Sample records for pandemic flu preparations

  1. Pandemic Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the recent rise in flu outbreaks both across the United States and the rest of the world, the United States government has developed a broad range of strategies for keeping citizens up to date on the current status of these developments. The Pandemic Flu website is the official US government website for information on the subject (along with coverage of avian influenza) and should be of interest both to the general public and to those working in the fields of public health and policy. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the general information area on the homepage. Here they will find answers to basic questions as â??What is an influenza pandemic?â?ť and also be able to peruse materials about avian flu and vaccines and medications designed to treat both conditions. Most visitors will also want to learn about the official national strategy designed to both prepare and respond to an influenza pandemic. This document is available from the siteâ??s homepage in its entirety, as is information about what agencies (nationally and internationally) are monitoring outbreaks of these diseases.

  2. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  3. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  4. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  5. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  6. University of Hawai`i at Hilo Pandemic Flu Plan

    E-print Network

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    University of Hawai`i at Hilo Pandemic Flu Plan Ken Ikeda, Environmental Health & Safety Officer.............................................................................. 8 Appendix 1 ­ State of Hawaii Pandemic Influenze Plan that primarily affect birds. On rare occasions, these bird viruses can infect other species, including pigs

  7. What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new

    E-print Network

    What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which the country and around the world in very short time. It is difficult to predict when the next influenza

  8. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  9. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  10. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  11. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  12. Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joshua M.; Goedecke, D. Michael; Yu, Feng; Morris, Robert J.; Wagener, Diane K.; Bobashev, Georgiy V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. Methods and Findings A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT) to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. Conclusions International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while their costs are minimal, dismissal of travel restrictions as an aid in dealing with a global pandemic seems premature. PMID:17476323

  13. [Incidence of avian flu worldwide and in the Russian Federation. Improvement of surveillance and control of influenza during preparation for potential pandemic].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Problem of influenza and acute respiratory virus infections (ARVI) remains one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic issues in despite of certain achievements in vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. In Russia influenza and ARVI account for up to 90% of the total annual incidence of infectious disease (up to 30 million of sick people; 45-60% of them are children). Economic damage, caused by influenza and ARVI, makes around 86% of total economic damage, caused by infectious diseases. WHO predicts that in the years coming a new antigenic influenza virus will appear, which can lead to development of large pandemia with 4-5 times increase in disease incidence and 5-10 times increase in death rate. During 2005 some changes in animal influenza epidemiology were registered. New cases of people infections are detected, the virus has spread to some new countries. Avian influenza is a high contagious virus infection that can affect all bird species. For birds influenza is enteral infection, it severely affects parenchymatous organs, especially spleen, and lungs. By now it is known that carriers of avian influenza virus H5N1 can be all known species of wild waterfowl and near-water birds. Poultry is highly susceptible to many stocks of influenza virus H5N1, death rate reaches 100%. At that hens, especially chickens, are most susceptible. From January 2004 to 24th November 2005 in the world there were detected 131 cases of influenza, caused by virus A/H5N1/, 68 of them (51%) ended in lethal outcome (Vietnam--92 cases, Thailand--21 cases, Cambodia--4, Indonesia--11, China--3). Most of the described cases of avian influenza resulted from direct contact with infected birds (handling bird internal organs is especially dangerous). In frozen meat of infected birds the virus can remain for about one year. Heating kills virus (no cases of infection caused by use for food of poultry products were detected). In order to prevent wide ranging spread of infection over Russia it is necessary to organize medical monitoring of sea ships, aircraft and train crews, arriving from the countries where influenza H5N1 cases were detected, in case of need to arrange raids to outlets and markets to detect poultry and poultry products brought from these countries. In Russia it is necessary to prepare a reserve of vaccine strains of viruses--potential causative agent of pandemic, including H5N1 and H7N7, that can start to vaccine reproduction immediately in case of pandemic. PMID:16981489

  14. Relationship between equipment and infrastructure for pandemic influenza and performance in an avian flu drill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Adini; A Goldberg; R Cohen; Y Bar-Dayan

    2009-01-01

    Background:Effective preparedness for pandemic influenza necessitates acquisition and maintenance of vital equipment and infrastructure. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of hospital preparedness relating to infrastructure and equipment and performance of the hospital in an avian flu drill.Methods:The levels of preparedness of the infrastructure and equipment for pandemic influenza of all 24 general

  15. Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Ritterman; Miles Osborne; Ewan Klein

    We explore the hypothesis that social media such as Twitter encodes the belief of a large number of people about some concrete statement about the world. Here, these beliefs are aggregated using a Prediction Market specically concerning the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009. Using a regression framework, we are able to show that simple features extracted from

  16. Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

  17. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front.

    PubMed

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu - winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued. PMID:17038194

  18. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued. PMID:17038194

  19. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... By Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone ...

  20. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Flu Spread? This virus gets around in little drops that spray out of an infected person's mouth and nose when he or she sneezes, coughs, or even laughs. You can catch the flu from someone who has it if you breathe in some of those tiny flu-infected drops. You can also catch the flu if those ...

  1. Regulating the 1918-19 pandemic: flu, stoicism and the Northcliffe press.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Social historians have argued that the reason the 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was ‘overshadowed’ by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the ‘forgotten’ pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played by wartime propaganda. Instead, I put emotion words, emotives and metaphors at the heart of my analysis in an attempt to understand the interplay between propaganda and biopolitical discourses that aimed to regulate civilian responses to the pandemic. Drawing on the letters of Wilfred Owen, the diaries of the cultural historian Caroline Playne and the reporting in the Northcliffe press, I argue that the stoicism exhibited by Owen and amplified in the columns of The Times and the Daily Mail is best viewed as a performance, an emotional style that reflected the politicisation of ‘dread’ in war as an emotion with the potential to undermine civilian morale. This was especially the case during the final year of the conflict when war-weariness set in, leading to the stricter policing of negative emotions. As a protean disease that could present as alternately benign and plague-like, the Spanish flu both drew on these discourses and subverted them, disrupting medical efforts to use the dread of foreign pathogens as an instrument of biopower. The result was that, as dread increasingly became attached to influenza, it destabilised medical attempts to regulate the civilian response to the pandemic, undermining Owen’s and the Northcliffe press’s emotives of stoicism. PMID:24070344

  2. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Prevention. Seasonal influenza: flu basics. July 28, 2014. Grohskopf LA, Olsen SJ, Sokolow LZ, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention and control of seasonal ... - United States, 2014-2015. MMWR Weekly . 2014;63(32):691-697. ...

  3. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009), representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics). Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06), an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25), at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews), and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males). In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups). The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the reporting rate. The finding of a low Re (close to unity threshold), combined with identification of social groups with high transmission rates would have enabled the containment of swine flu during the summer in Israel. Our unique use of contact data provided new insights into the differential dynamics of influenza in different ages and sexes, and should be promoted in future epidemiological studies. Thus our work highlights the importance of conducting a comprehensive study of the initial stage of a pandemic in real time. PMID:21492430

  4. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Kin Lim; Yong Loo

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day

  5. Development of an intervention to reduce transmission of respiratory infections and pandemic flu: measuring and predicting hand-washing intentions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This was an exploratory pilot study forming part of a programme of work to develop and trial an effective web-based intervention to reduce the risk of transmission of respiratory infections by promoting hand washing and other preventive behaviours in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. The main purpose of this study was to confirm that the behavioural determinants we had identified from theory were related as predicted to intentions and to establish the validity of our measures of behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 84) completed a self-report web-delivered questionnaire measuring intentions to engage in hand washing and the hypothesised behavioural determinants of intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory. In a factorial 2 × 2 design, half of the participants were first randomised to receive messages about potential negative consequences of pandemic flu (the "high-threat" condition) and half were assigned to receive "coping" messages describing the rationale and effectiveness of hand washing for reducing the risk of infection. A substantial proportion of variance in intentions was explained by measures of attitudes (instrumental and affective), social norms (descriptive and injunctive), perceived behavioural control (especially, access to hand gel) and perceived risk (in particular, the likelihood of catching pandemic flu). Our measures of intentions were sensitive to between-group differences, and although our design did not permit causal inference (particularly in view of selective dropout among those required to read most web pages), the pattern of differences was in the expected direction, that is, hand-washing intentions tended to be stronger in those receiving the high-threat message and coping messages. This study provided encouraging confirmation that our intervention development was proceeding correctly. Measures of intentions proved sensitive to group differences, and the behavioural determinants included in the study explained a substantial proportion of the variance in intentions. The study also provided useful indications that our high-threat message might increase hand-washing intentions, that providing hand gel might be beneficial and that it would be necessary to actively manage the risk of selective dropout in the intervention group. PMID:21644184

  6. The Spanish flu in Uppsala, clinical and epidemiological impact of the influenza pandemic 1918–1919 on a Swedish county

    PubMed Central

    Holtenius, Jonas; Gillman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim The Spanish flu reached Sweden in June 1918, and at least one-third of the population (then 5.8 million) became infected. Some 34,500 persons (5.9 per 1,000 people) died from influenza during the first year of the pandemic (when acute pneumonia is included, the number of deaths rose to 7.1 per 1,000 people). In this historical look back at the pandemic, our aim was to review the epidemiological impact on the Swedish county of Uppsala, the clinical outcomes and the economic impact on the regional hospital; a relevant backgound to consider the impact of a future virulent pandemic. We also focused on how the pandemic was perceived by the medical community and by health care authorities. Methods Health care reports, statistics, daily newspapers, medical journals, and records of patients treated for influenza at the Uppsala Academic Hospital from July 1918 to June 1919 were included in our review. Results An influenza related mortality rate of 693 persons (5.1 per 1,000 people) was reported in the Uppsala region from 1918–1919; from July 1918 to June 1919, 384 patients were treated for influenza at the Uppsala Academic Hospital. The first wave peaked in November 1918 with case fatality rates up to 30%; a second wave peaked in April 1919 with a lower rate of mortality. Of the patients treated, a total of 66 died. Of these, 60% were 20–29 years of age, and 85% were less than 40 years old. Autopsy reports revealed pneumonia in 89% of the cases; among these, 47% were hemorrhagic, 18% were bilateral, and 45% had additional extrapulmonary organ involvement. Signs of severe viral disease were documented, but secondary bacterial disease was the primary cause of death in the majority of cases. Conclusion The epidemiologic and pathologic results were in accordance with other publications of this time period. The costs of running the hospital doubled from 1917 to 1920 and then reversed by 45%. Today, an influenza pandemic of the same virulence would paralyze health care systems and result in extremely high financial costs and rates of mortality. PMID:24455108

  7. Reassessing Google Flu Trends data for detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza: a comparative epidemiological study at three geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Konty, Kevin J; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data and computational methods for continued model-fitting and ongoing evaluation and improvement. PMID:24146603

  8. Putting Pandemics in Perspective: England and the Flu, 1889-1919

    E-print Network

    Adams, David Lynn

    2008-01-01

    was closer to 225,000. N.P.A.S. Johnson, ?The Overshadowed Killer: Influenza in Britain 1918-19? in The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives, eds. Howard Phillips and David Killingray (London: Routledge, 2003), 132. on those close enough... the instructions from municipal health authorities than those of less education.?45 In 2003 Howard Phillips and David Killingray edited The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. Among the submissions in this anthology is a chapter by N.P.A.S...

  9. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  10. How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics - a scent of influenza.

    PubMed

    Bos, Lieuwe D J; de Jong, Menno D; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires two major innovations. First, data that is obtained should be shared with the global community instantly. The strength of rapid integration of simple signals is exemplified by Google's(TM) Flu Trend, which could predict the incidence of influenza-like illness based on online search engine queries. Second, omics technologies need to be fast and high-throughput. We postulate that analysis of the exhaled breath would be a simple, rapid and non-invasive alternative. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are altered by infection and inflammation. The molecular fingerprint of breath (breathprint) can be obtained using an electronic nose, which relies on sensor technology. These breathprints can be stored in an online database (a "breathcloud") and coupled to clinical data. Comparison of the breathprint of a suspected subject to the breathcloud allows for a rapid decision on the presence or absence of a pathogen. PMID:24795745

  11. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  12. VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Graeme Laver (Australian National University; )

    2001-09-07

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What would happen if a flu pandemic as devastating as the 1918 Spanish flu arrived tomorrow. As Laver explains in a Perspective, preparation of the appropriate subunit vaccine (which depends on accurate identification of the flu virus strain) would take too long. He suggests that stockpiling antiviral drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, which block the action of the flu neuraminidase enzyme preventing spread of the virus throughout the host's body, would be a good place to start.

  13. Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

  14. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ??????) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (???) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (???) Laotian (Lao) Polish (polski) Portuguese (portuguęs) Punjabi ( ... Khmer) PDF Public Health - Seattle and King County Korean (???) Home Care for Pandemic Flu ??? ??? ...

  15. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

  16. Pandemic Influenza Planning in Nursing Homes: Are We Prepared?

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Cinti, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza or Influenza A (H5N1) is caused by a viral strain that occurs naturally in wild birds, but to which humans are immunologically naďve. If an influenza pandemic occurs, it is expected to have dire consequences, including millions of deaths, social disruption, and enormous economic consequences. The Department of Health and Human Resources plan, released in November 2005, clearly affirms the threat of a pandemic. Anticipating a disruption in many factions of society, every segment of the healthcare industry, including nursing homes, will be affected and will need to be self-sufficient. Disruption of vaccine distribution during the seasonal influenza vaccine shortage during the 2004/05 influenza season is but one example of erratic emergency planning. Nursing homes will have to make vital decisions and provide care to older adults who will not be on the initial priority list for vaccine. At the same time, nursing homes will face an anticipated shortage of antiviral medications and be expected to provide surge capacity for overwhelmed hospitals. This article provides an overview of current recommendations for pandemic preparedness and the potential effect of a pandemic on the nursing home industry. It highlights the need for collaborative planning and dialogue between nursing homes and various stakeholders already heavily invested in pandemic preparedness. PMID:17767687

  17. Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

  18. Preparing for pandemic influenza: California confronts the legal implications.

    PubMed

    Macario, Everly; Heyden, Leslie; Nakahara, Natalie; Macias-Reynolds, Violet

    2009-10-01

    California Department of Health Services and California Distance Learning Health Network collaborated with the California Conference of Local Health Officers to produce the Pandemic Influenza and Public Health Law: What Public Health Departments Need to Know satellite broadcast and tabletop exercise training. Local health officers, county counsels, school superintendents, hospital administrators, and senior decision makers in California planned for ways stakeholders would make legal use of public health law in case of pandemic emergency. The training provided an opportunity for decision makers to become familiar with statutes and regulations in anticipation of such an event. Finding a legal balance between the need to mandate legal orders for the protection of the common good and the degree of infringement on individual rights was the thematic thread for the training. Although California specific, the instructional modalities and lessons learned from this training program serve as a guide for state and local governments. PMID:18434565

  19. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

  20. Pandemic risk prevention in European countries: role of the ECDC in preparing for pandemics. Development and experience with a national self-assessment procedure, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, A

    2010-12-01

    To be effective risk prevention work takes place well before pandemics through the three Ps: Planning, Preparedness and Practise. Between 2005 and 2008 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) worked with the European Commission (EC) and the WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO-Euro) to assist European countries in preparing themselves for a future influenza pandemic. All eligible countries in the European Union and European Economic Area participated with energy and commitment. Indicators of preparedness were developed based on WHO planning guidance and these were set within a simple assessment which included a formal country visit. The procedure evolved considerably with field experience. As the complexity of pandemic preparedness was appreciated it changed from being a classical short external assessment to longer national self-assessments with demonstrable impact, especially when self-assessments were published. There were essential supporting activities undertaken including a series of pan-European pandemic preparedness workshops organised by EC, WHO-Euro, ECDC and countries holding the European Union Presidency. The self-assessments highlighted additional work and documentation that was needed by national authorities from the ECDC. This work was undertaken and the document produced. The benefits of the self-assessments were seen in the 2009 pandemic in that EU/EEA countries performed better than some others. A number of the guidance documents were updated to fit the specific features of the pandemic. However the pandemic revealed many weaknesses and brought new challenges for European countries, notably over communication and vaccines, the need to prepare for a variety of scenarios and to factor severity estimates into preparedness, to improve surveillance for severe disease and to deliver seroepidemiology. Any revised self-assessment procedure will need to respond to these challenges. PMID:21161477

  1. Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

  2. Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to lower ... flu and spreading it to others. The flu vaccine causes antibodies to develop in your body about ...

  3. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your symptoms and their clinical judgment. Will my health care provider test me for flu if I have flu-like ... flu symptoms do not require testing because the test results usually do not change how you are treated. Your health care provider may diagnose you with flu based on ...

  4. Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Lab

    2009-05-01

    Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

  5. Bird Flu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-03-28

    BioEd Online is an â??educational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ?ť from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The â??Hot Topicsâ?ť section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are â??receiving national attention.â?ť Outbreaks of viruses have had detrimental effects on human populations throughout history. Recently, there has been a spotlight on the avian influenza virus (specifically the strain known as H5N1), which has infected over 100 people throughout the world. Concerned scientists and health officials are researching this virus, which many fear could escalate and contribute to a worldwide influenza outbreak. This site, created by Deanne Erdmann, MS, and Nancy Moreno, PhD, contains a brief discussion of the avian influenza virus, and includes links to references and further reading. Related news articles, and websites can be found. Be sure to check out the related slide set, â??Bird Flu: Is a Pandemic Looming in Our Future?" The slide show can be easily manipulated for use in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this â??Hot Topicâ?ť from BioEd Online.

  6. Pandemic Influenza: Risk of Multiple Introductions and the Need to Prepare for Them

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina E Mills; James M Robins; Carl T Bergstrom; Marc Lipsitch

    2006-01-01

    Containing an emerging influenza H5N1 pandemic in its earliest stages may be feasible, but containing multiple introductions of a pandemic-capable strain would be more difficult. Mills and colleagues argue that multiple introductions are likely, especially if risk of a pandemic is high.

  7. Implications of Pandemic Influenza for Bioterrorism Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Henderson; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole; Monica Schoch-Spana

    2000-01-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) had catastrophic effects upon urban pop- ulations in the United States. Large numbers of frightened, critically ill people overwhelmed health care providers. Mortuaries and cemeteries were severely strained by rapid accumulation of corpses of flu victims. Understanding of the outbreak's extent and effectiveness of con- tainment measures was obscured by the swiftness of the

  8. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  9. The Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) successfully predicts mortality and critical care resource utilization in H1N1 pandemic flu: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Triage protocols are only initiated when it is apparent that resource deficits will occur across a broad geographical area despite efforts to expand or acquire additional capacity. Prior to the pandemic the UK Department of Health (DOH) recommended the use of a staged triage plan incorporating Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) developed by the Ontario Ministry of Health to assist in the triage of critical care admissions and discharges during an influenza outbreak in the UK. There are data to suggest that had it been used in the recent H1N1 pandemic it may have led to inappropriate limitation of therapy if surge capacity had been overwhelmed. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the performance of the Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) as an indicator of the utilization of hospital resources in adult patients with confirmed H1N1 admitted to a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to compare it against the staged initial SOFA score process with regards to mortality, need for intensive care admission and requirement for mechanical ventilation and assess its validity. Results Over an 8 month period, 62 patients with confirmed H1N1 were admitted. Forty (65%) had documented comorbidities and 27 (44%) had pneumonic changes on their admission CXR. Nineteen (31%) were admitted to the intensive care unit where 5 (26%) required mechanical ventilation (MV). There were 3 deaths. The STSS group categorization demonstrated a better discriminating accuracy in predicting critical care resource usage with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (95% confidence interval) for ICU admission of 0.88 (0.78-0.98) and need for MV of 0.91 (0.83-0.99). This compared to the staged SOFA score of 0.77 (0.65-0.89) and 0.87 (0.72-1.00) respectively. Low mortality rates limited analysis on survival predictions. Conclusions The STSS accurately risk stratified patients in this cohort according to their risk of death and predicted the likelihood of admission to critical care and the requirement for MV. Its single point in time, accuracy and easily collected component variables commend it as an alternative reproducible system to facilitate the triage and treatment of patients in any future influenza pandemic. PMID:21269458

  10. Risk factors of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in a prospective household cohort in the general population: results from the CoPanFlu-France cohort

    PubMed Central

    Delabre, Rosemary M; Lapidus, Nathanael; Salez, Nicolas; Mansiaux, Yohann; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Carrat, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Background The CoPanFlu-France household cohort was set up in 2009 to identify risk factors of infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus in the general population. Objectives To investigate the determinants of infection during the 2010–2011 season, the first complete influenza season of study follow-up for this cohort. Patients/Methods Pre- and post-epidemic blood samples were collected for all subjects, and nasal swabs were obtained in all subjects from households where an influenza-like illness was reported. Cases were defined as either a fourfold increase in the serological titer or a laboratory-confirmed H1N1pdm09 on a nasal swab, with either RT-PCR or multiplex PCR. Risk factors for H1N1pdm09 infections were explored, without any pre-specified hypothesis, among 167 individual, collective and environmental covariates via generalized estimating equations modeling. We adopted a multimodel selection procedure to control for model selection uncertainty. Results This analysis is based on a sample size of 1121 subjects. The final multivariable model identified one risk factor (history of asthma, OR = 2·17; 95% CI: 1·02–4·62) and three protective factors: pre-epidemic serological titer (OR = 0·51 per doubling of the titer; 95% CI: 0·39–0·67), green tea consumption a minimum of two times a week (OR = 0·39; 95% CI: 0·18–0·84), and proportion of subjects in the household always covering their mouth while coughing/sneezing (OR = 0·93 per 10% increase; 95% CI: 0·86–1·00). Conclusion This exploratory study provides further support of previously reported risk factors and highlights the importance of collective protective behaviors in the household. Further analyses will be conducted to explore these findings. PMID:25495468

  11. PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA

    E-print Network

    PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA Aflu pandemic is a global disease outbreak that occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity and for which prepare for pandemic influenza: · · · · During a pandemic you may not be able to get to a store. Even

  12. Using quality improvement methods to improve public health emergency preparedness: PREPARE for Pandemic Influenza.

    PubMed

    Lotstein, Debra; Seid, Michael; Ricci, Karen; Leuschner, Kristin; Margolis, Peter; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Many public health departments seek to improve their capability to respond to large-scale events such as an influenza pandemic. Quality improvement (QI), a structured approach to improving performance, has not been widely applied in public health. We developed and tested a pilot QI collaborative to explore whether QI could help public health departments improve their pandemic preparedness. We demonstrated that this is a promising model for improving public health preparedness and may be useful for improving public health performance overall. Further efforts are needed, however, to encourage the robust implementation of QI in public health. PMID:18628274

  13. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  14. Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

    2006-12-01

    The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

  15. Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

  16. Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Preparation and Delivery of Critical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Manuell, Mary-Elise; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Ellison, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    In a five week span during the 1918 influenza A pandemic, more than 2,000 patients were admitted to Cook County Hospital in Chicago with a diagnosis of either influenza or pneumonia; 642 patients, approximately 31% of those admitted, died with deaths occurring predominantly in patients twenty-five to thirty years of age.1 This review summarizes basic information on the biology, epidemiology, control, treatment and prevention of influenza overall, and then addresses the potential impact of pandemic influenza in an Intensive Care Unit setting. Issues that require consideration include workforce staffing and safety, resource management, alternate sites of care surge of patients, altered standards of care and crisis communication. PMID:21220275

  17. Pandemic Flu: What To Know and

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    to poultry, sea mammals, pigs, horses, and humans. Viruses are also transmitted between pigs and humans, and from poultry to humans. Equine influenza viruses have recently been transmitted to dogs. (From Fields, Philadelphia, Fig 48.1) #12;R t t i i Mi t Reassortment in pig Migratory water birds #12;Reassortment in humans

  18. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

  19. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you will get complications from the flu, like pneumonia . The flu also can make long-term health ... also can prevent serious flu-related complications (like pneumonia). This is especially important for people with a ...

  20. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the flu from the flu vaccine? No, the vaccine does not cause the flu. The flu vaccine protects your child from the flu. However, the vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects that may be mistaken for ...

  1. H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3

    E-print Network

    Major, Arkady

    H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

  2. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  3. Modeling reduction of pandemic influenza using pharmaceutical and non pharmaceutical interventions in a heterogeneous population

    E-print Network

    Teytelman, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In an event of a pandemic influenza outbreak such as the great "Spanish Flu" of 1918 and the more recent 2009-2010 H1N1 "Swine Flu" scare, pharmaceutical as well as non-pharmaceutical resources are limited in availability ...

  4. Pandemic Panic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this lesson, students engage in an inquiry into influenza A (H1N1), considering the virus and the pandemic from multiple perspectives and acting as advisers to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

  5. Risk perception and chicken consumption in the avian flu age -? a consumer behaviour study on food safety information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Mazzocchi; W. Bruce Traill

    2006-01-01

    As the avian flu pandemic threatens Europe, consumer awareness of the ?theoretical? possibility of contraction of the avian flu virus through consumption of chicken saw a decline in demand at the end of 2005, with peaks between 40% - 50% in Southern European countries such as Italy whilst having little impact on demand in Northern countries like the UK. Such

  6. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless) are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation. PMID:19807908

  7. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe Concussions: What to Know First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  8. Antiviral Strategies for Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Maria; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Fang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    While vaccines are the primary public health response to seasonal and pandemic flu, short of a universal vaccine there are inherent limitations to this approach. Antiviral drugs provide valuable alternative options for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Here, we will review drugs and drug candidates against influenza with an emphasis on the recent progress of a host-targeting entry-blocker drug candidate, DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein. PMID:21994706

  9. H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Major, Arkady

    H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern is the H1N1 that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

  10. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... e-Cards Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Living with cancer increases your risk for complications ...

  11. The health care response to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Barnitz, Laura; Berkwits, Michael

    2006-07-18

    The threat of an H5N1 influenza virus (avian flu) pandemic is substantial. The success of the current U.S. influenza pandemic response plan depends on effective coordination among state and local public health authorities and individual health care providers. This article is a summary of a public policy paper developed by the American College of Physicians to address issues in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan that involve physicians. The College's positions call for the following: 1) development of local public health task forces that include physicians representing all specialties and practice settings; 2) physician access to 2-way communication with public health authorities and to information technology tools for diagnosis and syndrome surveillance; 3) clear identification and authorization of agencies to process licensing and registration of volunteer physicians; 4) clear guidelines for overriding standard procedures for confidentiality and consent in the interest of the public's health; 5) clear and fair infection control measures that do not create barriers to care; 6) analysis of and solutions to current problems with seasonal influenza vaccination programs as a way of developing a maximally efficient pandemic flu vaccine program; 7) federal funding to provide pandemic flu vaccine for the entire U.S. population and antiviral drugs for 25% of the population; and 8) planning for health care in alternative, nonhospital settings to prevent a surge in demand for hospital care that exceeds supply. *This paper is an abridged version of a full-text position paper (available at http://www.acponline.org/college/pressroom/as06/pandemic_policy.pdf) written by Laura Barnitz, BJ, MA, and updated and adapted for publication in Annals of Internal Medicine by Michael Berkwits, MD, MSCE. The original position paper was developed for the Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians: Jeffrey P. Harris, MD (Chair); David L. Bronson, MD (Vice Chair); CPT Julie Ake, MD; Patricia P. Barry, MD; Molly Cooke, MD; Herbert S. Diamond, MD; Joel S. Levine, MD; Mark E. Mayer, MD; Thomas McGinn, MD; Robert M. McLean, MD; Ashley E. Starkweather; and Frederick E. Turton, MD. It was approved by the Board of Regents on 3 April 2006. PMID:16801625

  12. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  13. Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 2009 Considering International Traffic

    E-print Network

    Yoneyama, Teruhiko

    2010-01-01

    Pandemics have the potential to cause immense disruption and damage to communities and societies. In this paper, we model the Influenza Pandemic of 2009. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spreads through the world. The model considers both the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries referring to data on international travelers. Our interest is to reproduce the situation using the data of early stage of pandemic and to predict the future transition by extending the simulation cycle. Without considering the tendency of seasonal flu, the simulation does not predict the second peak of the pandemic in the real world. However, considering the seasonal tendency, the simulation result predicts the next peak in winter. Thus we consider the seasonal tendency is an important factor for the spreading of the pandemic.

  14. VideoLab: Modeling a Pandemic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yang Yang (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington; )

    2009-10-30

    In 2009, H1N1 became the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, and prompted swift investigation of ways to control the virus. Vaccination can slow the flu's spread and reduce its attack rate and mortality, but the strategy's effectiveness depends on who gets the vaccine, and when. Yang et al. used household and school studies to model the effectiveness of two vaccination strategies on the spread of H1N1. They report that a 70% phased vaccination program in which the vaccine is universally available (first movie clip) is not as effective as a similar vaccination program in which children are vaccinated first, followed by adults (second clip).

  15. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with green- or yellow-colored discharge) Sore throat Cough Sneezing Fatigue Muscle aches Headache Watery eyes Cold ... aches, especially in your back, arms and legs Cough Headache Loss of appetite What is H1N1 flu? ...

  16. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Flu can ... this flu season. Take 3 Steps to Fight Flu 1. The first and best way to protect ...

  17. [Highly pathogenic influenza pandemic: results of a feasibility study in a general practice (SIMUGRIP-MG2)].

    PubMed

    Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Barthe, Juliette; Audran, Ghislaine; Gauffier, Nora; Aubert, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The French Pandemic Influenza Plan ("Plan National de Prévention et de Lutte Pandémie Grippale") places general practitioners at the heart of the provision of care to patients through consultations and house calls. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GP practices are able to provide treatment to flu patients within their premises in the event of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic. A simulation exercise conducted in a GP practice (SIMUGRIP-MG2) was carried out in the autumn of 2009. 3 general practitioners, the practice secretary, 33 patients and care staff took part in the exercise during a half day of practice. The study found that the quality of some hygiene practices and procedures was inadequate: the duration of handwashing was too short (mean: 11.8 seconds), gloves were not worn, and FFP2 masks were often handled. The study found that the implementation of these procedures required increased effort and attention from GPs. It was also found that this type of consultation requires additional preparation time (refitting, supply of materials) and generates additional costs (linked, for example, to storage issues). In seeking to improve the quality of care provided to infected patients in the event of an influenza pandemic, several factors must be considered, including recent data on the effectiveness of countermeasures, additional training to improve hygiene practices, and infrastructure modernization to improve ergonomics in GP practices. PMID:22365046

  18. Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual; high (100°F to 102°F, occasionally with a cold Annual vaccination; antiviral medicines--see your doctor Complications Sinus congestion Middle ear

  19. NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU"

    E-print Network

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    H1N1 NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU" Student Health Service 200 West Kawili Street Campus Center websites) #12;H1N1 FLU "SWINE FLU" Novel influenza A (H1N1) generally causes a mild to moderate influenza conditions from seasonal influenza appear to be associated with increased risk of complications from

  20. Designing Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taisuke Horimoto; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

    \\u000a Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infections (including those of the H5N1 subtype) in poultry\\u000a and in humans (through contact with infected birds) have raised concerns that a new influenza pandemic will soon occur. Effective\\u000a vaccines against H5N1 virus are therefore urgently needed. Reverse genetics-based inactivated vaccines have been prepared\\u000a according to WHO recommendations and licensed in

  1. An influenza A H1N1 virus revival – pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michaelis; H. W. Doerr; J. Cinatl Jr

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, the so-called pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus (former designations include swine influenza,\\u000a novel influenza, swine-origin influenza A [H1N1] virus [S-OIV], Mexican flu, North American Flu) was identified in Mexico.\\u000a The virus has since spread throughout the world and caused an influenza pandemic as defined by the criteria of the World Health\\u000a Organization.

  2. USGS Avian Flu Research

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sean Nashold, a USGS biological science technician, works in a biosafety cabinet harvesting amnio allantoic fluid (AAF) from chicken eggs that have been inoculated an avian influenza sample. This inoculations means that the eggs were introduced to an avian flu virus to help boost immunity. The ...

  3. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  4. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  5. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed poly

  6. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats.

    PubMed

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Mirza, Sara; Winter, Christian; Feldon, Keith; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Phonekeo, Darouny; Denny, Justin; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Lylianou, Doualy; Phousavath, Sisouphane; Norasingh, Sisouveth; Boutta, Nao; Olsen, Sonja; Bresee, Joseph; Moen, Ann; Corwin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%). Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1) no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2) safety and efficacy concerns, and 3) late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1) crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao "lessons learned" from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential. PMID:25923779

  7. Flu in the United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this Web site provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Infectious Diseases will find detailed, authoritative answers to any questions they may have about the flu. In addition to explanations of flu transmission, treatment, vaccination, etc., this Web site offers updated surveillance reports on the status of influenza in the US. The Questions and Answers page is a good source for quick, easy-to-absorb information, and it clears up many misconceptions regarding the flu and the flu shot. Visitors looking for more detailed information will find many useful links, particularly for recent news and reports.

  8. Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (“flu”) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 2009–2010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 2009–2010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs. PMID:23687999

  9. Bacterial pneumonias during an influenza pandemic: how will we allocate antibiotics?

    PubMed

    Cinti, Sandro K; Barnosky, Andrew R; Gay, Steven E; Goold, Susan Dorr; Lozon, Marie M; Kim, Kristin; Rodgers, Phillip E; Baum, Nancy M; Cadwallender, Bruce A; Collins, Curtis D; Wright, Carrie M; Winfield, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    We are currently in the midst of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, and a second wave of flu in the fall and winter could lead to more hospitalizations for pneumonia. Recent pathologic and historic data from the 1918 influenza pandemic confirms that many, if not most, of the deaths in that pandemic were a result of secondary bacterial pneumonias. This means that a second wave of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza could result in a widespread shortage of antibiotics, making these medications a scarce resource. Recently, our University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) Scarce Resource Allocation Committee (SRAC) added antibiotics to a list of resources (including ventilators, antivirals, vaccines) that might become scarce during an influenza pandemic. In this article, we summarize the data on bacterial pneumonias during the 1918 influenza pandemic, discuss the possible impact of a pandemic on the University of Michigan Health System, and summarize our committee's guiding principles for allocating antibiotics during a pandemic. PMID:19821750

  10. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  11. Case Report: Cystic Fibrosis, Lung Transplantation, and the Novel H1N1 Flu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bresci; B. Borchi; S. Ambu; G. Taccetti; C. Braggion; F. Leoncini

    2010-01-01

    The H1N1 pandemic flu is a significant risk factor for both patients with chronic disease who need organ transplantation and transplant recipients. This population needs special care regarding comorbidities and related complications. MB, a 38-year-old Italian cystic fibrosis male patient with lung and pancreatic involvement, was referred to our division in July 2009 for fever-associated arthromyalgia, headache, and rhinitis. Lung

  12. September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Number 12d September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Immunization has saved more lives in Canada in the last 50 years than any other health measure. What is influenza vaccine? The influenza vaccine protects against viruses that cause influenza, often called the flu. The vaccine does not protect against other

  13. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  14. College students and the flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu symptoms. HOW DO I TREAT MY SYMPTOMS? Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower fever. ... you to use both types of medicine. Take acetaminophen every 4 - 6 hours. Take ibuprofen every 6 - ...

  15. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  16. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the United States Current United States Flu Activity Map Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report FluView Interactive National ... Season Trend Report 2013-14 Flu Season, Interactive Map (Report I) 2013-14 Flu Season, Comparison Table ( ...

  17. CDC Tweaking Flu Vaccine for Better Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152929.html CDC Tweaking Flu Vaccine for Better Protection Next season's shot includes ... HealthDay News) -- Having acknowledged that the 2014-2015 flu vaccine was mismatched to the circulating influenza strains, ...

  18. Influenza Pandemic: Gaps in Pandemic Planning and Preparedness Need to Be Addressed. Testimony before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. GAO-09-909T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the current H1N1 outbreak underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a body of work, consisting of 12 reports and 4 testimonies, to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In February 2009, GAO synthesized the results of…

  19. Assessing the role of basic control measures, antivirals and vaccine in curtailing pandemic influenza: scenarios for the US, UK and the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nuńo; G. Chowell; A. B. Gumel

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of avian flu cases in humans, arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, in several regions of the world have prompted the urgency to develop pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. Leading recommendations in these plans include basic public health control measures for minimizing transmission in hospitals and communities, the use of antiviral drugs and vaccination. This paper presents

  20. Reflections on the 1976 Swine Flu Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. Donald

    2006-01-01

    In 1976, 2 recruits at Fort Dix, New Jersey, had an influenzalike illness. Isolates of virus taken from them included A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1n1), a strain similar to the virus believed at the time to be the cause of the 1918 pandemic, commonly known as swine flu. Serologic studies at Fort Dix suggested that >200 soldiers had been infected and that person-to-person transmission had occurred. We review the process by which these events led to the public health decision to mass-vaccinate the American public against the virus and the subsequent events that led to the program's cancellation. Observations of policy and implementation success and failures are presented that could help guide decisions regarding avian influenza. PMID:16494713

  1. [Epidemiology of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Aichi Medical University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Tani, Hiroya; Yamagishi, Yuka; Fuzimaki, Eriko; Kishi, Takahiko; Goto, Minehiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed epidemiology of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Aichi Medical University hospital. As a result, the characteristics of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 was as follows. (1) The number of ordered rapid diagnostic test was 2.8 times compared with the seasonal influenza period. The number of ordered rapid diagnostic test of the seasonal influenza period had the peak in January to March. However, the peak in pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 was November. Also, the number of samples on the weekend had been more than that of the weekday. (2) Positive rate of each diagnostic kit did not have the difference between the seasonal influenza (31.3 ± 1.8%) and pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 (29.6%). (3) Age on most ordered samples were less than ten years old, and the number of samples in 11 to 20 years old was twice in comparison with the seasonal influenza. (4) Pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in influenza A accounted for 96.9%. (5) Sensitivity and specificity of ESPLINE Influenza A&B-N (FUJIREBIO, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) to the pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 were 100% and 100%, respectively. Also, sensitivity and specificity of prorasuto Flu (Mitsubishi Chemical Medience Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were 77.3%and 98.5%, respectively. PMID:21128698

  2. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    Should I Get a Flu Shot? The flu shot is recommended for most people with cancer and cancer survivors. Their family members are encouraged to ... the protection you need. Can I get a flu shot during cancer treatment? Yes, people getting cancer ...

