were merely symptomatic. In many parts of the world the pandemic was treated by homeopaths. At the time, homeopathic medical practices, out-patient clinics and hospitals existed in various countries. To this day homeopaths refer to the successful homeopathic treatment of the "Spanish Flu". The following paper looks at what this treatment consisted in and whether it was based on a particular concept. It also examines contemporary evaluations and figures, as well as the question as to whether homeopathy experienced a rise in demand as a consequence of its success during the pandemic. PMID:25134258

  2. Seasonal Flu Vaccine May Protect Against Deadly Bird Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Seasonal Flu Vaccine May Protect Against Deadly Bird Flu Study reveals protective response to rare virus ... Preidt Tuesday, February 17, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bird Flu Immunization TUESDAY, Feb. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  3. H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Major, Arkady

    H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern is the H1N1 that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

  4. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  5. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  6. Potency of a vaccine prepared from A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1) against A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus strain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pandemic 2009 (H1N1) influenza virus has spread throughout the world and is now causing seasonal influenza. To prepare for the emergence of pandemic influenza, we have established a library of virus strains isolated from birds, pigs, and humans in global surveillance studies. Methods Inactivated whole virus particle (WV) and ether-split (ES) vaccines were prepared from an influenza virus strain, A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1), from the library and from A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1) pandemic strain. Each of the vaccines was injected subcutaneously into mice and their potencies were evaluated by challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1) virus strain in mice. Results A/swine/Hokkaido/2/81 (H1N1), which was isolated from the lung of a diseased piglet, was selected on the basis of their antigenicity and growth capacity in embryonated chicken eggs. Two injections of the WV vaccine induced an immune response in mice, decreasing the impact of disease caused by the challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1), as did the vaccine prepared from the homologous strain. Conclusion The WV vaccine prepared from an influenza virus in the library is useful as an emergency vaccine in the early phase of pandemic influenza. PMID:23384324

  7. Representations of swine flu: perspectives from a Malaysian pig farm.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Hassan, Sharifah Binti Syed; Dhanoa, Amreeta

    2011-07-01

    Novel influenza viruses are seen, internationally, as posing considerable health challenges, but public responses to such viruses are often rooted in cultural representations of disease and risk. However, little research has been conducted in locations associated with the origin of a pandemic. We examined representations and risk perceptions associated with swine flu amongst 120 Malaysian pig farmers. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents felt at particular risk of infection, two-thirds were somewhat or very concerned about being infected. Those respondents who were the most anxious believed particular societal "out-groups" (homosexuals, the homeless and prostitutes) to be at higher infection risk. Although few (4%) reported direct discrimination, 46% claimed friends had avoided them since the swine flu outbreak. Findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, social representations and terror management theories of response to pandemic threat. PMID:21936262

  8. BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics

    E-print Network

    BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics Have Health Coverage Through Mason? Free Seasonal Flu Shots are Part of Your Wellness Benefit. For faculty and staff who are enrolled in COVA Care, COVA HealthAware, COVA HDHP, and Kaiser Permanente, seasonal flu shots are part of your wellness benefit

  9. Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual, high (100-102°) Headache be severe 5 STEPS TO TAKE IF YOU GET THE FLU: 1. Stay at home and rest. CDC recommends that you stay home a medical condition that puts you at higher risk of flu complications (like asthma...), call your doctor

  10. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  11. The Infectious Range of Flu

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    The Infectious Range of Flu Since the H5N1 strain of avian flu started crossing into people since 1990. In graduate school, he studied the molecular complex that allows the flu virus to replicate strain of avian flu had never been known to cross into humans. The infections immediately raised alarm

  12. Pandemic mitigation: Bringing it home.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In the US, national, regional and even institutional plans for ameliorating the effects of pandemic influenza focus on stockpiling antiviral medications, early production and distribution of vaccine, mass and personal social distancing, and a number of personal hygiene activities. Essential personnel are the first scheduled to receive preventive and therapeutic pharmaceuticals, followed by high risk groups, the largest of which are the elderly. Specific recommendations for protection embody a bunker mentality with a time horizon of two weeks, emulating preparation for a natural disaster. The epidemiology of pandemic influenza is scarcely considered. We summarize here the envelope of mortality attributable to epidemic and pandemic influenza in the last 90 years of the last century as a lead in to a presentation of the multinational case age distribution of the novel H1N1 pandemic of 2009. We discuss the sparing of elderly subpopulations in pandemics and the subsequent abrupt resurgence of mortality in the spared age groups as drift variants emerge. The general decline in the baseline of age-specific excess mortality in economically developed countries is characterized and its importance assessed. Models of acute and chronic care facilities are discussed and an argument is advanced that society as a whole as well as acute care facilities cannot be protected against incursion and widespread infection in pandemics of severity above low moderate. The key findings of models of chronic care institutions and others that can control public access, such as corporations, are used to describe programs with a realistic chance of providing protection in even severe pandemics. These principles are further mapped onto individual residences. Materials directing institutional and home planning are cited. PMID:21361400

  13. From SARS in 2003 to H1N1 in 2009: lessons learned from Taiwan in preparation for the next pandemic.

    PubMed

    Yen, M-Y; Chiu, A W-H; Schwartz, J; King, C-C; Lin, Y E; Chang, S-C; Armstrong, D; Hsueh, P-R

    2014-08-01

    In anticipation of a future pandemic potentially arising from H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and in large part in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the city of Taipei, Taiwan, has developed extensive new strategies to manage pandemics. These strategies were tested during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. This article assesses pandemic preparedness in Taipei in the wake of recent pandemic experiences in order to draw lessons relevant to the broader international public health community. Drawing on Taiwan and Taipei Centers for Disease Control data on pandemic response and control, we evaluated the effectiveness of the changes in pandemic response policies developed by these governments over time, emphasizing hospital and medical interventions with particular attention paid to Traffic Control Bundling. SARS and H1N1 2009 catalysed the Taiwan and Taipei CDCs to continuously improve and adjust their strategies for a future pandemic. These new strategies for pandemic response and control have been largely effective at providing interim pandemic containment and control, while development and implementation of an effective vaccination programme is underway. As Taipei's experiences with these cases illustrate, in mitigating moderate or severe pandemic influenza, a graduated process including Traffic Control Bundles accompanied by hospital and medical interventions, as well as school- and community-focused interventions, provides an effective interim response while awaiting vaccine development. Once a vaccine is developed, to maximize pandemic control effectiveness, it should be allocated with priority given to vulnerable groups, healthcare workers and school children. PMID:24996515

  14. Avian Flu and the Quest for Immunity: Not Just Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2006-01-01

    With the very real threat of a bird flu pandemic – and no natural immunity among humans – antiviral drug developers, the federal government, and academic researchers are racing to find innovative vaccines and therapies that are effective and can be mass produced. The commercial payoff, too, could be big. PMID:23424387

  15. The general practice experience of the swine flu epidemic in Victoria — lessons from the front line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Eizenberg

    2009-01-01

    The swine influenza (H1N1 09) outbreak in Victoria has provided an excellent opportunity to review the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) and to assess its performance in practice. • General practitioners play a major role in seasonal flu management, and it was expected that the AHMPPI would enable GPs on the front line to maintain this central

  16. VideoLab: Modeling a Pandemic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yang Yang (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington; )

    2009-10-30

    In 2009, H1N1 became the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, and prompted swift investigation of ways to control the virus. Vaccination can slow the flu's spread and reduce its attack rate and mortality, but the strategy's effectiveness depends on who gets the vaccine, and when. Yang et al. used household and school studies to model the effectiveness of two vaccination strategies on the spread of H1N1. They report that a 70% phased vaccination program in which the vaccine is universally available (first movie clip) is not as effective as a similar vaccination program in which children are vaccinated first, followed by adults (second clip).

  17. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common of these. Treatment with an influenza antiviral drug can mean the difference between having ... Why am I at greater risk of serious flu complications? Your medical condition makes it more likely ...

  18. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with green- or yellow-colored discharge) Sore throat Cough Sneezing Fatigue Muscle aches Headache Watery eyes Cold ... aches, especially in your back, arms and legs Cough Headache Loss of appetite What is H1N1 flu? ...

  19. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mist humidifier saline (saltwater) nose drops acetaminophen or ibuprofen (check package for correct dosage) Never give aspirin ... that doesn't go away after acetaminophen or ibuprofen Think Prevention! Get the flu vaccine each year. ...

  20. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases Office of Director Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an ... receive the nasal spray flu vaccine. Influenza (the flu) is a serious illness, especially when you are ...

  1. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Flu can ... this flu season. Take 3 Steps to Fight Flu 1. The first and best way to protect ...

  2. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Mold Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Living with cancer increases your risk for complications ...

  3. MDA's Flu Season Resource Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MDA Partners in Progress Search form Search MDA's Flu Season Resource Center Individuals affected by neuromuscular disease ... serious and possibly life-threatening complications from the flu, so it's important that everyone stays informed and ...

  4. Not just for the birds. Assessing your medical practice for pandemic readiness.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ronnie L

    2007-08-01

    Is your medical practice ready to deal with a pandemic avian flu--or any other potentially lethal disease? Your pandemic response plan should anticipate progressive levels relative to the event's severity. The degree of the outbreak will affect patients, staffing, supplies and basic services such as telephone, electricity, mail, Internet, water and repair support. It's likely that we can't depend on the federal government to come to our aid in a pandemic - resources will be spread too thin. The best defense is planning and preparedness. The practice that chooses not to plan for disasters risks loss of staff, patients and community status when catastrophe occurs. PMID:17803101

  5. Flu: Teamwork Nothing could be

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    UF Voices Flu: Teamwork needed Teamwork. Nothing could be more important when many stu- dents, faculty and staff will have been in some way af- fected by this year's flu virus. Various departments for university efforts this flu season -- including frequently asked questions and self-care guidelines. If you

  6. NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU"

    E-print Network

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    H1N1 NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU" Student Health Service 200 West Kawili Street Campus Center of Health Epidemiologist ....................................933-0912 Websites www.flu.gov www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/general_info.htm www.hawaii.gov/health/aboutH1N1.html www.uhh.hawaii.edu (for links to other

  7. September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Number 12d September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Immunization has saved more lives in Canada against viruses that cause influenza, often called the flu. The vaccine does not protect against other viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach illness, such as `stomach flu'. The vaccine is approved

  8. Flu Policy 20092010 Supervisory Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    1 Flu Policy 20092010 Supervisory Guidelines These HR guidelines will be implemented effective the reporting/notification guidelines outlined below. The employee should also be reminded to review the Flu. When Employees Exhibit FluLike Symptoms at Work Employees at work who have flulike symptoms (fever

  9. Disaster and flu: putting planning into practice.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Health care supply chain leaders nationwide are facing unprecedented times. Since April 2009, we have been overwhelmed with requests for influenza pandemic-specific products. We have had to search for additional supplies while dealing with concerns over burgeoning needs. At the same time, we have been inundated with stories about disaster preparedness as it relates to the H1N1 pandemic influenza. And now, even with the number of H1N1 cases receding, we must be prepared for whatever emergency may arise next. PMID:20178231

  10. Swine flu: a new emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Bari, M S; Bilkis, L; Hossain, M A; Islam, M A; Hoque, M M; Haque, N; Haque, S; Ahmed, S; Mirza, R; Sumona, A A; Ahmed, M U; Ara, A

    2010-01-01

    Swine flu is an important zoonotic disease that has been recognized as an important global health problem by any one of several types of swine influenza virus or swine-origin influenza virus. Due to its increasing incidence in many countries of the world and occurrence of several large outbreaks in present year, it is a burning issue nowadays. It is thought to be a mutation--more specifically, a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. Due to variability of clinical features and limited availability of laboratory facilities, the disease remains largely under-reported. Early and specific diagnosis is important to ensure a favourable outcome. In this paper we attempted to explore history, classification, transmission, sign symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of swine flu as a critical review to provide some new upgrade regarding this devastating pandemic disease. PMID:20046190

  11. Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies. PMID:19549302

  12. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu. PMID:18652556

  13. An influenza A H1N1 virus revival – pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michaelis; H. W. Doerr; J. Cinatl Jr

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, the so-called pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus (former designations include swine influenza,\\u000a novel influenza, swine-origin influenza A [H1N1] virus [S-OIV], Mexican flu, North American Flu) was identified in Mexico.\\u000a The virus has since spread throughout the world and caused an influenza pandemic as defined by the criteria of the World Health\\u000a Organization.

  14. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  15. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  16. Cold vs. Flu Know the Difference

    E-print Network

    Burke, Peter

    Cold vs. Flu Know the Difference Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual ­ can be 100 to 102or higher can help prevent the spread of colds or flu F � KEEP YOUR HANDS CLEAN ­ Wash with soap and water. � STAY HOME WHEN SICK � GET VACCINATED FOR FLU Getting a flu shot or the nasal spray every year

  17. Special features of the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher John Vavricka; Yue Liu; Qing Li; Yi Shi; Yan Wu; YePing Sun; JianXun Qi; George Fu Gao

    2011-01-01

    Since the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (09 S-OIV) has reminded the world about the global threat of the\\u000a ever changing influenza virus, many questions regarding the detailed re-assortment of influenza viruses yet remain unanswered.\\u000a Influenza A virus is the causative agent of the pandemic flu and contains 2 major antigenic glycoproteins on its surface:\\u000a (i) hemagglutinin (HA);

  18. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  19. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed poly

  20. The Spanish Flu and Its Legacy: Science Cases for Classroom Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The College Board The College Board (The College Board; )

    2012-10-24

    This book offers an interdisciplinary approach to teaching about the events surrounding the Spanish flu in 1918. By presenting three case studies of the flu from different perspectives, students will be able to use scientific, historical and medical evidence as well as a developed sense of curiosity to investigate how this pandemic emerged. This resource is organized into different sections which offer teaching approaches, activities and resources to facilitate the understanding of a pandemicâ??its nature, transmission and prevention methods for middle school to high school students.

  1. Decoding the Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Norris Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    This "clicker case" was designed to develop students' ability to read and interpret information stored in DNA. Making use of personal response systems ("clickers") along with a PowerPoint presentation, students follow the story of "Jason," a student intern at the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). While working with a CDC team in Mexico, Jason is the only person who does not get sick from a new strain of flu. It is up to Jason to use molecular data collected from different local strains of flu to identify which one may be causing the illness. Although designed for an introductory biology course for science or non-science majors, the case could be adapted for upper-level courses by including more complex problems and aspects of gene expression, such as the excision of introns.

  2. Flu in the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this Web site provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Infectious Diseases will find detailed, authoritative answers to any questions they may have about the flu. In addition to explanations of flu transmission, treatment, vaccination, etc., this Web site offers updated surveillance reports on the status of influenza in the US. The Questions and Answers page is a good source for quick, easy-to-absorb information, and it clears up many misconceptions regarding the flu and the flu shot. Visitors looking for more detailed information will find many useful links, particularly for recent news and reports.

  3. Pandemic Influenza: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Landis MacKellar

    2007-01-01

    This essay, written ten years after the first human death from avian influenza, reviews scientific, social, and policy aspects of pandemic influenza, and asks whether the near-crisis level of concern is justified. That there will be another influenza pandemic is certain, and a number of factors suggest it will occur sooner rather than later. It is impossible, however, to predict

  4. Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (“flu”) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 2009–2010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 2009–2010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs. PMID:23687999

  5. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare

  6. Is it a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    Is it a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual; high (100°F to 102°F, occasionally higher, especially in young children); lasts 3 to 4 days Headache Rare Common General Aches, Pains Slight Usual; at the beginning of the illness Stuffy Nose Common Sometimes Sneezing Usual Sometimes Sore Throat

  7. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  8. Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual; high (100°F to 102°F, occasionally higher, especially in young children); lasts 3 to 4 days Headache Rare Common General Aches, Pains Slight Usual; at the beginning of the illness Stuffy Nose Common Sometimes Sneezing Usual Sometimes Sore Throat

  9. Evolutionary complexities of swine flu H1N1 gene sequences of 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niladri Kumar Sinha; Ayan Roy; Ballari Das; Santasabuj Das; Surajit Basak

    2009-01-01

    A recently emerged novel influenza A (H1N1) virus continues to spread globally. The pandemic caused by this new H1N1 swine influenza virus presents an opportunity to analyze the evolutionary significance of the origin of the new strain of swine flu. Our study clearly suggests that strong purifying selection is responsible for the evolution of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus

  10. Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Mai Le; Maki Kiso; Kazuhiko Someya; Yuko T. Sakai; T. Hien Nguyen; Khan H. L. Nguyen; N. Dinh Pham; Ha H. Ngyen; Shinya Yamada; Yukiko Muramoto; Taisuke Horimoto; Ayato Takada; Hideo Goto; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

    2005-01-01

    The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is

  11. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... usually given in the arm. Children 6 months to 2 years old should get the shot. • The nasal spray is for children who are ... mild side effects that may be mistaken for the flu. Keep in mind that it will take ... your child to build protection against the flu. Why does my ...

  12. Predict the Flu: Interactive Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Museum of Minnesota

    2012-06-26

    In this interactive game, you are a scientist from a world health organization. Gather and analyze data to predict the strains of influenza during the next season in the Northern Hemisphere and design an influenza vaccine. An interesting and informative game! This game teaches you about flu strains, and how scientists mix and match them to create next year's flu vaccine! Good luck!

  13. Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu and other regular exercise. Manage stress. Being healthy helps fight the flu. Get a flu vaccination. Protect yourself against seasonal illness. It's the single best way to prevent the flu. Stay informed. These simple

  14. What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection caused by the influenza known as "swine flu") in humans causes similar symptoms to the seasonal flu but may also include. What are the symptoms? Flu symptoms start 1-4 days after exposure. Symptoms usually start suddenly

  15. Here to assist you GET THE FLU SHOT, NOT THE FLU!

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    Human Resources Here to assist you GET THE FLU SHOT, NOT THE FLU! Influenza is a common respiratory illness affecting millions of Canadians each year. When you get the flu, it's more than your own health that is at risk. You risk transmitting the flu to your friends, family and co-workers. A flu vaccine is your best

  16. RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS If you start exhibiting flu-like symptoms, call SU Health Services because of flu-like symptoms: Tell your RA. Tell your roommate (if you have one). Socially distance in their rooms or apartments because of flu-like symptoms, the sick meal policy is being expanded. When students

  17. A Guide For Parents FLU INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Burke, Peter

    virus spread worldwide among people. The new virus was called "2009 H1N1" for the year in which it was discovered and its subtype. (This virus was sometimes called "swine flu" or "novel flu".) This flu season sick, especially if they still have symptoms. PROTECT YOUR CHILD How can I protect my child against flu

  18. Caring for Someone with the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with the Flu Caring for Someone with the Flu Keep the sick person comfortable and follow the ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms Prevention Treatment Vaccination Types of Flu ...

