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Sample records for pandemic flu preparations

  1. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  2. Difference? Seasonal Flu, Bird Flu, Pandemic Flu

    E-print Network

    What's the Difference? Seasonal Flu, Bird Flu, Pandemic Flu: Influenza (flu) is a contagious exposure.( Vaccine based on each year's predicted strain is recommended.( Avian influenza (bird flu) is caused by a strain of influenza virus that naturally occurs in birds. It is rarely transmitted from sick

  3. Pandemic Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... new, the human population has little to no immunity against it. The virus spreads quickly from person- ... Care Systems Most people have little or no immunity to a pandemic virus. Infection and illness rates ...

  4. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  5. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  6. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  7. Influenza and Pandemic Flu Guidelines Introduction

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    Influenza and Pandemic Flu Guidelines Introduction Pandemic flu is a form of influenza that spreads winter in the UK, pandemic flu can occur at any time of year. Pandemics of influenza have occurred be reached on 0131 451 3242 (out of hours 0131 451 3500). What is swine influenza? Swine Influenza

  8. [The military role in a flu pandemic].

    PubMed

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) policy for the pandemic was stricter than the policy of the Ministry of Health. Defense systems in Israel and the world should prepare, the sooner the better, for the possibility of a worse pandemic, in which the army may take a major role, especially since regular life in the country, in such a case, would be disturbed. PMID:20422833

  9. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels. PMID:20300402

  10. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  11. Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman

    E-print Network

    Osborne, Miles

    Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman School using a Prediction Market specifically concern- ing the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009 the Hubdub online prediction market1 to model public belief about the possibility that H1N1 (Swine Flu) virus

  12. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  13. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  14. Pandemic Flu: What To Know and

    E-print Network

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    cough or sneeze Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it Ifor sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. If a tissue is unavailable, cough or sneeze into your shoulder or elbow instead sick children at home. ­ If you have flu-like symptoms (fever with cough or sore throat), stay home

  15. Understanding social amplification of risk : possible impact of an avian flu pandemic

    E-print Network

    Sundrani, Aamir (Aamir Sultan)

    2007-01-01

    Today, stakeholders expect organizations to be able to endure external shocks. Hence, the real potential of an avian flu pandemic has many corporations developing business continuity plans for the disruptions that a pandemic ...

  16. Avian flu pandemic: Can we prevent it?

    PubMed

    Iwami, Shingo; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Liu, Xianning

    2009-03-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa have led to devastating consequences for poultry, and have resulted in numerous infections in humans. Although these infections from the animal reservoir continue to accumulate, the virus does not seem to spread extensively among humans. However, for example, a process of genetic reassortment could occur in a human who is co-infected with avian influenza A virus and a human strain of influenza A virus. The resulting new virus might then be able to easily infect humans and spread from human to human. Therefore, many experts expect the occurrence of a pandemic due to a mutant virus which can be easily transmitted among humans. Thus, currently, a major public health concern is the next influenza pandemic; yet it remains unclear how to control such a crisis. In this paper, we investigate relations between the evolution of virulence and an effectiveness of pandemic control measures after the emergence of mutant avian influenza; one is an elimination policy of infected birds with avian influenza and the other is a quarantine policy of infected humans with mutant avian influenza. We found that each of these prevention policies can be ineffective (i.e., increase human morbidity or mortality). Further, interestingly, the same intervention might, under the same conditions, increase human morbidity and decrease human mortality, or vice versa. Our practical findings are that the quarantine policy can effectively reduce both human morbidity and mortality but the elimination policy increases either human morbidity or mortality in a worst case situation. PMID:19094996

  17. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  18. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

  19. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems ... make sure you understand all the talk about bird (avian) flu and pandemics. The flu season in ...

  20. Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2006-01-01

    Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

  1. Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

  2. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. PMID:21470893

  3. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued. PMID:17038194

  4. Epidemiologic Modeling with FluSurge for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiandong; Morris, James; Dines, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, we estimated the potential surge in demand for hospital-based services in 4 Health Service Districts of Queensland, Australia, using the FluSurge model. Modifications to the model were made on the basis of emergent evidence and results provided to local hospitals to inform resource planning for the forthcoming pandemic. To evaluate the fit of the model, a comparison between the model’s predictions and actual hospitalizations was made. In early 2010, a Web-based survey was undertaken to evaluate the model’s usefulness. Predictions based on modified assumptions arising from the new pandemic gained better fit than results from the default model. The survey identified that the modeling support was helpful and useful to service planning for local hospitals. Our research illustrates an integrated framework involving post hoc comparison and evaluation for implementing epidemiologic modeling in response to a public health emergency. PMID:21888785

  5. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

  6. Assessing and responding in real time to online anti-vaccine sentiment during a flu pandemic.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Neil; Ing, Alton; Rizo, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The perceived safety of vaccination is an important explanatory factor for vaccine uptake and, consequently, for rates of illness and death. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate Canadian attitudes around the safety of the H1N1 vaccine during the fall 2009 influenza pandemic and (2) to consider how public health communications can leverage the Internet to counteract, in real time, anti-vaccine sentiment. We surveyed a random sample of 175,257 Canadian web users from October 27 to November 19, 2009, about their perceptions of the safety of the HINI vaccine. In an independent analysis, we also assessed the popularity of online flu vaccine-related information using a tool developed for this purpose. A total of 27,382 unique online participants answered the survey (15.6% response rate). Of the respondents, 23.4% considered the vaccine safe, 41.4% thought it was unsafe and 35.2% reported ambivalence over its safety. Websites and blog posts with anti-vaccine sentiment remained popular during the course of the pandemic. Current public health communication and education strategies about the flu vaccine can be complemented by web analytics that identify, track and neutralize anti-vaccine sentiment on the Internet, thus increasing perceived vaccine safety. Counter-marketing strategies can be transparent and collaborative, engaging online "influencers" who spread misinformation. PMID:20959725

  7. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September 2015 Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Flu Center A Kid's Guide to Fever A Kid's Guide to Shots Who Needs a Flu Shot? The Flu: Stop the Spread What to Do ...

  8. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu. PMID:25819057

  9. [The "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918-1919 in La Réunion (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Gaüzčre, B-A; Aubry, P

    2015-01-01

    Brought in by the ship Madonna, which was taking local survivors of World War I back to Reunion, the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic reached the island in March 1919 and lasted for three months. The controversies between doctors and between doctors and the colonial administrators, officials' desertion of their posts, and food shortages together caused a major panic. The epidemic appears to have ravaged people under the age of 40 and the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, at a period when the economy was already in the doldrums and the population had been declining since the late 19th century. Estimates indicate 2000 deaths in the capital of Saint-Denis, among a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and 7 to 20,000 deaths on the island as a whole, representing 4-11% of the population - far more than the 949 local soldiers killed on the battlefields of Europe. According to legend, salvation came from the sky as a small cyclone on May 11, 1919: it lasted an hour, swept away the "miasmas" and washed the island clean of all its impurities. PMID:25500279

  10. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they breathe in tiny airborne droplets from the coughs or sneezes of someone who has the flu. ... through 4. But new symptoms occur, including: Dry cough Increased symptoms that affect breathing Runny nose (clear ...

  11. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  12. Using community triage centres or non-traditional care facilities during a flu pandemic or other infectious disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bone, Eric; Grono, Shawn; Johnson, David H; Johnson, Marcia

    2008-04-01

    One assumption of pandemic planning is that, during an influenza outbreak, acute care facilities may be quickly overrun with patients and as such must prepare in advance. In order to operationalise one component of a pandemic plan, Capital Health in Edmonton, Alberta, piloted a mobile triage centre facility (portable isolation containment systems) and tested pandemic influenza triage and assessment guidelines in the winter of 2006-07. The mobile model provided emergency department surge capacity for communicable disease emergencies with scalable deployment capabilities. The deployable module has several advantages over a fixed structure like a community facility. The triage facility is a location for short-term treatments, such as intravenous therapy, prescriptions, medication distribution, and self-care education, which are needed during a pandemic influenza outbreak. Decanting infectious patients away from the emergency department protects a highly-vulnerable hospitalised group from viral transmission. Based on the pilot, it is found that community triage centres are a viable support option for emergency departments in an urban setting during pandemic influenza. PMID:21339116

  13. The Spanish flu in Uppsala, clinical and epidemiological impact of the influenza pandemic 1918–1919 on a Swedish county

    PubMed Central

    Holtenius, Jonas; Gillman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim The Spanish flu reached Sweden in June 1918, and at least one-third of the population (then 5.8 million) became infected. Some 34,500 persons (5.9 per 1,000 people) died from influenza during the first year of the pandemic (when acute pneumonia is included, the number of deaths rose to 7.1 per 1,000 people). In this historical look back at the pandemic, our aim was to review the epidemiological impact on the Swedish county of Uppsala, the clinical outcomes and the economic impact on the regional hospital; a relevant backgound to consider the impact of a future virulent pandemic. We also focused on how the pandemic was perceived by the medical community and by health care authorities. Methods Health care reports, statistics, daily newspapers, medical journals, and records of patients treated for influenza at the Uppsala Academic Hospital from July 1918 to June 1919 were included in our review. Results An influenza related mortality rate of 693 persons (5.1 per 1,000 people) was reported in the Uppsala region from 1918–1919; from July 1918 to June 1919, 384 patients were treated for influenza at the Uppsala Academic Hospital. The first wave peaked in November 1918 with case fatality rates up to 30%; a second wave peaked in April 1919 with a lower rate of mortality. Of the patients treated, a total of 66 died. Of these, 60% were 20–29 years of age, and 85% were less than 40 years old. Autopsy reports revealed pneumonia in 89% of the cases; among these, 47% were hemorrhagic, 18% were bilateral, and 45% had additional extrapulmonary organ involvement. Signs of severe viral disease were documented, but secondary bacterial disease was the primary cause of death in the majority of cases. Conclusion The epidemiologic and pathologic results were in accordance with other publications of this time period. The costs of running the hospital doubled from 1917 to 1920 and then reversed by 45%. Today, an influenza pandemic of the same virulence would paralyze health care systems and result in extremely high financial costs and rates of mortality. PMID:24455108

  14. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  15. Putting Pandemics in Perspective: England and the Flu, 1889-1919

    E-print Network

    Adams, David Lynn

    2008-01-01

    on the recollections of survivors without putting much emphasis on describing the general setting or the general history of the pandemic. Collier?s aim was to motivate his contemporaries to get vaccinated, which is apparent in the epilogue: ?in Britain alone, in 1967... Press, 1976), 321-323. estimated that if four out of five people had been vaccinated in that year, the total cost could have been cut to ?9 million, and, more important by far, many hundreds of lives could have been saved.?19 Because he chose...

  16. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  17. Caring for Someone Sick (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Flu Guide for Parents Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  18. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... your flu knowledge." /> Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  19. Post-Pandemic Seroprevalence of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection (Swine Flu) among Children <18 Years in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Wirth, Stephan; Kaiser, Petra; Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Schroten, Horst; Streng, Andrea; Liese, Johannes; Shai, Sonu; Niehues, Tim; Girschick, Hermann; Kuscher, Ellen; Sauerbrey, Axel; Peters, Jochen; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz; Rückinger, Simon; Hampl, Walter; Michel, Detlef; Mertens, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1st to July 31st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT) and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1–4 and 5–17 years the prevalence of HI titers (?1?10) was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5–31.3) and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9–56.2) compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3–30.5) in children aged 1–4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6–52.0) in 5–17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ?1?10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5–28.8) reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0–96.6) of the 5–17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5–66.5) of the 1–4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009. Conclusion Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5–17 years) infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03B-adjuvanted split virion vaccine need further scrutiny. PMID:21915270

  20. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

  1. Natural T Cell–mediated Protection against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza. Results of the Flu Watch Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Bermingham, Alison; Copas, Andrew; Dukes, Oliver; Millett, Elizabeth R. C.; Nazareth, Irwin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Watson, John M.; Zambon, Maria; Johnson, Anne M.; McMichael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. Methods: We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus–specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P?pandemic [P?=?0.047] and seasonal [P?=?0.049] periods). Protection was independent of baseline antibodies. Influenza-specific T-cell responses were detected in 43%, indicating a substantial population impact. Conclusions: Naturally occurring cross-protective T-cell immunity protects against symptomatic PCR-confirmed disease in those with evidence of infection and helps to explain why many infections do not cause symptoms. Vaccines stimulating T cells may provide important cross-protective immunity. PMID:25844934

  2. How should we plan for pandemics?

    E-print Network

    Doshi, Peter

    WHO has revised its definition of pandemic flu in response to current experience with A/H1N1. Peter Doshi argues that our plans for pandemics need to take into account more than the worst case scenarios

  3. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... spreading flu to others. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  4. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

  5. Comparative estimation of the reproduction number for pandemic

    E-print Network

    Chowell, Gerardo

    notifications during the autumn wave of the influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) in the city of San Francisco with previous estimates using distinct data. Keywords: Spanish flu; pandemic; influenza; reproduction numberComparative estimation of the reproduction number for pandemic influenza from daily case

  6. Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

  7. Level of Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza among Key Leaders in Brazos County 

    E-print Network

    Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-02-14

    planning committees (Pickles, 2006). This research is novel since, to the researcher?s knowledge, no health education / promotion program looks at behavior of key leaders in addition to their knowledge regarding pandemic influenza preparedness...). Preparing for the next pandemic. N Engl J Med, 352(18), 1839-1842. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp058068 Pickles, H. (2006). Using lessons from the past to plan for pandemic flu. BMJ, 332, 783- 786. doi: 10.1136/bmj.332.7544.783 Reissman, D. B., Watson, P. J...

  8. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    PubMed

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  9. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context - Analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control

    PubMed Central

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as “swine flu”, since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term “swine flu” to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: “Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them,” wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  10. Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to lower ... flu and spreading it to others. The flu vaccine causes antibodies to develop in your body about ...

  11. Bird Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. Most bird flu viruses can only infect other ... be possible to catch bird flu by eating poultry or eggs that are not well cooked or ...

  12. Bulls, Bears, and Birds: Preparing the Financial Industry for an Avian Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Maldin, Beth; Inglesby, Thomas V; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Lien, Onora; Gronvall, Gigi Kwik; Toner, Eric; O'Toole, Tara

    2005-01-01

    Bulls, Bears, and Birds: Preparing the Financial Industry for an Avian Influenza Pandemic was a half day symposium on avian influenza for senior leaders and decision makers from the financial sector with responsibility for business continuity, health, and security. The event brought together experts and leaders from the medical, public health, business continuity, and financial communities to appraise financial industry leaders on the threat of avian influenza and to offer suggestions regarding what the financial industry could do to prepare and respond. PMID:16366846

  13. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your symptoms and their clinical judgment. Will my health care provider test me for flu if I have flu-like ... flu symptoms do not require testing because the test results usually do not change how you are treated. Your health care provider may diagnose you with flu based on ...

  14. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

  15. Updated preparedness and response framework for influenza pandemics.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Rachel; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Zaza, Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Jernigan, Daniel B

    2014-09-26

    The complexities of planning for and responding to the emergence of novel influenza viruses emphasize the need for systematic frameworks to describe the progression of the event; weigh the risk of emergence and potential public health impact; evaluate transmissibility, antiviral resistance, and severity; and make decisions about interventions. On the basis of experience from recent influenza responses, CDC has updated its framework to describe influenza pandemic progression using six intervals (two prepandemic and four pandemic intervals) and eight domains. This updated framework can be used for influenza pandemic planning and serves as recommendations for risk assessment, decision-making, and action in the United States. The updated framework replaces the U.S. federal government stages from the 2006 implementation plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (US Homeland Security Council. National strategy for pandemic influenza: implementation plan. Washington, DC: US Homeland Security Council; 2006. Available at http://www.flu.gov/planning-preparedness/federal/pandemic-influenza-implementation.pdf). The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. The following eight domains are used to organize response efforts within each interval: incident management, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory, community mitigation, medical care and countermeasures, vaccine, risk communications, and state/local coordination. Compared with the previous U.S. government stages, this updated framework provides greater detail and clarity regarding the potential timing of key decisions and actions aimed at slowing the spread and mitigating the impact of an emerging pandemic. Use of this updated framework is anticipated to improve pandemic preparedness and response in the United States. Activities and decisions during a response are event-specific. These intervals serve as a reference for public health decision-making by federal, state, and local health authorities in the United States during an influenza pandemic and are not meant to be prescriptive or comprehensive. This framework incorporates information from newly developed tools for pandemic planning and response, including the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool and the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework, and has been aligned with the pandemic phases restructured in 2013 by the World Health Organization. PMID:25254666

  16. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: policy implications for rural Latino populations.

    PubMed

    Witrago, Eulalia; Perez, Miguel A

    2011-08-01

    Abstract:The purpose of this study was to assess influenza preparedness levels among Spanish-speaking adults ages 18 and older in two rural communities in Central California. Data were collected from 209 participants using the 21-item Emergency Preparedness Measurement Scale, an instrument designed and validated for this study. Results suggest that adult Spanish-speaking Latinos are not prepared for a pandemic influenza regardless of their gender, age, number of years living in the United States, education, or income level. Furthermore, study participants cited lack of insurance, limited knowledge about needed emergency supplies, and preference for fresh foods as reasons for lacking emergency supplies at home. PMID:21857139

  17. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    A/H5N1 ("bird flu") outbreak and the 2009 A/H1N1 ("swine flu") pandemic. Moreover, it doesElectronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 1 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 20132014 Flu Season David Lazer,1,2 * Ryan Kennedy,1

  18. Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Lab

    2009-05-01

    Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

  19. Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection caused by several flu viruses. Like the common cold , it infects the nose, throat, and lungs. Most ... The flu differs in several ways from the common cold (PDF). For example, people with colds rarely get ...

  20. "Stomach Flu"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  1. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  2. Substantial Impact of School Closure on the Transmission Dynamics during the Pandemic Flu H1N1-2009 in Oita, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background School closure is considered as an effective measure to prevent pandemic influenza. Although Japan has implemented many class, grade, and whole school closures during the early stage of the pandemic 2009, the effectiveness of such a school closure has not been analysed appropriately. In addition, analysis based on evidence or data from a large population has yet to be performed. We evaluated the preventive effect of school closure against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and examined efficient strategies of reactive school closure. Materials and Methods Data included daily reports of reactive school closures and the number of infected students in the pandemic in Oita City, Japan. We used a regression model that incorporated a time delay to analyse the daily data of school closure based on a time continuous susceptible-exposed-infected-removed model of infectious disease spread. The delay was due to the time-lag from transmission to case reporting. We simulated the number of students infected daily with and without school closure and evaluated the effectiveness. Results The model with a 3-day delay from transmission to reporting yielded the best fit using R2 (the coefficient of determination). This result suggests that the recommended period of school closure is more than 4 days. Moreover, the effect of school closure in the simulation of school closure showed the following: the number of infected students decreased by about 24% at its peak, and the number of cumulative infected students decreased by about 8.0%. Conclusions School closure was an effective intervention for mitigating the spread of influenza and should be implemented for more than 4 days. School closure has a remarkable impact on decreasing the number of infected students at the peak, but it does not substantially decrease the total number of infected students. PMID:26669757

  3. Severe acute respiratory infections during the influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic in Belgium: first experience of hospital-based flu surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In September 2009, as part of the surveillance during the Influenza A(2009) pandemic, Bel-gium introduced a web-based surveillance system aimed at recording hospitalisations and deaths attributable to Influenza in real time. Methods We present the web-based application developed for the pandemic as well as a descriptive analysis of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) cases reported through this system. Results From 1 September to 31 December 2009, 1723 SARI-related hospitalisations potentially due to influenza were reported in Belgium. The median age of the patients was 29 years (range: < 1 year-99 years). Among SARI-hospitalised patients 68% were aged less than 45 years, 10.6% were vaccinated with the seasonal influenza vaccine and 7.5% with the pandemic influenza vaccine. No deaths were recorded. Conclusions This first experience showed the feasibility of getting real-time information from hospitals during a public health crisis. However, the absence of death detected through the system highlighted the importance of better defining the severity of the hospital cases.

  4. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  5. A universal flu vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kesik-Brodacka, Malgorzata; Plucienniczak, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a global health concern. The single most effective way of protecting people against influenza infection and disease is vaccination. However, currently available vaccines against influenza induce only strain-specific immunity, and do not elicit long-lasting serum antibody titers. Therefore, they are ineffective in the case of possible pandemics. There is an urgent need for a new generation vaccine which would induce broad and long-lasting immune protection against antigenically distinct flu viruses. The paper presents recent achievements and the challenges in the field of universal vaccine construction. PMID:25203218

  6. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  7. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  8. Flu Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... play your goals. Hot Topics Test-Taking Tips Bedbugs Taking Care of Your Teeth Myths About Acne ... Back Continue What to Do If the Flu Bugs You If you get the flu, the best way to take care of yourself is to rest in bed and drink lots of liquids like water and ...

  9. CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not

    E-print Network

    Blower, Sally

    CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary

  10. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  11. Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants’ views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers’ exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians’ concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians’ concerns about IT’s impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital’s preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation’s success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and local levels with insights to refine relevant public health policies for the planning and management of pandemics from the eHealth perspective. PMID:23611788

  12. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine Language: English ... the current flu season. Influenza is dangerous for children Influenza (â??the fluâ?ť) is more dangerous than ...

  13. Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

  14. Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

    2006-12-01

    The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

  15. Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

  16. Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Preparation and Delivery of Critical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Manuell, Mary-Elise; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Ellison, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    In a five week span during the 1918 influenza A pandemic, more than 2,000 patients were admitted to Cook County Hospital in Chicago with a diagnosis of either influenza or pneumonia; 642 patients, approximately 31% of those admitted, died with deaths occurring predominantly in patients twenty-five to thirty years of age.1 This review summarizes basic information on the biology, epidemiology, control, treatment and prevention of influenza overall, and then addresses the potential impact of pandemic influenza in an Intensive Care Unit setting. Issues that require consideration include workforce staffing and safety, resource management, alternate sites of care surge of patients, altered standards of care and crisis communication. PMID:21220275

  17. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you will get complications from the flu, like pneumonia . The flu also can make long-term health ... also can prevent serious flu-related complications (like pneumonia). This is especially important for people with a ...

  18. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePLUS

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care ...

  19. Flu.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu Planning & Preparedness Business Planning Community Planning School ... poultry in the US (USDA) Avian flu in birds (CDC) Avian flu surveillance and preparedness (USDA) About ...

  20. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  1. Pandemic H1N1 influenza: zoonoses are a two-way street

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease representing a worldwide health and economic threat to humans and animals. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern United States in 1918 concurrent with the Spanish flu human pandemic. Since the first report that flu was caused ...

  2. Modeling reduction of pandemic influenza using pharmaceutical and non pharmaceutical interventions in a heterogeneous population

    E-print Network

    Teytelman, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In an event of a pandemic influenza outbreak such as the great "Spanish Flu" of 1918 and the more recent 2009-2010 H1N1 "Swine Flu" scare, pharmaceutical as well as non-pharmaceutical resources are limited in availability ...

  3. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe Concussions: What to Know First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  4. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Complications Diagnosis and Treatment Seasonal Flu Vaccine H1N1 (Swine) Flu Research Multimedia and Publications Skip Website Tools ... in humans and many animals, including ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. Type A influenza viruses caused the ...

  5. Modeling and prediction of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza Sherry Towers and Zhilan Feng

    E-print Network

    Feng, Zhilan

    Modeling and prediction of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza Sherry Towers and Zhilan Feng Supported the course of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We fit the model to the CDC influenza data collected during early and Government Affairs, entitled "H1N1 Flu: Monitoring the Nation's Response". The most striking feature

  6. Preventing the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... less than 6 months of age What is H1N1 flu? The H1N1 influenza (also called swine influenza or swine flu) ... infection caused by a virus found in pigs. H1N1 flu can infect humans. For more information, visit ...

  7. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at high risk for serious flu complications. 2009 H1N1 Influenza The 2009 H1N1 flu is caused by ... 1976 should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers ...

  8. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless) are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation. PMID:19807908

  9. BEAST: UNDERSTANDING THE SPREAD OF GLOBAL PANDEMICS

    E-print Network

    Obbard, Darren

    infection and sentenced to death. · Revealing the zoonotic origins and genetic architecture of the 2009 H1N1 the response to, global pandemics such as H1N1 swine-flu. It has been also used to investigate disease origin earliest sample A/Belgium/WVL1/1979 Avian H1N1 Eurasian `avian-like' swine M H1,H3, N1,N2 Triple

  10. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... treatment, vaccine development... More Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  11. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  12. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PARENT S | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Flu (Influenza) and the Vaccine to Prevent It Last updated ... 2014 The best way to protect against the flu is by getting the flu vaccine. Doctors recommend ...

  13. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Ross, Allen G P; Crowe, Suzanne M; Tyndall, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis. PMID:26253461

  14. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  15. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with green- or yellow-colored discharge) Sore throat Cough Sneezing Fatigue Muscle aches Headache Watery eyes Cold ... aches, especially in your back, arms and legs Cough Headache Loss of appetite What is H1N1 flu? ...

  16. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease in other animals, including domestic and wild birds, pigs, horses, and dogs, with sporadic outbreaks in ... the flu viruses of all other mammal and bird species combined. This suggests that these viruses have ...

  17. Avian Flu and the Quest for Immunity: Not Just Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2006-01-01

    With the very real threat of a bird flu pandemic – and no natural immunity among humans – antiviral drug developers, the federal government, and academic researchers are racing to find innovative vaccines and therapies that are effective and can be mass produced. The commercial payoff, too, could be big. PMID:23424387

  18. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Flu can ... this flu season. Take 3 Steps to Fight Flu 1. The first and best way to protect ...

  19. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  20. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Patients, and Healthcare Professionals Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  1. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed poly

  2. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  3. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Button Past Newsletters Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can spread through that community. How do flu vaccines work? Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in ...

  4. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats

    PubMed Central

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Mirza, Sara; Winter, Christian; Feldon, Keith; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Phonekeo, Darouny; Denny, Justin; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Lylianou, Doualy; Phousavath, Sisouphane; Norasingh, Sisouveth; Boutta, Nao; Olsen, Sonja; Bresee, Joseph; Moen, Ann; Corwin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%). Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1) no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2) safety and efficacy concerns, and 3) late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1) crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao “lessons learned” from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential. PMID:25923779

  5. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ???????? ?????????? ???????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations No Ordinary Flu English (Arabic) ??????? PDF Public ... ???? ????????? ????????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) No Ordinary Flu English Nesvakidašnja gripa - ...

  6. Flu Shots For Faculty And Sta Get Your Flu Shot!

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    be immunized every year against seasonal influenza. To make it easier for busy faculty and staff to get) (Physicians Plus) (Group Health Cooperative) (Unity) FluMist DoIT|9/2015|200|2015EmployeeFluShotSheetCombined

  7. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  8. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare

  9. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found at " Thimerosal and Flu Vaccines" Can a breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Yes. Breastfeeding women should get the flu vaccine to protect ... they are too young to be vaccinated themselves. Breastfeeding women can get either a flu shot or ...

  10. CUNY Pandemic Flu Response Plan 5-4-09.doc Page 1 of 10 This is a DRAFT plan assembled by the CUNY Department of Environment, Health, Safety and Risk Management. The actions listed have not necessarily been agreed to by the departments and entities listed

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    by the CUNY Department of Environment, Health, Safety and Risk Management. The actions listed have of Environmental, Health, Safety and Risk Management Pandemic Influenza Response Plan--Incident Level This is a DRAFT plan assembled by the CUNY Department of Environment, Health, Safety and Risk Management

  11. Hygrothermal environment may cause influenza pandemics through immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Lin; Luo, Yu-Hong; Chen, Jia; Yu, Bin; Liu, Kang-Li; He, Jin-Xiong; Lu, Su-Hong; Li, Jie-Xing; Wu, Sha; Jiang, Zhen-You; Chen, Xiao-Yin

    2015-11-01

    Over the past few decades, climate warming has caused profound changes in our living environment, and human diseases, including infectious diseases, have also been influenced by these changes. However, it remains unclear if a warm-wet climate can influence the infectivity of influenza and result in influenza pandemics. This study focused on observations of how the hydrothermal environment influences the infectivity of the influenza virus and the resulting immunoreactions of the infected mice. We used a manual climatic box to establish the following 3 environments with different temperatures and humidity: normal environment (T: 24 ± 1°C, RH: 50% ± 4%), wet environment (T: 24 ± 1°C, RH: 95% ± 4%) and warm-wet environment (T: 33 ± 1 °C, RH: 95% ± 4%), and the mice were fed and maintained in these 3 different environments. After 14 days, half of the mice were infected with H1N1 (A/FM1/1/47, a lung adapted strain of the flu virus specific for the mouse lung) virus for 4 d After establishing the animal model, we observed the microstructure of the lung tissue, the Th1/Th2 T cell subsets, the Th17/Treg balance, the expression of cytokines in the peripheral blood serum and the expression of the immune recognition RLH signal pathway. The results showed that mice in different environments have different reaction. Results showed that after infection, the proportion of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells in the spleen was significantly increased, and these proportions were increased the most in the infected group kept in wet-hot conditions. After infection, the mRNA levels and protein expression of the RLH (RIG-1-like helicases) signal pathway components were up-regulated while the uninfected animals in the 3 diverse environments showed no significant change. The infected mice kept in the wet and warm-wet environments showed a slight elevation in the expression of RLH pathway components compared to infected mice maintained in the normal environment. Our study suggested that the warm-wet environment may have interfered with the immune response and balance. The mice kept in the warm-wet environment displayed immune tolerance when they were exposed to the influenza virus, and the body was not able to effectively clear the virus, leading to a persistent infection. A warm-wet climate may thus be a factor that contributes to influenza pandemics, people should focus on the warm-wet climate coming and advance prepare to vaccine manufacture. PMID:26359946

  12. College students and the flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu symptoms. HOW DO I TREAT MY SYMPTOMS? Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower fever. Sometimes ... you to use both types of medicine. Take acetaminophen every 4 - 6 hours. Take ibuprofen every 6 - ...

  13. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Program Highlights Evaluation and Capacity Review Tools CDC International Flu Program Travel Information Links and Resources ANISE Training References & Resources Communications to Health Care Providers Toolkit for Long-Term Care Employers Resources ...

  14. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  15. Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Nabil A. NIMER

    E-print Network

    Swine flu Human flu #12;Antigenetic shift in pigs Flu viruses are able to swap genetic material #12; Also known as Swine influenza, hog flu and pig flu ssRNA viruses (segmented genome , 13.5 kilobases or sneezes It can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, feces and blood Flu viruses can remain

  16. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu virus that has caused serious outbreaks in ... been no reported infections with these viruses in birds, poultry, or people in the United States. You ...

  17. Flu Vaccine May Also Protect Against Pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154972.html Flu Vaccine May Also Protect Against Pneumonia Study suggests about ... had a flu shot, the researchers said. "Influenza vaccine can substantially reduce the risk of hospitalizations for ...

  18. It's Time for Your Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around you from getting the flu, said Dr. Lisa Grohskopf, a medical officer in the influenza division ... be afraid of the flu," Siegel said. SOURCES: Lisa Grohskopf, M.D., M.P.H., medical officer, ...