  3. development StemcellsSmokingFlu

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    Child development StemcellsSmokingFlu Childhood leukaemia MRI Healthy Society 19701950 1960 1980 Development Study shows that 33 out of every 1000 infants delivered die either as stillborn or during to improved employment, health and social outcomes, triggering the `Skills for Life' strategy and initiatives

  4. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

  5. Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Brundage, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918–19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell–mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines. PMID:22306191

  6. Examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of domestic and international university students towards seasonal and pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and “non-pharmaceutical” community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic) in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what ‘pandemic influenza’ meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent “swine flu” situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that ‘students’ were capable of fighting off any illness. The participant’s nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective. PMID:22537252

  7. Pandemics in the Age of Twitter: Content Analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Chew; Gunther Eysenbach; Margaret Sampson

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSurveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary “infoveillance” approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1) monitor the use of the terms “H1N1” versus “swine flu” over time; 2) conduct a content analysis of “tweets”; and 3) validate Twitter

  8. Risk communications: in search of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Menon, K U

    2008-06-01

    This paper explores the difficulties in managing risk communications in the face of uncertainty of an avian flu pandemic over a protracted period. The communications effort has also been made more difficult by the confusion and cacophony in the media and claims by experts and politicians worldwide. While Singapore secured much praise for its handling of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) just 4 years earlier which threatened its very existence as a nation-state, it also had to "unlearn" and "unfix" assumptions and mindsets that grew out of that experience. A protracted crisis of uncertainty has also raised difficult questions of sustaining public awareness and alertness. Compounding these problems is the seemingly high reliance of Singaporeans on Government to manage the crisis at all stages. Risk communications has become a crucial necessity in an increasingly troubled world and evokes contradictions for many in medicine and public health - calling on Governments to raise the alarm whilst also calming fears at the same time. It is hoped that Singapore's experience throws up some useful lessons for other countries. The basic principles of risk communications employed are in line with the best practices adopted by many other countries. The experience may also contribute to the ongoing and somewhat contentious debate on whether the manner in which Singapore manages the information flow can be replicated or applied by other states and cultures. PMID:18618066

  9. Impact of cytokine in type 1 narcolepsy: Role of pandemic H1N1 vaccination ?

    PubMed

    Lecendreux, Michel; Libri, Valentina; Jaussent, Isabelle; Mottez, Estelle; Lopez, Régis; Lavault, Sophie; Regnault, Armelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pandemic influenza 2009 vaccination) provide strong support that narcolepsy type 1 is an immune-mediated disease. Considering the limited knowledge regarding the immune mechanisms involved in narcolepsy whether related to flu vaccination or not and the recent progresses in cytokine measurement technology, we assessed 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors using the Luminex technology in either peripheral (serum) or central (CSF) compartments in a large population of 90 children and adult patients with narcolepsy type 1 in comparison to 58 non-hypocretin deficient hypersomniacs and 41 healthy controls. Furthermore, we compared their levels in patients with narcolepsy whether exposed to pandemic flu vaccine or not, and analyzed the effect of age, duration of disease and symptom severity. Comparison for sera biomarkers between narcolepsy (n = 84, 54 males, median age: 15.5 years old) and healthy controls (n = 41, 13 males, median age: 20 years old) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and growth factors with interferon-?, CCL11, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-2 receptor being independently associated with narcolepsy. Increased levels of interferon-?, CCL11, and interleukin-12 were found when close to narcolepsy onset. After several adjustments, only one CSF biomarker differed between narcolepsy (n = 44, 26 males, median age: 15 years old) and non-hypocretin deficient hypersomnias (n = 57, 24 males, median age: 36 years old) with higher CCL 3 levels found in narcolepsy. Comparison for sera biomarkers between patients with narcolepsy who developed the disease post-pandemic flu vaccination (n = 36) to those without vaccination (n = 48) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of three cytokines, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, CXCL10, and CXCL9, being independently and significantly increased in the group exposed to the vaccine. No significant differences were found between narcoleptics whether exposed to flu vaccination or not for CSF biomarkers except for a lower CXCL10 level found in the exposed group. To conclude, we highlighted the role of sera cytokine with pro-inflammatory properties and especially interferon-? being independently associated with narcolepsy close to disease onset. The activity of the interferon-? network was also increased in the context of narcolepsy after the pandemic flu vaccination being a potential key player in the immune mechanism that triggers narcolepsy and that coordinates the immune response necessary for resolving vaccination assaults. PMID:25892508

  10. Transmission and control of an emerging influenza pandemic in a small-world airline network.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chaug-Ing; Shih, Hsien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus H5N1 and the 2009 swine flu H1N1 are potentially serious pandemic threats to human health, and air travel readily facilitates the spread of infectious diseases. However, past studies have not yet incorporated the effects of air travel on the transmission of influenza in the construction of mathematical epidemic models. Therefore, this paper focused on the human-to-human transmission of influenza, and investigated the effects of air travel activities on an influenza pandemic in a small-world network. These activities of air travel include passengers' consolidation, conveyance and distribution in airports and flights. Dynamic transmission models were developed to assess the expected burdens of the pandemic, with and without control measures. This study also investigated how the small-world properties of an air transportation network facilitate the spread of influenza around the globe. The results show that, as soon as the influenza is spread to the top 50 global airports, the transmission is greatly accelerated. Under the constraint of limited resources, a strategy that first applies control measures to the top 50 airports after day 13 and then soon afterwards to all other airports may result in remarkable containment effectiveness. As the infectiousness of the disease increases, it will expand the scale of the pandemic, and move the start time of the pandemic ahead. PMID:19887149

  11. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10 pages] VIS in other languages Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant) 2014-15 What You Need ... person. Top of Page Inactivated and recombinant flu vaccines You are getting an injectable flu vaccine, which ...

  12. Influenza, a One Health paradigm--novel therapeutic strategies to fight a zoonotic pathogen with pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Stephan; Zell, Roland; Schwemmle, Martin; Herold, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Influenza virus is a paradigm for a pathogen that frequently crosses the species barrier from animals to humans, causing severe disease in the human population. This ranges from frequent epidemics to occasional pandemic outbreaks with millions of death. All previous pandemics in humans were caused by animal viruses or virus reassortants carrying animal virus genes, underlining that the fight against influenza requires a One Health approach integrating human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, the fundamental question of what enables a flu pathogen to jump from animals to humans can only be tackled in a transdisciplinary approach between virologists, immunologists and cell biologists. To address this need the German FluResearchNet was established as a first nationwide influenza research network that virtually integrates all national expertise in the field of influenza to unravel viral and host determinants of pathogenicity and species transmission and to explore novel avenues of antiviral intervention. Here we focus on the various novel anti-flu approaches that were developed as part of the FluResearchNet activities. PMID:25220817

  13. What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection caused by the influenza "stomach flu" is often used inaccurately; that term refers to gastrointestinal viruses, not influenza with influenza-like illness (ILI) should stay home for at least 24 hours after their fever is gone (without

  14. Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S.; Hallman, Stacey A.; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D. Ann; Earn, David JD.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889–90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  15. The Ethics of Care: Social Workers in an Influenza Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Rosoff

    2008-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations and government agencies are making detailed preparations for the possibility of a pandemic of highly virulent influenza. All plans to date have recognized that there will undoubtedly be a greater need for medical resources than will be available. Thus, we will be faced with a situation in which not all will be offered curative care, even if

  16. Meeting the Challenge of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Fedson

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries face unique difficulties in preparing for an influenza pandemic. Our current top-down approach will not provide these countries with adequate supplies of vaccines and antiviral agents. Consequently, they will have to use a bottom-up approach based on inexpensive generic agents that either modify the host response to influenza virus or act as antiviral agents. Several of these agents

  17. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  18. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... others breathe in. Someone touches a doorknob, desk, computer, or counter with the flu virus on it and then touches their mouth, eyes, or nose. Someone touches mucus while taking care of a child or adult who is ill with the flu.

  19. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child (or fetus) or to newborns of vaccinated women. In fact, studies have shown that vaccinating a pregnant woman can ... the safety of the flu shot for pregnant women. CDC also is conducting studies of flu vaccine safety and pregnancy through the ...

  20. The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Al Hajjar, Sami; McIntosh, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly known as swine flu) first appeared in Mexico and the United States in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed as a result of airline travel. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to the highest level, Phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents. The 2009 H1N1 virus contains a unique combination of gene segments from human, swine and avian influenza A viruses. Children and young adults appear to be the most affected, perhaps reflecting protection in the elderly owing to exposure to H1N1 strains before 1957. Most clinical disease is relatively mild but complications leading to hospitalization, with the need for intensive care, can occur, especially in very young children, during pregnancy, in morbid obesity, and in those with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung and cardiac diseases, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Bacterial coinfection has played a significant role in fatal cases. The case of fatality has been estimated at around 0.4%. Mathematical modeling suggests that the effect of novel influenza virus can be reduced by immunization, but the question remains: can we produce enough H1N1 vaccine to beat the pandemic? PMID:20103951

  1. Hubris: the recurring pandemic.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tom

    2015-02-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak has been seen by many as a "perfect storm" and an "unprecedented" public health calamity. This article attempts to place this most current of epidemics, one currently struggling for pandemic status, in an historical frame. At least since the 1600 s protocols and programs for the containment of epidemic disease have been known, and mapped. And yet it was almost six months after warnings about this epidemic were first sounded that incomplete programs of control and surveillance were instituted. In effect, we have forgotten the basics of what was once common knowledge in public health. Having placed our faith in bacteriology, virology, and pharmacology, we have forgotten the lessons learned, long ago. PMID:25335430

  2. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. PMID:25321142

  3. Fish farming and influenza pandemics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Scholtissek; Ernest Naylor

    1988-01-01

    Human influenza pandemics commonly arise by genetic reassortment between human and avian viruses in pigs. Yet global developments in aquaculture - the so-called 'Blue Revolution' - will mean increased colocation of people, ducks and pigs.

  4. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  5. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  6. Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eunsun

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(?2-3) or sialyl(?2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(?2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(?2-3) or short length sialyl(?2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

  7. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by more than $500 billion. Exploring Flu Protein Biology to Improve Antivirals A representation of the structure ... combat this drug resistance by exploiting the virus's biology. One target is pocket-shaped structures on the ...

  8. Flu: Caring for Someone Sick at Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 12 Medicine safety 16 About fever 18 About coughs 19 Treat other flu symptoms 20 2 • About ... to prevent fluid loss (dehydration). Treat fever and cough with medicines you can buy at the store. ...

  9. The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza Troy Day1,2,*, Jean-Baptiste Andre´2,3 and Andrew¨bendorf, Switzerland 5 Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland Pandemic influenza of pandemic influenza strains remain incompletely understood. Here, we develop a stochastic model

  10. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  11. Impact of flu on hospital admissions during 4 flu seasons in Spain, 2000–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annick D Lenglet; Victoria Hernando; Pilar Rodrigo; Amparo Larrauri; Juan DM Donado; Salvador de Mateo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seasonal flu epidemics in the European region cause high numbers of cases and deaths. Flu-associated mortality has been estimated but morbidity studies are necessary to understand the burden of disease in the population. Our objective was to estimate the excess hospital admissions in Spain of diseases associated with influenza during four epidemic influenza periods (2000 – 2004). METHODS: Hospital

  12. [H1N1 pandemic. Measures and experiences on the state level].

    PubMed

    Marcic, A; Dreesman, J; Liebl, B; Schlaich, C; Suckau, M; Sydow, W; Wirtz, A

    2010-12-01

    In order to establish a joint pandemic strategy, the German states ("Länder") together with the German federal government ("Bund") agreed on joint preparations for pandemic scenarios. This included the description of procedures, such as infection control measures, stockpiling of antiviral drugs, and contracts with vaccine manufacturers to ensure supply of vaccines in the event of a pandemic. The situation during the influenza H1N1 pandemic differed from that planned so that many short-term adjustments were required. It highlighted the need to make pandemic planning more flexible. In spite of several obstacles which had to be overcome during the situation, the states managed to achieve a relatively coordinated procedure and provided the availability of vaccines. In the course of the pandemic, gaps and shortcoming in existing surveillance systems were identified, which should lead to further improvements. A key point for future pandemic events is successful communication between all interested parties, especially with the medical profession, to increase the acceptance of public policies. PMID:21161476

  13. Pandemic influenza preparedness: an ethical framework to guide decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alison K; Faith, Karen; Gibson, Jennifer L; Upshur, Ross EG

    2006-01-01

    Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. Summary The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust. PMID:17144926

  14. Antibody Recognition of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Minsun; Lee, Peter S.; Hoffman, Ryan M. B.; Zhu, Xueyong; Krause, Jens C.; Laursen, Nick S.; Yoon, Sung-il; Song, Langzhou; Tussey, Lynda; Crowe, James E.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. This potential threat was realized in 2009 when an H1N1 virus emerged that resembled the 1918 virus in antigenicity but fortunately was not nearly as deadly. 5J8 is a human antibody that potently neutralizes a broad spectrum of H1N1 viruses, including the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses. Here, we present the crystal structure of 5J8 Fab in complex with a bacterially expressed and refolded globular head domain from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus. 5J8 recognizes a conserved epitope in and around the receptor binding site (RBS), and its HCDR3 closely mimics interactions of the sialic acid receptor. Electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions of 5J8 Fab in complex with an HA trimer from a 1986 H1 strain and with an engineered stabilized HA trimer from the 2009 H1 pandemic virus showed a similar mode of binding. As for other characterized RBS-targeted antibodies, 5J8 uses avidity to extend its breadth and affinity against divergent H1 strains. 5J8 selectively interacts with HA insertion residue 133a, which is conserved in pandemic H1 strains and has precluded binding of other RBS-targeted antibodies. Thus, the RBS of divergent HAs is targeted by 5J8 and adds to the growing arsenal of common recognition motifs for design of therapeutics and vaccines. Moreover, consistent with previous studies, the bacterially expressed H1 HA properly refolds, retaining its antigenic structure, and presents a low-cost and rapid alternative for engineering and manufacturing candidate flu vaccines. PMID:24027321

  15. The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Management and vaccination strategies in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Sande, M A B; Jacobi, A; Meijer, A; Wallinga, J; van der Hoek, W; van der Lubben, M

    2013-01-01

    Prior to 2009, The Netherlands had prepared itself extensively for a potential pandemic. Multidisciplinary guidelines had been drafted to control transmission and limit adverse outcomes for both a phase of early incidental introduction and for a phase with widespread transmission. The Ministry of Health had ensured a supply and distribution schedule for antivirals and negotiated a contract for vaccine purchases. During the pandemic, existing surveillance was expanded, the established infectious disease response structure was activated, and the previously prepared protocols for communication, diagnostics, use of antivirals, and vaccination implementation were operationalized and implemented. When the pandemic turned out to be less severe than many had anticipated, risk communication and rapid modification of guidelines and communication became a major challenge. Antivirals and pandemic vaccines were reserved for those at high risk for severe outcomes only. Overall, the impact of the pandemic was comparable to the impact of an average seasonal influenza epidemic, but with a shift in (severe) outcomes from the very young and elderly toward young adults. Established prepared protocols enabled timely coordinated responses. In preparing for the worst, sufficient attention must be given to preparing for a mild scenario as well. PMID:23275958

  16. Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

    2014-03-14

    During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza. PMID:24622286

  17. Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot: Study Strain of H3N2 virus that ... the virus that circulated during the last flu season. The findings were published June 25 in the ...

  18. Colds and the Flu: Respiratory Infections during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Colds and the Flu | Respiratory Infections During Pregnancy What is a viral ... respiratory tract (breathing) and cause other symptoms. The flu and the common cold are examples of viral ...

  19. Diabetes and Flu: What You Need to Know and Do

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reports to Congress Surveillance Diabetes Prevention and Control Diabetes and the Flu Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend ... from Influenza (The Flu) Information for People with Diabetes (either type 1 OR type 2) and Their ...

  20. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was preceded by falling temperatures. Climate influences on pandemic spread seem important and should be further investigated. PMID:25011543

  1. BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Nigel

    2009-11-01

    The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

  2. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu

  3. Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siwi Padmawati; Mark Nichter

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission

  4. Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2012-02-13

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

  5. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines--Amendment ACTION...issued a declaration for pandemic influenza vaccines, which has been amended...of times. The original pandemic influenza vaccine declaration was...

  6. F-BF Flu on Campus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-21

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose the swine flu, influenza H1N1, is spreading on a school campus. The following table shows the number of students, $n$, that have the flu $d$ da...

  7. Patterns of perception toward influenza pandemic among the front-line responsible health personnel in southern Thailand: a Q methodology approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapanan Prateepko; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thailand has joined the World Health Organization effort to prepare against a threat of an influenza pandemic. Regular monitoring on preparedness of health facilities and assessment on perception of the front-line responsible health personnel has never been done. This study aimed to document the patterns of perception of health personnel toward the threat of an influenza pandemic. METHODS: Q

  8. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths. PMID:19997956

  9. Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

    2008-01-01

    This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

  10. “Filoviruses”: a real pandemic threat?

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2009-01-01

    Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses. PMID:20049699

  11. Avian Flu: the Use of IT to Mitigate a Pandemic and its Effects on Information Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank H. Katz

    The infrastructure of computer networks in the United States is not only vital to our nation's economy, but is also a crucial element of our national security. Professionals in the Information Technology community are routinely concerned with the day-to- day threats of viruses and hacks into these networks. However, it is essential that this community take a hard look at

  12. Effective, Robust Design of Community Mitigation for Pandemic Influenza: A Systematic Examination of Proposed US Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Min, H. Jason; Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The US government proposes pandemic influenza mitigation guidance that includes isolation and antiviral treatment of ill persons, voluntary household member quarantine and antiviral prophylaxis, social distancing of individuals, school closure, reduction of contacts at work, and prioritized vaccination. Is this the best strategy combination? Is choice of this strategy robust to pandemic uncertainties? What are critical enablers of community resilience? Methods and Findings We systematically simulate a broad range of pandemic scenarios and mitigation strategies using a networked, agent-based model of a community of explicit, multiply-overlapping social contact networks. We evaluate illness and societal burden for alterations in social networks, illness parameters, or intervention implementation. For a 1918-like pandemic, the best strategy minimizes illness to <1% of the population and combines network-based (e.g. school closure, social distancing of all with adults' contacts at work reduced), and case-based measures (e.g. antiviral treatment of the ill and prophylaxis of household members). We find choice of this best strategy robust to removal of enhanced transmission by the young, additional complexity in contact networks, and altered influenza natural history including extended viral shedding. Administration of age-group or randomly targeted 50% effective pre-pandemic vaccine with 7% population coverage (current US H5N1 vaccine stockpile) had minimal effect on outcomes. In order, mitigation success depends on rapid strategy implementation, high compliance, regional mitigation, and rigorous rescinding criteria; these are the critical enablers for community resilience. Conclusions Systematic evaluation of feasible, recommended pandemic influenza interventions generally confirms the US community mitigation guidance yields best strategy choices for pandemic planning that are robust to a wide range of uncertainty. The best strategy combines network- and case-based interventions; network-based interventions are paramount. Because strategies must be applied rapidly, regionally, and stringently for greatest benefit, preparation and public education is required for long-lasting, high community compliance during a pandemic. PMID:18596963

  13. INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu Sudden onset of fever/chills, coughing, muscle aches, headache) a pharmacist may suggest other things for symptoms When you need to seek medical attention for Influenza dehydration) · Disorientation or confusion *Most people with influenza do not benefit from seeing their doctor

  14. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  15. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  16. Market incentives for pandemic influenza vaccines

    E-print Network

    Preis, Julia Kay

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 100 million plus individuals could perish if a virulent influenza pandemic were to occur. In wake of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic and in an era of economic austerity, however, industry lacks clear ...

  17. Securitising health: Australian newspaper coverage of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Niamh; Jamieson, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses contemporary Australian newspaper coverage of the threat of pandemic influenza in humans, specifically in the light of recent transformations in biomedical and public health understandings of infectious disease as continuously emerging. Our analysis suggests that the spectre of pandemic influenza is characterised, in newspaper accounts, as invoking a specific form of nation building. The Australian nation is depicted as successfully securing itself in the face of a threat from Asia (and in the absence of an effective international health body). What is described in newspaper accounts reflects a shift in the public health response to infectious disease. This response does not entail a direct focus on protecting either the population or national territory. Instead, it involves the continuous rehearsal of readiness to react to disasters through the networking of government and private agencies responsible for maintaining critical infrastructure. In this way, coverage of pandemic influenza positions health as central to national security, with little reporting of the reasons for or the potential implications of this alliance. Thus, the imperative to 'be prepared' is presented as self-evident. PMID:19397761

  18. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Listen Espańol Text Size Email Print Share Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents ... Chronic Health Conditions Article Body What is the flu? Influenza ( flu ) is an infection of the nose, ...

  19. Influenza H1N1 (swine flu) vaccination: a safety surveillance feasibility study using self-reporting of serious adverse events and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; Shakir, Saad; Dryburgh, Moira; Mantay, Brian J; McDonnell, Patrick; Layton, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    AIMS During the global H1N1 influenza A (swine flu) pandemic 2009–2010, swine flu vaccines were expeditiously licensed and a mass vaccination programme for high risk groups, including pregnant women, was introduced in the UK. This pilot active safety surveillance study was performed to establish the feasibility of rapidly monitoring the new swine flu vaccines in large patient numbers receiving or offered the vaccination under normal conditions of use within a short time frame. METHODS A cohort design with safety data capture through modern technologies was carried out in Scotland, UK during the winter swine flu vaccination programme 2009–2010 in individuals receiving or offered the swine flu vaccination. The main outcome measures were self-reported serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS The cohort comprised 4066 people; 3754 vaccinated and 312 offered the vaccination but not vaccinated. There were 939 self-reported events (838 different events), 53 judged to fit SAE criteria by the investigators, with nine judged as possibly, probably or definitely vaccine related. None of the seven deaths (six in vaccinees) were judged as vaccine related. One hundred and twenty-eight women reported 130 pregnancies during the study with 117 pregnant at study start. There were reports of four miscarriages in three women and six possible congenital abnormalities in live births. CONCLUSIONS Overall, no significant safety issues were identified. The methodology and use of modern technologies to collect safety data from large numbers of patients was successful and could be used again in similar safety studies. PMID:22082196

  20. Avian influenza pandemic preparedness: developing prepandemic and pandemic vaccines against a moving target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Pandey, Aseem; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented global spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses within the past ten years and their extreme lethality to poultry and humans has underscored their potential to cause an influenza pandemic. Combating the threat of an impending H5N1 influenza pandemic will require a combination of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies. The emergence of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 emphasised the unpredictable nature of a pandemic influenza. Undoubtedly, vaccines offer the most viable means to combat a pandemic threat. Current egg-based influenza vaccine manufacturing strategies are unlikely to be able to cater to the huge, rapid global demand because of the anticipated scarcity of embryonated eggs in an avian influenza pandemic and other factors associated with the vaccine production process. Therefore, alternative, egg-independent vaccine manufacturing strategies should be evaluated to supplement the traditional egg-derived influenza vaccine manufacturing. Furthermore, evaluation of dose-sparing strategies that offer protection with a reduced antigen dose will be critical for pandemic influenza preparedness. Development of new antiviral therapeutics and other, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies will further supplement pandemic preparedness. This review highlights the current status of egg-dependent and egg-independent strategies against an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:20426889

  1. H1N1 pandemic: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the Canadian pediatric outbreak.

    PubMed

    Fléchelles, Olivier; Fowler, Robert; Jouvet, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Canada was one of the first countries affected by the 2009 influenza H1N1 pandemic with two waves - one from May to June and one from October to December. The 2009 influenza H1N1 pandemic had many unique features when compared with seasonal influenza, including the following: more than half of the affected people were children; asthma was the most significant risk factor for hospital admission; and Aboriginal and pregnant women had a higher risk of hospital admission and complications. Antiviral therapy was widely used but data did not show any effect on the pediatric population. Outbreak spread was possibly promoted from child-child and child-adult contact, and therefore the vaccination campaign targeted the pediatric population and achieved good coverage among young children (57%). Vaccination efficacy was difficult to test because of the vaccination delay. Improvement in models of prevention and treatment are urgently needed to prepare for the possible future pandemics. PMID:23750727

  2. Effective Detection of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Centers Using a National Electronic Biosurveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Patricia; Lucero, Cynthia; Oda, Gina; Lopez, Jessica; Holodniy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background The 2008–09 influenza season was the time in which the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) utilized an electronic biosurveillance system for tracking and monitoring of influenza trends. The system, known as ESSENCE or Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics, was monitored for the influenza season as well as for a rise in influenza cases at the start of the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. We also describe trends noted in influenza-like illness (ILI) outpatient encounter data in VA medical centers during the 2008–09 influenza season, before and after the recognition of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined prevalence of ILI coded visits using VA's ESSENCE for 2008–09 seasonal influenza (Sept. 28, 2008–April 25, 2009 corresponding to CDC 2008–2009 flu season weeks 40–16) and the early period of pandemic H1N1 2009 (April 26, 2009–July 31, 2009 corresponding to CDC 2008–2009 flu season weeks 17–30). Differences in diagnostic ICD-9-CM code frequencies were analyzed using Chi-square and odds ratios. There were 649,574 ILI encounters captured representing 633,893 patients. The prevalence of VA ILI visits mirrored the CDC's Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (ILINet) data with peaks in late December, early February, and late April/early May, mirroring the ILINet data; however, the peaks seen in the VA were smaller. Of 31 ILI codes, 6 decreased and 11 increased significantly during the early period of pandemic H1N1 2009. The ILI codes that significantly increased were more likely to be symptom codes. Although influenza with respiratory manifestation (487.1) was the most common code used among 150 confirmed pandemic H1N1 2009 cases, overall it significantly decreased since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions/Significance VA ESSENCE effectively detected and tracked changing ILI trends during pandemic H1N1 2009 and represents an important temporal alerting system for monitoring health events in VA facilities. PMID:20209055

  3. Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Shane Journeay; Matthew D Burnstein

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian

  4. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The nasal spray is not recommended for pregnant women. Studies have shown that the shot is safe during pregnancy. If you develop flu-like symptoms before or after you've been vaccinated, call your doctor right away. Pregnant women who catch the flu may need to take ...

  5. Red, Blue, and the Flu: Media Self-Selection and Partisan Gaps in Swine Flu Vaccinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Baum

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the Swine Flu crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly non-partisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes, and that such polarization is in part attributable, at

  6. Case report: cystic fibrosis, lung transplantation, and the novel H1N1 flu.

    PubMed

    Bresci, S; Borchi, B; Ambu, S; Taccetti, G; Braggion, C; Leoncini, F

    2010-01-01

    The H1N1 pandemic flu is a significant risk factor for both patients with chronic disease who need organ transplantation and transplant recipients. This population needs special care regarding comorbidities and related complications. MB, a 38-year-old Italian cystic fibrosis male patient with lung and pancreatic involvement, was referred to our division in July 2009 for fever-associated arthromyalgia, headache, and rhinitis. Lung transplantation had been performed in September 2005, and he was subsequently treated with immunosuppressive therapy: tacrolimus, everolimus, and prednisolone. In the past, chronic respiratory colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intermittent infection with Aspergillus flavus, chronic renal failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus complicated his clinical history. He started antiviral treatment with oseltamivir despite no travel history and no respiratory symptoms. H1N1 swab was positive. Three days later, the patient was admitted to the hospital for the persistence of fever and the onset of cough. Chest x-ray showed a left lower pneumonia, which was confirmed by computerized tomography. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy led to an improvement of the clinical condition. The patient was discharged 8 days later; a control swab was negative. This case report suggests some general considerations regarding solid organ recipients: 1) Flu-related complications require early treatment (both antiviral and antibiotic); 2) active microbiologic surveillance is important to prevent lethal infections (ie, invasive aspergillosis); 3) evaluation of immunosuppressant blood levels is necessary for drug-drug interactions. Active prevention is the best option for decreasing morbidity and mortality in the transplanted patient. PMID:20692461

  7. Trust During the Early Stages of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    FREIMUTH, VICKI S.; MUSA, DON; HILYARD, KAREN; QUINN, SANDRA CROUSE; KIM, KEVIN

    2013-01-01

    Distrust of the government often stands in the way of cooperation with public health recommendations in a crisis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the public’s trust in government recommendations during the early stages of the H1N1 pandemic and identify factors that might account for these trust levels. We surveyed 1543 respondents about their experiences and attitudes related to H1N1 influenza between June 3, 2009 and July 6, 2009, during the first wave of the pandemic using the Knowledge Networks (KN) online panel. This panel is representative of the US population, and uses a combination of random-digit dial and address-based probability sampling frames covering 99% of the US household population to recruit participants. To ensure participation of low-income individuals and those without Internet access, KN provides hardware and access to the Internet if needed. Measures included standard demographics, a trust scale, trust ratings for individual spokespersons, involvement with H1N1, experience with H1N1, and past discrimination in health care. We found that trust of government was low (2.3 out of 4) and varied across demographic groups. Blacks and Hispanics reported higher trust in government than did Whites. Of the spokespersons included, personal health professionals received the highest trust ratings and religious leaders the lowest. Attitudinal and experience variables predicted trust better than demographic characteristics. Closely following the news about the flu virus, having some self-reported knowledge about H1N1, self-reporting of local cases and previously experiencing discrimination were the significant attitudinal and experience predictors of trust. Using a second longitudinal survey, trust in the early stages of the pandemic did predict vaccine acceptance later but only for white, non-Hispanic individuals. PMID:24117390

  8. Determinants of Receiving the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine and Intention to Receive the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fu, Yang-chih; Wang, Da-Wei; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The paper examines the factors associated with both receiving pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccines and individuals’ intentions to get the next seasonal influenza vaccine in Taiwan. Methods We conducted a representative nationwide survey with in-person household interviews during April–July 2010. Multivariate logistic regression incorporated socio-demographic background, household characteristics, health status, behaviors, and perceptions of influenza and vaccination. Results We completed interviews with 1,954 respondents. Among those, 548 (28.0%) received the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination, and 469 (24.0%) intended to get the next seasonal influenza vaccine. Receipt of the H1N1 vaccine was more prevalent among schoolchildren, the elderly, those who had contact with more people in their daily lives, and those who had received influenza vaccinations in previous years. In comparison, the intention to receive the next seasonal influenza vaccine tended to be stronger among children, the elderly, and those who reported less healthy status or lived with children, who received a seasonal influenza vaccination before, and who worried more about a possible new pandemic. Conclusions Children, the elderly, and those who had gotten seasonal flu shots before in Taiwan were more likely to both receive a pandemic H1N1 vaccination and intend to receive a seasonal influenza vaccine. PMID:24971941

  9. Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza.

    E-print Network

    Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza. Last updated April 28, 2009 The Evergreen State College (TESC) is continuing to assess and track influenza? At this time, the best source of current information is the website of the Federal Center

  10. National Surveillance of Influenza-Associated Encephalopathy in Japan over Six Years, before and during the 2009–2010 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yoshiaki; Shimada, Tomoe; Yasui, Yoshinori; Tada, Yuki; Kaku, Mitsuo; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a serious complication of influenza and is reported most frequently in Japan. This paper presents an assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy in comparison to seasonal IAE, based on Japanese national surveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) and IAE during flu seasons from 2004–2005 through 2009–2010. In each season before the pandemic, 34–55 IAE cases (mean 47.8; 95% confidence interval: 36.1–59.4) were reported, and these cases increased drastically to 331 during the 2009 pandemic (6.9-fold the previous seasons). Of the 331 IAE cases, 322 cases were reported as influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy. The peaks of IAE were consistent with the peaks of the influenza epidemics and pandemics. A total of 570 cases of IAE (seasonal A, 170; seasonal B, 50; influenza A (H1N1) 2009, 322; unknown, 28) were reported over six seasons. The case fatality rate (CFR) ranged from 4.8 to 18.2% before the pandemic seasons and 3.6% in the 2009 pandemic season. The CFR of pandemic-IAE was 3.7%, which is lower than that of influenza A?/B-associated encephalopathy (12.9%, p<0.001; 14.0%, p?=?0.002; respectively). The median age of IAE was 7 years during the pandemic, which is higher than that of influenza A?/B-associated encephalopathy (4, p<0.001; 4.5, p?=?0.006; respectively). However, the number of pandemic-IAE cases per estimated ILI outpatients peaked in the 0–4-year age group and data both before and during the pandemic season showed a U-shape pattern. This suggests that the high incidence of influenza infection in the 0–4 year age group may lead to a high incidence of IAE in the same age group in a future influenza season. Further studies should include epidemiologic case definitions and clinical details of IAE to gain a more accurate understanding of the epidemiologic status of IAE. PMID:23355899

  11. Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection. PMID:22126648

  12. Influenza pneumonia among adolescents and adults: a concurrent comparison between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) in the post-pandemic period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu Qiao; Qu, Jiu Xin; Wang, Chen; Yu, Xiao Min; Liu, Ying Mei; Cao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Comparisons of the characteristics between the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and common seasonal influenza are important for both clinical management and epidemiological studies. However, the differences between pandemic and seasonal influenza during the post-pandemic period are poorly understood. Objectives The aim of our research was to investigate clinical and immune response differences between patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) pneumonia in the post-pandemic period. Methods During the first flu season in post-pandemic period, patients from Beijing Network for Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia present A (H1N1) pdm09 or A (H3N2) influenza were compared concurrently in the aspects of clinical characteristics and inflammatory profile in acute phase. Result Patients with A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza pneumonia showed a close mean age to A (H3N2) pneumonia (51 ± 20 vs 53 ± 16, mean ± standard deviation, years) but tended to have more underlying diseases (32.8% vs 10%, P = 0.036). Although clinical characteristics were similar, no statistical difference were found in pneumonia severity index (PSI) score or intensive care unit admission rate or mortality, patients in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort present higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactase dehydrogenase (P = 0.006, 0.018, respectively) in blood and also longer duration of fever than A (H3N2) cohort. Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 (p70) were higher in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort (P = 0.031, 0.047, respectively). Conclusios During the first post-pandemic flu season, patients with the A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia showed similar clinical characteristics but slightly higher disease severity and stronger systemic inflammatory response than A (H3N2) pneumonia. PMID:24106842

  13. Rationing of influenza vaccine during a pandemic: Ethical analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kent Zimmerman

    2007-01-01

    Rationing of scarce vaccine supplies will likely be required when the next pandemic occurs, raising the questions about how to ration and upon what principles. Because influenza pandemics have differing mortality patterns, such as the 1918 pandemic's “W” shaped curve that effected healthy young adults, the particular pattern should inform rationing. Competing ethical principles for vaccine rationing are utilitarianism and

  14. Origin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoxiang Chao; Fang Wang; Xiaohui Zhou; Xinan Jiao; Jinlin Huang; Zhiming Pan; Liping Zhou; Xiaoqin Qian

    2011-01-01

    O3:K6 pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused outbreaks in coastal countries since 1996. Mutilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an important tool to trace the source and analysis the evolution of bacteria. Based on MLST, the first pandemic clonal complex (CC) of V. parahaemolyticus has been confirmed. In this study, 57 pandemic strains, 27 pathogenic strains (tdh or trh positive)

  15. MapMyFlu: visualizing spatio-temporal relationships between related influenza sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Nicholas; Kurzawa, Nils; Eils, Roland; Herrmann, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular dynamics of viral spreading is crucial for anticipating the epidemiological implications of disease outbreaks. In the case of influenza, reassortments or point mutations affect the adaption to new hosts or resistance to anti-viral drugs and can determine whether a new strain will result in a pandemic infection or a less severe progression. To this end, tools integrating molecular information with epidemiological parameters are important to understand how molecular characteristics reflect in the infection dynamics. We present a new web tool, MapMyFlu, which allows to spatially and temporally display influenza viruses related to a query sequence on a Google Map based on BLAST results against the NCBI Influenza Database. Temporal and geographical trends appear clearly and may help in reconstructing the evolutionary history of a particular sequence. The tool is accessible through a web server, hence without the need for local installation. The website has an intuitive design and provides an easy-to-use service, and is available at http://mapmyflu.ipmb.uni-heidelberg.de PMID:25940623

  16. Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Purohit, Vidula; Kudale, Abhay; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare sociocultural features of pandemic influenza with reference to illness-related experience, meaning and behaviour in urban and rural areas of India. Design Cross-sectional, mixed-methods, cultural epidemiological survey with vignette-based interviews. Semistructured explanatory model interviews were used to study community ideas of the 2009 influenza pandemic. In-depth interviews elaborated respondents’ experience during the pandemic. Setting Urban and rural communities, Pune district, western India. Participants Survey of urban (n=215) and rural (n=221) residents aged between 18 and 65?years. In-depth interviews of respondents with a history of 2009 pandemic influenza (n=6). Results More urban (36.7%) than rural respondents (16.3%, p<0.001) identified the illness in the vignette as ‘swine flu’. Over half (56.7%) believed the illness would be fatal without treatment, but with treatment 96% predicted full recovery. Worry (‘tension’) about the illness was reported as more troubling than somatic symptoms. The most common perceived causes—‘exposure to a dirty environment’ and ‘cough or sneeze of an infected person’–were more prominent in the urban group. Among rural respondents, climatic conditions, drinking contaminated water, tension and cultural ideas on humoral imbalance from heat-producing or cold-producing foods were more prominent. The most widely reported home treatment was herbal remedies; more rural respondents suggested reliance on prayer, and symptom relief was more of a priority for urban respondents. Government health services were preferred in the urban communities, and rural residents relied more than urban residents on private facilities. The important preventive measures emphasised were cleanliness, wholesome lifestyle and vaccines, and more urban respondents reported the use of masks. In-depth interviews indicated treatment delays during the 2009 pandemic, especially among rural patients. Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. PMID:25492273

  17. Pandemic Influenza as a Current Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Ling Yen; Robert G. Webster

    \\u000a Pandemics of influenza emerge from the aquatic bird reservoir, adapt to humans, modify their severity, and cause seasonal\\u000a influenza. The catastrophic Spanish H1N1 virus may have obtained all of its eight gene segments from the avian reservoir,\\u000a whereas the Asian H2N2 and the Hong Kong H3N2 pandemics emerged by reassortment between the circulating human virus and an\\u000a avian H2 or

  18. Parkfield Quake / Flu Vaccine / Mt. St. Helens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains three radio broadcasts discussing: the Parkfield, California earthquake of October 2004; the Mount Saint Helens volcano; and the shortage of flu vaccine in 2004. The 15 minute Parkfield broadcast explains how the Parkfield earthquake was the most monitored earthquake in history. Scientists are studying the San Andreas Fault in the area. Data collected from the recent earthquake is expected to lead to improvements in: earthquake prediction; and understanding of how earthquake energy builds up as well as the mechanical laws that cause the shaking. The 15 minute Mount Saint Helens broadcast discusses why less seismic activity at the volcano has been observed in 2004, and that danger of an imminent eruption has passed - at least for now.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klionsky, Bernard

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

  20. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... used to treat influenza illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an ...

  1. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have the flu, pain relievers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen can reduce fever or aches. Allergies ... if you take 2 different drugs that contain acetaminophen—one for a stuffy nose and the other ...

  2. Mechanisms of symptoms of common cold and flu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Eccles

    It is the familiar symptoms of sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and nasal congestion, muscle aches, chilliness and fever,\\u000a etc., that define the common cold and flu syndromes as self-diagnosed illnesses. Although there is much information about\\u000a the molecular biology of the viruses that cause the common cold and flu syndromes, there is relatively little research on\\u000a the immunological, physiological

  3. Bosnia and Herzegovina Healthcare System Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza as of 2010

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Almir; Pilav, Aida; Dzananovic, Lejla; Cavaljuga, Semra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system is prepared for influenza pandemic; and to indicate strengths and weaknesses in planed resolution of pandemic influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system. Methodology: Qualitative systematic review, comparing established elements of healthcare systems with WHO’s guidelines on pandemic preparedness. Critical evaluations of available findings on preparedness of healthcare system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) compared in details to preparedness of healthcare system of United Kingdom (UK) but in certain elements with some other European countries. Results and Discussion: Analysis of preparedness plans of B&H and UK are presented in details, with comparison of B&H with eight other countries by WHO guidelines categories and phases of pandemic preparedness and contingency plans. Conclusions: Disregarding the obstacles in B&H health care system policy Bosnia and Herzegovina has preparedness plans, that are made based on WHO’s guidelines but unlike all other analyzed countries does not have contingency plan. This can be seen as strength while weaknesses of B&H’s healthcare system are: late forming of preparedness plan with poor implementation of set activities, and lack of contingency plan. PMID:24511267

  4. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC study published today in the Journal of Infectious Diseases . The study is the first to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against flu admissions to pediatric intensive care units (PICU). It illustrates the important ...