  19. Waiting for a pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rino Rappuoli; Giuseppe Giudice

    After a quiet period of nearly 30 years, influenza strains with hemagglutinin types that have not been seen in humans previously\\u000a started to jump from birds to man, suggesting the risk of a new influenza pandemic. However, in contrast to the situation\\u000a with all the other influenza pandemics occurring in the 20th century and before, in the 21st century we

  20. Your Medicare Coverage: Flu Shots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here: Home Your Medicare coverage Share Your Medicare Coverage Is my test, item, or service covered? ... Part B are covered. Your costs in Original Medicare You pay nothing for a flu shot if ...

  1. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  2. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  3. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the United States Current United States Flu Activity Map Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report FluView Interactive National ... Methods, and Limitations 2013-14 Flu Season, Interactive Map (Report I) 2013-14 Flu Season, Comparison Table ( ...

  4. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Xu; Damian C. Ekiert; Jens C. Krause; Rong Hai; James E. Crowe; Ian A. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A\\/California\\/04\\/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody

  5. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ?0.6 for Mexico and ?2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ?2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ?1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ?0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ?1 to ?0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model. PMID:25056069

  6. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... H5N1 (Avian/Bird Flu) H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu) H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu virus that has caused serious outbreaks in ... been no reported infections with these viruses in birds, poultry, or people in the United States. You ...

  7. PROCEEDINGS Open Access FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment

    E-print Network

    Moret, Bernard

    PROCEEDINGS Open Access FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment finder based on phylogenetic in the evolution of the genome of influenza (flu), whereby segments of the genome are exchanged between different, researchers and health authorities are building up enormous databases of genomic sequences for every flu

  8. Flu Gone Viral: Syndromic Surveillance of Flu on Twitter using Temporal Topic Models

    E-print Network

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    Flu Gone Viral: Syndromic Surveillance of Flu on Twitter using Temporal Topic Models Liangzhe Chen for governments and public health authorities. Machine learning techniques for nowcasting the flu have made in a population. There is a disconnect between data-driven methods for forecasting flu incidence

  9. Influenza Pandemic: Gaps in Pandemic Planning and Preparedness Need to Be Addressed. Testimony before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. GAO-09-909T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the current H1N1 outbreak underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a body of work, consisting of 12 reports and 4 testimonies, to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In February 2009, GAO synthesized the results of…

  10. What Are the Symptoms of the Flu?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... A A What are the symptoms of the flu? YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/ ... modestbranding=1 What are the symptoms of the flu? Dr. Bruce Gellin, Director of the National Vaccine ...

  11. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... molecular structure of the flu virus; others use computers to model how flu infection can spread. Structure ... at the University of California, Irvine, has used computer simulations to predict where and when the structures ...

  12. Seniors Bear Brunt of This Flu Season

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HealthDay News) -- As the flu season continues to wind down, it's increasingly clear that older Americans have ... Thursday. Not only did record numbers of seniors wind up in the hospital due to the flu, ...

  13. Bad Flu Season Getting Worse, CDC Says

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bad Flu Season Getting Worse, CDC Says 43 states reporting ... 2015) Monday, January 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Flu MONDAY, Jan. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The current ...

  14. FDA Approves Rapivab to Treat Flu Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... FDA News Release FDA approves Rapivab to treat flu infection For Immediate Release December 22, 2014 Release ... infection in adults. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza ...

  15. Dog Flu Outbreak Unleashes Warnings from Veterinarians

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dog Flu Outbreak Unleashes Warnings From Veterinarians Pay attention ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- With more than 1,000 dogs sickened by a highly contagious dog flu in ...

  16. Phylogenesis and Clinical Aspects of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged and spread worldwide causing a pandemic influenza. Here, 329 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected from patients with flu-like symptoms were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of H1N1 2009 pandemic virus. Twenty-five samples collected from immunocompetent and immunodepressed patients contained the H1N1 pandemic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed no obvious differences in terms of similarity and/or homology between the sequences identified in immunocompetent individuals and those obtained from immunocompromised patients. Pre-existing clinical conditions may influence the outcome of H1N1 disease. PMID:21660186

  17. Phylogenesis and Clinical Aspects of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged and spread worldwide causing a pandemic influenza. Here, 329 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected from patients with flu-like symptoms were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of H1N1 2009 pandemic virus. Twenty-five samples collected from immunocompetent and immunodepressed patients contained the H1N1 pandemic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed no obvious differences in terms of similarity and/or homology between the sequences identified in immunocompetent individuals and those obtained from immunocompromised patients. Pre-existing clinical conditions may influence the outcome of H1N1 disease. PMID:21660186

  18. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

  19. Ecology and evolution of the flu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. D. Earn; Jonathan Dushoff; Simon A. Levin

    2002-01-01

    Influenza (flu) is a common infectious disease, but it is unusual in that the primary timescales for disease dynamics (epidemics) and viral evolution (new variants) are roughly the same. Recently, extraordinarily reliable phylogenetic reconstructions of flu virus evolution have been made using samples from both extant and extinct strains. In addition, because of their public health importance, flu epidemics have

  20. PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

  1. September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic The Health System's Non-Clinical Labor Pool is coordinating employee volunteers to assist with the kick off of Employee Health Services Flu Vaccination Season. Two Flu Clinics will be conducted simultaneously on Friday, October 1, 2010 at the PSSB courtyard

  2. Intranasal flu vaccine available this season.

    PubMed

    Piascik, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    FluMist provides a convenient alternative to the traditional flu shot. Use of a live attenuated virus that stimulates an immune response directly in the nasal passages has certain therapeutic advantages in some patients. However, the cost of this form of flu vaccine is likely to be borne entirely by the patient. PMID:14717271

  3. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Two LAIV Strains against Potentially Pandemic H2N2 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smolonogina, Tatiana; Rekstin, Andrey; van Amerongen, Geert; van Dijken, Harry; Mouthaan, Justin; Roholl, Paul; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Doroshenko, Elena; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Rudenko, Larisa

    2014-01-01

    H2N2 Influenza A caused the Asian flu pandemic in 1957, circulated for more than 10 years and disappeared from the human population after 1968. Given that people born after 1968 are naďve to H2N2, that the virus still circulates in wild birds and that this influenza subtype has a proven pandemic track record, H2N2 is regarded as a potential pandemic threat. To prepare for an H2N2 pandemic, here we developed and tested in mice and ferrets two live attenuated influenza vaccines based on the haemagglutinins of the two different H2N2 lineages that circulated at the end of the cycle, using the well characterized A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus as the backbone. The vaccine strains containing the HA and NA of A/California/1/66 (clade 1) or A/Tokyo/3/67 (clade 2) showed a temperature sensitive and cold adapted phenotype and a reduced reproduction that was limited to the respiratory tract of mice, suggesting that the vaccines may be safe for use in humans. Both vaccine strains induced haemagglutination inhibition titers in mice. Vaccination abolished virus replication in the nose and lung and protected mice from weight loss after homologous and heterologous challenge with the respective donor wild type strains. In ferrets, the live attenuated vaccines induced high virus neutralizing, haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition titers, however; the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 wt virus induced higher homologous and better cross-reactive antibody responses than the A/Tokyo/3/67 based vaccine. In line with this observation, was the higher virus reduction observed in the throat and nose of ferrets vaccinated with this vaccine after challenge with either of the wild type donor viruses. Moreover, both vaccines clearly reduced the infection-induced rhinitis observed in placebo-vaccinated ferrets. The results favor the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 isolate, which will be evaluated in a clinical study. PMID:25058039

  4. Crystal structure of the swine-origin A (H1N1)-2009 influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) reveals similar antigenicity to that of the 1918 pandemic virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; Jianxun Qi; Yi Shi; Qing Li; Feng Gao; Yeping Sun; Xishan Lu; Qiong Lu; Christopher J. Vavricka; Di Liu; Jinghua Yan; George F. Gao

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus is the causative agent of the seasonal and occasional pandemic flu. The current H1N1 influenza pandemic, announced\\u000a by the WHO in June 2009, is highly contagious and responsible for global economic losses and fatalities. Although the H1N1\\u000a gene segments have three origins in terms of host species, the virus has been named swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) due\\u000a to

  5. Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savard, Christian; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilčne; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic. PMID:21747909

  6. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

  7. Social Justice in Pandemic Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies. PMID:22397337

  8. Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu CDC recommends a three-step approach to fighting the flu. CDC recommends a three-step approach to fighting influenza (flu). The first and most important step is to get a flu vaccination each year. But if you get the flu

  9. Risk communications: in search of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Menon, K U

    2008-06-01

    This paper explores the difficulties in managing risk communications in the face of uncertainty of an avian flu pandemic over a protracted period. The communications effort has also been made more difficult by the confusion and cacophony in the media and claims by experts and politicians worldwide. While Singapore secured much praise for its handling of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) just 4 years earlier which threatened its very existence as a nation-state, it also had to "unlearn" and "unfix" assumptions and mindsets that grew out of that experience. A protracted crisis of uncertainty has also raised difficult questions of sustaining public awareness and alertness. Compounding these problems is the seemingly high reliance of Singaporeans on Government to manage the crisis at all stages. Risk communications has become a crucial necessity in an increasingly troubled world and evokes contradictions for many in medicine and public health - calling on Governments to raise the alarm whilst also calming fears at the same time. It is hoped that Singapore's experience throws up some useful lessons for other countries. The basic principles of risk communications employed are in line with the best practices adopted by many other countries. The experience may also contribute to the ongoing and somewhat contentious debate on whether the manner in which Singapore manages the information flow can be replicated or applied by other states and cultures. PMID:18618066

  10. Examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of domestic and international university students towards seasonal and pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and “non-pharmaceutical” community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic) in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what ‘pandemic influenza’ meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent “swine flu” situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that ‘students’ were capable of fighting off any illness. The participant’s nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective. PMID:22537252

  11. Human swine influenza A [H1N1]: practical advice for clinicians early in the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2009-09-01

    The influenza pandemic the world was waiting for may have arrived, but the early indications are that the first wave of human swine influenza A [H1N1], also referred to as H1N1 Mexico 09 or "swine flu", is highly transmissible but of no greater virulence than seasonal influenza to date. The new swine flu H1N1 virus is a mixture of avian, porcine and human influenza RNA. With twenty thousand confirmed cases worldwide and 117 deaths within 7 weeks of the first acknowledgement of a possible pandemic by Mexican and WHO experts, the mortality rate is less than 0.1% and the majority of deaths centred upon the origin of the epidemic in Mexico [83%]. Swine flu is thus far a relatively mild illness seen predominantly in those who are healthy and under 25 years of age, perhaps reflecting protection from previous human influenza exposure in older people. As the virus spreads internationally, border protection issues have surfaced and public health initiatives are being progressively rolled out to minimise the transmission. Vaccines are being developed which will be trialled in the coming months with a likely availability by August 2009, in time for the northern hemisphere autumn and winter. Vigilance without alarm appears to be the recommendation so far. PMID:19651387

  12. 2014 Flu Shot Clinic Schedule Sponsored by UW Benefits

    E-print Network

    Manchak, John

    2014 Flu Shot Clinic Schedule Sponsored by UW Benefits Date Time Location Room Links Monday.m. Seattle HUB 214 View Campus Map Download Printable Flyer Flu Resources: www.uw.edu/admin/hr/benefits/wellness/healthy/flu

  13. What Is the Best Protection against the Flu?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... A What is the best protection against the flu? YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/ ... 1 What is the best protection against the flu? The flu vaccine is your best defense for ...

  14. Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds Researchers reviewed ... the length of flu symptoms by about a day, and reduces the risk of flu-related complications ...

  15. Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S.; Hallman, Stacey A.; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D. Ann; Earn, David JD.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889–90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  16. Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S; Hallman, Stacey A; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D Ann; Earn, David J D; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  17. The Ethics of Care: Social Workers in an Influenza Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Rosoff

    2008-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations and government agencies are making detailed preparations for the possibility of a pandemic of highly virulent influenza. All plans to date have recognized that there will undoubtedly be a greater need for medical resources than will be available. Thus, we will be faced with a situation in which not all will be offered curative care, even if

  18. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  19. Meeting the Challenge of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Fedson

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries face unique difficulties in preparing for an influenza pandemic. Our current top-down approach will not provide these countries with adequate supplies of vaccines and antiviral agents. Consequently, they will have to use a bottom-up approach based on inexpensive generic agents that either modify the host response to influenza virus or act as antiviral agents. Several of these agents

  20. Evolutionary complexities of swine flu H1N1 gene sequences of 2009.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Niladri Kumar; Roy, Ayan; Das, Ballari; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2009-12-18

    A recently emerged novel influenza A (H1N1) virus continues to spread globally. The pandemic caused by this new H1N1 swine influenza virus presents an opportunity to analyze the evolutionary significance of the origin of the new strain of swine flu. Our study clearly suggests that strong purifying selection is responsible for the evolution of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus among human. We observed that the 2009 viral sequences are evolutionarily widely different from the past few years' sequences. Rather, the 2009 sequences are evolutionarily more similar to the most ancient sequence reported in the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database collected in 1918. Analysis of evolutionary rates also supports the view that all the genes in the pandemic strain of 2009 except NA and M genes are derived from triple reassorted swine viruses. Our study demonstrates the importance of using complete-genome approach as more sequences will become available to investigate the evolutionary origin of the 1918 influenza A (H1N1) swine flu strain and the possibility of future reassortment events. PMID:19769939

  1. Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Duesberg, Peter

    Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine IT IS GOOD TO SEE THAT THE CENTERS FOR Disease Control of flu vaccine," J. Couzin, News of the Week, 5 Nov., p. 960). They should also be seeking ways to reduce is the influenza vaccine in different age groups, and in preventing disease, mortality, and risk of transmitting

  2. Students and Staff The next flu

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Tiefeng

    1 Attn: UMR Students and Staff The next flu shot clinic will be held on Tuesday, Oct. 26 from 12's issue of Student Health 101 online at http:// readsh1 01.com/ umn.ht ml FLU SHOT CLINIC Where: Soldiers

  3. INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu Sudden onset of fever/chills, coughing, muscle aches, headache by nausea and/or vomiting, minor symptoms e.g. fatigue may last a few weeks Self-care if you get the flu

  4. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that use a sample from your nose or throat to find out if you have the flu. The tests work best if they are done within a day or 2 of the start of symptoms. So if you think you have the flu, call your doctor right away. When should cancer patients and survivors get anti-viral drugs to prevent ...

  5. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... others breathe in. Someone touches a doorknob, desk, computer, or counter with the flu virus on it and then touches their mouth, eyes, or nose. Someone touches mucus while taking care of a child or adult who is ill with the flu.

  6. University life and pandemic influenza: Attitudes and intended behaviour of staff and students towards pandemic (H1N1) 2009

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In a pandemic young adults are more likely to be infected, increasing the potential for Universities to be explosive disease outbreak centres. Outbreak management is essential to reduce the impact in both the institution and the surrounding community. Through the use of an online survey, we aimed to measure the perceptions and responses of staff and students towards pandemic (H1N1) 2009 at a major university in Sydney, Australia. Methods The survey was available online from 29 June to 30 September 2009. The sample included academic staff, general staff and students of the University. Results A total of 2882 surveys were completed. Nearly all respondents (99.6%, 2870/2882) were aware of the Australian pandemic situation and 64.2% (1851/2882) reported either "no anxiety" or "disinterest." Asian-born respondents were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to believe that the pandemic was serious compared to respondents from other regions. 75.9% (2188/2882) of respondents had not made any lifestyle changes as a result of the pandemic. Most respondents had not adopted any specific behaviour change, and only 20.8% (600/2882) had adopted the simplest health behaviour, i.e. hand hygiene. Adoption of a specific behaviour change was linked to anxiety and Asian origin. Students were more likely to attend the university if unwell compared with staff members. Positive responses from students strongly indicate the potential for expanding online teaching and learning resources for continuing education in disaster settings. Willingness to receive the pandemic vaccine was associated with seasonal influenza vaccination uptake over the previous 3 years. Conclusions Responses to a pandemic are subject to change in its pre-, early and mid-outbreak stages. Lessons for these institutions in preparation for a second wave and future disease outbreaks include the need to promote positive public health behaviours amongst young people and students. PMID:20226093

  7. Assessment of pandemic preparedness in a socially vulnerable community in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Kiltz, Linda; Fonseca, Diana; Rodriguez, Christina; Munoz, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain information about general and pandemic preparedness efforts of residents within San Patricio County in South Texas, as well as to identify the most effective means of communicating the risks posed by pandemic influenza. The population of San Patricio County is socially vulnerable to a variety of disasters, including influenza pandemics due to the unique demographic profile of the county as well as its location on the Gulf Coast. The goals of this study were to help with pandemic planning efforts and to provide recommendations that could serve as a foundation for building more resilient communities within San Patricio County. Clearly the various governmental levels must work together to assist communities prepare for pandemic preparedness but broad, inclusive community participation is also necessary to strengthen community resilience. PMID:24350552

  8. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03883.001 PMID:25321142

  9. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. PMID:25321142

  10. Behavioural responses to influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Balinska, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of the novel A/H1N1 virus has made pandemic preparedness a crucial issue for public health worldwide. Although the epidemiological aspects of the three 20th century influenza pandemics have been widely investigated, little is known about population behaviour in a pandemic situation. Such knowledge is however critical, notably for predicting population compliance with non pharmaceutical interventions. This paper reviews the relevant scientific literature for the 1918-1920, 1957-1958, 1969-1969 influenza epidemics and the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although the evidence base of most non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and personal protection measures is debated, it appears on the basis of past experience that NPIs implemented the most systematically, the earliest, and for the longest time could reduce overall mortality rates and spread out epidemic peaks. Adequate, transparent, and targeted communication on the part of public health authorities would be also of crucial importance in the event of a serious influenza pandemic. PMID:20025201

  11. Pandemic influenza preparedness: the critical role of the syringe.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kenneth; van Zundert, André; Frid, Anders; Costigliola, Vincenzo

    2006-05-29

    In the face of an almost unprecedented threat of a global pandemic of influenza it is imperative that stockpiling of appropriate drugs and devices begin now. One vital device is an appropriate syringe for delivering vaccine. With the potential for millions to be infected and the vaccine supply severely stretched it is imperative that the syringe used to vaccinate waste as little vaccine as possible and thus allow for a maximum number of persons to be vaccinated. Our study tested seven leading candidate vaccine syringes for dosing accuracy, dose-capacity per vial, medication wastage and a battery of ergonomic features. One device, the Flu+trade mark syringe, proved superior to the others in all important categories, possibly due to its low dead-space volume and its dosing accuracy. The data suggest that switching to this device from any of the others tested would provide between 2 and 19% additional vaccine doses per vial if the current 10-dose vials are used. Extrapolations from this data suggest that many thousands to millions of additional persons could be vaccinated in mass campaigns. Use of a syringe of this type, and the vaccine savings that would accrue, would likely be important in reducing morbidity and mortality in the event of a pandemic of influenza. PMID:16647790

  12. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  13. [Chile between pandemic: the influenza of 1918, globalization and the new medicine].