  19. Pandemic Influenza Plans in Residential Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Mody, Lona; Levy, Cari R.; Ginde, Adit A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Elderly in long-term facilities are vulnerable to a pandemic influenza. We aimed to identify characteristics of residential care facilities (RCFs) associated with having a pandemic influenza plan. Design Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting RCFs in the United States. Participants Participating facilities in the 2010 National Survey of RCFs (n=2,294), representing 31,030 assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Measurements Facility-level characteristics associated with a pandemic influenza plan, including general organization descriptors, staffing, resident services, and immunization practices. Results Overall, 45% (95%CI, 43–47) had a pandemic plan, 14% (95%CI, 13–16) had a plan in preparation, and 41% (95%CI, 38–43) had no plan. In the multivariable model, organization characteristics, staffing, and immunization practices were independently associated with the presence of a pandemic preparedness plan. The organization characteristics were larger size (extra-large, OR 3.27 [95%CI, 1.96–5.46], large, OR 2.60 [95%CI, 1.81–3.75], or medium, OR 1.66 [95%CI, 1.21–2.27], vs. small), not-for-profit status (OR 1.65 [95%CI, 1.31–2.09] vs. for-profit), and chain-affiliation (OR 1.65 [95%CI, 1.31–2.09] vs. non-affiliated). Staffing characteristics included the amount of RN hours (Less than 15 minutes, OR 1.36 [95%CI, 1.07–1.74] vs. no hours), any LPN hours (OR 1.47 [95%CI,1.08–1.99] vs. no hours), and at least 75 hours of required training for aides (OR 1.34 [95%CI, 1.05–1.71] vs. less than 75 hours). RCFs with high staff influenza vaccination rates (81–100%, OR 2.12 [95%CI, 1.27–3.53] vs. 0% vaccinated) were also more likely to have a pandemic plan. Conclusion A majority of RCFs lacked a pandemic influenza plan. These facilities were smaller, for-profit, non-chain-affiliated RCFs and had lower staff vaccination rates. These characteristics may help target facilities that need to develop plans to handle a pandemic, or other disasters. PMID:24852422

  20. Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 Considering the Effect of the First World War

    E-print Network

    Yoneyama, Teruhiko

    2010-01-01

    The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919, also called Spanish Flu Pandemic, was one of the severest pandemics in history. It is thought that the First World War much influenced the spread of the pandemic. In this paper, we model the pandemic considering both civil and military traffic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. Our approach considers both the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. First, we reproduce the situation in 12 countries. Then, we simulate another scenario: there was no military traffic during the pandemic, to determine the influence of the influenced of the war on the pandemic. By considering the simulation results, we find that the influence of the war varies in countries; in countries which were deeply involved in the war, the infections were much influenced by the war, while in countries which were not much engaged in the war, the infections were not influenced by the war.

  1. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu. Antibodies can be passed on to your unborn baby, and help protect the baby for up to ... shot is safe for you and for your unborn child. FACT: The flu shot is safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. You can receive the flu shot at any ...

  2. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

  3. Pandemic influenza and the hospitalist: apocalypse when?

    PubMed

    Pile, James C; Gordon, Steven M

    2006-03-01

    Beginning with a cluster of human cases in Hong Kong in 1997, avian influenza (H5N1) has spread progressively through, and beyond, Asia in poultry and other birds; and has resulted in sporadic cases of human disease associated with high mortality. The potential for H5N1 influenza to cause a pandemic of human disease continues to be the subject of intense scrutiny by both the media and the scientific community. While the likelihood of such a prospect is uncertain, the inevitability of future pandemics of influenza is clear. Planning for the eventuality of a virulent influenza pandemic at the local, national and global level is critical to limiting the mortality and morbidity of such an occurrence. Hospitalists have a key role to play in institutional efforts to prepare for a influenza pandemic, and should be aware of lessons that my be applied from both the response to Hurricane Katrina, as well as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. PMID:17219482

  4. Influenza Pandemic: Gaps in Pandemic Planning and Preparedness Need to Be Addressed. Testimony before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. GAO-09-909T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the current H1N1 outbreak underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a body of work, consisting of 12 reports and 4 testimonies, to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In February 2009, GAO synthesized the results of…

  5. [The Spanish flu in Iceland 1918. Lessons in medicine and history].

    PubMed

    Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Pandemic influenza has emerged 1-3 times each century. The pandemic in 1918, or the "Spanish flu" was caused by a novel influenza strain which caused the death of 21-50 million people world wide. Descriptions of the epidemic in Iceland give a detailed account on how and when the virus was introduced to the population of Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, by the crew of two ships, "Botnía". and "Willemoes" on October 19th 1918. The spread of the illness was extremely rapid and peaked 3 weeks later. It caused significant morbidity and mortality among inhabitants of the southern and western part of Iceland. Within 6 weeks, close to 500 individuals had died, thereof more than 50% in Reykjavik. The attack rate in Reykjavik was at least 63% and the case fatality proportion was close to 2.6%. The age-specific mortality was highest among young children, people 20-40 years of age and the elderly. In addition, pregnant women had extremely poor prognosis (37% case fatality). Attempts to halt the spread of the epidemic to the northern and eastern parts of the island were successful. By identifying the individuals who died from the Spanish flu using historical data, it has recently been shown that genetic factors probably did not play a major role in the pathogenesis of fatal cases. These historical data can be used to assist in planning for new pandemics of influenza, which are believed to be inevitable. PMID:18974435

  6. Social Justice in Pandemic Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies. PMID:22397337

  7. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

  8. Fighting the flu: developing sustained community resilience and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Paton, Douglas; Parkes, Bruce; Daly, Michele; Smith, Leigh

    2008-10-01

    A pandemic will impose considerable demands on communities over a period of several weeks; thus, people must develop means to facilitate their resilience in such an event. This article describes the development and testing of a model to inform public education strategies to facilitate the sustained adoption of the preparedness and protective measures that underpin community resilience. The model is derived from the premise that decisions to act reflect how people interpret information to make it meaningful to them. The model describes how this outcome reflects the interaction among personal beliefs about preparing, community characteristics influencing how risk beliefs and risk management strategies are developed, and the relationship between the community and health information sources. It highlights a need to distinguish those who decide not to prepare from those who accept a need to prepare but need guidance. Implications for developing pandemic public education and risk communication programs are discussed. PMID:18936259

  9. flu preparations Wash your hands, cover

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    's designation, but UVic is the first university to offer ASL as a credit course. For more info on new UVic months of life, babies throughout the world make all the sounds they need to acquire their respective

  10. Impact of cytokine in type 1 narcolepsy: Role of pandemic H1N1 vaccination ?

    PubMed

    Lecendreux, Michel; Libri, Valentina; Jaussent, Isabelle; Mottez, Estelle; Lopez, Régis; Lavault, Sophie; Regnault, Armelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pandemic influenza 2009 vaccination) provide strong support that narcolepsy type 1 is an immune-mediated disease. Considering the limited knowledge regarding the immune mechanisms involved in narcolepsy whether related to flu vaccination or not and the recent progresses in cytokine measurement technology, we assessed 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors using the Luminex technology in either peripheral (serum) or central (CSF) compartments in a large population of 90 children and adult patients with narcolepsy type 1 in comparison to 58 non-hypocretin deficient hypersomniacs and 41 healthy controls. Furthermore, we compared their levels in patients with narcolepsy whether exposed to pandemic flu vaccine or not, and analyzed the effect of age, duration of disease and symptom severity. Comparison for sera biomarkers between narcolepsy (n = 84, 54 males, median age: 15.5 years old) and healthy controls (n = 41, 13 males, median age: 20 years old) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and growth factors with interferon-?, CCL11, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-2 receptor being independently associated with narcolepsy. Increased levels of interferon-?, CCL11, and interleukin-12 were found when close to narcolepsy onset. After several adjustments, only one CSF biomarker differed between narcolepsy (n = 44, 26 males, median age: 15 years old) and non-hypocretin deficient hypersomnias (n = 57, 24 males, median age: 36 years old) with higher CCL 3 levels found in narcolepsy. Comparison for sera biomarkers between patients with narcolepsy who developed the disease post-pandemic flu vaccination (n = 36) to those without vaccination (n = 48) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of three cytokines, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, CXCL10, and CXCL9, being independently and significantly increased in the group exposed to the vaccine. No significant differences were found between narcoleptics whether exposed to flu vaccination or not for CSF biomarkers except for a lower CXCL10 level found in the exposed group. To conclude, we highlighted the role of sera cytokine with pro-inflammatory properties and especially interferon-? being independently associated with narcolepsy close to disease onset. The activity of the interferon-? network was also increased in the context of narcolepsy after the pandemic flu vaccination being a potential key player in the immune mechanism that triggers narcolepsy and that coordinates the immune response necessary for resolving vaccination assaults. PMID:25892508

  11. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  12. The role of the WHO Regional Office for Europe in response to seasonal, avian, and pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S

    2013-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2011, the WHO Regional Office for Europe assisted the member states of the WHO European Region to prepare and respond to outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1, the 2009 pandemic, and to enhance their capacities for the prevention and control of seasonal influenza. It did this through conducting a combination of regional and subregional meetings and trainings, establishing a regional network for influenza surveillance, providing operational guidance for implementing influenza surveillance and strengthening the capacities of National Influenza Centers, and through assistance at the country-level where needed. In all, close to 60 country-missions or country-level activities were conducted. These activities were conducted in close coordination with WHO headquarters, WHO European Region Country Offices, the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and with other partner organizations, and were in line with the implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005). The results of activities as well as guidance documents were disseminated to a wide audience through publication on the WHO Regional Office for Europe Influenza website, on the EuroFlu website, and through peer-reviewed publications. PMID:23275956

  13. Is It a Cold or the Flu?

    MedlinePLUS

    IS IT A Cold OR THE Flu ? SY M P TO M S C O L D F L U FEVER Rare Usual; high ( ... to moderate; hacking cough Common; can become severe COLD FLU T R E AT M E N ... Avoid close contact with anyone who has a cold ? ? Annual vaccination ? ? Antiviral medicines — see your healthcare provider ...

  14. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  15. Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S; Hallman, Stacey A; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D Ann; Earn, David J D; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  16. Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S.; Hallman, Stacey A.; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D. Ann; Earn, David JD.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889–90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  17. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  18. OSHA pandemic guidance reinforces need to plan.

    PubMed

    2007-04-01

    As the new guidance from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) points out, there are practical steps you can take to protect your staff and to prepare for the inevitable increased absenteeism should a pandemic occur. Cross-train staff in three or four functions so they can fill in for others if needed. Encourage employees who are sick to stay home, to reduce the likelihood of spreading disease and to combat employees coming to work when they are not at their best. By reassuring staff they will be safe if they report to work, you can keep attendance numbers as high as possible. PMID:17438992

  19. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials conducted ...

  20. Point-of-care testing for pandemic influenza and biothreats.

    PubMed

    Louie, Richard F; Kitano, Tyler; Brock, T Keith; Derlet, Robert; Kost, Gerald J

    2009-12-01

    New and reemerging infectious diseases, such as pandemic viruses and resistant bacteria, pose a serious threat in the 21st century. Some of these agents represent global security threats. This review provides an overview of diagnostic challenges presented by pandemic influenza and biothreat agents. The article summarizes recent pandemics and disease outbreaks, point-of-care influenza diagnostic tests, biothreat agents, biothreat instrument systems, and technologies in development. It highlights how medical innovation and health care initiatives can help prepare health care professionals and public health personnel to handle future crises. Based on gap analysis for current point-of-care testing deficiencies, it concludes with policy recommendations that will enhance preparedness. PMID:19797963

  1. Pandemic influenza planning by videoconference.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Ann Marie; Arima, Yuzo; French, H Matthew; Osaki, Carl S; Hoff, Rodney; Lee, Soo-Sim; Schafer, Lisa; Nabae, Koji; Chen, Chang-Hsun; Hsun, Chang; Hishamuddin, Pengiran; Nelson, Rodney; Woody, Karalee; Brown, Jacqueline; Fox, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between nations and sectors is crucial to improve regional preparedness against pandemic influenza. In 2008, a Virtual Symposium was organized in the Asia-Pacific region by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Emerging Infections Network (APEC EINet) to discuss pandemic preparedness. The multipoint videoconference lasted approximately 4.5 hours and was attended by 16 APEC members who shared best practices in public-private partnerships for pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Twelve of the 16 APEC members who participated responded to a post-event survey. The overall experience of the event was rated highly. Partnering public health, technology and business communities to discuss best practices in preparedness using videoconferencing may be an effective way to improve regional preparedness. Utilization of videoconferencing on a routine basis should be considered to improve preparedness among APEC members and enhance its usability during a pandemic. PMID:19815907

  2. Behavioural responses to influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Balinska, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of the novel A/H1N1 virus has made pandemic preparedness a crucial issue for public health worldwide. Although the epidemiological aspects of the three 20th century influenza pandemics have been widely investigated, little is known about population behaviour in a pandemic situation. Such knowledge is however critical, notably for predicting population compliance with non pharmaceutical interventions. This paper reviews the relevant scientific literature for the 1918-1920, 1957-1958, 1969-1969 influenza epidemics and the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although the evidence base of most non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and personal protection measures is debated, it appears on the basis of past experience that NPIs implemented the most systematically, the earliest, and for the longest time could reduce overall mortality rates and spread out epidemic peaks. Adequate, transparent, and targeted communication on the part of public health authorities would be also of crucial importance in the event of a serious influenza pandemic. PMID:20025201

  3. Assessment of pandemic preparedness in a socially vulnerable community in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Kiltz, Linda; Fonseca, Diana; Rodriguez, Christina; Munoz, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain information about general and pandemic preparedness efforts of residents within San Patricio County in South Texas, as well as to identify the most effective means of communicating the risks posed by pandemic influenza. The population of San Patricio County is socially vulnerable to a variety of disasters, including influenza pandemics due to the unique demographic profile of the county as well as its location on the Gulf Coast. The goals of this study were to help with pandemic planning efforts and to provide recommendations that could serve as a foundation for building more resilient communities within San Patricio County. Clearly the various governmental levels must work together to assist communities prepare for pandemic preparedness but broad, inclusive community participation is also necessary to strengthen community resilience. PMID:24350552

  4. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  5. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu Planning & Preparedness Business Planning Community Planning School ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H1N1 - originally referred to as Swine Flu ...

  6. Community awareness, use and preference for pandemic influenza vaccines in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Neisha; Purohit, Vidula; Schaetti, Christian; Kudale, Abhay; Joseph, Saju; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-10-01

    Vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention, but limited vaccine uptake was a problem worldwide during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Community acceptance of a vaccine is a critical determinant of its effectiveness, but studies have been confined to high-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-method study in urban and rural Pune, India in 2012-2013. Semi-structured explanatory model interviews were administered to community residents (n = 436) to study awareness, experience and preference between available vaccines for pandemic influenza. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews complemented the survey. Awareness of pandemic influenza vaccines was low (25%). Some respondents did not consider vaccines relevant for adults, but nearly all (94.7%), when asked, believed that a vaccine would prevent swine flu. Reported vaccine uptake however was 8.3%. Main themes identified as reasons for uptake were having heard of a death from swine flu, health care provider recommendation or affiliation with the health system, influence of peers and information from media. Reasons for non-use were low perceived personal risk, problems with access and cost, inadequate information and a perceived lack of a government mandate endorsing influenza vaccines. A majority indicated a preference for injectable over nasal vaccines, especially in remote rural areas. Hesitancy from a lack of confidence in pandemic influenza vaccines appears to have been less of an issue than access, complacency and other sociocultural considerations. Recent influenza outbreaks in 2015 highlight a need to reconsider policy for routine influenza vaccination while paying attention to sociocultural factors and community preferences for effective vaccine action. PMID:26110454

  7. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by more than $500 billion. Exploring Flu Protein Biology to Improve Antivirals A representation of the structure ... combat this drug resistance by exploiting the virus's biology. One target is pocket-shaped structures on the ...

  8. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ... people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with HIV/ ...

  9. The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza Troy Day1,2,*, Jean-Baptiste Andre´2,3 and Andrew¨bendorf, Switzerland 5 Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland Pandemic influenza of pandemic influenza strains remain incompletely understood. Here, we develop a stochastic model

  10. A BRIEF REVIEW ON TWO PANDEMIC ZOONOSES

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    THE ARENA OF ZOONOSES 3 PANDEMIC ZOONOSES 5 PLAGE PANDEMICS 6 The Justinian Plague 6 The Black Death 6 AVIAN (SARS), Ebola-virus, West-Nile virus, bubonic plague and monkeypox with following human fatalities and bubonic plague carry the potential of fatal impact on humans through epidemics and pandemics

  11. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  12. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a pandemic, tracking the severity, molecular and phenotypic characterization of the viruses and confirming whether ILI incidence is truly related to influenza virus infections. GIS showed that web-based, self-reported ILI can be a useful addition, especially if virological self-sampling is added and an epidemic threshold could be determined. GFT showed negligible added value. PMID:24063523

  13. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia thrombosis high colesterol

  14. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu that's been going around? Or just a common cold ? Although the flu (or influenza ) usually causes symptoms ... someone feel worse than symptoms associated with a common cold, it's not always easy to tell the difference ...

  15. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Flu Vaccine Work? Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... are factors that influenza how well the vaccine works? How well the flu vaccine works (or its ...

  16. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Button Past Newsletters Guillain-Barré syndrome and Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... in 1976 with GBS and the swine flu vaccine? In 1976 there was a small increased risk ...

  17. This Year's Flu Vaccine Should Be Better Match: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_154680.html This Year's Flu Vaccine Should Be Better Match: CDC Americans 6 months ... Sept. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- This year's flu vaccine should be a better match than last year's ...

  18. Statins May Dampen Protective Powers of Flu Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Statins May Dampen Protective Powers of Flu Vaccines Research suggests cholesterol-lowering meds linked to lower ... as statins may blunt the effectiveness of flu vaccines in seniors. But experts caution that more research ...

  19. Early Treatment with Flu Antivirals May Shorten Seniors' Hospital Stay

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the study published Sept. 2 in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases . In recent years, seniors have accounted for 80 percent to 90 percent of seasonal flu-related deaths, and 50 percent to 70 percent of flu- ...

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays...

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays...

  2. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays...

  3. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Health Conditions & Illnesses > I' ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? - Eliza* The ...

  4. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was preceded by falling temperatures. Climate influences on pandemic spread seem important and should be further investigated. PMID:25011543

  5. Free Flu Shots for IUPUI Students This fall IUPUI Student Health is again offering free flu shots for students. There are many reasons for

    E-print Network

    Free Flu Shots for IUPUI Students Fall, 2015 This fall IUPUI Student Health is again offering free be particularly vulnerable to the flu. Groups that are highest risk from the flu include the elderly, infants.18. 5. Flu shots given by Student Health are FREE. That is right. You can get a flu shot for FREE. You

  6. BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Nigel

    2009-11-01

    The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

  7. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu

  8. Flu Shot a Must for Moms-To-Be

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154619.html Flu Shot a Must for Moms-to-Be Getting the flu early in pregnancy doubles risk of birth defects, ... MONDAY, Sept. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Catching the flu early in pregnancy doubles the risk of having ...

  9. Team work project 1A The bird flu

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    Team work project 1A The bird flu By Huy Quang Nguyen Kari Johanne Kihle Attramadal Brattřra................................................................................................................. 3 2. What is the bird flu? And which virus cause bird flu? What is the situation now?.... 3 3. How protect yourself if you have been in contact with potentially infection birds

  10. Assessment of Health-Care Worker Exposure to Pandemic Flu in Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, U.; Gressel, M.; Konangi, S.; Mead, K.; Kishore, A.; Earnest, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a current Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) in protecting health-care workers (HCWs) from airborne-infection (AI) exposure, and compares HCW AI exposures within an AIIR and a traditional patient room. We numerically simulated the air-flow patterns in the rooms, using room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to those measured at a local hospital. A patient-cough was introduced into each simulation, and the AI dispersal was tracked in time using a multi-phase flow simulation approach. The measured data showed that ventilation rates for both rooms exceeded 12 air-changes per hour (ACH), and the AIIR was at almost 16 ACH. Thus, the AIIR met the recommended design criteria for ventilation rate and pressurization. However, the computed results revealed incomplete air mixing, and not all of the room air was changed 12 (or 16) times per hour. In fact, in some regions of the room, the air merely circulated, and did not refresh. With the main exhaust flow rate exceeding the main supply, mass flow rate conservation required a part of the deficit to be accounted for by air migration from the corridor through the gaps around the main door. Hence, the AIIR was effective in containing the “infectious aerosol” within the room. However, it showed increased exposure of the HCW to the AI pathogens, as the flow from the ceiling-mounted supply louver first encountered the patient and then the HCW almost directly on its way to the main exhaust, also located on the ceiling. The traditional patient room exhibited a similar flow path. In addition, for the traditional patient room, some cough-generated aerosol is observed very close to the gaps around the door to the corridor, indicating that the aerosol may escape to the corridor, and spread the infection beyond the room. The computational results suggest that ventilation arrangement can have an important role in better protecting the HCW from exposure to airborne infectious pathogens.

  11. Training security officers to recognize the perils of weapons of mass destruction and pandemic flu contaminates.

    PubMed

    Luizzo, Anthony J; Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively manage disasters, hospital security operatives need to learn the ABC's of diagnosing exposure models, spotting exposed persons, and donning appropriate contaminate-controlling attire to limit potential exposure. This article spells out how the establishment of a WMD training program gives the Security Department the capability of helping to contain WMD exposures before they adversely impact the institutional setting. The department's "awesome" role in keeping hospitals free from contamination requires, according to the authors, dedicated, well trained, appropriately equipped, and highly motivated security officers who keep a watchful eye over the institutions they protect. PMID:17907601

  12. A Nonlinear Pattern Recognition of Pandemic H1N1 Using a State Space Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Mai S.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic Signal Processing is a relatively new field in bioinformatics, in which signal processing algorithms and methods are used to study functional structures in the DNA. An appropriate mapping of the DNA sequence into one or more numerical sequences enables the use of many digital signal processing tools in the analysis of different genomic sequences. Also, a novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged in the spring of 2009 and spread very rapidly among people. The severity of the disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus varies greatly and can change over time. Throughout this work, Pandemic H1N1 genomic sequences were characterized according to nonlinear dynamical features such as moment invariants and largest Lyapunov exponents and then compared to those features that extracted from classical H1N1 genomic sequences. The proposed methods were applied to a number of sequences encoded into a time series using a coding measure scheme employing Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP). The aim of this work is to extract genomic features that can distinguish the new swine flu from the classical H1N1 existed before using sequences from segment 8 of the influenza genome that consists of 8 RNA segments which encodes two important proteins for immune system attack (NS1 and NS2). According to the obtained results it is evident that variability is present based on a significance test in both groups; pandemic and classical H1N1 sequences. PMID:23407581

  13. Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-02-13

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

  14. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  15. INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu Sudden onset of fever/chills, coughing, muscle aches, headache) a pharmacist may suggest other things for symptoms When you need to seek medical attention for Influenza dehydration) · Disorientation or confusion *Most people with influenza do not benefit from seeing their doctor

  16. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths. PMID:19997956

  17. Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

    2008-01-01

    This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

  18. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA) toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI) response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission while preparation for later pandemic stages was limited. The interfaces and linkages between health system contexts and pandemic preparedness programmes in these countries were explored. Conclusion Health system context influences how the six countries have been preparing themselves for a pandemic. At the same time, investment in pandemic preparation in the six Asian countries has contributed to improvement in health system surveillance, laboratory capacity, monitoring and evaluation and public communications. A number of suggestions for improvement were presented to strengthen the pandemic preparation and mitigation as well as to overcome some of the underlying health system constraints. PMID:20529345

  19. Two Years after Pandemic Influenza A/2009/H1N1: What Have We Learned?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, medical and scientific communities have been more prepared in mindset and infrastructure. This preparedness has allowed for rapid and effective research on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the disease, with impacts on its control. A PubMed search using the keywords “pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009” yielded over 2,500 publications, which markedly exceeded the number published on previous pandemics. Only representative works with relevance to clinical microbiology and infectious diseases are reviewed in this article. A significant increase in the understanding of this virus and the disease within such a short amount of time has allowed for the timely development of diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures. These findings could prove useful for future randomized controlled clinical trials and the epidemiological control of future pandemics. PMID:22491771

  20. Flu virus continues to evolve in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine can be infected with human- and avian-adapted influenza viruses, which has labeled pigs as "mixing vessels" for generating novel, genetically diverse viruses that may have epidemic or pandemic potential. However, it has been documented that humans, some species of birds and other mammals may a...

  1. Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  3. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  4. Market incentives for pandemic influenza vaccines

    E-print Network

    Preis, Julia Kay

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 100 million plus individuals could perish if a virulent influenza pandemic were to occur. In wake of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic and in an era of economic austerity, however, industry lacks clear ...

  5. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  6. Action, not talk: a simulation of risk communication during the first hours of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Vicki S; Hilyard, Karen M; Barge, J Kevin; Sokler, Lynn A

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a simulation of risk communication in the first hours of a pandemic. The simulation design was based on Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication principles espoused by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the collective experience of the authors. Over 4 hours, 17 local health district risk communicators in Georgia responded to a scenario in which every community in the state had teenagers infected with avian flu after returning from an international conference. The evaluation revealed that local risk communicators had much greater difficulty following risk communication principles under the time pressures of a realistic and stressful event than they did in a tabletop exercise. Strengths and weaknesses of the performance of the local risk communicators are identified in addition to lessons learned about the design and implementation of a risk communication simulation. PMID:18936258

  7. Pandemic preparedness with live attenuated influenza vaccines based on A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Larisa; Isakova-Sivak, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Continuously evolving avian influenza viruses pose a constant threat to the human public health. In response to this threat, a number of pandemic vaccine candidates have been prepared and evaluated in animal models and clinical trials. This review summarizes the data from the development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) based on Russian master donor virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57. LAIV candidates of H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H1N1 and H2N2 subtypes were safe, immunogenic and protected animals from challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses. Clinical trials of the pandemic LAIVs demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity for healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine viruses were infectious, genetically stable and did not transmit to unvaccinated contacts. In addition, here we discuss criteria for the assessment of pandemic LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy necessary for their licensure. PMID:25555687

  8. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials. PMID:20568574

  9. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicines. For more about when to see a doctor, go to CDC's Flu Page . To treat colds or flu, get plenty of rest and ... aches, pains, and fever Antiviral medicines (see your doctor) Avoid allergens ... dander, cockroaches. Complications Sinus infection middle ear ...

  10. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  11. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  12. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  13. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  15. University of Utah Pandemic Plan Purpose

    E-print Network

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    of the University Policy 4-004: University Information Technology Resource Security Policy) University of Utah Hospital and Clinics Draft Pandemic Influenza Surge Plan of Information Technology, specified Education and Research units, Housing areas, and Food

  16. Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization. PMID:22506011

  17. Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza.

    E-print Network

    Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza. Last updated April 28, 2009 The Evergreen State College (TESC) is continuing to assess and track influenza? At this time, the best source of current information is the website of the Federal Center

  18. Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark Dredze

    E-print Network

    Dredze, Mark

    has the flu and i am worried about him · Starting to get worried about swine flu... Both are relatedSeparating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark work has relied on simple content anal- ysis, which conflates flu tweets that report infection

  19. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious ...

  20. The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Fred

    2013-05-01

    Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

  1. The 1918 influenza pandemic: Lessons for 2009 and the future

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Harvey, Hillery A.; Memoli, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The 1918 to 1919 H1N1 influenza pandemic is among the most deadly events in recorded human history, having killed an estimated 50 to 100 million persons. Recent H5N1 avian influenza epizootics associated with sporadic human fatalities have heightened concern that a new influenza pandemic, one at least as lethal as that of 1918, could be developing. In early 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus appeared, but it has not exhibited unusually high pathogenicity. Nevertheless, because this virus spreads globally, some scientists predict that mutations will increase its lethality. Therefore, to accurately predict, plan, and respond to current and future influenza pandemics, we must first better-understand the events and experiences of 1918. Although the entire genome of the 1918 influenza virus has been sequenced, many questions about the pandemic it caused remain unanswered. In this review, we discuss the origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, the pandemic’s unusual epidemiologic features and the causes and demographic patterns of fatality, and how this information should impact our response to the current 2009 H1N1 pandemic and future pandemics. After 92 yrs of research, fundamental questions about influenza pandemics remain unanswered. Thus, we must remain vigilant and use the knowledge we have gained from 1918 and other influenza pandemics to direct targeted research and pandemic influenza preparedness planning, emphasizing prevention, containment, and treatment. PMID:20048675

  2. Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection. PMID:22126648

  3. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza mitigation strategies for five pandemic severity categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The threat of emergence of a human-to-human transmissible strain of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) is very real, and is reinforced by recent results showing that genetically modified A(H5N1) may be readily transmitted between ferrets. Public health authorities are hesitant in introducing social distancing interventions due to societal disruption and productivity losses. This study estimates the effectiveness and total cost (from a societal perspective, with a lifespan time horizon) of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies, under a range of pandemic severity categories. Methods An economic analysis was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ~30,000 in Australia. Data from the 2009 pandemic was used to derive relationships between the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and hospitalization rates for each of five pandemic severity categories, with CFR ranging from 0.1% to 2.5%. Results For a pandemic with basic reproduction number R0?=?1.8, adopting no interventions resulted in total costs ranging from $441 per person for a pandemic at category 1 (CFR 0.1%) to $8,550 per person at category 5 (CFR 2.5%). For severe pandemics of category 3 (CFR 0.75%) and greater, a strategy combining antiviral treatment and prophylaxis, extended school closure and community contact reduction resulted in the lowest total cost of any strategy, costing $1,584 per person at category 5. This strategy was highly effective, reducing the attack rate to 5%. With low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, whereas higher severity pandemic costs are dominated by healthcare costs and costs arising from productivity losses due to death. Conclusions For pandemics in high severity categories the strategies with the lowest total cost to society involve rigorous, sustained social distancing, which are considered unacceptable for low severity pandemics due to societal disruption and cost. PMID:23496898

  4. Crisis and emergency risk communication in a pandemic: a model for building capacity and resilience of minority communities.

    PubMed

    Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments. Examples of such engagement and potential strategies to enhance trust include tools familiar to many health educators. PMID:18936256

  5. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Facts About Vaccination Flu vaccines have a very good safety record. ... in a given year. About two weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection against influenza virus infection ...

  6. Flu, the Common Cold, and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... Z The Flu, the Common Cold, and Complementary Health Approaches On This Page Introduction Key Points Complementary ...

  7. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... used to treat influenza illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an ...

  8. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: English ... her eyes, nose, or mouth. 6. Practice other good health habits. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces ...

  9. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  10. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What You Need to Know 1 ...

  11. Influenza pneumonia among adolescents and adults: a concurrent comparison between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) in the post-pandemic period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu Qiao; Qu, Jiu Xin; Wang, Chen; Yu, Xiao Min; Liu, Ying Mei; Cao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Comparisons of the characteristics between the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and common seasonal influenza are important for both clinical management and epidemiological studies. However, the differences between pandemic and seasonal influenza during the post-pandemic period are poorly understood. Objectives The aim of our research was to investigate clinical and immune response differences between patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) pneumonia in the post-pandemic period. Methods During the first flu season in post-pandemic period, patients from Beijing Network for Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia present A (H1N1) pdm09 or A (H3N2) influenza were compared concurrently in the aspects of clinical characteristics and inflammatory profile in acute phase. Result Patients with A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza pneumonia showed a close mean age to A (H3N2) pneumonia (51 ± 20 vs 53 ± 16, mean ± standard deviation, years) but tended to have more underlying diseases (32.8% vs 10%, P = 0.036). Although clinical characteristics were similar, no statistical difference were found in pneumonia severity index (PSI) score or intensive care unit admission rate or mortality, patients in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort present higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactase dehydrogenase (P = 0.006, 0.018, respectively) in blood and also longer duration of fever than A (H3N2) cohort. Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 (p70) were higher in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort (P = 0.031, 0.047, respectively). Conclusios During the first post-pandemic flu season, patients with the A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia showed similar clinical characteristics but slightly higher disease severity and stronger systemic inflammatory response than A (H3N2) pneumonia. PMID:24106842

  12. Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Purohit, Vidula; Kudale, Abhay; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify and compare sociocultural features of pandemic influenza with reference to illness-related experience, meaning and behaviour in urban and rural areas of India. Design Cross-sectional, mixed-methods, cultural epidemiological survey with vignette-based interviews. Semistructured explanatory model interviews were used to study community ideas of the 2009 influenza pandemic. In-depth interviews elaborated respondents’ experience during the pandemic. Setting Urban and rural communities, Pune district, western India. Participants Survey of urban (n=215) and rural (n=221) residents aged between 18 and 65?years. In-depth interviews of respondents with a history of 2009 pandemic influenza (n=6). Results More urban (36.7%) than rural respondents (16.3%, p<0.001) identified the illness in the vignette as ‘swine flu’. Over half (56.7%) believed the illness would be fatal without treatment, but with treatment 96% predicted full recovery. Worry (‘tension’) about the illness was reported as more troubling than somatic symptoms. The most common perceived causes—‘exposure to a dirty environment’ and ‘cough or sneeze of an infected person’–were more prominent in the urban group. Among rural respondents, climatic conditions, drinking contaminated water, tension and cultural ideas on humoral imbalance from heat-producing or cold-producing foods were more prominent. The most widely reported home treatment was herbal remedies; more rural respondents suggested reliance on prayer, and symptom relief was more of a priority for urban respondents. Government health services were preferred in the urban communities, and rural residents relied more than urban residents on private facilities. The important preventive measures emphasised were cleanliness, wholesome lifestyle and vaccines, and more urban respondents reported the use of masks. In-depth interviews indicated treatment delays during the 2009 pandemic, especially among rural patients. Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. PMID:25492273

  13. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Journal Summaries EID Summaries MMWR Summaries Newsroom Image Library Buildings & Facilities Viruses/Bacteria and Scientists Audio/Video ... Freedom of Information Act Office Public Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s ...