  5. Colleges and Universities Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, colleges and universities will play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of students, employees and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist as a framework to assist colleges and…

  6. Delaying the International Spread of Pandemic Influenza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben S. Cooper; Richard J. Pitman; W. John Edmunds; Nigel J. Gay

    2006-01-01

    Background The recent emergence of hypervirulent subtypes of avian influenza has underlined the potentially devastating effects of pandemic influenza. Were such a virus to acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, control would almost certainly be hampered by limited vaccine supplies unless global spread could be substantially delayed. Moreover, the large increases that have occurred in international air travel

  7. Diagnostic Testing for Pandemic Influenza in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Kai; Lee, Chun Kiat; Loh, Tze Ping; Tang, Julian Wei-Tze; Chiu, Lily; Tambyah, Paul A.; Sethi, Sunil K.; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    With the relative global lack of immunity to the pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus that emerged in April 2009 as well as the sustained susceptibility to infection, rapid and accurate diagnostic assays are essential to detect this novel influenza A variant. Among the molecular diagnostic methods that have been developed to date, most are in tandem monoplex assays targeting either different regions of a single viral gene segment or different viral gene segments. We describe a dual-gene (duplex) quantitative real-time RT-PCR method selectively targeting pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009. The assay design includes a primer-probe set specific to only the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of this novel influenza A variant and a second set capable of detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of all swine-origin influenza A virus. In silico analysis of the specific HA oligonucleotide sequence used in the assay showed that it targeted only the swine-origin pandemic strain; there was also no cross-reactivity against a wide spectrum of noninfluenza respiratory viruses. The assay has a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 100%, respectively, a lower detection limit of 50 viral gene copies/PCR, and can be adapted to either a qualitative or quantitative mode. It was first applied to 3512 patients with influenza-like illnesses at a tertiary hospital in Singapore, during the containment phase of the pandemic (May to July 2009). PMID:20688908

  8. Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing pandemic H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia from interpandemic community-acquired pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Thomas; Myles, Puja; Greenwood, Sonia; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Brett, Stephen J; Semple, Malcolm G; Openshaw, Peter J; Bannister, Barbara; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; McMenamin, Jim; Enstone, Joanne E; Nicholson, Karl G

    2011-01-01

    Background Early identification of patients with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia is desirable for the early instigation of antiviral agents. A study was undertaken to investigate whether adults admitted to hospital with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia could be distinguished clinically from patients with non-H1N1 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Between May 2009 and January 2010, clinical and epidemiological data of patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection admitted to 75 hospitals in the UK were collected by the Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN). Adults with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia were identified and compared with a prospective study cohort of adults with CAP hospitalised between September 2008 and June 2010, excluding those admitted during the period of the pandemic. Results Of 1046 adults with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection in the FLU-CIN cohort, 254 (25%) had H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia on admission to hospital. In-hospital mortality of these patients was 11.4% compared with 14.0% in patients with inter-pandemic CAP (n=648). A multivariate logistic regression model was generated by assigning one point for each of five clinical criteria: age ?65?years, mental orientation, temperature ?38°C, leucocyte count ?12×109/l and bilateral radiographic consolidation. A score of 4 or 5 predicted H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia with a positive likelihood ratio of 9.0. A score of 0 or 1 had a positive likelihood ratio of 75.7 for excluding it. Conclusion There are substantial clinical differences between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and inter-pandemic CAP. A model based on five simple clinical criteria enables the early identification of adults admitted with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia. PMID:21252388

  9. The Swine Flu Episode and the Fog of Epidemics1

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has shaped research and public health for nearly a century. In 1976, the specter of 1918 loomed large when a pandemic threatened the country again. Public health officials initiated a mass vaccination campaign, but the anticipated pandemic failed to occur. An examination of the available data in 1976 and the decision to vaccinate, as well as lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s, may help shape an appropriate public health response to future threats from avian influenza or other infectious diseases. PMID:16494715

  10. The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Di Bella, S; Drapeau, C M; Grilli, E

    2009-10-01

    In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7- 35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000- 750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic. PMID:19881161

  11. The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update

    PubMed Central

    Petrosillo, N.; Di Bella, S.; Drapeau, C. M.; Grilli, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7–35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000–750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic. PMID:19881161

  12. New health risks and sociocultural contexts: bird flu impacts on consumers and poultry businesses in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suder, Gabriele; Inthavong, Saynakhone

    2008-02-01

    Avian flu has been identified as one of the most challenging new risks, global in impact due to the "highly interconnected and integrated world economy along with other unpredictable events such as the Asian financial crisis and global terrorism." We have chosen the case of Lao PDR to shed light on an area in which local people consume chicken as one of their staple foods. Our research analyzes consumer behavior, poultry business modification patterns in a high-risk country, and government reaction for business resilience. The geographic choice is motivated by the 2006 EIU report on Catastrophe Risk Management that indicated that Asian-Pacific companies are better prepared for such risks as bird flu than European business is, despite the many cases found in both regions. PMID:18304102

  13. 3.8 Million Chickens to Be Killed After Bird Flu Outbreak At Iowa Farm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 8 Million Chickens To Be Killed After Bird Flu Outbreak at Iowa Farm Experts stress this strain ... 2015 TUESDAY, April 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Bird flu has been detected on an Iowa farm with ...

  14. Inactivated or Recombinant Flu Vaccine, 2014-2015 - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for protection to develop after the vaccination, and protection lasts several months to a year. Some illnesses that are not caused by influenza virus are often mistaken for flu. Flu vaccine will ...

  15. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  16. 75 FR 55776 - Request for Comments on Vaccine Production and Additional Planning for Future Possible Pandemic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...Planning for Future Possible Pandemic Influenza AGENCY: International Trade Administration...planning for future possible pandemic influenza. DATES: Written comments must be submitted...light of the announced end of the H1N1 influenza pandemic (see World Health...

  17. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...response, including implementation of the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...sought in light of the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic...

  18. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among libyan health care personnel: A cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hwisa, Nagiat Tayeb; Katakam, Prakash; Chandu, Babu Rao; Ismael, Mraa Hazim; Bader, Abdalwahab

    2014-01-01

    Context: Vaccination rate among health-care personnel's (HCPs) are not promising notwithstanding the World Health Organization campaigns over three decades resulting in compromising patient safety. The H1N1 virus, which caused a world-wide pandemic earlier has now transformed into a seasonal flu virus. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of 2009-10 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among Libyan HCPs in four hospitals of Al-Zawia, Libya. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, which listed eight sections of parameters distributed among 310 HCPs to assess the vaccination rate and resulting adverse effects. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's ?2-test and Student's t-test where appropriate. Results: The overall pandemic A (H1N1) vaccination among all HCPs was only 107 (39.9%) out of 268 respondents. The distribution of respondents based on physicians, other staff and sex were found significant (P < 0.05). The common barriers of H1N1 vaccination being lack of awareness fear of adverse effects, allergies and religious beliefs. The major adverse effect observed was erythema in 95.56% of physicians and 87.1% in other staff. About 2% of HCPs have reported arthralgia. No significant differences existed between the responses of general variables and adverse effects. The glycoprotein 120 and squalene were found responsible for the reported adverse effects. 37 (82.22%) vaccinated medical HCPs have advised their patients to get vaccinated. Conclusions: Due to recurrence of H1N1 influenza in recent times, vaccination campaigns should be promoted immediately to address the knowledge gap of HCPs for intervention by regulatory and health organizations in Libya. The health belief model could be applied to improve vaccination among HCPs. PMID:25035639

  19. VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2010-10-23

    The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

  20. Ethics, pandemics, and the duty to treat.

    PubMed

    Malm, Heidi; May, Thomas; Francis, Leslie P; Omer, Saad B; Salmon, Daniel A; Hood, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Numerous grounds have been offered for the view that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, including expressed consent, implied consent, special training, reciprocity (also called the social contract view), and professional oaths and codes. Quite often, however, these grounds are simply asserted without being adequately defended or without the defenses being critically evaluated. This essay aims to help remedy that problem by providing a critical examination of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these five grounds for asserting that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, especially as that duty would arise in the context of an infectious disease pandemic. Ultimately, it argues that none of the defenses is currently sufficient to ground the kind of duty that would be needed in a pandemic. It concludes by sketching some practical recommendations in that regard. PMID:18802849

  1. Containing Pandemic Influenza at the Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira M. Longini; Azhar Nizam; Shufu Xu; Kumnuan Ungchusak; Wanna Hanshaoworakul; Derek A. T. Cummings; M. Elizabeth Halloran

    2005-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (subtype H5N1) is threatening to cause a human pandemic of potentially devastating proportions. We used a stochastic influenza simulation model for rural Southeast Asia to investigate the effectiveness of targeted antiviral prophylaxis, quarantine, and pre-vaccination in containing an emerging influenza strain at the source. If the basic reproductive number (R0) was below 1.60, our simulations

  2. Avian influenza — a pandemic waiting to happen?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Pin Liu

    2006-01-01

    Cross-species transmission of a highly pathogenic subtype of influenza A virus directly from birds to humans has raised many concerns. The radical methods of immune evasion and the possibility of human-to-human transmission as a result of gene reassortment between the human and avian viral subtypes pose an imminent threat of a global pandemic. The growing reservoir of circulating influenza among

  3. Microdroplet Sandwich Real-Time RT-PCR for Detection of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Angione, Stephanie L.; Inde, Zintis; Beck, Christina M.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-01-01

    As demonstrated by the recent 2012/2013 flu epidemic, the continual emergence of new viral strains highlights the need for accurate medical diagnostics in multiple community settings. If rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostics for influenza subtyping were available, it would help identify epidemics, facilitate appropriate antiviral usage, decrease inappropriate antibiotic usage, and eliminate the extra cost of unnecessary laboratory testing and treatment. Here, we describe a droplet sandwich platform that can detect influenza subtypes using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Using clinical samples collected during the 2010/11 season, we effectively differentiate between H1N1p (swine pandemic), H1N1s (seasonal), and H3N2 with an overall assay sensitivity was 96%, with 100% specificity for each subtype. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect viral loads as low as 104 copies/mL, which is two orders of magnitude lower than viral loads in typical infected patients. This platform performs diagnostics in a miniaturized format without sacrificing any sensitivity, and can thus be easily developed into devices which are ideal for small clinics and pharmacies. PMID:24066051

  4. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era.

    PubMed

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or "skipped") in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance. PMID:26046930

  5. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    PubMed Central

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or “skipped”) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance. PMID:26046930

  6. Prediction, risk and control of anti-influenza drugs in the Yodo River Basin, Japan during seasonal and pandemic influenza using the transmission model for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Takashi; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2015-07-15

    To reduce the risk of producing an anti-influenza drug-resistant virus from wildfowl, it is important to estimate the concentrations of anti-influenza drugs in river water during an influenza pandemic and to evaluate the concentrations that keep river basins safe. We first created a newly designed infectious disease transmission model based on the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model. This model was then applied to replicate the transitional changes of three representative anti-influenza drugs, oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), and zanamivir (ZAN), in the urban area of the Yodo River system, which is one of the major basins in Japan with a population of 12 million; this region contains nearly 10% of the country's flu cases during the seasonal influenza outbreaks between 1999 and 2010. The results showed high correlations between the estimated number of influenza cases and the concentrations of the three investigated anti-influenza drugs with the reported values. We then extended the application of the model to estimate the concentration level of these anti-influenza drugs during the several influenza pandemics. The maximum estimated concentrations for OS, OC, and ZAN were known to be 260-450ng/L, 1500-2600ng/L and 40-70ng/L, respectively, at the peak of the influenza pandemic. These results suggest that it is possible that a drug-resistant influenza virus can originate from wild mallard when there is a large-scale influenza pandemic. However, ozonation before discharge at sewage treatment plants is known to significantly reduce the release of such drugs into the aquatic environment to reduce the risk of a drug-resistant virus outbreak. It was also suggested that further environmental risk could be reduced by decreasing these concentrations further in river water. PMID:25828414

  7. Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic

    E-print Network

    Duisburg-Essen, Universität

    Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic Short-circuited atmosphere convections Warming States of America www.pnas.org #12;Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised

  8. 75 FR 10268 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines--Amendment Authority: 42...Whereas there are or may be multiple animal influenza A viruses, circulating in wild birds...capable of causing a pandemic of human influenza because these viruses may cause...

  9. Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence M. Tumpey; Christopher F. Basler; Patricia V. Aguilar; Hui Zeng; Alicia Solórzano; David E. Swayne; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; Adolfo García-Sastre

    2005-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide. With the recent availability of the complete 1918 influenza virus coding sequence, we used reverse genetics to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence. In stark contrast to contemporary human

  10. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the US...

  11. RESCUE OF THE 1918 SPANISH INFLUENZA PANDEMIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 swept the globe and killed an estimated 20-40 million people. With the recent availability of the complete nucleotide sequence of the 1918 influenza virus, we generated by reverse genetics an influenza virus bearing all 8 genes of the pandemic virus to study...

  12. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures. PMID:20718996

  13. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  14. Information From Your Health Care ProviderGASTROENTERITIS (Stomach Flu)

    E-print Network

    Rusu, Adrian

    Information From Your Health Care ProviderGASTROENTERITIS (Stomach Flu) ABASIC INFORMATION DESCRIPTION Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Gastroenteritis is a general term may range from 2 or 3 loose stools to many watery stools. · Nausea and vomiting. · Stomach cramps

  15. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  16. Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy

    E-print Network

    1 1663 Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy Dark Universe Mysteries WILL NOT NEED TESTING Expanding Nuclear Energy the Right Way GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS AND AN ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE sense.The Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy

  17. A New Sentinel Surveillance System for Severe Influenza in England Shows a Shift in Age Distribution of Hospitalised Cases in the Post-Pandemic Period

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Shelly; Pebody, Richard; White, Peter J.; McMenamin, James; Perera, Luke; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Barlow, Thomas; Watson, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have highlighted the importance of establishing systems to monitor severe influenza. Following the H1N1 (2009) influenza pandemic, a sentinel network of 23 Trusts, the UK Severe Influenza Surveillance System (USISS), was established to monitor hospitalisations due to confirmed seasonal influenza in England. This article presents the results of the first season of operation of USISS in 2010/11. Methodology/Principal Findings A case was defined as a person hospitalised with confirmed influenza of any type. Weekly aggregate numbers of hospitalised influenza cases, broken down by flu type and level of care, were submitted by participating Trusts. Cases in 2010/11 were compared to cases during the 2009 pandemic in hospitals with available surveillance data for both time periods (n?=?19). An unexpected resurgence in seasonal A/H1N1 (2009) influenza activity in England was observed in December 2010 with reports of severe disease. Reported cases over the period of 4 October 2010 to 13 February 2011 were mostly due to influenza A/H1N1 (2009). One thousand and seventy-one cases of influenza A/H1N1 (2009) occurred over this period compared to 409 at the same Trusts over the 2009/10 pandemic period (1 April 2009 to 6 January 2010). Median age of influenza A/H1N1 (2009) cases in 2010/11 was 35 years, compared with 20 years during the pandemic (p?=?<0.0001). Conclusions/Significance The Health Protection Agency successfully established a sentinel surveillance system for severe influenza in 2010/11, detecting a rise in influenza cases mirroring other surveillance indicators. The data indicate an upward shift in the age-distribution of influenza A/H1N1 (2009) during the 2010/11 influenza season as compared to the 2009/10 pandemic. Systems to enable the ongoing surveillance of severe influenza will be a key component in understanding and responding to the evolving epidemiology of influenza in the post-pandemic era. PMID:22291929

  18. Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and plague pandemics.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

  19. Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and Plague Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

  20. Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Ebert, David S.; Corley, Courtney D.; Maciejewski, Ross; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.

    2010-05-30

    Federal, State, and local decision makers and public health officials must prepare and exercise complex plans to contend with a variety of possible mass casualty events, such as pandemic influenza. Through the provision of quick look tools (QLTs) focused on mass casualty events, such planning can be done with higher accuracy and more realism through the combination of interactive simulation and visualization in these tools. If an event happens, the QLTs can then be employed to rapidly assess and execute alternative mitigation strategies, and thereby minimize casualties. This can be achieved by conducting numerous 'what-if' assessments prior to any event in order to assess potential health impacts (e.g., number of sick individuals), required community resources (e.g., vaccinations and hospital beds), and optimal mitigative decision strategies (e.g., school closures) during the course of a pandemic. In this presentation, we overview and demonstrate a pandemic influenza QLT, discuss some of the modeling methods and construct and visual analytic components and interface, and outline additional development concepts. These include the incorporation of a user selectable infectious disease palette, simultaneous visualization of decision alternatives, additional resource elements associated with emergency response (e.g., first responders and medical professionals), and provisions for other potential disaster events.

  1. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naďve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  2. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  3. The 2009–2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Poland

    2010-01-01

    Individual and national\\/cultural differences were apparent in response to the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Overall pandemic influenza immunization rates were low across all nations, including among healthcare workers. Among the reasons for the low coverage rates may have been a lack of concern about the individual risk of influenza, which may translate into a lack of willingness or urgency to be

  4. Comparing Pandemic to Seasonal Influenza Mortality: Moderate Impact Overall but High Mortality in Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cees C. van den Wijngaard; Liselotte van Asten; Marion P. G. Koopmans; Wilfrid van Pelt; Nico J. D. Nagelkerke; Cornelia C. H. Wielders; Alies van Lier; Wim van der Hoek; Adam Meijer; Gé A. Donker; Frederika Dijkstra; Carel Harmsen; Marianne A. B. van der Sande; Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundWe assessed the severity of the 2009 influenza pandemic by comparing pandemic mortality to seasonal influenza mortality. However, reported pandemic deaths were laboratory-confirmed – and thus an underestimation – whereas seasonal influenza mortality is often more inclusively estimated. For a valid comparison, our study used the same statistical methodology and data types to estimate pandemic and seasonal influenza mortality.Methods and

  5. Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P.; Johnson, Gregory P.; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

  6. U.S. Faces Another Flu Vaccine Shortage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Some 36,000 Americans die from flu complications every year so public alarm in reaction to the recent decision by British regulators to shut down the supplier of 46 million doses, or about the half this year's planned supply to the U.S., was hardly surprising. The action leaves only about 54 million flu shots available to Americans from a competing firm, and the U.S. government quickly decided that most healthy adults should delay or skip them to leave enough vaccine for the elderly and other high-risk patients. The government has urged voluntary rationing before, during a shortage in 2000. This year, however, will mark a record shortage just before flu season begins. Although the Bush administration offered assurances that anyone who needed a flu shot would get one, the shortage quickly developed into a political issue, with President Bush and Senator Kerry trading blame for the scarcity on the campaign trail. Meanwhile, U.S. and Canadian officials scrambled to come up with a plan to allow 1.2 million doses of Canadian-manufactured vaccine to be imported as an experimental drug.The first link offered here leads to an overview news story that summarizes the shortage situation so far and the outlook for fresh supplies of vaccine later in the flu season. The second link describes how the shortage has been playing out as a personal issue in a presidential campaign otherwise dominated by war and terrorism. The third link goes to a New York Times piece which notes that the shortage follows decades of warnings from health experts about problems with the flu vaccine supply and distribution system. The fourth link leads to the Centers for Disease Control influenza information page and a broad range of information targeted to both consumers and health care professionals. The fifth link describes the negotiations underway between the U.S. and Canadian governments to allow importation of vaccine from Canada under FDA regulations. The last link is the home page of the American Medical Association conference on influenza vaccine held in April and includes links to all speakers' presentations in either pdf or PowerPoint formats.

  7. Pandemic preparedness: perceptions of vulnerable migrants in Thailand towards WHO-recommended non-pharmaceutical interventions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) constituted the principal public health response to the previous influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic and are one key area of ongoing preparation for future pandemics. Thailand is an important point of focus in terms of global pandemic preparedness and response due to its role as the major transportation hub for Southeast Asia, the endemic presence of multiple types of influenza, and its role as a major receiving country for migrants. Our aim was to collect information about vulnerable migrants’ perceptions of and ability to implement NPIs proposed by the WHO. We hope that this information will help us to gauge the capacity of this population to engage in pandemic preparedness and response efforts, and to identify potential barriers to NPI effectiveness. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed. The study was conducted during the influenza H1N1 2009 pandemic and included 801 migrant participants living in border areas thought to be high risk by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health. Data were collected by Migrant Community Health Workers using a 201-item interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Univariate descriptive analyses were conducted. Results With the exception of border measures, to which nearly all participants reported they would be adherent, attitudes towards recommended NPIs were generally negative or uncertain. Other potential barriers to NPI implementation include limited experience applying these interventions (e.g., using a thermometer, wearing a face mask) and inadequate hand washing and household disinfection practices. Conclusions Negative or ambivalent attitudes towards NPIs combined with other barriers identified suggest that vulnerable migrants in Thailand have a limited capacity to participate in pandemic preparedness efforts. This limited capacity likely puts migrants at risk of propagating the spread of a pandemic virus. Coordinated risk communication and public education are potential strategies that may reduce barriers to individual NPI implementation. PMID:24973943

  8. Avian influenza pandemic threat and health systems response.

    PubMed

    Bradt, David A; Drummond, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza is a panzootic and recurring human epidemic with pandemic potential. Pandemic requirements for a viral pathogen are: a novel virus must emerge against which the general population has little or no immunity; the new virus must be able to replicate in humans and cause serious illness; and the new virus must be efficiently transmitted from person to person. At present, only the first two conditions have been met. Nonetheless, influenza pandemics are considered inevitable. Expected worldwide human mortality from a moderate pandemic scenario is 45 million people or more than 75% of the current annual global death burden. Although mathematical models have predicted that an emerging pandemic could be contained at its source, this conclusion remains controversial among public health experts. The Terrestrial Animal Health Code and International Health Regulations are enforceable legal instruments integral to pandemic preparedness. Donor support in financial, material and technical assistance remains critical to disease control efforts - particularly in developing countries where avian influenza predominately occurs at present. Personal protective equipment kits, decontamination kits and specimen collection kits in lightweight, portable packages are becoming standardized. Air transport border control measures purporting to delay importation and spread of human avian influenza are scientifically controversial. National pandemic plans prioritize beneficiary access to antiviral drugs and vaccines for some countries. Other medical commodities including ventilators, hospital beds and intensive care units remain less well prioritized in national plans. These resources will play virtually no role in care of the overwhelming majority of patients worldwide in a pandemic. Prehospital care, triage and acute care all require additional professional standardization for the high patient volumes anticipated in a pandemic. PMID:17083631

  9. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  10. Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

  11. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    E-print Network

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

  12. Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Itzwerth, Ralf L; Macintyre, C Raina; Shah, Smita; Plant, Aileen J

    2006-11-20

    Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic. PMID:17115957

  13. Red state, blue state, flu state: media self-selection and partisan gaps in Swine flu vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Baum, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the H1N1 virus (swine flu) crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly nonpartisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes and that such polarization is attributable, at least partly, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the U.S. mass media from roughly the 1950s until the early 1990s. In its place has arisen an increasingly fragmented and niche-oriented media marketplace in which individuals are better able to limit their information exposure to attitudes and opinions that reinforce, rather than challenge, their preexisting beliefs. I test my argument against a variety of data sources, including opinion surveys and state-level swine flu vaccination rate data. PMID:21948819

  14. PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE,

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    . Acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol) and/or ibuprofen (e.g. Motrin) for fever and body aches 3. Hand sanitizer (at least, hand sanitizer, acetaminophen, cough syrup, and throat lozenges. You may also purchase the items above of a fever, without the use of fever-reducing medicines, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. · Practice good

  15. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy C. Germann; Kai Kadau; Ira M. Longini; Catherine A. Macken

    2006-01-01

    Recent human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised the specter of a devastating pandemic like that of 1917-1918, should this avian virus evolve to become readily transmissible among humans. We introduce and use a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S.

  16. Origin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guoxiang; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Jiao, Xinan; Huang, Jinlin; Pan, Zhiming; Zhou, Liping; Qian, Xiaoqin

    2011-02-28

    O3:K6 pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused outbreaks in coastal countries since 1996. Mutilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an important tool to trace the source and analysis the evolution of bacteria. Based on MLST, the first pandemic clonal complex (CC) of V. parahaemolyticus has been confirmed. In this study, 57 pandemic strains, 27 pathogenic strains (tdh or trh positive) and 36 nonpathogenic strains isolated from China were analyzed with MLST. Forty-seven unique sequence types, one clonal complex (CC) and one doublet (D) were identified by eBURST and Mega4 analyses. CC corresponded to not only the known O3:K6 pandemic clone (including ST-3, ST-192, ST-227) but nonpathogenic clone (including ST-3, S-T2, ST-196, ST-220, ST-226). ST-3 was the founder of the complex. STs of the isolates were not inevitably associated with the presence or number of the accessory genes or the serotypes of the isolates. The ancestor strain of O3:K6 pandemic clone was originated from an environmental nonpathogenic O3:K6, ST-3 strain. The pandemic O3:K6 clone was developed from this strain in approximately 1996 by laterally transferring large fragments of genes including systematic functional genes and genomic islands. PMID:21316116

  17. Cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell immunity between the pandemic H1N1-2009 and H1N1-1918 influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gras, Stephanie; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Valkenburg, Sophie A.; Laurie, Karen; Liu, Yu Chih; Denholm, Justin T.; Richards, Michael J.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Kelso, Anne; Doherty, Peter C.; Turner, Stephen J.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Preexisting T-cell immunity directed at conserved viral regions promotes enhanced recovery from influenza virus infections, with there being some evidence of cross-protection directed at variable peptides. Strikingly, many of the immunogenic peptides derived from the current pandemic A(H1N1)-2009 influenza virus are representative of the catastrophic 1918 “Spanish flu” rather than more recent “seasonal” strains. We present immunological and structural analyses of cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell–mediated immunity directed at a variable (although highly cross-reactive) immunodominant NP418–426 peptide that binds to a large B7 family (HLA-B*3501/03/0702) found throughout human populations. Memory CD8+ T-cell specificity was probed for 12 different NP418 mutants that emerged over the 9 decades between the 1918 and 2009 pandemics. Although there is evidence of substantial cross-reactivity among seasonal NP418 mutants, current memory T-cell profiles show no preexisting immunity to the 2009-NP418 variant or the 1918-NP418 variant. Natural infection with the A(H1N1)-2009 virus, however, elicits CD8+ T cells specific for the 2009-NP418 and 1918-NP418 epitopes. This analysis points to the potential importance of cross-reactive T-cell populations that cover the possible spectrum of T-cell variants and suggests that the identification of key residues/motifs that elicit cross-reactive T-cell sets could facilitate the evolution of immunization protocols that provide a measure of protection against unpredicted pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, it is worth exploring the potential of vaccines that incorporate peptide variants with a proven potential for broader immunogenicity, especially to those that are not recognized by the current memory T-cell pool generated by exposure to influenza variants that cause successive seasonal epidemics. PMID:20616031

  18. Comparison of CATs, CURB-65 and PMEWS as Triage Tools in Pandemic Influenza Admissions to UK Hospitals: Case Control Analysis Using Retrospective Data

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Puja R.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Lim, Wei Shen; Nicholson, Karl G.; Brett, Stephen J.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Bannister, Barbara; Semple, Malcolm G.

    2012-01-01

    Triage tools have an important role in pandemics to identify those most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. We compared Community Assessment Tools (CATs), the CURB-65 score, and the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS); to predict higher levels of care (high dependency - Level 2 or intensive care - Level 3) and/or death in patients at or shortly after admission to hospital with A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza. This was a case-control analysis using retrospectively collected data from the FLU-CIN cohort (1040 adults, 480 children) with PCR-confirmed A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Area under receiver operator curves (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated. CATs best predicted Level 2/3 admissions in both adults [AUROC (95% CI): CATs 0.77 (0.73, 0.80); CURB-65 0.68 (0.64, 0.72); PMEWS 0.68 (0.64, 0.73), p<0.001] and children [AUROC: CATs 0.74 (0.68, 0.80); CURB-65 0.52 (0.46, 0.59); PMEWS 0.69 (0.62, 0.75), p<0.001]. CURB-65 and CATs were similar in predicting death in adults with both performing better than PMEWS; and CATs best predicted death in children. CATs were the best predictor of Level 2/3 care and/or death for both adults and children. CATs are potentially useful triage tools for predicting need for higher levels of care and/or mortality in patients of all ages. PMID:22509303

  19. H1N1 Influenza Pandemic of 2009 Compared With Other Influenza Pandemics: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Management, Pulmonary Complications, and Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Domínguez-Cherit; Silvio A. Ńamendys-Silva; Alethse de la Torre; Alejandro E. Macias; Jose Angel Cordova-Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    Influenza pandemics are complex events that have occurred frequently throughout human history, three during the past century\\u000a alone. Now the world is facing the first 21st century pandemic, and the comparison among them is essential to identify common\\u000a epidemiologic patterns, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. The evolution of medicine, including diagnostic and treatment\\u000a options, the critical care advances, and global responses

  20. Influenza (“Bird Flu”), inflammation and anti-inflammatory\\/analgesic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Rainsford

    2006-01-01

    .  The spectre of an influenza pandemic is being widely mooted. Most of the strategies explored to date for controlling or treating\\u000a the condition have centred on controlling the spread of the infection, the use of vaccines or anti-viral agents. There has\\u000a been relatively little discussion about treating the lung and systemic inflammatory reactions that occur during influenza\\u000a infection. In this

  1. The Non-canonical Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Domain of Fluorescent (FLU) Mediates Complex Formation with Glutamyl-tRNA Reductase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Feilong; Fang, Ying; Chen, Xuemin; Chen, Yuhong; Zhang, Wenxia; Dai, Huai-En; Lin, Rongcheng; Liu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing protein FLU is a negative regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis in plants. It directly interacts through its TPR domain with glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Delineation of how FLU binds to GluTR is important for understanding the molecular basis for FLU-mediated repression of synthesis of ALA, the universal tetrapyrrole precursor. Here, we characterize the FLU-GluTR interaction by solving the crystal structures of the uncomplexed TPR domain of FLU (FLU(TPR)) at 1.45-Ĺ resolution and the complex of the dimeric domain of GluTR bound to FLU(TPR) at 2.4-Ĺ resolution. Three non-canonical TPR motifs of each FLU(TPR) form a concave surface and clamp the helix bundle in the C-terminal dimeric domain of GluTR. We demonstrate that a 2:2 FLU(TPR)-GluTR complex is the functional unit for FLU-mediated GluTR regulation and suggest that the formation of the FLU-GluTR complex prevents glutamyl-tRNA, the GluTR substrate, from binding with this enzyme. These results also provide insights into the spatial regulation of ALA synthesis by the membrane-located FLU protein. PMID:26037924

  2. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  3. Modeling the avian flu, lessons form complex adaptive systems in biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ahmed A. S. Elgazzar; A. S. Hegazi

    2008-01-01

    Recently avian (Bird’s) flu has caused severe problems worldwide. We apply results from complex adaptive systems in biology (CASiB) to this problem. We show that fractional order coupled map lattice is suitable to model avian flu. Stability results are given.

  4. Impact of BSE and bird flu on consumers’ meat demand in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ishida; Noriko Ishikawa; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of BSE and bird flu on consumers’ meat demand in Japan by using the ‘almost ideal’ demand system. The BSE and bird flu scares brought about a fall in demand for beef and chicken, respectively, and an upturn in demand for pork and fishery products, which are substitutes for beef and chicken in

  5. Impact of BSE and Bird Flu on Consumersf Meat Demand in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ishida; Noriko Ishikawa; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of the BSE and Bird Flu on consumersf meat demand in Japan using the Almost Ideal demand system. BSE and Bird Flu scares bring about a fall in demand for beef and chicken respectively, and an upturn in demand for pork and fishery products, both of which are substitutes for beef and chicken in Japan.

  6. Modeling the Worldwide Spread of Pandemic Influenza: Baseline Case and Containment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain; Barthelemy, Marc; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, which is now widespread in Southeast Asia and which diffused recently in some areas of the Balkans region and Western Europe, has raised a public alert toward the potential occurrence of a new severe influenza pandemic. Here we study the worldwide spread of a pandemic and its possible containment at a global level taking into account all available information on air travel. Methods and Findings We studied a metapopulation stochastic epidemic model on a global scale that considers airline travel flow data among urban areas. We provided a temporal and spatial evolution of the pandemic with a sensitivity analysis of different levels of infectiousness of the virus and initial outbreak conditions (both geographical and seasonal). For each spreading scenario we provided the timeline and the geographical impact of the pandemic in 3,100 urban areas, located in 220 different countries. We compared the baseline cases with different containment strategies, including travel restrictions and the therapeutic use of antiviral (AV) drugs. We investigated the effect of the use of AV drugs in the event that therapeutic protocols can be carried out with maximal coverage for the populations in all countries. In view of the wide diversity of AV stockpiles in different regions of the world, we also studied scenarios in which only a limited number of countries are prepared (i.e., have considerable AV supplies). In particular, we compared different plans in which, on the one hand, only prepared and wealthy countries benefit from large AV resources, with, on the other hand, cooperative containment scenarios in which countries with large AV stockpiles make a small portion of their supplies available worldwide. Conclusions We show that the inclusion of air transportation is crucial in the assessment of the occurrence probability of global outbreaks. The large-scale therapeutic usage of AV drugs in all hit countries would be able to mitigate a pandemic effect with a reproductive rate as high as 1.9 during the first year; with AV supply use sufficient to treat approximately 2% to 6% of the population, in conjunction with efficient case detection and timely drug distribution. For highly contagious viruses (i.e., a reproductive rate as high as 2.3), even the unrealistic use of supplies corresponding to the treatment of approximately 20% of the population leaves 30%–50% of the population infected. In the case of limited AV supplies and pandemics with a reproductive rate as high as 1.9, we demonstrate that the more cooperative the strategy, the more effective are the containment results in all regions of the world, including those countries that made part of their resources available for global use. PMID:17253899

  7. Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps)

    2010-03-04

    The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  8. Microsimulation of Financial Impact of Demand Surge on Hospitals: The H1N1 Influenza Pandemic of Fall 2009

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Sabina; Friedman, Bernard; Mutter, Ryan; Handrigan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Microsimulation was used to assess the financial impact on hospitals of a surge in influenza admissions in advance of the H1N1 pandemic in the fall of 2009. The goal was to estimate net income and losses (nationally, and by hospital type) of a response of filling unused hospital bed capacity proportionately and postponing elective admissions (a “passive” supply response). Methods Epidemiologic assumptions were combined with assumptions from other literature (e.g., staff absenteeism, profitability by payer class), Census data on age groups by region, and baseline hospital utilization data. Hospital discharge records were available from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Hospital bed capacity and staffing were measured with the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey. Results Nationwide, in a scenario of relatively severe epidemiologic assumptions, we estimated aggregate net income of $119 million for about 1 million additional influenza-related admissions, and a net loss of $37 million for 52,000 postponed elective admissions. Implications Aggregate and distributional results did not suggest that a policy of promising additional financial compensation to hospitals in anticipation of the surge in flu cases was necessary. The analysis identified needs for better information of several types to improve simulations of hospital behavior and impacts during demand surges. PMID:23398540

  9. An avian live attenuated master backbone for potential use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Danielle; Hossain, Md Jaber; Song, Haichen; Araya, Yonas; Solórzano, Alicia; Perez, Daniel R

    2008-11-01

    The unprecedented emergence in Asia of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes with a broad host range poses a major challenge in the design of vaccination strategies that are both effective and available in a timely manner. The present study focused on the protective effects of a genetically modified AIV as a source for the preparation of vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. It has previously been demonstrated that a live attenuated AIV based on the internal backbone of influenza A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2), called WF10att, is effective at protecting poultry species against low- and high-pathogenicity influenza strains. More importantly, this live attenuated virus provided effective protection when administered in ovo. In order to characterize the WF10att backbone further for use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines, this study evaluated its protective effects in mice. Intranasal inoculation of modified attenuated viruses in mice provided adequate protective immunity against homologous lethal challenges with both the wild-type influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) viruses. Adequate heterotypic immunity was also observed in mice vaccinated with modified attenuated viruses carrying H7N2 surface proteins. The results presented in this report suggest that the internal genes of a genetically modified AIV confer similar protection in a mouse model and thus could be used as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. PMID:18931063

  10. 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1): Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention— Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin A. Swedish

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The virus— a previously\\u000a unknown triple-reassortant virus containing segments of avian, human, and swine origins— generally caused mild disease. Unlike\\u000a seasonal influenza, 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) primarily affected adults 18 to 64 years of age. During the course of\\u000a the pandemic, public health

  11. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most pandemics—eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza—originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

  12. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Most pandemics--eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza--originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

  13. Public health intelligence and the detection of potential pandemics.

    PubMed

    French, Martin; Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2013-02-01

    This article considers contemporary developments in public health intelligence (PHI), especially their focus on health events of pandemic potential. It argues that the sociological study of PHI can yield important insights for the sociology of pandemics. PHI aims to detect health events as (or even before) they unfold. Whilst its apparatuses envelope traditional public health activities, such as epidemiological surveillance, they increasingly extend to non-traditional public health activities such as data-mining in electronically mediated social networks. With a focus on non-traditional PHI activities, the article first situates the study of PHI in relation to the sociology of public health. It then discusses the conceptualisation and actualisation of pandemics, reflecting on how public health professionals and organisations must equip themselves with diverse allies in order to realise the claims they make about pandemic phenomena. Finally, using the analytic tools of actor-network theory, sites for future empirical research that can contribute to the sociology of pandemics are suggested. PMID:23278393

  14. Healthcare workers' attitudes towards working during pandemic influenza: A multi method study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Draper; Sue Wilson; Jonathan Ives; Christine Gratus; Sheila Greenfield; Jayne Parry; Judith Petts; Tom Sorell

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) will be key players in any response to pandemic influenza, and will be in the front line of exposure to infection. Responding effectively to a pandemic relies on the majority of medical, nursing, laboratory and hotel services staff continuing to work normally. Planning assumes that during a pandemic normal healthcare service levels will be provided, although

  15. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA PLANNING GUIDELINES AND RESPONSE PLAN for Colorado State University

    E-print Network

    1 June, 2007 PANDEMIC INFLUENZA PLANNING GUIDELINES AND RESPONSE PLAN for Colorado State University A. Characteristics of an Influenza Pandemic 8 B. Vaccines and Antivirals 9 C. Nonpharmaceutical. Training and Exercises 24 VI. College/ Department/ Unit Pandemic Influenza Planning 24 A. Campus Community

  16. Influenza pandemic: perception of risk and individual precautions in a general population. Cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivar S Kristiansen; Peder A Halvorsen; Dorte Gyrd-Hansen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An influenza pandemic may have considerable impact on health and societal functioning. The aim of this study was to explore people's reflections on the consequences of a pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional web-based survey of 1,168 Norwegians aged 16–82 years. The main outcome measures were answers to questions about a potential pandemic (\\

  17. Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

  18. A hypothesis: Sunspot cycles may detect pandemic influenza A in 1700-2000 A.D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. K. Yeung

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background: Influenza pandemics in this century (1946-1947, 1957 and 1968) have fascinated some people for the idea of 11-year pattern pandemic cycles. In solar physics, it is well known that sunspot cycles also have regular periods of around 11 years. This study therefore aims to investigate the association between sunspot cycles and the occurrences of pandemic influenza. The hypothesis

  19. Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over “swine flu,” as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  20. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  1. [Danger is in the air: is the Spanish Flu back?].