    PubMed

    López, Marcelo; Beltrán, Miriam

    2013-04-01

    In 1918 Chile met the deadly presence of the Spanish influenza pandemic twentieth century's most important. For many historians, this event is an important milestone in the historical process of the unification of the world through sickness and in which our country has been involved. In this context, this paper aims to examine how the flu broke into Chilean society and how that situation helped give new impetus to the modernization of the Chilean public health and the establishment in the 1920s to model new medicine or preventive medicine. PMID:23677160

  14. A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, the promise of a new universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary. However, due to complacency behavior, it remains unclear whether the introduction of such vaccines would maintain high and stable levels of vaccination coverage year after year. Findings To predict the impact of universal long-term flu vaccines on influenza epidemics we developed a mathematical model that linked human cognition and memory with the transmission dynamics of influenza. Our modeling shows that universal vaccines that provide short-term protection are likely to result in small frequent epidemics, whereas universal vaccines that provide long-term protection are likely to result in severe infrequent epidemics. Conclusions Influenza vaccines that provide short-term protection maintain risk awareness regarding influenza in the population and result in stable vaccination coverage. Vaccines that provide long-term protection could lead to substantial drops in vaccination coverage and should therefore include an annual epidemic risk awareness programs in order to minimize the risk of severe epidemics. PMID:20367882

  15. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Avian/Bird Flu) H1N1 (originally referred to as Swine Flu) The H1N1 flu virus caused a world- ... human seasonal flu virus that also circulates in pigs. While the H1N1 viruses have continued to circulate ...

  16. September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts

    E-print Network

    Number 12c September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts Getting immunized against influenza or the `flu' is a safe, effective and healthy choice to make. The influenza virus can cause, or flu shot, is the best protection against illness and complications. Many people use the term the `flu

  17. Flu Shots Program 2002 Fall 2003 Vol. 7 No. 2

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Flu Shots Program 2002 Fall 2003 Vol. 7 No. 2 This is a publication for the staff of The University of Texas at Dallas In This Issue: FLU SHOTS POINSETTIA SALES TECHNOLOGY FAIR CENTRAL STORES FAIR FLU SHOTS The Staff Council is again sponsoring flu shots for UTD staff. The shots will be available on November 11

  18. UHH Flu Vaccination Information 112409 Dear UH Hilo Students,

    E-print Network

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    UHH Flu Vaccination Information 112409 Dear UH Hilo Students, As part of the ongoing the vaccinations first. For more information please visit the CDC H1N1 website at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/, or the UHH Flu Information Page: http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/uhh/ehso/FluInformation.php. On behalf

  19. BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS At this time of year, flu is becoming more common and, even with swine flu, is usually not a severe disease. However, the symptoms of meningitis can superficially resemble those of flu, so beware. Below is a brief summary of how

  20. YOU DON'T HAVE TIME FOR THE FLU.

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    YOU DON'T HAVE TIME FOR THE FLU. HUMAN RESOURCES Programs Check www.purdue.edu/worklife to register will partner with Maxim Health Systems to provide seasonal flu shot appointments on the West Lafayette campus partner at least 24 hours in advance. Then show up with your PUID and get your flu shot. Seasonal flu

  1. October 24, 2012 Deadline for Flu Vaccine October 31, 2012

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    October 24, 2012 Deadline for Flu Vaccine ­ October 31, 2012 This year's deadline to get a flu shot is October 31, 2012. Employees who have not received a flu shot by then are required to wear a mask starting on November 1st and continuing through the end of flu season. Employees in academic and administrative offices

  2. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  3. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  4. Isolation of a High Affinity Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Virus That Binds at the ‘Sa’ Antigenic Site

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arpita; Yeolekar, Leena; Dhere, Rajeev; Kapre, Subhash; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (KD?=?2.1±0.4 pM) murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC50?=?0.08 µg/ml). MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml) against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic) on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein ‘Sa’ and ‘Sb’ sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the ‘Sa’ antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus. PMID:23383214

  5. University Health Services 01/14/2014 Flu activity increasing; H1N1 strain; get your flu shot

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    University Health Services 01/14/2014 Flu activity increasing; H1N1 strain; get your flu shot and staff to take simple preventive actions to limit the spread of seasonal influenza (flu). Health officials throughout the nation and Wisconsin are seeing increasing levels of flu-related illnesses

  6. Pandemic preparedness and the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT).

    PubMed

    Cox, Nancy J; Trock, Susan C; Burke, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Influenza infections have resulted in millions of deaths and untold millions of illnesses throughout history. Influenza vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza prevention and control. Recommendations are made by the World Health Organization (WHO) 6-9 months in advance of the influenza season regarding what changes, if any, should be made in the formulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. This allows time to manufacture, test, distribute, and administer vaccine prior to the beginning of the influenza season. At the same time experts also consider which viruses not currently circulating in the human population, but with pandemic potential, pose the greatest risk to public health. Experts may conclude that one or more of these viruses are of enough concern to warrant development of a high-growth reassortant candidate vaccine virus. Subsequently, national authorities may determine that a vaccine should be manufactured, tested in clinical trials, and even stockpiled in some circumstances. The Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) was created in an effort to develop a standardized set of elements that could be applied for decision making when evaluating pre-pandemic viruses. The tool is a simple, additive model, based on multi-attribute decision analysis . The ultimate goal is to identify an appropriate candidate vaccine virus and prepare a human vaccine before the virus adapts to infect and efficiently transmit in susceptible human populations. This pre-pandemic preparation allows production of vaccine-a strategy that could save lives and mitigate illness during a pandemic. PMID:25085014

  7. A study to identify winning strategies for the business community during the next pandemic.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the healthcare system and the corporate sector to answer the following research question: how does the healthcare system best prepare small to medium-sized businesses for the next pandemic influenza? Data were collected and collated through a literature review, electronic survey and semi-structured follow-up telephone interviews. The participants were businesses with membership in the Alberta Chambers of Commerce, a provincial lobby group in Alberta, Canada. The findings indicate strategies that were effective in minimising impact to the business community during the H1N1 pandemic and suggest areas for the business community to improve in preparation for the next pandemic influenza. Recommendations focus on establishing new links for communication between the business community and the healthcare sector and improving strategies to increase the resilience of small to medium-sized businesses for the next pandemic influenza. PMID:23835426

  8. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking Staying Safe Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help ...

  9. The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza Troy Day1,2,*, Jean-Baptiste Andre´2,3 and Andrew¨bendorf, Switzerland 5 Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland Pandemic influenza of pandemic influenza strains remain incompletely understood. Here, we develop a stochastic model

  10. A BRIEF REVIEW ON TWO PANDEMIC ZOONOSES

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    THE ARENA OF ZOONOSES 3 PANDEMIC ZOONOSES 5 PLAGE PANDEMICS 6 The Justinian Plague 6 The Black Death 6 AVIAN (SARS), Ebola-virus, West-Nile virus, bubonic plague and monkeypox with following human fatalities and bubonic plague carry the potential of fatal impact on humans through epidemics and pandemics

  11. Controlling avian flu at the source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Webster; Diane Hulse

    2005-01-01

    Global agricultural authorities should harmonize with the public-health sector to ensure the exchange of flu virus samples, and establish a single international standard for vaccines, say Robert Webster and Diane Hulse.

  12. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... concerns. The results of this study were recently published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology . ... study of flu vaccine and spontaneous abortions were published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ...

  13. Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eunsun

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(?2-3) or sialyl(?2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(?2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(?2-3) or short length sialyl(?2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

  14. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  15. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a pandemic, tracking the severity, molecular and phenotypic characterization of the viruses and confirming whether ILI incidence is truly related to influenza virus infections. GIS showed that web-based, self-reported ILI can be a useful addition, especially if virological self-sampling is added and an epidemic threshold could be determined. GFT showed negligible added value. PMID:24063523

  16. A Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Facility Pandemic Response Plan

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Lingenhol, Naomi M; Baker, Bryan; Wilkerson, Amy; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2010-01-01

    The potential of a severe influenza pandemic necessitates the development of an organized, rational plan for continued laboratory animal facility operation without compromise of the welfare of animals. A comprehensive laboratory animal program pandemic response plan was integrated into a university-wide plan. Preparation involved input from all levels of organizational hierarchy including the IACUC. Many contingencies and operational scenarios were considered based on the severity and duration of the influenza pandemic. Trigger points for systematic action steps were based on the World Health Organization's phase alert criteria. One extreme scenario requires hibernation of research operations and maintenance of reduced numbers of laboratory animal colonies for a period of up to 6 mo. This plan includes active recruitment and cross-training of volunteers for essential personnel positions, protective measures for employee and family health, logistical arrangements for delivery and storage of food and bedding, the removal of waste, and the potential for euthanasia. Strategies such as encouraging and subsidizing cryopreservation of unique strains were undertaken to protect valuable research assets and intellectual property. Elements of this plan were put into practice after escalation of the pandemic alerts due to influenza A (H1N1) in April 2009. PMID:20858365

  17. Factors Affecting Acceptance and Intention to Receive Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Vaccine among Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Birmingham, UK

    PubMed Central

    Janks, Michaela; Cooke, Sara; Odedra, Aimee; Kang, Harkeet; Bellman, Michelle; Jordan, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    UK pandemic influenza strategy focused on vaccination of high risk groups, although evidence shows that school-age children have the highest infection rates. Vaccination of children might be an additional strategy. We undertook a cross-sectional study amongst 149 parents of primary school children aged 4–7 years in Birmingham, UK to quantify intention to accept pandemic influenza vaccine and identify factors affecting uptake. Ninety-one (61.1%, 95% CI 52.8, 68.9) had or would accept vaccine for their child. The most common reasons for declining vaccine were concerns about safety (58.6% reported this), side effects (55.2%), or believing their child had already had swine flu (12.1%). Parents of nonwhite ethnicity (OR 2.4 (1.1, 5.0)) and with asthmatic children (OR 6.6 (1.4, 32.1)) were significantly more likely to accept pandemic vaccine, as were those whose children had ever received seasonal vaccine and those who believed swine flu to be a serious threat (OR 4.2 (1.9, 9.1)). Parents would be more likely to accept vaccination if they received a letter of invite, if the government strongly encouraged them, if it were administered at school, and if it were more thoroughly tested. Accurate media portrayal of safety of the vaccine during future pandemics will be essential. PMID:23150815

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was preceded by falling temperatures. Climate influences on pandemic spread seem important and should be further investigated. PMID:25011543

  19. Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

    2014-03-14

    During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza. PMID:24622286

  20. Colds and the Flu: H1N1 Influenza

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is H1N1 influenza? H1N1 influenza (also known as swine flu) is an infection caused by a virus. ... spring 2009. At first, the infection was called swine flu because early tests showed that the virus ...

  1. Bird Flu Spreads Across China, Posing Threat to People

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bird Flu Spreads Across China, Posing Threat to People: ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Animal Diseases and Your Health Bird Flu International Health WEDNESDAY, March 11, 2015 (HealthDay ...

  2. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu that's been going around? Or just a common cold ? Although the flu (or influenza ) usually causes symptoms ... someone feel worse than symptoms associated with a common cold, it's not always easy to tell the difference ...

  3. What Should I Do If My Child Gets the Flu?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... should I do if my child gets the flu? YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/ ... should I do if my child gets the flu? Dr. Bruce Gellin, Director, National Vaccine Program Office, ...

  4. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Even Less Effective Than Thought: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Even Less Effective Than Thought: CDC And ... 2015) Friday, February 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- This ...

  5. Just Half of Nursing Home Staff Getting Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Just Half of Nursing Home Staff Getting Flu Vaccine Lack of immunization may put nursing home ... Preidt Tuesday, February 3, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization Infection Control TUESDAY, Feb. 3, 2015 (HealthDay ...

  6. Bird Flu Poses Little Threat to People: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bird Flu Poses Little Threat to People: CDC Genetic analysis ... MedlinePlus Pages Animal Diseases and Your Health Bird Flu WEDNESDAY, April 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The bird ...

  7. The Flu Buddy System To reduce the risk of a student with swine flu passing on the infection to others, they

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    The Flu Buddy System To reduce the risk of a student with swine flu passing on the infection and will not be routinely visited by the doctor. During this time, having a flu buddy will provide students with help and support they need to aid their recovery. What is a flu buddy? Why do you need one? The flu buddy

  8. PhD in Public and Community Health Faculty Department/Institute Faculty Classification

    E-print Network

    interventions, coalition building and public health policy; childhood asthma, health disparities, nutrition issues of justice, bioterrorism defense and response, childhood vaccinations, and pandemic flu prepare

  9. Team work project 1A The bird flu

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    Team work project 1A The bird flu By Huy Quang Nguyen Kari Johanne Kihle Attramadal Brattøra................................................................................................................. 3 2. What is the bird flu? And which virus cause bird flu? What is the situation now?.... 3 3. How protect yourself if you have been in contact with potentially infection birds

  10. Shot in the Dark? Debunking Myths About Swine Flu Vaccine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Hutchings

    2009-10-16

    What precautions should you take against the H1N1 flu? Should you get the vaccine? In this lesson, students identify and debunk some of the myths surrounding H1N1 flu, or swine flu, and the new vaccine for it.

  11. Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu?

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu? Fever Body Aches, disinfectant wipes, antiseptic hand gel and tissue to avoid extra trips out while sick. What To Do If Flu EMPLOYEE SHOULD DEVELOP FLU SYMPTOMS Send employee home and have employee seek medical attention

  12. Guidelines on Flu-Related Absences September 8, 2009

    E-print Network

    Boonstra, Rudy

    Guidelines on Flu-Related Absences September 8, 2009 Students who suspect they have H1N1 influenza or who are experiencing flu symptoms should stay at home or in their residence room in order to help to record all flu-related absences through a new tool on the Student Web Service of ROSI (www

  13. A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer

    E-print Network

    A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer A team of researchers from the State University strains that protect mice from wild-type flu virus.1 The researchers think the strategy could lead to generate strains for the one marketed product, the seasonal FluMist vaccine. Traditional techniques

  14. FluPhone study: virtual disease spread using haggle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiko Yoneki

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the FluPhone project, where data collection of human contact, flu-like symptoms and virtual disease spread are experimented using various phones ranging Java phones to Android phones. FluPhone uses Pocket Switched Networks as base and exploits the framework of the Haggle project.

  15. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu

  16. Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2012-02-13

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

  17. A Nonlinear Pattern Recognition of Pandemic H1N1 Using a State Space Based Methods.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Mai S

    2011-01-01

    Genomic Signal Processing is a relatively new field in bioinformatics, in which signal processing algorithms and methods are used to study functional structures in the DNA. An appropriate mapping of the DNA sequence into one or more numerical sequences enables the use of many digital signal processing tools in the analysis of different genomic sequences. Also, a novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged in the spring of 2009 and spread very rapidly among people. The severity of the disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus varies greatly and can change over time. Throughout this work, Pandemic H1N1 genomic sequences were characterized according to nonlinear dynamical features such as moment invariants and largest Lyapunov exponents and then compared to those features that extracted from classical H1N1 genomic sequences. The proposed methods were applied to a number of sequences encoded into a time series using a coding measure scheme employing Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP). The aim of this work is to extract genomic features that can distinguish the new swine flu from the classical H1N1 existed before using sequences from segment 8 of the influenza genome that consists of 8 RNA segments which encodes two important proteins for immune system attack (NS1 and NS2). According to the obtained results it is evident that variability is present based on a significance test in both groups; pandemic and classical H1N1 sequences. PMID:23407581

  18. The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Graeme Laver; Norbert Bischofberger; Robert G. Webster

    2000-01-01

    In 1918 an epidemic of influenza killed 20 million people worldwide. Spanish flu, as it was called, was a horrific disease. The flu would start with headaches, muscular pain, and fever. These would be rapidly followed by vomiting, dizziness, labored breathing, and profuse sweating. Sometimes purple blisters would appear on the skin, and often blood would spurt out of the

  19. [Influenza: a four-year evolution of the pandemic. Prof. Alejandro Posadas National Hospital, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Siciliani, Daniel D; Cabral, Graciela; Pingray, Verónica; Borda, María E; Aranaz, Alicia; Miceli, Isabel N P

    2014-01-01

    As from January to August 2013, epidemiological weeks 1-35 (EW), Influenza incidence, case characteristics, types and subtypes of circulating influenza virus in the Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas Hospital were studied, and were compared to incidences during 2009-2012. From late May to the end of August 2013 (EW18-35), an increase was observed in the proportion of patients' visits for respiratory disease, influenza-like illness and hospitalizations due to pneumonia; of 207 cases diagnosed with influenza A virus, 153 were infected by H1N1pdm09, 46 by H3, and eight without subtype. The highest proportion of cases was found in children under five years of age, followed by the group 60-64. The chances of having the illness were three times greater among the group 40-64 years old compared to 15-39 or those older than 64. Mortality, which increased with age, was 7.2%, and the odds of death were six times higher among those older than 64. Vaccination rate among the cases was 11.6%. None of the fatal cases had received the vaccine. After the 2009 pandemic, the proportions of annual patients' visits decreased until 2012; in 2013, an increase of 52.0% during the winter period compared to 2012. The viral circulation started earlier in 2013 compared to previous years. FLU-A(H1N1pdm) was the predominant circulating virus in 2009 and 2013, FLU-A(H3) in 2011, FLU-A(H3) and FLU-B in both 2010 and 2012. PMID:24918665

  20. “Filoviruses”: a real pandemic threat?