  14. University of Arizona Pandemic Response Activities by Pandemic Intervals (Campus Specific)

    E-print Network

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    Pandemic Response Planning Group (of the CERT) 1. Identify key stakeholders to include in planning process communications to the UA community in collaboration with the PCHD's Joint Information Center (JIC) and county

  15. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dennis L; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J; Longini, Ira M

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A(H2N2) and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza viruses. We present examples of how this model can be used to study the dynamics of influenza epidemics in the United States and simulate how to mitigate or delay them using pharmaceutical interventions and social distancing measures. Computer simulation models play an essential role in informing public policy and evaluating pandemic preparedness plans. We have made the source code of this model publicly available to encourage its use and further development. PMID:20126529

  16. Bosnia and Herzegovina Healthcare System Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza as of 2010

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Almir; Pilav, Aida; Dzananovic, Lejla; Cavaljuga, Semra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system is prepared for influenza pandemic; and to indicate strengths and weaknesses in planed resolution of pandemic influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system. Methodology: Qualitative systematic review, comparing established elements of healthcare systems with WHO’s guidelines on pandemic preparedness. Critical evaluations of available findings on preparedness of healthcare system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) compared in details to preparedness of healthcare system of United Kingdom (UK) but in certain elements with some other European countries. Results and Discussion: Analysis of preparedness plans of B&H and UK are presented in details, with comparison of B&H with eight other countries by WHO guidelines categories and phases of pandemic preparedness and contingency plans. Conclusions: Disregarding the obstacles in B&H health care system policy Bosnia and Herzegovina has preparedness plans, that are made based on WHO’s guidelines but unlike all other analyzed countries does not have contingency plan. This can be seen as strength while weaknesses of B&H’s healthcare system are: late forming of preparedness plan with poor implementation of set activities, and lack of contingency plan. PMID:24511267

  17. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic. PMID:18522251

  18. The Swine Flu Episode and the Fog of Epidemics1

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has shaped research and public health for nearly a century. In 1976, the specter of 1918 loomed large when a pandemic threatened the country again. Public health officials initiated a mass vaccination campaign, but the anticipated pandemic failed to occur. An examination of the available data in 1976 and the decision to vaccinate, as well as lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s, may help shape an appropriate public health response to future threats from avian influenza or other infectious diseases. PMID:16494715

  19. Colleges and Universities Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, colleges and universities will play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of students, employees and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist as a framework to assist colleges and…

  20. Vaccination Deep Into a Pandemic Wave

    E-print Network

    Rosenfeld, Roni

    Vaccination Deep Into a Pandemic Wave Potential Mechanisms for a "Third Wave" and the Impact of Vaccination Bruce Y. Lee, MD, MBA, Shawn T. Brown, PhD, Philip Cooley, MS, John J. Grefenstette, PhD, Richard and then explore whether vaccinating the population at different rates and times would mitigate the wave. Methods

  1. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs ... Tweet Share Compartir July 17, 2014 â?? A new study of flu treatment practices during the 2012- ...

  2. Study Links Flu Vaccine to Short-Term Drop in Stroke Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155171.html Study Links Flu Vaccine to Short-Term Drop in Stroke Risk Research ... the study did not prove that the flu vaccine causes a drop in stroke risk. Exactly why ...

  3. New Guidelines Call for Kids, Health Care Workers to Get Flu Shots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154507.html New Guidelines Call for Kids, Health Care Workers to Get Flu Shots Pediatric group pushes ... 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- All eligible children and health care workers should get flu shots, according to new ...

  4. Infectious disease modeling methods as tools for informing response to novel influenza viruses of unknown pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Manoj; Bozio, Catherine; O'Hagan, Justin J; Uzicanin, Amra; Johnson, Lucinda E; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Swerdlow, David L

    2015-05-01

    The rising importance of infectious disease modeling makes this an appropriate time for a guide for public health practitioners tasked with preparing for, and responding to, an influenza pandemic. We list several questions that public health practitioners commonly ask about pandemic influenza and match these with analytical methods, giving details on when during a pandemic the methods can be used, how long it might take to implement them, and what data are required. Although software to perform these tasks is available, care needs to be taken to understand: (1) the type of data needed, (2) the implementation of the methods, and (3) the interpretation of results in terms of model uncertainty and sensitivity. Public health leaders can use this article to evaluate the modeling literature, determine which methods can provide appropriate evidence for decision-making, and to help them request modeling work from in-house teams or academic groups. PMID:25878297

  5. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  6. Identifying prioritization criteria to supplement critical care triage protocols for the allocation of ventilators during a pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Winsor, Shawn; Bensimon, Cécile M; Sibbald, Robert; Anstey, Kyle; Chidwick, Paula; Coughlin, Kevin; Cox, Peter; Fowler, Robert; Godkin, Dianne; Greenberg, Rebecca A; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify supplementary criteria to provide direction when the Ontario Health Plan for an Influenza Pandemic (OHPIP) critical care triage protocol is rendered insufficient by its inability to discriminate among patients assessed as urgent, and there are insufficient critical care resources available to treat those in that category. To accomplish this task, a Supplementary Criteria Task Force for Critical Care Triage was struck at the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The task force reviewed publically available protocols and policies on pandemic flu planning, identified 13 potential triage criteria and determined a set of eight key ethical, legal and practical considerations against which it assessed each criterion. An online questionnaire was distributed to clinical, policy and community stakeholders across Canada to obtain feedback on the 13 potential triage criteria toward selecting those that best met the eight considerations. The task force concluded that the balance of arguments favoured only two of the 13 criteria it had identified for consideration: first come, first served and random selection. The two criteria were chosen in part based on a need to balance the clearly utilitarian approach employed in the OHPIP with equity considerations. These criteria serve as a defensible "fail safe" mechanism for any triage protocol. PMID:25191808

  7. Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Monica Fern; Palaniyar, Nades

    2014-01-01

    For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. Comparing genotypes for measures of poor lung function, inflammation, and admission to intensive care, these authors identified three variants of the SP-A gene SFTPA2 that positively correlated with flu severity. Remarkably, they also found the haplotype 1A(1) of SFTPA2 to be protective against these indicators, suggesting that targeted therapy with a recombinant form of SP-A2 may improve patient outcome. Although further work is required to confirm the specificity and efficacy of SP-A in therapeutic H1N1 protection, this study is one of the first to suggest a clinical role for SP-A in pandemic influenza. PMID:25184962

  8. Availability Seasonal flu vaccinations are available at the University Health Clinic while supplies last.

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    Flu Shots Availability Seasonal flu vaccinations are available at the University Health Clinic while supplies last. What is it? The trivalent vaccine contains three killed flu virus strains, two strains of type A and one strain of type B. For adults the vaccine is given into the muscle of the upper

  9. FluPhone Study: Virtual Disease Spread using Haggle Eiko Yoneki

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    such as swine flu spread so fast. In many ways, the concept of PSNs is analogous to how infectious diseasesFluPhone Study: Virtual Disease Spread using Haggle Eiko Yoneki University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory Cambridge CB3 0FD, United Kingdom eiko.yoneki@cl.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT This paper introduces the Flu

  10. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...response, including implementation of the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...sought in light of the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic...

  11. VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2010-10-23

    The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

  12. When Pictures Waste a Thousand Words: Analysis of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic on Television News

    PubMed Central

    Luth, Westerly; Jardine, Cindy; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Effective communication by public health agencies during a pandemic promotes the adoption of recommended health behaviours. However, more information is not always the solution. Rather, attention must be paid to how information is communicated. Our study examines the television news, which combines video and audio content. We analyse (1) the content of television news about the H1N1 pandemic and vaccination campaign in Alberta, Canada; (2) the extent to which television news content conveyed key public health agency messages; (3) the extent of discrepancies in audio versus visual content. Methods We searched for “swine flu” and “H1N1” in local English news broadcasts from the CTV online video archive. We coded the audio and visual content of 47 news clips during the peak period of coverage from April to November 2009 and identified discrepancies between audio and visual content. Results The dominant themes on CTV news were the vaccination rollout, vaccine shortages, long line-ups (queues) at vaccination clinics and defensive responses by public health officials. There were discrepancies in the priority groups identified by the provincial health agency (Alberta Health and Wellness) and television news coverage as well as discrepancies between audio and visual content of news clips. Public health officials were presented in official settings rather than as public health practitioners. Conclusion The news footage did not match the main public health messages about risk levels and priority groups. Public health agencies lost control of their message as the media focused on failures in the rollout of the vaccination campaign. Spokespeople can enhance their local credibility by emphasizing their role as public health practitioners. Public health agencies need to learn from the H1N1 pandemic so that future television communications do not add to public confusion, demonstrate bureaucratic ineffectiveness and contribute to low vaccination rates. PMID:23691150

  13. The Smallpox Pandemic of 1870-1874

    PubMed Central

    Rolleston, J. D.

    1933-01-01

    The Vaccination Act of 1853 inspired by the Epidemiological Scoiety of London was the cause of the incidence and fatality of the pandemic being less in the United Kingdom than in foreign countries. Origin of pandemic in France before outbreak of Franco-Prussian War. Its spread through the country. Vaccination state of civilian population and army in France in 1870. Incidence, fatality and characteristics of the pandemic in England and Wales, London, Scotland and Ireland and foreign countries with special reference to Germany and German army. Lack of hospital accommodation for smallpox cases in London. M.A.B. hospitals opened. Absence of ambulance service. Aerial convection of smallpox. Smallpox fatality in the various Metropolitan boroughs. Incidence and fatality of smallpox heavy in civilian population in Germany as compared with the well-vaccinated army, but lower in Southern German States, where primary vaccination was compulsory, than in Prussia and Saxony which had no vaccination laws. Further statistics illustrating difference in smallpox fatality in different countries and groups of individuals according to their vaccination state. PMID:19989604

  14. The H1N1 influenza pandemic: need for solutions to ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    The rapid spread of the novel influenza virus of H1N1 swine origin led to widespread fear, panic and unrest among the public and healthcare personnel. The pandemic not only tested the world's health preparedness, but also brought up new ethical issues which need to be addressed as soon as possible. This article highlights these issues and suggests ethical answers to the same. The main areas that require attention are the distribution of scarce resources, prioritisation of antiviral drugs and vaccines, obligations of healthcare workers, and adequate dissemination and proper communication of information related to the pandemic. It is of great importance to plan in advance how to confront these issues in an ethical manner. This is possible only if a comprehensive contingency plan is prepared with the involvement of and in consultation with all the stakeholders concerned. PMID:24152353

  15. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009–10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Methods Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Results Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. Conclusions We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be more prone to the dissemination of “viral” information. The page ranking analysis revealed the crucial role of search engines regarding access to information on the Internet. PMID:23360311

  16. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    PubMed Central

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or “skipped”) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance. PMID:26046930

  17. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-06-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or “skipped”) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance.

  18. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a network of medical centers that can quickly test vaccines in response to emerging threats to public health, like 2009 H1N1 influenza." For more of what you need to know about the flu, go to the NIAID Web site ( www.niaid.nih.gov ) and to http:// ...

  19. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  20. A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer

    E-print Network

    retaining all viral epitopes that are recognized by the host immune system. SAVE generates a recombinant to quicker, more efficient ways of producing live attenuated influenza vaccines than the method used to generate strains for the one marketed product, the seasonal FluMist vaccine. Traditional techniques

  1. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  2. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  3. Prediction, risk and control of anti-influenza drugs in the Yodo River Basin, Japan during seasonal and pandemic influenza using the transmission model for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Takashi; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2015-07-15

    To reduce the risk of producing an anti-influenza drug-resistant virus from wildfowl, it is important to estimate the concentrations of anti-influenza drugs in river water during an influenza pandemic and to evaluate the concentrations that keep river basins safe. We first created a newly designed infectious disease transmission model based on the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model. This model was then applied to replicate the transitional changes of three representative anti-influenza drugs, oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), and zanamivir (ZAN), in the urban area of the Yodo River system, which is one of the major basins in Japan with a population of 12 million; this region contains nearly 10% of the country's flu cases during the seasonal influenza outbreaks between 1999 and 2010. The results showed high correlations between the estimated number of influenza cases and the concentrations of the three investigated anti-influenza drugs with the reported values. We then extended the application of the model to estimate the concentration level of these anti-influenza drugs during the several influenza pandemics. The maximum estimated concentrations for OS, OC, and ZAN were known to be 260-450ng/L, 1500-2600ng/L and 40-70ng/L, respectively, at the peak of the influenza pandemic. These results suggest that it is possible that a drug-resistant influenza virus can originate from wild mallard when there is a large-scale influenza pandemic. However, ozonation before discharge at sewage treatment plants is known to significantly reduce the release of such drugs into the aquatic environment to reduce the risk of a drug-resistant virus outbreak. It was also suggested that further environmental risk could be reduced by decreasing these concentrations further in river water. PMID:25828414

  4. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naďve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  5. The Dental Caries Pandemic and Disparities Problem

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, BL

    2006-01-01

    Understanding caries etiology and distribution is central to understanding potential opportunities for and likely impact of new biotechnologies and biomaterials to reduce the caries burden worldwide. This review asserts the appropriateness of characterizing caries as a "pandemic" and considers static and temporal trend reports of worldwide caries distribution. Oral health disparities within and between countries are related to sugar consumption, fluoride usage, dental care, and social determinants of health. Findings of international and U.S. studies are considered in promoting World Health Organization's and others' recommendations for science-based preventive and disease management interventions at the individual, clinical, public health, and public policy levels. PMID:16934119

  6. Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Ebert, David S.; Corley, Courtney D.; Maciejewski, Ross; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.

    2010-05-30

    Federal, State, and local decision makers and public health officials must prepare and exercise complex plans to contend with a variety of possible mass casualty events, such as pandemic influenza. Through the provision of quick look tools (QLTs) focused on mass casualty events, such planning can be done with higher accuracy and more realism through the combination of interactive simulation and visualization in these tools. If an event happens, the QLTs can then be employed to rapidly assess and execute alternative mitigation strategies, and thereby minimize casualties. This can be achieved by conducting numerous 'what-if' assessments prior to any event in order to assess potential health impacts (e.g., number of sick individuals), required community resources (e.g., vaccinations and hospital beds), and optimal mitigative decision strategies (e.g., school closures) during the course of a pandemic. In this presentation, we overview and demonstrate a pandemic influenza QLT, discuss some of the modeling methods and construct and visual analytic components and interface, and outline additional development concepts. These include the incorporation of a user selectable infectious disease palette, simultaneous visualization of decision alternatives, additional resource elements associated with emergency response (e.g., first responders and medical professionals), and provisions for other potential disaster events.

  7. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the United States during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Martin I; Patel, Anita; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for US public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding "rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a "low severity" scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%-0.1%, or a "high severity" scenario (CFR: 0.25%-0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (eg, drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic. PMID:25878301

  8. IS IT A COLD OR IS IT FLU? It is often difficult to distinguish a bad cold (URTI) from mild influenza (flu) symptoms.

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    IS IT A COLD OR IS IT FLU? It is often difficult to distinguish a bad cold (URTI) from mild in influenza. Whereas one may feel fatigued and lethargic with a URTI, with influenza one may be unable to get out of bed for several days. Is it Flu or is it a Cold? General Guidelines for distinguishing URTIs

  9. Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2011-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of humans is caused by two lentiviruses, human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). Here, we describe the origins and evolution of these viruses, and the circumstances that led to the AIDS pandemic. Both HIVs are the result of multiple cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) naturally infecting African primates. Most of these transfers resulted in viruses that spread in humans to only a limited extent. However, one transmission event, involving SIVcpz from chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon, gave rise to HIV-1 group M—the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. We discuss how host restriction factors have shaped the emergence of new SIV zoonoses by imposing adaptive hurdles to cross-species transmission and/or secondary spread. We also show that AIDS has likely afflicted chimpanzees long before the emergence of HIV. Tracing the genetic changes that occurred as SIVs crossed from monkeys to apes and from apes to humans provides a new framework to examine the requirements of successful host switches and to gauge future zoonotic risk. PMID:22229120

  10. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  11. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy. PMID:18618061

  12. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  13. Capacity Building in Response to Pandemic Influenza Threats: Lao PDR Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Phommasack, Bounlay; Moen, Ann; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Cox, Nancy; Khamphaphongphanh, Bouaphanh; Phonekeo, Darouny; Kasai, Takeshi; Ketmayoon, Pakapak; Lewis, Hannah; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Corwin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) committed to pandemic detection and response preparations when faced with the threat of avian influenza. Since 2006, the National Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology of Lao PDR has developed credible laboratory, surveillance, and epidemiological (human) capacity and as a result was designated a World Health Organization National Influenza Center in 2010. The Lao PDR experience in building influenza capacities provides a case study of the considerable crossover effect of such investments to augment the capacity to combat emerging and re-emerging diseases other than influenza. PMID:23222137

  14. Pandemic preparedness: perceptions of vulnerable migrants in Thailand towards WHO-recommended non-pharmaceutical interventions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) constituted the principal public health response to the previous influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic and are one key area of ongoing preparation for future pandemics. Thailand is an important point of focus in terms of global pandemic preparedness and response due to its role as the major transportation hub for Southeast Asia, the endemic presence of multiple types of influenza, and its role as a major receiving country for migrants. Our aim was to collect information about vulnerable migrants’ perceptions of and ability to implement NPIs proposed by the WHO. We hope that this information will help us to gauge the capacity of this population to engage in pandemic preparedness and response efforts, and to identify potential barriers to NPI effectiveness. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed. The study was conducted during the influenza H1N1 2009 pandemic and included 801 migrant participants living in border areas thought to be high risk by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health. Data were collected by Migrant Community Health Workers using a 201-item interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Univariate descriptive analyses were conducted. Results With the exception of border measures, to which nearly all participants reported they would be adherent, attitudes towards recommended NPIs were generally negative or uncertain. Other potential barriers to NPI implementation include limited experience applying these interventions (e.g., using a thermometer, wearing a face mask) and inadequate hand washing and household disinfection practices. Conclusions Negative or ambivalent attitudes towards NPIs combined with other barriers identified suggest that vulnerable migrants in Thailand have a limited capacity to participate in pandemic preparedness efforts. This limited capacity likely puts migrants at risk of propagating the spread of a pandemic virus. Coordinated risk communication and public education are potential strategies that may reduce barriers to individual NPI implementation. PMID:24973943

  15. Alina Deshpande--Strengthening the fight against pandemics

    E-print Network

    , pandemic, environmental disaster, or food-borne illness. Persistence is key to success Deshpande's great, schools for mentally challenged, science labs for the underprivileged, hospice care and cancer wards

  16. Wolbachia: Can we save lives with a great pandemic?

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    , and even malaria [5,6] create a potentially cheap and sustainable system in which the great pandemic of lymphatic filariasis and river blindness that afflict hundreds of millions of people [7,8]. This research

  17. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...areas. XII. Effective Time Period...the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...influenza A viruses and influenza...influenza A viruses or influenza A viruses with pandemic...the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...during the effective period...

  18. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I plan ahead with my child's school or child care? Find out your child's school or child care providers plan for flu season. Let them know ... Additional Information: Preventing the Flu: Resources for Parents & Child Care Providers Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child ...

  19. October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st Deadline Approaches Employee Health Services has been providing free flu vaccinations to employees and students at various locations around the Sacramento campus since September 12, 2012. In addition to taking the vaccine

  20. An Update on Avian Flu The virus continues to spread in wild birds and poultry

    E-print Network

    An Update on Avian Flu The virus continues to spread in wild birds and poultry Since January 2006, new cases of avian influenza in poultry have surfaced in China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos of H5N1 avian flu in poultry and wild birds since 1/2006 #12;In this same period, a total of 74 new

  1. SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009

    E-print Network

    SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009 Provided by the Office of the Vice established the following plan to respond to the emergence of swine flu (H1N1 virus). Our plan is based (H1N1) cases on campus should they occur. a) We have been and will continue to work with the Thurston

  2. What You Should Know and Do This Flu Season If You Are 65 Years and Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... New England Journal of Medicine indicated that the high-dose vaccine was 24.2% more effective in preventing flu in adults 65 years and older relative to a standard-dose flu vaccine. (The confidence interval for this result was 9.7% to 36. ...

  3. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  4. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  5. Using results from infectious disease modeling to improve the response to a potential H7N9 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Redd, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other government agencies prepared for a possible H7N9 pandemic, many questions arose about the virus's expected burden and the effectiveness of key interventions. Public health decision makers need information to compare interventions so that efforts can be focused on interventions most likely to have the greatest impact on morbidity and mortality. To guide decision making, CDC's pandemic response leadership turned to experts in modeling for assistance. H7N9 modeling results provided a quantitative estimate of the impact of different interventions and emphasized the importance of key assumptions. In addition, these H7N9 modeling efforts highlighted the need for modelers to work closely with investigators collecting data so that model assumptions can be adjusted as new information becomes available and with decision makers to ensure that the results of modeling impact policy decisions. PMID:25878303

  6. 2009 H1N1 swine flu: the 2010 perspective.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Doris; Tumpey, Terrence; Lowen, Anice; Gill, James; Shaw, Michael; Matthews, James; Galarza, Jose; Arroyo, Jennifer Minieri; Dormitzer, Philip Ralph

    2010-09-01

    In May 2009, as the H1N1 swine flu outbreak was in the early stages, a conference was held at the New York Academy of Sciences to discuss what was known about the virus and what was being done to stop the outbreak. In May 2010, a follow-up conference was again held at the New York Academy of Sciences, but now to discuss the H1N1 outbreak retrospectively. The report presented here summarizes the 2010 conference proceedings. PMID:20860673

  7. Extracorporeal Life Support for Pandemic Influenza: The Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Pandemic Management

    PubMed Central

    DeLaney, Ed; Smith, Michael J.; Harvey, Brian T.; Pelletier, Keith J.; Aquino, Michael P.; Stone, Justin M.; Jean-Baptiste, Gerald C.; Johnson, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The recent global threat of a severe pandemic influenza outbreak has suggested that extracorporeal life support will begin to play an evolving role in the care of critically ill influenza stricken patients. The highly communicable attributes of influenza could result in widespread infection and an associated increased need for advanced life support. Supply and demand equilibrium may be abruptly disrupted, and ethical decisions regarding the allocation of life saving resources will inevitably need to be made. Protocol oriented planning, research analysis, and advanced technologies are critical factors in averting catastrophe. This review article details the epidemiology, diagnostic techniques, and interventions for the influenza A virus, including H1N1. PMID:21313924

  8. Experimental infection with a Thai reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin induced disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus in 2009 in humans, this novel virus spread into the swine population. Pigs represent a potential host for this virus and can serve as a mixing vessel for genetic mutations of the influenza virus. Reassortant viruses eventually emerged from the 2009 pandemic and were reported in swine populations worldwide including Thailand. As a result of the discovery of this emergent disease, pathogenesis studies of this novel virus were conducted in order that future disease protection and control measures in swine and human populations could be enacted. Methods The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus (pH1N1) and its reassortant virus (rH1N1) isolated from pigs in Thailand were inoculated into 2 separate cohorts of 9, 3-week-old pigs. Cohorts were consisted of one group experimentally infected with pH1N1 and one group with rH1N1. A negative control group consisting of 3 pigs was also included. Clinical signs, viral shedding and pathological lesions were investigated and compared. Later, 3 pigs from viral inoculated groups and 1 pig from the control group were necropsied at 2, 4, and 12 days post inoculation (DPI). Results The results indicated that pigs infected with both viruses demonstrated typical flu-like clinical signs and histopathological lesions of varying severity. Influenza infected-pigs of both groups had mild to moderate pulmonary signs on 1-4 DPI. Interestingly, pigs in both groups demonstrated viral RNA detection in the nasal swabs until the end of the experiment (12 DPI). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that both the pH1N1 and rH1N1 influenza viruses, isolated from naturally infected pigs, induced acute respiratory disease in experimentally inoculated nursery pigs. Although animals in the rH1N1-infected cohort demonstrated more severe clinical signs, had higher numbers of pigs shedding the virus, were noted to have increased histopathological severity of lung lesions and increased viral antigen in lung tissue, the findings were not statistically significant in comparison with the pH1N1-infected group. Interestingly, viral genetic material of both viruses could be detected from the nasal swabs until the end of the experiment. Similar to other swine influenza viruses, the clinical signs and pathological lesions in both rH1N1 and pH1N1 were limited to the respiratory tract. PMID:23497073

  9. Modeling the Worldwide Spread of Pandemic Influenza: Baseline Case and Containment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain; Barthelemy, Marc; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, which is now widespread in Southeast Asia and which diffused recently in some areas of the Balkans region and Western Europe, has raised a public alert toward the potential occurrence of a new severe influenza pandemic. Here we study the worldwide spread of a pandemic and its possible containment at a global level taking into account all available information on air travel. Methods and Findings We studied a metapopulation stochastic epidemic model on a global scale that considers airline travel flow data among urban areas. We provided a temporal and spatial evolution of the pandemic with a sensitivity analysis of different levels of infectiousness of the virus and initial outbreak conditions (both geographical and seasonal). For each spreading scenario we provided the timeline and the geographical impact of the pandemic in 3,100 urban areas, located in 220 different countries. We compared the baseline cases with different containment strategies, including travel restrictions and the therapeutic use of antiviral (AV) drugs. We investigated the effect of the use of AV drugs in the event that therapeutic protocols can be carried out with maximal coverage for the populations in all countries. In view of the wide diversity of AV stockpiles in different regions of the world, we also studied scenarios in which only a limited number of countries are prepared (i.e., have considerable AV supplies). In particular, we compared different plans in which, on the one hand, only prepared and wealthy countries benefit from large AV resources, with, on the other hand, cooperative containment scenarios in which countries with large AV stockpiles make a small portion of their supplies available worldwide. Conclusions We show that the inclusion of air transportation is crucial in the assessment of the occurrence probability of global outbreaks. The large-scale therapeutic usage of AV drugs in all hit countries would be able to mitigate a pandemic effect with a reproductive rate as high as 1.9 during the first year; with AV supply use sufficient to treat approximately 2% to 6% of the population, in conjunction with efficient case detection and timely drug distribution. For highly contagious viruses (i.e., a reproductive rate as high as 2.3), even the unrealistic use of supplies corresponding to the treatment of approximately 20% of the population leaves 30%–50% of the population infected. In the case of limited AV supplies and pandemics with a reproductive rate as high as 1.9, we demonstrate that the more cooperative the strategy, the more effective are the containment results in all regions of the world, including those countries that made part of their resources available for global use. PMID:17253899

  10. Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-03-04

    The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  11. Interatrial Block: A Virtual Pandemic Requiring Attention

    PubMed Central

    Mehrzad, Raman; Spodick, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Interatrial block (IAB) denotes a conduction delay between the two atria (P-wave duration ?110 ms). Depending on the severity of the block, IAB can be partial or advanced. Even though several studies have reported a high prevalence of IAB, it still remains a diagnosis many neglect without any follow-up. The crisis in IAB is undramatic until predictable complications appear. Nevertheless, the danger in IAB is real because of the major associations with multiple medical conditions, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial ischemia, left atrial enlargement, and systemic emboli. There are different treatment options for IAB to eliminate its consequences, including pacing and medical management with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Pacing has been shown to give promising results and could potentially prevent conditions related to cardiovascular disease such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Given the high prevalence of IAB, together with its potentially serious consequences, and yet being largely ignored, we stress attention to this potentially dangerous pandemic and raise consideration for further investigations. PMID:24644376

  12. An avian live attenuated master backbone for potential use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Danielle; Hossain, Md Jaber; Song, Haichen; Araya, Yonas; Solórzano, Alicia; Perez, Daniel R

    2008-11-01

    The unprecedented emergence in Asia of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes with a broad host range poses a major challenge in the design of vaccination strategies that are both effective and available in a timely manner. The present study focused on the protective effects of a genetically modified AIV as a source for the preparation of vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. It has previously been demonstrated that a live attenuated AIV based on the internal backbone of influenza A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2), called WF10att, is effective at protecting poultry species against low- and high-pathogenicity influenza strains. More importantly, this live attenuated virus provided effective protection when administered in ovo. In order to characterize the WF10att backbone further for use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines, this study evaluated its protective effects in mice. Intranasal inoculation of modified attenuated viruses in mice provided adequate protective immunity against homologous lethal challenges with both the wild-type influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) viruses. Adequate heterotypic immunity was also observed in mice vaccinated with modified attenuated viruses carrying H7N2 surface proteins. The results presented in this report suggest that the internal genes of a genetically modified AIV confer similar protection in a mouse model and thus could be used as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. PMID:18931063

  13. ACADEMIC AFFAIRS POLICY Siena College Pandemic Influenza Response Plan (Extract) (Adopted May 9, 2007)

    E-print Network

    there is a high risk of the H5N1 Avian Influenza virus becoming the next human influenza pandemic. Siena CollegeACADEMIC AFFAIRS POLICY Siena College Pandemic Influenza Response Plan (Extract) (Adopted May 9

  14. Intervention strategies for an influenza pandemic taking into account secondary bacterial infections

    E-print Network

    Handel, Andreas

    outbreaks, morbidity and mortality due to secondary bacterial infections can be substantial. With the helpIntervention strategies for an influenza pandemic taking into account secondary bacterial predispose individuals to consecutive bacterial infections. Both during seasonal and pandemic influenza

  15. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis...ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.409 Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis....

  16. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis...ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.409 Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis....

  17. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis...ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.409 Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis....

  18. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis...ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.409 Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis....

  19. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis...ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.409 Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis....

  20. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... influenza preparedness via the Federal Register on September 14, 2010; 75 FR 55776-55777. The Department of... International Trade Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza... the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (...

  1. Deletion of the Aspergillus flavus orthologue of A. nidulans fluG reduces conidiation and promotes production of sclerotia but does not abolish aflatoxin biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus fluG deletion strains showed decreased conidiation but had elevated sclerotial production. These developmental changes were not remediated by co-culturing with fluG-positive strains. The fluG mutant still retained its aflatoxin-producing ability. The A. flavus fluG gene functions ...

  2. Persuasiveness of online flu-vaccination promotional banners.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yu-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Young people appear to have relatively little motivation to participate in flu-vaccination programs. This study assessed the effectiveness of online banners in efforts to persuade young people to get vaccinated. Specifically, a 2 x 3 between-subjects factorial design was used to examine the effects of message framing (gain vs loss) and color configuration (white text on a red background, black text on a yellow background, and white text on a blue background) on 180 college students' perceptions of the persuasiveness of flu-vaccination promotional banners. Each participant completed a four-item questionnaire, and the results of an analysis of variance showed that persuasiveness scores were higher among participants exposed to a loss-framed than to a gain-framed message, but only when the loss-framed message was presented in white text on a red background. The theoretical and practical implications of manipulating these two factors in the development of effective health-promotion materials are discussed. PMID:23833868

  3. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Most pandemics--eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza--originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

  4. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most pandemics—eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza—originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

  5. Grandmothers' Productivity and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-print Network

    Bock, John

    Grandmothers' Productivity and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa John Bock Department and the HIV/AIDS pandemic Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 23(1) March 2008 DOI 10.1007/s10823-007-9054-2 http://www.springerlink.com/content/102929/ #12;Grandmothers and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic Bock & Johnson

  6. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Update of Current Status and Issues

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Update of Current Status and Issues October 25, 2009 Pandemic (H1N1) influenza activity in Middlesex-London: Influenza activity in Middlesex-London continues laboratory-confirmed cases of Pandemic (H1N1) influenza and 33 cases of influenza A, which are quite likely

  7. Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over “swine flu,” as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  8. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students’ attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  9. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-01-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  10. [Ethical principles of management and planning during influenza pandemic].