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Jaime Larry; Cardoso, Roberta; Martins, Cerqueira; Martins, Ruth B

    2005-01-01

    When we were working on the present issue of our journal, where there are three special articles on the Spanish Flu, the epidemic that broke out in 1918 supposedly killing more people than the First World War, some news in the papers made our hair stand on end. "The world is heading to an influenza pan-epidemic", announced the World Health Organization last January 20 (O Globo, 2.01.2005, p.28). In the March 15 issue of the same newspaper, one reads: "Specialists warn the the effects of the pan-epidemic of fowl flu would be devastating". As we are privileged to have one of these specialists here in Fundaçăo Oswaldo Cruz, we asked her to what extend these statements were true. So, we are now sharing with you readers the enlightening conversation we had with Marilda Mendonça Siqueira. She is a researcher of Fundaçăo Oswaldo Cruz Virology Department, where she leads the Respiratory Viruses and Measles Lab, part of WHO's international net for influenza vigilance, which has existed since the 1950's. PMID:16116713

  2. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-01-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  3. Framing risk in pandemic influenza policy and control.

    PubMed

    Seetoh, Theresa; Liverani, Marco; Coker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article explores differing understandings of 'risk' in relation to pandemic influenza policy and control. After a preliminary overview of methodological and practical problems in risk analysis, ways in which risk was framed and managed in three historical cases were examined. The interdependence between scientific empiricism and political decision-making led to the mismanagement of the 1976 swine influenza scare in the USA. The 2004 H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Thailand, on the other hand, was undermined by questions of national economic interest and concerns over global health security. Finally, the recent global emergency of pandemic influenza H1N1 in 2009 demonstrated the difficulties of risk management under a context of pre-established perceptions about the characteristics and inevitability of a pandemic. Following the analysis of these cases, a conceptual framework is presented to illustrate ways in which changing relationships between risk assessment, risk perception and risk management can result in differing policy strategies. PMID:22823752

  4. Changing Perceptions: of Pandemic Influenza and Public Health Responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest World Bank estimates, over the past decade some US?$4.3 billion has been pledged by governments to combat the threat of pandemic influenza. Presidents, prime ministers, and even dictators the world over have been keen to demonstrate their commitment to tackling this disease, but this has not always been the case. Indeed, government-led intervention in responding to the threat of pandemic influenza is a relatively recent phenomenon. I explore how human understandings of influenza have altered over the past 500 years and how public policy responses have shifted accordingly. I trace the progress in human understanding of causation from meteorological conditions to the microscopic, and how this has prompted changes in public policy to mitigate the disease's impact. I also examine the latest trend of viewing pandemic influenza as a security threat and how this has changed contemporary governance structures and power dynamics. PMID:22095332

  5. The role of population heterogeneity and human mobility in the spread of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2010-02-22

    Little is known on how different levels of population heterogeneity and different patterns of human mobility affect the course of pandemic influenza in terms of timing and impact. By employing a large-scale spatially explicit individual-based model, founded on a highly detailed model of the European populations and on a careful analysis of air and railway transportation data, we provide quantitative measures of the influence of such factors at the European scale. Our results show that Europe has to be prepared to face a rapid diffusion of a pandemic influenza, because of the high mobility of the population, resulting in the early importation of the first cases from abroad and highly synchronized local epidemics. The impact of the epidemic in European countries is highly variable because of the marked differences in the sociodemographic structure of European populations. R(0), cumulative attack rate and peak daily attack rate depend heavily on sociodemographic parameters, such as the size of household groups and the fraction of workers and students in the population. PMID:19864279

  6. The role of population heterogeneity and human mobility in the spread of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Little is known on how different levels of population heterogeneity and different patterns of human mobility affect the course of pandemic influenza in terms of timing and impact. By employing a large-scale spatially explicit individual-based model, founded on a highly detailed model of the European populations and on a careful analysis of air and railway transportation data, we provide quantitative measures of the influence of such factors at the European scale. Our results show that Europe has to be prepared to face a rapid diffusion of a pandemic influenza, because of the high mobility of the population, resulting in the early importation of the first cases from abroad and highly synchronized local epidemics. The impact of the epidemic in European countries is highly variable because of the marked differences in the sociodemographic structure of European populations. R0, cumulative attack rate and peak daily attack rate depend heavily on sociodemographic parameters, such as the size of household groups and the fraction of workers and students in the population. PMID:19864279

  7. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  8. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students’ attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians.

  9. Seroepidemiological study of pandemic influenza H1N1 following the 2009-2010 wave in Greece.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Mavrouli, Maria; Lourida, Athanasia; Routsias, John G; Spanakis, Nicholas; Maragos, Antonios; Tedoma, Anastasia; Bassiakos, Yiannis; Koratzanis, Georgios; Mantagos, Stephanos; Metallidis, Simeon; Katragkou, Aspasia; Nikolaidis, Pavlos; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of seroprevalence rates against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus will assist vaccination recommendations and the preparation of the health-care system during subsequent years. This study was conducted in Greece during June-August 2010 to estimate the seroprevalence rate against pandemic H1N1 virus. Persons presenting in 29 health-care facilities across the country were studied. Seroprevalence was estimated employing a virus-free ELISA that specifically recognizes 2009 H1N1 virus antibodies in human sera. Sera collected from 2005 to April 2009 were also used to estimate pre-pandemic seroprevalence rates. A total of 954 persons were studied. The overall seroprevalence rate was 28.5% (95% confidence interval=25.6-31.3%). Age-specific rates were 34.2% in persons 0-4 years, 36.3% in persons 5-19 years, 25.0% in persons 20-39 years, 23.4% in persons 40-59 years, and 31.8% in persons ? 60 years. The highest rates were recorded in the Regions of Ionian Islands (67%) and Epirus (42.9%), while the lowest (8.4%) in the Region of Thessaly. Age-specific attack rates of infection during 2009-2010 were 28.8% in persons 0-4 years, 32.5% in persons 5-19 years, 14.3% in persons 20-39 years, 19.1% in persons 40-59 years, and 14.4% in persons ? 60 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that Region of residence and caring for children <5 years were associated with increased risk for seropositivity. Urbanity, personal and family characteristics, working in a health-care facility or in a school, history of pandemic H1N1 vaccination or history of influenza-like illness during 2009-2010 were not associated with increased risk for seropositivity. PMID:21762749

  10. Simulating the Spread of Pandemics with Different Origins Considering International Traffic

    E-print Network

    Yoneyama, Teruhiko

    2010-01-01

    Pandemics have the potential to cause immense disruption and damage to communities and societies. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. The model combines the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. We simulate the potential pandemic with different origins and find how the difference of the origin of a pandemic influences the impact in the world. We investigate the travelers network which is derived from real data, and simulate 65 countries, and see how the pandemic spread through the world from different 14 countries as origins of pandemic. We compare the difference in terms of the impact in countries and the impact in the world. As a result, the impact in the world increases when pandemic originates from the United States, India, and China.

  11. Clinical review: Influenza pandemic – physicians and their obligations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devanand Anantham; Wendy McHugh; Stephen O'Neill; Lachlan Forrow

    2008-01-01

    An influenza pandemic threatens to be the most lethal public health crisis to confront the world. Physicians will have critical roles in diagnosis, containment and treatment of influenza, and their commitment to treat despite increased personal risks is essential for a successful public health response. The obligations of the medical profession stem from the unique skills of its practitioners, who

  12. WOULD THE 1918 PANDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS BE A THREAT TODAY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1918 influenza pandemic caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide. Under biosafety level 3Ag containment, a recombinant influenza virus bearing the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) was generated. This virus is highly virulent in mice, pointing to the 1918 HA and...

  13. Two resource distribution strategies for dynamic mitigation of influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Sánchez, Andrés; Savachkin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic containment and mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capabilities. We present two simulation-based optimization models for developing dynamic predictive resource distribution strategies for cross-regional pandemic outbreaks. In both models, the underlying simulation mimics the disease and population dynamics of the affected regions. The quantity-based optimization model generates a progressive allocation of limited quantities of mitigation resources, including vaccines, antiviral, administration capacities, and social distancing enforcement resources. The budget-based optimization model strives instead allocating a total resource budget. Both models seek to minimize the impact of ongoing outbreaks and the expected impact of potential outbreaks. The models incorporate measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the societal and economic costs of lost productivity and medical expenses. The models were calibrated using historic pandemic data and implemented on a sample outbreak in Florida, with over four million inhabitants. The quantity-based model was found to be inferior to the budget-based model, which was advantageous in its ability to balance the varying relative cost and effectiveness of individual resources. The models are intended to assist public health policy makers in developing effective distribution policies for mitigation of influenza pandemics. PMID:21197356

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Rates of immunization against pandemic and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Rates of immunization against pandemic and seasonal influenza immunization in these target groups attending a medical consultation for two consecutive influenza seasons% defined by the 2004 French Public Health Law, and underscores the need for the implementation of public

  15. Review Clinical review: Influenza pandemic - physicians and their

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devanand Anantham; Wendy McHugh; Stephen O'Neill; Lachlan Forrow

    An influenza pandemic threatens to be the most lethal public health crisis to confront the world. Physicians will have critical roles in diagnosis, containment and treatment of influenza, and their commitment to treat despite increased personal risks is essential for a successful public health response. The obligations of the medical profession stem from the unique skills of its practitioners, who

  16. The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most, if not all, of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. This article, which is written for ...

  17. Polymeric nanocarriers for magnetic targeted drug delivery: preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Mariano; Scialabba, Cinzia; Fiorica, Calogero; Cavallaro, Gennara; Cassata, Giovanni; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-12-01

    In this paper the preparation of magnetic nanocarriers (MNCs), containing superparamagnetic domains, is reported, useful as potential magnetically targeted drug delivery systems. The preparation of MNCs was performed by using the PHEA-IB-p(BMA) graft copolymer as coating material through the homogenization-solvent evaporation method. Magnetic and nonmagnetic nanocarriers containing flutamide (FLU-MNCs) were prepared. The prepared nanocarriers have been exhaustively characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and magnetic measurements. Biological evaluation was performed by in vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake tests and in vivo biodistribution studies. Magnetic nanocarriers showed dimensions of about 300 nm with a narrow size distribution, an amount of loaded FLU of 20% (w/w), and a superparamagnetic behavior. Cell culture experiments performed on prostate cancer cell line LNCaP demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of FLU-MNCs. In vivo biodistribution studies carried out by the application of an external magnetic field in rats demonstrated the effect of the external magnet on modifying the biodistribution of FLU-MNCs. FLU-MNCs resulted efficiently internalized by tumor cells and susceptible to magnetic targeting by application of an external magnetic field. The proposed nanocarriers can represent a very promising approach to obtain an efficient magnetically targeted anticancer drug delivery system. PMID:24168360

  18. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2006 139 A DNA flu vaccine in practice

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2006 139 A DNA flu vaccine in practice in Biotechnology Progress (21, 1577­1592, 2005) and suggest that though challenging, it should be possible. However

  19. Risk Communication Research at the University of Maryland TERROR PLOTS. SUPER FLU. CONTAMINATED FOOD.

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Risk Communication Research at the University of Maryland TERROR PLOTS. SUPER FLU. CONTAMINATED Aldoory's work indicates how reactions to terror threats reported in the news can be influenced by social

  20. Spatial Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza in the US

    PubMed Central

    Gog, Julia R.; Ballesteros, Sébastien; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Bjornstad, Ottar N.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chao, Dennis L.; Khan, Farid; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic provides a unique opportunity for detailed examination of the spatial dynamics of an emerging pathogen. In the US, the pandemic was characterized by substantial geographical heterogeneity: the 2009 spring wave was limited mainly to northeastern cities while the larger fall wave affected the whole country. Here we use finely resolved spatial and temporal influenza disease data based on electronic medical claims to explore the spread of the fall pandemic wave across 271 US cities and associated suburban areas. We document a clear spatial pattern in the timing of onset of the fall wave, starting in southeastern cities and spreading outwards over a period of three months. We use mechanistic models to tease apart the external factors associated with the timing of the fall wave arrival: differential seeding events linked to demographic factors, school opening dates, absolute humidity, prior immunity from the spring wave, spatial diffusion, and their interactions. Although the onset of the fall wave was correlated with school openings as previously reported, models including spatial spread alone resulted in better fit. The best model had a combination of the two. Absolute humidity or prior exposure during the spring wave did not improve the fit and population size only played a weak role. In conclusion, the protracted spread of pandemic influenza in fall 2009 in the US was dominated by short-distance spatial spread partially catalysed by school openings rather than long-distance transmission events. This is in contrast to the rapid hierarchical transmission patterns previously described for seasonal influenza. The findings underline the critical role that school-age children play in facilitating the geographic spread of pandemic influenza and highlight the need for further information on the movement and mixing patterns of this age group. PMID:24921923

  1. Pandemics in the Age of Twitter: Content Analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Cynthia; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary “infoveillance” approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1) monitor the use of the terms “H1N1” versus “swine flu” over time; 2) conduct a content analysis of “tweets”; and 3) validate Twitter as a real-time content, sentiment, and public attention trend-tracking tool. Methodology/Principal Findings Between May 1 and December 31, 2009, we archived over 2 million Twitter posts containing keywords “swine flu,” “swineflu,” and/or “H1N1.” using Infovigil, an infoveillance system. Tweets using “H1N1” increased from 8.8% to 40.5% (R2?=?.788; p<.001), indicating a gradual adoption of World Health Organization-recommended terminology. 5,395 tweets were randomly selected from 9 days, 4 weeks apart and coded using a tri-axial coding scheme. To track tweet content and to test the feasibility of automated coding, we created database queries for keywords and correlated these results with manual coding. Content analysis indicated resource-related posts were most commonly shared (52.6%). 4.5% of cases were identified as misinformation. News websites were the most popular sources (23.2%), while government and health agencies were linked only 1.5% of the time. 7/10 automated queries correlated with manual coding. Several Twitter activity peaks coincided with major news stories. Our results correlated well with H1N1 incidence data. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential of using social media to conduct “infodemiology” studies for public health. 2009 H1N1-related tweets were primarily used to disseminate information from credible sources, but were also a source of opinions and experiences. Tweets can be used for real-time content analysis and knowledge translation research, allowing health authorities to respond to public concerns. PMID:21124761

  2. Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Human host immune response following infection with the new variant of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nvH1N1) is poorly understood. We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1. Methods We profiled 29 cytokines and chemokines and evaluated the haemagglutination inhibition activity as quantitative and qualitative measurements of host immune responses in serum obtained during the first five days after symptoms onset, in two cohorts of nvH1N1 infected patients. Severe patients required hospitalization (n = 20), due to respiratory insufficiency (10 of them were admitted to the intensive care unit), while mild patients had exclusively flu-like symptoms (n = 15). A group of healthy donors was included as control (n = 15). Differences in levels of mediators between groups were assessed by using the non parametric U-Mann Whitney test. Association between variables was determined by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. Viral load was performed in serum by using real-time PCR targeting the neuraminidase gene. Results Increased levels of innate-immunity mediators (IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?), and the absence of anti-nvH1N1 antibodies, characterized the early response to nvH1N1 infection in both hospitalized and mild patients. High systemic levels of type-II interferon (IFN-?) and also of a group of mediators involved in the development of T-helper 17 (IL-8, IL-9, IL-17, IL-6) and T-helper 1 (TNF-?, IL-15, IL-12p70) responses were exclusively found in hospitalized patients. IL-15, IL-12p70, IL-6 constituted a hallmark of critical illness in our study. A significant inverse association was found between IL-6, IL-8 and PaO2 in critical patients. Conclusions While infection with the nvH1N1 induces a typical innate response in both mild and severe patients, severe disease with respiratory involvement is characterized by early secretion of Th17 and Th1 cytokines usually associated with cell mediated immunity but also commonly linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. The exact role of Th1 and Th17 mediators in the evolution of nvH1N1 mild and severe disease merits further investigation as to the detrimental or beneficial role these cytokines play in severe illness. PMID:20003352

  3. An Evaluation of Community Assessment Tools (CATs) in Predicting Use of Clinical Interventions and Severe Outcomes during the A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Karl G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Brett, Stephen J.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    During severe influenza pandemics healthcare demand can exceed clinical capacity to provide normal standards of care. Community Assessment Tools (CATs) could provide a framework for triage decisions for hospital referral and admission. CATs have been developed based on evidence that supports the recognition of severe influenza and pneumonia in the community (including resource limited settings) for adults, children and infants, and serious feverish illness in children. CATs use six objective criteria and one subjective criterion, any one or more of which should prompt urgent referral and admission to hospital. A retrospective evaluation of the ability of CATs to predict use of hospital-based interventions and patient outcomes in a pandemic was made using the first recorded routine clinical assessment on or shortly after admission from 1520 unselected patients (800 female, 480 children <16 years) admitted with PCR confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (the FLU-CIN cohort). Outcome measures included: any use of supplemental oxygen; mechanical ventilation; intravenous antibiotics; length of stay; intensive or high dependency care; death; and “severe outcome” (combined: use of intensive or high dependency care or death during admission). Unadjusted and multivariable analyses were conducted for children (age <16 years) and adults. Each CATs criterion independently identified both use of clinical interventions that would in normal circumstances only be provided in hospital and patient outcome measures. “Peripheral oxygen saturation ?92% breathing air, or being on oxygen” performed well in predicting use of resources and outcomes for both adults and children; supporting routine measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation when assessing severity of disease. In multivariable analyses the single subjective criterion in CATs “other cause for clinical concern” independently predicted death in children and in adults predicted length of stay, mechanical ventilation and “severe outcome”; supporting the role of clinical acumen as an important independent predictor of serious illness. PMID:24069409

  4. Favipiravir: a new medication for the Ebola virus disease pandemic.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takashi; Lefor, Alan K; Hasegawa, Manabu; Ishii, Masami

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to advocate speedy approval and less stringent regulations for the use of experimental drugs such as favipiravir in emergencies. Favipiravir is a new antiviral medication that can be used in emerging viral pandemics such as Ebola virus, 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus, Lassa fever, and Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Although favipiravir is one of the choices for the treatment of patients with Ebola virus, several concerns exist. First, a clinical trial of favipiravir in patients infected with the Ebola virus has not yet been conducted, and further studies are required. Second, favipiravir has a risk for teratogenicity and embryotoxicity. Therefore, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor of Japan has approved this medication with strict regulations for its production and clinical use. However, owing to the emerging Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, on August 15, 2014, the Minister of Health, Welfare and Labor of Japan approved the use of favipiravir, if needed. PMID:25544306

  5. Effects of Internal Border Control on Spread of Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Nasim; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Becker, Niels G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of internal border control to limit influenza spread in an emergent pandemic in the context of Australia, a country with a low-population density and geopolitical boundaries that may facilitate restrictions. Mathematical models were used to study the time delay between epidemics in 2 population centers when travel restrictions were imposed. The models demonstrated that population size, travel rates, and places where travelers reside can strongly influence delay. The model simulations suggested that moderate delays in geographic spread may be possible with stringent restrictions and a low reproduction number, but results will be sensitive to the reproduction number and timing of restrictions. Model limitations include the absence of further importations and additional control measures. Internal border control may have a role in protecting domestic centers early in a pandemic, when importations are sparse. Our results may be useful for policymakers. PMID:18214176

  6. Clinical review: Mass casualty triage – pandemic influenza and critical care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty Challen; Andrew Bentley; John Bright; Darren Walter

    2007-01-01

    Worst case scenarios for pandemic influenza planning in the US involve over 700,000 patients requiring mechanical ventilation.\\u000a UK planning predicts a 231% occupancy of current level 3 (intensive care unit) bed capacity. Critical care planners need to\\u000a recognise that mortality is likely to be high and the risk to healthcare workers significant. Contingency planning should,\\u000a therefore, be multi-faceted, involving a

  7. Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil M. Ferguson; Derek A. T. Cummings; Simon Cauchemez; Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Aronrag Meeyai; Sopon Iamsirithaworn; Donald S. Burke

    2005-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A viruses are now endemic in avian populations in Southeast Asia, and human cases continue to accumulate. Although currently incapable of sustained human-to-human transmission, H5N1 represents a serious pandemic threat owing to the risk of a mutation or reassortment generating a virus with increased transmissibility. Identifying public health interventions that might be able to halt a

  8. Simulation model of pandemic influenza in the whole of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie

    2009-03-01

    An influenza pandemic--an outbreak of a novel influenza virus that spreads around the world--is a real threat. To predict the spread of an influenza pandemic across the whole of Japan, this study applies a real individual-based model (ribm) to the whole of Japan and simulates how a single case of influenza could spark pandemic influenza throughout Japan. We used Person-Trip (PT) data for nine regions (the Tokyo metropolitan area, Kansai, Chukyo, Fukuoka, Sendai, Sapporo, Miyazaki, Okinawa, and northern Ibaragi). PT data were collected from randomly chosen persons and contain information on their locations and their uses of all transportation modes including trains, cars, buses, bicycles, and walking. In total, the nine regions have a population of about 72 million, of whom more than 2.20 million individuals participated in the PT surveys. Estimates on the probability of movement among the nine PT regions are based on the results of the Third National Survey for Movement in 2003. Disease transmission in each region or on a train is assumed to occur within a 1-m radius. The approximate numbers of new cases arising on day 14 after the arrival of the first infected person are estimated to be 322,000 in Tokyo, 25,000 in Kansai, 4,800 in Chukyo, 3,600 in Sapporo, 2,600 in Fukuoka, 600 in Sendai, 17 in Okinawa, and 300 in Miyazaki. The disease seems to spread more slowly in smaller cities such as Miyazaki and Okinawa than in big cities such as Tokyo and Kansai. Area quarantines may help to contain outbreaks in smaller cities, but probably not in larger cities. Because this study demonstrates that ribm is useful for simulating the spread of pandemic influenza in Japan, it is hoped that this modeling technique will be used in the creation of preparedness plans. PMID:19305048

  9. Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Current estimates of deaths from the influenza pandemic of 1918–19 in Japan are based on vital records and range from 257,000 to 481,000. The resulting crude death rate range of 0.47%–0.88% is considerably lower than parallel and conservative worldwide estimates of 1.66%–2.77%. Because the accuracy of vital registration records for early 20th century Asia is questionable, to calculate the percentage of the population who died from the pandemic, we used alternative prefecture-level population count data for Japan in combination with estimation methods for panel data that were not available to earlier demographers. Our population loss estimates of 1.97–2.02 million are appreciably higher than the standing estimates, and they yield a crude rate of population loss of 3.62%–3.71%. This rate resolves a major puzzle about the pandemic by indicating that the experience of Japan was similar to that of other parts of Asia. PMID:23631838

  10. Contagious Period for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Isabelle; Hamelin, Marie-Eve; Quach, Caroline; Skowronski, Danuta; Flamand, Louis; Boulianne, Nicole; Li, Yan; Carbonneau, Julie; Bourgault, Anne-Marie; Couillard, Michel; Charest, Hugues; Boivin, Guy

    2010-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of persons with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who were shedding infectious virus at diagnosis and on day 8 of illness. In households with confirmed cases, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on all members and tested by PCR and virus culture. Of 47 cases confirmed by PCR at <7 days of illness, virus culture was positive in 92% (11/12) of febrile and 63% (22/35) of afebrile persons. Of 43 persons with PCR-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 from whom a second specimen was collected on day 8, 74% remained PCR positive and 19% were culture positive. If the 73 symptomatic household members without PCR-confirmed illness are assumed to have pandemic (H1N1) 2009, a minimum of 8% (6/73) of case-patients shed replicating virus on day 8. Self-isolation only until fever abates appears insufficient to limit transmission. Self-isolation for a week may be more effective, although some case-patients still would shed infectious virus. PMID:20409367

  11. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kiliç, Selim; Gray, Gregory C.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a “no-cost” intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. PMID:18516249

  12. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  13. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  14. The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893-2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, A Sally; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Bray, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ferrets and human volunteers. However, the emergence of a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 1976 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in 1997 stimulated an increase in NHP research, because these agents are difficult to study in naturally infected patients and cannot be administered to human volunteers. In this paper, we review the published literature on the use of NHPs in influenza research from 1893 through the end of 2014. The first section summarizes observational studies of naturally occurring influenza-like syndromes in wild and captive primates, including serologic investigations. The second provides a chronological account of experimental infections of NHPs, beginning with Pfeiffer's study and covering all published research on seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including vaccine and antiviral drug testing. The third section reviews experimental infections of NHPs with avian influenza viruses that have caused disease in humans since 1997. The paper concludes with suggestions for further studies to more clearly define and optimize the role of NHPs as experimental animals for influenza research. PMID:25746173

  15. Properly Folded Bacterially Expressed H1N1 Hemagglutinin Globular Head and Ectodomain Vaccines Protect Ferrets against H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Surender; Verma, Swati; Verma, Nitin; Crevar, Corey J.; Carter, Donald M.; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R.; Ross, Ted M.; Golding, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Background In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 “Spanish Flu”. The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA) of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1–330) and HA (1–480), were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1–330) protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1–330) protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1–480). Protein yield for the HA1 (1–330) ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1–480) yield was 0.4–0.8 mg/Liter. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large scale production of influenza vaccines in the face of influenza pandemic threat. PMID:20634959

  16. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions. PMID:25869886

  17. Studies Needed to Address Public Health Challenges of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic: Insights from Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D. Van Kerkhove; Tommi Asikainen; Niels G. Becker; Steven Bjorge; Jean-Claude Desenclos; Thais dos Santos; Christophe Fraser; Gabriel M. Leung; Marc Lipsitch; Ira M. Longini; Emma S. McBryde; Cathy E. Roth; David K. Shay; Derek J. Smith; Jacco Wallinga; Peter J. White; Neil M. Ferguson; Steven Riley

    2010-01-01

    In light of the 2009 influenza pandemic and potential future pandemics, Maria Van Kerkhove and colleagues anticipate six public health challenges and the data needed to support sound public health decision making.

  18. Suppressor mutations bypass the requirement of fluG for asexual sporulation and sterigmatocystin production in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Guan, Yajun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    Asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans requires the early developmental activator fluG. Loss of fluG results in the blockage of both conidiation and production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST). To investigate molecular mechanisms of fluG-dependent developmental activation, 40 suppressors of fluG (SFGs) that conidiate without fluG have been isolated and characterized. Genetic analyses showed that an individual suppression is caused by a single second-site mutation, and that all sfg mutations but one are recessive. Pairwise meiotic crosses grouped mutations to four loci, 31 of them to sfgA, 6 of them to sfgB, and 1 each to sfgC and sfgD, respectively. The only dominant mutation, sfgA38, also mapped to the sfgA locus, suggesting a dominant negative mutation. Thirteen sfgA and 1 sfgC mutants elaborated conidiophores in liquid submerged culture, indicating that loss of either of these gene functions not only bypasses fluG function but also results in hyperactive conidiation. While sfg mutants show varying levels of restored conidiation, all recovered the ability to produce ST at near wild-type levels. The fact that at least four loci are defined by recessive sfg mutations indicates that multiple genes negatively regulate conidiation downstream of fluG and that the activity of fluG is required to remove such repressive effects. PMID:14668366

  19. A Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool Ross Maciejewski, Philip Livengood, Stephen Rudolph, Timothy F. Collins, David S. Ebert

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Ross

    A Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool Ross Maciejewski, Philip Livengood, Stephen Abstract The National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza outlines a plan for community response to a potential pandemic influenza scenario. Spread vectors based on the point of origin and distance traveled over time

  20. Antiviral resistance during pandemic influenza: implications for stockpiling and drug use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Arino; Christopher S Bowman; Seyed M Moghadas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The anticipated extent of antiviral use during an influenza pandemic can have adverse consequences for the development of drug resistance and rationing of limited stockpiles. The strategic use of drugs is therefore a major public health concern in planning for effective pandemic responses. METHODS: We employed a mathematical model that includes both sensitive and resistant strains of a virus

  1. Healthcare workers' attitudes to working during pandemic influenza: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Ives; Sheila Greenfield; Jayne M Parry; Heather Draper; Christine Gratus; Judith I Petts; Tom Sorell; Sue Wilson

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) will play a key role in any response to pandemic influenza, and the UK healthcare system's ability to cope during an influenza pandemic will depend, to a large extent, on the number of HCWs who are able and willing to work through the crisis. UK emergency planning will be improved if planners have a better understanding

  2. SHORT REPORT Open Access First introduction of pandemic influenza A/H1N1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHORT REPORT Open Access First introduction of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and detection sites for influenza-like illness or acute respiratory illness. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected.8%) contained influenza viruses (5 (1.5%) had pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus and 24 (7.3%) had influenza B

  3. “Listen to the People”: Public Deliberation About Social Distancing Measures in a Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M. Baum; Peter D. Jacobson; Susan D. Goold

    2009-01-01

    Public engagement in ethically laden pandemic planning decisions may be important for transparency, creating public trust, improving compliance with public health orders, and ultimately, contributing to just outcomes. We conducted focus groups with members of the public to characterize public perceptions about social distancing measures likely to be implemented during a pandemic. Participants expressed concerns about job security and economic

  4. PATHOGENICITY AND TRANSMISSION OF THE RECONSTRUCTED 1918 SPANISH INFLUENZA PANDEMIC VIRUS IN FERRETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20-50 million people worldwide. Through the use of reverse genetics, we recently generated an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus. Here we evaluate the relative virulence and transmission of the 1918 pan...

  5. Response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, C; Rota, M C; Bella, A; Giannitelli, S; De Santis, S; Nacca, G; Pompa, M G; Vellucci, L; Salmaso, S; Declich, S

    2010-12-01

    In Italy, the arrival of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus triggered an integrated response that was mainly based on the 2006 National Pandemic Preparedness and Response Plan. In this article we analyse the main activities implemented for epidemiological surveillance, containment and mitigation of the pandemic influenza and the lesson learned from this experience. Overall, from week 31 (27 July – 2 August) of 2009 to week 17 (26 April – 2 May) of 2010, we estimate that there were approximately 5,600,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) who received medical attention (with almost 2,000 laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza from May to October 2009). A total of 1,106 confirmed cases were admitted to hospital for serious conditions, of whom 532 were admitted to intensive care units. There were 260 reported deaths due to pandemic influenza. Approximately 870,000 first doses of the pandemic vaccine were administered, representing a vaccine coverage of 4% of the target population. One of the possible reasons for the low uptake of the pandemic vaccine in the target population could be the communication strategy adopted, for both the general population and healthcare workers, which turned out to be a major challenge. Active involvement of all health professionals (at local, regional and national level) in influenza pandemic preparedness and response should be encouraged in the future. PMID:21163178

  6. Modeling Dynamics of Workforce Absenteeism and Effectiveness of Mitigation Actions During Pandemics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young M. Lee; Lianjun An

    A pandemic is likely to occur in the near future, and it could cause significant disruptions in society creating deaths, despair, fear, and monetary cost, among other losses. Firms would also be negatively affected by a pandemic through loss of revenue, profit, employees, and even through a reduction in the value of the business itself. Especially for service-intensive businesses, employee

  7. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Revisited: an Evolutionary Retrospective

    PubMed Central

    Christman, MC; Kedwaii, A; Xu, J; Donis, RO; Lu, G

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus is unique in many aspects, especially in its genetics and evolution. In this paper, we examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this novel virus through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis, and present results in the context of a review of the literature. The pandemic virus was found to arise from a reassortment of two swine viruses, each of which ultimately arose from interspecies transmission. It experienced fast evolutionary rates and strong selection pressures, diverging into two different clusters at the early pandemic stage. Cluster I became extinct at the end of 2009 whereas cluster II continued to circulate at much lower rates in 2010. Therefore, on August 10 of 2010 the WHO declared the end of the pandemic. Important mutations associated with host specificity, virulence, and drug resistance were detected in the pandemic virus, indicating effective transmission and increased severity in humans. Much has been learned about the evolutionary dynamics of this pandemic virus; however, it is still impossible to predict when the next pandemic will occur and which virus will be responsible. Improved surveillance at different levels (both national and international) and in different hosts (especially in swine) appears to be crucial for early detection and prevention of future influenza pandemics. PMID:21382522

  8. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral “One Health” pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  9. Public Health Interventions and Epidemic Intensity during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Hatchett; Carter E. Mecher; Marc Lipsitch

    2007-01-01

    Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) intended to reduce infectious contacts between persons form an integral part of plans to mitigate the impact of the next influenza pandemic. Although the potential benefits of NPIs are supported by mathematical models, the historical evidence for the impact of such interventions in past pandemics has not been systematically examined. We obtained data on the timing of

  10. Evidence for Recombination between Pandemic GII.4 Norovirus Strains New Orleans 2009 and Sydney 2012

    PubMed Central

    Martella, V.; Medici, M. C.; De Grazia, S.; Tummolo, F.; Calderaro, A.; Bonura, F.; Saporito, L.; Terio, V.; Catella, C.; Lanave, G.; Buonavoglia, C.

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, a novel pandemic GII.4 norovirus variant, Sydney 2012, emerged worldwide. A signature of the variant was a GII.Pe ORF1, in association with GII.4 Apeldoorn 2008-like ORF2-ORF3 genes. We report the detection of recombinant GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains, possessing the ORF1 gene of the former pandemic variant New Orleans 2009. PMID:23966499

  11. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  12. Differential Mortality Rates by Ethnicity in 3 Influenza Pandemics Over a Century, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Lucy Telfar; Summers, Jennifer A.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Baker, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that indigenous populations have suffered disproportionately from past influenza pandemics. To examine any such patterns for M?ori in New Zealand, we searched the literature and performed new analyses by using additional datasets. The M?ori death rate in the 1918 pandemic (4,230/100,000 population) was 7.3× the European rate. In the 1957 pandemic, the M?ori death rate (40/100,000) was 6.2× the European rate. In the 2009 pandemic, the M?ori rate was higher than the European rate (rate ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3–5.3). These findings suggest some decline in pandemic-related ethnic inequalities in death rates over the past century. Nevertheless, the persistent excess in adverse outcomes for M?ori, and for Pacific persons residing in New Zealand, highlights the need for improved public health responses. PMID:22257434

  13. Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Larry R; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P Noel; Kistner, Otfried

    2013-06-01

    Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2-8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

  14. Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Larry R.; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A.; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G.; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M.; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P. Noel; Kistner, Otfried

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin®, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2–8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin® by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

  15. Estimated cumulative incidence of pandemic (H1N1) influenza among pregnant women during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Salaheddin M.; Becker, Marissa; Keynan, Yoav; Elliott, Lawrence; Thompson, Laura H.; Fowke, Keith; Avery, Lisa; Van Caeseele, Paul; Harlos, Sande; Blanchard, James; Dawood, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospitalization and lab confirmed cases of H1N1 have been reported during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic but these are not accurate measures of influenza incidence in the population. We estimated the cumulative incidence of pandemic (H1N1) influenza among pregnant women in the province of Manitoba during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic. Methods Two panels of stored frozen serum specimens collected for routine prenatal screening were randomly selected for testing before (March 2009, n = 252) and after (August 2009, n = 296) the first wave of the pandemic. A standard hemagglutination inhibition assay was used to detect the presence of IgG antibodies against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. The cumulative incidence of pandemic (H1N1) influenza was calculated as the difference between the point prevalence rates in the first and second panels. Results Of the specimens collected in March, 7.1% were positive for the IgG antibodies (serum antibody titre ? 1:40). The corresponding prevalence was 15.7% among the specimens collected in August. The difference indicated a cumulative incidence of 8.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2%–13.7%). The rate differed geographically, the highest being in the northern regions (20.8%, 95% CI 7.9%–31.8%), as compared with 4.0% (95% CI 0.0%–11.9%) in Winnipeg and 8.9% (95% CI 0.0%–18.8%) in the rest of the province. Interpretation We estimated that the cumulative incidence of pandemic (H1N1) influenza among pregnant women in Manitoba during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic was 8.6%. It was 20.8% in the northern regions of the province. PMID:20823167

  16. PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    . Acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol) and/or ibuprofen (e.g. Motrin) for fever and body aches 3. Hand sanitizer (at least sanitizer, acetaminophen, cough syrup, and throat lozenges. These are also located at the Sandburg Emporium, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. · Practice good hand hygiene; wash your hands often with soap and water and/or use

  17. Flu Preparations Underscore Schools' Key Role in Vaccinations: Research Confirms Exemptions Lead to Higher Disease Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of each school year, the school-nurse coordinator for the 3,000-student Ashland, Oregon, district plans a "parent's night" around the topic of vaccinations for the safety and health of children. That is only the beginning of the school-nurse coordinator's contact with parents who are skeptical about the necessity of immunizations,…

  18. Can movie theater advertisements promote health behaviors? Evaluation of a flu vaccination pilot campaign.

    PubMed

    Peddecord, K Michael; Jacobson, Isabel Gomez; Engelberg, Moshe; Kwizera, Lisa; Macias, Violet; Gustafson, Kathleen W

    2008-09-01

    As part of a multimedia campaign to promote annual influenza vaccination, three slides were shown as part of the slide show of advertisements prior to the beginning of previews in movie theaters in San Diego County. Intercept surveys were conducted following the movie. The primary target groups for the campaign were adults with children 6 months to 2 years of age and adults over 50 years of age. Overall, 88% of exposed patrons reported seeing some type of movie ad. Among those who recalled any ad, 24% recalled the flu advertisement. In contrast, recall of flu-related news coverage was high, with over 95% of exposed and comparison interviewees recalling news stories during the campaign period. While 56% of those interviewed remembered one or more specific flu-related news items, individuals within this group who also had also been exposed to the movie ads were not more likely to recall flu campaign advertisements. We describe a method for estimating valid recalls and cost per valid exposure. Further research that compares movie ads with public service announcements (PSAs) in other venues is necessary to solidify our conclusions that movie advertising is a highly cost-effective medium for health communication. PMID:18726815

  19. Vol 440|2 March 2006 With avian flu spreading around the world at a

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    such as H5N1 when outbreaks occur, says Roeder. He points out that misdiagnosis of H5N1 as Newcastle disease, scientists are welcoming an international proposal for state-of-the-art labs to monitor emerging diseases a radical rethink of the world's veterinary and disease-surveillance systems. Avian flu is now endemic

  20. Reducing antibiotics for colds and flu: a student-taught program.

    PubMed

    Cebotarenco, Natalia; Bush, Patricia J

    2008-02-01

    A student peer-taught program, to decrease antibiotic use for colds and flu, was developed and implemented in one school district (21 schools) in Chisinau, Moldova, in 2003-04. A second district (20 schools) served as the control (C). Students (12-13 years) and adults most responsible for the family's health care completed surveys in March pre-post intervention. The surveys determined the reported incidence of colds and flu during the past winter, treatment, beliefs about cause and usefulness of antibiotics. The intervention included peer-education sessions, parents' meetings, booklet, vignette video, newsletters, poster and poster contest. The intervention also provided basic information on appropriate use of medicines. Pre-post intervention survey results indicated that the intervention was successful. Adjusted for Cs, students who reported they did not treat colds or flu with antibiotics increased 33.7%; the comparable increase for adults was 38.0%. Adjusted for Cs, intervention students who did not know if they had used an antibiotic decreased 15.1% and for intervention adults the comparable decrease was 5.0%. All relative responses related to beliefs about the cause of colds and flu and the usefulness of antibiotics to treat them changed in a positive direction. In all groups, beliefs and behaviors relative to antibiotic use were related. PMID:17363360

  1. Students experiencing flu-like symptoms, such as fever with cough and/or sore throat,

    E-print Network

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    Students experiencing flu-like symptoms, such as fever with cough and/or sore throat, should fever is gone (fever should be gone without the use of a fever- reducing medicine). Stay away from chills. If you have a high or persistent fever. If you have a severe headache. If you can't hold down

  2. FluPhone Study: Virtual Disease Spread using Haggle Eiko Yoneki

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    are experimented using various phones rang- ing Java phones to Android phones. FluPhone uses Pocket Switched of contacts between different people (i.e. similar to the idea of how many steps we are away from a particular person). One way to measure this is to record how often different people (who may not know each other

  3. Preparedness for a smallpox pandemic in Japan: public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Matsukuma, Susumu; Matsumura, Takuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Saito, Tomoya

    2015-04-01

    Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of thismonumental eradication. Although smallpox remains fully eradicated, uncertainty exists regarding the possibility of recurrent smallpox outbreaks. At the end of the Cold War, concerns regarding unstable international security and the feasibility of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction have been highlighted. The potential threat of intentional release of smallpox has forced regional health authorities to reconsider their political landscape and create preparedness plans to protect the community in the event of biological attacks. Here we present current countermeasures to this biological threat in Japan and discuss methods for strengthening public health preparedness both domestically and internationally. These methods include infection control, vaccination policy, and international partnerships to help deter or contain a contagious smallpox pandemic. PMID:26060873

  4. The ENSO-pandemic influenza connection: coincident or causal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Lipsitch, M.