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2009-01-01

    Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses. PMID:20049699

  1. F-BF Flu on Campus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose the swine flu, influenza H1N1, is spreading on a school campus. The following table shows the number of students, $n$, that have the flu $d$ da...

  2. Getting the "Edge" on the Next Flu Pandemic: We Should'a "Node" Better

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela B. Shiflet

    Curricular materials designed to teach computational modeling to undergraduate or graduate students in science and other STEM disciplines. The module teaches the construction of a graphical network-based model of epidemiology and social networks using Mathematica.

  3. Training security officers to recognize the perils of weapons of mass destruction and pandemic flu contaminates.

    PubMed

    Luizzo, Anthony J; Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively manage disasters, hospital security operatives need to learn the ABC's of diagnosing exposure models, spotting exposed persons, and donning appropriate contaminate-controlling attire to limit potential exposure. This article spells out how the establishment of a WMD training program gives the Security Department the capability of helping to contain WMD exposures before they adversely impact the institutional setting. The department's "awesome" role in keeping hospitals free from contamination requires, according to the authors, dedicated, well trained, appropriately equipped, and highly motivated security officers who keep a watchful eye over the institutions they protect. PMID:17907601

  4. Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

    2008-01-01

    This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

  5. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths. PMID:19997956

  6. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA) toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI) response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission while preparation for later pandemic stages was limited. The interfaces and linkages between health system contexts and pandemic preparedness programmes in these countries were explored. Conclusion Health system context influences how the six countries have been preparing themselves for a pandemic. At the same time, investment in pandemic preparation in the six Asian countries has contributed to improvement in health system surveillance, laboratory capacity, monitoring and evaluation and public communications. A number of suggestions for improvement were presented to strengthen the pandemic preparation and mitigation as well as to overcome some of the underlying health system constraints. PMID:20529345

  7. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future. PMID:19802552

  8. Effective, Robust Design of Community Mitigation for Pandemic Influenza: A Systematic Examination of Proposed US Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Min, H. Jason; Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The US government proposes pandemic influenza mitigation guidance that includes isolation and antiviral treatment of ill persons, voluntary household member quarantine and antiviral prophylaxis, social distancing of individuals, school closure, reduction of contacts at work, and prioritized vaccination. Is this the best strategy combination? Is choice of this strategy robust to pandemic uncertainties? What are critical enablers of community resilience? Methods and Findings We systematically simulate a broad range of pandemic scenarios and mitigation strategies using a networked, agent-based model of a community of explicit, multiply-overlapping social contact networks. We evaluate illness and societal burden for alterations in social networks, illness parameters, or intervention implementation. For a 1918-like pandemic, the best strategy minimizes illness to <1% of the population and combines network-based (e.g. school closure, social distancing of all with adults' contacts at work reduced), and case-based measures (e.g. antiviral treatment of the ill and prophylaxis of household members). We find choice of this best strategy robust to removal of enhanced transmission by the young, additional complexity in contact networks, and altered influenza natural history including extended viral shedding. Administration of age-group or randomly targeted 50% effective pre-pandemic vaccine with 7% population coverage (current US H5N1 vaccine stockpile) had minimal effect on outcomes. In order, mitigation success depends on rapid strategy implementation, high compliance, regional mitigation, and rigorous rescinding criteria; these are the critical enablers for community resilience. Conclusions Systematic evaluation of feasible, recommended pandemic influenza interventions generally confirms the US community mitigation guidance yields best strategy choices for pandemic planning that are robust to a wide range of uncertainty. The best strategy combines network- and case-based interventions; network-based interventions are paramount. Because strategies must be applied rapidly, regionally, and stringently for greatest benefit, preparation and public education is required for long-lasting, high community compliance during a pandemic. PMID:18596963

  9. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  10. A Case of American Education Flu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that the American educational system's penchant for testing may be likened to an educational flu. Notes that teachers feel increasing pressure to abandon techniques that are engaging if they are not specifically aimed at performance on test day. Contends that the American educational system needs to keep pace with international…

  11. Influenza Vaccines Have a Short but Illustrious History of Dedicated Science Enabling the Rapid Global Production of A\\/Swine (H1N1) Vaccine in the Current Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Oxford; Anthony Gilbert; Robert Lambkin-Williams

    \\u000a Vaccines for the swine flu pandemic of 2009 have been produced in an exquisitely short time frame. This speed of production\\u000a comes because of 50 years of hard work by virologists worldwide in pharma groups, research laboratories, and government licensing\\u000a units. The present chapter presents the background framework of influenza vaccine production and its evolution over 50 years.\\u000a Isolation of

  12. About seasonal flu vaccine It's the best way to reduce your risk

    E-print Network

    About seasonal flu vaccine · It's the best way to reduce your risk of contracting seasonal flu. · Seasonal flu vaccine is currently avail- able as a shot or (for those eligible) inhaled flu mist. · Seasonal flu vaccine is FREE to en- rolled Cornell students, staff, and fac- ulty. Cornell retirees

  13. Market incentives for pandemic influenza vaccines

    E-print Network

    Preis, Julia Kay

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 100 million plus individuals could perish if a virulent influenza pandemic were to occur. In wake of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic and in an era of economic austerity, however, industry lacks clear ...

  14. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  15. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  16. Monitoring influenza activity in Europe with Google Flu Trends: comparison with the findings of sentinel physician networks - results for 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, A; Lopez-Alcalde, J; Vicente, M; Pichiule, M; Ruiz, M; Ordobas, M

    2010-01-01

    The number of Internet searches has recently been used by Google to estimate the influenza incidence in the United States. We examined the correlation between the Google Flu Trends tool and sentinel networks estimates in several European countries during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic and found a good correlation between estimates and peak incidence timing, with the highest peaks in countries where Internet is most frequently used for health-related searching. Although somehow limited, Google could be a valuable tool for syndromic surveillance. PMID:20667303

  17. The elusive definition of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There has been considerable controversy over the past year, particularly in Europe, over whether the World Health Organization (WHO) changed its definition of pandemic influenza in 2009, after novel H1N1 influenza was identified. Some have argued that not only was the definition changed, but that it was done to pave the way for declaring a pandemic. Others claim that the definition was never changed and that this allegation is completely unfounded. Such polarized views have hampered our ability to draw important conclusions. This impasse, combined with concerns over potential conflicts of interest and doubts about the proportionality of the response to the H1N1 influenza outbreak, has undermined the public trust in health officials and our collective capacity to effectively respond to future disease threats. WHO did not change its definition of pandemic influenza for the simple reason that it has never formally defined pandemic influenza. While WHO has put forth many descriptions of pandemic influenza, it has never established a formal definition and the criteria for declaring a pandemic caused by the H1N1 virus derived from “pandemic phase” definitions, not from a definition of “pandemic influenza”. The fact that despite ten years of pandemic preparedness activities no formal definition of pandemic influenza has been formulated reveals important underlying assumptions about the nature of this infectious disease. In particular, the limitations of “virus-centric” approaches merit further attention and should inform ongoing efforts to “learn lessons” that will guide the response to future outbreaks of novel infectious diseases. PMID:21734768

  18. Flu virus continues to evolve in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine can be infected with human- and avian-adapted influenza viruses, which has labeled pigs as "mixing vessels" for generating novel, genetically diverse viruses that may have epidemic or pandemic potential. However, it has been documented that humans, some species of birds and other mammals may a...

  19. Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  20. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  1. 3.8 Million Chickens to Be Killed After Bird Flu Outbreak At Iowa Farm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 8 Million Chickens To Be Killed After Bird Flu Outbreak at Iowa Farm Experts stress this strain ... Tuesday, April 21, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Bird Flu TUESDAY, April 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Bird flu ...

  2. Low Clinical Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection during Pregnancy on the Island of La Réunion

    PubMed Central

    Gérardin, Patrick; El Amrani, Rachid; Cyrille, Béatrice; Gabričle, Marc; Guillermin, Philippe; Boukerrou, Malik; Boumahni, Brahim; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Winer, Arnaud; Rouanet, Jean-Fabien; Bohrer, Michel; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Barau, Georges; Michault, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Background Pregnant women have been identified as a group at risk, both for respiratory complications than for the admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pdm). The purpose of this prospective register-based cohort-study was to characterize the clinical virulence of the pdm (H1N1/09)v during pregnancy in La Réunion. Methods/Principal Findings Over a twelve-week pdm wave (13 July to 3 October 2009), 294 pregnant women presented with an influenza-like illness (ILI) to one of the three maternity departments of the South Reunion area, Indian Ocean. Out of these, 278 were checked by RT-PCR for influenza viruses (157 positive and 121 negative, of whom, 141 with pdm flu and 132 with ILIs of non pdm origin, 5 untyped). The median body temperature was higher in women experiencing pdm flu than in those with non pdm ILI (38.9°C versus 38.3°C, P<0.0001), without evidence linked to circulating viremia. Oseltamivir was given for 86% of pdm flu cases in a median time inferior than 48 hrs (range 0–7 days). The hospitalization rate for pdm flu was of 60% and not associated with underlying conditions. Six viral pneumonia and fourteen asthma attacks were observed among 84 hospitalized pdm flu cases, of whom, only one led to the ICU for an acute lung injury. No maternal death occurred during the pdm wave. None adverse pregnancy outcome was associated with pdm flu. No congenital birth defect, nor early-onset neonatal influenza infection was attributable to pdm flu exposure. Conclusions/Significance This report mitigates substantially the presumed severity of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza infection during pregnancy. The reasons for which the clinical burden of H1N1/09 influenza virus may differ worldwide raise questions about a differential local viral-strain effect and public health preparedness, notably in timely access to special care and antiviral treatments. PMID:20531946

  3. [Short communication: Evaluation of the flu vaccine administered to health care workers in Trakya University Hospital in 2006].

    PubMed

    Kulo?lu, Figen; Celik', Aygül Do?an; Yulu?kural, Zerrin; Erkan, Tülay; Keskin, Serap; Akata, Filiz

    2008-01-01

    After the detection of human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Eastern Turkey in January 2006, Turkish Ministry of Health has had declared "National Plans of Activity for Pandemic Influenza". All health-care facilities were recommended to develop contingency plans. Then the essential activities were started in August 2006 in Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine (Edirne, Trace region of Turkey), and institutional education about pandemic influenza and preventive measures was implemented to health care workers (HCWs). In November 2006, health care workers were offered inactivated flu vaccine (Vaxigrip, Sanofi Pasteur, France) supplied by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this questionary survey was to evaluate the visions and conceptions of health care workers about influenza vaccination during the vaccination campaign. All the participants were informed by using an information form including the indications, contraindications and possible adverse reactions of flu vaccine, and were requested to complete the questionnaire about influenza vaccination according to their own perception before vaccination. Vaccine recipients were also invited to the vaccination unit if they had any adverse reaction. A total of 1041 HCWs (560 female, 481 male; mean age: 32.8 +/- 8.2 years) completed the questionnaire. Of them 884 subjects (85%) have accepted to be vaccinated, while 157 subjects (15%) have not. It was determined that 72 HCWs (6.9%) had been administered flu vaccine in 2005, and 38 (3.7%) have had an underlying chronic disease requiring medical therapy. Six subjects (16%) with an underlying chronic disease were vaccinated in 2005, while 66 HCWs (6.6%) without any chronic disease received vaccination voluntarily. Seven workers (0.7%) declined vaccination as they defined hypersensitivity to egg, and 84 workers (8%) had influenza vaccine voluntarily before the campaign in 2006. Sixty six workers (6.3%) have refused to be vaccinated as they considered influenza vaccination ineffective to protect against flu. Two workers (0.2%) had allergic skin reactions such as erythema and itching after vaccination. It can be concluded that influenza vaccination of the health care workers is a part of infection control policies and it is also a matter of patient safety. The implementation of necessary education programmes and attempts to emphasize the importance of vaccination of health care workers especially dealing with high risk patients, would be of crucial importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality due to influenza infections. PMID:18444572

  4. Stockpiling Supplies for the Next Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Magalian, Paul D.; Hollingsworth, Mary Kay; Baracco, Gio

    2009-01-01

    Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems. PMID:21970033

  5. Pandemic Influenza: A Never-Ending Story

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    A novel pandemic influenza emerged in 2009, something that hasn't been seen since 1977. The following issues will be introduced and discussed in this review: the history of influenza pandemics, the emergence of the novel pandemic influenza of 2009, epidemics in the southern and northern hemispheres after the recognition of index cases in the United States, mortality, viral characteristics, prevention in the household setting, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment and immunization. Some questions have been answered. However, a number of other questions remain. Scientific research must follow up on these unanswered questions. PMID:24031128

  6. Effectiveness of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines in preventing pandemic influenza-associated hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Saez, Marc; Soldevila, Núria; Quintana, José María; Mayoral, José María; Astray, Jenaro; González-Candelas, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Tamames, Sonia; Castro, Ady; Baricot, Maretva; Alonso, Jordi; Pumarola, Tomás

    2012-08-17

    Vaccines are leading pharmacological measures for limiting the impact of pandemic influenza in the community. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of influenza (pandemic and seasonal) vaccines in preventing pandemic influenza-associated hospitalization. We conducted a multicenter matched case-control study in 36 Spanish hospitals. Patients hospitalized with confirmed pandemic influenza between November 2009 and February 2010 and two hospitalized controls per case, matched according to age, date of hospitalization and province of residence, were selected. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. Subjects were considered vaccinated if they had received the vaccine >14 days (seasonal influenza vaccine) or >7 days (pandemic influenza vaccine) before the onset of symptoms (cases) or the onset of symptoms of the matched case (controls). For the pandemic influenza vaccine, vaccination effectiveness (VE) was estimated taking into account only patients recruited from November 23, 2009, seven days after the beginning of the pandemic influenza vaccination campaign. 638 cases and 1250 controls were included. The adjusted VE of the pandemic vaccine in the ?18 years age group was 74.2% (95% CI, 29-90) and that of the influenza seasonal vaccine 15.0% (-34 to 43). The recommendation of influenza vaccination should be reinforced as a regular measure to reduce influenza-associated hospitalization during pandemics and seasonal epidemics. PMID:22796136

  7. Pandemic preparedness with live attenuated influenza vaccines based on A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Larisa; Isakova-Sivak, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Continuously evolving avian influenza viruses pose a constant threat to the human public health. In response to this threat, a number of pandemic vaccine candidates have been prepared and evaluated in animal models and clinical trials. This review summarizes the data from the development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) based on Russian master donor virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57. LAIV candidates of H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H1N1 and H2N2 subtypes were safe, immunogenic and protected animals from challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses. Clinical trials of the pandemic LAIVs demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity for healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine viruses were infectious, genetically stable and did not transmit to unvaccinated contacts. In addition, here we discuss criteria for the assessment of pandemic LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy necessary for their licensure. PMID:25555687

  8. Alberta family physicians’ willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Effective pandemic responses rely on frontline healthcare workers continuing to work despite increased risk to themselves. Our objective was to investigate Alberta family physicians willingness to work during an influenza pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Alberta prior to the fall wave of the H1N1 epidemic. Participants: 192 participants from a random sample of 1000 Alberta family physicians stratified by region. Main Outcome Measures: Willingness to work through difficult scenarios created by an influenza epidemic. Results The corrected response rate was 22%. The most physicians who responded were willing to continue working through some scenarios caused by a pandemic, but in other circumstances less than 50% would continue. Men were more willing to continue working than women. In some situations South African and British trained physicians were more willing to continue working than other groups. Conclusions Although many physicians intend to maintain their practices in the event of a pandemic, in some circumstances fewer are willing to work. Pandemic preparation requires ensuring a workforce is available. Healthcare systems must provide frontline healthcare workers with the support and resources they need to enable them to continue providing care. PMID:23800113

  9. Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Swine and other animals.

    PubMed

    Keenliside, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus infection has been reported in a variety of mammalian and avian species. Wild waterfowl such as ducks and geese are considered the principal reservoir of many influenza A viruses. On May 2, 2009, the first confirmed case of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) in animals was reported in a small swine herd in Canada. A public health investigation concluded that transmission from people to pigs was the likely source of infection. Subsequently the pH1N1 virus has been reported in turkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets, and several wildlife species. Human to animal transmission has been confirmed or suspected in a number of cases. The naming of the virus as "swine flu" in the international media led to a drop in the demand for pork and subsequently a reduction in the price of pork paid to farmers. Estimates of losses to pork producers in North America run into hundreds of millions of dollars. Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses. In order to be successful, future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers. PMID:23254339

  10. Effective Detection of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Centers Using a National Electronic Biosurveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Patricia; Lucero, Cynthia; Oda, Gina; Lopez, Jessica; Holodniy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background The 2008–09 influenza season was the time in which the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) utilized an electronic biosurveillance system for tracking and monitoring of influenza trends. The system, known as ESSENCE or Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics, was monitored for the influenza season as well as for a rise in influenza cases at the start of the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. We also describe trends noted in influenza-like illness (ILI) outpatient encounter data in VA medical centers during the 2008–09 influenza season, before and after the recognition of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined prevalence of ILI coded visits using VA's ESSENCE for 2008–09 seasonal influenza (Sept. 28, 2008–April 25, 2009 corresponding to CDC 2008–2009 flu season weeks 40–16) and the early period of pandemic H1N1 2009 (April 26, 2009–July 31, 2009 corresponding to CDC 2008–2009 flu season weeks 17–30). Differences in diagnostic ICD-9-CM code frequencies were analyzed using Chi-square and odds ratios. There were 649,574 ILI encounters captured representing 633,893 patients. The prevalence of VA ILI visits mirrored the CDC's Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (ILINet) data with peaks in late December, early February, and late April/early May, mirroring the ILINet data; however, the peaks seen in the VA were smaller. Of 31 ILI codes, 6 decreased and 11 increased significantly during the early period of pandemic H1N1 2009. The ILI codes that significantly increased were more likely to be symptom codes. Although influenza with respiratory manifestation (487.1) was the most common code used among 150 confirmed pandemic H1N1 2009 cases, overall it significantly decreased since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions/Significance VA ESSENCE effectively detected and tracked changing ILI trends during pandemic H1N1 2009 and represents an important temporal alerting system for monitoring health events in VA facilities. PMID:20209055

  11. The genesis of a pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Russell, Charles J; Webster, Robert G

    2005-11-01

    Pandemic influenza viruses pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. In a recent Nature paper, Taubenberger et al. (2005) now report remarkable similarities between the polymerase genes of the influenza virus that caused the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and those of avian influenza viruses. Meanwhile, Tumpey et al. (2005) reporting in Science show that the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza virus kills mice faster than any other influenza virus so far tested. PMID:16269328

  12. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

  13. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

  15. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

  16. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

  17. Flu's Grip on U.S. Starting to Weaken: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu's Grip on U.S. Starting to Weaken: CDC Some ... 2015) Thursday, January 29, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Jan. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- After ...