    PubMed

    Kubar', O I; Asatrian, A Zh

    2012-01-01

    The article is dedicated to an actual problem of ethical component inclusion into the system of management and planning of epidemic control measures during threat emergence and in the course of influenza pandemic (epidemic) progress. Data regarding development of international ethical guidelines during influenza including WHO recommendations are presented and analysis of normative documents in Russian Federation is given. A necessity of comprehension and accounting of ethical values in pandemic preparedness is shown, main directions of action and responsibility are revealed. Key ethical positions of planning and implementation of measures during influenza pandemic are outlined, compliance with those determines the level of public support and thus provides the effectiveness of the implemented measures. PMID:22442981

  11. Avian influenza A viruses: from zoonosis to pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Mathilde; de Graaf, Miranda; Herfst, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses originating from the animal reservoir pose a threat for humans, as they have the ability to trigger pandemics upon adaptation to and invasion of an immunologically naive population. Of particular concern are the H5N1 viruses that continue to circulate in poultry in numerous countries in Europe, Asia and Africa, and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses in China, due to their relatively high number of human fatalities and pandemic potential. To start a pandemic, zoonotic influenza A viruses should not only acquire the ability to attach to, enter and replicate in the critical target cells in the respiratory tract of the new host, but also efficiently spread between humans by aerosol or respiratory droplet transmission. Here, we discuss the latest advances on the genetic and phenotypic determinants required for avian influenza A viruses to adapt to and transmit between mammals. PMID:25214882

  12. A novel system of artificial antigen-presenting cells efficiently stimulates Flu peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hui; Peng, Ji-Run; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Gong, Lei; Qiao, Shi-Shi; Wang, Wen-Zhen; Cui, Zhu-Qingqing; Yu, Xin; Wei, Yu-Hua; Leng, Xi-Sheng

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Adoptive immunotherapy depends on relevant numbers of cytolytic T lymphocytes. {yields} An ideal artificial APCs system was successfully prepared in vivo. {yields} Controlled release of IL-2 leads to much more T-cell expansion. {yields} This system is better than general cellular APCs on T-cell expansion. -- Abstract: Therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors in successful adoptive immunotherapy. However, efficient and reproducible methods to meet the qualification remain poor. To address this issue, we designed the artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A modified emulsion method was used for the preparation of PLGA particles encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2). Biotinylated molecular ligands for recognition and co-stimulation of T cells were attached to the particle surface through the binding of avidin-biotin. These formed the aAPC system. The function of aAPCs in the proliferation of specific CTLs against human Flu antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and MTT staining methods. Finally, we successfully prepared this suitable aAPC system. The results show that IL-2 is released from aAPCs in a sustained manner over 30 days. This dramatically improves the stimulatory capacity of this system as compared to the effect of exogenous addition of cytokine. In addition, our aAPCs promote the proliferation of Flu antigen-specific CTLs more effectively than the autologous cellular APCs. Here, this aAPC platform is proved to be suitable for expansion of human antigen-specific T cells.

  13. Reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu: Qualitative interviews with callers to NHS Direct

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the early stages of the 2009 swine flu (influenza H1N1) outbreak, the large majority of patients who contacted the health services about the illness did not have it. In the UK, the NHS Direct telephone service was used by many of these patients. We used qualitative interviews to identify the main reasons why people approached NHS Direct with concerns about swine flu and to identify aspects of their contact which were reassuring, using a framework approach. Methods 33 patients participated in semi-structured interviews. All patients had telephoned NHS Direct between 11 and 14 May with concerns about swine flu and had been assessed as being unlikely to have the illness. Results Reasons for seeking advice about swine flu included: the presence of unexpectedly severe flu-like symptoms; uncertainties about how one can catch swine flu; concern about giving it to others; pressure from friends or employers; and seeking 'peace of mind.' Most participants found speaking to NHS Direct reassuring or useful. Helpful aspects included: having swine flu ruled out; receiving an alternative explanation for symptoms; clarification on how swine flu is transmitted; and the perceived credibility of NHS Direct. No-one reported anything that had increased their anxiety and only one participant subsequently sought additional advice about swine flu from elsewhere. Conclusions Future major incidents involving other forms of chemical, biological or radiological hazards may also cause large numbers of unexposed people to seek health advice. Our data suggest that providing telephone triage and information is helpful in such instances, particularly where advice can be given via a trusted, pre-existing service. PMID:20678192

  14. The Alzheimer Pandemic: Is Paracetamol to Blame?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Günther Robert Norman

    2013-01-01

    Historical Background: The clinical recognition of a form of dementia closely resembling Alzheimer's disease dates from around 1800. The role of analgesics derived from coal-tar in the spread of the pandemic is traced in terms of the introduction of phenacetin (PN) in 1887; its nephrotoxicity; the observation of lesions characteristic of the disease by Fischer and Alzheimer; the discovery of paracetamol (PA) as the major metabolite of PN; the linking of kidney injury and dementia with high PN usage; and the failure of PN replacement by PA to halt and reverse the exponential, inexorable rise in the incidence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Fischer observed his first case before Alzheimer; it is proposed to rename the syndrome Fischer-Alzheimer disease (F-AD). Disease development: PA-metabolising enzymes are localised in the synaptic areas of the frontal cortex and hippocampus, where F-AD lesions arise. The initiating chemical lesions in liver poisoning comprise covalent binding of a highly reactive product of PA metabolism to proteins; similar events are believed to occur in brain, where alterations in the antigenic profiles of cerebral proteins activate the microglia. ?-Amyloid forms, and, like PA itself, induces nitric oxide synthase. Peroxynitrite modifies cerebral proteins by nitrating tyrosine residues, further challenging the microglia and exacerbating the amyloid cascade. Spontaneous reinnervation, N-acetyl cysteine administration and tyrosine supplementation may attenuate the early stages of F-AD development. Conclusion: F-AD is primarily a man-made condition with PA as its principal risk factor. PMID:24350947

  15. Comparative Epidemiology of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza A in Households

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Benjamin J.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Fang, Vicky J.; Lau, Lincoln L.H.; So, Hau Chi; Fung, Rita O.P.; Ma, Edward S.K.; Kwong, Alfred S.K.; Chan, Chi-Wai; Tsui, Wendy W.S.; Ngai, Ho-Yin; Chu, Daniel W.S.; Lee, Paco W.Y.; Chiu, Ming-Chee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are few data on the comparative epidemiology and virology of the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and cocirculating seasonal influenza A viruses in community settings. METHODS We recruited 348 index patients with acute respiratory illness from 14 outpatient clinics in Hong Kong in July and August 2009. We then prospectively followed household members of 99 patients who tested positive for influenza A virus on rapid diagnostic testing. We collected nasal and throat swabs from all household members at three home visits within 7 days for testing by means of quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay and viral culture. Using hemagglutination-inhibition and viral-neutralization assays, we tested baseline and convalescent serum samples from a subgroup of patients for antibody responses to the pandemic and seasonal influenza A viruses. RESULTS Secondary attack rates (as confirmed on RT-PCR assay) among household contacts of index patients were similar for the pandemic influenza virus (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3 to 14) and seasonal influenza viruses (9%; 95% CI, 5 to 15). The patterns of viral shedding and the course of illness among index patients were also similar for the pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. In a subgroup of patients for whom baseline and convalescent serum samples were available, 36% of household contacts who had serologic evidence of pandemic influenza virus infection did not shed detectable virus or report illness. CONCLUSIONS Pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus has characteristics that are broadly similar to those of seasonal influenza A viruses in terms of rates of viral shedding, clinical illness, and transmissibility in the household setting. PMID:20558368

  16. The role of population heterogeneity and human mobility in the spread of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Little is known on how different levels of population heterogeneity and different patterns of human mobility affect the course of pandemic influenza in terms of timing and impact. By employing a large-scale spatially explicit individual-based model, founded on a highly detailed model of the European populations and on a careful analysis of air and railway transportation data, we provide quantitative measures of the influence of such factors at the European scale. Our results show that Europe has to be prepared to face a rapid diffusion of a pandemic influenza, because of the high mobility of the population, resulting in the early importation of the first cases from abroad and highly synchronized local epidemics. The impact of the epidemic in European countries is highly variable because of the marked differences in the sociodemographic structure of European populations. R0, cumulative attack rate and peak daily attack rate depend heavily on sociodemographic parameters, such as the size of household groups and the fraction of workers and students in the population. PMID:19864279

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) related to the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Chinese General Population: a Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background China is at greatest risk of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 due to its huge population and high residential density. The unclear comprehension and negative attitudes towards the emerging infectious disease among general population may lead to unnecessary worry and even panic. The objective of this study was to investigate the Chinese public response to H1N1 pandemic and provide baseline data to develop public education campaigns in response to future outbreaks. Methods A close-ended questionnaire developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among 10,669 responders recruited from seven urban and two rural areas of China sampled by using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Results 30.0% respondents were not clear whether food spread H1N1 virusand. 65.7% reported that the pandemic had no impact on their life. The immunization rates of the seasonal flu and H1N1vaccine were 7.5% and 10.8%, respectively. Farmers and those with lower education level were less likely to know the main transmission route (cough or talk face to face). Female and those with college and above education had higher perception of risk and more compliance with preventive behaviors. Relationships between knowledge and risk perception (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.54-1.86), and knowledge and practices (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.42-1.73) were found among the study subjects. With regard to the behavior of taking up A/H1N1 vaccination, there are several related factors found in the current study population, including the perception of life disturbed (OR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.11-1.50), the safety of A/H1N1 vaccine (OR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.04-0.11), the knowledge of free vaccination policy (OR = 7.20; 95%CI 5.91-8.78), the state's priority vaccination strategy(OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.64), and taking up seasonal influenza vaccine behavior (OR = 4.69; 95%CI 3.53-6.23). Conclusions This A/H1N1 epidemic has not caused public panic yet, but the knowledge of A/H1N1 in residents is not optimistic. Public education campaign may take the side effects of vaccine and the knowledge about the state's vaccination strategy into account. PMID:21575222

  18. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after inactivated flu vaccine. This risk has been estimated at 1 or 2 additional cases per million ... Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million doses, and ...

  19. FDA Approves First Flu Shot with Added Ingredient to Boost Immune Response

    MedlinePLUS

    ... First Flu Shot With Added Ingredient to Boost Immune Response Vaccine can be used in seniors, who ... any compound used in vaccines to boost the immune response of vaccinated people. Fluad is a trivalent ...

  20. Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low: Study Researchers also found ... but when lightning strikes, and that previously healthy kid has a stroke, we're still trying to ...

  1. Treating Influenza(Flu) Do you have Asthma, Diabetes or Chronic Heart Disease?

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    a high risk condition and you get flu symptoms. Symptoms can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny with the use of influenza antiviral drugs,including nausea,vomiting,dizziness, runny or stuffy nose,cough

  2. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  3. Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? Share: It's that time of year again— ... But do they really work? What does the science say? Vaccination is the best protection against getting ...

  4. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know ...

  5. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2006 139 A DNA flu vaccine in practice

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2006 139 A DNA flu vaccine in practice in Biotechnology Progress (21, 1577­1592, 2005) and suggest that though challenging, it should be possible. However

  6. WOULD THE 1918 PANDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS BE A THREAT TODAY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1918 influenza pandemic caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide. Under biosafety level 3Ag containment, a recombinant influenza virus bearing the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) was generated. This virus is highly virulent in mice, pointing to the 1918 HA and...

  7. Two resource distribution strategies for dynamic mitigation of influenza pandemics.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Sánchez, Andrés; Savachkin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic containment and mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capabilities. We present two simulation-based optimization models for developing dynamic predictive resource distribution strategies for cross-regional pandemic outbreaks. In both models, the underlying simulation mimics the disease and population dynamics of the affected regions. The quantity-based optimization model generates a progressive allocation of limited quantities of mitigation resources, including vaccines, antiviral, administration capacities, and social distancing enforcement resources. The budget-based optimization model strives instead allocating a total resource budget. Both models seek to minimize the impact of ongoing outbreaks and the expected impact of potential outbreaks. The models incorporate measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the societal and economic costs of lost productivity and medical expenses. The models were calibrated using historic pandemic data and implemented on a sample outbreak in Florida, with over four million inhabitants. The quantity-based model was found to be inferior to the budget-based model, which was advantageous in its ability to balance the varying relative cost and effectiveness of individual resources. The models are intended to assist public health policy makers in developing effective distribution policies for mitigation of influenza pandemics. PMID:21197356

  8. 75 FR 10268 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... and Emergency Preparedness Act. SUMMARY: Amendment to declaration issued on September 28, 2009 (74 FR... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines--Amendment Authority: 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d... 2009-H1N1 Vaccines: Whereas there are or may be multiple animal influenza A viruses, circulating...

  9. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus. PMID:22305505

  10. The Possible Impact of Vaccination for Seasonal Influenza on Emergence of Pandemic Influenza via Reassortment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard; De Angelis, Daniela; White, Peter J.; Charlett, Andre; McCauley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background One pathway through which pandemic influenza strains might emerge is reassortment from coinfection of different influenza A viruses. Seasonal influenza vaccines are designed to target the circulating strains, which intuitively decreases the prevalence of coinfection and the chance of pandemic emergence due to reassortment. However, individual-based analyses on 2009 pandemic influenza show that the previous seasonal vaccination may increase the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 infection. In view of pandemic influenza preparedness, it is essential to understand the overall effect of seasonal vaccination on pandemic emergence via reassortment. Methods and Findings In a previous study we applied a population dynamics approach to investigate the effect of infection-induced cross-immunity on reducing such a pandemic risk. Here the model was extended by incorporating vaccination for seasonal influenza to assess its potential role on the pandemic emergence via reassortment and its effect in protecting humans if a pandemic does emerge. The vaccination is assumed to protect against the target strains but only partially against other strains. We find that a universal seasonal vaccine that provides full-spectrum cross-immunity substantially reduces the opportunity of pandemic emergence. However, our results show that such effectiveness depends on the strength of infection-induced cross-immunity against any novel reassortant strain. If it is weak, the vaccine that induces cross-immunity strongly against non-target resident strains but weakly against novel reassortant strains, can further depress the pandemic emergence; if it is very strong, the same kind of vaccine increases the probability of pandemic emergence. Conclusions Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated and live attenuated, only live attenuated vaccines can induce heterosubtypic immunity. Current vaccines are effective in controlling circulating strains; they cannot always help restrain pandemic emergence because of the uncertainty of the oncoming reassortant strains, however. This urges the development of universal vaccines for prevention of pandemic influenza. PMID:25494180

  11. ClassyFlu: Classification of Influenza A Viruses with Discriminatively Trained Profile-HMMs

    PubMed Central

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1–H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1–N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new “Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool” (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available. PMID:24404173

  12. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available. PMID:24404173

  13. Mortality Associated with Influenza in Tropics, State of Săo Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011: The Pre-Pandemic, Pandemic, and Post-Pandemic Periods

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas; Francisco, Priscila M. S. Bergamo; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the seasonal influenza and 2009 AH1N1 pandemic influenza on mortality is not yet completely understood, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. The trends of influenza related mortality rate in different age groups and different outcomes on a area in tropical and subtropical climate with more than 41 million people (State of Săo Paulo, Brazil), were studied from 2002 to 2011 were studied. Serfling-type regression analysis was performed using weekly mortality registries and virological data obtained from sentinel surveillance. The prepandemic years presented a well-defined seasonality during winter and a clear relationship between activity of AH3N2 and increase of mortality in all ages, especially in individuals older than 60 years. The mortality due to pneumonia and influenza and respiratory causes associated with 2009 pandemic influenza in the age groups 0–4 years and older than 60 was lower than the previous years. Among people aged 5–19 and 20–59 years the mortality was 2.6 and 4.4 times higher than that in previous periods, respectively. The mortality in all ages was higher than the average of the previous years but was equal mortality in epidemics of AH3N2. The 2009 pandemic influenza mortality showed significant differences compared to other years, especially considering the age groups most affected. PMID:23844285

  14. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

  15. Pandemics in the Age of Twitter: Content Analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Cynthia; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary “infoveillance” approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1) monitor the use of the terms “H1N1” versus “swine flu” over time; 2) conduct a content analysis of “tweets”; and 3) validate Twitter as a real-time content, sentiment, and public attention trend-tracking tool. Methodology/Principal Findings Between May 1 and December 31, 2009, we archived over 2 million Twitter posts containing keywords “swine flu,” “swineflu,” and/or “H1N1.” using Infovigil, an infoveillance system. Tweets using “H1N1” increased from 8.8% to 40.5% (R2?=?.788; p<.001), indicating a gradual adoption of World Health Organization-recommended terminology. 5,395 tweets were randomly selected from 9 days, 4 weeks apart and coded using a tri-axial coding scheme. To track tweet content and to test the feasibility of automated coding, we created database queries for keywords and correlated these results with manual coding. Content analysis indicated resource-related posts were most commonly shared (52.6%). 4.5% of cases were identified as misinformation. News websites were the most popular sources (23.2%), while government and health agencies were linked only 1.5% of the time. 7/10 automated queries correlated with manual coding. Several Twitter activity peaks coincided with major news stories. Our results correlated well with H1N1 incidence data. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential of using social media to conduct “infodemiology” studies for public health. 2009 H1N1-related tweets were primarily used to disseminate information from credible sources, but were also a source of opinions and experiences. Tweets can be used for real-time content analysis and knowledge translation research, allowing health authorities to respond to public concerns. PMID:21124761

  16. Market implementation of the MVA platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines: A quantitative key opinion leader analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Claassen, E

    2015-08-20

    A quantitative method is presented to rank strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to achieve pairwise comparisons among SWOT factors in order to prioritize them. Key opinion leaders (KOLs) in the influenza vaccine field were interviewed to collect a unique dataset to evaluate the market potential of this platform. The purpose of this study, to evaluate commercial potential of the MVA platform for the development of novel generation pandemic influenza vaccines, is accomplished by using a SWOT and AHP combined analytic method. Application of the SWOT-AHP model indicates that its strengths are considered more important by KOLs than its weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Particularly, the inherent immunogenicity capability of MVA without the requirement of an adjuvant is the most important factor to increase commercial attractiveness of this platform. Concerns regarding vector vaccines and anti-vector immunity are considered its most important weakness, which might lower public health value of this platform. Furthermore, evaluation of the results of this study emphasizes equally important role that threats and opportunities of this platform play. This study further highlights unmet needs in the influenza vaccine market, which could be addressed by the implementation of the MVA platform. Broad use of MVA in clinical trials shows great promise for this vector as vaccine platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza and threats by other respiratory viruses. Moreover, from the results of the clinical trials seem that MVA is particularly attractive for development of vaccines against pathogens for which no, or only insufficiently effective vaccines, are available. PMID:26048779

  17. Market implementation of the MVA platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines: A quantitative key opinion leader analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S.; Kreijtz, Joost H.C.M.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Claassen, E.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method is presented to rank strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to achieve pairwise comparisons among SWOT factors in order to prioritize them. Key opinion leaders (KOLs) in the influenza vaccine field were interviewed to collect a unique dataset to evaluate the market potential of this platform. The purpose of this study, to evaluate commercial potential of the MVA platform for the development of novel generation pandemic influenza vaccines, is accomplished by using a SWOT and AHP combined analytic method. Application of the SWOT–AHP model indicates that its strengths are considered more important by KOLs than its weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Particularly, the inherent immunogenicity capability of MVA without the requirement of an adjuvant is the most important factor to increase commercial attractiveness of this platform. Concerns regarding vector vaccines and anti-vector immunity are considered its most important weakness, which might lower public health value of this platform. Furthermore, evaluation of the results of this study emphasizes equally important role that threats and opportunities of this platform play. This study further highlights unmet needs in the influenza vaccine market, which could be addressed by the implementation of the MVA platform. Broad use of MVA in clinical trials shows great promise for this vector as vaccine platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza and threats by other respiratory viruses. Moreover, from the results of the clinical trials seem that MVA is particularly attractive for development of vaccines against pathogens for which no, or only insufficiently effective vaccines, are available. PMID:26048779

  18. Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1

    PubMed Central

    Taubenberger, J.K.; Morens, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Influenza pandemics and epidemics have apparently occurred since at least the Middle Ages. When pandemics appear, 50% or more of an affected population can be infected in a single year, and the number of deaths caused by influenza can dramatically exceed what is normally expected. Since 1500, there appear to have been 13 or more influenza pandemics. In the past 120 years there were undoubted pandemics in 1889, 1918, 1957, 1968, and 1977. Although most experts believe we will face another influenza pandemic, it is impossible to predict when it will appear, where it will originate, or how severe it will be. Nor is there agreement about the subtype of influenza virus most likely to cause the next pandemic. The continuing spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses has heightened interest in pandemic prediction. Despite uncertainties in the historical record of the pre-virology era, study of previous pandemics may help guide future pandemic planning and lead to a better understanding of the complex ecobiology underlying the formation of pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. PMID:19618626

  19. Challenges and changes: immunization program managers share perspectives in a 2012 national survey about the US immunization system since the H1N1 pandemic response.

    PubMed

    Seib, Katherine; Chamberlain, Allison; Wells, Katelyn; Curran, Eileen; Whitney, Ellen As; Orenstein, Walter A; Hinman, Alan R; Omer, Saad B

    2014-01-01

    In mid-2012 we conducted survey of immunization program managers (IPMs) for the purpose of describing relationships between immunization programs and emergency preparedness programs, IPM's perceptions of challenges encountered and changes made or planned in programmatic budgeting, vaccine allocation and pandemic plans as a result of the H1N1 vaccination campaign. Over 95% of IPMs responded (61/64) to the survey. IPMs reported that a primary budget-related challenge faced during H1N1 included staff-related restrictions that limited the ability to hire extra help or pay regular staff overtime resulting in overworked regular staff. Other budget-related challenges related to operational budget shortfalls and vaccine procurement delays. IPMs described overcoming these challenges by increasing staff where possible, using executive order or other high-level support by officials to access emergency funds and make policy changes, as well as expedite hiring and spending processes according to their pandemic influenza plan or by direction from leadership. Changes planned for response to future pandemic vaccine allocation strategies were to "tailor the strategy to the event" taking into account disease virulence, vaccine production rates and public demand, having flexible vaccine allocation strategies, clarifying priority groups for vaccine receipt to providers and the public, and having targeted clinics such as through pharmacies or schools. Changes already made to pandemic plans were improving strategies for internal and external communication, improving vaccine allocation efficiency, and planning for specific scenarios. To prepare for future pandemics, programs should ensure well-defined roles, collaborating during non-emergency situations, sustaining continuity in preparedness funding, and improved technologies. PMID:25483633

  20. The H1N1 pandemic: media frames, stigmatization and coping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Throughout history, people have soothed their fear of disease outbreaks by searching for someone to blame. Such was the case with the April 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak. Mexicans and other Latinos living in the US were quickly stigmatized by non-Latinos as carriers of the virus, partly because of news reports on the outbreak’s alleged origin in Mexican pig farms. Methods In this exploratory study we examined the psychological processes of cue convergence and associative priming, through which many people likely conflated news of the H1N1 outbreak with pre-existing cognitive scripts that blamed Latino immigrants for a variety of social problems. We also used a transactional model of stress and coping to analyze the transcripts from five focus groups, in order to examine the ways in which a diverse collection of New England residents appraised the threat of H1N1, processed information about stereotypes and stigmas, and devised personal strategies to cope with these stressors. Results Twelve themes emerged in the final wave of coding, with most of them appearing at distinctive points in the stress and coping trajectories of focus group participants. Primary and secondary appraisals were mostly stressful or negative, with participants born in the USA reporting more stressful responses than those who were not. Latino participants reported no stressful primary appraisals, but spoke much more often than Whites or Non-Hispanic Blacks about negative secondary appraisals. When interactions between participants dealt with stigmas regarding Latinos and H1N1, Latinos in our focus groups reported using far more negative coping strategies than Whites or Non-Hispanic Blacks. When discussions did not focus on stereotypes or stigmas, Latino participants spoke much more often about positive coping strategies compared to members of these same groups. Conclusions Participants in all five focus groups went through a similar process of stress and coping in response to the threat of H1N1, though individual responses varied by race and ethnicity. Stigmatization has often been common during pandemics, and public health and emergency preparedness practitioners can help to mitigate its impacts by developing interventions to address the social stressors that occur during outbreaks in highly-localized geographic regions. PMID:24299568

  1. To find out more, visit www. ght u.ca or call 1 800 O-Canada (1-800-622-6232) (TTY 1-800-926-9105) KNOWLEDGEISYOURBESTDEFENCE Considering the Options Getting the flu

    E-print Network

    . This chart explains the risk of getting the flu versus the benefits and risks of getting an H1N1 flu vaccine and/or taking antiviral medication if you do get the flu. If you catch the H1N1 Flu If you become sick with the H1N1 flu there is a chance you could develop severe flu symptoms and be hospitalized. Knowledge

  2. 'Rhyme or reason?' Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-12-01

    During the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes. This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narratives and stories about the media or 'big pharma capitalism' are entangled with private memories, accidental coincidences and serendipitous associations. It is obvious that vaccination interventions that require compliance from large groups of people need to take into account the kind of personal experience narratives that are produced by the complex interplay of the factors described by the informants. PMID:26077985

  3. Occurrence of AH1N1 viral infection and clinical features in symptomatic patients who received medical care during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 a new influenza serotype (AH1N1) was identified in Mexico that spread rapidly generating worldwide alarm. San Luis Potosi (SLP) was the third state with more cases reported in that year. The clinical identification of this flu posed a challenge to medical staff. This study aimed at estimating the AH1N1 infection, hospitalization and mortality rates, and at identifying related clinical features in persons who received medical care during the influenza pandemic. Methods Retrospective study with persons with flu-like illness who received public or private medical care in SLP from 15.03.09 to 30.10.09. Physicians purposely recorded many clinical variables. Samples from pharyngeal exudate or bronchoalveolar lavage were taken to diagnose AH1N1 using real-time PCR. Clinical predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with infection as a dependent variable. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Analyses were stratified by age group based on the distribution of positive cases. Results From the 6922 persons with flu symptoms 6158 had available laboratory results from which 44.9% turned out to be positive for AH1N1. From those, 5.8% were hospitalized and 0.7% died. Most positive cases were aged 5–14 years and, in this subgroup, older age was positively associated with A H1N1 infection (95% CI 1.05-1.1); conversely, in patients aged 15 years or more, older age was negatively associated with the infection (95% CI 0.97-0.98). Fever was related in those aged 15 years or more (95% CI 1.4-3.5), and headache (95% CI 1.2-2.2) only in the 0–14 years group. Clear rhinorrhea and cough were positively related in both groups (p?

  4. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Smolinski, Mark S.; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Chunara, Rumi; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Wójcik, Oktawia; Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, Andre; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We summarized Flu Near You (FNY) data from the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons in the United States. Methods. FNY collects limited demographic characteristic information upon registration, and prompts users each Monday to report symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced during the previous week. We calculated the descriptive statistics and rates of ILI for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons. We compared raw and noise-filtered ILI rates with ILI rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ILINet surveillance system. Results. More than 61?000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2012–2013 season, totaling 327?773 reports. Nearly 40?000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2013–2014 season, totaling 336?933 reports. Rates of ILI as reported by FNY tracked closely with ILINet in both timing and magnitude. Conclusions. With increased participation, FNY has the potential to serve as a viable complement to existing outpatient, hospital-based, and laboratory surveillance systems. Although many established systems have the benefits of specificity and credibility, participatory systems offer advantages in the areas of speed, sensitivity, and scalability. PMID:26270299

  5. Combined inhalational and oral supplementation of ascorbic acid may prevent influenza pandemic emergency: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Kaul, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Occurrence of influenza pandemics is a worldwide phenomenon and a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the globe. It is due to mutations in the influenza virus genetic material creating antigenic drift of pathogenic viral proteins resulting in emergence of new influenza virus strains. Therefore, the vaccines available for prevention of influenza offer no protection against influenza pandemics caused by new virus strains. Moreover, the existing drugs used to combat influenza may be ineffective to treat influenza pandemics due to the emergence of drug resistance in the pandemic virus strain. Therefore, a working strategy must be developed to combat influenza pandemics. In this review we have addressed this problem and reviewed the published studies on ascorbic acid in the common cold and influenza and laboratory studies on the effect of ascorbic acid on influenza virus. We have also correlated the clinical and laboratory studies and developed a hypothesis to prevent influenza pandemics. PMID:20005468

  6. Development of Framework for Assessing Influenza Virus Pandemic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Stephen A.; Cox, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Although predicting which influenza virus subtype will cause the next pandemic is not yet possible, public health authorities must continually assess the pandemic risk associated with animal influenza viruses, particularly those that have caused infections in humans, and determine what resources should be dedicated to mitigating that risk. To accomplish this goal, a risk assessment framework was created in collaboration with an international group of influenza experts. Compared with the previously used approach, this framework, named the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool, provides a systematic and transparent approach for assessing and comparing threats posed primarily by avian and swine influenza viruses. This tool will be useful to the international influenza community and will remain flexible and responsive to changing information. PMID:26196098

  7. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  8. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

  9. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  10. Deaths Associated with Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Current estimates of deaths from the influenza pandemic of 1918–19 in Japan are based on vital records and range from 257,000 to 481,000. The resulting crude death rate range of 0.47%–0.88% is considerably lower than parallel and conservative worldwide estimates of 1.66%–2.77%. Because the accuracy of vital registration records for early 20th century Asia is questionable, to calculate the percentage of the population who died from the pandemic, we used alternative prefecture-level population count data for Japan in combination with estimation methods for panel data that were not available to earlier demographers. Our population loss estimates of 1.97–2.02 million are appreciably higher than the standing estimates, and they yield a crude rate of population loss of 3.62%–3.71%. This rate resolves a major puzzle about the pandemic by indicating that the experience of Japan was similar to that of other parts of Asia. PMID:23631838

  11. Clinical review: influenza pandemic - physicians and their obligations.

    PubMed

    Anantham, Devanand; McHugh, Wendy; O'Neill, Stephen; Forrow, Lachlan

    2008-01-01

    An influenza pandemic threatens to be the most lethal public health crisis to confront the world. Physicians will have critical roles in diagnosis, containment and treatment of influenza, and their commitment to treat despite increased personal risks is essential for a successful public health response. The obligations of the medical profession stem from the unique skills of its practitioners, who are able to provide more effective aid than the general public in a medical emergency. The free choice of profession and the societal contract from which doctors derive substantial benefits affirm this commitment. In hospitals, the duty will fall upon specialties that are most qualified to deal with an influenza pandemic, such as critical care, pulmonology, anesthesiology and emergency medicine. It is unrealistic to expect that this obligation to treat should be burdened with unlimited risks. Instead, risks should be minimized and justified against the effectiveness of interventions. Institutional and public cooperation in logistics, remuneration and psychological/legal support may help remove the barriers to the ability to treat. By stepping forward in duty during such a pandemic, physicians will be able to reaffirm the ethical center of the profession and lead the rest of the healthcare team in overcoming the medical crisis. PMID:18598380

  12. Crossing the species barrier: the threat of an avian influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (H5N1) has recently been recognized as a new emerging infectious disease that may pose a threat to international public health. Most recent developments lead to the belief that H5N1 could become the cause of the next influenza pandemic. This review discusses the characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza virus as an emerging infectious disease with the potential for pandemic development. In addition, the current pandemic influenza alert status and guidelines for pandemic preparedness, treatment, and prevention are discussed. PMID:16424926

  13. The use of nonhuman primates in research on seasonal, pandemic and avian influenza, 1893-2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, A Sally; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Bray, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Attempts to reproduce the features of human influenza in laboratory animals date from the early 1890s, when Richard Pfeiffer inoculated apes with bacteria recovered from influenza patients and produced a mild respiratory illness. Numerous studies employing nonhuman primates (NHPs) were performed during the 1918 pandemic and the following decade. Most used bacterial preparations to infect animals, but some sought a filterable agent for the disease. Since the viral etiology of influenza was established in the early 1930s, studies in NHPs have been supplemented by a much larger number of experiments in mice, ferrets and human volunteers. However, the emergence of a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 1976 and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in 1997 stimulated an increase in NHP research, because these agents are difficult to study in naturally infected patients and cannot be administered to human volunteers. In this paper, we review the published literature on the use of NHPs in influenza research from 1893 through the end of 2014. The first section summarizes observational studies of naturally occurring influenza-like syndromes in wild and captive primates, including serologic investigations. The second provides a chronological account of experimental infections of NHPs, beginning with Pfeiffer's study and covering all published research on seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including vaccine and antiviral drug testing. The third section reviews experimental infections of NHPs with avian influenza viruses that have caused disease in humans since 1997. The paper concludes with suggestions for further studies to more clearly define and optimize the role of NHPs as experimental animals for influenza research. PMID:25746173