    2011-12-01

    The El Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific, which affects weather conditions, including temperatures, precipitation, winds and storm activity, across the planet. ENSO has two extreme phases marked by either warmer (El Nińo) or cooler (La Nińa) than average sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific. We find that the 4 most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Nińa conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in ENSO have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Nińa conditions bring divergent influenza subtypes together in some parts of the world and favor the reassortment of influenza through simultaneous multiple infection of individual hosts and the generation of novel pandemic strains. We propose approaches to test this hypothesis using influenza population genetics, virus prevalence in various host species, and avian migration patterns.

  5. Evidence-based medicine and the governance of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Kamradt-Scott, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The conventional response of governments to protect their populations against the threat of influenza has been to ensure adequate vaccine production and/or access to supplies of vaccines and antiviral medications. This focus has, in turn, shaped the global governance structures around pandemic influenza, with collective efforts centred on facilitating virus sharing, maintaining and increasing vaccine production, and ensuring access to pharmaceuticals - responses that remain unattainable for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the short to medium term. This paper argues that this emphasis on pharmacological responses reflects a particular view of biomedicine that pays inadequate attention to the weak capacity of many health systems. In more recent years, this dynamic has been further exacerbated by the influence of evidence-based medicine (EBM) that preferences certain types of biomedical knowledge and practice. This paper explores the role that EBM has played in shaping the global governance of pandemic influenza, and how it has served to reinforce and reify the authority of particular groups of actors, including policy-makers, elected officials and the medical community. The paper concludes that only by unpacking these structures and revealing the political authority in play can alternative policy responses more appropriate to LMICs be considered. PMID:23030841

  6. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines for pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    López-Macías, Constantino

    2012-01-01

    The influenza pandemic of 2009 demonstrated the inability of the established global capacity for egg-based vaccine production technology to provide sufficient vaccine for the population in a timely fashion. Several alternative technologies for developing influenza vaccines have been proposed, among which non-replicating virus-like particles (VLPs) represent an attractive option because of their safety and immunogenic characteristics. VLP vaccines against pandemic influenza have been developed in tobacco plant cells and in Sf9 insect cells infected with baculovirus that expresses protein genes from pandemic influenza strains. These technologies allow rapid and large-scale production of vaccines (3–12 weeks). The 2009 influenza outbreak provided an opportunity for clinical testing of a pandemic influenza VLP vaccine in the midst of the outbreak at its epicenter in Mexico. An influenza A(H1N1)2009 VLP pandemic vaccine (produced in insect cells) was tested in a phase II clinical trial involving 4,563 healthy adults. Results showed that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic despite high preexisting anti-A(H1N1)2009 antibody titers present in the population. The safety and immunogenicity profile presented by this pandemic VLP vaccine during the outbreak in Mexico suggests that VLP technology is a suitable alternative to current influenza vaccine technologies for producing pandemic and seasonal vaccines. PMID:22330956

  7. Pathogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Immunocompromised Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus spread throughout the world since most people did not have immunity against the virus. In the post pandemic phase when many humans might possess immunity against the pandemic virus, one of the concerns is infection in immunocompromised people. Therefore, we used an immunosuppressed macaque model to examine pathogenicity of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus under an immunocompromised condition. The virus in nasal samples of immunosuppressed macaques infected with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected longer after infection than was the virus in nasal samples of immunocompetent macaques. As expected, not only virus amounts but also virus propagation sites in the immunosuppressed macaques were larger than those in lungs of the immunocompetent macaques when they were infected with the pandemic virus. Immunosuppressed macaques possessed low levels of immune cells producing cytokines and chemokines, but levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokine interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in lungs of the immunosuppressed macaques were higher than those in lungs of the immunocompetent macaques, though the differences were not statistically significant. Therefore, under an immunosuppressive condition, the pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus might cause more severe morbidity with high cytokine/chemokine production by the host innate immune system than that seen in macaques under the immunocompetent condition. PMID:24086663

  8. Library of influenza virus strains for vaccine and diagnostic use against highly pathogenic avian influenza and human pandemics.

    PubMed

    Kida, H; Sakoda, Y

    2006-01-01

    To prepare for the emergence of pandemic influenza in birds and mammals including humans, we have carried out global surveillance of avian influenza. Influenza A viruses of 48 combinations of 15 HA and 9 NA subtypes out of 135 theoretical combinations have been isolated from faecal samples of ducks in Alaska, Siberia, Mongolia, Taiwan, China and Japan. So far, viruses of 73 other combinations have been generated by genetic reassortment in chicken embryos. Thus, avian influenza viruses of 121 combinations of HA and NA subtypes have been stocked for use in vaccine and diagnosis. Their pathogenicity, antigenicity, genetic information, and yield in chicken embryo have been analysed and registered in the database. PMID:16447496

  9. Economic consequences to society of pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009 - preliminary results for Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, L; Cakici, B; Camitz, M; Tegnell, A; Boman, M

    2009-09-17

    Experiments using a microsimulation platform show that vaccination against pandemic H1N1 influenza is highly cost-effective. Swedish society may reduce the costs of pandemic by about SEK 2.5 billion (approximately EUR 250 million) if at least 60 per cent of the population is vaccinated, even if costs related to death cases are excluded. The cost reduction primarily results from reduced absenteeism. These results are preliminary and based on comprehensive assumptions about the infectiousness and morbidity of the pandemic, which are uncertain in the current situation. PMID:19761738

  10. Committee opinion: no. 563: ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant women traditionally have been assigned priority in the allocation of prevention and treatment resources during outbreaks of influenza because of their increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists explores ethical justifications for assigning priority for prevention and treatment resources to pregnant women during an influenza pandemic, makes recommendations to incorporate ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women, and calls for pandemic preparedness efforts to include clinical research specifically designed to address safety and efficacy of treatment interventions or prevention strategies used by pregnant women. PMID:23635767

  11. Emergency Department Visits for Antiviral Adverse Events During the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Lovegrove, Maribeth C.; Shehab, Nadine; Hales, Craig M.; Poneleit, Kathy; Crane, Elizabeth; Budnitz, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak was associated with an increased use of antiviral agents and highlighted the role of population-based monitoring for related adverse drug events (ADEs). An ongoing, nationally representative emergency department-based surveillance system was used to identify and characterize ADEs during the pandemic. Active surveillance for ADEs successfully provided timely, population-based data during the pandemic. Increases in antiviral ADEs paralleled increases in prescribing. Type and severity of ADEs were similar across all seasons. PMID:21553658

  12. The challenge of providing the public with actionable information during a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Leslie E

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of media reporting on the H1N1 vaccine during the 2009 pandemic reveals a dissonance between the nature and content of the reporting, the government's messages, and the public's perceptions of vaccine safety and desirability. Despite careful attention to history and especially the lessons offered by Richard Neustadt and Harvey Fineberg in their study of the 1976 "Epidemic that Never Was," government officials failed to escape criticism for decisions made and actions taken in the midst of the unfolding contagion threat. Moreover, public opinion polls show that substantial portions of the population failed to hear, believe, or heed the government's messages. Looking at the enduring narrative of the government's vaccine efforts through the lens of newspaper reports exposes six points of distortion. These points - the pervasive uncertainty inherent in a novel contagion; advances in information technology and electronic communications; the new news environment; the political polarization of American society; the infrastructure of the American public health system; and the oddities of public health emergency and vaccination injury compensation laws - interfered with the public's reception of the government's message and infected the public's perception of government veracity and leadership capability. They challenge us to consider whether current planning is sufficient to prepare Americans to respond effectively to a lives-threatening national crisis. If we are to ensure that the public receives and recognizes accurate and actionable information essential for the prevention or containment of a deadly contagion, we will need to understand and address the impact of these distorting forces. PMID:23061590

  13. Cyclic variations in the dynamics of flu incidence in Azerbaijan, 1976-2000.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, B D; Babayev, E S

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in influenza (flu) incidence had been observed in various countries (e.g. periods T = 1, 2-3, 5-6, 8·0, 10·6-11·3, 13, 18-19 years) and its close similarity with cycles in natural environmental phenomena as meteorological factors and heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested. This report aimed at verifying previous results on cyclic patterns of flu incidence by exploring whether flu annual cyclicity (seasonality) and trans-year (13 to <24 months) and/or multiannual (long-term, ?24 months) cycles might be present. For this purpose, a relatively long monthly flu incidence dataset consisting of absolute numbers of new cases from the Grand Baku area, Azerbaijan, for the years 1976-2000 (300 months) was analysed. The exploration of underlying chronomes or, time structures, was done by linear and nonlinear parametric regression models, autocorrelation, spectral analysis and periodogram regression analysis. We analysed temporal dynamics and described multicomponent cyclicity, determining its statistical significance. The analysis, considering the flu data specifically stratified in three distinct intervals (1976-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000), and also combinations thereof, indicated that the main cyclic pattern was a seasonal one, with a period of T = 12 months. Further, a number of multiannual cycles with periods T in the ranges of 26-36, 62-85 or 113-162 months were observed, i.e. average periods of 2·5, 6·1 and 11·5 years, respectively. Indeed, most of these cycles correspond to similar cyclic parameters of HGA and further analyses are warranted to investigate such relationships. In conclusion, our study revealed the presence of multicomponent cyclic dynamics in influenza incidence by using relatively long time-series of monthly data. The specific cyclic patterns of flu incidence in Azerbaijan allows further, more specific modelling and correlations with environmental factors of similar cyclicity, e.g. HGA, to be explored. These results might contribute more widely to a better understanding of influenza dynamics and its aetiology as well as to the derivation of more precise forecasted estimates for planning and prevention purposes. PMID:24641968

  14. Pig producers' perceptions of the Influenza Pandemic H1N1/09 outbreak and its effect on their biosecurity practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Taylor, Melanie; Holyoake, Patricia; Dhand, Navneet

    2012-10-01

    The Influenza Pandemic (H1N1/09) virus was first reported in humans in Mexico in April 2009 and a pandemic level was declared on 11th of June 2009 by the World Health Organization (Chan, 2009; WHO, 2009a). Public misconceptions about the transmission of H1N1/09 were caused by the inadequate naming of the disease as 'swine influenza'. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the height of the outbreak in the Australian human population and before the virus was reported in the first piggery in Australia in July 2009 (OIE, 2009b; Holyoake et al., 2011). The aims of this study were to evaluate pig producers' perceptions about the virus and the outbreak financial impact and influence on on-farm biosecurity practices. A questionnaire was designed and posted to Australian Pork Limited (APL) members (n=460), obtaining responses from 182 producers (39.6%). Pig producers had good general knowledge on potential transmission pathways for H1N1/09 between people, with direct or close contact with a sick person perceived as the most likely pathways. Changes on biosecurity practices, such as asking visitors if they had recently been overseas (27.8%) and not allowing any visitor to inspect their pigs (18.3%), were reported among respondents. In addition, approximately 40% of producers asked their employees to notify flu like symptoms, consulted a veterinarian on H1N1/09 and visited websites to seek information on H1N1/09. A higher adoption of these practices was observed among large (>100 sows) than small herds. Only 2.9% of respondents reported a reduction in pig sales during the outbreak. However, approximately one third of producers reported being financially and emotionally stressed, 38.2% were distressed about the health of their pigs and 16.7% about their own health. The most important sources of information were APL (93%), veterinarians (89%) and the state Department of Primary Industries (DPI) (75%). The first two considered the most trusted sources of information. Television, radio and other farmers were considered more important sources of information by small herds and veterinarians by larger herds. Producers believed that the H1N1/09 outbreak was better managed by the pork industry (89.9%) than by the health authorities (58.8%), and the on-going communication with APL was the main strength of the outbreak management. Communication and extension programs in future outbreaks should consider the needs of all sectors of the pig industry to increase their effectiveness. PMID:22487168

  15. VirSim - a Model to Support Pandemic Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Fasth, Tobias; Ihlar, Marcus; Brouwers, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model called VirSim was developed to aid policy making in Sweden. The model simulates the spread of pandemic influenza, using real population data on a national and regional level. Swedish authorities wanted a model that was both quick to run and to implement as a complement to the existing model MicroSim. The possibility to interactively investigate the effect of varying different assumptions was an important aspect. The VirSim model proved useful for comparing different interventions strategies, and for forecasting the societal burden in terms of hospitalization and workplace absenteeism. This paper points out the usefulness of System Dynamics models in public policy making, as a complement to more detailed and time-consuming models. PMID:20877457

  16. A model for HIV/AIDS pandemic with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is pandemic. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in 1981 to date. In this paper basic deterministic HIV/AIDS model with mass action incidence function are developed. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter (RO) value is less than one, and unstable otherwise. The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results.

  17. Pandemic influenza preparedness and response among immigrants and refugees.

    PubMed

    Truman, Benedict I; Tinker, Timothy; Vaughan, Elaine; Kapella, Bryan K; Brenden, Marta; Woznica, Celine V; Rios, Elena; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2009-10-01

    Some immigrants and refugees might be more vulnerable than other groups to pandemic influenza because of preexisting health and social disparities, migration history, and living conditions in the United States. Vulnerable populations and their service providers need information to overcome limited resources, inaccessible health services, limited English proficiency and foreign language barriers, cross-cultural misunderstanding, and inexperience applying recommended guidelines. To increase the utility of guidelines, we searched the literature, synthesized relevant findings, and examined their implications for vulnerable populations and stakeholders. Here we summarize advice from an expert panel of public health scientists and service program managers who attended a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008, in Atlanta, Georgia. PMID:19461109

  18. Local public health workers' perceptions toward responding to an influenza pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ran D. Balicer; Saad B. Omer; Daniel J. Barnett; George S. Everly Jr

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current national preparedness plans require local health departments to play an integral role in responding to an influenza pandemic, a major public health threat that the World Health Organization has described as \\

  19. Modeling and responding to pandemic influenza : importance of population distributional attributes and non-pharmaceutical interventions

    E-print Network

    Nigmatulina, Karima Robert

    2009-01-01

    After reviewing prevalent approaches to the modeling pandemic influenza transmission, we present a simple distributional model that captures the most significant population attributes that alter the dynamics of the outbreak. ...

  20. [Pandemic influenza vaccines. Concepts, European mock-up licenses, and acceptance criteria].

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, M

    2010-12-01

    The concept of identifying appropriate scientific and regulatory principles to ensure rapid availability of pandemic influenza vaccines when needed were already developed starting in the year 2003. These principles allowed licensing of three so-called mock-up vaccines far ahead of any real presenting pandemic event. Those licenses (Marketing Authorizations) were immediately adapted to the novel H1N1 strain shortly after its identification in April 2009 ensuring that as early as September 2009 large parts of the German as well as of the EU population had access to licensed products which had undergone sufficient evaluation before first use in humans. In contrast, for pandemic vaccine concepts without a previously licensed mock-up version it generally took twice as much time to accumulate data supporting the granting of a Marketing Authorization. This article describes in detail the translation of concepts of producing, testing, and licensing of pandemic influenza vaccines into practice under real conditions. PMID:21161474

  1. Brigantic et al. Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Ross

    Katrina in 2005, and the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, have all called for rapid response and mitigation to demonstrate and forecast the potential magnitude of a pandemic, as well as the number of infected individuals

  2. Discovery and characterization of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus in historical context

    PubMed Central

    Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Hultin, Johan V; Morens, David M

    2008-01-01

    The 2005 completion of the entire genome sequence of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus represents both a beginning and an end. Investigators have already begun to study the virus in vitro and in vivo to better understand its properties, pathogenicity, transmissibility and elicitation of host responses. Although this is an exciting new beginning, characterization of the 1918 virus also represents the culmination of over a century of scientific research aiming to understand the causes of pandemic influenza. In this brief review we attempt to place in historical context the identification and sequencing of the 1918 virus, including the alleged discovery of a bacterial cause of influenza during the 1889–1893 pandemic, the controversial detection of ‘filter-passing agents’ during the 1918–1919 pandemic, and subsequent breakthroughs in the 1930s that led to isolation of human and swine influenza viruses, greatly influencing the development of modern virology. PMID:17944266

  3. Seroepidemiology of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infections in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In India, Pune was one of the badly affected cities during the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic. We undertook serosurveys among the risk groups and general population to determine the extent of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infections. Methods Pre-pandemic sera from the archives, collected during January 2005 to March 2009, were assayed for the determination of baseline seropositivity. Serosurveys were undertaken among the risk groups such as hospital staff, general practitioners, school children and staff and general population between 15th August and 11th December 2009. In addition, the PCR-confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 cases and their household contacts were also investigated. Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays were performed using turkey red blood cells employing standard protocols. A titre of ?1:40 was considered seropositive. Results Only 2 (0.9%) of the 222 pre-pandemic sera were positive. The test-retest reliability of HI assay in 101 sera was 98% for pandemic H1N1, 93.1% for seasonal H1N1 and 94% for seasonal H3N2. The sera from 48 (73.8%) of 65 PCR-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases in 2009 were positive. Seropositivity among general practitioners increased from 4.9% in August to 9.4% in November and 15.1% in December. Among hospital staff, seropositivity increased from 2.8% in August to 12% in November. Seropositivity among the schools increased from 2% in August to 10.7% in September. The seropositivity among students (25%) was higher than the school staff in September. In a general population survey in October 2009, seropositivity was higher in children (9.1%) than adults (4.3%). The 15-19 years age group showed the highest seropositivity of 20.3%. Seropositivity of seasonal H3N2 (55.3%) and H1N1 (26.4%) was higher than pandemic H1N1 (5.7%) (n = 2328). In households of 74 PCR-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases, 25.6% contacts were seropositive. Almost 90% pandemic H1N1 infections were asymptomatic or mild. Considering a titre cut off of 1:10, seropositivity was 1.5-3 times as compared to 1:40. Conclusions Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection was widespread in all sections of community. However, infection was significantly higher in school children and general practitioners. Hospital staff had the lowest infections suggesting the efficacy of infection-control measures. PMID:20738878

  4. Pandemic versus Epidemic Influenza Mortality: A Pattern of Changing Age Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lone Simonsen; Matthew J. Clarke; Lawrence B. Schonberger; Nancy H. Arden; Nancy J. Cox; Keiji Fukuda

    1998-01-01

    Almost all deaths related to current influenza epidemics occur among the elderly. However, mortality was greatest among the young during the 1918-1919 pandemic. This study compared the age distribution of influenza-related deaths in the United States during this century's three influenza A pandemics with that of the following epidemics. Half of influenza-related deaths during the 1968- 1969 influenza A (H3N2)

  5. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Hajj Pilgrims who received Predeparture Vaccination, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Amr; Deming, Michael; Elkreem, Eman Abd; El-Refay, Samir; Afifi, Salma; Abukela, Mohammed; Earhart, Kenneth; El-Sayed, Nasr; El-Gabay, Hatem

    2011-07-01

    In Egypt, vaccination against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was required of pilgrims departing for the 2009 Hajj. A survey of 551 pilgrims as they returned to Egypt found 542 (98.1% [weighted]) reported receiving the vaccine; 6 (1.0% [weighted]) were infected with influenza virus A (H3N2) but none with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. PMID:21762583

  6. Response to the 2009 pandemic: effect on influenza control in wealthy and poor countries.

    PubMed

    Monto, Arnold S; Black, Steven; Plotkin, Stanley A; Orenstein, Walter A

    2011-09-01

    The declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) that appearance of a swine-origin novel influenza virus in 2009 represented a pandemic was based on previously adopted guidelines and the new International Health Regulations. Severity of the pandemic was not part of the definition used, but it was stated to be less than severe at the time of declaration. It was necessary, when there was still uncertainty about the overall impact of the pandemic, for vaccine production to begin to have timely availability. Countries arranged to have vaccine for their populations, and WHO attempted to secure supplies for under-resourced countries. The world had been concerned that the next pandemic might be a severe one, based on the specter of avian influenza with a case fatality of up to 80% in humans. After it was clear that the 2009 pandemic was not severe, there were accusations, especially in Europe, that countries had secured vaccine supplies mainly to benefit the manufacturers. Such charges, even when refuted, may undermine public confidence in the process which assures vaccine supply and availability of vaccine for seasonal use. Production of pandemic vaccine is conditioned on the supply of seasonal influenza vaccine; it is unrealistic to expect vaccine to be available for pandemic use when none is used for seasonal influenza. This particularly applies to poorer counties. They have traditionally not recognized that influenza is a problem, although this attitude is changing. As we go forward, we need to keep in mind the global nature of the threat of influenza. Had the 2009 pandemic been more severe, demand would have been greater and poorer counties would have had little vaccine to meet their needs. Only by taking a broad view of influenza on an annual basis can vaccine supplies be ensured for all countries of the world. PMID:21763381

  7. Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, L; La Ruche, G; Tarantola, A; Barboza, P

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the characteristics of 574 deaths associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza up to 16 July 2009. Data (except from Canada and Australia) suggest that the elderly may to some extent be protected from infection. There was underlying disease in at least half of the fatal cases. Two risk factors seem of particular importance: pregnancy and metabolic condition (including obesity which has not been considered as risk factor in previous pandemics or seasonal influenza). PMID:19712643

  8. Was Mandatory Quarantine Necessary in China for Controlling the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhai; Geng, Wenjun; Tian, Huidong; Lai, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government enforced mandatory quarantine for 60 days (from 10 May to 8 July 2009) as a preventative strategy to control the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Such a prevention strategy was stricter than other non-pharmaceutical interventions that were carried out in many other countries. We evaluated the effectiveness of the mandatory quarantine and provide suggestions for interventions against possible future influenza pandemics. We selected one city, Beijing, as the analysis target. We reviewed the epidemiologic dynamics of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the implementation of quarantine measures in Beijing. The infectious population was simulated under two scenarios (quarantined and not quarantined) using a deterministic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. The basic reproduction number R0 was adjusted to match the epidemic wave in Beijing. We found that mandatory quarantine served to postpone the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Beijing by one and a half months. If mandatory quarantine was not enforced in Beijing, the infectious population could have reached 1,553 by 21 October, i.e., 5.6 times higher than the observed number. When the cost of quarantine is taken into account, mandatory quarantine was not an economically effective intervention approach against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We suggest adopting mitigation methods for an influenza pandemic with low mortality and morbidity. PMID:24084677

  9. Decentralized molecular diagnostic testing plan for pandemic influenza in the Ontario Public Health Laboratory system.

    PubMed

    Drews, Steven J; Majury, Anna; Jamieson, Frances; Riley, Garth; Mazzulli, Tony; Low, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Public Health Laboratories system (OPHL) is in the midst of a six-year plan to implement molecular tools for pandemic influenza diagnostics in one central and three regional public health laboratories. This plan has been formulated as a consequence of: (1) experiences gained through severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and comments of the members of the Expert Panel on SARS and Infectious Disease Control (i.e., the Walker report); (2) a review of pandemic preparedness literature; (3) historical and epidemiologic discussions about previous pandemics; and (4) suggestions made by various pandemic working committees. The OPHL plan includes: (1) an aggressive restructuring of the overall molecular microbiology testing capacity of the OPHL; (2) the ability to shift influenza testing of samples between designated OPHL laboratories; and (3) the development of screening tools for pandemic influenza diagnostic tests. The authors believe that investing in increased molecular testing capacity for regional laboratories outside the greater Toronto area will be beneficial to the OPHL system whether or not an influenza pandemic occurs. Well-trained technologists and microbiologists, and the introduction of new technologies, will facilitate the development of a wide variety of molecular tests for other infectious diseases at public health laboratories geographically distant from Toronto, thus enhancing overall laboratory testing capacity in the province of Ontario. PMID:19009922

  10. Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Kristina A.; Garcia, Katherine; Kelly, Heath A.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case–control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%–93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant protection against laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection. PMID:21762570

  11. The Social Determinants of Health and Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lowcock, Elizabeth C.; Rosella, Laura C.; Foisy, Julie; McGeer, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the effects of social determinants of health on pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza severity and the role of clinical risk factors in mediating such associations. Methods. We used multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to examine the associations between individual- and ecological-level social determinants of health and hospitalization for pandemic H1N1 2009 illness in a case-control study in Ontario, Canada. Results. During the first pandemic phase (April 23–July 20, 2009), hospitalization was associated with having a high school education or less and living in a neighborhood with high material or total deprivation. We also observed the association with education in the second phase (August 1–November 6, 2009). Clinical risk factors for severe pandemic H1N1 2009 illness mediated approximately 39% of the observed association. Conclusions. The main clinical risk factors for severe pandemic H1N1 2009 illness explain only a portion of the associations observed between social determinants of health and hospitalization, suggesting that the means by which the social determinants of health affect pandemic H1N1 2009 outcomes extend beyond clinically recognized risk factors. PMID:22698024

  12. A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members’ suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n?=?13), unstructured interviews (n?=?4), and meetings (n?=?27)) were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc.) involved in the community’s pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. Results The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, ‘supplies’ emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible for implementing recommendations outlined in the pandemic plans. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of the involved organizations were further clarified. Conclusions Our results illustrate the importance of engaging the public, especially First Nations, in pandemic planning to address local perspectives. The community engagement process used was successful in incorporating community-based input to create up-to-date and culturally-appropriate community-level pandemic plans. Since these pandemic plans are dynamic in nature, we recommend that the plans are continuously updated to address the communities’ evolving needs. It is hoped that these modified plans will lead to an improved pandemic response capacity and health outcomes, during the next public health emergency, for these remote and isolated First Nations communities. Furthermore, the suggested modifications presented in this paper may help inform updates to the community-level pandemic plans of other similar communities. PMID:22472012

  13. Chimpanzee deaths at Mahale caused by a flu-like disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunkichi Hanamura; Mieko Kiyono; Magdalena Lukasik-Braum; Titus Mlengeya; Mariko Fujimoto; Michio Nakamura; Toshisada Nishida

    2008-01-01

    A flu-like disease spread among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the M group at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, from June to July 2006. This epizootic or epidemic killed up\\u000a to 12 chimpanzees. The obvious evidence of their deaths came from finding the bodies of three infants who had previously shown\\u000a some symptoms of the disease. At least one of

  14. Reducing antibiotics for colds and flu: a student-taught program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Cebotarenco; Patricia J. Bush

    2008-01-01

    A student peer-taught program, to decrease antibiotic use for colds and flu, was developed and implemented in one school district (21 schools) in Chisinau, Moldova, in 2003-04. A second district (20 schools) served as the control (C). Students (12-13 years) and adults most re- sponsible for the family's health care completed surveys in March pre-post intervention. The surveys determined the

  15. Swine flu virus H1N1: a threat to human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirti Kumari; Pooja Sharma; Rup Lal

    2009-01-01

    The sudden outburst of headlines fl ashing news about Infl uenza-A virus H1N1, causing “Swine Flu” since April this year prompts us to think yet again, what makes a virus seek alternate hosts? Is it nature’s way of making humans realise of the atrocities they subject on farm animals-rearing them in confi nement, fattening and killing them for mass production?

  16. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and other respiratory pathogens: clinical insights - from epidemiology to treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Smit

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains clinical studies on 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and other respiratory pathogens. Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2 comprises three studies on epidemiology. The first describes epidemiological characteristics of 964 adult outpatients who presented with influenza-like signs and symptoms during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Respiratory pathogens were detected in 41% and pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

  17. Increased prevalence of a rare mutant of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in a Eurasian region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Ting Yang; Zhao-Guo Wang; Shan-Peng Li; Xiao-Lin Liu; Ying Yi; Yu Yang; Ping Yu; Ji-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus sparked an influenza pandemic. The emergence of mutations in the viral genome is therefore of ongoing concern. In this study, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of 3444 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses reported to the GenBank database and the sequences of 48 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses detected in the Chinese city of Qingdao

  18. Influenza and Pneumonia Mortality in 66 Large Cities in the United States in Years Surrounding the 1918 Pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo Acuna-Soto; Cécile Viboud; Gerardo Chowell

    2011-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic was a major epidemiological event of the twentieth century resulting in at least twenty million deaths worldwide; however, despite its historical, epidemiological, and biological relevance, it remains poorly understood. Here we examine the relationship between annual pneumonia and influenza death rates in the pre-pandemic (1910–17) and pandemic (1918–20) periods and the scaling of mortality with latitude,

  19. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    PubMed

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise regarding whether agriculture sectoral policy is coherent with public health sectoral policy across the region. PMID:21859775

  20. Adoption of preventive behaviors in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: a multiethnic perspective

    PubMed Central

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Kang, Minah; Ward, Johanna R M; Kahn, Emily B; Maddox, Kathryn EW; Lubell, Keri M; Tucker, Myra; Ben-Porath, Eran N

    2015-01-01

    Background As public health leaders prepare for possible future influenza pandemics, the rapid spread of 2009 H1N1 influenza highlights the need to focus on measures the public can adopt to help slow disease transmission. Such measures may relate to hygiene (e.g., hand washing), social distancing (e.g., avoiding places where many people gather), and pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., vaccination). Given the disproportionate impact of public health emergencies on minority communities in the United States, it is important to understand whether there are differences in acceptance across racial/ethnic groups that could lead to targeted and more effective policies and communications. Objectives This study explores racial/ethnic differences in the adoption of preventive behaviors during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Patients/Methods Data are from a national telephone poll conducted March 17 to April 11, 2010, among a representative sample of 1123 white, 330 African American, 317 Hispanic, 268 Asian, and 262 American Indian/Alaska Native adults in the USA. Results People in at least one racial/ethnic minority group were more likely than whites to adopt several behaviors related to hygiene, social distancing, and healthcare access, including increased hand washing and talking with a healthcare provider (P-values <0·05). Exceptions included avoiding others with influenza-like illnesses and receiving 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccinations. After we controlled the data for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, healthcare access, and illness- and vaccine-related attitudes, nearly all racial/ethnic differences in behaviors persisted. Conclusions Minority groups appear to be receptive to several preventive behaviors, but barriers to vaccination are more pervasive. PMID:25688806

  1. The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 in Sri Lanka: its demographic cost, timing, and propagation

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Siddharth; Sarathchandra, Dilshani

    2014-01-01

    Background As an island and a former British colony, Sri Lanka is a case of special interest for the study of 1918–1919 influenza pandemic because of its potential for isolation from as well as integration into the world epidemiologic system. Objectives To estimate population loss attributable to the influenza pandemic and weekly district-level excess mortality from the pandemic to analyze its spread across the island. Methods To measure population loss, we estimated a population growth model using a panel of 100 district-level observations on population for five consecutive censuses from 1891 to 1931, allowing for a one-time drop in population in 1918–1919. To estimate weekly excess mortality from the pandemic, we estimated a seasonally adjusted weekly time series of district-specific mortality estimates from vital registration records, ranked them, and plotted the ranks on weekly maps to create a picture of the geographic pattern of propagation across Sri Lanka. Results Total loss of population from the influenza pandemic was 307 000 or approximately 6·7% of the population. The pandemic peaked in two discrete (northern and southern) regions in early October of 1918 and in a third (central) region in early March 1919. Conclusions The population loss estimate is significantly higher than earlier estimates of mortality from the pandemic in Sri Lanka, suggesting underreporting of influenza-attributable deaths and a role for influenza-related fertility declines. The spatial pattern of peak mortality indicates the presence of two distinct entry points and three distinct epidemiologic regions, defined by population density and ethnicity, in colonial Sri Lanka. PMID:24612961

  2. Effect of D222G Mutation in the Hemagglutinin Protein on Receptor Binding, Pathogenesis and Transmissibility of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    E-print Network

    Belser, Jessica A.

    Influenza viruses isolated during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic generally lack known molecular determinants of virulence associated with previous pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The frequency of the amino ...

  3. [Novel influenza H1N1 pandemic: lesson learned].

    PubMed

    Omi, Shigeru

    2010-09-01

    The efforts made by the government of Japan and its people to prevent and control the spread of the disease and to limit its health impact had three major characteristics: (1) Suspension of schools in wide geographical areas particularly at the early stage of the outbreak. (2) High proportion of the infected persons who were given antiviral drugs. (3) High level of public awareness and personal hygiene such as regular hand washing. Although more research needs to be done, it seems fair to say that the three characteristics mentioned above contributed to Japan's globally one of the lowest mortality rate associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Nonetheless, in the process of implementing prevention and control measures, the following four major lessons have been learned: (1) At the early stage of the outbreak, when the epidemiological information by definition is limited, control measures have to be based upon the worst case scenario. And as more information becomes available, measures have to be adjusted accordingly. (2) Risk communication is certainly one of the areas where more improvement have to be made, because some key messages did not reach the general public in a timely and accurate manner. (3) Essential is the development of "situation-based" intervention strategies, which take into consideration both infectivity and health impact such as mortality rate. (4) Decision making process is another area where there is more room for improvement, for example, clarification has to be made as to who are responsible for what. PMID:20845734

  4. Novel Origin of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ann H.; Fanning, Thomas G.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Lourens, Raina M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2004-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the 1918 pandemic influenza A virus has been amplified and sequenced from archival material. The NP gene is known to be involved in many aspects of viral function and to interact with host proteins, thereby playing a role in host specificity. The 1918 NP amino acid sequence differs at only six amino acids from avian consensus sequences, consistent with reassortment from an avian source shortly before 1918. However, the nucleotide sequence of the 1918 NP gene has more than 170 differences from avian strain consensus sequences, suggesting substantial evolutionary distance from known avian strain sequences. Both the gene and protein sequences of the 1918 NP fall within the mammalian clade upon phylogenetic analysis. The evolutionary distance of the 1918 NP sequences from avian and mammalian strain sequences is examined, using several different parameters. The results suggest that the 1918 strain did not retain the previously circulating human NP. Nor is it likely to have obtained its NP by reassortment with an avian strain similar to those now characterized. The results are consistent with the existence of a currently unknown host for influenza, with an NP similar to current avian strain NPs at the amino acid level but with many synonymous nucleotide differences, suggesting evolutionary isolation from the currently characterized avian influenza virus gene pool. PMID:15507633

  5. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    Influenza (flu) is caused by a highly contagious virus that is spread by coughs and sneezes. Flu symptoms include high fever, chills and sweating, sore throat, weakness, headache, muscle and joint pains, and cough. Older people and those with an underlying medical condition are more likely to develop serious complications, including secondary bacterial pneumonia, primary influenza pneumonia, and inflammation of the brain or heart. There are three types of flu virus: A, B, and C. The flu virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This allows it to escape recognition by the body's immune system and cause widespread illness (epidemics and pandemics). Most cases of influenza occur within a 6- to 8-week period during winter and spring. Epidemics occur when there are minor changes in the nature of the virus so that more people within a community are susceptible. Influenza A is more likely to cause epidemics. Pandemics (worldwide epidemics) occur when there are major changes in the virus so that the disease affects a large proportion of people in a geographic region or on more than one continent. The findings presented in this article have many important implications for understanding the influenza A (H1N1) viral pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. Nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-·) are generated markedly in influenza A (including H1N1) virus-infected host boosts, and these molecular species are identified as the potent pathogenic agents. The mutual interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with O2-· resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite is operative in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza virus pneumonia. Influenza virus infection involves pathological events in which oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals generated in excessive amounts mediate the overreaction of the host's immune response against the organs or tissues in which viruses are replicating, and this may explain the mechanism of tissue injuries observed in influenza virus infection of various types. In this article, the types of protection of carnosine in its bioavailable non-hydrolyzed forms in formulations are considered against reactive oxygen radical species-dependent injury, peroxynitrite damage, and other types of viral injuries in which impaired immune responses to viral pathogens are usually involved. Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) shows the pharmacological intracellular correction of NO release, which might be one of the important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of influenza A virus infection (inhibition of virus replication) and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. The protective effects of orally applied non-hydrolyzed formulated species of carnosine include at least the direct interaction with NO, inhibition of cytotoxic NO-induced proinflammatory condition, and attenuation of the effects of cytokines and chemokines that can exert profound effects on inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that natural products, such as chicken soup and chicken breast extracts rich in carnosine and its derivative anserine (?-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine), could contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of influenza virus infections and cold but have a limitation due to the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptides with serum carnosinase and urine excretion after oral ingestion of a commercial chicken extract. The formulations of non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural carnosine peptide and isopeptide (?-glutamyl-carnosine) products, manufactured at the cGMP-certified facility and patented by the authors, have promise in the control and prevention of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, cough, and cold. PMID:23425625

  6. Immersive simulation education: a novel approach to pandemic preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Rega, Paul P; Fink, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Pandemic management involves strategic and tactical concepts rarely experienced with other disasters. To comprehend the enormity of these tasks and experience the critical decision-making required, local public health and other stakeholders participate in tabletop and functional exercises. Students in Master of Public Health (MPH) programs not only rarely experience this educational format, but also are seldom afforded substantive time to appreciate the critical decision making that is unique to pandemics. An immersive semester-long simulation exercise was created to educate graduate public health students about pandemics. Students in a MPH course were divided into groups representing county health departments. During the semester, students collaborated and completed incident command training, received audio lectures, and materials concerning an imminent pandemic. The students then participated in the 2.5-hr facilitated tabletop exercises in the classroom. A survey was developed to assess their perceptions of the experience. Most students felt more knowledgeable afterward and thought that this training style was innovative, entertaining, educational, and recommended it to fellow students and colleagues. The students believed that delivering a tabletop exercise in this fashion was educational and entertaining. It gave the students a better appreciation of the role of public health in managing the complexities associated with pandemics. PMID:24588133

  7. A Hybrid Model for Disease Spread and an Application to the SARS Pandemic

    E-print Network

    Yoneyama, Teruhiko; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai

    2010-01-01

    Pandemics can cause immense disruption and damage to communities and societies. Thus far, modeling of pandemics has focused on either large-scale difference equation models like the SIR and the SEIR models, or detailed micro-level simulations, which are harder to apply at a global scale. This paper introduces a hybrid model for pandemics considering both global and local spread of infections. We hypothesize that the spread of an infectious disease between regions is significantly influenced by global traffic patterns and the spread within a region is influenced by local conditions. Thus we model the spread of pandemics considering the connections between regions for the global spread of infection and population density based on the SEIR model for the local spread of infection. We validate our hybrid model by carrying out a simulation study for the spread of SARS pandemic of 2002-2003 using available data on population, population density, and traffic networks between different regions. While it is well-known ...