  18. Only 23 Percent Protection from This Year's Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Only 23 Percent Protection From This Year's Flu Vaccine CDC urges early antiviral treatment if symptoms ... 2015) Thursday, January 15, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Jan. 15, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. ...

  19. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-print Network

    Diggle, Peter J.

    diabetes insomnia e cancer stroke embolism smoking obesity swine flu high blood pres parkinson's stress insomnia e cancer stroke embolism smoking obesity swine flu high blood pres parkinson's stress depression m stiffness heart attack paralysis lo blood pressure asthma bowel can spina bifida diabetes insomnia e cancer

  20. Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the ... What Drives Seasonal Flu Patterns This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  1. Scientists Find Gene They Say Affects Flu Shot Response

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Thursday, December 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Genes and Gene Therapy Immunization THURSDAY, Dec. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers ... All rights reserved. More Health News on: Flu Genes and Gene Therapy Immunization Recent Health News Page last updated on ...

  2. Trust During the Early Stages of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    FREIMUTH, VICKI S.; MUSA, DON; HILYARD, KAREN; QUINN, SANDRA CROUSE; KIM, KEVIN

    2013-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the public’s trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and identify factors that might account for these trust levels. We surveyed 1543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009 and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks (KN) online panel. This panel is representative of the US population, and uses a combination of random-digit dial and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the US household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, KN provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. We found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic did predict vaccine acceptance later but only for white, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  3. Trust during the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Vicki S; Musa, Don; Hilyard, Karen; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kim, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this article is to describe the public's trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and to identify factors that might account for these trust levels. The authors surveyed 1,543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009, and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks online panel. This panel is representative of the U.S. population and uses a combination of random digit dialing and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the U.S. household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, Knowledge Networks provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. The authors found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases, and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic predicted vaccine acceptance later but only for White, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  4. Case report: cystic fibrosis, lung transplantation, and the novel H1N1 flu.

    PubMed

    Bresci, S; Borchi, B; Ambu, S; Taccetti, G; Braggion, C; Leoncini, F

    2010-01-01

    The H1N1 pandemic flu is a significant risk factor for both patients with chronic disease who need organ transplantation and transplant recipients. This population needs special care regarding comorbidities and related complications. MB, a 38-year-old Italian cystic fibrosis male patient with lung and pancreatic involvement, was referred to our division in July 2009 for fever-associated arthromyalgia, headache, and rhinitis. Lung transplantation had been performed in September 2005, and he was subsequently treated with immunosuppressive therapy: tacrolimus, everolimus, and prednisolone. In the past, chronic respiratory colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intermittent infection with Aspergillus flavus, chronic renal failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus complicated his clinical history. He started antiviral treatment with oseltamivir despite no travel history and no respiratory symptoms. H1N1 swab was positive. Three days later, the patient was admitted to the hospital for the persistence of fever and the onset of cough. Chest x-ray showed a left lower pneumonia, which was confirmed by computerized tomography. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy led to an improvement of the clinical condition. The patient was discharged 8 days later; a control swab was negative. This case report suggests some general considerations regarding solid organ recipients: 1) Flu-related complications require early treatment (both antiviral and antibiotic); 2) active microbiologic surveillance is important to prevent lethal infections (ie, invasive aspergillosis); 3) evaluation of immunosuppressant blood levels is necessary for drug-drug interactions. Active prevention is the best option for decreasing morbidity and mortality in the transplanted patient. PMID:20692461

  5. Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza.

    E-print Network

    Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza. Last updated April 28, 2009 The Evergreen State College (TESC) is continuing to assess and track influenza? At this time, the best source of current information is the website of the Federal Center

  6. The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Fred

    2013-05-01

    Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

  7. Determinants of Receiving the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine and Intention to Receive the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fu, Yang-chih; Wang, Da-Wei; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The paper examines the factors associated with both receiving pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccines and individuals’ intentions to get the next seasonal influenza vaccine in Taiwan. Methods We conducted a representative nationwide survey with in-person household interviews during April–July 2010. Multivariate logistic regression incorporated socio-demographic background, household characteristics, health status, behaviors, and perceptions of influenza and vaccination. Results We completed interviews with 1,954 respondents. Among those, 548 (28.0%) received the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination, and 469 (24.0%) intended to get the next seasonal influenza vaccine. Receipt of the H1N1 vaccine was more prevalent among schoolchildren, the elderly, those who had contact with more people in their daily lives, and those who had received influenza vaccinations in previous years. In comparison, the intention to receive the next seasonal influenza vaccine tended to be stronger among children, the elderly, and those who reported less healthy status or lived with children, who received a seasonal influenza vaccination before, and who worried more about a possible new pandemic. Conclusions Children, the elderly, and those who had gotten seasonal flu shots before in Taiwan were more likely to both receive a pandemic H1N1 vaccination and intend to receive a seasonal influenza vaccine. PMID:24971941

  8. Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection. PMID:22126648

  9. 1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!" How to treat influenza, a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses For most healthy people, flu resolves on its own and requires only and how can it help? Medications such as Tamiflu and Relenza are used to prevent or treat flu viruses

  10. Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more than 200,000 people are hospitalized and 36,000 people die from seasonal flu complications. This flu season could be worse. There is a new and very different flu virus spreading worldwide among people called novel or new

  11. This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu www.direct.gov.uk/pandemicflu 0800 1 513 513 INFORMATION SWINE FLU www.direct.gov.uk/pandemicflu 0800 1 513 513 AM FFLIW MOCH GWYBODAETH Factsheet #12;What is swine flu? Swine Flu is a viral infection caused by a new virus which has

  12. DOCUMENTATION TO SUPPORT FLU VACCINATION RECEIVED OUTSIDE OF THE STATE HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM IN ORDER TO

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    DOCUMENTATION TO SUPPORT FLU VACCINATION RECEIVED OUTSIDE OF THE STATE HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM: Please indicate which option you wish to use to report your flu vaccination and provide the requested provider administering your flu vaccine. Date flu vaccine was administered to the above-named health plan

  13. What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu?

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu? Follow good practice regarding experience signs of flu-like symptoms you are advised to stay at home to limit contact with others, and seek medical advice. The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular seasonal flu

  14. 1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!" 5 tips for taking care of yourself when you have influenza, a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses For healthy people, flu sports drinks, etc.) 3. Take care of yourself: Get plenty of rest! 4. Prevent the spread of flu Wash

  15. UNC Charlotte Guidelines for H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Fall 2009 Dear Faculty and Staff

    E-print Network

    Xie,Jiang (Linda)

    UNC Charlotte Guidelines for H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Fall 2009 Dear Faculty and Staff: The H1N1 flu with H1N1 flu ­ either on or off campus ­ and contract the illness. On August 21, 2009, the CentersN1 flu in higher education institutions. Based on that information, the University has developed

  16. Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Ankit Agrawal

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Kathy Lee Ankit Agrawal Alok Choudhary insights. In this paper, we describe an online re- source for real-time surveillance of flu that we have are subsequently reported vi- sually in terms of a US flu surveillance map, distribution and timelines of flu types

  17. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  18. Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H

    2006-11-25

    Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724

  19. Comparison of the NOW Influenza A & B, NOW Flu A, NOW Flu B, and Directigen Flu A+B assays, and immunofluorescence with viral culture for the detection of influenza A and B viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marita Smit; Kirsten A. Beynon; David R. Murdoch; Lance C. Jennings

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the Binax NOW Influenza A & B combination assay, we tested upper respiratory tract samples in parallel with the Binax NOW Flu A and Binax NOW Flu B assays, the Becton–Dickinson Directigen Flu A+B assay, and immunofluorescence, and the results were compared with viral culture. Of the 521 samples tested, influenza A was cultured from 113 and influenza

  20. Crisis and emergency risk communication in a pandemic: a model for building capacity and resilience of minority communities.

    PubMed

    Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments. Examples of such engagement and potential strategies to enhance trust include tools familiar to many health educators. PMID:18936256

  1. Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Other common causes ­ Whooping cough (pertussis) ­ Atypical bacteria Symptoms ­ Severe cough ­ Runny particles can travel up to 12 feet through the air when someone with a cold coughs or sneezes http symptoms: ­ Headache or pressure on the face ­ Cough ­ Stuffy nose Nose drainage ("snots") or phlegm

  2. Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Purohit, Vidula; Kudale, Abhay; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare sociocultural features of pandemic influenza with reference to illness-related experience, meaning and behaviour in urban and rural areas of India. Design Cross-sectional, mixed-methods, cultural epidemiological survey with vignette-based interviews. Semistructured explanatory model interviews were used to study community ideas of the 2009 influenza pandemic. In-depth interviews elaborated respondents’ experience during the pandemic. Setting Urban and rural communities, Pune district, western India. Participants Survey of urban (n=215) and rural (n=221) residents aged between 18 and 65?years. In-depth interviews of respondents with a history of 2009 pandemic influenza (n=6). Results More urban (36.7%) than rural respondents (16.3%, p<0.001) identified the illness in the vignette as ‘swine flu’. Over half (56.7%) believed the illness would be fatal without treatment, but with treatment 96% predicted full recovery. Worry (‘tension’) about the illness was reported as more troubling than somatic symptoms. The most common perceived causes—‘exposure to a dirty environment’ and ‘cough or sneeze of an infected person’–were more prominent in the urban group. Among rural respondents, climatic conditions, drinking contaminated water, tension and cultural ideas on humoral imbalance from heat-producing or cold-producing foods were more prominent. The most widely reported home treatment was herbal remedies; more rural respondents suggested reliance on prayer, and symptom relief was more of a priority for urban respondents. Government health services were preferred in the urban communities, and rural residents relied more than urban residents on private facilities. The important preventive measures emphasised were cleanliness, wholesome lifestyle and vaccines, and more urban respondents reported the use of masks. In-depth interviews indicated treatment delays during the 2009 pandemic, especially among rural patients. Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. PMID:25492273

  3. Pandemic Influenza as a Current Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Ling Yen; Robert G. Webster

    \\u000a Pandemics of influenza emerge from the aquatic bird reservoir, adapt to humans, modify their severity, and cause seasonal\\u000a influenza. The catastrophic Spanish H1N1 virus may have obtained all of its eight gene segments from the avian reservoir,\\u000a whereas the Asian H2N2 and the Hong Kong H3N2 pandemics emerged by reassortment between the circulating human virus and an\\u000a avian H2 or

  4. Management of swine-flu patients in the intensive care unit: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Raktima; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Wadhawan, Sonia; Bhadoria, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Background: H1N1 pandemic in 2009–2010 created a state of panic not only in India, but in the whole world. The clinical picture seen with H1N1 is different from the seasonal influenza involving healthy young adults. Critical care management of such patients imposes a challenge for anesthesiologist. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalized positive H1N1 patients was performed from July 2009–June 2010. Those requiring the ventilatory support were included in the study. Result: 54 patients were admitted in the swine-flu ward during the study period out of which 19 required ventilatory support. The average day of presentation to the health care facility was 6th day causing delay in initiation of antiviral therapy and increased severity of the disease. 65% of the ventilated patients were having associated comorbidities. Mortality was 74% among ventilated patients. Conclusion: Positive H1N1 with severe disease profile have a poor outcome. Early identification of high-risk factors and thus early intervention in the form of antiretroviral therapy and respiratory care will help in reducing the overall mortality. PMID:22345946

  5. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA) facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514) and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425) accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM) for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA) that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in tetrameric stabilization. It could also participate in other biological processes associated with conserved surface residues. A RNA double hairpin secondary structure found in this segment in a majority of the H5N1 strains also supports this observation. In this paper we propose this conserved region as a probable site for designing inhibitors for broad-spectrum pandemic control of flu viruses with similar NA structure. PMID:20170556

  6. BFluenza: A Proteomic Database on Bird Flu

    PubMed Central

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Khan, Asad U

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as “bird flu” has been documented to cause an outbreak of respiratory diseases in humans. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza type A is a threat to veterinary and human health. The BFluenza is a relational database which is solely devoted to proteomic information of H5N1 subtype. Bfluenza has novel features including computed physico-chemical properties data of H5N1 viral proteins, modeled structures of viral proteins, data of protein coordinates, experimental details, molecular description and bibliographic reference. The database also contains nucleotide and their decoded protein sequences data. The database can be searched in various modes by setting search options. The structure of viral protein could be visualized by JMol viewer or by Discovery Studio. Availability The database is available for free at http://www.bfluenza.info PMID:22125386

  7. Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klionsky, Bernard

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  8. Parkfield Quake / Flu Vaccine / Mt. St. Helens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains three radio broadcasts discussing: the Parkfield, California earthquake of October 2004; the Mount Saint Helens volcano; and the shortage of flu vaccine in 2004. The 15 minute Parkfield broadcast explains how the Parkfield earthquake was the most monitored earthquake in history. Scientists are studying the San Andreas Fault in the area. Data collected from the recent earthquake is expected to lead to improvements in: earthquake prediction; and understanding of how earthquake energy builds up as well as the mechanical laws that cause the shaking. The 15 minute Mount Saint Helens broadcast discusses why less seismic activity at the volcano has been observed in 2004, and that danger of an imminent eruption has passed - at least for now.

  9. Typical Adult Over 30 Gets Flu Twice Every 10 Years

    MedlinePLUS

    ... its findings March 3 in the journal PLoS Biology . "In childhood and adolescence, [flu is] much more ... strains to spread through the population." SOURCE: PLoS Biology , news release, March 3, 2015 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  10. Diabetes and Flu: What You Need to Know and Do

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms without a fever. Â How does diabetes affect how I respond to a cold or flu? ... can prevent you from eating properly, which further affects blood glucose. In addition, sometimes diabetes can make ...

  11. Flu, the Common Cold, and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people aged 6 months and older. What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for the Flu ... the third most common among children. What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Colds About ...

  12. A Doctor's Advice, a Patient's Race Influence Flu Shot Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. A Doctor's Advice, a Patient's Race Influence Flu Shot Rates Blacks less likely than ... HealthDay News) -- A doctor's recommendation and a patient's race may play a big role in whether or ...

  13. Flu in Pregnancy May Quadruple Child's Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... funded study adds to evidence of overlap with Schizophrenia Pregnant mothers’ exposure to the flu was associated ... possible shared underlying causes and illness processes with schizophrenia , which some studies have also linked to prenatal ...

  14. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu, pain relievers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen can reduce fever or aches. Allergies can be ... Decongestants. Aspirin (ages 18 and up), acetaminophen, or ibuprofen for aches and pains Get plenty of rest. ...