  14. Household Transmission of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Itziar; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Burgui, Rosana; Irisarri, Fátima; Arriazu, Maite; Elía, Fernando; Navascués, Ana; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Aldaz, Pablo; Castilla, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background The transmission of influenza viruses occurs person to person and is facilitated by contacts within enclosed environments such as households. The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary attack rates and factors associated with household transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons. Methods During the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons, 76 sentinel physicians in Navarra, Spain, took nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from patients diagnosed with influenza-like illness. A trained nurse telephoned households of those patients who were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to ask about the symptoms, risk factors and vaccination status of each household member. Results In the 405 households with a patient laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 977 susceptible contacts were identified; 16% of them (95% CI 14–19%) presented influenza-like illness and were considered as secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was 14% in 2009–2010 and 19% in the 2010–2011 season (p?=?0.049), an increase that mainly affected persons with major chronic conditions. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of being a secondary case was higher in the 2010–2011 season than in the 2009–2010 season (adjusted odds ratio: 1.72; 95% CI 1.17–2.54), and in children under 5 years, with a decreasing risk in older contacts. Influenza vaccination was associated with lesser incidence of influenza-like illness near to statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio: 0.29; 95% CI 0.08–1.03). Conclusion The secondary attack rate in households was higher in the second season than in the first pandemic season. Children had a greater risk of infection. Preventive measures should be maintained in the second pandemic season, especially in high-risk persons. PMID:25254376

  15. Influenza Circulation in United States Army Training Camps Before and During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Clues to Early Detection of Pandemic Viral Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Chertow, Daniel S.; Cai, Rongman; Sun, Junfeng; Grantham, John; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Morens, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Surveillance for respiratory diseases in domestic National Army and National Guard training camps began after the United States’ entry into World War I, 17 months before the “Spanish influenza” pandemic appeared. Methods.?Morbidity, mortality, and case-fatality data from 605 625 admissions and 18 258 deaths recorded for 7 diagnostic categories of respiratory diseases, including influenza and pneumonia, were examined over prepandemic and pandemic periods. Results.?High pandemic influenza mortality was primarily due to increased incidence of, but not increased severity of, secondary bacterial pneumonias. Conclusions.?Two prepandemic incidence peaks of probable influenza, in December 1917–January 1918 and in March–April 1918, differed markedly from the September–October 1918 pandemic onset peak in their clinical-epidemiologic features, and they may have been caused by seasonal or endemic viruses. Nevertheless, rising proportions of very low incidence postinfluenza bronchopneumonia (diagnosed at the time as influenza and bronchopneumonia) in early 1918 could have reflected circulation of the pandemic virus 5 months before it emerged in pandemic form. In this study, we discuss the possibility of detecting pandemic viruses before they emerge, by surveillance of special populations. PMID:26361632

  16. Influenza Circulation in United States Army Training Camps Before and During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Clues to Early Detection of Pandemic Viral Emergence.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Daniel S; Cai, Rongman; Sun, Junfeng; Grantham, John; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Morens, David M

    2015-04-01

    Background. ?Surveillance for respiratory diseases in domestic National Army and National Guard training camps began after the United States' entry into World War I, 17 months before the "Spanish influenza" pandemic appeared. Methods. ?Morbidity, mortality, and case-fatality data from 605 625 admissions and 18 258 deaths recorded for 7 diagnostic categories of respiratory diseases, including influenza and pneumonia, were examined over prepandemic and pandemic periods. Results. ?High pandemic influenza mortality was primarily due to increased incidence of, but not increased severity of, secondary bacterial pneumonias. Conclusions. ?Two prepandemic incidence peaks of probable influenza, in December 1917-January 1918 and in March-April 1918, differed markedly from the September-October 1918 pandemic onset peak in their clinical-epidemiologic features, and they may have been caused by seasonal or endemic viruses. Nevertheless, rising proportions of very low incidence postinfluenza bronchopneumonia (diagnosed at the time as influenza and bronchopneumonia) in early 1918 could have reflected circulation of the pandemic virus 5 months before it emerged in pandemic form. In this study, we discuss the possibility of detecting pandemic viruses before they emerge, by surveillance of special populations. PMID:26361632

  17. Unique ability of pandemic influenza to downregulate the genes involved in neuronal disorders.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Nurollah, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda

    2015-09-01

    Pandemic influenza remains as a substantial threat to humans with a widespread panic worldwide. In contrast, seasonal (non-pandemic) has a mild non-lethal infection each year. The underlying mechanisms governing the detrimental effects of pandemic influenza are yet to be known. Transcriptomic-based network discovery and gene ontology (GO) analysis of host response to pandemic influenza, compared to seasonal influenza, can shed light on the differential mechanisms which pandemic influenza is employed during evolution. Here, using microarray data of infected ferrets with pandemic and seasonal influenza (as a model), we evaluated the possible link between altered genes after pandemic infection with activation of neuronal disorders. To this end, we utilized novel computational biology techniques including differential transcriptome analysis, network construction, GO enrichment, and GO network to investigate the underlying mechanisms of pandemic influenza infection and host interaction. In comparison to seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza differentially altered the expression of 31 genes with direct involvement in activity of central nervous system (CNS). Network topology highlighted the high interactions of IRF1, NKX2-1 and NR5A1 as well as MIR27A, MIR19A, and MIR17. TGFB2, NCOA3 and SP1 were the central transcription factors in the networks. Pandemic influenza remarkably downregulated GPM6A and GTPase. GO network demonstrated the key roles of GPM6A and GTPase in regulation of important functions such as synapse assembly and neuron projection. For the first time, we showed that besides interference with cytokine/chemokine storm and neuraminidase enzyme, H1N1 pandemic influenza is able to directly affect neuronal gene networks. The possibility of application of some key regulators such as GPM6A protein, MIR128, and MIR367 as candidate therapeutic agents is discussed. The presented approach established a new way to unravel unknown pathways in virus-associated CNS dysfunction by utilizing global transcriptomic data, network and GO analysis. PMID:26246405

  18. Modeling the Worldwide Spread of Pandemic Influenza: Baseline Case and Containment

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    A C T Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, which is now widespreadModeling the Worldwide Spread of Pandemic Influenza: Baseline Case and Containment Interventions, Vespignani A (2007) Modeling the worldwide spread of pandemic influenza: Baseline case and containment

  19. Scenarios of diffusion and control of an influenza pandemic in Italy C. Rizzo1,2

    E-print Network

    Pugliese, Andrea

    ;3 INTRODUCTION Following the emergence in 1997 of a new strain of avian influenza, A(H5N1), which is capable1 Scenarios of diffusion and control of an influenza pandemic in Italy C. Rizzo1,2 , A. Lunelli3, Fax: +39 06 44232444, e-mail: caterina.rizzo@iss.it Running head: Influenza pandemic diffusion

  20. Ending the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Critical Role of an HIV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, Anthony S.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Marston, Hilary D.

    2014-01-01

    While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic continues, the incidence of HIV infections has fallen because of the deployment of antiretroviral drugs and multiple prevention modalities. To achieve a durable end to the pandemic, a vaccine remains essential. Recent advances in vaccinology offer new promise for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:25151483

  1. Human Mobility Networks, Travel Restrictions, and the Global Spread of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    E-print Network

    Ramasco, José Javier

    Human Mobility Networks, Travel Restrictions, and the Global Spread of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Paolo After the emergence of the H1N1 influenza in 2009, some countries responded with travel-related controls and that is validated by the accumulation of data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We explore alternative scenarios

  2. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis. 550.409 Section 550.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.409 Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An...

  3. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... health crisis. 550.409 Section 550.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency may order one or more employees to evacuate from their... the employee) during a pandemic health crisis without regard to whether the agency and the...

  4. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... health crisis. 550.409 Section 550.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency may order one or more employees to evacuate from their... the employee) during a pandemic health crisis without regard to whether the agency and the...

  5. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... health crisis. 550.409 Section 550.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency may order one or more employees to evacuate from their... the employee) during a pandemic health crisis without regard to whether the agency and the...

  6. 77 FR 6625 - Meeting the Challenge of Pandemic Influenza: Ethical Guidance for Leaders and Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Meeting the Challenge of Pandemic Influenza: Ethical Guidance for Leaders and Health Care Professionals in... in Health Care (NCEHC) invites interested parties to comment on a guidance document entitled ``Meeting the Challenge of Pandemic Influenza: Ethical Guidance for Leaders and Health Care Professionals...

  7. PATHOGENICITY AND TRANSMISSION OF THE RECONSTRUCTED 1918 SPANISH INFLUENZA PANDEMIC VIRUS IN FERRETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20-50 million people worldwide. Through the use of reverse genetics, we recently generated an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus. Here we evaluate the relative virulence and transmission of the 1918 pan...

  8. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral “One Health” pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  9. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  10. A Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool Ross Maciejewski, Philip Livengood, Stephen Rudolph, Timothy F. Collins, David S. Ebert

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Ross

    A Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool Ross Maciejewski, Philip Livengood, Stephen Abstract The National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza outlines a plan for community response to a potential pandemic influenza scenario. Spread vectors based on the point of origin and distance traveled over time

  11. Lack of group X secreted phospholipase A2 increases survival following pandemic H1N1 influenza infection

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    Lack of group X secreted phospholipase A2 increases survival following pandemic H1N1 influenza phospholipase A2 Influenza Host response Phospholipids H1N1 pandemic influenza Leukotrienes Prostaglandins during H1N1 pandemic influenza infection in a GX-sPLA2 gene targeted mouse (GXŔ/Ŕ ) model and found

  12. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  13. Novel Framework for Assessing Epidemiologic Effects of Influenza Epidemics and Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Matthew; Finelli, Lyn; Koonin, Lisa M.; Beauvais, Denise; Uzicanin, Amra; Plummer, Andrew; Bresee, Joe; Redd, Stephen C.; Jernigan, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of influenza on a population are attributable to the clinical severity of illness and the number of persons infected, which can vary greatly between seasons or pandemics. To create a systematic framework for assessing the public health effects of an emerging pandemic, we reviewed data from past influenza seasons and pandemics to characterize severity and transmissibility (based on ranges of these measures in the United States) and outlined a formal assessment of the potential effects of a novel virus. The assessment was divided into 2 periods. Because early in a pandemic, measurement of severity and transmissibility is uncertain, we used a broad dichotomous scale in the initial assessment to divide the range of historic values. In the refined assessment, as more data became available, we categorized those values more precisely. By organizing and prioritizing data collection, this approach may inform an evidence-based assessment of pandemic effects and guide decision making. PMID:23260039

  14. Refining the approach to vaccines against influenza A viruses with pandemic potential

    PubMed Central

    Czako, Rita; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective strategy for prevention and control of influenza. Timely production and deployment of seasonal influenza vaccines is based on an understanding of the epidemiology of influenza and on global disease and virologic surveillance. Experience with seasonal influenza vaccines guided the initial development of pandemic influenza vaccines. A large investment in pandemic influenza vaccines in the last decade has resulted in much progress and a body of information that can now be applied to refine the established paradigm. Critical and complementary considerations for pandemic influenza vaccines include improved assessment of the pandemic potential of animal influenza viruses, proactive development and deployment of pandemic influenza vaccines, and application of novel platforms and strategies for vaccine production and administration. PMID:26587050

  15. Optimal Vaccine Allocation for the Early Mitigation of Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Matrajt, Laura; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2013-01-01

    With new cases of avian influenza H5N1 (H5N1AV) arising frequently, the threat of a new influenza pandemic remains a challenge for public health. Several vaccines have been developed specifically targeting H5N1AV, but their production is limited and only a few million doses are readily available. Because there is an important time lag between the emergence of new pandemic strain and the development and distribution of a vaccine, shortage of vaccine is very likely at the beginning of a pandemic. We coupled a mathematical model with a genetic algorithm to optimally and dynamically distribute vaccine in a network of cities, connected by the airline transportation network. By minimizing the illness attack rate (i.e., the percentage of people in the population who become infected and ill), we focus on optimizing vaccine allocation in a network of 16 cities in Southeast Asia when only a few million doses are available. In our base case, we assume the vaccine is well-matched and vaccination occurs 5 to 10 days after the beginning of the epidemic. The effectiveness of all the vaccination strategies drops off as the timing is delayed or the vaccine is less well-matched. Under the best assumptions, optimal vaccination strategies substantially reduced the illness attack rate, with a maximal reduction in the attack rate of 85%. Furthermore, our results suggest that cooperative strategies where the resources are optimally distributed among the cities perform much better than the strategies where the vaccine is equally distributed among the network, yielding an illness attack rate 17% lower. We show that it is possible to significantly mitigate a more global epidemic with limited quantities of vaccine, provided that the vaccination campaign is extremely fast and it occurs within the first weeks of transmission. PMID:23555207

  16. Flu Preparations Underscore Schools' Key Role in Vaccinations: Research Confirms Exemptions Lead to Higher Disease Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of each school year, the school-nurse coordinator for the 3,000-student Ashland, Oregon, district plans a "parent's night" around the topic of vaccinations for the safety and health of children. That is only the beginning of the school-nurse coordinator's contact with parents who are skeptical about the necessity of immunizations,…

  17. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)
    <...

  18. Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu

    E-print Network

    Swarup, Samarth

    Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu a policy that encourages healthy behaviors (such as covering your cough and using hand sanitizers) at four coughs, minimizing contact with potential fomites) at major tourist locations. We use a synthetic

  19. Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do.

    E-print Network

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    with severe illness like difficulty breathing AND YOU HAVE Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat YOU SHOULD Stay home until you fever, cough, sore throat, tiredness, aches, chills and stuffy nose. H1N1 flu spreads when a sick person

  20. Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Ankit Agrawal

    E-print Network

    surveillance is the monitoring of clinical syndromes such as flu, cancer, allergies, diabetes and many others, it takes time to collect and process data, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sci- ence stages: Data Collection, Data Preprocessing, Data Modeling, and Data Visualization. The data collecting

  1. Vaccine xxx (2006) xxxxxx Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu

    E-print Network

    Hyman, James "Mac"

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic reserved. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.055 JVAC-6288; No. of Pages 4 #12;2 G. Chowell et al. / Vaccine xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the transition of individuals (indicated by arrows

  2. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  3. Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer Kathy Lee Ankit are reported visually in terms of US disease surveillance maps, distribution and timelines of disease types, symptoms, and treatments, in addition to overall disease activity timelines on our project website. Our

  4. Erratic flu vaccination emerges from short-sighted behavior in contact networks

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    Erratic flu vaccination emerges from short-sighted behavior in contact networks Daniel M. Cornforth@mail.utexas.edu March, 2011 Abstract The effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination programs depends on individual-level compliance. Perceptions about risks associated with infection and vaccination can strongly influence

  5. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  6. Pandemic influenza control in Europe and the constraints resulting from incoherent public health laws

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the emergence of influenza H1N1v the world is facing its first 21st century global pandemic. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza H5N1 prompted development of pandemic preparedness plans. National systems of public health law are essential for public health stewardship and for the implementation of public health policy[1]. International coherence will contribute to effective regional and global responses. However little research has been undertaken on how law works as a tool for disease control in Europe. With co-funding from the European Union, we investigated the extent to which laws across Europe support or constrain pandemic preparedness planning, and whether national differences are likely to constrain control efforts. Methods We undertook a survey of national public health laws across 32 European states using a questionnaire designed around a disease scenario based on pandemic influenza. Questionnaire results were reviewed in workshops, analysing how differences between national laws might support or hinder regional responses to pandemic influenza. Respondents examined the impact of national laws on the movements of information, goods, services and people across borders in a time of pandemic, the capacity for surveillance, case detection, case management and community control, the deployment of strategies of prevention, containment, mitigation and recovery and the identification of commonalities and disconnects across states. Results Results of this study show differences across Europe in the extent to which national pandemic policy and pandemic plans have been integrated with public health laws. We found significant differences in legislation and in the legitimacy of strategic plans. States differ in the range and the nature of intervention measures authorized by law, the extent to which borders could be closed to movement of persons and goods during a pandemic, and access to healthcare of non-resident persons. Some states propose use of emergency powers that might potentially override human rights protections while other states propose to limit interventions to those authorized by public health laws. Conclusion These differences could create problems for European strategies if an evolving influenza pandemic results in more serious public health challenges or, indeed, if a novel disease other than influenza emerges with pandemic potential. There is insufficient understanding across Europe of the role and importance of law in pandemic planning. States need to build capacity in public health law to support disease prevention and control policies. Our research suggests that states would welcome further guidance from the EU on management of a pandemic, and guidance to assist in greater commonality of legal approaches across states. PMID:20815888

  7. The ENSO-pandemic influenza connection: coincident or causal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Lipsitch, M.

    2011-12-01

    The El Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific, which affects weather conditions, including temperatures, precipitation, winds and storm activity, across the planet. ENSO has two extreme phases marked by either warmer (El Nińo) or cooler (La Nińa) than average sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific. We find that the 4 most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Nińa conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in ENSO have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Nińa conditions bring divergent influenza subtypes together in some parts of the world and favor the reassortment of influenza through simultaneous multiple infection of individual hosts and the generation of novel pandemic strains. We propose approaches to test this hypothesis using influenza population genetics, virus prevalence in various host species, and avian migration patterns.

  8. Preparedness for a smallpox pandemic in Japan: public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Matsukuma, Susumu; Matsumura, Takuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Saito, Tomoya

    2015-04-01

    Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of thismonumental eradication. Although smallpox remains fully eradicated, uncertainty exists regarding the possibility of recurrent smallpox outbreaks. At the end of the Cold War, concerns regarding unstable international security and the feasibility of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction have been highlighted. The potential threat of intentional release of smallpox has forced regional health authorities to reconsider their political landscape and create preparedness plans to protect the community in the event of biological attacks. Here we present current countermeasures to this biological threat in Japan and discuss methods for strengthening public health preparedness both domestically and internationally. These methods include infection control, vaccination policy, and international partnerships to help deter or contain a contagious smallpox pandemic. PMID:26060873

  9. Statewide Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Reminders for Children with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Anne E.; Potter, Rachel C.; Dong, Shiming; Kolasa, Maureen; Clark, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the use of a statewide immunization information system (IIS) to target influenza vaccine reminders to high-risk children during a pandemic. Methods. We used Michigan’s IIS to identify high-risk children (i.e., those with ??1 chronic condition) aged 6 months to 18 years with no record of pH1N1 vaccination among children currently or previously enrolled in Medicaid (n?=?202?133). Reminders were mailed on December 7, 2009. We retrospectively assessed children’s eligibility for evaluation and compared influenza vaccination rates across 3 groups on the basis of their high-risk and reminder status. Results. Of the children sent reminders, 53?516 were ineligible. Of the remaining 148?617 children, vaccination rates were higher among the 142?383 high-risk children receiving reminders than among the 6234 high-risk children with undeliverable reminders and the 142?383 control group children without chronic conditions who were not sent reminders. Conclusions. Midseason reminders to parents of unvaccinated high-risk children with current or past Medicaid enrollment were associated with increased pH1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination rates. Future initiatives should consider strategies to expand targeting of high-risk groups and improve IIS reporting during pandemic events. PMID:24228668

  10. The Vagaries Of Public Support For Government Actions In Case Of A Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Hilyard, Karen M.; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Musa, Donald; Kumar, Supriya; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2011-01-01

    Government health measures in a pandemic are effective only with strong support and compliance from the public. A survey of 1,583 US adults early in the 2009 H1N1 (swine influenza) pandemic shows surprisingly mixed support for possible government efforts to control the spread of the disease, with strong support for more extreme measures such as closing borders and weak support for more basic, and potentially more effective, policies such as encouraging sick people to stay home from work. The results highlight challenges that public health officials and policy makers must address in formulating strategies to respond to a pandemic before a more severe outbreak occurs. PMID:21134932

  11. A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Geetha; Thambi, Magith; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2014-02-01

    The conflict between our 'primitive' genes and 'modern' lifestyle probably lies at the root of several disorders that afflict modern man. Atherosclerosis, which is relatively unknown among contemporary hunter-gatherer populations, has reached pandemic proportions in recent times. Being an evolutionary problem with several inter-related pathologies, current therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis has inherent limitations. Reviewing evolution-linked risk factors suggests that there are four aspects to the etiology of atherosclerosis namely, decreased intestinal parasitism, oversensitivity of evolutionarily redundant mast cells, chronic underactivation of AMPK (cellular energy sensor) and a deficiency of vitamin D. A combination of these four causes appear to have precipitated the atherosclerosis pandemic in modern times. Man and worms co-existed symbiotically in the past. Massive de-worming campaigns could have disrupted this symbiosis, increasing nutritional availability to man (pro-obesity) at the cost of decreased immunotolerance (pro-atherogenicity). A reduction in helminth-induced chronic TH2 activation could also have enhanced TH1 polarization, eventually disrupting the reciprocal regulation of TH1/TH2 balance and resulting in atherosclerosis. The riddance of helminth infestations may have rendered mast cells immunologically redundant, making them oversensitive to inflammatory stimuli, thereby playing a pro-atherogenic role. AMPK activation exerts pleiotropic anti-atherogenic effects, such as suppression of fatty acid, cholesterol, protein synthesis, reduction of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, etc. As energy deficit is the chief stimulus for AMPK activation, the over-nourished modern man appears to be suffering from chronic underactivation of AMPK, legitimising the unrivalled supremacy of metformin, the oldest prescribed antidiabetic drug. The fact that humans evolved in the sunny tropics suggests that humans are selected for high vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency is now linked to several conditions including increased risk of CV disorders, diabetes, etc. The manifold decrease in vitamin D levels in modern man justifies a need for supplementation. We therefore hypothesize that a judicious combination of mast cell stabilization, AMPK activation, vitamin D supplementation, and moderation in hygiene practices could be an evolution-based multimodal strategy for both preventing and mitigating the pandemic of atherosclerosis. PMID:24355423

  12. Clinical review: Mass casualty triage – pandemic influenza and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Challen, Kirsty; Bentley, Andrew; Bright, John; Walter, Darren

    2007-01-01

    Worst case scenarios for pandemic influenza planning in the US involve over 700,000 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. UK planning predicts a 231% occupancy of current level 3 (intensive care unit) bed capacity. Critical care planners need to recognise that mortality is likely to be high and the risk to healthcare workers significant. Contingency planning should, therefore, be multi-faceted, involving a robust health command structure, the facility to expand critical care provision in terms of space, equipment and staff and cohorting of affected patients in the early stages. It should also be recognised that despite this expansion of critical care, demand will exceed supply and a process for triage needs to be developed that is valid, reproducible, transparent and consistent with distributive justice. We advocate the development and validation of physiological scores for use as a triage tool, coupled with candid public discussion of the process. PMID:17490495

  13. Inference of seasonal and pandemic influenza transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan; Lipsitch, Marc; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The inference of key infectious disease epidemiological parameters is critical for characterizing disease spread and devising prevention and containment measures. The recent emergence of surveillance records mined from big data such as health-related online queries and social media, as well as model inference methods, permits the development of new methodologies for more comprehensive estimation of these parameters. We use such data in conjunction with Bayesian inference methods to study the transmission dynamics of influenza. We simultaneously estimate key epidemiological parameters, including population susceptibility, the basic reproductive number, attack rate, and infectious period, for 115 cities during the 2003–2004 through 2012–2013 seasons, including the 2009 pandemic. These estimates discriminate key differences in the epidemiological characteristics of these outbreaks across 10 y, as well as spatial variations of influenza transmission dynamics among subpopulations in the United States. In addition, the inference methods appear to compensate for observational biases and underreporting inherent in the surveillance data. PMID:25730851

  14. Inference of seasonal and pandemic influenza transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Lipsitch, Marc; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    The inference of key infectious disease epidemiological parameters is critical for characterizing disease spread and devising prevention and containment measures. The recent emergence of surveillance records mined from big data such as health-related online queries and social media, as well as model inference methods, permits the development of new methodologies for more comprehensive estimation of these parameters. We use such data in conjunction with Bayesian inference methods to study the transmission dynamics of influenza. We simultaneously estimate key epidemiological parameters, including population susceptibility, the basic reproductive number, attack rate, and infectious period, for 115 cities during the 2003-2004 through 2012-2013 seasons, including the 2009 pandemic. These estimates discriminate key differences in the epidemiological characteristics of these outbreaks across 10 y, as well as spatial variations of influenza transmission dynamics among subpopulations in the United States. In addition, the inference methods appear to compensate for observational biases and underreporting inherent in the surveillance data. PMID:25730851

  15. Pandemic Influenza as 21st Century Urban Public Health Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Weisfuse, Isaac B.; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; del Rio, Carlos; Bustamante, Xinia; Rodier, Guenael

    2009-01-01

    The percentage of the world’s population living in urban areas will increase from 50% in 2008 to 70% (4.9 billion) in 2025. Crowded urban areas in developing and industrialized countries are uniquely vulnerable to public health crises and face daunting challenges in surveillance, response, and public communication. The revised International Health Regulations require all countries to have core surveillance and response capacity by 2012. Innovative approaches are needed because traditional local-level strategies may not be easily scalable upward to meet the needs of huge, densely populated cities, especially in developing countries. The responses of Mexico City and New York City to the initial appearance of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus during spring 2009 illustrate some of the new challenges and creative response strategies that will increasingly be needed in cities worldwide. PMID:19961676

  16. The global tobacco disease pandemic: nature, causes, and cures.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E; Mackay, J

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use kills 5 million citizens globally every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) projects that the number of deaths will double just 15 years from now. Tobacco will then constitute the leading cause of death in the developing world, as it already is in developed countries today. This paper describes the nature and extent of the tobacco pandemic, characteristics of the global tobacco industry, and national and international efforts to diminish the toll of tobacco. The review includes examination of the economic and political strategies employed by the multinational tobacco industry to increase cigarette consumption, as well as the policies that governments have adopted to combat smoking. The most promising development is the new Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, WHO's first-ever international health treaty. While aggressive tobacco control policies can and will diminish the toll of tobacco, the prospects for the foreseeable future appear grim. PMID:19153895

  17. A model for HIV/AIDS pandemic with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is pandemic. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in 1981 to date. In this paper basic deterministic HIV/AIDS model with mass action incidence function are developed. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter (RO) value is less than one, and unstable otherwise. The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results.

  18. Discovery and characterization of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus in historical context

    PubMed Central

    Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Hultin, Johan V; Morens, David M

    2008-01-01

    The 2005 completion of the entire genome sequence of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus represents both a beginning and an end. Investigators have already begun to study the virus in vitro and in vivo to better understand its properties, pathogenicity, transmissibility and elicitation of host responses. Although this is an exciting new beginning, characterization of the 1918 virus also represents the culmination of over a century of scientific research aiming to understand the causes of pandemic influenza. In this brief review we attempt to place in historical context the identification and sequencing of the 1918 virus, including the alleged discovery of a bacterial cause of influenza during the 1889–1893 pandemic, the controversial detection of ‘filter-passing agents’ during the 1918–1919 pandemic, and subsequent breakthroughs in the 1930s that led to isolation of human and swine influenza viruses, greatly influencing the development of modern virology. PMID:17944266

  19. Modeling and responding to pandemic influenza : importance of population distributional attributes and non-pharmaceutical interventions

    E-print Network

    Nigmatulina, Karima Robert

    2009-01-01

    After reviewing prevalent approaches to the modeling pandemic influenza transmission, we present a simple distributional model that captures the most significant population attributes that alter the dynamics of the outbreak. ...

  20. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  1. Connecting the study of wild influenza with the potential for pandemic disease

    E-print Network

    Runstadler, Jonathan

    Continuing outbreaks of pathogenic (H5N1) and pandemic (SOIVH1N1) influenza have underscored the need to understand the origin, characteristics, and evolution of novel influenza A virus (IAV) variants that pose a threat ...

  2. Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

  3. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Mcmahon, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  4. Does pandemic A/H1N1 virus have the potential to become more pathogenic?

    PubMed

    Ilyushina, Natalia A; Ducatez, Mariette F; Rehg, Jerold E; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Marjuki, Henju; Bovin, Nicolai V; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic observations that have been made in the context of the current pandemic influenza virus include a stable virulence phenotype and a lack of propensity to reassort with seasonal strains. In an attempt to determine whether either of these observations could change in the future, we coinfected differentiated human airway cells with seasonal oseltamivir-resistant A/New Jersey/15/07 and pandemic A/Tennessee/1-560/09 (H1N1) viruses in three ratios (10:90, 50:50, and 90:10) and examined the resulting progeny viruses after 10 sequential passages. When the pandemic virus was initially present at multiplicities of infection equal to or greater than those for the seasonal virus, only pandemic virus genotypes were detected. These adapted pandemic strains did, however, contain two nonsynonymous mutations (hemagglutinin K154Q and polymerase acidic protein L295P) that conferred a more virulent phenotype, both in cell cultures and in ferrets, than their parental strains. The polymerase acidic protein mutation increased polymerase activity at 37°C, and the hemagglutinin change affected binding of the virus to ?2,6-sialyl receptors. When the seasonal A/H1N1 virus was initially present in excess, the dominant progeny virus was a reassortant containing the hemagglutinin gene from the seasonal strain and the remaining genes from the pandemic virus. Our study demonstrates that the emergence of an A/H1N1 pandemic strain of higher virulence is possible and that, despite their lack of detection thus far in humans, viable seasonal/pandemic virus reassortants can be generated. PMID:21116343

  5. The influence of changing host immunity on 1918-19 pandemic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bolton, K J; McCaw, J M; McVernon, J; Mathews, J D

    2014-09-01

    The sociological and biological factors which gave rise to the three pandemic waves of Spanish influenza in England during 1918-19 are still poorly understood. Symptom reporting data available for a limited set of locations in England indicates that reinfection in multiple waves occurred, suggesting a role for loss of infection-acquired immunity. Here we explore the role that changes in host immunity, driven by a combination of within-host factors and viral evolution, may play in explaining weekly mortality data and wave-by-wave symptomatic attack-rates available for a subset of English cities. Our results indicate that changes in the phenotype of the pandemic virus are likely required to explain the closely spaced waves of infection, but distinguishing between the detailed contributions of viral evolution and changing adaptive immune responses to transmission rates is difficult given the dearth of sero-epidemiological and virological data available even for more contemporary pandemics. We find that a dynamical model in which pre-pandemic protection in older "influenza-experienced" cohorts is lost rapidly prior to the second wave provides the best fit to the mortality and symptom reporting data. Best fitting parameter estimates for such a model indicate that post-infection protection lasted of order months, while other statistical analyses indicate that population-age was inversely correlated with overall mortality during the herald wave. Our results suggest that severe secondary waves of pandemic influenza may be triggered by viral escape from pre-pandemic immunity, and thus that understanding the role of heterosubtypic or cross-protective immune responses to pandemic influenza may be key to controlling the severity of future influenza pandemics. PMID:25240900

  6. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Hajj Pilgrims Who Received Predeparture Vaccination, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeel, Amr; Abdel Kereem, Eman; El-Refay, Samir; Afifi, Salma; Abukela, Mohammed; Earhart, Kenneth; El-Sayed, Nasr; El-Gabaly, Hatem

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, vaccination against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was required of pilgrims departing for the 2009 Hajj. A survey of 551 pilgrims as they returned to Egypt found 542 (98.1% [weighted]) reported receiving the vaccine; 6 (1.0% [weighted]) were infected with influenza virus A (H3N2) but none with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. PMID:21762583

  7. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100

    PubMed Central

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum?FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2?h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B.?fungorum?FLU100. PMID:25130674

  8. Ethnicity, deprivation and mortality due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England during the 2009/2010 pandemic and the first post-pandemic season.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Harris, R J; Ellis, J; Pebody, R G

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between risk of death following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and ethnicity and deprivation during the 2009/2010 pandemic period and the first post-pandemic season of 2010/2011 in England was examined. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the mortality risk, adjusted for age, gender, and place of residence. Those of non-White ethnicity experienced an increased mortality risk compared to White populations during the 2009/2010 pandemic [10·5/1000 vs. 6·0/1000 general population; adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1·84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·39-2·54] with the highest risk in those of Pakistani ethnicity. However, no significant difference between ethnicities was observed during the following 2010/2011 season. Persons living in areas with the highest level of deprivation had a significantly higher risk of death (RR 2·08, 95% CI 1·49-2·91) compared to the lowest level for both periods. These results highlight the importance of rapid identification of groups at higher risk of severe disease in the early stages of future pandemics to enable the implementation of optimal prevention and control measures for vulnerable populations. PMID:25850904

  9. Adoption of preventive behaviors in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: a multiethnic perspective

    PubMed Central

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Kang, Minah; Ward, Johanna R M; Kahn, Emily B; Maddox, Kathryn EW; Lubell, Keri M; Tucker, Myra; Ben-Porath, Eran N

    2015-01-01

    Background As public health leaders prepare for possible future influenza pandemics, the rapid spread of 2009 H1N1 influenza highlights the need to focus on measures the public can adopt to help slow disease transmission. Such measures may relate to hygiene (e.g., hand washing), social distancing (e.g., avoiding places where many people gather), and pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., vaccination). Given the disproportionate impact of public health emergencies on minority communities in the United States, it is important to understand whether there are differences in acceptance across racial/ethnic groups that could lead to targeted and more effective policies and communications. Objectives This study explores racial/ethnic differences in the adoption of preventive behaviors during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Patients/Methods Data are from a national telephone poll conducted March 17 to April 11, 2010, among a representative sample of 1123 white, 330 African American, 317 Hispanic, 268 Asian, and 262 American Indian/Alaska Native adults in the USA. Results People in at least one racial/ethnic minority group were more likely than whites to adopt several behaviors related to hygiene, social distancing, and healthcare access, including increased hand washing and talking with a healthcare provider (P-values <0·05). Exceptions included avoiding others with influenza-like illnesses and receiving 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccinations. After we controlled the data for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, healthcare access, and illness- and vaccine-related attitudes, nearly all racial/ethnic differences in behaviors persisted. Conclusions Minority groups appear to be receptive to several preventive behaviors, but barriers to vaccination are more pervasive. PMID:25688806

  10. EpidemicSim: Epidemic Simulation System with Realistic Mobility

    E-print Network

    Turgut, Damla

    spread caused great panic around the world. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic, also known as Swine Flu, infected characteristics of H1N1 was difficult. Besides these highlighted pandemics, the spreading of com- mon cold and flu

  11. Novel Origin of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ann H.; Fanning, Thomas G.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Lourens, Raina M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2004-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the 1918 pandemic influenza A virus has been amplified and sequenced from archival material. The NP gene is known to be involved in many aspects of viral function and to interact with host proteins, thereby playing a role in host specificity. The 1918 NP amino acid sequence differs at only six amino acids from avian consensus sequences, consistent with reassortment from an avian source shortly before 1918. However, the nucleotide sequence of the 1918 NP gene has more than 170 differences from avian strain consensus sequences, suggesting substantial evolutionary distance from known avian strain sequences. Both the gene and protein sequences of the 1918 NP fall within the mammalian clade upon phylogenetic analysis. The evolutionary distance of the 1918 NP sequences from avian and mammalian strain sequences is examined, using several different parameters. The results suggest that the 1918 strain did not retain the previously circulating human NP. Nor is it likely to have obtained its NP by reassortment with an avian strain similar to those now characterized. The results are consistent with the existence of a currently unknown host for influenza, with an NP similar to current avian strain NPs at the amino acid level but with many synonymous nucleotide differences, suggesting evolutionary isolation from the currently characterized avian influenza virus gene pool. PMID:15507633

  12. Effect of D222G Mutation in the Hemagglutinin Protein on Receptor Binding, Pathogenesis and Transmissibility of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    E-print Network

    Belser, Jessica A.