  8. Update on Influenza Diagnostics: Lessons from the Novel H1N1 Influenza A Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The menu of diagnostic tools that can be utilized to establish a diagnosis of influenza is extensive and includes classic virology techniques as well as new and emerging methods. This review of how the various existing diagnostic methods have been utilized, first in the context of a rapidly evolving outbreak of novel influenza virus and then during the different subsequent phases and waves of the pandemic, demonstrates the unique roles, advantages, and limitations of each of these methods. Rapid antigen tests were used extensively throughout the pandemic. Recognition of the low negative predictive values of these tests is important. Private laboratories with preexisting expertise, infrastructure, and resources for rapid development, validation, and implementation of laboratory-developed assays played an unprecedented role in helping to meet the diagnostic demands during the pandemic. FDA-cleared assays remain an important element of the diagnostic armamentarium during a pandemic, and a process must be developed with the FDA to allow manufacturers to modify these assays for detection of novel strains in a timely fashion. The need and role for subtyping of influenza viruses and antiviral susceptibility testing will likely depend on qualitative (circulating subtypes and their resistance patterns) and quantitative (relative prevalence) characterization of influenza viruses circulating during future epidemics and pandemics. PMID:22491775

  9. Pandemic Infl uenza: Risk of Multiple Introductions and the Need to Prepare for Them

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina E. Mills; James M. Robins; Carl T. Bergstrom; Marc Lipsitch

    with a ten kilometer radius) around 90% of clinical cases within two days of symptom onset; the strain remains susceptible to oseltamivir (a growing concern following reports of partially and fully resistant strains among recent H5N1 cases (7,8)); and adequate antiviral supplies (between 100,000 and 3 million courses) are available. Even if these conditions are met and the next introduction

  10. Will the NHS continue to function in an influenza pandemic? a survey of healthcare workers in the West Midlands, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Damery; Sue Wilson; Heather Draper; Christine Gratus; Sheila Greenfield; Jonathan Ives; Jayne Parry; Judith Petts; Tom Sorell

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If UK healthcare services are to respond effectively to pandemic influenza, levels of absenteeism amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) must be minimised. Current estimates of the likelihood that HCWs will continue to attend work during a pandemic are subject to scientific and predictive uncertainty, yet an informed evidence base is needed if contingency plans addressing the issues of HCW absenteeism

  11. Low acceptance of vaccination against the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) among healthcare workers in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Kremastinou; K Gourgoulianis

    A questionnaire survey on the attitude of healthcare workers towards pandemic influenza vaccination showed low acceptance (17%) of the pandemic vac- cine. Factors associated with vaccine uptake were acceptance of seasonal influenza vaccination, medical profession and age. The main reason for refusal of vac- cination was fear of side effects, which was stronger in those who received information on the

  12. Preprint, from ACM SigKDD Explorations, 8:8082, 2006. Spatial Data Mining to Support Pandemic Preparedness

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    dataset of disease evolution in the city of Portland, Oregon was provided by the Virginia Tech Net- work at the work- shop [3; 7; 11; 12; 14] showcased a variety of data mining studies performed on this dataset, e of synthetic dataset. 2. SYNTHETIC DATA FOR PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS STUDIES Effective pandemic disease modeling

  13. A two-amino acid substitution in the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin abolishes transmission of the pandemic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1918 influenza pandemic was a catastrophic series of virus outbreaks that spread across the globe. Herein we show that only a modest change in the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin receptor binding site alters the transmissibility of this pandemic virus. Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch f...

  14. Safety and efficacy of a novel live attenuated influenza vaccine against pandemic H1N1 in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is the predominant influenza strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers a...

  15. An in vitro network of intermolecular interactions between viral RNA segments of an avian H5N2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). They are responsible for the majority of seasonal flu cases and for occasional flu pandemics that can have high case in the waterfowl than in the human population (9). A human IAV pandemic can arise when a flu strain jumps from changes: it is thought that such a process gave rise to the `Spanish flu' in 1918. Alternatively, when

  16. Seasonal and pandemic influenza: the role of communication and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Boccia, A; Di Thiene, D; De Giusti, M; La Torre, G

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information is a very important issue in preventive strategies against influenza. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this vaccine. International and national literature reviews suggest that progress has been made in order to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, as such investments in public health could be important for building capacity and practice which aid in the realization of countermeasures in response to a future pandemic and epidemic situation. This study emphasizes the lack of perception by Health Care Workers (HCWs) of the importance of being immunized against seasonal and pandemic influenza and the doubts concerning safety. In the future, particular efforts are needed during vaccination campaigns, to provide more information to HCWs and the general population regarding role and safety of such vaccines. PMID:22010540

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of pandemic influenza-related deaths in Allied naval forces during 1918.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Smallman-Raynor, M

    2013-10-01

    This paper draws on the mortality records of the French, US and UK Royal navies to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in global Allied naval forces. For a total of 7658 deaths attributed to respiratory diseases (French and US navies) and all diseases (UK Royal Navy) at 514 locations worldwide, techniques of spatial point pattern analysis were used to generate weekly maps of global mortality intensity in 1918. The map sequence for the main period of pandemic mortality, mid-August to mid-November 1918, revealed a near-simultaneous development of mutiple foci of high disease intensity in three distant locations (Europe, North America, West Africa). Given the relatively slow speed of naval ships in convoy at this time (<12 knots), our findings suggest that the pandemic influenza virus was circulating on three continents at the observed onset of the main mortality wave. PMID:23324307

  18. Candida albicans Flu1-Mediated Efflux of Salivary Histatin 5 Reduces Its Cytosolic Concentration and Fungicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant

    2013-01-01

    Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine transporters responsible for Hst 5 uptake, we hypothesized that one or more polyamine efflux transporters may be involved in the efflux of Hst 5. C. albicans FLU1 and TPO2 were found to be the closest homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO1, which encodes a major spermidine efflux transporter, indicating that the products of these two genes may be involved in efflux of Hst 5. We found that flu1?/? cells, but not tpo2?/? cells, had significant reductions in their rates of Hst 5 efflux and had significantly higher cytoplasmic Hst 5 and Hst 5 susceptibilities than did the wild type. We also found that flu1?/? cells had reduced biofilm formation compared to wild-type cells in the presence of Hst 5. Transcriptional levels of FLU1 were not altered over the course of treatment with Hst 5; therefore, Hst 5 is not likely to induce FLU1 gene overexpression as a potential mechanism of resistance. Thus, Flu1, but not Tpo2, mediates efflux of Hst 5 and is responsible for reduction of its toxicity in C. albicans. PMID:23380720

  19. Health System Resource Gaps and Associated Mortality from Pandemic Influenza across Six Asian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Rudge, James W.; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Krumkamp, Ralf; Chavez, Irwin; Adisasmito, Wiku; Ngoc Chau, Pham; Phommasak, Bounlay; Putthasri, Weerasak; Shih, Chin-Shui; Stein, Mart; Timen, Aura; Touch, Sok; Reintjes, Ralf; Coker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia has been the focus of considerable investment in pandemic influenza preparedness. Given the wide variation in socio-economic conditions, health system capacity across the region is likely to impact to varying degrees on pandemic mitigation operations. We aimed to estimate and compare the resource gaps, and potential mortalities associated with those gaps, for responding to pandemic influenza within and between six territories in Asia. Methods and Findings We collected health system resource data from Cambodia, Indonesia (Jakarta and Bali), Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. We applied a mathematical transmission model to simulate a “mild-to-moderate” pandemic influenza scenario to estimate resource needs, gaps, and attributable mortalities at province level within each territory. The results show that wide variations exist in resource capacities between and within the six territories, with substantial mortalities predicted as a result of resource gaps (referred to here as “avoidable” mortalities), particularly in poorer areas. Severe nationwide shortages of mechanical ventilators were estimated to be a major cause of avoidable mortalities in all territories except Taiwan. Other resources (oseltamivir, hospital beds and human resources) are inequitably distributed within countries. Estimates of resource gaps and avoidable mortalities were highly sensitive to model parameters defining the transmissibility and clinical severity of the pandemic scenario. However, geographic patterns observed within and across territories remained similar for the range of parameter values explored. Conclusions The findings have important implications for where (both geographically and in terms of which resource types) investment is most needed, and the potential impact of resource mobilization for mitigating the disease burden of an influenza pandemic. Effective mobilization of resources across administrative boundaries could go some way towards minimizing avoidable deaths. PMID:22363739

  20. Existing health inequalities in India: informing preparedness planning for an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Supriya; Quinn, Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    On 11 June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the world was in phase 6 of an influenza pandemic. In India, the first case of 2009 H1N1 influenza was reported on 16 May 2009 and by August 2010 (when the pandemic was declared over), 38?730 cases of 2009 H1N1 had been confirmed of which there were 2024 deaths. Here, we propose a conceptual model of the sources of health disparities in an influenza pandemic in India. Guided by a published model of the plausible sources of such disparities in the United States, we reviewed the literature for the determinants of the plausible sources of health disparities during a pandemic in India. We find that factors at multiple social levels could determine inequalities in the risk of exposure and susceptibility to influenza, as well as access to treatment once infected: (1) religion, caste and indigenous identity, as well as education and gender at the individual level; (2) wealth at the household level; and (3) the type of location, ratio of health care practitioners to population served, access to transportation and public spending on health care in the geographic area of residence. Such inequalities could lead to unequal levels of disease and death. Whereas causal factors can only be determined by testing the model when incidence and mortality data, collected in conjunction with socio-economic and geographic factors, become available, we put forth recommendations that policy makers can undertake to ensure that the pandemic preparedness plan includes a focus on social inequalities in India in order to prevent their exacerbation in a pandemic. PMID:22131367

  1. Risk of severe outcomes among patients admitted to hospital with pandemic (H1N1) influenza

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexia; Rodin, Rachel; Kropp, Rhonda; Mao, Yang; Hong, Zhiyong; Vachon, Julie; Spika, John; Pelletier, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background We describe the disease characteristics and outcomes, including risk factors for admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and death, of all patients in Canada admitted to hospital with pandemic (H1N1) influenza during the first five months of the pandemic. Methods We obtained data for all patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) influenza reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada from Apr. 26 to Sept. 26, 2009. We compared inpatients who had nonsevere disease with those who had severe disease, as indicated by admission to ICU or death. Results A total of 1479 patients were admitted to hospital with confirmed pandemic (H1N1) influenza during the study period. Of these, 1171 (79.2%) did not have a severe outcome, 236 (16.0%) were admitted to ICU and survived, and 72 (4.9%) died. The median age was 23 years for all of the patients, 18 years for those with a nonsevere outcome, 34 years for those admitted to ICU who survived and 51 years for those who died. The risk of a severe outcome was elevated among those who had an underlying medical condition and those 20 years of age and older. A delay of one day in the median time between the onset of symptoms and admission to hospital increased the risk of death by 5.5%. The risk of a severe outcome remained relatively constant over the five-month period. Interpretation The population-based incidence of admission to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) influenza was low in the first five months of the pandemic in Canada. The risk of a severe outcome was associated with the presence of one or more underlying medical conditions, age of 20 years or more and a delay in hospital admission. PMID:20159893

  2. Rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure triggered by the seasonal flu vaccination in a patient taking simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Shah, S V; Reddy, K

    2010-01-01

    A man in his 70s presented with bilateral, painful legs and feeling generally unwell following the seasonal flu vaccination. The patient had a background of B cell lymphoma in partial remission. His current medications included simvastatin. Initial investigations revealed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. He was admitted to critical care for renal replacement treatment. Other causes of rhabdomyolysis were excluded and expert opinion agreed that the most likely cause was the influenza vaccination with the concurrent use of simvastatin. The patient's renal function gradually normalised and after several months the patient has regained full power in his legs. PMID:22778082

  3. Healthcare workers' attitudes to working during pandemic influenza: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jonathan; Greenfield, Sheila; Parry, Jayne M; Draper, Heather; Gratus, Christine; Petts, Judith I; Sorell, Tom; Wilson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) will play a key role in any response to pandemic influenza, and the UK healthcare system's ability to cope during an influenza pandemic will depend, to a large extent, on the number of HCWs who are able and willing to work through the crisis. UK emergency planning will be improved if planners have a better understanding of the reasons UK HCWs may have for their absenteeism, and what might motivate them to work during an influenza pandemic. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored UK HCWs' views (n = 64) about working during an influenza pandemic, in order to identify factors that might influence their willingness and ability to work and to identify potential sources of any perceived duty on HCWs to work. Methods A qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 9) and interviews (n = 5). Results HCWs across a range of roles and grades tended to feel motivated by a sense of obligation to work through an influenza pandemic. A number of significant barriers that may prevent them from doing so were also identified. Perceived barriers to the ability to work included being ill oneself, transport difficulties, and childcare responsibilities. Perceived barriers to the willingness to work included: prioritising the wellbeing of family members; a lack of trust in, and goodwill towards, the NHS; a lack of information about the risks and what is expected of them during the crisis; fear of litigation; and the feeling that employers do not take the needs of staff seriously. Barriers to ability and barriers to willingness, however, are difficult to separate out. Conclusion Although our participants tended to feel a general obligation to work during an influenza pandemic, there are barriers to working, which, if generalisable, may significantly reduce the NHS workforce during a pandemic. The barriers identified are both barriers to willingness and to ability. This suggests that pandemic planning needs to take into account the possibility that staff may be absent for reasons beyond those currently anticipated in UK planning documents. In particular, staff who are physically able to attend work may nonetheless be unwilling to do so. Although there are some barriers that cannot be mitigated by employers (such as illness, transport infrastructure etc.), there are a number of remedial steps that can be taken to lesson the impact of others (providing accommodation, building reciprocity, provision of information and guidance etc). We suggest that barriers to working lie along an ability/willingness continuum, and that absenteeism may be reduced by taking steps to prevent barriers to willingness becoming perceived barriers to ability. PMID:19216738

  4. Experimental vaccines against potentially pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Alaina J; Tompkins, S Mark

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review discusses advances in alternative influenza vaccines, touching briefly on licensed vaccines and vaccine antigens; then reviewing recombinant subunit vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines and DNA vaccines, with the main focus on virus-vectored vaccine approaches. PMID:23440999

  5. Vaccination against pandemic influenza A\\/H1N1 among healthcare workers and reasons for refusing vaccination in Istanbul in last pandemic alert phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebahat D. Torun; Fuat Torun

    2010-01-01

    Coverage of the HCWs as target population is one of the important determinants for the impact of vaccination. To determine the vaccination against the pandemic influenza A\\/H1N1 among HCWs, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in a public hospital in Istanbul from December 7 to December 22, 2009. Out of total 941 HCWs 718 (76.3%) completed the questionnaires. Nearly one-fourth

  6. Infodemiology: Tracking Flu-Related Searches on the Web for Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance uses health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response. Objective While most syndromic surveillance systems rely on data from clinical encounters with health professionals, I started to explore in 2004 whether analysis of trends in Internet searches can be useful to predict outbreaks such as influenza epidemics and prospectively gathered data on Internet search trends for this purpose. Results There is an excellent correlation between the number of clicks on a keyword-triggered link in Google with epidemiological data from the flu season 2004/2005 in Canada (Pearson correlation coefficient of current week clicks with the following week influenza cases r=.91). The “Google ad sentinel method” proved to be more timely, more accurate and – with a total cost of Can$365.64 for the entire flu-season – considerably cheaper than the traditional method of reports on influenza-like illnesses observed in clinics by sentinel physicians. Conclusion Systematically collecting and analyzing health information demand data from the Internet has considerable potential to be used for syndromic surveillance. Tracking web searches on the Internet has the potential to predict population-based events relevant for public health purposes, such as real outbreaks, but may also be confounded by “epidemics of fear”. Data from such “infodemiology studies” should also include longitudinal data on health information supply. PMID:17238340

  7. Cases of swine flu in kidney transplant recipients in our hospital.

    PubMed

    Garófano, R; Rodríguez, M A; Prados, M C; Moriana, C; García, B; Poveda, I

    2010-10-01

    In late March 2009, an outbreak of influenza A virus infection was detected in Mexico with subsequent cases observed in many other countries. The pandemic was caused by an H1N1 virus that represents a quadruple reassortment of 2 swine strains, 1 human strain, and 1 avian strain of influenza. Until February 1, 2010, a total of 47 cases of influenza A (Inf A) were recorded by the Spanish Society of Nephrology in kidney transplant recipients. Herein we have reported our 3 cases (6.4%) in this registry. A 17-year-old girl with hepatorenal polycystosis received a liver and kidney transplant at 37 months previously. She displayed high fever and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved without treatment. A 38-year-old woman with chronic renal failure (CRF) of undetermined etiology received a kidney transplant 9 months previously. She was admitted with a 5-day history of febrile syndrome and respiratory symptoms, with extensive bilateral pneumonia and acute severe respiratory failure that required admission to the intensive care unit. Her evolution was satisfactory. A 38-year-old woman with CRF of undetermined etiology received a kidney transplant 2.5 months previously. She was admitted in November 2009 with a 2-week history of fever, myalgia, general malaise, cough, and expectoration. Her course was satisfactory. In these cases we determined H1N1 Inf A pandemic variant by detection of Inf A Matrix Protein 2 gene M2 and the specific H1 gene for influenza pandemic H1N1 2009 with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Inf A/H1N1 (Roche). The 3 cases of Inf A in kidney transplant recipients recorded in the province of Almeria occurred in young women shortly after kidney transplantation, and with no other risk factors apart from those associated with the transplantation itself. From the consideration of respiratory and renal situations, their courses were satisfactory. PMID:20970630

  8. Healthcare workers’ perceptions of the duty to work during an influenza pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Damery; H Draper; S Wilson; S Greenfield; J Ives; J Parry; J Petts; T Sorell

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often assumed to have a duty to work, even if faced with personal risk. This is particularly so for professionals (doctors and nurses). However, the health service also depends on non-professionals, such as porters, cooks and cleaners. The duty to work is currently under scrutiny because of the ongoing challenge of responding to pandemic influenza, where

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE INFLUENZA A VACCINES FOR PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic birds can be infected by influenza A viruses of 15 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes and serve as a reservoir from which novel influenza subtypes can be introduced into humans and cause a pandemic. The observations that avian H5N1 and H9N2 influenza A viruses infected huma...

  10. Coordination Costs for School-Located Influenza Vaccination Clinics, Maine, 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Lorick, Suchita A.; Tipton, Meredith L.; Dube, Nancy L.; Messonnier, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    School nurses played a key role in Maine's school-located influenza vaccination (SLV) clinics during the 2009-2010 pandemic season. The objective of this study was to determine, from the school district perspective, the labor hours and costs associated with outside-clinic coordination activities (OCA). The authors defined OCA as labor hours spent…

  11. Ekonomicky casopis, 57, 2009, c. 2, s, 163 -178 Socio-economic Impacts of Pandemic Influenza

    E-print Network

    Sevcovic, Daniel

    Ekonomicky casopis, 57, 2009, c. 2, s, 163 - 178 Socio-economic Impacts of Pandemic Influenza of various scenarios ofpandemic influenza mitigation on the economy and mor- tality for Slovakia. Compared costs with casualties included were compared. Keywords: pandemia, influenza, Monte Carlo, mitigation JEL

  12. Knowledge about Pandemic Influenza in Healthcare and Non-Healthcare Students in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purssell, Edward; While, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge of university students regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate students, including those on nursing, medical, other health and non-health related courses. Method: The sample was recruited using the university email system, and the…

  13. Establishment of pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity at Bio Farma, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suhardono, Mahendra; Ugiyadi, Dori; Nurnaeni, Ida; Emelia, Imelda

    2011-07-01

    In Indonesia, avian influenza A(H5N1) virus started to spread in humans in June 2005, with an alarming case-fatality rate of more than 80%. Considering that global influenza vaccine production capacity would barely have covered 10% of the world's pandemic vaccine needs, and that countries with no production facilities or prearranged contracts would be without access to a vaccine, the Government of Indonesia embarked on a programme to increase its readiness for a future influenza pandemic. This included the domestic production of influenza vaccine, which was entrusted to Bio Farma. This health security strategy consists of developing trivalent influenza vaccine production capacity in order to be able to convert immediately to monovalent production of up to 20 million pandemic doses for the Indonesian market upon receipt of the seed strain from the World Health Organization (WHO). For this purpose, a dedicated production facility is being constructed within the Bio Farma premises in Bandung. As an initial stage of influenza vaccine development, imported seasonal influenza bulk has been formulated and filled in the Bio Farma facility. Following three consecutive batches and successful clinical trials, the product was licensed by the Indonesian National Regulatory Authority and distributed commercially for the Hajj programme in 2009. With continued support from its technology transfer partners, Bio Farma is now advancing with the development of upstream processes to produce its own bulk for seasonal and pandemic use. PMID:21684423

  14. CONSULTATION RESPONSE `Wellcome Trust response to UK Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Strategy

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    of research in an influenza pandemic or outbreak due to a novel severe acute respiratory infection (SARI there may be merit in extending the scope of the strategy beyond influenza and respiratory infection. 2. Influenza and other SARI threats such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are global threats

  15. Broadening access to medical care during a severe influenza pandemic: the CDC nurse triage line project.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Lisa M; Hanfling, Dan

    2013-03-01

    The impact of a severe influenza pandemic could be overwhelming to hospital emergency departments, clinics, and medical offices if large numbers of ill people were to simultaneously seek care. While current planning guidance to reduce surge on hospitals and other medical facilities during a pandemic largely focuses on improving the "supply" of medical care services, attention on reducing "demand" for such services is needed by better matching patient needs with alternative types and sites of care. Based on lessons learned during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are currently exploring the acceptability and feasibility of using a coordinated network of nurse triage telephone lines during a pandemic to assess the health status of callers, help callers determine the most appropriate site for care (eg, hospital ED, outpatient center, home), disseminate information, provide clinical advice, and provide access to antiviral medications for ill people, if appropriate. As part of this effort, the integration and coordination of poison control centers, existing nurse advice lines, 2-1-1 information lines, and other hotlines are being investigated. PMID:23458098

  16. The Role of China in the Global Spread of the Current Cholera Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Angela; Ni, Peixiang; Li, Dongfang; Achtman, Mark; Kan, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease, have occurred since the early 19th century and waves of epidemic disease continue today. Cholera epidemics are caused by individual, genetically monomorphic lineages of Vibrio cholerae: the ongoing seventh pandemic, which has spread globally since 1961, is associated with lineage L2 of biotype El Tor. Previous genomic studies of the epidemiology of the seventh pandemic identified three successive sub-lineages within L2, designated waves 1 to 3, which spread globally from the Bay of Bengal on multiple occasions. However, these studies did not include samples from China, which also experienced multiple epidemics of cholera in recent decades. We sequenced the genomes of 71 strains isolated in China between 1961 and 2010, as well as eight from other sources, and compared them with 181 published genomes. The results indicated that outbreaks in China between 1960 and 1990 were associated with wave 1 whereas later outbreaks were associated with wave 2. However, the previously defined waves overlapped temporally, and are an inadequate representation of the shape of the global genealogy. We therefore suggest replacing them by a series of tightly delineated clades. Between 1960 and 1990 multiple such clades were imported into China, underwent further microevolution there and then spread to other countries. China was thus both a sink and source during the pandemic spread of V. cholerae, and needs to be included in reconstructions of the global patterns of spread of cholera. PMID:25768799

  17. The role of china in the global spread of the current cholera pandemic.

    PubMed

    Didelot, Xavier; Pang, Bo; Zhou, Zhemin; McCann, Angela; Ni, Peixiang; Li, Dongfang; Achtman, Mark; Kan, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease, have occurred since the early 19th century and waves of epidemic disease continue today. Cholera epidemics are caused by individual, genetically monomorphic lineages of Vibrio cholerae: the ongoing seventh pandemic, which has spread globally since 1961, is associated with lineage L2 of biotype El Tor. Previous genomic studies of the epidemiology of the seventh pandemic identified three successive sub-lineages within L2, designated waves 1 to 3, which spread globally from the Bay of Bengal on multiple occasions. However, these studies did not include samples from China, which also experienced multiple epidemics of cholera in recent decades. We sequenced the genomes of 71 strains isolated in China between 1961 and 2010, as well as eight from other sources, and compared them with 181 published genomes. The results indicated that outbreaks in China between 1960 and 1990 were associated with wave 1 whereas later outbreaks were associated with wave 2. However, the previously defined waves overlapped temporally, and are an inadequate representation of the shape of the global genealogy. We therefore suggest replacing them by a series of tightly delineated clades. Between 1960 and 1990 multiple such clades were imported into China, underwent further microevolution there and then spread to other countries. China was thus both a sink and source during the pandemic spread of V. cholerae, and needs to be included in reconstructions of the global patterns of spread of cholera. PMID:25768799

  18. Isolation and characterization of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are endemic diseases in pork producing countries around the world. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) raised questions about the occurrence of this virus in Brazilian swine populations. During a 2009-2010 swine influenza virus r...

  19. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  20. Persistent Host Markers in Pandemic and H5N1 Influenza Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Finkelstein; Suraj Mukatira; Perdeep K. Mehta; John C. Obenauer; Xiaoping Su; Robert G. Webster; Clayton W. Naeve

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses have adapted to human hosts, causing pandemics in humans. The key host-specific amino acid mutations required for an avian influenza virus to function in humans are unknown. Through multiple-sequence alignment and statistical testing of each aligned amino acid, we identified markers that discriminate human influenza viruses from avian influenza viruses. We applied strict thresholds to select only

  1. Can Inclusive Education in South(ern) Africa Survive the HIV and AIDS Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Christa; Hay, Johnnie

    2007-01-01

    Fagan (1986, p. 859) stated many years ago that "school psychology has survived the complex interaction between education and psychology, and will continue to do so in future". Applied and adapted to South(ern) Africa of 2007, one may ask whether inclusive education will survive the complex interaction with the HIV and AIDS pandemic, and whether…

  2. Local public health workers' perceptions toward responding to an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Balicer, Ran D; Omer, Saad B; Barnett, Daniel J; Everly, George S

    2006-01-01

    Background Current national preparedness plans require local health departments to play an integral role in responding to an influenza pandemic, a major public health threat that the World Health Organization has described as "inevitable and possibly imminent". To understand local public health workers' perceptions toward pandemic influenza response, we surveyed 308 employees at three health departments in Maryland from March – July 2005, on factors that may influence their ability and willingness to report to duty in such an event. Results The data suggest that nearly half of the local health department workers are likely not to report to duty during a pandemic. The stated likelihood of reporting to duty was significantly greater for clinical (Multivariate OR: 2.5; CI 1.3–4.7) than technical and support staff, and perception of the importance of one's role in the agency's overall response was the single most influential factor associated with willingness to report (Multivariate OR: 9.5; CI 4.6–19.9). Conclusion The perceived risk among public health workers was shown to be associated with several factors peripheral to the actual hazard of this event. These risk perception modifiers and the knowledge gaps identified serve as barriers to pandemic influenza response and must be specifically addressed to enable effective local public health response to this significant threat. PMID:16620372

  3. Emerging infectious diseases and pandemic potential: status quo and reducing risk of global spread.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Brian; Dar, Osman; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heymann, David L

    2014-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an important public health threat and infections with pandemic potential are a major global risk. Although much has been learned from previous events the evidence for mitigating actions is not definitive and pandemic preparedness remains a political and scientific challenge. A need exists to develop trust and effective meaningful collaboration between countries to help with rapid detection of potential pandemic infections and initiate public health actions. This collaboration should be within the framework of the International Health Regulations. Collaboration between countries should be encouraged in a way that acknowledges the benefits that derive from sharing biological material and establishing equitable collaborative research partnerships. The focus of pandemic preparedness should include upstream prevention through better collaboration between human and animal health sciences to enhance capacity to identify potential pathogens before they become serious human threats, and to prevent their emergence where possible. The one-health approach provides a means to develop this and could potentially enhance alignment of global health and trade priorities. PMID:25189351

  4. Supporting Lesotho Teachers to Develop Resilience in the Face of the HIV and AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lesley; Ntaote, Grace Makeletso; Theron, Linda

    2012-01-01

    HIV and AIDS threaten to erode the wellbeing of teachers who are faced with an increasing number of children rendered vulnerable by the pandemic. This article explores the usefulness of a supportive group intervention, Resilient Educators (REds), in supporting Lesotho teachers to respond to the HIV and AIDS-related challenges. A time-series pre-…

  5. Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza: The roles of stochasticity, evolution and model details

    E-print Network

    Handel, Andreas

    , 2004). Most situations encountered so far in the realm of antibiotic resistance involve timeAntiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza: The roles of stochasticity, evolution Research Center and Department of Biostatistics and School of Public Health and Community Medicine

  6. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  7. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 22 NUMBER 12 DECEMBER 2004 1487 Next generation flu vaccine boosted by Chiron debacle

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Manufacturing Practice requirements,leading to concerns about pos- sible microbial contamination. That facil's license to produce its flu vaccine FlurVirin, on October 5, because of its failure to comply with Good of ongoing manufacturing problems. Another large producer, Parkdale Pharmaceuticals, of Rochester, Michigan

  8. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sőukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  9. 1917 Avian Influenza Virus Sequences Suggest that the 1918 Pandemic Virus Did Not Acquire Its Hemagglutinin Directly from Birds

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Thomas G.; Slemons, Richard D.; Reid, Ann H.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Dean, James; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild waterfowl captured between 1915 and 1919 were tested for influenza A virus RNA. One bird, captured in 1917, was infected with a virus of the same hemagglutinin (HA) subtype as that of the 1918 pandemic virus. The 1917 HA is more closely related to that of modern avian viruses than it is to that of the pandemic virus, suggesting (i) that there was little drift in avian sequences over the past 85 years and (ii) that the 1918 pandemic virus did not acquire its HA directly from a bird. PMID:12097598

  10. Predictive Power of Air Travel and Socio-Economic Data for Early Pandemic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Parviez; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Controlling the pandemic spread of newly emerging diseases requires rapid, targeted allocation of limited resources among nations. Critical, early control steps would be greatly enhanced if the key risk factors can be identified that accurately predict early disease spread immediately after emergence. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine the role of travel, trade, and national healthcare resources in predicting the emergence and initial spread of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. We find that incorporating national healthcare resource data into our analyses allowed a much greater capacity to predict the international spread of this virus. In countries with lower healthcare resources, the reporting of 2009 A/H1N1 cases was significantly delayed, likely reflecting a lower capacity for testing and reporting, as well as other socio-political issues. We also report substantial international trade in live swine and poultry in the decade preceding the pandemic which may have contributed to the emergence and mixed genotype of this pandemic strain. However, the lack of knowledge of recent evolution of each H1N1 viral gene segment precludes the use of this approach to determine viral origins. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that strategies to prevent pandemic influenza virus emergence and spread in the future should include: 1) enhanced surveillance for strains resulting from reassortment in traded livestock; 2) rapid deployment of control measures in the initial spreading phase to countries where travel data predict the pathogen will reach and to countries where lower healthcare resources will likely cause delays in reporting. Our results highlight the benefits, for all parties, when higher income countries provide additional healthcare resources for lower income countries, particularly those that have high air traffic volumes. In particular, international authorities should prioritize aid to those poorest countries where both the risk of emerging infectious diseases and air traffic volume is highest. This strategy will result in earlier detection of pathogens and a reduction in the impact of future pandemics. PMID:20856678

  11. Responding to Vaccine Safety Signals during Pandemic Influenza: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Maro, Judith C.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Lieu, Tracy A.; Lee, Grace M.; Martin, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Managing emerging vaccine safety signals during an influenza pandemic is challenging. Federal regulators must balance vaccine risks against benefits while maintaining public confidence in the public health system. Methods We developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model to explore regulatory decision-making in the context of emerging vaccine safety signals during a pandemic. We simulated vaccine safety surveillance system capabilities and used an age-structured compartmental model to develop potential pandemic scenarios. We used an expert-derived multi-attribute utility function to evaluate potential regulatory responses by combining four outcome measures into a single measure of interest: 1) expected vaccination benefit from averted influenza; 2) expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated febrile seizures; 3) expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated Guillain-Barre Syndrome; and 4) expected change in vaccine-seeking behavior in future influenza seasons. Results Over multiple scenarios, risk communication, with or without suspension of vaccination of high-risk persons, were the consistently preferred regulatory responses over no action or general suspension when safety signals were detected during a pandemic influenza. On average, the expert panel valued near-term vaccine-related outcomes relative to long-term projected outcomes by 3?1. However, when decision-makers had minimal ability to influence near-term outcomes, the response was selected primarily by projected impacts on future vaccine-seeking behavior. Conclusions The selected regulatory response depends on how quickly a vaccine safety signal is identified relative to the peak of the pandemic and the initiation of vaccination. Our analysis suggested two areas for future investment: efforts to improve the size and timeliness of the surveillance system and behavioral research to understand changes in vaccine-seeking behavior. PMID:25536228

  12. Healthcare workers' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yumiko; Beck, Charles R; Dingwall, Robert; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the proportion of healthcare workers (HCWs) willing to work during an influenza pandemic and identify associated risk factors, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis compliant with PRISMA guidance. Databases and grey literature were searched to April 2013, and records were screened against protocol eligibility criteria. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken using a piloted form. Random-effects meta-analyses estimated (i) pooled proportion of HCWs willing to work and (ii) pooled odds ratios of risk factors associated with willingness to work. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I(2) statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Data were synthesized narratively where meta-analyses were not possible. Forty-three studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the proportion of HCWs willing to work was abandoned due to excessive heterogeneity (I(2)  = 99·2%). Narrative synthesis showed study estimates ranged from 23·1% to 95·8% willingness to work, depending on context. Meta-analyses of specific factors showed that male HCWs, physicians and nurses, full-time employment, perceived personal safety, awareness of pandemic risk and clinical knowledge of influenza pandemics, role-specific knowledge, pandemic response training, and confidence in personal skills were statistically significantly associated with increased willingness. Childcare obligations were significantly associated with decreased willingness. HCWs' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic was moderately high, albeit highly variable. Numerous risk factors showed a statistically significant association with willingness to work despite significant heterogeneity between studies. None of the included studies were based on appropriate theoretical constructs of population behaviour. PMID:25807865

  13. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccines: A Multinational Self-Controlled Case Series in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Jeanne P.; Olberg, Henning K.; de Vries, Corinne S.; Sammon, Cormac; Andrews, Nick; Svanström, Henrik; Mřlgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Hviid, Anders; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnčs; Saussier, Christel; Castot, Anne; Heijbel, Harald; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparen, Par; Mosseveld, Mees; Schuemie, Martijn; van der Maas, Nicoline; Jacobs, Bart C.; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Storsaeter, Jann; Johansen, Kari; Kramarz, Piotr; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Methods A self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1–4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI). Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. Results Three hundred and three (303) GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99) were exposed to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria). The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2–5.5), based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2–3.1) after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.2) when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom) we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month) to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8), which is the main finding. Conclusion This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination (RI?=?1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8). Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with 95% certainty that the number of excess GBS cases after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination would be more than 3 per million vaccinated. PMID:24404128

  14. Flu Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clayton, Sonia

    2004-10-15

    BioEd Online is an â??educational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ?ť from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The â??Hot Topicsâ?ť section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are â??receiving national attention.â?ť The influenza virus has plagued humans for eons, and new strains of this virus are constantly in the news. This â??Hot Topicâ?ť compiled by Sonia Clayton, PhD and Nancy Moreno, PhD, contains a brief discussion of the types of influenza, how influenza attacks and changes, and prevention measures. Also included are references and links for further reading. Related slide sets are available for viewing as well as a presentation on vaccination. Both the slide show and the presentation could easily be fit into a classroom lecture or student demonstration.

  15. Influenza Virus Coinfection with Bordetella bronchiseptica Enhances Bacterial Colonization and Host Responses Exacerbating Pulmonary Lesions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza virus (Flu) infection and secondary complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The increasing number of annual Flu cases, coupled with the recent Flu pandemic, has amplified concerns about the impact of Flu on human and animal health. Similar to humans, Flu i...

  16. FluCaP: A Heuristic Search Planner for First-Order MDPs

    E-print Network

    Hoelldobler, S; Skvortsova, O; 10.1613/jair.1965

    2011-01-01

    We present a heuristic search algorithm for solving first-order Markov Decision Processes (FOMDPs). Our approach combines first-order state abstraction that avoids evaluating states individually, and heuristic search that avoids evaluating all states. Firstly, in contrast to existing systems, which start with propositionalizing the FOMDP and then perform state abstraction on its propositionalized version we apply state abstraction directly on the FOMDP avoiding propositionalization. This kind of abstraction is referred to as first-order state abstraction. Secondly, guided by an admissible heuristic, the search is restricted to those states that are reachable from the initial state. We demonstrate the usefulness of the above techniques for solving FOMDPs with a system, referred to as FluCaP (formerly, FCPlanner), that entered the probabilistic track of the 2004 International Planning Competition (IPC2004) and demonstrated an advantage over other planners on the problems represented in first-order terms.