  15. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic. PMID:18522251

  16. Why do I need it? I am not at risk! Public perceptions towards the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background On the 30th September 2009, the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine was made available to adults and children aged 10 years and over, in Australia. Acceptance of a novel vaccine is influenced by perceptions of risk including risk of infection, risk of death or severe illness and risk of serious vaccine side-effects. We surveyed a sample of residents from Sydney, Australia to ascertain their risk perception, attitudes towards the pandemic and willingness to accept the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine. Methods We sampled residents using a cross-sectional intercept design during the WHO Phase 6. Members of the public were approached in shopping and pedestrian malls to undertake the survey during September and October 2009. The survey measured perceived risk, seriousness of disease, recent behavioural changes, likely acceptance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine and issues relating to uptake and perceived safety. Results Of the 627 respondents, the majority felt that they had a "very low to low" (332/627, 52.9%) risk of acquiring H1N1. 24.5% (154/627) of respondents believed that the disease would "very seriously or extremely" affect their health. Nearly half (305/627, 48.6%) reported that in response to the "swine flu" outbreak they had undertaken one or more of the investigated behavioural changes. Overall, the self-reported likelihood of accepting vaccination against novel H1N1 was 54.7% (343/627). Conclusions While, most participants did not believe they were at high risk of acquiring pandemic H1N1 2009, over half of the sample indicated that they would accept the vaccine. Participants who were vaccinated against the seasonal influenza were more likely to receive the H1N1 vaccine. Concerns about safety, the possibility of side effects and the vaccine development process need to be addressed. PMID:20403201

  17. Public willingness to take a vaccine or drug under Emergency Use Authorization during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kumar, Supriya; Freimuth, Vicki S; Kidwell, Kelley; Musa, Donald

    2009-09-01

    On April 26, 2009, the United States declared a public health emergency in response to a growing but uncertain threat from H1N1 influenza, or swine flu. In June, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic. In the U.S., hospitalizations due to swine flu numbered 6,506 on August 6, 2009, with 436 deaths; all 50 states have reported cases. The declaration of a public health emergency, followed by the approval of multiple Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) by the Food and Drug Administration, allowed the distribution of unapproved drugs or the off-label use of approved drugs to the public. Thus far, there are 2 antiviral medications available to the public as EUA drugs. It is possible that an H1N1 vaccine will be initially released as an EUA in the fall in the first large-scale use of the EUA mechanism. This study explores the public's willingness to use a drug or vaccine under the conditions stipulated in the FDA's nonbinding guidance regarding EUAs. Using Knowledge Networks' panel, we conducted an internet survey with 1,543 adults from a representative sample of the U.S. population with 2 over samples of African Americans and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. Our completion rate was 62%. We examined willingness to accept an EUA drug or an H1N1 vaccine, the extent of worry associated with taking either, the conditions under which respondents would accept an EUA drug or vaccine, and the impact of language from the EUA fact sheets on people's willingness to accept a drug for themselves or their children. We also examined the association among these variables and race/ethnicity, education level, trust in government, previous vaccine acceptance, and perceived personal consequences from H1N1 influenza. These results provide critical insights into the challenges of communicating about EUA drugs and vaccine in our current pandemic. PMID:19775200

  18. Public Willingness to Take a Vaccine or Drug Under Emergency Use Authorization during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Supriya; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Kidwell, Kelley; Musa, Donald

    2009-01-01

    On April 26, 2009, the United States declared a public health emergency in response to a growing but uncertain threat from H1N1 influenza, or swine flu. In June, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic. In the U.S., hospitalizations due to swine flu numbered 6,506 on August 6, 2009, with 436 deaths; all 50 states have reported cases. The declaration of a public health emergency, followed by the approval of multiple Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) by the Food and Drug Administration, allowed the distribution of unapproved drugs or the off-label use of approved drugs to the public. Thus far, there are 2 antiviral medications available to the public as EUA drugs. It is possible that an H1N1 vaccine will be initially released as an EUA in the fall in the first large-scale use of the EUA mechanism. This study explores the public's willingness to use a drug or vaccine under the conditions stipulated in the FDA's nonbinding guidance regarding EUAs. Using Knowledge Networks' panel, we conducted an internet survey with 1,543 adults from a representative sample of the U.S. population with 2 oversamples of African Americans and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. Our completion rate was 62%. We examined willingness to accept an EUA drug or an H1N1 vaccine, the extent of worry associated with taking either, the conditions under which respondents would accept an EUA drug or vaccine, and the impact of language from the EUA fact sheets on people's willingness to accept a drug for themselves or their children. We also examined the association among these variables and race/ethnicity, education level, trust in government, previous vaccine acceptance, and perceived personal consequences from H1N1 influenza. These results provide critical insights into the challenges of communicating about EUA drugs and vaccine in our current pandemic. PMID:19775200

  19. Quantifying the transmission potential of pandemic influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    This article reviews quantitative methods to estimate the basic reproduction number of pandemic influenza, a key threshold quantity to help determine the intensity of interventions required to control the disease. Although it is difficult to assess the transmission potential of a probable future pandemic, historical epidemiologic data is readily available from previous pandemics, and as a reference quantity for future pandemic planning, mathematical and statistical analyses of historical data are crucial. In particular, because many historical records tend to document only the temporal distribution of cases or deaths (i.e. epidemic curve), our review focuses on methods to maximize the utility of time-evolution data and to clarify the detailed mechanisms of the spread of influenza. First, we highlight structured epidemic models and their parameter estimation method which can quantify the detailed disease dynamics including those we cannot observe directly. Duration-structured epidemic systems are subsequently presented, offering firm understanding of the definition of the basic and effective reproduction numbers. When the initial growth phase of an epidemic is investigated, the distribution of the generation time is key statistical information to appropriately estimate the transmission potential using the intrinsic growth rate. Applications of stochastic processes are also highlighted to estimate the transmission potential using similar data. Critically important characteristics of influenza data are subsequently summarized, followed by our conclusions to suggest potential future methodological improvements.

  20. Vaccination Deep Into a Pandemic Wave

    E-print Network

    Rosenfeld, Roni

    Vaccination Deep Into a Pandemic Wave Potential Mechanisms for a "Third Wave" and the Impact of Vaccination Bruce Y. Lee, MD, MBA, Shawn T. Brown, PhD, Philip Cooley, MS, John J. Grefenstette, PhD, Richard and then explore whether vaccinating the population at different rates and times would mitigate the wave. Methods

  1. Paediatric pandemic planning: children's perspectives and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Nicholas, David; Gearing, Robin; Kalfa, Ora

    2010-07-01

    Children, as major stakeholders in paediatric hospitals, have remained absent from discussions on important healthcare issues. One critical area where children's voices have been minimised is in the planning for future pandemics. This paper presents a subset of data from a programme of research which examined various stakeholder experiences of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks of 2003. These data also generated recommendations for future pandemic planning. Specifically, this paper will examine the perspectives and recommendations of children hospitalised during SARS in a large paediatric hospital in Canada. Twenty-one (n = 21) child and adolescent participants were interviewed from a variety of medical areas including cardiac (n = 2), critical care (n = 2), organ transplant (n = 4), respiratory medicine (n = 8) and infectious diseases (patients diagnosed with suspected or probable SARS; n = 5). Data analyses exposed a range of children's experiences associated with the outbreaks as well as recommendations for future pandemic planning. Key recommendations included specific policies and guidelines concerning psychosocial care, infection control, communication strategies and the management of various resources. This paper is guided by a conceptual framework comprised of theories from child development and literature on children's rights. The authors call for greater youth participation in healthcare decision-making and pandemic planning. PMID:20180866

  2. Colleges and Universities Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, colleges and universities will play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of students, employees and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist as a framework to assist colleges and…

  3. Diagnostic Testing for Pandemic Influenza in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Kai; Lee, Chun Kiat; Loh, Tze Ping; Tang, Julian Wei-Tze; Chiu, Lily; Tambyah, Paul A.; Sethi, Sunil K.; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    With the relative global lack of immunity to the pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus that emerged in April 2009 as well as the sustained susceptibility to infection, rapid and accurate diagnostic assays are essential to detect this novel influenza A variant. Among the molecular diagnostic methods that have been developed to date, most are in tandem monoplex assays targeting either different regions of a single viral gene segment or different viral gene segments. We describe a dual-gene (duplex) quantitative real-time RT-PCR method selectively targeting pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009. The assay design includes a primer-probe set specific to only the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of this novel influenza A variant and a second set capable of detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of all swine-origin influenza A virus. In silico analysis of the specific HA oligonucleotide sequence used in the assay showed that it targeted only the swine-origin pandemic strain; there was also no cross-reactivity against a wide spectrum of noninfluenza respiratory viruses. The assay has a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 100%, respectively, a lower detection limit of 50 viral gene copies/PCR, and can be adapted to either a qualitative or quantitative mode. It was first applied to 3512 patients with influenza-like illnesses at a tertiary hospital in Singapore, during the containment phase of the pandemic (May to July 2009). PMID:20688908

  4. Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin D. Kilbourne

    2006-01-01

    Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thor- oughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic

  5. Simple models for containment of a pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Arino; Fred Brauer; P. van den Driessche; James Watmough; Jianhong Wu

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulations of network models have become the standard approach to studying epidemics. We show that many of the predictions of these models can also be obtained from simple classical deterministic compartmental models. We suggest that simple models may be a better way to plan for a threatening pandemic with location and parameters as yet unknown, reserving more detailed network

  6. Clinical Presentation and Outcome in Hospitalized Patients of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) viral infection in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Akhwand Shakeel; Puttaswamy, Chandrashekar; Mudasser, Sayed; Abdelaziz, Omaima

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, cases of human infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus were detected and soon reached a pandemic level. Presenting clinical features of this disease in Oman were observed and an attempt was made to identify features predicting the high risk of mortality. Methods The clinical and laboratory features at the time of presentation in adult patients admitted with flu-like illness or pneumonia were studied who were later diagnosed as H1N1 infection by PCR of nasopharyngeal and/or throat swabs. Results H1N1 infection mostly affected younger individuals who presented with fever and cough. One-third of the patients had rhinorrhea and a few had vomiting and diarrhea. Chest crepitations were common. Most of the patients had normal or low cell counts. The chest X-ray was normal in 23 (41.8%) cases, while in other cases pneumonia was detected characteristically starting from base and extending up. Almost half of the patients were either in frank or impending respiratory failure. Nine (16.4%) patients died. Conclusion It is difficult to identify H1N1 influenza cases from other patients with a flu-like illness, but it can be strongly suspected when a patient presents with basal pneumonia, particularly if bilateral, with lymphocytopenia, and is hypoxemic, in the presence of other H1N1 infected cases in the community. These features are also indicative of severe illness with high mortality risk. PMID:22125727

  7. Infectious disease modeling methods as tools for informing response to novel influenza viruses of unknown pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Manoj; Bozio, Catherine; O'Hagan, Justin J; Uzicanin, Amra; Johnson, Lucinda E; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Swerdlow, David L

    2015-05-01

    The rising importance of infectious disease modeling makes this an appropriate time for a guide for public health practitioners tasked with preparing for, and responding to, an influenza pandemic. We list several questions that public health practitioners commonly ask about pandemic influenza and match these with analytical methods, giving details on when during a pandemic the methods can be used, how long it might take to implement them, and what data are required. Although software to perform these tasks is available, care needs to be taken to understand: (1) the type of data needed, (2) the implementation of the methods, and (3) the interpretation of results in terms of model uncertainty and sensitivity. Public health leaders can use this article to evaluate the modeling literature, determine which methods can provide appropriate evidence for decision-making, and to help them request modeling work from in-house teams or academic groups. PMID:25878297

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 sequences from pandemic infections during 2009 in India.

    PubMed

    Flavia, Guntupally Balaswamy Arti; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009, a serious pandemic infection has been rapidly spread across the world. These infections are caused due to the novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus and hence these are commonly called as "Swine Flu". This new virus is the reassortment of avian, human and swine influenza viruses and thus it has a unique genome composition. There are 16 different types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 different types of neuraminidase (NA) that can be genetically and antigenetically differentiated. The first influenza A virus isolated from pigs was of the H1N1 subtype and these viruses have been reported to cause infection in pigs in many countries. The outbreak of this virus has been transmitted from pigs to humans. This new reassorted (exchange of genes) virus which is the cause of 2009 pandemic infections has the ability to spread from human to human. This spread of infection should be brought to an end. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the RNA segments of human H1N1 viruses was carried using MEGA version 4.0 to demonstrate the route map of infection to India. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences from India, published in Influenza Virus Resource (a database that integrates information gathered from the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) and the genbank of the (NCBI)) was retrieved and used for the analysis. The results showed that the various segments of the Indian isolates clustered well with the sequences from American, Asian and European countries and thus indicating the transmission of viruses from these places to India. PMID:21423887

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 sequences from pandemic infections during 2009 in India

    PubMed Central

    Flavia, Guntupally Balaswamy Arti; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009, a serious pandemic infection has been rapidly spread across the world. These infections are caused due to the novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus and hence these are commonly called as “Swine Flu”. This new virus is the reassortment of avian, human and swine influenza viruses and thus it has a unique genome composition. There are 16 different types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 different types of neuraminidase (NA) that can be genetically and antigenetically differentiated. The first influenza A virus isolated from pigs was of the H1N1 subtype and these viruses have been reported to cause infection in pigs in many countries. The outbreak of this virus has been transmitted from pigs to humans. This new reassorted (exchange of genes) virus which is the cause of 2009 pandemic infections has the ability to spread from human to human. This spread of infection should be brought to an end. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the RNA segments of human H1N1 viruses was carried using MEGA version 4.0 to demonstrate the route map of infection to India. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences from India, published in Influenza Virus Resource (a database that integrates information gathered from the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) and the genbank of the (NCBI)) was retrieved and used for the analysis. The results showed that the various segments of the Indian isolates clustered well with the sequences from American, Asian and European countries and thus indicating the transmission of viruses from these places to India. PMID:21423887

  10. New health risks and sociocultural contexts: bird flu impacts on consumers and poultry businesses in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suder, Gabriele; Inthavong, Saynakhone

    2008-02-01

    Avian flu has been identified as one of the most challenging new risks, global in impact due to the "highly interconnected and integrated world economy along with other unpredictable events such as the Asian financial crisis and global terrorism." We have chosen the case of Lao PDR to shed light on an area in which local people consume chicken as one of their staple foods. Our research analyzes consumer behavior, poultry business modification patterns in a high-risk country, and government reaction for business resilience. The geographic choice is motivated by the 2006 EIU report on Catastrophe Risk Management that indicated that Asian-Pacific companies are better prepared for such risks as bird flu than European business is, despite the many cases found in both regions. PMID:18304102

  11. Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Monica; Palaniyar, Nades

    2014-08-01

    For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. Comparing genotypes for measures of poor lung function, inflammation, and admission to intensive care, these authors identified three variants of the SP-A gene SFTPA2 that positively correlated with flu severity. Remarkably, they also found the haplotype 1A1 of SFTPA2 to be protective against these indicators, suggesting that targeted therapy with a recombinant form of SP-A2 may improve patient outcome. Although further work is required to confirm the specificity and efficacy of SP-A in therapeutic H1N1 protection, this study is one of the first to suggest a clinical role for SP-A in pandemic influenza. PMID:25184962

  12. The production of hemagglutinin-based virus-like particles in plants: a rapid, efficient and safe response to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    D'Aoust, Marc-André; Couture, Manon M-J; Charland, Nathalie; Trépanier, Sonia; Landry, Nathalie; Ors, Frédéric; Vézina, Louis-P

    2010-06-01

    During the last decade, the spectre of an influenza pandemic of avian origin has led to a revision of national and global pandemic preparedness plans and has stressed the need for more efficient influenza vaccines and manufacturing practices. The 2009 A/H1N1 (swine flu) outbreak has further emphasized the necessity to develop new solutions for pandemic influenza vaccines. Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs)-non-infectious particles resembling the influenza virus-represent a promising alternative to inactivated and split-influenza virions as antigens, and they have shown uniqueness by inducing a potent immune response through both humoral and cellular components of the immune system. Our group has developed a plant-based transient influenza VLP manufacturing platform capable of producing influenza VLPs with unprecedented speed. Influenza VLP expression and purification technologies were brought to large-scale production of GMP-grade material, and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that low doses of purified, plant-produced influenza VLPs induce a strong and broad immune response in mice and ferrets. This review positions the recent developments towards the successful production of influenza VLPs in plants, including the production of VLPs from other human viruses and other forms of influenza antigens. The platform developed for large-scale production of VLPs is also presented along with an assessment of the speed of the platform to produce the first experimental vaccine lots from the identification of a new influenza strain. PMID:20199612

  13. What Should I Do When Caring for Someone with the Flu?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... I do when caring for someone with the flu? YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/ ... I do when caring for someone with the flu? Dr. Bruce Gellin, Director of the National Vaccine ...

  14. Bad Flu Season Continues to Take Toll, Especially Among the Young and Old

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bad Flu Season Continues to Take Toll, Especially Among the ... and Old Not too late to get a flu shot, health officials say; antiviral meds strongly recommended (* ...

  15. Many States Still in Flu's Grip, but Some Areas Report Declines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Many States Still in Flu's Grip, But Some Areas Report Declines CDC expects ... 2015) Friday, February 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- While ...

  16. Inactivated or Recombinant Flu Vaccine, 2014-2015 - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and its complications. Flu vaccine also helps prevent spreading flu from person to person. Inactivated and Recombinant ... ringing in the ears. Severe shoulder pain and reduced range of motion in the arm where a ...

  17. Australian general practice and pandemic influenza: models of clinical practice in an established pandemic.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christine B; Patel, Mahomed S; Glasgow, Nicholas; Pearce, Christopher; Dugdale, Paul; Davies, Alison; Hall, Sally; Kljakovic, Marjan

    2007-04-01

    To minimise the health impact of pandemic influenza, general practice will need to provide influenza-related and non-influenza primary health care, as well as contribute to the public health goal of disease control. Through interviews and workshops with general practitioners, nurses and policy leaders between March and July 2006, and literature analysis, we identified potential models of general practice in an established pandemic, and assessed their strengths and weaknesses. Three possible clinical models were identified: a default model of no change to service delivery; a streamed services model, where general practices reorganise themselves to take on either influenza-specific care or other clinical services; and a staff-determined mixed model, where staff move between different types of services. No single model or set of strategies meets the needs of all general practices to deliver and sustain the essential functions of primary health care during an established pandemic. Governments, general practice and the relevant peak professional bodies should decide before a pandemic on the suite of measures needed to support the models most suitable in their regions. Effective participation by general practice in a pandemic requires supplementary infrastructure support, changes to financial and staffing patterns, a review of legislation on medicolegal implications during an emergency, and intensive collaboration between general practices. PMID:17407432

  18. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...response, including implementation of the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...sought in light of the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic...