    Influenza viruses isolated during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic generally lack known molecular determinants of virulence associated with previous pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The frequency of the amino ...

  13. Spatial-temporal excess mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-demographic factors and baseline health on the mortality burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza remains debated. Here we analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Spain, one of the countries of Europe that experienced the highest mortality burden. Methods We analyzed monthly death rates from respiratory diseases and all-causes across 49 provinces of Spain, including the Canary and Balearic Islands, during the period January-1915 to June-1919. We estimated the influenza-related excess death rates and risk of death relative to baseline mortality by pandemic wave and province. We then explored the association between pandemic excess mortality rates and health and socio-demographic factors, which included population size and age structure, population density, infant mortality rates, baseline death rates, and urbanization. Results Our analysis revealed high geographic heterogeneity in pandemic mortality impact. We identified 3 pandemic waves of varying timing and intensity covering the period from Jan-1918 to Jun-1919, with the highest pandemic-related excess mortality rates occurring during the months of October-November 1918 across all Spanish provinces. Cumulative excess mortality rates followed a south–north gradient after controlling for demographic factors, with the North experiencing highest excess mortality rates. A model that included latitude, population density, and the proportion of children living in provinces explained about 40% of the geographic variability in cumulative excess death rates during 1918–19, but different factors explained mortality variation in each wave. Conclusions A substantial fraction of the variability in excess mortality rates across Spanish provinces remained unexplained, which suggests that other unidentified factors such as comorbidities, climate and background immunity may have affected the 1918–19 pandemic mortality rates. Further archeo-epidemiological research should concentrate on identifying settings with combined availability of local historical mortality records and information on the prevalence of underlying risk factors, or patient-level clinical data, to further clarify the drivers of 1918 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:24996457

  14. Deletion of the Aspergillus flavus Orthologue of A. nidulans fluG Reduces Conidiation and Promotes Production of Sclerotia but Does Not Abolish Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Scharfenstein, Leslie L.; Mack, Brian; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    The fluG gene is a member of a family of genes required for conidiation and sterigmatocystin production in Aspergillus nidulans. We examined the role of the Aspergillus flavus fluG orthologue in asexual development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. Deletion of fluG in A. flavus yielded strains with an approximately 3-fold reduction in conidiation but a 30-fold increase in sclerotial formation when grown on potato dextrose agar in the dark. The concurrent developmental changes suggest that A. flavus FluG exerts opposite effects on a mutual signaling pathway for both processes. The altered conidial development was in part attributable to delayed expression of brlA, a gene controlling conidiophore formation. Unlike the loss of sterigmatocystin production by A. nidulans fluG deletion strains, aflatoxin biosynthesis was not affected by the fluG deletion in A. flavus. In A. nidulans, FluG was recently found to be involved in the formation of dehydroaustinol, a component of a diffusible signal of conidiation. Coculturing experiments did not show a similar diffusible meroterpenoid secondary metabolite produced by A. flavus. These results suggest that the function of fluG and the signaling pathways related to conidiation are different in the two related aspergilli. PMID:22904054

  15. Tracking Flu Vaccine Compliance for Your Staff There are two different ways to check an employee record for influenza vaccine compliance

    E-print Network

    Tracking Flu Vaccine Compliance for Your Staff There are two different ways to check an employee record for influenza vaccine compliance: 1. Check the individual employee record: a. Log into the OESO your name was). c. Look for "Flu Vaccination Policy Complete" under the Employee Health Activity

  16. Modeling uncertainties in workforce disruptions from influenza pandemics using dynamic input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    El Haimar, Amine; Santos, Joost R

    2014-03-01

    Influenza pandemic is a serious disaster that can pose significant disruptions to the workforce and associated economic sectors. This article examines the impact of influenza pandemic on workforce availability within an interdependent set of economic sectors. We introduce a simulation model based on the dynamic input-output model to capture the propagation of pandemic consequences through the National Capital Region (NCR). The analysis conducted in this article is based on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic data. Two metrics were used to assess the impacts of the influenza pandemic on the economic sectors: (i) inoperability, which measures the percentage gap between the as-planned output and the actual output of a sector, and (ii) economic loss, which quantifies the associated monetary value of the degraded output. The inoperability and economic loss metrics generate two different rankings of the critical economic sectors. Results show that most of the critical sectors in terms of inoperability are sectors that are related to hospitals and health-care providers. On the other hand, most of the sectors that are critically ranked in terms of economic loss are sectors with significant total production outputs in the NCR such as federal government agencies. Therefore, policy recommendations relating to potential mitigation and recovery strategies should take into account the balance between the inoperability and economic loss metrics. PMID:24033717

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae: Genes that correlate with cholera endemic and pandemic disease

    PubMed Central

    Dziejman, Michelle; Balon, Emmy; Boyd, Dana; Fraser, Clare M.; Heidelberg, John F.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the first six recorded cholera pandemics occurred between 1817 and 1923 and were caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup strains of the classical biotype. Although strains of the El Tor biotype caused sporadic infections and cholera epidemics as early as 1910, it was not until 1961 that this biotype emerged to cause the 7th pandemic, eventually resulting in the global elimination of classical biotype strains as a cause of disease. The completed genome sequence of 7th pandemic El Tor O1 strain N16961 has provided an important tool to begin addressing questions about the evolution of V. cholerae as a human pathogen and environmental organism. To facilitate such studies, we constructed a V. cholerae genomic microarray that displays over 93% of the predicted genes of strain N16961 as spotted features. Hybridization of labeled genomic DNA from different strains to this microarray allowed us to compare the gene content of N16961 to that of other V. cholerae isolates. Surprisingly, the results reveal a high degree of conservation among the strains tested. However, genes unique to all pandemic strains as well as genes specific to 7th pandemic El Tor and related O139 serogroup strains were identified. These latter genes may encode gain-of-function traits specifically associated with displacement of the preexisting classical strains in South Asia and may also promote the establishment of endemic disease in previously cholera-free locations. PMID:11818571

  18. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    Influenza (flu) is caused by a highly contagious virus that is spread by coughs and sneezes. Flu symptoms include high fever, chills and sweating, sore throat, weakness, headache, muscle and joint pains, and cough. Older people and those with an underlying medical condition are more likely to develop serious complications, including secondary bacterial pneumonia, primary influenza pneumonia, and inflammation of the brain or heart. There are three types of flu virus: A, B, and C. The flu virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This allows it to escape recognition by the body's immune system and cause widespread illness (epidemics and pandemics). Most cases of influenza occur within a 6- to 8-week period during winter and spring. Epidemics occur when there are minor changes in the nature of the virus so that more people within a community are susceptible. Influenza A is more likely to cause epidemics. Pandemics (worldwide epidemics) occur when there are major changes in the virus so that the disease affects a large proportion of people in a geographic region or on more than one continent. The findings presented in this article have many important implications for understanding the influenza A (H1N1) viral pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. Nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-·) are generated markedly in influenza A (including H1N1) virus-infected host boosts, and these molecular species are identified as the potent pathogenic agents. The mutual interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with O2-· resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite is operative in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza virus pneumonia. Influenza virus infection involves pathological events in which oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals generated in excessive amounts mediate the overreaction of the host's immune response against the organs or tissues in which viruses are replicating, and this may explain the mechanism of tissue injuries observed in influenza virus infection of various types. In this article, the types of protection of carnosine in its bioavailable non-hydrolyzed forms in formulations are considered against reactive oxygen radical species-dependent injury, peroxynitrite damage, and other types of viral injuries in which impaired immune responses to viral pathogens are usually involved. Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) shows the pharmacological intracellular correction of NO release, which might be one of the important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of influenza A virus infection (inhibition of virus replication) and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. The protective effects of orally applied non-hydrolyzed formulated species of carnosine include at least the direct interaction with NO, inhibition of cytotoxic NO-induced proinflammatory condition, and attenuation of the effects of cytokines and chemokines that can exert profound effects on inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that natural products, such as chicken soup and chicken breast extracts rich in carnosine and its derivative anserine (?-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine), could contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of influenza virus infections and cold but have a limitation due to the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptides with serum carnosinase and urine excretion after oral ingestion of a commercial chicken extract. The formulations of non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural carnosine peptide and isopeptide (?-glutamyl-carnosine) products, manufactured at the cGMP-certified facility and patented by the authors, have promise in the control and prevention of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, cough, and cold. PMID:23425625

  19. Candida albicans Flu1-Mediated Efflux of Salivary Histatin 5 Reduces Its Cytosolic Concentration and Fungicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Tati, Swetha; Puri, Sumant

    2013-01-01

    Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from intact cells, suggesting that C. albicans possesses a transport mechanism for efflux of Hst 5. Since we identified C. albicans polyamine transporters responsible for Hst 5 uptake, we hypothesized that one or more polyamine efflux transporters may be involved in the efflux of Hst 5. C. albicans FLU1 and TPO2 were found to be the closest homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TPO1, which encodes a major spermidine efflux transporter, indicating that the products of these two genes may be involved in efflux of Hst 5. We found that flu1?/? cells, but not tpo2?/? cells, had significant reductions in their rates of Hst 5 efflux and had significantly higher cytoplasmic Hst 5 and Hst 5 susceptibilities than did the wild type. We also found that flu1?/? cells had reduced biofilm formation compared to wild-type cells in the presence of Hst 5. Transcriptional levels of FLU1 were not altered over the course of treatment with Hst 5; therefore, Hst 5 is not likely to induce FLU1 gene overexpression as a potential mechanism of resistance. Thus, Flu1, but not Tpo2, mediates efflux of Hst 5 and is responsible for reduction of its toxicity in C. albicans. PMID:23380720

  20. A two-amino acid substitution in the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin abolishes transmission of the pandemic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1918 influenza pandemic was a catastrophic series of virus outbreaks that spread across the globe. Herein we show that only a modest change in the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin receptor binding site alters the transmissibility of this pandemic virus. Two amino acid mutations that cause a switch f...

  1. Safety and efficacy of a novel live attenuated influenza vaccine against pandemic H1N1 in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) is the predominant influenza strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers a...

  2. Experimental infection of pigs with the 1918 pandemic influenza resembles infection with the classical H1N1 swine influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease entity during the 1918 pandemic (1). It was proposed, based on phylogenetic analysis, that the virus causing the disease in pigs was the same as the virus causing the pandemic (2). The aim of this work was to determine whether the 1918...

  3. Emerging Influenza Strains in the Last Two Decades: A Threat of a New Pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Trombetta, Claudia; Piccirella, Simona; Perini, Daniele; Kistner, Otfried; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, novel non-seasonal influenza viruses have emerged, most of which have originated from birds. Despite their apparent inability to cause pandemics, with the exception of H1N1 swine influenza virus, these viruses still constitute a constant threat to public health. While general concern has decreased after the peak of the H5N1 virus, in recent years several novel reassorted influenza viruses (e.g., H7N9, H9N2, H10N8) have jumped the host-species barrier and are under surveillance by the scientific community and public health systems. It is still unclear whether these viruses can actually cause pandemics or just isolated episodes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of old and novel potential pandemic strains of recent decades. PMID:26344952

  4. Protecting Vulnerable Populations From Pandemic Influenza in the United States: A Strategic Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Truman, Benedict I.; Merlin, Toby L.; Redd, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Protecting vulnerable populations from pandemic influenza is a strategic imperative. The US national strategy for pandemic influenza preparedness and response assigns roles to governments, businesses, civic and community-based organizations, individuals, and families. Because influenza is highly contagious, inadequate preparedness or untimely response in vulnerable populations increases the risk of infection for the general population. Recent public health emergencies have reinforced the importance of preparedness and the challenges of effective response among vulnerable populations. We explore definitions and determinants of vulnerable, at-risk, and special populations and highlight approaches for ensuring that pandemic influenza preparedness includes these populations and enables them to respond appropriately. We also provide an overview of population-specific and cross-cutting articles in this theme issue on influenza preparedness for vulnerable populations. PMID:19797737

  5. Response to the first wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009: experiences and lessons learnt from China.

    PubMed

    Liang, W; Feng, L; Xu, C; Xiang, N; Zhang, Y; Shu, Y; Wang, H; Luo, H; Yu, H; Liang, X; Li, D; Lee, C-K; Feng, Z; Hou, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, Z; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    More than 2 years after the start of pandemic H1N1, the world is fortunate that the impact, to date, has been moderate. An evaluation of the global response to the first wave of the pandemic is still ongoing. The results of an analysis of the situation in China is presented in order to gain a better understanding of the episode; to summarize the experiences in preparedness, control and mitigation of the pandemic; and to identify issues for further consideration and investigation in order to improve the response to possible next waves of the pandemic. China's response shows how a huge challenge can be transformed into an opportunity, and may offer some valuable lessons to face another wave of the pandemic or other potential public health emergencies in the future, not only for China but also for the international community. PMID:22516790

  6. Risk factors for death from pandemic influenza in 1918–1919: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Jennifer A; Stanley, James; Baker, Michael G; Wilson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the persisting threat from future influenza pandemics, much is still unknown about the risk factors for death from such events, and especially for the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Methods A case–control study was performed to explore possible risk factors for death from pandemic influenza among New Zealand military personnel in the Northern Hemisphere in 1918–1919 (n = 218 cases, n = 221 controls). Data were compiled from a Roll-of-Honour dataset, a dataset of nearly all military personnel involved in the war and archived individual records. Results In the fully adjusted multivariable model, the following were significantly associated with increased risk of death from pandemic influenza: age (25–29 years), pre-pandemic hospitalisations for a chronic condition (e.g. tuberculosis), relatively early year of military deployment, a relatively short time from enlistment to foreign service, and having a larger chest size (e.g. adjusted odds ratio for 90–99 cm versus <90 cm was 2·45; 95% CI=1·47–4·10). There were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model with military rank, occupational class at enlistment, and rurality at enlistment. Conclusions This is one of the first published case–control studies of mortality risk factors for the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. Some of the findings are consistent with previous research on risk factors (such as chronic conditions and age groups), but others appear more novel (e.g., larger chest size). As all such historical analyses have limitations, there is a need for additional studies in other settings as archival World War One records become digitalised. PMID:24490663

  7. You give me fever : practical protection for metropolitan neuroses

    E-print Network

    Case, Keith William

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of Swine Flu in the past six months has once again heightened the world's fears of a coming flu pandemic. Although H1N1 is only slightly more pathogenic than the common seasonal flu, which kills approximately ...

  8. Connecting the study of wild influenza with the potential for pandemic disease

    PubMed Central

    Runstadler, Jonathan; Hill, Nichola; Hussein, Islam T.M.; Puryear, Wendy; Keogh, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of pathogenic (H5N1) and pandemic (SOIVH1N1) influenza have underscored the need to understand the origin, characteristics, and evolution of novel influenza A virus (IAV) variants that pose a threat to human health. In the last 4–5 years, focus has been placed on the organization of large-scale surveillance programs to examine the phylogenetics of avian influenza virus (AIV) and host-virus relationships in domestic and wild animals. Here we review the current gaps in wild animal and environmental surveillance and the current understanding of genetic signatures in potentially pandemic strains. PMID:23541413

  9. Role of Substitutions in the Hemagglutinin in the Emergence of the 1968 Pandemic Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Sjouke; Doedt, Jennifer; Baumann, Jan; Qiu, Yu; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Van Reeth, Kristien; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) of H3N2/1968 pandemic influenza viruses differs from the putative avian precursor by seven amino acid substitutions. Substitutions Q226L and G228S are known to be essential for adaptation of avian HA to mammals. We found that introduction of avian-virus-like amino acids at five other HA positions (positions 62, 81, 92, 144, and 193) of A/Hong Kong/1/1968 virus decreased viral replication in human cells and transmission in pigs. Thus, substitutions at some of these positions facilitated emergence of the pandemic virus. PMID:26378170

  10. Improvements in pandemic preparedness in 8 Central American countries, 2008 - 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In view of ongoing pandemic threats such as the recent human cases of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) in China, it is important that all countries continue their preparedness efforts. Since 2006, Central American countries have received donor funding and technical assistance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to build and improve their capacity for influenza surveillance and pandemic preparedness. Our objective was to measure changes in pandemic preparedness in this region, and explore factors associated with these changes, using evaluations conducted between 2008 and 2012. Methods Eight Central American countries scored their pandemic preparedness across 12 capabilities in 2008, 2010 and 2012, using a standardized tool developed by CDC. Scores were calculated by country and capability and compared between evaluation years using the Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, respectively. Virological data reported to WHO were used to assess changes in testing capacity between evaluation years. Linear regression was used to examine associations between scores, donor funding, technical assistance and WHO reporting. Results All countries improved their pandemic preparedness between 2008 and 2012 and seven made statistically significant gains (p?pandemic preparedness between 2008 and 2012. U.S. donor funding and technical assistance provided to the region is likely to have contributed to the improvements we observed, although information on other sources of funding and support was unavailable to study. Gains are also likely the result of countries’ response to the 2009 influenza pandemic. Further research is required to determine the degree to which pandemic improvements are sustainable. PMID:24886275

  11. Economics of Employer-Sponsored Workplace Vaccination to Prevent Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Afriyie, Abena; Wateska, Angela R.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Employers may be loath to fund vaccination programs without understanding the economic consequences. We developed a decision analytic computational simulation model including dynamic transmission elements that determined the cost-benefit of employer-sponsored workplace vaccination from the employer's perspective. Implementing such programs was relatively inexpensive (<$35/vaccinated employee) and, in many cases, cost saving across diverse occupational groups in all seasonal influenza scenarios. Such programs were cost-saving for a 20% serologic attack rate pandemic scenario (?$15 to ?$995) per vaccinated employee) and a 30% serologic attack rate pandemic scenario (range ?$39 to ?$1,494 per vaccinated employee) across all age and major occupational groups. PMID:20620168

  12. Prediction of flu epidemic activity with dynamical model based on weather forecast

    E-print Network

    Postnikov, Eugene B

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of respiratory diseases (common cold, influenza, etc.) is a well-known phenomenon studied from ancient times. The development of predictive models is still not only an actual unsolved problem of mathematical epidemiology but also is very important for the safety of public health. Here we show that SIRS (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible) model accurately enough reproduces real curves of flu activity. It contains variable reaction rate, which is a function of mean daily temperature. The proposed alternation of variables represents SIRS equations as the second-order ODE with an outer excitation. It reveals an origin of such predictive efficiency and explains analytically the 1:1 dynamical resonance, which is known as a crucial property of epidemic behavior. Our work opens the perspectives for the development of instant short-time prediction of a normal level of flu activity based on the weather forecast, and allow to estimate a current epidemic level more precisely. The latter fact is b...

  13. Investment involves risks. Past performance is not indicative of future performance. All views expressed cannot be construed as an offer or recommendation by Fidelity. Fidelity shall not be held liable for damages arising out of any person's reliance

    E-print Network

    Steele, J. Michael

    to become pandemics but did not become global. These took place in 1976 (swine flu), 1977 (Russian flu International and Pyramid Logo are trademarks of Fidelity International Limited. 1 As cases of bird flu spread century, three flu outbreaks ­ in 1918, 1957, and 1968 ­ were labelled as pandemics. The spread

  14. Genetic Characterization of Human Influenza Viruses in the Pandemic (2009–2010) and Post-Pandemic (2010–2011) Periods in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Dapat, Isolde C.; Dapat, Clyde; Baranovich, Tatiana; Suzuki, Yasushi; Kondo, Hiroki; Shobugawa, Yugo; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus was first detected in Japan in May 2009 and continued to circulate in the 2010–2011 season. This study aims to characterize human influenza viruses circulating in Japan in the pandemic and post-pandemic periods and to determine the prevalence of antiviral-resistant viruses. Methods Respiratory specimens were collected from patients with influenza-like illness on their first visit at outpatient clinics during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Cycling probe real-time PCR assays were performed to screen for antiviral-resistant strains. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes were done to characterize circulating strains. Results and Conclusion In the pandemic period (2009–2010), the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus was the only circulating strain isolated. None of the 601 A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates had the H275Y substitution in NA (oseltamivir resistance) while 599/601 isolates (99.7%) had the S31N substitution in M2 (amantadine resistance). In the post-pandemic period (2010–2011), cocirculation of different types and subtypes of influenza viruses was observed. Of the 1,278 samples analyzed, 414 (42.6%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, 525 (54.0%) were A(H3N2) and 33 (3.4%) were type-B viruses. Among A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates, 2 (0.5%) were oseltamivir-resistant and all were amantadine-resistant. Among A(H3N2) viruses, 520 (99.0%) were amantadine-resistant. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from the post-pandemic period showed further evolution from the pandemic period viruses. For viruses that circulated in 2010–2011, strain predominance varied among prefectures. In Hokkaido, Niigata, Gunma and Nagasaki, A(H3N2) viruses (A/Perth/16/2009-like) were predominant whereas, in Kyoto, Hyogo and Osaka, A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses (A/New_York/10/2009-like) were predominant. Influenza B Victoria(HA)-Yamagata(NA) reassortant viruses (B/Brisbane/60/2008-like) were predominant while a small proportion was in Yamagata lineage. Genetic variants with mutations at antigenic sites were identified in A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and type-B viruses in the 2010–2011 season but did not show a change in antigenicity when compared with respective vaccine strains. PMID:22761651

  15. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sőukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  16. Flu Outbreaks Force Schools to Adjust Plans: Classes Canceled in Some Places to Prevent Spread of Influenza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda; Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    A flu outbreak at Madison Junior High School in Ohio prompted school officials to close the building for two days. At Webber Junior High School in Fort Collins, Colorado, where absenteeism recently hit 20 percent for two bad weeks, educators were forced to slow the pace of schoolwork so sick students did not fall behind. This article reports on…

  17. Monitoring and Characterization of Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Japan, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Ejima, Miho; Anraku, Akane; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Kishida, Noriko; Hong, Xu; Takashita, Emi; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Yamashita, Kazuyo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Yumiko; Oguchi, Akio; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Masato

    2011-01-01

    To monitor and characterize oseltamivir-resistant (OR) pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with the H275Y mutation, we analyzed 4,307 clinical specimens from Japan by neuraminidase (NA) sequencing or inhibition assay; 61 OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were detected. NA inhibition assay and M2 sequencing indicated that OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was resistant to M2 inhibitors, but sensitive to zanamivir. Full-genome sequencing showed OR and oseltamivir-sensitive (OS) viruses had high sequence similarity, indicating that domestic OR virus was derived from OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Hemagglutination inhibition test demonstrated that OR and OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were antigenically similar to the A/California/7/2009 vaccine strain. Of 61 case-patients with OR viruses, 45 received oseltamivir as treatment, and 10 received it as prophylaxis, which suggests that most cases emerged sporadically from OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009, due to selective pressure. No evidence of sustained spread of OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was found in Japan; however, 2 suspected incidents of human-to-human transmission were reported. PMID:21392439

  18. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, cases of acute respiratory disease were reported in humans caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) in Mexico which has since spread globally in the human population and been declared a pandemic. Initial studies using intranasal route of inoculation failed to produc...

  19. Coordination Costs for School-Located Influenza Vaccination Clinics, Maine, 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Lorick, Suchita A.; Tipton, Meredith L.; Dube, Nancy L.; Messonnier, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    School nurses played a key role in Maine's school-located influenza vaccination (SLV) clinics during the 2009-2010 pandemic season. The objective of this study was to determine, from the school district perspective, the labor hours and costs associated with outside-clinic coordination activities (OCA). The authors defined OCA as labor hours spent…

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of 11 Bordetella pertussis Strains Representing the Pandemic ptxP3 Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Marieke J.; van der Heide, Han G. J.; Zeddeman, Anne; Heuvelman, Kees; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen adaptation has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis. To facilitate our understanding of this adaptation we report here 11 completely closed and annotated Bordetella pertussis genomes representing the pandemic ptxP3 lineage. Our analyses included six strains which do not produce the vaccine components pertactin and/or filamentous hemagglutinin. PMID:26607899

  1. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review.

    PubMed

    Tanner, W D; Toth, D J A; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-12-01

    In March 2013 the first cases of human avian influenza A(H7N9) were reported to the World Health Organization. Since that time, over 650 cases have been reported. Infections are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly within certain demographic groups. This rapid increase in cases over a brief time period is alarming and has raised concerns about the pandemic potential of the H7N9 virus. Three major factors influence the pandemic potential of an influenza virus: (1) its ability to cause human disease, (2) the immunity of the population to the virus, and (3) the transmission potential of the virus. This paper reviews what is currently known about each of these factors with respect to avian influenza A(H7N9). Currently, sustained human-to-human transmission of H7N9 has not been reported; however, population immunity to the virus is considered very low, and the virus has significant ability to cause human disease. Several statistical and geographical modelling studies have estimated and predicted the spread of the H7N9 virus in humans and avian species, and some have identified potential risk factors associated with disease transmission. Additionally, assessment tools have been developed to evaluate the pandemic potential of H7N9 and other influenza viruses. These tools could also hypothetically be used to monitor changes in the pandemic potential of a particular virus over time. PMID:26205078

  2. EXISTING ANTIVIRALS ARE EFFECTIVE AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUSES WITH GENES FROM THE 1918 PANDEMIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1918 influenza pandemic caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide. Under biosafety level 3Ag containment, a recombinant influenza virus bearing the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) was generated. This virus is highly virulent in mice, pointing to the 1918 HA and...

  3. Host Immunological Factors Enhancing Mortality of Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Julie L.; Kedzierska, Katherine; Brown, Lorena E.; Shanks, G. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    During the 1918 influenza pandemic, healthy young adults unusually succumbed to infection and were considered more vulnerable than young children and the elderly. The pathogenesis of this pandemic in the young adult population remains poorly understood. As this population is normally the least likely to die during seasonal influenza outbreaks, thought to be due to their appropriate pre-existing and robust immune responses protecting them from infection, we sought to review existing literature for immunological reasons for excessive mortality during the 1918 pandemic. We propose the novelty of the H1N1 pandemic virus to an H1N1 naďve immune system, the virulence of this virus, and dysfunctional host inflammatory and immunological responses, shaped by past influenza infections could have each contributed to their overall susceptibility. Additionally, in the young adult population, pre-exposure to past influenza infection of different subtypes, such as a H3N8 virus, during their infancy in 1889–1892, may have shaped immunological responses and enhanced vulnerability via humoral immunity effects with cross-reactive or non-neutralizing antibodies; excessive and/or ineffective cellular immunity from memory T lymphocytes; and innate dysfunctional inflammation. Multiple mechanisms likely contributed to the increased young adult mortality in 1918 and are the focus of this review. PMID:26347742

  4. Ekonomicky casopis, 57, 2009, c. 2, s, 163 -178 Socio-economic Impacts of Pandemic Influenza

    E-print Network

    Sevcovic, Daniel

    Ekonomicky casopis, 57, 2009, c. 2, s, 163 - 178 Socio-economic Impacts of Pandemic Influenza of various scenarios ofpandemic influenza mitigation on the economy and mor- tality for Slovakia. Compared costs with casualties included were compared. Keywords: pandemia, influenza, Monte Carlo, mitigation JEL

  5. Research Updates: Experimental Evaluation of 2009 Pandemic A/H1N1 in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March 2009, a novel pandemic A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America (2). The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before be...

  6. Framing of Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in a Singaporean newspaper.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Iccha; Lee, Seow Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to understand how public health messages provided by the government in Singapore during an Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were framed by the news media for the public. News articles were analyzed to explore how the global pandemic was framed as a local event, providing a unique exploration of the dynamic involving public health communication, news media and the state. Thematic analysis (n = 309) included the government-issued press releases disseminating public health information about H1N1 that were directly linked to news stories (n = 56) and news stories about H1N1 generated by the newspaper (n = 253). Four themes were found: (i) imported disease, (ii) war/battle metaphors, (iii) social responsibility and (iv) lockdown policies. Frame analysis revealed that the news coverage during the H1N1 pandemic reflected how the newspaper framed and mediated the information flow, amplified a positive tone for the government response, emphasized individual responsibility and utilized gain frames to construct local messages about the global H1N1 pandemic that reified Singapore as a nation-state. PMID:24842078

  7. The Shifting Demographic Landscape of Pandemic Shweta Bansal1,2

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Shweta

    Mexico, United States of America Abstract Background: As Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza spreads around observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future

  8. Polymorphisms in the hemagglutinin gene influenced the viral shedding of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of influenza virus quasi-species for transmission efficiency and replication is poorly understood. In the present study we show that naturally occurring polymorphisms present in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of two 2009 pandemic H1N1 isolates, A/California/04/2009 (Ca/09) and A/Mexico...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CANDIDATE INFLUENZA A VACCINES FOR PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic birds can be infected by influenza A viruses of 15 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes and serve as a reservoir from which novel influenza subtypes can be introduced into humans and cause a pandemic. The observations that avian H5N1 and H9N2 influenza A viruses infected huma...