  17. Transmission dynamics of the great influenza pandemic of 1918 in Geneva, Switzerland: Assessing the effects of hypothetical interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chowell; C. E. Ammon; N. W. Hengartner; J. M. Hyman

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of the avian H5N1 influenza virus in Asia represent a constant global pandemic threat. We characterize and evaluate hypothetical public health measures during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. The transmission rate, the recovery rate, the diagnostic rate, the relative infectiousness of asymptomatic cases, and the proportion of clinical cases are estimated through least-squares

  18. School District (K-12) Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Local educational agencies (LEAs) play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of their district's staff, students and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist to assist LEAs in developing and/or improving plans to prepare

  19. Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anecdotal evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wever, Peter C; van Bergen, Leo

    2014-01-01

    The Meuse-Argonne offensive, a decisive battle during the First World War, is the largest frontline commitment in American military history involving 1·2 million U.S. troops. With over 26 000 deaths among American soldiers, the offensive is considered “America's deadliest battle”. The Meuse-Argonne offensive coincided with the highly fatal second wave of the influenza pandemic in 1918. In Europe and in U.S. Army training camps, 1918 pandemic influenza killed around 45 000 American soldiers making it questionable which battle should be regarded “America's deadliest”. The origin of the influenza pandemic has been inextricably linked with the men who occupied the military camps and trenches during the First World War. The disease had a profound impact, both for the military apparatus and for the individual soldier. It struck all the armies and might have claimed toward 100 000 fatalities among soldiers overall during the conflict while rendering millions ineffective. Yet, it remains unclear whether 1918 pandemic influenza had an impact on the course of the First World War. Still, even until this day, virological and bacteriological analysis of preserved archived remains of soldiers that succumbed to 1918 pandemic influenza has important implications for preparedness for future pandemics. These aspects are reviewed here in a context of citations, images, and documents illustrating the tragic events of 1918. PMID:24975798

  20. Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anecdotal evidence.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter C; van Bergen, Leo

    2014-09-01

    The Meuse-Argonne offensive, a decisive battle during the First World War, is the largest frontline commitment in American military history involving 1.2 million U.S. troops. With over 26,000 deaths among American soldiers, the offensive is considered "America's deadliest battle". The Meuse-Argonne offensive coincided with the highly fatal second wave of the influenza pandemic in 1918. In Europe and in U.S. Army training camps, 1918 pandemic influenza killed around 45,000 American soldiers making it questionable which battle should be regarded "America's deadliest". The origin of the influenza pandemic has been inextricably linked with the men who occupied the military camps and trenches during the First World War. The disease had a profound impact, both for the military apparatus and for the individual soldier. It struck all the armies and might have claimed toward 100 000 fatalities among soldiers overall during the conflict while rendering millions ineffective. Yet, it remains unclear whether 1918 pandemic influenza had an impact on the course of the First World War. Still, even until this day, virological and bacteriological analysis of preserved archived remains of soldiers that succumbed to 1918 pandemic influenza has important implications for preparedness for future pandemics. These aspects are reviewed here in a context of citations, images, and documents illustrating the tragic events of 1918. PMID:24975798

  1. President Bush Bails Out on Bird-Flu Plan: "You're on Your Own" if It Strikes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2006-01-01

    School districts in locations across the country are now in the process of considering what their role will be in the event that the United States happens to be hit by a bird influenza pandemic. There are some school districts which have already been drafting plans covering such issues to be examined as communicating with the parents of their…

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of a pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccine (MG1109) in mouse and ferret models.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Suk; Moon, Ho-Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Lee, Jun Han; Baek, Yun Hee; Woo, Gyu-Jin; Woo, Kyu-Jin; Choi, Juhee; Lee, Sangho; Yoo, Hyunseung; Oh, Ingyeong; Yoon, Yeup; Rho, Jong-Bok; Sung, Moon-Hee; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2012-06-01

    The threat of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus causing the next pandemic remains a major concern. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated whole-virus H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine (MG1109) formulated by Green Cross Co., Ltd containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the clade 1 A/Vietnam/1194/04 virus in the backbone of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (RgVietNam/04xPR8/34). Administration of the MG1109 vaccine (2-doses) in mice and ferrets elicited high HI and SN titers in a dose-dependent manner against the homologous (RgVietNam/04xPR8/34) and various heterologous H5N1 strains, (RgKor/W149/06xPR8/34, RgCambodia/04xPR8/34, RgGuangxi/05xPR8/34), including a heterosubtypic H5N2 (A/Aquatic bird/orea/W81/05) virus. However, efficient cross-reactivity was not observed against heterosubtypic H9N2 (A/Ck/Korea/H0802/08) and H1N1 (PR/8/34) viruses. Mice immunized with 1.9 ?g HA/dose of MG1109 were completely protected from lethal challenge with heterologous wild-type HPAI H5N1 A/EM/Korea/W149/06 (clade 2.2) and mouse-adapted H5N2 viruses. Furthermore, ferrets administered at least 3.8 ?g HA/dose efficiently suppressed virus growth in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Vaccinated mice and ferrets also demonstrated attenuation of clinical disease signs and limited virus spread to other organs. Thus, this vaccine provided immunogenic responses in mouse and ferret models even against challenge with heterologous HPAI H5N1 and H5N2 viruses. Since the specific strain of HPAI H5N1 virus that would potentially cause the next outbreak is unknown, pre-pandemic vaccine preparation that could provide cross-protection against various H5 strains could be a useful approach in the selection of promising candidate vaccines in the future. PMID:22752912

  3. "Listen to the people": public deliberation about social distancing measures in a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baum, Nancy M; Jacobson, Peter D; Goold, Susan D

    2009-11-01

    Public engagement in ethically laden pandemic planning decisions may be important for transparency, creating public trust, improving compliance with public health orders, and ultimately, contributing to just outcomes. We conducted focus groups with members of the public to characterize public perceptions about social distancing measures likely to be implemented during a pandemic. Participants expressed concerns about job security and economic strain on families if businesses or school closures are prolonged. They shared opposition to closure of religious organizations, citing the need for shared support and worship during times of crises. Group discussions elicited evidence of community-mindedness (e.g., recognition of an extant duty not to infect others), while some also acknowledged strong self-interest. Participants conveyed desire for opportunities for public input and education, and articulated distrust of government. Social distancing measures may be challenging to implement and sustain due to strains on family resources and lack of trust in government. PMID:19882444

  4. Predictive and Reactive Distribution of Vaccines and Antivirals during Cross-Regional Pandemic Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Sánchez, Andrés; Savachkin, Alex

    2011-01-01

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capability. We develop a large-scale simulation-driven optimization model for generating dynamic predictive distribution of vaccines and antivirals over a network of regional pandemic outbreaks. The model incorporates measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the cost of lost productivity and medical expenses. The performance of the strategy is compared to that of the reactive myopic policy, using a sample outbreak in Fla, USA, with an affected population of over four millions. The comparison is implemented at different levels of vaccine and antiviral availability and administration capacity. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of variability of some critical factors on policy performance. The model is intended to support public health policy making for effective distribution of limited mitigation resources. PMID:23074658

  5. Antiviral medication use in a cohort of pregnant women during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Yasseen, A S; Fell, D B; Sprague, A E; Xie, R; Smith, G; Walker, M C; Wen, S W

    2014-11-19

    Preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) during pregnancy with antiviral medication use (AVMU) can mitigate serious health risks to mother and foetus. We report on AVMU in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada, and describe characteristics of AVMU during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. Rates and risk estimates of AVMU were compared across multiple categories and stratified across ILI infection status. Increased AVMU was observed in women with influenza infections, active smokers, those vaccinated against influenza, and those with pre-existing co-morbidities. Decreased AVMU was observed in women with multiple gestations, and those in neighbourhoods of high immigrant concentrations. Our stratified analysis indicated that the observed patterns differed by ILI infection status. We demonstrated that once infected, women across multiple groups were equally likely to use antiviral medications. In this report we also propose possible clinical explanations for the observed differences in AVMU, which will be useful in planning prevention initiatives for future pandemics. PMID:25409120

  6. H7N9 Avian Influenza A Virus and the Perpetual Challenge of Potential Human Pandemicity

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ongoing H7N9 influenza epizootic in China once again presents us questions about the origin of pandemics and how to recognize them in early stages of development. Over the past ~135 years, H7 influenza viruses have neither caused pandemics nor been recognized as having undergone human adaptation. Yet several unusual properties of these viruses, including their poultry epizootic potential, mammalian adaptation, and atypical clinical syndromes in rarely infected humans, suggest that they may be different from other avian influenza viruses, thus questioning any assurance that the likelihood of human adaptation is low. At the same time, the H7N9 epizootic provides an opportunity to learn more about the mammalian/human adaptational capabilities of avian influenza viruses and challenges us to integrate virologic and public health research and surveillance at the animal-human interface. PMID:23839219

  7. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in pediatric inpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranita D Tamma; Alison E Turnbull; Aaron M Milstone; Sara E Cosgrove; Alexandra Valsamakis; Alicia Budd; Trish M Perl

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1) virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI) illness in the pediatric population has been

  8. Pandemic influenza A virus codon usage revisited: biases, adaptation and implications for vaccine strain development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contains eight segments of a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 IAV strain (H1N1pdm) in Mexico and USA. Understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. A comprehensive study to investigate the effect of selection pressure imposed by the human host on the codon usage of an emerging, pandemic IAV strain and the trends in viral codon usage involved over the pandemic time period is much needed. Results We performed a comprehensive codon usage analysis of 310 IAV strains from the pandemic of 2009. Highly biased codon usage for Ala, Arg, Pro, Thr and Ser were found. Codon usage is strongly influenced by underlying biases in base composition. When correspondence analysis (COA) on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) is applied, the distribution of IAV ORFs in the plane defined by the first two major dimensional factors showed that different strains are located at different places, suggesting that IAV codon usage also reflects an evolutionary process. Conclusions A general association between codon usage bias, base composition and poor adaptation of the virus to the respective host tRNA pool, suggests that mutational pressure is the main force shaping H1N1 pdm IAV codon usage. A dynamic process is observed in the variation of codon usage of the strains enrolled in these studies. These results suggest a balance of mutational bias and natural selection, which allow the virus to explore and re-adapt its codon usage to different environments. Recoding of IAV taking into account codon bias, base composition and adaptation to host tRNA may provide important clues to develop new and appropriate vaccines. PMID:23134595

  9. Pacific islands which escaped the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic and their subsequent mortality experiences.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Brundage, J F

    2013-02-01

    Very few Pacific islands escaped the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. Subsequent influenza epidemics in the established colonial outposts of American Samoa and New Caledonia infected many but killed very few persons whereas the extraordinarily isolated Niue, Rotuma, Jaliut and Yule islands experienced high mortality influenza epidemics (>3% of population) following 1918. These dichotomous outcomes indicate that previous influenza exposure and degree of epidemiological isolation were important mortality risk factors during influenza epidemics on Pacific islands. PMID:22564320

  10. Pandemic Potential of a Strain of Influenza A (H1N1): Early Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Fraser; Christl A. Donnelly; Simon Cauchemez; William P. Hanage; Maria D. Van Kerkhove; T. Déirdre Hollingsworth; Jamie Griffin; Rebecca F. Baggaley; Helen E. Jenkins; Emily J. Lyons; Thibaut Jombart; Wes R. Hinsley; Nicholas C. Grassly; Francois Balloux; Azra C. Ghani; Neil M. Ferguson; Andrew Rambaut; Oliver G. Pybus; Hugo Lopez-Gatell; Celia M. Alpuche-Aranda; Ietza Bojorquez Chapela; Ethel Palacios Zavala; Dulce Ma. Espejo Guevara; Francesco Checchi; Erika Garcia; Stephane Hugonnet; Cathy Roth

    2009-01-01

    A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread rapidly across the globe. Judging its pandemic potential is difficult with limited data, but nevertheless essential to inform appropriate health responses. By analyzing the outbreak in Mexico, early data on international spread, and viral genetic diversity, we make an early assessment of transmissibility and severity. Our estimates suggest that 23,000 (range 6000

  11. Physician privacy concerns when disclosing patient data for public health purposes during a pandemic influenza outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled El Emam; Jay Mercer; Katherine Moreau; Inese Grava-Gubins; David Buckeridge; Elizabeth Jonker

    2011-01-01

    Background  Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the\\u000a case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good\\u000a should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they\\u000a are diluted

  12. Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Neumann; Takeshi Noda; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

    2009-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities. A prime example is the recent emergence of swine-origin H1N1 viruses that have transmitted to and spread among humans, resulting in outbreaks internationally. Efforts to control these outbreaks

  13. CD8+ T Cell Immunity to 2009 Pandemic and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Scheible, Kristin; Zhang, Gang; Baer, Jane; Azadniv, Mitra; Lambert, Kris; Pryhuber, Gloria; Treanor, John J.; Topham, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel strain of H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) emerged in 2009, causing a worldwide pandemic. Several studies suggest that this virus is antigenically more closely related to human influenza viruses that circulated prior to 1957 than viruses of more recent seasonal influenza varieties. The extent to which individuals who are naďve to the 2009 pH1N1 virus carry cross-reactive CD8+ T cells is not known, but a certain degree of reactivity would be expected since there is substantial conservation among the internal proteins of the virus. In the present study, we examined production of multiple cytokines in response to virus from CD8+ T cells in healthy adult subjects, between 18 and 50 years of age (born post 1957), who had no evidence of exposure to the 2009 pH1N1 virus, and had blood collected prior to the emergence of the pandemic in April of 2009. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with a panel of live viruses, and assayed by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. Although results were variable, most subjects exhibited cytokine positive CD8+ T cells in response to pH1N1. Cytokine producing cells were predominantly single positive (IL2, IFN?, or TNF?); triple-cytokine producing cells were relatively rare. This result suggests that although many adults carry cross-reactive T cells against the emergent pandemic virus, these cells are in a functionally limited state, possibly because these subjects have not had recent exposure to either seasonal or pandemic influenza strains. PMID:21211588

  14. Knowledge about pandemic influenza in healthcare and non-healthcare students in London

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Purssell; Alison While

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge of university students regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza.Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate students, including those on nursing, medical, other health and non-health related courses.Method: The sample was recruited using the university email system, and the survey was administered using SurveyMonkey. The questionnaire sought the following data: demographics; general knowledge; intentions with regards

  15. Community-Based Measures for Mitigating the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanyi Tang; Yanni Xiao; Youping Yang; Yicang Zhou; Jianhong Wu; Zhien Ma; Wenjun Li

    2010-01-01

    Since the emergence of influenza A\\/H1N1 pandemic virus in March–April 2009, very stringent interventions including Fengxiao were implemented to prevent importation of infected cases and decelerate the disease spread in mainland China. The extent to which these measures have been effective remains elusive. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of Fengxiao that may inform policy decisions on improving community-based interventions

  16. Developing guidelines for school closure interventions to be used during a future influenza pandemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilimesh Halder; Joel K Kelso; George J Milne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The A\\/H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic revealed that operational issues of school closure interventions, such as when school closure should be initiated (activation trigger), how long schools should be closed (duration) and what type of school closure should be adopted, varied greatly between and within countries. Computer simulation can be used to examine school closure intervention strategies in order to

  17. Outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a school - Hawaii, May 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The first cases of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza were reported by CDC on April 21, 2009. Twenty-one days later, on May 12, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) confirmed two pandemic H1N1 cases from the same school in Oahu. One case was in an 8th-grade student and the other in a 3rd-grade teacher. HDOH initiated an investigation to determine the extent of transmission at the school and among household contacts, and to help establish appropriate control strategies. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which detected an outbreak of pandemic H1N1 cases at the school over the ensuing 3 weeks. A total of 16 cases were identified; all patients recovered with no hospitalizations or deaths. HDOH, the school, and the Hawaii Department of Education (HDOE) instituted an education campaign asking students and employees to stay home if ill. After consulting with HDOH, school officials decided not to close the school; the outbreak ended after 19 days. This outbreak represented the first documented community transmission of pandemic H1N1 virus in Hawaii. The investigation contributed to the early understanding of the epidemiology of H1N1 influenza in Hawaii (e.g., that risk factors for infection would not be restricted to mainland or foreign travel) and the likely role that endemic transmission would play. Influenza activity in schools can serve to inform local public health officials of changing disease patterns, especially early in an epidemic. PMID:20057351

  18. Skin rash and subconjunctival haemorrhage in an adult with pandemic H1N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Khan, Umar H; Shah, Tajamul Hussain; Bagdadi, Farhana

    2013-01-01

    A young man presented with erythematous rash that appeared 3?days following upper respiratory symptoms and fever. Diffuse exanthematous rash was seen over whole body, most pronounced over the trunk. A subconjunctival haemorrhage also appeared in the left eye following incessant cough. Reverse transcription-PCR of the nasopharyngeal secretions revealed influenza A (2009 pandemic H1N1). The patient responded to oseltamivir therapy. Influenza should be considered in patients presenting with exanthematous skin rash. PMID:23761514

  19. Department of Defense influenza and other respiratory disease surveillance during the 2009 pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center’s Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supports and oversees surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, including respiratory diseases, of importance to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). AFHSC-GEIS accomplishes this mission by providing funding and oversight to a global network of partners for respiratory disease surveillance. This report details the system’s surveillance activities during 2009, with a focus on efforts in responding to the novel H1N1 Influenza A (A/H1N1) pandemic and contributions to global public health. Active surveillance networks established by AFHSC-GEIS partners resulted in the initial detection of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the U.S. and several other countries, and viruses isolated from these activities were used as seed strains for the 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine. Partners also provided diagnostic laboratory training and capacity building to host nations to assist with the novel A/H1N1 pandemic global response, adapted a Food and Drug Administration-approved assay for use on a ruggedized polymerase chain reaction platform for diagnosing novel A/H1N1 in remote settings, and provided estimates of seasonal vaccine effectiveness against novel A/H1N1 illness. Regular reporting of the system’s worldwide surveillance findings to the global public health community enabled leaders to make informed decisions on disease mitigation measures and controls for the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. AFHSC-GEIS’s support of a global network contributes to DoD’s force health protection, while supporting global public health. PMID:21388566

  20. The Economic Impact of Pandemic Influenza in the United States: Priorities for Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin I. Meltzer; Nancy J. Cox; Keiji Fukuda

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the possible effects of the next influenza pandemic in the United States and analyzed the economic impact of vaccine-based interventions. Using death rates, hospitalization data, and outpatient visits, we estimated 89,000 to 207,000 deaths; 314,000 to 734,000 hospitalizations; 18 to 42 million outpatient visits; and 20 to 47 million additional illnesses. Patients at high risk (15% of the

  1. Outcome of pandemic H1N1 infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ljungman, Per; de la Camara, Rafael; Perez-Bercoff, Lena; Abecasis, Manuel; Nieto Campuzano, Jose Bartolo; Cannata-Ortiz, M Jimena; Cordonnier, Catherine; Einsele, Hermann; Gonzalez-Vicent, Marta; Espigado, Ildefonso; Halter, Jörg; Martino, Rodrigo; Mohty, Bilal; Sucak, Gülsan; Ullmann, Andrew J; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ward, Katherine N; Engelhard, Dan

    2011-08-01

    During 2009, a new strain of A/H1N1 influenza appeared and became pandemic. A prospective study was performed to collect data regarding risk factors and outcome of A/H1N1 in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Only verified pandemic A/H1N1 influenza strains were included: 286 patients were reported, 222 allogeneic and 64 autologous recipients. The median age was 38.3 years and the median time from transplant was 19.4 months. Oseltamivir was administered to 267 patients and 15 patients received zanamivir. One hundred and twenty-five patients (43.7%) were hospitalized. Ninety-three patients (32.5%) developed lower respiratory tract disease. In multivariate analysis, risk factors were age (OR 1.025; 1.01-1.04; P=0.002) and lymphopenia (OR 2.49; 1.33-4.67; P<0.001). Thirty-three patients (11.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Eighteen patients (6.3%) died from A/H1N1 infection or its complications. Neutropenia (P=0.03) and patient age (P=0.04) were significant risk factors for death. The 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic caused severe complications in stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:21546495

  2. Outcome of pandemic H1N1 infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Per; de la Camara, Rafael; Perez-Bercoff, Lena; Abecasis, Manuel; Nieto Campuzano, Jose Bartolo; Cannata-Ortiz, M. Jimena; Cordonnier, Catherine; Einsele, Hermann; Gonzalez-Vicent, Marta; Espigado, Ildefonso; Halter, Jörg; Martino, Rodrigo; Mohty, Bilal; Sucak, Gülsan; Ullmann, Andrew J; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ward, Katherine N.; Engelhard, Dan

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, a new strain of A/H1N1 influenza appeared and became pandemic. A prospective study was performed to collect data regarding risk factors and outcome of A/H1N1 in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Only verified pandemic A/H1N1 influenza strains were included: 286 patients were reported, 222 allogeneic and 64 autologous recipients. The median age was 38.3 years and the median time from transplant was 19.4 months. Oseltamivir was administered to 267 patients and 15 patients received zanamivir. One hundred and twenty-five patients (43.7%) were hospitalized. Ninety-three patients (32.5%) developed lower respiratory tract disease. In multivariate analysis, risk factors were age (OR 1.025; 1.01–1.04; P=0.002) and lymphopenia (OR 2.49; 1.33–4.67; P<0.001). Thirty-three patients (11.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Eighteen patients (6.3%) died from A/H1N1 infection or its complications. Neutropenia (P=0.03) and patient age (P=0.04) were significant risk factors for death. The 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic caused severe complications in stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:21546495

  3. Pandemic recovery analysis using the dynamic inoperability input-output model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Orsi, Mark J; Bond, Erik J

    2009-12-01

    Economists have long conceptualized and modeled the inherent interdependent relationships among different sectors of the economy. This concept paved the way for input-output modeling, a methodology that accounts for sector interdependencies governing the magnitude and extent of ripple effects due to changes in the economic structure of a region or nation. Recent extensions to input-output modeling have enhanced the model's capabilities to account for the impact of an economic perturbation; two such examples are the inoperability input-output model((1,2)) and the dynamic inoperability input-output model (DIIM).((3)) These models introduced sector inoperability, or the inability to satisfy as-planned production levels, into input-output modeling. While these models provide insights for understanding the impacts of inoperability, there are several aspects of the current formulation that do not account for complexities associated with certain disasters, such as a pandemic. This article proposes further enhancements to the DIIM to account for economic productivity losses resulting primarily from workforce disruptions. A pandemic is a unique disaster because the majority of its direct impacts are workforce related. The article develops a modeling framework to account for workforce inoperability and recovery factors. The proposed workforce-explicit enhancements to the DIIM are demonstrated in a case study to simulate a pandemic scenario in the Commonwealth of Virginia. PMID:19961556

  4. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, She-Lan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Xu-Hui; Chen, Jin; Huang, Ren-Jie; Ruan, Bing; He, Hong-Xuan; Wang, Cheng-Min; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Sun, Zhou; Xie, Li; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen abstracts and 87 full texts regarding pregnant women infected with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus were systematically reviewed by using a PubMed search and assessing pandemic, clinical, laboratory test, vaccine, and control experiences. Both policy and health education were excluded. This review counted the total number of pregnant cases from different countries and analyzed their epidemic features, including trimester distribution, morbidity, hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions, maternal mortality, underlying diseases, complications, high-risk factors for death, pregnancy outcome, and clinical symptoms compared with the previous pandemic seasonal influenza A/H1N1 as compared with the general population. Early identification and treatment were the most important factors in different countries and areas examined. The vaccine and antiviral drugs that have been the most efficient means to control the novel virus appear to be safe but require more extensive study. In the future, the focus should be placed on understanding vertical transmission and the severe mechanisms. PMID:22411229

  5. Serological evidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Abiola, Olusoji J; Sausy, Aurélie; Okwen, Mbah P; Olubayo, Ayoade G; Owoade, Ademola A; Muller, Claude P

    2015-03-23

    Besides birds, pigs are another important reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to human, as highlighted by the emergence and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) virus (pdm/09) in 2009. Surveillance in pigs is therefore necessary for public health and influenza pandemic preparedness. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of data on influenza in Africa, especially in swine. We therefore collected serum samples from pigs in Nigeria (2009, 2012) and Cameroon (2011) in which the presence of anti-influenza A neutralizing antibodies was investigated. Our serological survey suggests that, before the 2009 pandemic, only rare swine and human H3N2 or human H1N1 infections occurred in Nigeria in swine. However, in 2011-2012, 27.4% of pigs in Nigeria and 5.6% in Cameroon had antibodies against H1N1 viruses. Higher antibody titres against pdm/09 suggested that pigs were exposed to this or a similar virus, either by multiple introductions or sustained circulation, and that reactivity against American and European swine H1N1 viruses resulted from cross-reaction. PMID:25631252

  6. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    PubMed

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production. PMID:23677594

  7. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Rafael A.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Stertz, Silke; Seibert, Christopher W.; Hai, Rong; Belshe, Robert B.; Frey, Sharon E.; Basler, Christopher F.; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    The 1918 influenza A virus caused the most devastating pandemic, killing approximately 50 million people worldwide. Immunization with 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 virus vaccines results in cross-protective antibodies against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, indicating antigenic similarities among these viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine elicits 1918 virus cross-protective antibodies in mice and humans, and that vaccination or passive transfer of human-positive sera reduced morbidity and conferred full protection from lethal challenge with the 1918 virus in mice. The spread of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in the population worldwide, in addition to the large number of individuals already vaccinated, suggests that a large proportion of the population now have cross-protective antibodies against the 1918 virus, greatly alleviating concerns and fears regarding the accidental exposure/release of the 1918 virus from the laboratory and the use of the virus as a bioterrorist agent. PMID:20975689

  8. Estimating the costs of school closure for mitigating an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Sadique, Md Z; Adams, Elisabeth J; Edmunds, William J

    2008-01-01

    Background School closure is a key component of many countries' plans to mitigate the effect of an influenza pandemic. Although a number of studies have suggested that such a policy might reduce the incidence, there are no published studies of the cost of such policies. This study attempts to fill this knowledge gap Methods School closure is expected to lead to significant work absenteeism of working parents who are likely to be the main care givers to their dependent children at home. The cost of absenteeism due to school closure is calculated as the paid productivity loss of parental absenteeism during the period of school closure. The cost is estimated from societal perspective using a nationally representative survey. Results The results show that overall about 16% of the workforce is likely to be the main caregiver for dependent children and therefore likely to take absenteeism. This rises to 30% in the health and social care sector, as a large proportion of the workforce are women. The estimated costs of school closure are significant, at Ł0.2 bn – Ł1.2 bn per week. School closure is likely to significantly exacerbate the pressures on the health system through staff absenteeism. Conclusion The estimates of school closure associated absenteeism and the projected cost would be useful for pandemic planning for business continuity, and for cost effectiveness evaluation of different pandemic influenza mitigation strategies. PMID:18435855

  9. Randomised active programs on healthcare workers’ flu vaccination in geriatric health care settings in France: The vesta study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rothan-Tondeur; Y. Filali-Zegzouti; J.-L. Golmard; B. De Wazieres; F. Piette; F. Carrat; B. Lejeune; Gaëtan Gavazzi

    Background  Because of a lack of efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly population, there are still numerous outbreaks in geriatric\\u000a health care settings. The health care workers (HCW) flu vaccination is known to get herd immunity and decrease the impact\\u000a of influenza in elderly population living in geriatric health care settings. However, the rates of vaccinated HCWs are still\\u000a low in

  10. Multi-spectral fluorescent reporter influenza viruses (Color-flu) as powerful tools for in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Satoshi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Dongming; Ozawa, Makoto; Ando, Tomomi; Shoemaker, Jason E.; Ishikawa, Izumi; Yamada, Shinya; Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Shinji; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease; highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Although numerous studies have addressed the pathogenicity of influenza viruses, influenza pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours (‘Color-flu’ viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. On adaptation to mice, stable expression of the fluorescent proteins in infected animals allows their detection by different types of microscopy and by flow cytometry. We use this system to analyse the progression of viral spread in mouse lungs, for live imaging of virus-infected cells, and for differential gene expression studies in virus antigen-positive and virus antigen-negative live cells in the lungs of Color-flu-infected mice. Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis. PMID:25807527

  11. The economy-wide impact of pandemic influenza on the UK: a computable general equilibrium modelling experiment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the potential economic impact of pandemic influenza, associated behavioural responses, school closures, and vaccination on the United Kingdom. Design A computable general equilibrium model of the UK economy was specified for various combinations of mortality and morbidity from pandemic influenza, vaccine efficacy, school closures, and prophylactic absenteeism using published data. Setting The 2004 UK economy (the most up to date available with suitable economic data). Main outcome measures The economic impact of various scenarios with different pandemic severity, vaccination, school closure, and prophylactic absenteeism specified in terms of gross domestic product, output from different economic sectors, and equivalent variation. Results The costs related to illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product (Ł8.4bn to Ł16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% (Ł55.5bn to Ł72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. School closure increases the economic impact, particularly for mild pandemics. If widespread behavioural change takes place and there is large scale prophylactic absence from work, the economic impact would be notably increased with few health benefits. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product (Ł2.2bn to Ł38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% (Ł5.0bn to Ł72.3bn); and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios. Conclusion Balancing school closure against “business as usual” and obtaining sufficient stocks of effective vaccine are more important factors in determining the economic impact of an influenza pandemic than is the disease itself. Prophylactic absence from work in response to fear of infection can add considerably to the economic impact. PMID:19926697

  12. Requirements and Design of the PROSPER Protocol for Implementation of Information Infrastructures Supporting Pandemic Response: A Nominal Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Gursky, Elin A.; Strömgren, Magnus; Holm, Einar; Ekberg, Joakim; Eriksson, Olle; Grimvall, Anders; Valter, Lars; Nyce, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Advanced technical systems and analytic methods promise to provide policy makers with information to help them recognize the consequences of alternative courses of action during pandemics. Evaluations still show that response programs are insufficiently supported by information systems. This paper sets out to derive a protocol for implementation of integrated information infrastructures supporting regional and local pandemic response programs at the stage(s) when the outbreak no longer can be contained at its source. Methods Nominal group methods for reaching consensus on complex problems were used to transform requirements data obtained from international experts into an implementation protocol. The analysis was performed in a cyclical process in which the experts first individually provided input to working documents and then discussed them in conferences calls. Argument-based representation in design patterns was used to define the protocol at technical, system, and pandemic evidence levels. Results The Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER) outlines the implementation of information infrastructure aligned with pandemic response programs. The protocol covers analyses of the community at risk, the response processes, and response impacts. For each of these, the protocol outlines the implementation of a supporting information infrastructure in hierarchical patterns ranging from technical components and system functions to pandemic evidence production. Conclusions The PROSPER protocol provides guidelines for implementation of an information infrastructure for pandemic response programs both in settings where sophisticated health information systems already are used and in developing communities where there is limited access to financial and technical resources. The protocol is based on a generic health service model and its functions are adjusted for community-level analyses of outbreak detection and progress, and response program effectiveness. Scientifically grounded reporting principles need to be established for interpretation of information derived from outbreak detection algorithms and predictive modeling. PMID:21464918

  13. Incidence of hospital admissions and severe outcomes during the first and second waves of pandemic (H1N1) 2009

    PubMed Central

    Helferty, Melissa; Vachon, Julie; Tarasuk, Jill; Rodin, Rachel; Spika, John; Pelletier, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background Canada experienced two distinct waves of pandemic (H1N1) influenza during the 2009 pandemic, one in the spring and the second in early fall 2009. We compared the incidence of hospital admissions and severe outcomes (admission to intensive care unit [ICU] and death) during the two waves. Methods We reviewed data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) influenza that resulted in hospital admission, ICU admission or death reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada by all provinces and territories from Apr. 18, 2009, to Apr. 3, 2010. Results A total of 8678 hospital admissions (including 1473 ICU admissions) and 428 deaths related to pandemic (H1N1) influenza were reported during the pandemic and post-peak period. There were 4.8 times more hospital admissions, 4.0 times more ICU admissions and 4.6 times more deaths in the second pandemic wave than in the first wave. ICU admissions and deaths as a proportion of hospital admissions declined in the second wave; there was a 16% proportional decline in ICU admissions and a 6% proportional decline in deaths compared with the first wave. Compared with patients admitted to hospital in the first wave, those admitted in the second wave were older (median age 30 v. 23 years) and more had underlying conditions (59.7% v. 47.5%). Pregnant women and Aboriginal people accounted for proportionally fewer patients who were admitted to hospital or who died in the second wave than in the first. Interpretation The epidemiologic features of the first and second waves of the 2009 pandemic differed. The second wave was substantially larger and, although the patients admitted to hospital were older and more of them had underlying conditions, a smaller proportion had a severe outcome. PMID:21059773

  14. Influenza A pandemics of the 20th century with special reference to 1918: virology, pathology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oxford, J S

    2000-01-01

    Influenza A virus initiated worldwide epidemics (pandemics) in 1918, 1957, 1968 and 1977. A revised calculation of the 1918-1919 pandemic estimates that 40 million persons died and 500 million were infected. The mortalities in 1957 and 1968 were nearly 6 million. Biological and genetic characteristics of the causative agents of the more recent pandemics, have been well studied but little is known about the causative agent of the Great Pandemic in 1918. Genetic characterisation of the 1918 virus has been achieved by sourcing virus RNA from formalin fixed lung samples or by exhuming frozen victims of the outbreak from Arctic regions. Initial analysis of the HA gene from two USA sources indicates a virus related to swine and human influenza with no base insertion at the HA1-HA2 cleavage junction which, at least in avian influenza A, characterises high virulence. Important unanswered questions are whether the 1918 virus spread pantropically perhaps to include the brain and hence cause encephalitis including the later lethargic forms, or whether infection was confined to the respiratory tract. Re-examination of reports of respiratory disease in England and France in 1916-1917 may indicate a non-Spanish origin of the pandemic and a period of 2 years for the virus to be seeded worldwide. In contrast the other two pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 appeared to originate in Asia. New anti-neuraminidase drugs in conjunction with amantadine and novel developments with influenza vaccines would be expected to ameliorate the disease in a future pandemic. PMID:10713598

  15. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Vaccination against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009

    PubMed Central

    Khazeni, Nayer; Hutton, David W; Garber, Alan M; Hupert, Nathaniel; Owens, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Background A matched vaccine for the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus will not be ready until autumn, 2009; decisions regarding timing of vaccination and percentage of population to vaccinate are complex. Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pandemic (H1N1) vaccination in October or November, 2009. Design Compartmental epidemic model in conjunction with a Markov model of disease progression. Data Sources Literature and expert opinion. Target Population Residents of a major U.S. metropolitan city with a population of 8.3 million. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Interventions Vaccination in mid-October or mid-November, 2009. Outcome Measures Infections and deaths averted, costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness. Results of Base Case Analysis At R0 of 1.5, vaccinating 20% of the population in October or November would be cost-saving. Vaccination in October would avert 1,067 deaths, gain 36,610 QALYs, and save $159 million; vaccination in November would avert 802 deaths, gain 27,416 QALYs and save $83 million relative to no vaccination. Vaccination of 37% of the population in October or 33% in November would slow widespread transmission of the pandemic. Results of Sensitivity Analysis If longer incubation periods, lower infectiousness, or increased implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions delay time to the peak of the pandemic, vaccination in the autumn could be even more cost-saving. In contrast, if the epidemic peaks earlier, vaccination saves fewer lives and is less cost-effective. Limitations The model assumed homogenous mixing; heterogeneous mixing would result in more rapid initial spread, followed by slower spread to lower contact rates. Additional costs and savings not included in the model would make vaccination more cost-saving. Conclusions Absent additional harms, vaccination earlier in the epidemic prevents more deaths and saves more costs. Complete population coverage is not necessary to reduce viral reproductive rate sufficiently to help shorten the pandemic. PMID:20008759

  16. wFlu: Characterization and Evaluation of a Native Wolbachia from the Mosquito Aedes fluviatilis as a Potential Vector Control Agent

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela da Silva; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest and practical progress in using the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia as a vector control agent for human vector-borne diseases. Such vector control strategies may require the introduction of multiple, different Wolbachia strains into target vector populations, necessitating the identification and characterization of appropriate endosymbiont variants. Here, we report preliminary characterization of wFlu, a native Wolbachia from the neotropical mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, and evaluate its potential as a vector control agent by confirming its ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, and measuring its effect on three parameters determining host fitness (survival, fecundity and fertility), as well as vector competence (susceptibility) for pathogen infection. Using an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. fluviatilis cured of its native Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment, we show that in its natural host wFlu causes incomplete, but high levels of, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, has high rates of maternal transmission, and no detectable fitness costs, indicating a high capacity to rapidly spread through host populations. However, wFlu does not inhibit, and even enhances, oocyst infection with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. The stage- and sex-specific density of wFlu was relatively low, and with limited tissue distribution, consistent with the lack of virulence and pathogen interference/symbiont-mediated protection observed. Unexpectedly, the density of wFlu was also shown to be specifically-reduced in the ovaries after bloodfeeding Ae. fluviatilis. Overall, our observations indicate that the Wolbachia strain wFlu has the potential to be used as a vector control agent, and suggests that appreciable mutualistic coevolution has occurred between this endosymbiont and its natural host. Future work will be needed to determine whether wFlu has virulent host effects and/or exhibits pathogen interference when artificially-transfected to the novel mosquito hosts that are the vectors of human pathogens. PMID:23555728

  17. Level of Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza among Key Leaders in Brazos County

    E-print Network

    Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-02-14

    for protection against avian influenza (Stephenson, Nicholson, Wood, Zambon, & Katz, 2004). Obviously, the planning assumption behind the BCPIPP was that the strain would be avian in origin and spread from overseas. This presented problems when a new strain..., 6(4), 286-291 doi: 10.4161/hv.6.4.11941 Sandman, P.M. & Lanard, J. (2005). Bird flu: Communicating the risk. Perspectives in Health, 10(2), 2-9. Retrieved from http://www.paho.org/english/dd/pin/ Number22_article1.htm Stephenson, I., Nicholson...

  18. Influenza activity in Saint Joseph, Missouri 1910-1923: Evidence for an early wave of the 1918 pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    While the 1918/1919 H1N1 influenza pandemic is widely recognized as a “worst-case scenario” for the emergence of a new influenza strain, relatively little is known about the origin of the responsible virus and its pattern of spread. Most studies of this virus in the United States rely on temporally and spatially aggregated data. Location-specific studies of the impact of the 1918 pandemic strain in the United States have been confined primarily to large cities on the East Coast or West Coast. In this study, data on pneumonia and influenza fatalities from 1910-1923 have been extracted from death certificates for Saint Joseph, Missouri, a typical mid-sized city in the central United States. An increase in pneumonia and influenza mortality was noted starting in the 1915/1916 influenza season. Initially, increased mortality was observed in infants and the elderly. In February 1918, an age-shift typical of pandemic strains of virus was seen, as the burden of mortality shifted to young adults, a characteristic of the 1918 pandemic virus. These results provide one of the first confirmations of the existence of a “herald wave” of influenza activity in the United States prior to the recognized start of the H1N1 pandemic in Spring 1918. This study is one of very few that measures the impact of 1918/1919 influenza in a particular location in the central United States. PMID:22183018

  19. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  20. Were people imitating others or exercising rational choice in on-line searches for 'swine flu'?