  19. When Pictures Waste a Thousand Words: Analysis of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic on Television News

    PubMed Central

    Luth, Westerly; Jardine, Cindy; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Effective communication by public health agencies during a pandemic promotes the adoption of recommended health behaviours. However, more information is not always the solution. Rather, attention must be paid to how information is communicated. Our study examines the television news, which combines video and audio content. We analyse (1) the content of television news about the H1N1 pandemic and vaccination campaign in Alberta, Canada; (2) the extent to which television news content conveyed key public health agency messages; (3) the extent of discrepancies in audio versus visual content. Methods We searched for “swine flu” and “H1N1” in local English news broadcasts from the CTV online video archive. We coded the audio and visual content of 47 news clips during the peak period of coverage from April to November 2009 and identified discrepancies between audio and visual content. Results The dominant themes on CTV news were the vaccination rollout, vaccine shortages, long line-ups (queues) at vaccination clinics and defensive responses by public health officials. There were discrepancies in the priority groups identified by the provincial health agency (Alberta Health and Wellness) and television news coverage as well as discrepancies between audio and visual content of news clips. Public health officials were presented in official settings rather than as public health practitioners. Conclusion The news footage did not match the main public health messages about risk levels and priority groups. Public health agencies lost control of their message as the media focused on failures in the rollout of the vaccination campaign. Spokespeople can enhance their local credibility by emphasizing their role as public health practitioners. Public health agencies need to learn from the H1N1 pandemic so that future television communications do not add to public confusion, demonstrate bureaucratic ineffectiveness and contribute to low vaccination rates. PMID:23691150

  20. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  1. VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2010-10-23

    The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

  2. Containing Pandemic Influenza at the Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira M. Longini; Azhar Nizam; Shufu Xu; Kumnuan Ungchusak; Wanna Hanshaoworakul; Derek A. T. Cummings; M. Elizabeth Halloran

    2005-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (subtype H5N1) is threatening to cause a human pandemic of potentially devastating proportions. We used a stochastic influenza simulation model for rural Southeast Asia to investigate the effectiveness of targeted antiviral prophylaxis, quarantine, and pre-vaccination in containing an emerging influenza strain at the source. If the basic reproductive number (R0) was below 1.60, our simulations

  3. Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Holmes

    2005-01-01

    A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

  4. Monitoring vaccine safety during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed Central

    Iskander, John; Haber, Penina; Herrera, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    In the event that a vaccine is available during an influenza pandemic, vaccine safety monitoring will occur as part of comprehensive public health surveillance of the vaccination campaign. Though inactivated influenza vaccines have been widely used in the United States and much is known about their safety profile, attention will need to be paid to both common self-limited adverse reactions and rarer, more serious events that may or may not be causally related to vaccination. The primary surveillance systems used to generate and test hypotheses about vaccine safety concerns are the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), respectively. Examples of recent use of these systems to investigate influenza vaccine safety and enhancements planned for use during a pandemic are presented. Ethical issues that will need to be addressed as part of an overall vaccine safety response include risk communication and injury compensation. Advance planning and the use of available technologic solutions are needed to respond to the scientific and logistic challenges involved in safely implementing mass vaccination during a pandemic. PMID:17132333

  5. November 15, 2010 Get a flu shot and be eligible to win an iPad!

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    November 15, 2010 Get a flu shot and be eligible to win an iPad! To encourage employees and students to receive their flu vaccinations, UC Davis Health System will award iPads to five randomly employees and students who receive flu vaccinations, from either the health system or an external provider

  6. SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009

    E-print Network

    SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009 Provided by the Office of the Vice established the following plan to respond to the emergence of swine flu (H1N1 virus). Our plan is based and will be updated as new information about swine flu becomes available. 1) Communication with the Campus Community a

  7. INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2009 H1N1 INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is caused by a new strain of influenza virus. It has spread to many countries. Like other flu viruses, 2009 H1N1 spreads should get 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine and when?4 Seasonal flu viruses change from year to year

  8. INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2009 H1N1 INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused by a new strain of influenza virus. It has spread to many countries. Like other flu viruses, 2009 H1N1 spreads from person should get 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine and when?4 Seasonal flu viruses change from year to year

  9. Genes from a flu strain created in a lab in 1940 have been found in samples

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ErikaCheck Genes from a flu strain created in a lab in 1940 have been found in samples taken from pigs in South Korea, a US biologist claims. Data from the flu virus samples were put last October company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, examined the data as part of an analysis of flu sequences. He

  10. Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer Kathy Lee Ankit and actionable healthcare insights. In this paper, we describe a novel real-time flu and can- cer surveillance such as flu, but also for monitoring distribution of cancer patients with different cancer types and symptoms

  11. Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark Dredze

    E-print Network

    Dredze, Mark

    Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark work has relied on simple content anal- ysis, which conflates flu tweets that report infection with those that express concerned awareness of the flu. By discriminating these categories, as well as tweets

  12. SWINE FLU GUIDANCE FOR LINE MANAGERS MANAGING STAFF WHO ARE PREGNANT/OR IN

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    SWINE FLU GUIDANCE FOR LINE MANAGERS MANAGING STAFF WHO ARE PREGNANT/OR IN OTHER HIGH RISK HEALTH GROUPS INTRODUCTION All line managers must ensure that all staff are aware that there is swine flu pages for advice/guidance regarding swine flu and inform their line managers if they are in the high

  13. Innovative in silico approaches to address avian flu using grid technology Vincent BRETONa,*

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Innovative in silico approaches to address avian flu using grid technology Vincent BRETONa flu. Among the biggest challenges raised by infectious emerging diseases, one is related and animals around the earth, as recently demonstrated by the avian flu epidemics. For 3 years now

  14. Academic Planning for H1N1 Flu: Strategies for Students at the University of Toronto

    E-print Network

    Boonstra, Rudy

    /1 Academic Planning for H1N1 Flu: Strategies for Students at the University of Toronto As you have probably heard in the media, H1N1 flu is expected to recur this fall. For ongoing updates things we can all do to help reduce the risk of catching or spreading the flu: · Wash and/or sanitize

  15. Erratic flu vaccination emerges from short-sighted behavior in contact networks

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    Erratic flu vaccination emerges from short-sighted behavior in contact networks Daniel M. Cornforth disease dynamics become less variable. For some networks, we also find that higher flu transmission rates and individual decisions about the prevention and treatment of flu infections. However, until recently

  16. Many health-care workers shun flu shots By SONJA ISGER

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Many health-care workers shun flu shots By SONJA ISGER Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 2:04 p patients to get flu shots. But it turns out that persuading the doctors - and nurses, and other clinicians, on the cusp of a new flu season, the hospital announced plans to improve that rate with a mandatory

  17. Managing in the Home How to protect yourself and care for your family with the flu

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Managing in the Home How to protect yourself and care for your family with the flu If you't get close to others If you or members of your family have the flu you must all stay home from work and on what to do. We need to keep doctors' waiting rooms flu-free. A person with influenza could be sick

  18. Claim Form --Flu Shot Only One patient and one provider per claim form, please.

    E-print Network

    Claim Form -- Flu Shot Only One patient and one provider per claim form, please. See reverse side is signed and dated. An incomplete form may delay the processing of your claim. Services other than flu vaccine must be submitted on a separate claim form. Phone number ( ) _____________________ 10. Name of flu

  19. Flu Trend Prediction -Regression Random Forest with GP leaves Algorithm and its Applications

    E-print Network

    de Freitas, Nando

    050 051 052 053 Flu Trend Prediction - Regression Random Forest with GP leaves Algorithm and its will be derived. Its applications in flu trend prediction and geology measurement regression will also smart life for human beings. For example, in terms of the recent hot topic of bird flu burst as spring

  20. October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st Deadline Approaches Employee Health Services has been providing free flu vaccinations to employees and students to multiple locations, EHS offers free flu vaccinations at its clinic in the Cypress Building, Suite A

  1. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick

    E-print Network

    Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 1 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 20132014 Flu Season David Lazer,1,2 * Ryan Kennedy,1: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 2 Last year was difficult for Google Flu Trends (GFT). In early

  2. What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms include sudden onset of

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    What are the symptoms of flu? · Symptoms include sudden onset of: o fever/chills o cough o muscle a doctor? Most people recover without needing to see a doctor; the flu usually lasts 7 ­ 10 days and goes · Disorientation or confusion · Pain or pressure in chest · Severe or persistent vomiting · Flu-like symptoms

  3. Ethics in a Pandemic: A Survey of the State Pandemic Influenza Plans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James C.; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Martinot, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    A pandemic of highly pathogenic influenza would threaten the lives of hundreds of thousands in the United States and confront governments and organizations, with ethical issues having wide-ranging implications. The Department of Health and Human Services and all states have published pandemic influenza plans. We analyzed the federal and state plans, available on the Internet, for evidence of ethical guidance as judged by the presence of ethical terms. The most striking finding was an absence of ethical language. Although some states acknowledged the need for ethical decisionmaking, very few prescribed how it should happen. If faced by a pandemic in the near future, we stand the risk of making many unjust and regrettable decisions. PMID:17413066

  4. The H1N1 influenza pandemic: need for solutions to ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    The rapid spread of the novel influenza virus of H1N1 swine origin led to widespread fear, panic and unrest among the public and healthcare personnel. The pandemic not only tested the world's health preparedness, but also brought up new ethical issues which need to be addressed as soon as possible. This article highlights these issues and suggests ethical answers to the same. The main areas that require attention are the distribution of scarce resources, prioritisation of antiviral drugs and vaccines, obligations of healthcare workers, and adequate dissemination and proper communication of information related to the pandemic. It is of great importance to plan in advance how to confront these issues in an ethical manner. This is possible only if a comprehensive contingency plan is prepared with the involvement of and in consultation with all the stakeholders concerned. PMID:24152353

  5. Confronting Potential Influenza A (H5N1) Pandemic with Better Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hober, Didier; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A (H5N1) viruses are strong candidates for causing the next influenza pandemic if they acquire the ability for efficient human-to-human transmission. A major public health goal is to make efficacious vaccines against these viruses by using novel approaches, including cell-culture system, reverse genetics, and adjuvant development. Important consideration for the strategy includes preparation of vaccines from a currently circulating strain to induce broad-spectrum immunity toward newly emerged human H5 strains. This strategy would be a good solution early in a pandemic until an antigenically matched and approved vaccine is produced. The concept of therapeutic vaccines (e.g., antidisease vaccine) directed at diminishing the cytokine storm frequently seen in subtype H5N1–infected persons is underscored. Better understanding of host–virus interaction is essential to identify tools to produce effective vaccines against influenza (H5N1). PMID:18258000

  6. I Don't Need a Flu Shot!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William D. Rogers

    2010-01-01

    In this “clicker case,” Ryan, a college student, receives an email from the campus health education office urging students to get a flu shot. Ryan thinks it is too late since he just had the stomach flu, and besides, even if he did catch it, he would just take antibiotics. Fortunately, his girlfriend Ashley is able to correct these and other commonly held misconceptions. In learning about the dangers of flu and how to prevent becoming sick, students also learn about viral mutations (antigenic drift) and viral recombination (genetic shift). The case was written for a large introductory biology course for both science majors and non-majors that makes use of personal response systems (“clickers”). In class, the instructor presents the case using a PowerPoint presentation (~1.6 MB) punctuated by multiple choice questions that students answer with their clickers. The case could be adapted for use without these technologies.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of surface proteins of novel H1N1 virus isolated from 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Danishuddin, Mohd; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

    2009-01-01

    Swine Influenza Virus (H1N1) is a known causative agent of swine flu. Transmission of Swine Influenza Virus form pig to human is not a common event and may not always cause human influenza. The 2009 outbreak by subtype H1N1 in humans is due to transfer of Swine Influenza Virus from pig to human. Thus to analyze the origin of this novel virus we compared two surface proteins (HA and NA) with influenza viruses of swine, avian and humans isolates recovered from 1918 to 2008 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of hemagglutinin gene from 2009 pandemic found to be clustered with swine influenza virus (H1N2) circulated in U.S.A during the 1999-2004 outbreaks. Whereas, neuraminidase gene was clustered with H1N1 strains isolated from Europe and Asia during 1992-2007 outbreaks. This study concludes that the new H1N1 strain appeared in 2009 outbreak with high pathogenicity to human was originated as result of re-assortment (exchange of gene). Moreover, our data also suggest that the virus will remain sensitive to the pre-existing therapeutic strategies. PMID:20198180

  8. NATURE|VOL431|28OCTOBER2004|www.nature.com/nature 1023 Struggling with the flu

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    NATURE|VOL431|28OCTOBER2004|www.nature.com/nature 1023 Struggling with the flu The shortages of flu that was supposedtosupplyhalf of it--graphicallydemonstratestheirpoint. The flu vaccine is tricky to produce, because it must on the private sector to distribute flu vaccines at grocery stores,pharmaciesanddoctors'surgeries. As a result

  9. INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can Avian Flu: · There have been no reported cases of Avian Flu in humans in the United States. · A very few suspected cases of human-to-human transmission of Avian Flu have been reported globally, but these cases

  10. Find may yield flu early warning -The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING

    E-print Network

    Sasisekharan, Ram

    Find may yield flu early warning - The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Find may yield flu early warning By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff | January 7, 2008 For a decade, disease flu to easily infect people and ignite a firestorm of human illness akin to the 1918 global flu

  11. Students with the University-sponsored health insurance can now get a flu shot at participating pharmacies FREE!

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Students with the University-sponsored health insurance can now get a flu shot at participating pharmacies FREE! To receive a flu shot: 1. Go to your local pharmacy and ask if they participate in the Flu pharmacies 2. Show your Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Florida Member ID card. 3. Get a FREE Flu Shot! Over 3400

  12. HIGH-RISK GROUPS Some people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu, and

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    HIGH-RISK GROUPS Some people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health or your line manager. High-Risk groups and the Swine flu vaccine A vaccine to protect against swine flu is being developed

  13. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009–10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Methods Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Results Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. Conclusions We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be more prone to the dissemination of “viral” information. The page ranking analysis revealed the crucial role of search engines regarding access to information on the Internet. PMID:23360311

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the US...

  15. Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence M. Tumpey; Christopher F. Basler; Patricia V. Aguilar; Hui Zeng; Alicia Solórzano; David E. Swayne; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; Adolfo García-Sastre

    2005-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide. With the recent availability of the complete 1918 influenza virus coding sequence, we used reverse genetics to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence. In stark contrast to contemporary human

  16. Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic

    E-print Network

    Duisburg-Essen, Universität

    Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic Short-circuited atmosphere convections Warming States of America www.pnas.org #12;Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised

  17. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  18. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  19. What Hunters Should Know About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    What Hunters Should Know About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Quick Facts About Avian Influenza and H5N1 · Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A influenza viruses. Aquatic birds (waterfowl and shorebirds) are considered the natural reservoir of all type A avian

  20. A Serpin Takes a Bite out of the Flu.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Curt M

    2015-03-11

    Other than annual vaccinations, there are few remedies for seasonal influenza virus infections. A recent study in Cell from Dittmann et al. (2015) designed to reveal immune strategies against the flu has uncovered an Achilles' heel for influenza replication based on its requirement for host proteolytic machinery to enable efficient spread. PMID:25766286

  1. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  2. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shot and nasal spray form, you'll need to get the shot. The nasal spray is not recommended for pregnant ... When to Get Help 5 Tips for Surviving Shots 5 Ways to Fight the Flu Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to ...

  3. The 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine E Ammon

    2001-01-01

    Methods: This historical research was accomplished by reviewing the city archives, medical publications and the daily press of 1918–1919. Data relating to the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva were collected. Results: More than 50% of the population was hit by the infection during three consecutive waves in 1918. Mortality was highest for the age group 21–40 years. Mortality and morbidity

  4. Early observational research and registries during the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Robert A.; Webb, Steven A. R.; Rowan, Kathy M.; Sprung, Charles L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Randolph, Adrienne G.; Jouvet, Philippe; Lapinsky, Stephen; Rubinson, Lewis; Rello, Jordi; Cobb, J. Perren; Rice, Todd W.; Uyeki, Tim; Marshall, John C.

    2013-01-01

    As a critical care community, we have an obligation to provide not only clinical care but also the research that guides initial and subsequent clinical responses during a pandemic. There are many challenges to conducting such research. The first is speed of response. However, given the near inevitability of certain events, for example, viral respiratory illness such as the 2009 pandemic, geographically circumscribed natural disasters, or acts of terror, many study and trial designs should be preplanned and modified quickly when specific events occur. Template case report forms should be available for modification and web entry; centralized research ethics boards and funders should have the opportunity to preview and advise on such research beforehand; and national and international research groups should be prepared to work together on common studies and trials for common challenges. We describe the early international critical care research response to the influenza A 2009 (H1N1) pandemic, including specifics of observational study case report form, registry, and clinical trial design, cooperation of international critical care research organizations, and the early results of these collaborations. PMID:20101176

  5. Confronting the avian influenza threat: vaccine development for a potential pandemic.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Iain; Nicholson, Karl G; Wood, John M; Zambon, Maria C; Katz, Jacqueline M

    2004-08-01

    Sporadic human infection with avian influenza viruses has raised concern that reassortment between human and avian subtypes could generate viruses of pandemic potential. Vaccination is the principal means to combat the impact of influenza. During an influenza pandemic the immune status of the population would differ from that which exists during interpandemic periods. An emerging pandemic virus will create a surge in worldwide vaccine demand and new approaches in immunisation strategies may be needed to ensure optimum protection of unprimed individuals when vaccine antigen may be limited. The manufacture of vaccines from pathogenic avian influenza viruses by traditional methods is not feasible for safety reasons as well as technical issues. Strategies adopted to overcome these issues include the use of reverse genetic systems to generate reassortant strains, the use of baculovirus-expressed haemagglutinin or related non-pathogenic avian influenza strains, and the use of adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity. In clinical trials, conventional surface-antigen influenza virus vaccines produced from avian viruses have proved poorly immunogenic in immunologically naive populations. Adjuvanted or whole-virus preparations may improve immunogenicity and allow sparing of antigen. PMID:15288823

  6. Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Ebert, David S.; Corley, Courtney D.; Maciejewski, Ross; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.

    2010-05-30

    Federal, State, and local decision makers and public health officials must prepare and exercise complex plans to contend with a variety of possible mass casualty events, such as pandemic influenza. Through the provision of quick look tools (QLTs) focused on mass casualty events, such planning can be done with higher accuracy and more realism through the combination of interactive simulation and visualization in these tools. If an event happens, the QLTs can then be employed to rapidly assess and execute alternative mitigation strategies, and thereby minimize casualties. This can be achieved by conducting numerous 'what-if' assessments prior to any event in order to assess potential health impacts (e.g., number of sick individuals), required community resources (e.g., vaccinations and hospital beds), and optimal mitigative decision strategies (e.g., school closures) during the course of a pandemic. In this presentation, we overview and demonstrate a pandemic influenza QLT, discuss some of the modeling methods and construct and visual analytic components and interface, and outline additional development concepts. These include the incorporation of a user selectable infectious disease palette, simultaneous visualization of decision alternatives, additional resource elements associated with emergency response (e.g., first responders and medical professionals), and provisions for other potential disaster events.