  10. Supporting Lesotho Teachers to Develop Resilience in the Face of the HIV and AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lesley; Ntaote, Grace Makeletso; Theron, Linda

    2012-01-01

    HIV and AIDS threaten to erode the wellbeing of teachers who are faced with an increasing number of children rendered vulnerable by the pandemic. This article explores the usefulness of a supportive group intervention, Resilient Educators (REds), in supporting Lesotho teachers to respond to the HIV and AIDS-related challenges. A time-series pre-…

  11. Provision of pandemic disease information by health sciences librarians: a multisite comparative case series*†‡§

    PubMed Central

    Featherstone, Robin M; Boldt, R. Gabriel; Torabi, Nazi; Konrad, Shauna-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The research provides an understanding of pandemic information needs and informs professional development initiatives for librarians in disaster medicine. Methods: Utilizing a multisite, comparative case series design, the researchers conducted semi-structured interviews and examined supplementary materials in the form of organizational documents, correspondence, and websites to create a complete picture of each case. The rigor of the case series was ensured through data and investigator triangulation. Interview transcripts were coded using NVivo to identify common themes and points of comparison. Results: Comparison of the four cases revealed a distinct difference between “client-initiated” and “librarian-initiated” provision of pandemic information. Librarian-initiated projects utilized social software to “push” information, whereas client-initiated projects operated within patron-determined parameters to deliver information. Health care administrators were identified as a key audience for pandemic information, and news agencies were utilized as essential information sources. Librarians' skills at evaluating available information proved crucial for selecting best-quality evidence to support administrative decision making. Conclusions: Qualitative analysis resulted in increased understanding of pandemic information needs and identified best practices for disseminating information during periods of high organizational stress caused by an influx of new cases of an unknown infectious disease. PMID:22514506

  12. The role of China in the global spread of the current cholera pandemic.

    PubMed

    Didelot, Xavier; Pang, Bo; Zhou, Zhemin; McCann, Angela; Ni, Peixiang; Li, Dongfang; Achtman, Mark; Kan, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease, have occurred since the early 19th century and waves of epidemic disease continue today. Cholera epidemics are caused by individual, genetically monomorphic lineages of Vibrio cholerae: the ongoing seventh pandemic, which has spread globally since 1961, is associated with lineage L2 of biotype El Tor. Previous genomic studies of the epidemiology of the seventh pandemic identified three successive sub-lineages within L2, designated waves 1 to 3, which spread globally from the Bay of Bengal on multiple occasions. However, these studies did not include samples from China, which also experienced multiple epidemics of cholera in recent decades. We sequenced the genomes of 71 strains isolated in China between 1961 and 2010, as well as eight from other sources, and compared them with 181 published genomes. The results indicated that outbreaks in China between 1960 and 1990 were associated with wave 1 whereas later outbreaks were associated with wave 2. However, the previously defined waves overlapped temporally, and are an inadequate representation of the shape of the global genealogy. We therefore suggest replacing them by a series of tightly delineated clades. Between 1960 and 1990 multiple such clades were imported into China, underwent further microevolution there and then spread to other countries. China was thus both a sink and source during the pandemic spread of V. cholerae, and needs to be included in reconstructions of the global patterns of spread of cholera. PMID:25768799

  13. Knowledge about Pandemic Influenza in Healthcare and Non-Healthcare Students in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purssell, Edward; While, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge of university students regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate students, including those on nursing, medical, other health and non-health related courses. Method: The sample was recruited using the university email system, and the…

  14. Trends in parameterization, economics and host behaviour in influenza pandemic modelling: a review and reporting protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The volume of influenza pandemic modelling studies has increased dramatically in the last decade. Many models incorporate now sophisticated parameterization and validation techniques, economic analyses and the behaviour of individuals. Methods We reviewed trends in these aspects in models for influenza pandemic preparedness that aimed to generate policy insights for epidemic management and were published from 2000 to September 2011, i.e. before and after the 2009 pandemic. Results We find that many influenza pandemics models rely on parameters from previous modelling studies, models are rarely validated using observed data and are seldom applied to low-income countries. Mechanisms for international data sharing would be necessary to facilitate a wider adoption of model validation. The variety of modelling decisions makes it difficult to compare and evaluate models systematically. Conclusions We propose a model Characteristics, Construction, Parameterization and Validation aspects protocol (CCPV protocol) to contribute to the systematisation of the reporting of models with an emphasis on the incorporation of economic aspects and host behaviour. Model reporting, as already exists in many other fields of modelling, would increase confidence in model results, and transparency in their assessment and comparison. PMID:23651557

  15. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  16. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  17. Are vaccine viruses developed for pandemic preparedness a risk for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are important agricultural pathogens and some have been transmitted to humans, especially H5N1, causing severe disease and death. Various HPAI viruses have the potential to become pandemic, and therefore national and international public health organ...

  18. DNA vaccination elicits protective immune responses against pandemic and classic swine influenza viruses in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious viral infection in pigs that significantly impacts the pork industry due to weight loss and secondary infections. There is also the potential of a significant public health threat, highlighted by the possibility that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain emerged from r...

  19. Reconstruction of the Evolutionary Dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus in Italy during the Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Lai, Alessia; Gabanelli, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Ebranati, Erika; Amendola, Antonella; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reconstruct the evolutionary dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus in Italy during two epidemic seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) in the light of the forces driving the evolution of the virus. Nearly six thousands respiratory specimens were collected from patients with influenza-like illness within the framework of the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network, and the A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin (HA) gene was amplified and directly sequenced from 227 of these. Phylodynamic and phylogeographical analyses were made using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, and codon-specific positive selection acting on the HA coding sequence was evaluated. The global and local phylogenetic analyses showed that all of the Italian sequences sampled in the post-pandemic (2010/2011) season grouped into at least four highly significant Italian clades, whereas those of the pandemic season (2009/2010) were interspersed with isolates from other countries at the tree root. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the strains circulating in the pandemic season in Italy was estimated to be between the spring and summer of 2009, whereas the Italian clades of the post-pandemic season originated in the spring of 2010 and showed radiation in the summer/autumn of the same year; this was confirmed by a Bayesian skyline plot showing the biphasic growth of the effective number of infections. The local phylogeography analysis showed that the first season of infection originated in Northern Italian localities with high density populations, whereas the second involved less densely populated localities, in line with a gravity-like model of geographical dispersion. Two HA sites, codons 97 and 222, were under positive selection. In conclusion, the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was introduced into Italy in the spring of 2009 by means of multiple importations. This was followed by repeated founder effects in the post-pandemic period that originated specific Italian clades. PMID:23152755

  20. Healthcare workers' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Yumiko; Beck, Charles R; Dingwall, Robert; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the proportion of healthcare workers (HCWs) willing to work during an influenza pandemic and identify associated risk factors, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis compliant with PRISMA guidance. Databases and grey literature were searched to April 2013, and records were screened against protocol eligibility criteria. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken using a piloted form. Random-effects meta-analyses estimated (i) pooled proportion of HCWs willing to work and (ii) pooled odds ratios of risk factors associated with willingness to work. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Data were synthesized narratively where meta-analyses were not possible. Forty-three studies met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the proportion of HCWs willing to work was abandoned due to excessive heterogeneity (I2 = 99·2%). Narrative synthesis showed study estimates ranged from 23·1% to 95·8% willingness to work, depending on context. Meta-analyses of specific factors showed that male HCWs, physicians and nurses, full-time employment, perceived personal safety, awareness of pandemic risk and clinical knowledge of influenza pandemics, role-specific knowledge, pandemic response training, and confidence in personal skills were statistically significantly associated with increased willingness. Childcare obligations were significantly associated with decreased willingness. HCWs' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic was moderately high, albeit highly variable. Numerous risk factors showed a statistically significant association with willingness to work despite significant heterogeneity between studies. None of the included studies were based on appropriate theoretical constructs of population behaviour. PMID:25807865

  1. Responding to Vaccine Safety Signals during Pandemic Influenza: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Maro, Judith C.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Lieu, Tracy A.; Lee, Grace M.; Martin, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Managing emerging vaccine safety signals during an influenza pandemic is challenging. Federal regulators must balance vaccine risks against benefits while maintaining public confidence in the public health system. Methods We developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model to explore regulatory decision-making in the context of emerging vaccine safety signals during a pandemic. We simulated vaccine safety surveillance system capabilities and used an age-structured compartmental model to develop potential pandemic scenarios. We used an expert-derived multi-attribute utility function to evaluate potential regulatory responses by combining four outcome measures into a single measure of interest: 1) expected vaccination benefit from averted influenza; 2) expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated febrile seizures; 3) expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated Guillain-Barre Syndrome; and 4) expected change in vaccine-seeking behavior in future influenza seasons. Results Over multiple scenarios, risk communication, with or without suspension of vaccination of high-risk persons, were the consistently preferred regulatory responses over no action or general suspension when safety signals were detected during a pandemic influenza. On average, the expert panel valued near-term vaccine-related outcomes relative to long-term projected outcomes by 3?1. However, when decision-makers had minimal ability to influence near-term outcomes, the response was selected primarily by projected impacts on future vaccine-seeking behavior. Conclusions The selected regulatory response depends on how quickly a vaccine safety signal is identified relative to the peak of the pandemic and the initiation of vaccination. Our analysis suggested two areas for future investment: efforts to improve the size and timeliness of the surveillance system and behavioral research to understand changes in vaccine-seeking behavior. PMID:25536228

  2. Predictive Power of Air Travel and Socio-Economic Data for Early Pandemic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Parviez; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Controlling the pandemic spread of newly emerging diseases requires rapid, targeted allocation of limited resources among nations. Critical, early control steps would be greatly enhanced if the key risk factors can be identified that accurately predict early disease spread immediately after emergence. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine the role of travel, trade, and national healthcare resources in predicting the emergence and initial spread of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. We find that incorporating national healthcare resource data into our analyses allowed a much greater capacity to predict the international spread of this virus. In countries with lower healthcare resources, the reporting of 2009 A/H1N1 cases was significantly delayed, likely reflecting a lower capacity for testing and reporting, as well as other socio-political issues. We also report substantial international trade in live swine and poultry in the decade preceding the pandemic which may have contributed to the emergence and mixed genotype of this pandemic strain. However, the lack of knowledge of recent evolution of each H1N1 viral gene segment precludes the use of this approach to determine viral origins. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that strategies to prevent pandemic influenza virus emergence and spread in the future should include: 1) enhanced surveillance for strains resulting from reassortment in traded livestock; 2) rapid deployment of control measures in the initial spreading phase to countries where travel data predict the pathogen will reach and to countries where lower healthcare resources will likely cause delays in reporting. Our results highlight the benefits, for all parties, when higher income countries provide additional healthcare resources for lower income countries, particularly those that have high air traffic volumes. In particular, international authorities should prioritize aid to those poorest countries where both the risk of emerging infectious diseases and air traffic volume is highest. This strategy will result in earlier detection of pathogens and a reduction in the impact of future pandemics. PMID:20856678

  3. People at Risk of Influenza Pandemics: The Evolution of Perception and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Peng, Zongchao

    2015-01-01

    Influenza pandemics can severely impact human health and society. Understanding public perception and behavior toward influenza pandemics is important for minimizing the effects of such events. Public perception and behavior are expected to change over the course of an influenza pandemic, but this idea has received little attention in previous studies. Our study aimed to understand the dynamics of public perception and behavior over the course of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were administered among Beijing residents with random-digit dialing techniques in March 2008 and August and November 2009. Effective samples of 507, 508 and 1006 respondents were interviewed in each of the three surveys, respectively. The mean scores of risk perception were low to moderate across the three surveys. The perceived risk of infection of self was significantly lower than that of the community, revealing an optimistic bias. Longitudinally, the perceived risk of contracting H1N1 increased, whereas the perceived risk of being unable to obtain medicine and medical care once influenza permeated the community first increased and then decreased. Responsive actions toward influenza varied. Most respondents took actions that required little extra effort, such as ventilating rooms; these actions did not change over time. Comparatively, a smaller number of respondents took actions for coping with influenza, such as vaccination; however, these actions were taken by an increasing number of respondents over time. The association between risk perception and behavior was unstable. Positive, insignificant, and negative associations were obtained in the three surveys. In conclusion, the evolving patterns of risk perception and responsive behavior over the course of an influenza pandemic are sensitive to how risk and behavior are defined and scoped. PMID:26658371

  4. Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine in high risk and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Avila Aguero, María Luisa; Soriano-Fallas, Alejandra; Umańa-Sauma, María de los Angeles; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Arnoux, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza-related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR) for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP). The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications. PMID:17891930

  5. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccines: A Multinational Self-Controlled Case Series in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Jeanne P.; Olberg, Henning K.; de Vries, Corinne S.; Sammon, Cormac; Andrews, Nick; Svanström, Henrik; Mřlgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Hviid, Anders; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnčs; Saussier, Christel; Castot, Anne; Heijbel, Harald; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparen, Par; Mosseveld, Mees; Schuemie, Martijn; van der Maas, Nicoline; Jacobs, Bart C.; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Storsaeter, Jann; Johansen, Kari; Kramarz, Piotr; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Methods A self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1–4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI). Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. Results Three hundred and three (303) GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99) were exposed to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria). The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2–5.5), based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2–3.1) after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.2) when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom) we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month) to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8), which is the main finding. Conclusion This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination (RI?=?1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8). Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with 95% certainty that the number of excess GBS cases after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination would be more than 3 per million vaccinated. PMID:24404128

  6. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Among Public-Housing Residents, Single-Parent Families, and Low-Income Populations

    PubMed Central

    Truman, Benedict I.; Hutchins, Sonja; Richard, Roland; Brown, Clive; Guillory, Joyce A.; Rashid, Jamila

    2009-01-01

    During the early stages of an influenza pandemic, a pandemic vaccine likely will not be available. Therefore, interventions to mitigate pandemic influenza transmission in communities will be an important component of the response to a pandemic. Public-housing residents, single-parent families, and low-income populations may have difficulty complying with community-wide interventions. To enable compliance with community interventions, stakeholders recommended the following: (1) community mobilization and partnerships, (2) culturally specific emergency communications planning, (3) culturally specific education and training programs, (4) evidence-based measurement and evaluation efforts, (5) strategic planning policies, (6) inclusion of community members as partners, and (7) policy and program changes to minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:19797740

  7. Theodore E. Woodward Award Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions Employed By Major American Cities During the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Markel, Howard; Stern, Alexandra M.; Cetron, Martin S.

    2008-01-01

    A critical question in pandemic influenza planning is the role that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) such as isolation and quarantine, social distancing, and school closure, might play in delaying the temporal impact of a pandemic, reducing the overall and peak attack rate, and reducing the number of cumulative deaths. Such measures could potentially provide valuable time for pandemic-strain vaccine and antiviral medication production and distribution. Optimally, appropriate NPI implementation would decrease the burden on healthcare services and critical infrastructure. These public health measures, however, are often associated with enormous social and economic costs. Therefore, it is imperative to assess past applications of NPIs in order to better understand how they might (or might not) be employed during future pandemics in an effective, legal, ethical manner that inspires confidence and compliance in the public at large. PMID:18596866

  8. School District (K-12) Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Local educational agencies (LEAs) play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of their district's staff, students and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist to assist LEAs in developing and/or improving plans to prepare

  9. President Bush Bails Out on Bird-Flu Plan: "You're on Your Own" if It Strikes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2006-01-01

    School districts in locations across the country are now in the process of considering what their role will be in the event that the United States happens to be hit by a bird influenza pandemic. There are some school districts which have already been drafting plans covering such issues to be examined as communicating with the parents of their…

  10. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich J.; Sun, Jing; Olsen, Lars Rřnn; Zhang, Guang Lan; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Brusic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using a modular framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability. The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B-cell vaccine targets and assessment of neutralizing antibody coverage. FluKB supports the discovery of vaccine targets and the analysis of viral diversity and its implications for vaccine discovery as well as potential T-cell breadth and antibody cross neutralization involving multiple strains. FluKB is representation of a new generation of databases that integrates data, analytical tools, and analytical workflows that enable comprehensive analysis and automatic generation of analysis reports. PMID:26504853

  11. What infection control measures will people carry out to reduce transmission of pandemic influenza? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Leanne G; Yardley, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza poses a future health threat against which infection control behaviours may be an important defence. However, there is little qualitative research examining perceptions of infection control measures in the context of pandemic influenza. Methods Eight focus groups and one interview were conducted with a purposive sample of 31 participants. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of infection transmission and likely adherence to infection control measures in both non-pandemic and pandemic contexts. Infection control measures discussed included handwashing, social distancing and cough hygiene (e.g. covering mouth, disposing of tissues immediately etc.). Results Thematic analysis revealed that although participants were knowledgeable about infection transmission, most expressed unfavourable attitudes toward control behaviours in non-pandemic situations. However, with the provision of adequate education about control measures and appropriate practical support (e.g. memory aids, access to facilities), most individuals report that they are likely to adhere to infection control protocols in the event of a pandemic. Of the behaviours likely to influence infection transmission, handwashing was regarded by our participants as more feasible than cough and sneeze hygiene and more acceptable than social distancing. Conclusion Handwashing could prove a useful target for health promotion, but interventions to promote infection control may need to address a number of factors identified within this study as potential barriers to carrying out infection control behaviours. PMID:19627568

  12. Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anecdotal evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wever, Peter C; van Bergen, Leo

    2014-01-01

    The Meuse-Argonne offensive, a decisive battle during the First World War, is the largest frontline commitment in American military history involving 1·2 million U.S. troops. With over 26 000 deaths among American soldiers, the offensive is considered “America's deadliest battle”. The Meuse-Argonne offensive coincided with the highly fatal second wave of the influenza pandemic in 1918. In Europe and in U.S. Army training camps, 1918 pandemic influenza killed around 45 000 American soldiers making it questionable which battle should be regarded “America's deadliest”. The origin of the influenza pandemic has been inextricably linked with the men who occupied the military camps and trenches during the First World War. The disease had a profound impact, both for the military apparatus and for the individual soldier. It struck all the armies and might have claimed toward 100 000 fatalities among soldiers overall during the conflict while rendering millions ineffective. Yet, it remains unclear whether 1918 pandemic influenza had an impact on the course of the First World War. Still, even until this day, virological and bacteriological analysis of preserved archived remains of soldiers that succumbed to 1918 pandemic influenza has important implications for preparedness for future pandemics. These aspects are reviewed here in a context of citations, images, and documents illustrating the tragic events of 1918. PMID:24975798

  13. H7N9 Influenza Virus Is More Virulent in Ferrets than 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Yum, Jung; Ku, Keun Bon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2015-12-01

    The novel H7N9 influenza virus has been infecting humans in China since February 2013 and with a mortality rate of about 40%. This study compared the pathogenicity of the H7N9 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in a ferret model, which shows similar symptoms to those of humans infected with influenza viruses. The H7N9 influenza virus caused a more severe disease than did the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. All of the ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus had died by 6 days after infection, while none of those infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus died. Ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus had higher viral titers in their lungs than did those infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Histological findings indicated that hemorrhagic pneumonia was caused by infection with the H7N9 influenza virus, but not with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. In addition, the lung tissues of ferrets infected with the H7N9 influenza virus contained higher levels of chemokines than did those of ferrets infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. This study suggests that close monitoring is needed to prevent human infection by the lethal H7N9 influenza virus. PMID:26421365

  14. Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anecdotal evidence.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter C; van Bergen, Leo

    2014-09-01

    The Meuse-Argonne offensive, a decisive battle during the First World War, is the largest frontline commitment in American military history involving 1.2 million U.S. troops. With over 26,000 deaths among American soldiers, the offensive is considered "America's deadliest battle". The Meuse-Argonne offensive coincided with the highly fatal second wave of the influenza pandemic in 1918. In Europe and in U.S. Army training camps, 1918 pandemic influenza killed around 45,000 American soldiers making it questionable which battle should be regarded "America's deadliest". The origin of the influenza pandemic has been inextricably linked with the men who occupied the military camps and trenches during the First World War. The disease had a profound impact, both for the military apparatus and for the individual soldier. It struck all the armies and might have claimed toward 100 000 fatalities among soldiers overall during the conflict while rendering millions ineffective. Yet, it remains unclear whether 1918 pandemic influenza had an impact on the course of the First World War. Still, even until this day, virological and bacteriological analysis of preserved archived remains of soldiers that succumbed to 1918 pandemic influenza has important implications for preparedness for future pandemics. These aspects are reviewed here in a context of citations, images, and documents illustrating the tragic events of 1918. PMID:24975798

  15. Nowcasting economic and social data: when and why search engine data fails, an illustration using Google Flu Trends

    E-print Network

    Ormerod, Paul; Bentley, R Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining an accurate picture of the current state of the economy is particularly important to central banks and finance ministries, and of epidemics to health ministries. There is increasing interest in the use of search engine data to provide such 'nowcasts' of social and economic indicators. However, people may search for a phrase because they independently want the information, or they may search simply because many others are searching for it. We consider the effect of the motivation for searching on the accuracy of forecasts made using search engine data of contemporaneous social and economic indicators. We illustrate the implications for forecasting accuracy using four episodes in which Google Flu Trends data gave accurate predictions of actual flu cases, and four in which the search data over-predicted considerably. Using a standard statistical methodology, the Bass diffusion model, we show that the independent search for information motive was much stronger in the cases of accurate prediction than in...

  16. Predictive and Reactive Distribution of Vaccines and Antivirals during Cross-Regional Pandemic Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Sánchez, Andrés; Savachkin, Alex

    2011-01-01

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capability. We develop a large-scale simulation-driven optimization model for generating dynamic predictive distribution of vaccines and antivirals over a network of regional pandemic outbreaks. The model incorporates measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the cost of lost productivity and medical expenses. The performance of the strategy is compared to that of the reactive myopic policy, using a sample outbreak in Fla, USA, with an affected population of over four millions. The comparison is implemented at different levels of vaccine and antiviral availability and administration capacity. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of variability of some critical factors on policy performance. The model is intended to support public health policy making for effective distribution of limited mitigation resources. PMID:23074658

  17. Forecasting techno-social systems: how physics and computing help to fight off global pandemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    The crucial issue when planning for adequate public health interventions to mitigate the spread and impact of epidemics is risk evaluation and forecast. This amount to the anticipation of where, when and how strong the epidemic will strike. In the last decade advances in performance in computer technology, data acquisition, statistical physics and complex networks theory allow the generation of sophisticated simulations on supercomputer infrastructures to anticipate the spreading pattern of a pandemic. For the first time we are in the position of generating real time forecast of epidemic spreading. I will review the history of the current H1N1 pandemic, the major road-blocks the community has faced in its containment and mitigation and how physics and computing provide predictive tools that help us to battle epidemics.

  18. Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Alan R.; Davies, Paul R.; Midgley, Rebecca J.; Valarcher, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    A particular genetic lineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, which we have named the PanAsia strain, was responsible for an explosive pandemic in Asia and extended to parts of Africa and Europe from 1998 to 2001. In 2000 and 2001, this virus strain caused outbreaks in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Russia, Mongolia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, France, and the Netherlands, countries which last experienced FMD outbreaks decades before (ranging from 1934 for Korea to 1984 for the Netherlands). Although the virus has been controlled in all of these normally FMD-free or sporadically infected countries, it appears to be established throughout much of southern Asia, with geographically separated lineages evolving independently. A pandemic such as this is a rare phenomenon but demonstrates the ability of newly emerging FMDV strains to spread rapidly throughout a wide region and invade countries previously free from the disease. PMID:16485475

  19. Molecular Basis for the Generation in Pigs of Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Toshihiro; Couceiro, J. Nelson S. S.; Kelm, Sřrge; Baum, Linda G.; Krauss, Scott; Castrucci, Maria R.; Donatelli, Isabella; Kida, Hiroshi; Paulson, James C.; Webster, Robert G.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    1998-01-01

    Genetic and biologic observations suggest that pigs may serve as “mixing vessels” for the generation of human-avian influenza A virus reassortants, similar to those responsible for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Here we demonstrate a structural basis for this hypothesis. Cell surface receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses were identified in the pig trachea, providing a milieu conducive to viral replication and genetic reassortment. Surprisingly, with continued replication, some avian-like swine viruses acquired the ability to recognize human virus receptors, raising the possibility of their direct transmission to human populations. These findings help to explain the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses and support the need for continued surveillance of swine for viruses carrying avian virus genes. PMID:9696833

  20. Physician privacy concerns when disclosing patient data for public health purposes during a pandemic influenza outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they are diluted in the context of a pandemic are not known. Our objective was to understand the privacy barriers which could potentially influence family physicians' reporting of patient-level surveillance data to public health agencies during the Fall 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Methods Thirty seven family doctors participated in a series of five focus groups between October 29-31 2009. They also completed a survey about the data they were willing to disclose to public health units. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the amount of patient detail the participants were willing to disclose, factors that would facilitate data disclosure, and the consensus on those factors. The analysis of the qualitative data was based on grounded theory. Results The family doctors were reluctant to disclose patient data to public health units. This was due to concerns about the extent to which public health agencies are dependable to protect health information (trusting beliefs), and the possibility of loss due to disclosing health information (risk beliefs). We identified six specific actions that public health units can take which would affect these beliefs, and potentially increase the willingness to disclose patient information for public health purposes. Conclusions The uncertainty surrounding a pandemic of a new strain of influenza has not changed the privacy concerns of physicians about disclosing patient data. It is important to address these concerns to ensure reliable reporting during future outbreaks. PMID:21658256

  1. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infections, United States, 2010–11

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Aaron D.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Su, Su; Wheeling, John T.; Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Pan, Chao-Yang; Reisdorf, Erik; St. George, Kirsten; Myers, Robert; Wotton, Jason T.; Robinson, Sara; Leader, Brandon; Thompson, Martha; Shannon, Marjorie; Klimov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    During October 2010–July 2011, 1.0% of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses in the United States were oseltamivir resistant, compared with 0.5% during the 2009–10 influenza season. Of resistant viruses from 2010–11 and 2009–10, 26% and 89%, respectively, were from persons exposed to oseltamivir before specimen collection. Findings suggest limited community transmission of oseltamivir-resistant virus. PMID:22305467

  2. Predictors of fatality in pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection among adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fatality attributed to pandemic influenza A H1N1 was not clear in the literature. We described the predictors for fatality related to pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection among hospitalized adult patients. Methods This is a multicenter study performed during the pandemic influenza A H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] outbreak which occurred in 2009 and 2010. Analysis was performed among laboratory confirmed patients. Multivariate analysis was performed for the predictors of fatality. Results In the second wave of the pandemic, 848 adult patients were hospitalized because of suspected influenza, 45 out of 848 (5.3%) died, with 75% of fatalities occurring within the first 2 weeks of hospitalization. Among the 241 laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 patients, the case fatality rate was 9%. In a multivariate logistic regression model that was performed for the fatalities within 14 days after admission, early use of neuraminidase inhibitors was found to be protective (Odds ratio: 0.17, confidence interval: 0.03-0.77, p?=?0.022), nosocomial infections (OR: 5.7, CI: 1.84-18, p?=?0.013), presence of malignant disease (OR: 3.8, CI: 0.66-22.01, p?=?0.133) significantly increased the likelihood of fatality. Conclusions Early detection of the infection, allowing opportunity for the early use of neuraminidase inhibitors, was found to be important for prevention of fatality. Nosocomial bacterial infections and underlying malignant diseases increased the rate of fatality. PMID:24916566

  3. School closures during the 2009 influenza pandemic: national and local experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School closure is a non-pharmaceutical intervention that was considered in many national pandemic plans developed prior to the start of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, and received considerable attention during the event. Here, we retrospectively review and compare national and local experiences with school closures in several countries during the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Our intention is not to make a systematic review of country experiences; rather, it is to present the diversity of school closure experiences and provide examples from national and local perspectives. Methods Data were gathered during and following a meeting, organized by the European Centres for Disease Control, on school closures held in October 2010 in Stockholm, Sweden. A standard data collection form was developed and sent to all participants. The twelve participating countries and administrative regions (Bulgaria, China, France, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Serbia, South Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom, and United States) provided data. Results Our review highlights the very diverse national and local experiences on school closures during the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. The processes including who was in charge of making recommendations and who was in charge of making the decision to close, the school-based control strategies, the extent of school closures, the public health tradition of responses and expectations on school closure varied greatly between countries. Our review also discusses the many challenges associated with the implementation of this intervention and makes recommendations for further practical work in this area. Conclusions The single most important factor to explain differences observed between countries may have been the different public health practises and public expectations concerning school closures and influenza in the selected countries. PMID:24739814

  4. Multi-spectral fluorescent reporter influenza viruses (Color-flu) as powerful tools for in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Satoshi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Dongming; Ozawa, Makoto; Ando, Tomomi; Shoemaker, Jason E; Ishikawa, Izumi; Yamada, Shinya; Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Shinji; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease; highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Although numerous studies have addressed the pathogenicity of influenza viruses, influenza pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours ('Color-flu' viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. On adaptation to mice, stable expression of the fluorescent proteins in infected animals allows their detection by different types of microscopy and by flow cytometry. We use this system to analyse the progression of viral spread in mouse lungs, for live imaging of virus-infected cells, and for differential gene expression studies in virus antigen-positive and virus antigen-negative live cells in the lungs of Color-flu-infected mice. Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis. PMID:25807527

  5. [Management of the influenza pandemic on a local health authority level].