    E-print Network

    Bentley, R Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Two general patterns have been identified for the adoption and subsequent abandonment of ideas or products within a population. One is symmetric, so that concepts or products which are adopted rapidly then decline rapidly from their peak, and those which are slower to move to their peak decline more slowly. The other is asymmetric, where the decline from the peak is considerably slower than is the rise to the peak, and vice versa. We posit that these contrasting patterns arise from two fundamentally different modes of behaviour which are used by humans in making choices in different contexts. Namely, choice based on the imitation of the choices of others versus purposeful selection based upon the inherent attributes of the concept or product. We illustrate the proposition with the example of internet searches for the phrase 'swine flu' in a wide range of countries across the world. The methodology offers a general heuristic for distinguishing between these two general and contrasting modes of behavioural choi...

  1. PapMV nanoparticles improve mucosal immune responses to the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. Findings In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination. PMID:24885884

  2. Will the community nurse continue to function during H1N1 influenza pandemic: a cross-sectional study of Hong Kong community nurses?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliza LY Wong; Samuel YS Wong; Kenny Kung; Annie WL Cheung; Tiffany T Gao; Sian Griffiths

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers have been identified as one of the high risk groups for being infected with influenza during influenza pandemic. Potential levels of absenteeism among healthcare workers in hospital settings are high. However, there was no study to explore the attitudes of healthcare workers in community setting towards the preparedness to the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. The aim of

  3. Vaccination against the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among healthcare workers in the major teaching hospital of Sicily (Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuele Amodio; Giovanna Anastasi; Maria Grazia Laura Marsala; Maria Valeria Torregrossa; Nino Romano; Alberto Firenze

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate factors involved in vaccination acceptance among healthcare workers (HCWs) and adverse reactions rates associated with pandemic influenza vaccination. The study was carried out in the major teaching hospital of Sicily from November 2009 to February 2010 on 2267 HCWs. A total of 407 (18%) HCWs were vaccinated against the 2009 pandemic influenza

  4. A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

  5. A surge of flu-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in an Austrian tertiary care hospital during the 2009/2010 Influenza A H1N1v pandemic.

    PubMed

    Schellongowski, Peter; Ullrich, Roman; Hieber, Cornelia; Hetz, Hubert; Losert, Heidrun; Hermann, Maria; Hermann, Alexander; Gattringer, Klaus-Bernhard; Siersch, Viktoria; Rabitsch, Werner; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Bojic, Andja; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Laczika, Klaus; Locker, Gottfried J; Staudinger, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    We report on 17 patients with influenza A H1N1v-associated Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between June 11th 2009 and August 10th 2010 (f/m: 8/9; age: median 39 (IQR 29-54) years; SAPS II: 35 (29-48)). Body mass index was 26 (24-35), 24% were overweight and 29% obese. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was 1 (0-2) and all but one patient had comorbid conditions. The median time between onset of the first symptom and admission to the ICU was 5 days (range 0-14). None of the patients had received vaccination against H1N1v. Nine patients received oseltamivir, only two of them within 48 hours of symptom onset. All patients developed severe ARDS (PaO(2)/FiO(2)-Ratio 60 (55-92); lung injury score 3.8 (3.3-4.0)), were mechanically ventilated and on vasopressor support. Fourteen patients received corticosteroids, 7 patients underwent hemofiltration, and 10 patients needed extracorporeal membrane-oxygenation (ECMO; 8 patients veno-venous, 2 patients veno-arterial), three patients Interventional Lung Assist (ILA) and two patients pump driven extracorporeal low-flow CO(2)-elimination (ECCO(2)-R). Seven of 17 patients (41%) died in the ICU (4 patients due to bleeding, 3 patients due to multi-organ failure), while all other patients survived the hospital (59%). ECMO mortality was 50%. The median ICU length-of-stay was 26 (19-44) vs. 21 (17-25) days (survivors vs. nonsurvivors), days on the ventilator were 18 (14-35) vs. 20 (17-24), and ECMO duration was 10 (8-25) vs. 13 (11-16) days, respectively (all p = n.s.). Compared to a control group of 241 adult intensive care unit patients without H1N1v, length of stay in the ICU, rate of mechanical ventilation, days on the ventilator, and TISS 28 scores were significantly higher in patients with H1N1v. The ICU survival tended to be higher in control patients (79 vs. 59%; p = 0.06). Patients with H1N1v admitted to either of our ICUs were young, overproportionally obese and almost all with existing comorbidities. All patients developed severe ARDS, which could only be treated with extracorporeal gas exchange in an unexpectedly high proportion. Patients with H1N1v had more complicated courses compared to control patients. PMID:21465083

  6. Distribution and dynamics of epidemic and pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Hasan, Nur A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, autochthonous to estuarine, marine, and coastal environments throughout the world, is the causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis. More than 80 serotypes have been described worldwide, based on antigenic properties of the somatic (O) and capsular (K) antigens. Serovar O3:K6 emerged in India in 1996 and subsequently was isolated worldwide, leading to the conclusion that the first V. parahaemolyticus pandemic had taken place. Most strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from the environment or seafood, in contrast to clinical strains, do not produce a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or a TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs), needle-like apparatuses able to deliver bacterial effectors into host cytoplasm, were identified as triggering cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity. Type 6 secretion systems (T6SS) predicted to be involved in intracellular trafficking and vesicular transport appear to play a role in V. parahaemolyticus virulence. Recent advances in V. parahaemolyticus genomics identified several pathogenicity islands (VpaIs) located on either chromosome in both epidemic and pandemic strains and comprising additional colonization factors, such as restriction-modification complexes, chemotaxis proteins, classical bacterial surface virulence factors, and putative colicins. Furthermore, studies indicate strains lacking toxins and genomic regions associated with pathogenicity may also be pathogenic, suggesting other important virulence factors remain to be identified. The unique repertoire of virulence factors identified to date, their occurrence and distribution in both epidemic and pandemic strains worldwide are described, with the aim of highlighting the complexity of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity as well as its dynamic genome. PMID:24377090

  7. Can Photoperiod Predict Mortality in the 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude of the seasonal change in day length increases with distance from the equator, and changes in day length markedly alter immune function in diverse nonhuman animal models of infection. Historical records of mortality data, ambient temperature, population density, geography, and economic indicators from 42 countries during 1918-1920 were analyzed to determine relative contributions toward human mortality during the “Spanish” influenza pandemic of 1918-1920. The data identify a strong negative relation between distance from the equator and mortality during the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic, which, in a multiple regression model, manifested independent of major economic, demographic, and temperature variables. Enhanced survival was evident in populations that experienced a winter nadir day length ?10 h light/day, relative to those that experienced lower amplitude changes in photoperiod. Numerous reports indicate that exposure to short day lengths, typical of those occurring outside the tropics during winter, yields robust and enduring reductions in the magnitude of cytokine, febrile, and behavioral responses to infection. The present results are preliminary but prompt the conjecture that, if similar mechanisms are operant in humans, then they would be predicted to mitigate symptoms of infection in proportion to an individual's distance from the equator. Although limitations and uncertainties accompany regression-based analyses of historical epidemiological data, latitude, per se, may be an underrecognized factor in mortality during the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic. The author proposes that some proportion of the global variance in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases may be explained by effects of day length on the innate immune response to infection. PMID:21775293

  8. Surfactant protein A genetic variants associate with severe respiratory insufficiency in pandemic influenza A virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inherited variability in host immune responses influences susceptibility and outcome of Influenza A virus (IAV) infection, but these factors remain largely unknown. Components of the innate immune response may be crucial in the first days of the infection. The collectins surfactant protein (SP)-A1, -A2, and -D and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) neutralize IAV infectivity, although only SP-A2 can establish an efficient neutralization of poorly glycosylated pandemic IAV strains. Methods We studied the role of polymorphic variants at the genes of MBL (MBL2), SP-A1 (SFTPA1), SP-A2 (SFTPA2), and SP-D (SFTPD) in 93 patients with H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1pdm) infection. Results Multivariate analysis showed that two frequent SFTPA2 missense alleles (rs1965708-C and rs1059046-A) and the SFTPA2 haplotype 1A0 were associated with a need for mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The SFTPA2 haplotype 1A1 was a protective variant. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression also showed that diplotypes not containing the 1A1 haplotype were associated with a significantly shorter time to ICU admission in hospitalized patients. In addition, rs1965708-C (P?=?0.0007), rs1059046-A (P?=?0.0007), and haplotype 1A0 (P?=?0.0004) were associated, in a dose-dependent fashion, with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, whereas haplotype 1A1 was associated with a higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P?=?0.001). Conclusions Our data suggest an effect of genetic variants of SFTPA2 on the severity of H1N1pdm infection and could pave the way for a potential treatment with haplotype-specific (1A1) SP-A2 for future IAV pandemics. PMID:24950659

  9. Prior Population Immunity Reduces the Expected Impact of CTL-Inducing Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza Control

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Kirsty J.; McCaw, James M.; Brown, Lorena; Jackson, David; Kedzierska, Katherine; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines that trigger an influenza-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response may aid pandemic control by limiting the transmission of novel influenza A viruses (IAV). We consider interventions with hypothetical CTL-inducing vaccines in a range of epidemiologically plausible pandemic scenarios. We estimate the achievable reduction in the attack rate, and, by adopting a model linking epidemic progression to the emergence of IAV variants, the opportunity for antigenic drift. We demonstrate that CTL-inducing vaccines have limited utility for modifying population-level outcomes if influenza-specific T cells found widely in adults already suppress transmission and prove difficult to enhance. Administration of CTL-inducing vaccines that are efficacious in "influenza-experienced" and "influenza-naive" hosts can likely slow transmission sufficiently to mitigate a moderate IAV pandemic. However if neutralising cross-reactive antibody to an emerging IAV are common in influenza-experienced hosts, as for the swine-variant H3N2v, boosting CTL immunity may be ineffective at reducing population spread, indicating that CTL-inducing vaccines are best used against novel subtypes such as H7N9. Unless vaccines cannot readily suppress transmission from infected hosts with naive T cell pools, targeting influenza-naive hosts is preferable. Such strategies are of enhanced benefit if naive hosts are typically intensively mixing children and when a subset of experienced hosts have pre-existing neutralising cross-reactive antibody. We show that CTL-inducing vaccination campaigns may have greater power to suppress antigenic drift than previously suggested, and targeting adults may be the optimal strategy to achieve this when the vaccination campaign does not have the power to curtail the attack rate. Our results highlight the need to design interventions based on pre-existing cellular immunity and knowledge of the host determinants of vaccine efficacy, and provide a framework for assessing the performance requirements of high-impact CTL-inducing vaccines. PMID:25811654

  10. Duration of viral shedding in hospitalized patients infected with pandemic H1N1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Meschi; Marina Selleri; Eleonora Lalle; Licia Bordi; Maria B Valli; Federica Ferraro; Giuseppe Ippolito; Nicola Petrosillo; Francesco N Lauria; Maria R Capobianchi

    2011-01-01

    Background  The first influenza pandemic of the 21th century was ignited by a new strain of influenza A virus (A\\/H1N1pdm). Specific patient\\u000a groups, including those with comorbidities, pregnant women, young children, older and immunocompromised patients, are at increased\\u000a risk for serious influenza-related disease. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of clinical presentation,\\u000a antiviral treatment and possible drug resistance-associated mutations,

  11. Planning for a pandemic influenza outbreak: roles for librarian liaisons in emergency delivery of educational programs.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006, two librarians at the University of Minnesota's Bio-Medical Library were asked to participate in a task force at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health (SPH). The charge from the dean of SPH was to determine how the school could continue to deliver its educational programs in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak. This paper will outline the work of the task force, discuss its recommendations, and offer ideas on how other librarians can work with their liaison areas to plan for a similar project. PMID:18086638

  12. Significant oral graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with the FLU/MEL conditioning regimen

    PubMed Central

    Vokurka, Samuel; Svoboda, Tomas; Karas, Michal; Koza, Vladimir; Jindra, Pavel; Kazakov, Dmitry; Boudova, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Oral graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a significant complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and there is no consistent information about its characteristics in patients after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen FLU/MEL (fludarabine 120 mg/m2 and melphalan 140mg/m2). Material/Methods This was a single-centre prospective observational study of patients after allogeneic SCT with FLU/MEL conditioning performed during the period 1/2005-12/2007. Characteristics of oral GVHD were observed in 71 patients. The observation was discontinued due to death, donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or new chemotherapy administration. Results In 10/2010, the median duration of the observation of the cohort of the patients was 13 (0.2–69) months, and 42 (35–69) months in the still-ongoing 20/71 (28%) patients. Oral acute GVHD had sporadic 7% incidence, whereas oral chronic GVHD was observed in 33% of patients and persisted with median duration of 188 (11–665) days. Clinical and histopathological features were similar in both acute and chronic oral GVHD and included mucosal lichenoid changes, erythema, ulcerations and pseudomembranes, satellite necrosis, apoptotic bodies and lichenoid interface inflammation. Conclusions It is necessary to consider complex clinical symptomatology and pathological correlations when classifying the oral GVHD, because local oral symptoms and histopathological features in both acute and chronic oral GVHD forms can be similar. Even though the oral chronic GVHD was mild in the majority of patients, it can be considered as clinically significant due to its incidence, duration and symptomatology. The FLU/MEL conditioning regimen should not be considered as low-risk protocol in this context. PMID:21873943

  13. NMR Structure and Dynamics of the Engineered Fluorescein-Binding Lipocalin FluA Reveals Rigidification of ?-Barrel and Variable Loops upon Enthalpy-Driven Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jeffrey L.; Liu, Gaohua; Skerra, Arne; Szyperski, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The NMR structure of the 21 kDa lipocalin FluA, which was previously obtained by combinatorial design, elucidates a reshaped binding site specific for the dye fluorescein resulting from 21 side chain replacements with respect to the parental lipocalin, the naturally occurring bilin-binding protein (BBP). As expected, FluA exhibits the lipocalin fold of BBP, comprising eight antiparallel ?-strands forming a ?-barrel with an ?-helix attached to its side. Comparison of the NMR structure of the free FluA with the X-ray structures of BBP•biliverdin IX? and FluA•fluorescein complexes revealed significant conformational changes in the binding pocket, which is formed by four loops at the open end of the ?-barrel as well as adjoining ?-strand segments. An ‘induced fit’ became apparent for the side-chain conformations of Arg 88 and Phe 99, which contact the bound fluorescein in the complex and undergo concerted rearrangement upon ligand binding. Moreover, slower internal motional modes of the polypeptide backbone were identified by measuring transverse 15N backbone spin relaxation times in the rotating frame for the free FluA and also the FluA•fluorescein complex. A reduction of such motions was detected upon complex formation, indicating rigidification of the protein structure and loss of conformational entropy. This hypothesis was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry, showing that ligand binding is enthalpy driven, thus overcompensating negative entropy associated with both ligand binding per se and rigidification of the protein. Our investigation of the solution structure and dynamics as well as thermodynamics of lipocalin-ligand interaction does not only provide insight into the general mechanism of small molecule accommodation in the deep and narrow cavity of this abundant class of proteins but will also support the future design of corresponding binding proteins with novel specificities, so-called “anticalins”. PMID:19603796

  14. Leveraging partnerships among community pharmacists, pharmacies, and health departments to improve pandemic influenza response.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Sara E; Schulman, Rachel M; Roszak, Andrew R; Herrmann, Jack; Patel, Anita; Koonin, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Response to public health emergencies requires coordination across multiple sectors and effective use of existing resources in communities. With the expanded role of community pharmacists in public health during the past decade, their participation in response to emergencies has become increasingly important. Local health departments play a lead role in local public health emergency responses, and their ability to develop and leverage partnerships has become increasingly vital given their funding and personnel shortages. This article offers insight and recommendations on how local health departments can most effectively develop and maintain relationships with community pharmacies and pharmacists that will allow for a more coordinated and resourceful public health response to emergencies, and specifically to pandemic influenza outbreaks. Additionally, state and local health departments should reach out to pharmacies in a synchronized way to incorporate them into their pandemic influenza planning and response efforts. As pharmacists continue to expand their role as part of the public health system, pharmacy staff can be active participants with public health agencies to improve community public health emergency response. PMID:24697207

  15. SARS and health worker safety: lessons for influenza pandemic planning and response.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Mario A

    2007-01-01

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 provided valuable lessons for protecting health workers during an influenza pandemic or other public health crisis. In its final report, the SARS Commission concluded that a key lesson in worker safety was the precautionary principle. It stated that reasonable actions to reduce risk should not await scientific certainty. As recommended by the SARS Commission, this principle has now been enshrined in the Health Protection and Promotion Act (2007), Ontario's public health legislation and in Ontario's influenza pandemic plan. Another vital lesson for worker safety involves the occupational hygiene concept of a hierarchy of controls. It takes a holistic approach to worker safety, addressing each hazard through control at the source of the hazard, along the path between the worker and the hazard and, lastly, at the worker. Absent such an approach, the SARS Commission said worker safety may focus solely on a particular piece of personal protective equipment, such as an N95 respirator (important as it may be), or on specific policies and procedures, such as fit testing the N95 respirator to the wearer (significant as it may be). In worker safety, said the commission, the integrated whole is greater than the uncoordinated parts. The third and final worker safety lesson of SARS is the importance of having a robust safety culture in the workplace in which workers play an integral role in promoting a safe workplace. PMID:18030033

  16. Pandemic HIV-1 Vpu overcomes intrinsic herd immunity mediated by tetherin

    PubMed Central

    Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei; Morita, Satoru; Inaba, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Junko S.; Kimura, Yuichi; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Iwasa, Yoh; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Among the four groups of HIV-1 (M, N, O, and P), HIV-1M alone is pandemic and has rapidly expanded across the world. However, why HIV-1M has caused a devastating pandemic while the other groups remain contained is unclear. Interestingly, only HIV-1M Vpu, a viral protein, can robustly counteract human tetherin, which tethers budding virions. Therefore, we hypothesize that this property of HIV-1M Vpu facilitates human-to-human viral transmission. Adopting a multilayered experimental-mathematical approach, we demonstrate that HIV-1M Vpu confers a 2.38-fold increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 transmission. When Vpu activity is lost, protected human populations emerge (i.e., intrinsic herd immunity develops) through the anti-viral effect of tetherin. We also reveal that all Vpus of transmitted/founder HIV-1M viruses maintain anti-tetherin activity. These findings indicate that tetherin plays the role of a host restriction factor, providing ‘intrinsic herd immunity’, whereas Vpu has evolved in HIV-1M as a tetherin antagonist. PMID:26184634

  17. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  18. Climate, vegetation, introduced hosts and trade shape a global wildlife pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Rohr, Jason R.; Li, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Global factors, such as climate change, international trade and introductions of exotic species are often elicited as contributors to the unprecedented rate of disease emergence, but few studies have partitioned these factors for global pandemics. Although contemporary correlative species distribution models (SDMs) can be useful for predicting the spatial patterns of emerging diseases, they focus mainly on the fundamental niche (FN) predictors (i.e. abiotic climate and habitat factors), neglecting dispersal and propagule pressure predictors (PP, number of non-native individuals released into a region). Using a validated, predictive and global SDM, we show that both FN and PP accounted for significant, unique variation to the distribution of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen implicated in the declines and extinctions of over 200 amphibian species worldwide. Bd was associated positively with vegetation, total trade and introduced amphibian hosts, nonlinearly with annual temperature range and non-significantly with amphibian leg trade or amphibian species richness. These findings provide a rare example where both FN and PP factors are predictive of a global pandemic. Our model should help guide management of this deadly pathogen and the development of other globally predictive models for species invasions and pathogen emergence influenced by FN and PP factors. PMID:23256195

  19. Human H-ficolin inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anamika; White, Mitchell; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Tripathi, Shweta; Mbianda, Julvet; Ieong, Micheal; Qi, Li; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Takahashi, Kazue; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2012-09-01

    The collectins have been shown to have a role in host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) and other significant viral pathogens (e.g., HIV). The ficolins are a related group of innate immune proteins that are present at relatively high concentrations in serum, but also in respiratory secretions; however, there has been little study of the role of ficolins in viral infection. In this study, we demonstrate that purified recombinant human H-ficolin and H-ficolin in human serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid bind to IAV and inhibit viral infectivity and hemagglutination activity in vitro. Removal of ficolins from human serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reduces their antiviral activity. Inhibition of IAV did not involve the calcium-dependent lectin activity of H-ficolin. We demonstrate that H-ficolin is sialylated and that removal of sialic acid abrogates IAV inhibition, while addition of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir potentiates neutralization, hemagglutinin inhibition, and viral aggregation caused by H-ficolin. Pandemic and mouse-adapted strains of IAV are generally not inhibited by the collectins surfactant protein D or mannose binding lectin because of a paucity of glycan attachments on the hemagglutinin of these strains. In contrast, H-ficolin inhibited both the mouse-adapted PR-8 H1N1 strain and a pandemic H1N1 strain from 2009. H-ficolin also fixed complement to a surface coated with IAV. These findings suggest that H-ficolin contributes to host defense against IAV. PMID:22851708

  20. Public health and economic impact of vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in the context of the annual influenza epidemic and a severe influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemic outbreaks occurred in the US in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Historical evidence suggests that the majority of influenza-related deaths during the 1918 US pandemic were attributable to bacterial pneumococcal infections. The 2009 novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak highlights the importance of interventions that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal disease incidence and mortality during a typical influenza season (13/100) and a severe influenza pandemic (30/100). Outcomes were compared for current PCV7 vaccination practices vs. no vaccination. The model was estimated using published sources and includes indirect (herd) protection of non-vaccinated persons. Results The model predicts that PCV7 vaccination in the US is cost saving for a normal influenza season, reducing pneumococcal-related costs by $1.6 billion. In a severe influenza pandemic, vaccination would save $7.3 billion in costs and prevent 512,000 cases of IPD, 719,000 cases of pneumonia, 62,000 IPD deaths, and 47,000 pneumonia deaths; 84% of deaths are prevented due to indirect (herd) protection in the unvaccinated. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination is highly effective and cost saving in both normal and severe pandemic influenza seasons. Current infant vaccination practices may prevent >1 million pneumococcal-related deaths in a severe influenza pandemic, primarily due to herd protection. PMID:20092638

  1. Analysis of the contrasting pathogenicities induced by the D222G mutation in 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza A viruses

    E-print Network

    Shang, Cheng; Whittlestone, Chris S.; Sutherland-Cash, Kyle H.; Wales, David J.

    2015-03-24

    In 2009, the D222G mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus was found to correlate with fatal and severe human infections. Previous static structural analysis suggested that, unlike the H1N1 viruses...

  2. 1. Executive summary Influenza, in its pandemic, zoonotic and seasonal epidemic forms, is a formidable public health

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    #12;2 1. Executive summary Influenza, in its pandemic, zoonotic and seasonal epidemic forms, is a formidable public health threat throughout the world. Seasonal influenza is a highly communicable infection seasonal influenza epidemics can result in an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year

  3. Development of a new candidate H5N1 avian influenza virus for pre-pandemic vaccination production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND. Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses currently circulating in birds have caused hundreds of human infections, and pose a significant pandemic threat. Vaccines are a major component of the public health sector preparedness for this likely event. The rapid evolution of H5N1 vi...

  4. Excess mortality associated with the 2009 A(H1N1)v influenza pandemic in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Excess mortality associated with the 2009 A(H1N1)v influenza pandemic in Antananarivo, Madagascar S revision 12 May 2012; Accepted 23 May 2012 SUMMARY It is difficult to assess the mortality burden to be negligible in Africa. We assessed the impact of the 2009 influenza epidemic on mortality in Madagascar

  5. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza and indigenous populations of the Americas and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    La Ruche, G; Tarantola, A; Barboza, P; Vaillant, L; Gueguen, J; Gastellu-Etchegorry, M

    2009-01-01

    There are few structured data available to assess the risks associated with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v infection according to ethnic groups. In countries of the Americas and the Pacific where these data are available, the attack rates are higher in indigenous populations, who also appear to be at approximately three to six-fold higher risk of developing severe disease and of dying. These observations may be associated with documented risk factors for severe disease and death associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza infection (especially the generally higher prevalence of diabetes, obesity, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pregnancy in indigenous populations). More speculative factors include those associated with the risk of infection (e.g. family size, crowding and poverty), differences in access to health services and, perhaps, genetic factors. Whatever the causes, this increased vulnerability of indigenous populations justify specific immediate actions in the control of the current pandemic including primary prevention (intensified hygiene promotion, chemoprophylaxis and vaccination) and secondary prevention (improved access to services and early treatment following symptoms onset) of severe pandemic H1N1 influenza infection. PMID:19883543

  6. Science Highlight May 2010 Structural Basis of Pre-existing Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    . Krause, J.C., et al. Naturally Occurring Human Monoclonal Antibodies Neutralize both 1918 and 2009 of the Sa antigenic site, in particular, of the 2009 H1N1 virus with the early human H1 viruses suggests of the later human viruses provide for a naďve population sus- ceptible to pandemic infection. This analysis

  7. Intra- and Inter-Pandemic Variations of Antiviral, Antibiotics and Decongestants in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Receiving Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Andrew C.; Järhult, Josef D.; Grabic, Roman; Khan, Ghazanfar A.; Lindberg, Richard H.; Fedorova, Ganna; Fick, Jerker; Bowes, Michael J.; Olsen, Björn; Söderström, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir’s active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP’s influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max?=?6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009’s weekly river samples (max?=?193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17–74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max?=?292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max?=?448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally- and spatially-resolved prescription statistics. PMID:25254643

  8. Entry and exit screening of airline travellers during the A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic: a retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Rose; Brownstein, John S; Naqvi, Raza; Hu, Wei; Kossowsky, David; Scales, David; Arino, Julien; MacDonald, Michael; Wang, Jun; Sears, Jennifer; Cetron, Martin S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the screening measures that would have been required to assess all travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico by air at the start of the 2009 pandemic. Methods Data from flight itineraries for travellers who flew from Mexico were used to estimate the number of international airports where health screening measures would have been needed, and the number of travellers who would have had to be screened, to assess all air travellers who could have transported the H1N1 influenza virus out of Mexico during the initial stages of the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Findings Exit screening at 36 airports in Mexico, or entry screening of travellers arriving on direct flights from Mexico at 82 airports in 26 other countries, would have resulted in the assessment of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico at the start of the pandemic. Entry screening of 116 travellers arriving from Mexico by direct or connecting flights would have been necessary for every one traveller at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09. Screening at just eight airports would have resulted in the assessment of 90% of all air travellers at risk of transporting A(H1N1)pdm09 out of Mexico in the early stages of the pandemic. Conclusion During the earliest stages of the A(H1N1) pandemic, most public health benefits potentially attainable through the screening of air travellers could have been achieved by screening travellers at only eight airports. PMID:23678200

  9. [Pathogenic effect of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 under replication in cultures of human cells].

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, O P; Vorob'eva, I V; Safonova, O A; Malyshev, N A; Schwalm, F; Klenk, H -D

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of the pandemic influenza virus H1N1 in cultures of bronchial (Calu-3) and intestinal (Caco-2) differentiated epithelial cells of human origin was studied. The canine epithelial cell lines, MDCK-H and MDCK-2, were comparatively tested. The two human cell lines were found to be highly sensitive to the influenza pandemic strains A/Hamburg/05/09 and A/Moscow/501/2011 and maintained their replication without addition of trypsin to culture medium. Virus strains of seasonal influenza H1N1, such as A/Moscow/450/2003, A/Memphis/14/96, and laboratory strain A/PR/8/34, multiplied in these human cells in similar manner. The intracellular cleavage HA0-->HA1+HA2 by the host virus-activating protease (IAP) occurred in both human cell lines under infection with each influenza virus H1N1 including pandemic ones. Comparatively, this cleavage of all influenza H1N1 virus strains appeared to be either undetectable or low-detectible in MDCK-H and MDCK-2, respectively, thereby implying low levels of active IAP in these cells. Multiplication of pandemic and seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses in Calu-3 and Caco-2 cells caused cytopathic effect, which was accompanied with low autophagy and apoptosis events. These data allow recommending human cell lines, Calu-3 and Caco-2, for optimized isolation and passaging of clinical strains of Influenza pandemic viruses H1N1. PMID:24354061

  10. Exploring Communication, Trust in Government, and Vaccination Intention Later in the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Parmer, John; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Hilyard, Karen M.; Musa, Donald; Kim, Kevin H.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the critical role that risk communication plays in a public health emergency, a number of articles have provided prescriptive best practices to enhance such communication. However, little empirical research has examined perceptions of the quality of communication, the impact of uncertainty on changing communication, use of information sources, and trust in specific government spokespersons. Similarly, although there is significant conceptual focus on trust and communication as important in vaccination intent and acceptance, little research has explored these relationships empirically. We conducted an online survey in late January 2010 with a nationally representative sample (N=2,079) that included Hispanic and African American oversamples. The completion rate was 56%. We found that public health officials were the most trusted spokespersons, with President Obama being the most highly trusted elected official. Demographic variables, including race, accounted for 21% of the variance in trust of the president. Perceptions of the quality of communication were high, including significant understanding of uncertainty and appreciation for officials' openness about evolving information. Other factors that contributed to vaccination acceptance were quality of communication, closely following the news, and confidence in the vaccine because of a role model effect of the Obama daughters' immunizations; these factors significantly increased trust in government actions. Because the challenges of communication often vary over the course of a pandemic, there is a consistent need to pay close attention to both communication content and delivery and prepare public health officials at all levels to be effective communicators. PMID:23617721

  11. arXiv:1001.4715v1[physics.flu-dyn]26Jan2010 Capillary-Gravity Waves Generated by a Sudden Object Motion

    E-print Network

    Shepelyansky, Dima

    arXiv:1001.4715v1[physics.flu-dyn]26Jan2010 Capillary-Gravity Waves Generated by a Sudden Object) We study theoretically the capillary-gravity waves created at the water-air interface by a small source, moves at the free liquid-air interface, it generates capillary-gravity waves. These are driven

  12. arXiv:0706.3330v2[physics.flu-dyn]20Feb2008 Coherent structures in localised and global pipe turbulence

    E-print Network

    Willis, Ashley

    arXiv:0706.3330v2[physics.flu-dyn]20Feb2008 Coherent structures in localised and global pipe Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW, United Kingdom The recent discovery of unstable travelling waves (TWs) in pipe in both structure and en- ergy with known TWs using numerical simulations in a long pipe. These only occur

  13. Disparities among 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Hospital Admissions: A Mixed Methods Analysis – Illinois, April–December 2009

    PubMed Central

    Soyemi, Kenneth; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda; Schneider, Amy; Njai, Rashid; McDonald, Marian; Glover, Maleeka; Garcia, Jocelyn; Aiello, Allison E.

    2014-01-01

    During late April 2009, the first cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) in Illinois were reported. On-going, sustained local transmission resulted in an estimated 500,000 infected persons. We conducted a mixed method analysis using both quantitative (surveillance) and qualitative (interview) data; surveillance data was used to analyze demographic distribution of hospitalized cases and follow-up interview data was used to assess health seeking behavior. Invitations to participate in a telephone interview were sent to 120 randomly selected Illinois residents that were hospitalized during April–December 2009. During April–December 2009, 2,824 pH1N1 hospitalizations occurred in Illinois hospitals; median age (interquartile range) at admission was 24 (range: 6–49) years. Hospitalization rates/100,000 persons for blacks and Hispanics, regardless of age or sex were 2–3 times greater than for whites (blacks, 36/100,000 (95% Confidence Interval ([95% CI], 33–39)); Hispanics, 35/100,000 [95%CI,32–37] (; whites, 13/100,000[95%CI, 12–14); p<0.001). Mortality rates were higher for blacks (0.9/100,000; p<0.09) and Hispanics (1/100,000; p<0.04) when compared with the mortality rates for whites (0.6/100,000). Of 33 interview respondents, 31 (94%) stated that they had heard of pH1N1 before being hospitalized, and 24 (73%) did not believed they were at risk for pH1N1. On average, respondents reported experiencing symptoms for 2 days (range: 1–7) before seeking medical care. When asked how to prevent pH1N1 infection in the future, the most common responses were getting vaccinated and practicing hand hygiene. Blacks and Hispanics in Illinois experienced disproportionate pH1N1 hospitalization and mortality rates. Public health education and outreach efforts in preparation for future influenza pandemics should include prevention messaging focused on perception of risk, and ensure community wide access to prevention messages and practices. PMID:24776852

  14. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99%) would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. Methods A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Results Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group) were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Conclusions Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less of an impact on the economy compared to restricting adult travelers. However, as long as adults have at least a moderate potential to trigger an epidemic, selectively restricting the higher risk group (children) may not be a practical option to delay the arrival of an epidemic substantially. PMID:22078655

  15. Trends in influenza vaccination coverage in Portugal from 1998 to 2010: effect of major pandemic threats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccination is the key measure available for prevention of the public health burden of annual influenza epidemics. This article describes national trends in seasonal influenza vaccine (IV) coverage in Portugal from 1998/99 to 2010/11, analyzes progress towards meeting WHO 2010 coverage goals, and addresses the effect of major public health threats of the last 12 years (SARS in 2003/04, influenza A (H5N1) in 2005/06, and the influenza A (H1N1)2009 pandemic) on vaccination trends. Methods The National Institute of Health surveyed (12 times) a random sample of Portuguese families. IV coverage was estimated and was adjusted for age distribution and country region. Independence of age and sex coverage distribution was tested using a modified F-statistic with a 5% significance level. The effect of SARS, A (H5N1), and the A (H1N1)2009 pandemic was tested using a meta-regression model. The model was adjusted for IV coverage in the general population and in the age groups. Results Between 1998/99 and 2010/11 IV, coverage in the general population varied between 14.2% (CI 95%: 11.6%–16.8%) and 17.5% (CI 95%: 17.6%–21.6%). There was no trend in coverage (p?=?0.097). In the younger age group (<15 years) a declining trend was identified until 2008/09 (p?=?0.005). This trend reversed in 2009/10. There was also a gradual and significant increase in seasonal IV coverage in the elderly (p for trend?pandemic threats of the past decade had a modest but significant effect on seasonal influenza vaccination. There was an increase in vaccine uptake proportion in the general population in 2003/04 and in 2005/06, and in individuals <15 years old in 2009/10. PMID:24314008

  16. Social contact networks for the spread of pandemic influenza in children and teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Laura M; Glass, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Background Influenza is a viral infection that primarily spreads via fluid droplets from an infected person's coughs and sneezes to others nearby. Social contact networks and the way people interact within them are thus important to its spread. We developed a method to characterize the social contact network for the potential transmission of influenza and then applied the method to school aged children and teenagers. Methods Surveys were administered to students in an elementary, middle and high-school in the United States. The social contact network of a person was conceptualized as a set of groups to which they belong (e.g., households, classes, clubs) each composed of a sub-network of primary links representing the individuals within each group that they contact. The size of the group, number of primary links, time spent in the group, and level of contact along each primary link (near, talking, touching, or kissing) were characterized. Public activities done by groups venturing into the community where random contacts occur (e.g., friends viewing a movie) also were characterized. Results Students, groups and public activities were highly heterogeneous. Groups with high potential for the transmission of influenza were households, school classes, friends, and sports; households decreased and friends and sports increased in importance with grade level. Individual public activity events (such as dances) were also important but lost their importance when averaged over time. Random contacts, primarily in school passing periods, were numerous but had much lower transmission potential compared to those with primary links within groups. Students are highly assortative, interacting mainly within age class. A small number of individual students are identified as likely "super-spreaders". Conclusion High-school students may form the local transmission backbone of the next pandemic. Closing schools and keeping students at home during a pandemic would remove the transmission potential within these ages and could be effective at thwarting its spread within a community. Social contact networks characterized as groups and public activities with the time, level of contact and primary links within each, yields a comprehensive view, which if extended to all ages, would allow design of effective community containment for pandemic influenza. PMID:18275603

  17. Specific Inhibitory Effect of ?-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of ?-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of ?-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that ?-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 ?g/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that ?-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when ?-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that ?-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that ?-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that ?-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, ?-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731. PMID:25969984

  18. Ethnic disparities in acquiring 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel risk factors were associated with the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus (pH1N1). Ethnicity was among these risk factors. Ethnic disparities in hospitalization and death due to pH1N1 were noted. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are ethnic disparities in acquiring the 2009 pandemic H1N1. Methods We conducted a test-negative case–control study of the risk of pH1N1 infection using data from Ontario, Canada. Cases were laboratory confirmed to have influenza using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and controls were obtained from the same population and were RT-PCR negative. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between ethnicity and pH1N1 infection, while adjusting for demographic, clinical and ecological covariates. Results Adult cases were more likely than controls to be self-classified as East/Southeast Asian (OR?=?2.59, 95% CI 1.02-6.57), South Asian (OR?=?6.22, 95% CI 2.01-19.24) and Black (OR?=?9.72, 95% CI 2.29-41.27). Pediatric cases were more likely to be self-identified as Black (OR?=?6.43, 95% CI 1.83-22.59). However, pediatric cases without risk factors for severe influenza infection were more likely to be South Asian (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.11-7.68), Black (OR 16.02, 95% CI 2.85-89.92), and West Asian/Arab, Latin American or Multi-racial groups (OR 3.09 95% CI 1.06-9.00). Conclusions pH1N1 cases were more likely to come from certain ethnic groups compared to test-negative controls. Insights into whether these disparities arise due to social or biological factors are needed in order to understand what approaches can be taken to reduce the burden of a future influenza pandemic. PMID:24580862

  19. Cross-sectional follow-up of a flu-like respiratory illness among fiberglass manufacturing employees: endotoxin exposure associated with two distinct sequelae.

    PubMed

    Milton, D K; Amsel, J; Reed, C E; Enright, P L; Brown, L R; Aughenbaugh, G L; Morey, P R

    1995-10-01

    Over a period of 10 years, employees in a manufacturing plant experienced sporadic flu-like episodes after work in a basement containing a recirculated washwater mist. We report a cross-sectional study to define the flu-like illness and bioaerosol exposures. High concentrations of gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (> 10(7) cfu/ml) and endotoxin (range 34-46 micrograms/ml) were found in the water. Mist contained > 10(3) cfu/m3 of GNB, and endotoxin up to 13,900 to 27,800 ng/m3. Few fungi and thermotolerant Bacillus species and no Actinomycetes, Legionella species, or amoeba were found in washwater. Airborne levels of fungi were of the same species and magnitudes as outdoor samples. Subjects volunteered (n = 28) because of a history of flu-like symptoms or were randomly selected (n = 102) from workers with and without current exposure to the basement. No acute cases were examined. Cases did not fulfill criteria for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and high levels of IgG antibodies to water-borne antigens were not observed. However, among 20 subjects indicating a history of severe flu-like episodes (severe basement flu, SBF), diffusion capacity (DLCO) was significantly lower (p = 0.015) than among other workers. The prevalence of SBF was independent of smoking. Cases occurred in clusters, and SBF was more common among workers with intermittent exposure to the basement (19 cases) than with daily exposure (1 case). These findings suggest that SBF and associated chronically depressed DLCO resulted from toxic injury following high-level endotoxin exposure. Asthma was prevalent in the study population, particularly among employees with daily, rather than intermittent, exposure to endotoxin-containing mist (odds ratio 6.7, p = 0.02). Thus, endotoxin exposure in this study was associated with two distinct sequelae depending on the temporal pattern of exposure. PMID:8533789

  20. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Patrick R.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.