  7. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the United States during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Martin I; Patel, Anita; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for US public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding "rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a "low severity" scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%-0.1%, or a "high severity" scenario (CFR: 0.25%-0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7000 to 11 000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35 000 to 55 000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35 000 to 60 500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178 000 to 308 000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (eg, drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic. PMID:25878301

  8. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  9. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naďve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  10. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urges you to take the following steps to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu)

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu): CDC URGES YOU TO TAKE 3 ACTIONS TO PROTECT AGAINST THE FLU. #1 Vaccinate #2 Stop Germs #3 Antiviral Drugs ·CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccine as the first and most important step in protecting against flu viruses. ·While there are many different flu viruses

  11. Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P.; Johnson, Gregory P.; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

  12. Pandemic H1N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus that has targeted not only those with chronic medical illness, the very young and old, but also a large segment of the patient population that has previously been afforded relative protection - those who are young, generally healthy, and immune naive. The illness is mild in most, but results in hospitalization and severe ARDS in an important minority. Among those who become critically ill, 20-40% will die, predominantly of severe hypoxic respiratory failure. However, and potentially in part due to the young age of those affected, intensive care with aggressive oxygenation support will allow most people to recover. The volume of patients infected and with critical illness placed substantial strain on the capacity of the health care system and critical care most specifically. Despite this, the 2009 pandemic has engaged our specialty and highlighted its importance like no other. Thus far, the national and global critical care response has been brisk, collaborative and helpful - not only for this pandemic, but for subsequent challenges in years ahead. PMID:22263101

  13. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  14. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  15. Preparedness planning for pandemic influenza among large US maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Beigi, RH; Davis, G; Hodges, J; Akers, A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the state of pandemic influenza preparedness and to delineate commonly reported challenges among a sample of larger US national maternity hospitals. This was done given the recent emphasis on hospital disaster planning and the disproportionate morbidity and mortality that pregnant women have suffered in previous influenza pandemics. An internet-based survey was sent to all 12 members of the Council of Women's and Infants’ Specialty Hospitals. Questions addressed hospital demographics and overall pandemic preparedness planning, including presence of a pandemic planning committee and the existence of written plans addressing communications, surge capacity, degradation of services, and advance supply planning. Nine of 12 (75%) hospitals responded. All had active pandemic planning committees with identified leadership. The majority (78%) had written formal plans regarding back-up communications, surge/overflow capacity, and degradation of services. However, fewer (44%) reported having written plans in place regarding supply-line/stockpiling of resources. The most common challenges noted were staff and supply coordination, ethical distribution of limited medical resources, and coordination with government agencies. In conclusion, the majority of the Council of Women's and Infants’ Specialty Hospitals maternity hospitals have preliminary infrastructure for pandemic influenza planning, but many challenges exist to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes during the next influenza pandemic. PMID:22460283

  16. U.S. Faces Another Flu Vaccine Shortage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Some 36,000 Americans die from flu complications every year so public alarm in reaction to the recent decision by British regulators to shut down the supplier of 46 million doses, or about the half this year's planned supply to the U.S., was hardly surprising. The action leaves only about 54 million flu shots available to Americans from a competing firm, and the U.S. government quickly decided that most healthy adults should delay or skip them to leave enough vaccine for the elderly and other high-risk patients. The government has urged voluntary rationing before, during a shortage in 2000. This year, however, will mark a record shortage just before flu season begins. Although the Bush administration offered assurances that anyone who needed a flu shot would get one, the shortage quickly developed into a political issue, with President Bush and Senator Kerry trading blame for the scarcity on the campaign trail. Meanwhile, U.S. and Canadian officials scrambled to come up with a plan to allow 1.2 million doses of Canadian-manufactured vaccine to be imported as an experimental drug.The first link offered here leads to an overview news story that summarizes the shortage situation so far and the outlook for fresh supplies of vaccine later in the flu season. The second link describes how the shortage has been playing out as a personal issue in a presidential campaign otherwise dominated by war and terrorism. The third link goes to a New York Times piece which notes that the shortage follows decades of warnings from health experts about problems with the flu vaccine supply and distribution system. The fourth link leads to the Centers for Disease Control influenza information page and a broad range of information targeted to both consumers and health care professionals. The fifth link describes the negotiations underway between the U.S. and Canadian governments to allow importation of vaccine from Canada under FDA regulations. The last link is the home page of the American Medical Association conference on influenza vaccine held in April and includes links to all speakers' presentations in either pdf or PowerPoint formats.

  17. Pandemic preparedness: perceptions of vulnerable migrants in Thailand towards WHO-recommended non-pharmaceutical interventions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) constituted the principal public health response to the previous influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic and are one key area of ongoing preparation for future pandemics. Thailand is an important point of focus in terms of global pandemic preparedness and response due to its role as the major transportation hub for Southeast Asia, the endemic presence of multiple types of influenza, and its role as a major receiving country for migrants. Our aim was to collect information about vulnerable migrants’ perceptions of and ability to implement NPIs proposed by the WHO. We hope that this information will help us to gauge the capacity of this population to engage in pandemic preparedness and response efforts, and to identify potential barriers to NPI effectiveness. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed. The study was conducted during the influenza H1N1 2009 pandemic and included 801 migrant participants living in border areas thought to be high risk by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health. Data were collected by Migrant Community Health Workers using a 201-item interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Univariate descriptive analyses were conducted. Results With the exception of border measures, to which nearly all participants reported they would be adherent, attitudes towards recommended NPIs were generally negative or uncertain. Other potential barriers to NPI implementation include limited experience applying these interventions (e.g., using a thermometer, wearing a face mask) and inadequate hand washing and household disinfection practices. Conclusions Negative or ambivalent attitudes towards NPIs combined with other barriers identified suggest that vulnerable migrants in Thailand have a limited capacity to participate in pandemic preparedness efforts. This limited capacity likely puts migrants at risk of propagating the spread of a pandemic virus. Coordinated risk communication and public education are potential strategies that may reduce barriers to individual NPI implementation. PMID:24973943

  18. Avian Flu: Modeling and Implications for Control Maia Martcheva

    E-print Network

    Martcheva, Maia

    , 2013 Abstract At present H5N1 avian influenza is a zoonotic disease where the transmission to humans% of them have died. If the H5N1 virus becomes efficiently human-to-human transmittable, a pandemic for the parameterization of the model. The differential equation system faithfully projects the cumulative number of H5N1

  19. [Christopher Columbus flu. A hypothesis for an ecological catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Muńoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2006-05-01

    When Christopher Columbus and his men embarked on the second Colombian expedition to the New World (1493), the crew suffered from fever, respiratory symptoms and malaise. It is generally accepted that the disease was influenza. Pigs, horses and hens acquired in Gomera (Canary Islands) traveled in the same ship. The pigs may well have been the origin of the flu and the intermediary hosts for genetic recombination of other viral subtypes. The Caribbean archipelago had a large population of birds, the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus. In this ecological scenario there was a concurrence of several biological elements that had never before coexisted in the New World: pigs, horses, the influenza virus and humans. We propose that birds are likely to have played an important role in the epidemiology of the flu occurring on the second Colombian trip, which caused a fatal demographic catastrophe, with an estimated mortality of 90% among the natives. PMID:16762260

  20. D M E The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    D M E S S The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and SelfOscilla ons of an Elas c purpose of this project is the inves ga on of the effect of changes in the loca on of a shock wave on flu. The crea on of the methodology for researching flu er boundaries of an airplane and parameters limit cycle

  1. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  2. Street youth and the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luna, G C; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    1992-01-01

    Children responsible for their own survival exist in all countries. Despite social and cultural differences between street youth in developing countries versus homeless youth in developed countries, the predictors and correlates of homelessness are similar among youth. The AIDS pandemic is inextricably linked to homelessness and is a particularly devastating threat to the welfare of the world's disenfranchised youth, as they are continually forced into multiple HIV-related high risk situations and behaviors. Specific recommendations regarding clinical care, prevention programs, research, and the implications for policy and legislative action are discussed in relation to reducing the incidences and impact of HIV. For the world's populations of street children the issue of globally providing AIDS education and prevention within the context of health care services is emphasized, particularly by the promotion and training of physicians and other health professionals in street-based care. PMID:1389865

  3. PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE,

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    . Acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol) and/or ibuprofen (e.g. Motrin) for fever and body aches 3. Hand sanitizer (at least of a fever, without the use of fever-reducing medicines, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. · Practice good

  4. Emergence of swine flu in Andhra Pradesh: Facts and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musturi Venkataramana; Vaibhav Vindal; Anand K. Kondapi

    2009-01-01

    Swine flu is a common term representing the respiratory viral infections caused by influenza A virus strain H1N1. This disease\\u000a was noticed for the first time in Mexico during early 2009, spread worldwide very soon and took nearly 4000 lives. It is observed\\u000a that this infection is due to an evolved virulent version of previously existing H1N1. The first report

  5. The swine flu immunization program: scientific venture or political folly?

    PubMed

    Wecht, C H

    The author of this Article, an internationally recognized coroner perhaps best known among laymen for his incisive and tenacious criticism of the Warren Commission report on the Kennedy assassination, turns his attention to the federal government's 1976--1977 Swine Flu Immunization Program. Dr. Wecht contends that although this program may have been viewed by its key proponents as having great public health importance, or perhaps even political value, its creation and continuation nevertheless were scientifically unjustified. Furthermore, he contends, the federal government failed to inform the public adequately of important facts about the program's origins and progress, and it mismanaged the program in several important respects. Among the topics he discusses are swine flu's epidemiological history (including the 1976 Fort Dix outbreak that propelled swine flu into the national consciousness); the key elements leading to the government's decision to immunize; the government's failure to reevaluate the program seriously as problems arose; the shortcomings of the federal swine flu statute; the inadequacy of the government's investigation of the deaths of three persons in Pittsburgh within a few hours after being vaccinated (a matter that was of immediate concern to the author in his role as Coroner of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania); the long-delayed termination of the program following the emergence of a possible statistical link between the immunizations and an increase in the incidence of the Guillain-Barré Syndrome; the financial and human costs of the program; and the need for calmer, more objective decision making in future situations where immunization of the general populace is being considered. PMID:206136

  6. Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Itzwerth, Ralf L; Macintyre, C Raina; Shah, Smita; Plant, Aileen J

    2006-11-20

    Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic. PMID:17115957

  7. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    E-print Network

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

  8. Global Pandemic of Fake Medicines Poses Urgent Risk, Scientists Say

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hill. Until recently, Herrington was director of Fogarty’s international relations division. New methodologies to test drug quality are emerging and scientists reported the results of four investigations. Simple ... coordinated international response is required to address the pandemic of ...

  9. Preparedness for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Pandemic in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Katz, Mark A.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Vertefeuille, John

    2007-01-01

    Global concerns about an impending influenza pandemic escalated when highly pathogenic influenza A subtype H5N1 appeared in Nigeria in January 2006. The potential devastation from emergence of a pandemic strain in Africa has led to a sudden shift of public health focus to pandemic preparedness. Preparedness and control activities must work within the already strained capacity of health infrastructure in Africa to respond to immense existing public health problems. Massive attention and resources directed toward influenza could distort priorities and damage critical public health programs. Responses to concerns about pandemic influenza should strengthen human and veterinary surveillance and laboratory capacity to help address a variety of health threats. Experiences in Asia should provide bases for reassessing strategies for Africa and elsewhere. Fowl depopulation strategies will need to be adapted for Africa. Additionally, the role of avian vaccines should be comprehensively evaluated and clearly defined. PMID:18257986

  10. Preparedness for highly pathogenic avian influenza pandemic in Africa.

    PubMed

    Breiman, Robert F; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Katz, Mark A; Kariuki Njenga, M; Vertefeuille, John

    2007-10-01

    Global concerns about an impending influenza pandemic escalated when highly pathogenic influenza A subtype H5N1 appeared in Nigeria in January 2006. The potential devastation from emergence of a pandemic strain in Africa has led to a sudden shift of public health focus to pandemic preparedness. Preparedness and control activities must work within the already strained capacity of health infrastructure in Africa to respond to immense existing public health problems. Massive attention and resources directed toward influenza could distort priorities and damage critical public health programs. Responses to concerns about pandemic influenza should strengthen human and veterinary surveillance and laboratory capacity to help address a variety of health threats. Experiences in Asia should provide bases for reassessing strategies for Africa and elsewhere. Fowl depopulation strategies will need to be adapted for Africa. Additionally, the role of avian vaccines should be comprehensively evaluated and clearly defined. PMID:18257986

  11. AT&T" flu, M/Lfi >B fi,U "" / @< Ml~fl

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    · · · · · · · · · AT&T" flu, ¤M/Lfi £ « ~ ´ / ¶ ¤>B fi§,U¯ ""· / ·@¡N...s"x¶}fii· y¤ §@'M"º´ u/¤M ¤.AT&T " flu, ¤M/Lfi ¡M§@flu]¡NAT&T Business Exchange 'M AT&T OE ­M·" (AT&T VPN)¡M... ¤>`{¤ ,, "">­,, >­·|~.AT&T " flu, ¤M/Lfi ­N "M l W¡N> W

  12. Molecular distribution of amino acid substitutions on neuraminidase from the 2009 (H1N1) human influenza pandemic virus

    PubMed Central

    Quiliano, MiguelMiguel; Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Olivares, Carlos; Requena, David; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Reyes-Loyola, Paola; Tolentino-Lopez, Luis E; Sheen, Patricia; Briz, Verónica; Muńoz-Fernández, Maria A; Correa-Basurto, José; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic influenza AH1N1 (2009) caused an outbreak of human infection that spread to the world. Neuraminidase (NA) is an antigenic surface glycoprotein, which is essential to the influenza infection process, and is the target of anti-flu drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. Currently, NA inhibitors are the pillar pharmacological strategy against seasonal and global influenza. Although mutations observed after NA-inhibitor treatment are characterized by changes in conserved amino acids of the enzyme catalytic site, it is possible that specific amino acid substitutions (AASs) distant from the active site such as H274Y, could confer oseltamivir or zanamivir resistance. To better understand the molecular distribution pattern of NA AASs, we analyzed NA AASs from all available reported pandemic AH1N1 NA sequences, including those reported from America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and specifically from Mexico. The molecular distributions of the AASs were obtained at the secondary structure domain level for both the active and catalytic sites, and compared between geographic regions. Our results showed that NA AASs from America, Asia, Europe, Oceania and Mexico followed similar molecular distribution patterns. The compiled data of this study showed that highly conserved amino acids from the NA active site and catalytic site are indeed being affected by mutations. The reported NA AASs follow a similar molecular distribution pattern worldwide. Although most AASs are distributed distantly from the active site, this study shows the emergence of mutations affecting the previously conserved active and catalytic site. A significant number of unique AASs were reported simultaneously on different continents. PMID:23930018

  13. Factors associated with post-seasonal serological titer and risk factors for infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in the French general population.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Nathanael; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Salez, Nicolas; Setbon, Michel; Delabre, Rosemary M; Ferrari, Pascal; Moyen, Nanikaly; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Vely, Frédéric; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Cauchemez, Simon; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Vivier, Eric; Abel, Laurent; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Legeas, Michčle; Le Cann, Pierre; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households). The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 45.1, 49.2). According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort. PMID:23613718

  14. Factors Associated with Post-Seasonal Serological Titer and Risk Factors for Infection with the Pandemic A/H1N1 Virus in the French General Population

    PubMed Central

    Lapidus, Nathanael; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Salez, Nicolas; Setbon, Michel; Delabre, Rosemary M.; Ferrari, Pascal; Moyen, Nanikaly; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Vely, Frédéric; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Cauchemez, Simon; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Vivier, Éric; Abel, Laurent; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Legeas, Michčle; Le Cann, Pierre; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households). The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 45.1, 49.2). According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort. PMID:23613718

  15. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy C. Germann; Kai Kadau; Ira M. Longini; Catherine A. Macken

    2006-01-01

    Recent human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised the specter of a devastating pandemic like that of 1917-1918, should this avian virus evolve to become readily transmissible among humans. We introduce and use a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S.

  16. Red state, blue state, flu state: media self-selection and partisan gaps in Swine flu vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Baum, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the H1N1 virus (swine flu) crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly nonpartisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes and that such polarization is attributable, at least partly, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the U.S. mass media from roughly the 1950s until the early 1990s. In its place has arisen an increasingly fragmented and niche-oriented media marketplace in which individuals are better able to limit their information exposure to attitudes and opinions that reinforce, rather than challenge, their preexisting beliefs. I test my argument against a variety of data sources, including opinion surveys and state-level swine flu vaccination rate data. PMID:21948819

  17. Understanding the Influenza A H1N1 2009 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Muharrmi, Zakariya

    2010-01-01

    A new strain of Influenza A virus, with quadruple segment translocation in its RNA, caused an outbreak of human infection in April 2009 in USA and Mexico. It was classified as Influenza A H1N1 2009. The genetic material originates from three different species: human, avian and swine. By June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) had classified this strain as a pandemic virus, making it the first pandemic in 40 years. Influenza A H1N1 2009 is transmitted by respiratory droplets; the transmissibility of this strain is higher than other influenza strains which made infection control difficult. The majority of cases of H1N1 2009 were mild and self limiting, but some people developed complications and others died. Most laboratory tests are insensitive except the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is expensive and labour intensive. The Influenza A H1N1 2009 virus is sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), but some isolates resistant to oseltamivir have been reported. A vaccine against the new pandemic strain was available by mid-September 2009 with very good immunogenicity and safety profile. Surveillance is very important at all stages of any pandemic to detect and monitor the trend of viral infections and to prevent the occurrence of future pandemics. The aim of this review is to understand pandemic influenza viruses, and what strategies can be used for surveillance, mitigation and control. PMID:21509228

  18. Using Results From Infectious Disease Modeling to Improve the Response to a Potential H7N9 Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Redd, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other government agencies prepared for a possible H7N9 pandemic, many questions arose about the virus's expected burden and the effectiveness of key interventions. Public health decision makers need information to compare interventions so that efforts can be focused on interventions most likely to have the greatest impact on morbidity and mortality. To guide decision making, CDC's pandemic response leadership turned to experts in modeling for assistance. H7N9 modeling results provided a quantitative estimate of the impact of different interventions and emphasized the importance of key assumptions. In addition, these H7N9 modeling efforts highlighted the need for modelers to work closely with investigators collecting data so that model assumptions can be adjusted as new information becomes available and with decision makers to ensure that the results of modeling impact policy decisions. PMID:25878303

  19. Many of us have been urged to get lots of Vitamin C in order to stay healthy during flu season. Although Vitamin C has not been proven to prevent or cure the cold and flu, eating

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Many of us have been urged to get lots of Vitamin C in order to stay healthy during flu season. Although Vitamin C has not been proven to prevent or cure the cold and flu, eating Vitamin C rich foods't the only nutritional powerhouse during flu season. Here are some other nutrients to pay particular

  20. Flu Symptom Advisory for Outside Visitors to Princeton's Campus In light of continuing cases of H1N1 (swine) flu in New Jersey, the United States and around the

    E-print Network

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    Flu Symptom Advisory for Outside Visitors to Princeton's Campus In light of continuing cases of H1N1 (swine) flu in New Jersey, the United States and around the world, Princeton University wants to their visitors as they best deem appropriate: Stay at home if you're feeling sick. Persons with flu