    PubMed

    Bellinger, O; Götsch, U; Böddinghaus, B; Kraus-Leonhäuser, D; Gottschalk, R

    2010-12-01

    In most cities and districts, the influenza pandemic of 2009 could be handled without any restrictions in providing medical care or any disturbance in public life. Despite its relatively mild course, the local public health services reached their limits of capacity. Based on nationwide regulations, the local management determines the success of the measures. Evaluating the experience on the community level offers the chance of facing future pandemics more efficiently. Press conferences, press releases, and the internet are the most reliable tools to inform the public even in terms of personnel expenses. Telephone conferences and internet platforms help to reduce time-consuming meetings. An electronic database and logbook provide up-to-date information for all parties involved and allow quick, rational, coordinated, and transparent decision-making. Local evaluation of registration data, reports on cases of illness, and the availability of hospital beds on a daily basis allow intervention at an early stage to cope with the pandemic efficiently and helps save resources. Recruitment of external personnel, e.g., for the call center and the vaccination campaign, relieves the public health employees in charge with respect to their main tasks of directing and management functions. PMID:21161475

  6. Serological evidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Abiola, Olusoji J; Sausy, Aurélie; Okwen, Mbah P; Olubayo, Ayoade G; Owoade, Ademola A; Muller, Claude P

    2015-03-23

    Besides birds, pigs are another important reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to human, as highlighted by the emergence and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) virus (pdm/09) in 2009. Surveillance in pigs is therefore necessary for public health and influenza pandemic preparedness. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of data on influenza in Africa, especially in swine. We therefore collected serum samples from pigs in Nigeria (2009, 2012) and Cameroon (2011) in which the presence of anti-influenza A neutralizing antibodies was investigated. Our serological survey suggests that, before the 2009 pandemic, only rare swine and human H3N2 or human H1N1 infections occurred in Nigeria in swine. However, in 2011-2012, 27.4% of pigs in Nigeria and 5.6% in Cameroon had antibodies against H1N1 viruses. Higher antibody titres against pdm/09 suggested that pigs were exposed to this or a similar virus, either by multiple introductions or sustained circulation, and that reactivity against American and European swine H1N1 viruses resulted from cross-reaction. PMID:25631252

  7. Planning for the next influenza pandemic: using the science and art of logistics.

    PubMed

    Cupp, O Shawn; Predmore, Brad G

    2011-01-01

    The complexities and challenges for healthcare providers and their efforts to provide fundamental basic items to meet the logistical demands of an influenza pandemic are discussed in this article. The supply chain, planning, and alternatives for inevitable shortages are some of the considerations associated with this emergency mass critical care situation. The planning process and support for such events are discussed in detail with several recommendations obtained from the literature and the experience from recent mass casualty incidents (MCIs). The first step in this planning process is the development of specific triage requirements during an influenza pandemic. The second step is identification of logistical resources required during such a pandemic, which are then analyzed within the proposed logistics science and art model for planning purposes. Resources highlighted within the model include allocation and use of work force, bed space, intensive care unit assets, ventilators, personal protective equipment, and oxygen. The third step is using the model to discuss in detail possible workarounds, suitable substitutes, and resource allocation. An examination is also made of the ethics surrounding palliative care within the construction of an MCI and the factors that will inevitably determine rationing and prioritizing of these critical assets to palliative care patients. PMID:22010601

  8. The economy-wide impact of pandemic influenza on the UK: a computable general equilibrium modelling experiment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the potential economic impact of pandemic influenza, associated behavioural responses, school closures, and vaccination on the United Kingdom. Design A computable general equilibrium model of the UK economy was specified for various combinations of mortality and morbidity from pandemic influenza, vaccine efficacy, school closures, and prophylactic absenteeism using published data. Setting The 2004 UK economy (the most up to date available with suitable economic data). Main outcome measures The economic impact of various scenarios with different pandemic severity, vaccination, school closure, and prophylactic absenteeism specified in terms of gross domestic product, output from different economic sectors, and equivalent variation. Results The costs related to illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product (Ł8.4bn to Ł16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% (Ł55.5bn to Ł72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. School closure increases the economic impact, particularly for mild pandemics. If widespread behavioural change takes place and there is large scale prophylactic absence from work, the economic impact would be notably increased with few health benefits. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product (Ł2.2bn to Ł38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% (Ł5.0bn to Ł72.3bn); and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios. Conclusion Balancing school closure against “business as usual” and obtaining sufficient stocks of effective vaccine are more important factors in determining the economic impact of an influenza pandemic than is the disease itself. Prophylactic absence from work in response to fear of infection can add considerably to the economic impact. PMID:19926697

  9. An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p?=?0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p?=?0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p?=?0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

  10. Nurses’ Perspective on Approaches to Limit Flu-Like Symptoms During Interferon Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beavin, Jill; Brillante, Raquel T.; Costello, Kathleen; Hartley, Gail C.; Hartley, Kay; Namey, Marie; O'Leary, Shirley; Remington, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several interferon beta (IFN?) formulations are approved for first-line use as disease-modifying therapies to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Systemic post-injection reactions, often termed flu-like symptoms (FLS), occur in approximately half of all patients treated with IFN?s and can affect adherence to therapy. These symptoms, which include pyrexia, chills, malaise, myalgia, and headaches, usually resolve within 24 hours or persist intermittently following each injection. Because FLS, which usually occur early in the treatment course and diminish over time, are a primary cause of nonadherence to IFN? therapy, it is important to employ strategies that can attenuate these side effects. Methods: To identify interventions effective in limiting FLS, a panel of United States–based nurses with expertise in MS patient care was convened and a literature review completed. Results: Panel consensus was reached on specific interventions that can attenuate FLS. These prevention and mitigation strategies include dose titration, analgesia, and optimal injection timing, as well as other techniques that panel members have found useful in their clinical practice experience. Conclusions: These measures, in addition to effective patient education, will help to reduce the incidence of FLS secondary to IFN? therapy, improve patient medication adherence, and positively affect long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:24688355

  11. Ground penetrating radar surveys to locate 1918 Spanish flu victims in permafrost.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L; Heginbottom, J A; Annan, A P; Daniels, R S; Berdal, B P; Bergan, T; Duncan, K E; Lewin, P K; Oxford, J S; Roberts, N; Skehel, J J; Smith, C R

    2000-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" killed over 40 million people worldwide in 1918. Archival records helped us identify seven men who died of influenza in 1918 and were interred in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, 1,300 km from the North Pole. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used successfully, in a high-resolution field survey mode, to locate a large excavation with seven coffins, near the existing seven grave markers. The GPR indicated that the ground was disturbed to 2 m depth and was frozen below 1 m. Subsequent excavation showed that: a) the GPR located the position of the graves accurately, b) the coffins were buried less than 1 m deep, and c) that the frozen ground was 1.2 m deep where the coffins were located. The GPR assisted in planning the exhumation, safely and economically, under the high degree of containment required. Virologic and bacteriologic investigations on recovered tissues may give us an opportunity to isolate and identify the micro-organisms involved in the 1918 influenza and expand our knowledge on the pathogenesis of influenza. PMID:10641921

  12. Multitask learning of signaling and regulatory networks with application to studying human response to flu.

    PubMed

    Jain, Siddhartha; Gitter, Anthony; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2014-12-01

    Reconstructing regulatory and signaling response networks is one of the major goals of systems biology. While several successful methods have been suggested for this task, some integrating large and diverse datasets, these methods have so far been applied to reconstruct a single response network at a time, even when studying and modeling related conditions. To improve network reconstruction we developed MT-SDREM, a multi-task learning method which jointly models networks for several related conditions. In MT-SDREM, parameters are jointly constrained across the networks while still allowing for condition-specific pathways and regulation. We formulate the multi-task learning problem and discuss methods for optimizing the joint target function. We applied MT-SDREM to reconstruct dynamic human response networks for three flu strains: H1N1, H5N1 and H3N2. Our multi-task learning method was able to identify known and novel factors and genes, improving upon prior methods that model each condition independently. The MT-SDREM networks were also better at identifying proteins whose removal affects viral load indicating that joint learning can still lead to accurate, condition-specific, networks. Supporting website with MT-SDREM implementation: http://sb.cs.cmu.edu/mtsdrem. PMID:25522349

  13. Were people imitating others or exercising rational choice in on-line searches for 'swine flu'?

    E-print Network

    Bentley, R Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Two general patterns have been identified for the adoption and subsequent abandonment of ideas or products within a population. One is symmetric, so that concepts or products which are adopted rapidly then decline rapidly from their peak, and those which are slower to move to their peak decline more slowly. The other is asymmetric, where the decline from the peak is considerably slower than is the rise to the peak, and vice versa. We posit that these contrasting patterns arise from two fundamentally different modes of behaviour which are used by humans in making choices in different contexts. Namely, choice based on the imitation of the choices of others versus purposeful selection based upon the inherent attributes of the concept or product. We illustrate the proposition with the example of internet searches for the phrase 'swine flu' in a wide range of countries across the world. The methodology offers a general heuristic for distinguishing between these two general and contrasting modes of behavioural choi...

  14. Reducing demand for physician visits through public education: a look at the pilot cold-and-flu campaign in London, Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E M; Goel, V

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the Ontario Ministry of Health's pilot public-education campaign launched in London, Ont., on Jan. 15, 1994, to reduce the number of visits to physicians' offices because of cold and flu symptoms. DESIGN: Before-after comparison of claims to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan. OUTCOME MEASURES: Physician billings for visits because of cold and flu symptoms and total billings for all types of visits during the 2 months before and after the start of the campaign, and during the same two periods in the previous year, in London and in the rest of Ontario. RESULTS: By the time the campaign was started, much of the cold and flu season was already over for that winter. Still, the decrease in billings for visits because of cold and flu symptoms in the 2 months after the campaign was introduced was 6% greater in London than in the rest of Ontario. There was virtually no difference in total billings between London and the rest of the province during the same period. CONCLUSION: The modest relative reduction in physician billings for visits because of cold or flu symptoms in London following the introduction of the public-education campaign may have been due to the intervention as well as to other factors. PMID:8634961

  15. "With human health it's a global thing": Canadian perspectives on ethics in the global governance of an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alison K; Smith, Maxwell J; McDougall, Christopher W; Bensimon, Cécile; Perez, Daniel Felipe

    2015-03-01

    We live in an era where our health is linked to that of others across the globe, and nothing brings this home better than the specter of a pandemic. This paper explores the findings of town hall meetings associated with the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP), in which focus groups met to discuss issues related to the global governance of an influenza pandemic. Two competing discourses were found to be at work: the first was based upon an economic rationality and the second upon a humanitarian rationality. The implications for public support and the long-term sustainability of new global norms, networks, and regulations in global public health are discussed. PMID:25672615

  16. Improving Google Flu Trends Estimates for the United States through Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Leah J.; Xu, Biying; Yasui, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses Internet search queries in an effort to provide early warning of increases in influenza-like illness (ILI). In the United States, GFT estimates the percentage of physician visits related to ILI (%ILINet) reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, during the 2012–13 influenza season, GFT overestimated %ILINet by an appreciable amount and estimated the peak in incidence three weeks late. Using data from 2010–14, we investigated the relationship between GFT estimates (%GFT) and %ILINet. Based on the relationship between the relative change in %GFT and the relative change in %ILINet, we transformed %GFT estimates to better correspond with %ILINet values. In 2010–13, our transformed %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for 17 of the 29 weeks that %ILINet was above the seasonal baseline value determined by the CDC; in contrast, the original %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for only two of these 29 weeks. Relative to the %ILINet peak in 2012–13, the peak in our transformed %GFT estimates was 2% lower and one week later, whereas the peak in the original %GFT estimates was 74% higher and three weeks later. The same transformation improved %GFT estimates using the recalibrated 2013 GFT model in early 2013–14. Our transformed %GFT estimates can be calculated approximately one week before %ILINet values are reported by the CDC and the transformation equation was stable over the time period investigated (2010–13). We anticipate our results will facilitate future use of GFT. PMID:25551391

  17. Social capital and health-protective behavior intentions in an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Huang, Ya-Li; Tseng, Kuo-Chien; Yen, Chia-Hsin; Yang, Lin-hui

    2015-01-01

    Health-protective behaviors, such as receiving a vaccine, wearing a face mask, and washing hands frequently, can reduce the risk of contracting influenza. However, little is known about how social capital may influence health-protective behavior in the general population. This study examined whether each of the social capital dimensions (bonding, bridging, and linking) contributed to the intention to adopt any of the health-protective behaviors in an influenza pandemic. The data of this study were from the 2014 Taiwan Social Change Survey. A stratified, three-stage probability proportional-to-size sampling from across the nation, was conducted to select adults aged 20 years and older (N = 1,745). Bonding social capital was measured by the frequency of neighborly contact and support. Bridging social capital was measured based on association membership. Linking social capital was measured according to general government trust and trust in the government's capacity to counter an influenza pandemic. Binary logistic regressions were used to assess the multivariate associations between social capital and behavioral intention. The study results indicate that social capital may influence the response to influenza pandemic. Specifically, the intention to receive a vaccine and to wash hands more frequently were associated with the linking dimension and the bonding dimension of social capital, while the intention to wear a face mask was associated with all forms of social capital. The findings of this study suggest that government credibility and interpersonal networks may play a crucial role in health-protective behavior. This study provides new insights into how to improve the effectiveness of influenza prevention campaigns. PMID:25874625

  18. Four genomic islands that mark post-1995 pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Catherine C; Quirke, AnneMarie; Reen, F Jerry; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2006-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an aquatic, halophilic, Gram-negative bacterium, first discovered in 1950 in Japan during a food-poisoning outbreak. Infections resulting from consumption of V. parahaemolyticus have increased globally in the last 10 years leading to the bacterium's classification as a newly emerging pathogen. In 1996 the first appearance of a pandemic V. parahaemolyticus clone occurred, a new O3:K6 serotype strain that has now been identified worldwide as a major cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis. Results We examined the sequenced genome of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, an O3:K6 serotype strain isolated in Japan in 1996, by bioinformatic analyses to uncover genomic islands (GIs) that may play a role in the emergence and pathogenesis of pandemic strains. We identified 7 regions ranging in size from 10 kb to 81 kb that had the characteristics of GIs such as aberrant base composition compared to the core genome, presence of phage-like integrases, flanked by direct repeats and the absence of these regions from closely related species. Molecular analysis of worldwide clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus recovered over the last 33 years demonstrated that a 24 kb region named V. parahaemolyticus island-1 (VPaI-1) encompassing ORFs VP0380 to VP0403 is only present in new O3:K6 and related strains recovered after 1995. We investigated the presence of 3 additional regions, VPaI-4 (VP2131 to VP2144), VPaI-5 (VP2900 to VP2910) and VPaI-6 (VPA1254 to VPA1270) by PCR assays and Southern blot analyses among the same set of V. parahaemolyticus isolates. These 3 VPaI regions also gave similar distribution patterns amongst the 41 strains examined. Conclusion The 4 VPaI regions examined may represent DNA acquired by the pandemic group of V. parahaemolyticus isolates that increased their fitness either in the aquatic environment or in their ability to infect humans. PMID:16672049

  19. Hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies and protection against seasonal and pandemic influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Annette; Mai, Le Quynh; Thanh, Le Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Le Khanh Hang, Nguyen; Thai, Pham Quang; Thu Yen, Nguyen Thi; Minh Hoa, Le Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Duong, Tran Nhu; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Barr, Ian G.; Wertheim, Heiman; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Horby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies correlate with influenza vaccine protection but their association with protection induced by natural infection has received less attention and was studied here. Methods 940 people from 270 unvaccinated households participated in active ILI surveillance spanning 3 influenza seasons. At least 494 provided paired blood samples spanning each season. Influenza infection was confirmed by RT-PCR on nose/throat swabs or serum HI assay conversion. Results Pre-season homologous HI titer was associated with a significantly reduced risk of infection for H3N2 (OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.44–0.84) and B (0.65, 95%CI 0.54–0.80) strains, but not H1N1 strains, whether re-circulated (OR 0.90, 95%CI 0.71–1.15), new seasonal (OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.54–1.36) or pandemic H1N1-2009 (OR 0.77, 95%CI 0.40–1.49). The risk of seasonal and pandemic H1N1 decreased with increasing age (both p < 0.0001), and the risk of pandemic H1N1 decreased with prior seasonal H1N1 (OR 0.23, 95%CI 0.08–0.62) without inducing measurable A/California/04/2009-like titers. Conclusions While H1N1 immunity was apparent with increasing age and prior infection, the effect of pre-season HI titer was at best small, and weak for H1N1 compared to H3N2 and B. Antibodies targeting non-HI epitopes may have been more important mediators of infection-neutralizing immunity for H1N1 compared to other subtypes in this setting. PMID:25224643

  20. Direct association between pharyngeal viral secretion and host cytokine response in severe pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe disease caused by 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1virus is characterized by the presence of hypercytokinemia. The origin of the exacerbated cytokine response is unclear. As observed previously, uncontrolled influenza virus replication could strongly influence cytokine production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between host cytokine responses and viral levels in pandemic influenza critically ill patients. Methods Twenty three patients admitted to the ICU with primary viral pneumonia were included in this study. A quantitative PCR based method targeting the M1 influenza gene was developed to quantify pharyngeal viral load. In addition, by using a multiplex based assay, we systematically evaluated host cytokine responses to the viral infection at admission to the ICU. Correlation studies between cytokine levels and viral load were done by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Fifteen patients needed of intubation and ventilation, while eight did not need of mechanical ventilation during ICU hospitalization. Viral load in pharyngeal swabs was 300 fold higher in the group of patients with the worst respiratory condition at admission to the ICU. Pharyngeal viral load directly correlated with plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12p70, IFN-?, the chemotactic factors MIP-1?, GM-CSF, the angiogenic mediator VEGF and also of the immuno-modulatory cytokine IL-1ra (p < 0.05). Correlation studies demonstrated also the existence of a significant positive association between the levels of these mediators, evidencing that they are simultaneously regulated in response to the virus. Conclusions Severe respiratory disease caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza virus is characterized by the existence of a direct association between viral replication and host cytokine response, revealing a potential pathogenic link with the severe disease caused by other influenza subtypes such as H5N1. PMID:21880131

  1. Social Capital and Health-Protective Behavior Intentions in an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Huang, Ya-Li; Tseng, Kuo-Chien; Yen, Chia-Hsin; Yang, Lin-hui

    2015-01-01

    Health-protective behaviors, such as receiving a vaccine, wearing a face mask, and washing hands frequently, can reduce the risk of contracting influenza. However, little is known about how social capital may influence health-protective behavior in the general population. This study examined whether each of the social capital dimensions (bonding, bridging, and linking) contributed to the intention to adopt any of the health-protective behaviors in an influenza pandemic. The data of this study were from the 2014 Taiwan Social Change Survey. A stratified, three-stage probability proportional-to-size sampling from across the nation, was conducted to select adults aged 20 years and older (N = 1,745). Bonding social capital was measured by the frequency of neighborly contact and support. Bridging social capital was measured based on association membership. Linking social capital was measured according to general government trust and trust in the government’s capacity to counter an influenza pandemic. Binary logistic regressions were used to assess the multivariate associations between social capital and behavioral intention. The study results indicate that social capital may influence the response to influenza pandemic. Specifically, the intention to receive a vaccine and to wash hands more frequently were associated with the linking dimension and the bonding dimension of social capital, while the intention to wear a face mask was associated with all forms of social capital. The findings of this study suggest that government credibility and interpersonal networks may play a crucial role in health-protective behavior. This study provides new insights into how to improve the effectiveness of influenza prevention campaigns. PMID:25874625

  2. Adaptation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Ilyushina, Natalia A; Khalenkov, Alexey M; Seiler, Jon P; Forrest, Heather L; Bovin, Nicolai V; Marjuki, Henju; Barman, Subrata; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J

    2010-09-01

    The molecular mechanism by which pandemic 2009 influenza A viruses were able to sufficiently adapt to humans is largely unknown. Subsequent human infections with novel H1N1 influenza viruses prompted an investigation of the molecular determinants of the host range and pathogenicity of pandemic influenza viruses in mammals. To address this problem, we assessed the genetic basis for increased virulence of A/CA/04/09 (H1N1) and A/TN/1-560/09 (H1N1) isolates, which are not lethal for mice, in a new mammalian host by promoting their mouse adaptation. The resulting mouse lung-adapted variants showed significantly enhanced growth characteristics in eggs, extended extrapulmonary tissue tropism, and pathogenicity in mice. All mouse-adapted viruses except A/TN/1-560/09-MA2 grew faster and to higher titers in cells than the original strains. We found that 10 amino acid changes in the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex (PB2 E158G/A, PA L295P, NP D101G, and NP H289Y) and hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein (K119N, G155E, S183P, R221K, and D222G) controlled enhanced mouse virulence of pandemic isolates. HA mutations acquired during adaptation affected viral receptor specificity by enhancing binding to alpha2,3 together with decreasing binding to alpha2,6 sialyl receptors. PB2 E158G/A and PA L295P amino acid substitutions were responsible for the significant enhancement of transcription and replication activity of the mouse-adapted H1N1 variants. Taken together, our findings suggest that changes optimizing receptor specificity and interaction of viral polymerase components with host cellular factors are the major mechanisms that contribute to the optimal competitive advantage of pandemic influenza viruses in mice. These modulators of virulence, therefore, may have been the driving components of early evolution, which paved the way for novel 2009 viruses in mammals. PMID:20592084

  3. Synergistic Mortality Caused by Plasmodium falciparum During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2015-05-01

    At the end of World War I, British medical officers noted that soldiers infected with malaria were more likely to die during the 1918 influenza pandemic than those without malaria. This synergistic mortality appeared to be specific to Plasmodium falciparum and has not been generally noted since 1920. A possible explanation is that a malaria-induced procoagulant state enhanced the activation of influenza virus to increase inflammation and subsequent severe clinical outcomes. Falciparum proteins bind and likely inhibit antithrombin 3 and other factors. Pathogens interact in ways that may inform pathophysiology studies of remote epidemics. PMID:25802427

  4. Impact of School Cycles and Environmental Forcing on the Timing of Pandemic Influenza Activity in Mexican States, May-December 2009

    PubMed Central

    Tamerius, James; Viboud, Cécile; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chowell, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    While a relationship between environmental forcing and influenza transmission has been established in inter-pandemic seasons, the drivers of pandemic influenza remain debated. In particular, school effects may predominate in pandemic seasons marked by an atypical concentration of cases among children. For the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, Mexico is a particularly interesting case study due to its broad geographic extent encompassing temperate and tropical regions, well-documented regional variation in the occurrence of pandemic outbreaks, and coincidence of several school breaks during the pandemic period. Here we fit a series of transmission models to daily laboratory-confirmed influenza data in 32 Mexican states using MCMC approaches, considering a meta-population framework or the absence of spatial coupling between states. We use these models to explore the effect of environmental, school–related and travel factors on the generation of spatially-heterogeneous pandemic waves. We find that the spatial structure of the pandemic is best understood by the interplay between regional differences in specific humidity (explaining the occurrence of pandemic activity towards the end of the school term in late May-June 2009 in more humid southeastern states), school vacations (preventing influenza transmission during July-August in all states), and regional differences in residual susceptibility (resulting in large outbreaks in early fall 2009 in central and northern Mexico that had yet to experience fully-developed outbreaks). Our results are in line with the concept that very high levels of specific humidity, as present during summer in southeastern Mexico, favor influenza transmission, and that school cycles are a strong determinant of pandemic wave timing. PMID:26291446

  5. Impact of School Cycles and Environmental Forcing on the Timing of Pandemic Influenza Activity in Mexican States, May-December 2009.

    PubMed

    Tamerius, James; Viboud, Cécile; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chowell, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    While a relationship between environmental forcing and influenza transmission has been established in inter-pandemic seasons, the drivers of pandemic influenza remain debated. In particular, school effects may predominate in pandemic seasons marked by an atypical concentration of cases among children. For the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, Mexico is a particularly interesting case study due to its broad geographic extent encompassing temperate and tropical regions, well-documented regional variation in the occurrence of pandemic outbreaks, and coincidence of several school breaks during the pandemic period. Here we fit a series of transmission models to daily laboratory-confirmed influenza data in 32 Mexican states using MCMC approaches, considering a meta-population framework or the absence of spatial coupling between states. We use these models to explore the effect of environmental, school-related and travel factors on the generation of spatially-heterogeneous pandemic waves. We find that the spatial structure of the pandemic is best understood by the interplay between regional differences in specific humidity (explaining the occurrence of pandemic activity towards the end of the school term in late May-June 2009 in more humid southeastern states), school vacations (preventing influenza transmission during July-August in all states), and regional differences in residual susceptibility (resulting in large outbreaks in early fall 2009 in central and northern Mexico that had yet to experience fully-developed outbreaks). Our results are in line with the concept that very high levels of specific humidity, as present during summer in southeastern Mexico, favor influenza transmission, and that school cycles are a strong determinant of pandemic wave timing. PMID:26291446

  6. Pandemics: waves of disease, waves of hate from the Plague of Athens to A.I.D.S.*

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly surveys the history of pandemics in the West, contesting long-held assumptions that epidemics sparked hatred and blame of the ‘Other’, and that it was worse when diseases were mysterious as to their causes and cures. The article finds that blame and hate were rarely connected with pandemics in history. In antiquity, epidemics more often brought societies together rather than dividing them as continued to happen with some diseases such as influenza in modernity. On the other hand, some diseases such as cholera were more regularly blamed than others and triggered violence even after their agents and mechanisms of transmission had become well known. PMID:25960572

  7. Pre-clinical development of cell culture (Vero)-derived H5N1 pandemic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Howard, M Keith; Kistner, Otfried; Barrett, P Noel

    2008-05-01

    The rapid spread of avian influenza (H5N1) and its transmission to humans has raised the possibility of an imminent pandemic and concerns over the ability of standard influenza vaccine production methods to supply sufficient amounts of an effective vaccine. We report here on a robust and flexible strategy which uses wild-type virus grown in a continuous cell culture (Vero) system to produce an inactivated whole virus vaccine. Candidate vaccines based on clade 1 and clade 2 influenza H5N1 strains, produced at a variety of manufacturing scales, were demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in animal models without the need for adjuvant. The vaccines induce cross-neutralising antibodies and are protective in a mouse challenge model not only against the homologous virus but against other H5N1 strains, including those from other clades. These data indicate that cell culture-grown, whole virus vaccines, based on the wild-type virus, allow the rapid high-yield production of a candidate pandemic vaccine. PMID:18953724

  8. The narcolepsy-pandemic influenza story: can the truth ever be unraveled?

    PubMed

    Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2015-06-01

    A safety signal around Pandemrix, an AS03 adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 vaccine potentially causing narcolepsy in children and adolescents became public in August 2010, long after cessation of the influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 campaigns in Europe. The signal originated from Finland and Sweden, two countries with school based pandemic vaccination campaigns, with high vaccine coverage, and vaccinations being provided at the peak of the circulating wild virus. Since the announcement awareness grew in Europe, with extensive public media dissemination and regulatory actions. This resulted in a steep increase in the spontaneous reports of exposed cases, a decrease in diagnostic lag times of this rare, underdiagnosed disease and finally victim compensation. The signaling countries conducted rapid risk assessment studies to quantify the signal to the best of their abilities, in the midst of the public awareness, most of which could not distinguish between a vaccine and an awareness effect. Due to the strong but variable associations from the epidemiological studies, the search for biological mechanisms started. Currently it is not yet understood how Pandemrix might cause narcolepsy, and whether it would be specific to Pandemrix. The paper describes the current evidence and puts forward the questions that remain to be answered, which are relevant for future pandemic preparedness when adjuvants may be used for dose sparing. PMID:26022571

  9. One versus two doses: What is the best use of vaccine in an influenza pandemic?

    PubMed

    Matrajt, Laura; Britton, Tom; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2015-12-01

    Avian influenza A (H7N9), emerged in China in April 2013, sparking fears of a new, highly pathogenic, influenza pandemic. In addition, avian influenza A (H5N1) continues to circulate and remains a threat. Currently, influenza H7N9 vaccines are being tested to be stockpiled along with H5N1 vaccines. These vaccines require two doses, 21 days apart, for maximal protection. We developed a mathematical model to evaluate two possible strategies for allocating limited vaccine supplies: a one-dose strategy, where a larger number of people are vaccinated with a single dose, or a two-dose strategy, where half as many people are vaccinated with two doses. We prove that there is a threshold in the level of protection obtained after the first dose, below which vaccinating with two doses results in a lower illness attack rate than with the one-dose strategy; but above the threshold, the one-dose strategy would be better. For reactive vaccination, we show that the optimal use of vaccine depends on several parameters, with the most important one being the level of protection obtained after the first dose. We describe how these vaccine dosing strategies can be integrated into effective pandemic control plans. PMID:26616038

  10. The Two-Phase Emergence of Non Pandemic HIV-1 Group O in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Feyertag, Felix; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Mauclčre, Philippe; Lachenal, Guillaume; Damond, Florence; De Oliveira, Fabienne; Lemée, Véronique; Simon, François; Robertson, David L; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the pandemic form of HIV-1 (group M), group O viruses are endemic in west central Africa, especially in Cameroon. However, little is known about group O’s genetic evolution, and why this highly divergent lineage has not become pandemic. Using a unique and large set of group O sequences from samples collected from 1987 to 2012, we find that this lineage has evolved in successive slow and fast phases of diversification, with a most recent common ancestor estimated to have existed around 1930 (1914–1944). The most rapid periods of diversification occurred in the 1950s and in the 1980s, and could be linked to favourable epidemiological contexts in Cameroon. Group O genetic diversity reflects this two-phase evolution, with two distinct populations potentially having different viral properties. The currently predominant viral population emerged in the 1980s, from an ancient population which had first developed in the 1950s, and is characterized by higher growth and evolutionary rates, and the natural presence of the Y181C resistance mutation, thought to confer a phenotypic advantage. Our findings show that although this evolutionary pattern is specific to HIV-1 group O, it paralleled the early spread of HIV-1 group M in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both viral lineages are likely to have benefited from similar epidemiological contexts. The relative role of virological and social factors in the distinct epidemic histories of HIV-1 group O and M needs to be reassessed. PMID:26241860

  11. Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Coronavirus Pandemic Among Public in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M; Al Helih, Eyad M; Moussa, Mahaman; Boshaiqah, Ahmad E; Saleh Alajilan, Abdulrahman; Vinluan, Jason M; Almutairi, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    New cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were reported in Gulf countries in 2014, and to date, it has reportedly infected 837 people and killed 291 globally. Awareness of an individual's knowledge and being able to predict his or her behavior is crucial when evaluating clinical preparedness for pandemics with a highly pathogenic virus. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to MERS-CoV among the public in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of 1147 adult subjects recruited from various shopping malls in Riyadh was conducted. All the subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that tested their knowledge, attitudes, and use of precautionary measures in relation to the MERS-CoV pandemic. The majority of the participants showed high levels of concern and had utilized precautionary measures. After adjusting for other variables, gender was the only significant predictor of the level of concern (P < .001), while knowledge was the significant predictor of both the level of concern and precaution (P < .001). High concern translated into a higher compliance with precautionary recommendations. Frequent communication between health care providers and the public is recommended to help dispel myths about the disease and to empower the public with the information needed to help the Saudi government in containing the disease outbreak. PMID:26291193

  12. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  13. Climate, vegetation, introduced hosts and trade shape a global wildlife pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Rohr, Jason R.; Li, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Global factors, such as climate change, international trade and introductions of exotic species are often elicited as contributors to the unprecedented rate of disease emergence, but few studies have partitioned these factors for global pandemics. Although contemporary correlative species distribution models (SDMs) can be useful for predicting the spatial patterns of emerging diseases, they focus mainly on the fundamental niche (FN) predictors (i.e. abiotic climate and habitat factors), neglecting dispersal and propagule pressure predictors (PP, number of non-native individuals released into a region). Using a validated, predictive and global SDM, we show that both FN and PP accounted for significant, unique variation to the distribution of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen implicated in the declines and extinctions of over 200 amphibian species worldwide. Bd was associated positively with vegetation, total trade and introduced amphibian hosts, nonlinearly with annual temperature range and non-significantly with amphibian leg trade or amphibian species richness. These findings provide a rare example where both FN and PP factors are predictive of a global pandemic. Our model should help guide management of this deadly pathogen and the development of other globally predictive models for species invasions and pathogen emergence influenced by FN and PP factors. PMID:23256195

  14. Influenza epidemiology in adults admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Holmes, Mark; Senenayake, Sanjaya; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hewagama, Saliya; Korman, Tony; Irving, Louis; Brown, Simon; Waterer, Grant; Hunter, Cameron; Friedman, N Deborah; Wark, Peter; Simpson, Graham; Upman, John; Bowler, Simon; Macartney, Kristine; Blyth, Christopher; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all states and territories in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2014 influenza season. In this observational study, cases were defined as patients admitted to one of the sentinel hospitals with an acute respiratory illness with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. During the period 3 April to 31 October 2014 (the 2014 influenza season), 1,692 adult patients (>16 years) were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 15 of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals (excluding 2 paediatric hospitals). Of these, 47% were over 65 years of age, 10% were Indigenous Australians, 3.3% were pregnant and 85% had chronic co-morbidities. The majority of cases were due to influenza A. Influenza B was detected in 7% of patients. There were a large number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2014. These are estimated to represent a national annual burden of around 15,000 admissions and almost 100,000 bed-days nationally. Commun Dis Intell 2015;39(3):E355-E360. PMID:26620349

  15. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Methods Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. Results When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting patterns. Conclusions This study proved that tracking technology an effective technique for obtaining data for micro-scale influenza transmission research. The findings revealed micro-scale transmission hotspots on a university campus and provided insights for local control and prevention strategies. PMID:23388060

  16. Experiences of General Practitioners and Practice Assistants during the Influenza A(H1N1) Pandemic in the Netherlands: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Christel E.; Hooiveld, Mariette; Jentink, Anne; Isken, Leslie D.; Timen, Aura; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Since few pandemics have occurred since the Spanish influenza pandemic, we should learn from every (mild) pandemic that occurs. The objective of this study was to report on general practitioners’ and practice assistants’ acceptance of the chosen national policy, and experiences in the Netherlands during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Methods Data on experience and acceptance of the chosen national policy were obtained by structured questionnaires for general practitioners (n = 372) and practice assistants (n = 503) in April 2010. Results The primary policy chosen for general practice was not always accepted and complied with by general practitioners, although the communication (of changes) and collaboration with involved organisations were rated as positive. In particular, the advised personal protective measures were difficult to implement in daily work and thus not executed by 44% of general practitioners. Half of the general practitioners were not satisfied with the patient information provided by the government. The influenza A(H1N1) pandemic highly impacted on general practitioners’ and practice assistants’ workloads, which was not always deemed to be adequately compensated. Discussion Involvement of general practitioners in future infectious disease outbreaks is essential. This study addresses issues in the pandemic policy which might be critical in a more severe pandemic. PMID:26313147

  17. Novel route of exposure through reproductive tract insemination infects turkeys with pandemic-H1N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the known susceptibility of turkeys to type A influenza viruses and the history of infection with triple reassortant viruses, when the pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) emerged, the possibility of turkeys becoming infected with the novel virus was investigated. Several studies showe...

  18. Analysis of the contrasting pathogenicities induced by the D222G mutation in 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza A viruses

    E-print Network

    Shang, Cheng; Whittleston, Chris S.; Sutherland-Cash, Kyle H.; Wales, David J.

    2015-03-24

    In 2009, the D222G mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus was found to correlate with fatal and severe human infections. Previous static structural analysis suggested that, unlike the H1N1 viruses...

  19. Antigenically intact hemagglutinin in circulating avian and swine influenza viruses and potential for H3N2 pandemic

    E-print Network

    Tharakaraman, Kannan

    The 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza, though antigenically novel to the population at the time, was antigenically similar to the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza, and consequently was considered to be “archived” in the swine ...

  20. Development of a new candidate H5N1 avian influenza virus for pre-pandemic vaccination production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND. Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses currently circulating in birds have caused hundreds of human infections, and pose a significant pandemic threat. Vaccines are a major component of the public health sector preparedness for this likely event. The rapid evolution of H5N1 vi...