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1

Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.|

Dittbenner, Richard

2009-01-01

2

Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

3

Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

Stover, Del

2006-01-01

4

Public Support for Government Actions During a Flu Pandemic: Lessons Learned From a Statewide Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better inform public health officials during a flu pandemic, this study analyzes a representative statewide telephone survey among 1,602 adults to examine knowledge and perceptions about a flu pandemic, trust in government, and support for government actions in a flu pandemic. The findings show citizens do not understand what avian\\/bird flu is and how it evolves into a pandemic.

Hye-Jin Paek; Karen Hilyard; Vicki S. Freimuth; J. Kevin Barge; Michele Mindlin

2008-01-01

5

Bird flu: if or when? Planning for the next pandemic  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza or “bird flu” is causing increasing concern across the world as experts prepare for the possible occurrence of the next human influenza pandemic. Only influenza A has ever been shown to have the capacity to cause pandemics. Currently A/H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, is of particular concern. Outbreaks of this disease in birds, especially domestic poultry, have been detected across Southeast Asia at regular intervals since 2003, and have now affected parts of Africa and Europe. Many unaffected countries across the world are preparing for the possible arrival of HPAI A/H5N1 in wild birds and poultry within their territories. All such countries need to prepare for the rare possibility of a small number of human cases of HPAI A/H5N1, imported through foreign travel. Although it is by no means certain that HPAI A/H5N1 will be the source of the next pandemic, many countries are also preparing for the inevitable occurrence of human pandemic influenza.

Sellwood, Chloe; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Salimee, Sultan

2007-01-01

6

Pandemic flu vaccine: are we doing enough?  

PubMed

Influenza experts have been trying for a long time to convince other scientists, the public health community, and the general population that preparations for a pandemic should be a priority. But it was not until the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian strain emerged, causing a great epizootic and infecting and killing people exposed to infected birds, that research on this topic exploded. Below I discuss some truly phenomenal advances that have emerged from this newfound interest in pandemic influenza, to show that, yes, we are doing enough. PMID:17998908

Campbell, J D

2007-12-01

7

Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The devastating “Spanish flu” of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic\\u000a in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before\\u000a the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing ’non-homogeneous’ substitution models\\u000a that consider that substitution patterns may

Richard Goldstein; Mario dos Reis; Asif U. Tamuri; Alan Hay

2010-01-01

8

Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

St. Gerard, Vanessa

2007-01-01

9

Avian Flu Pandemic: Potential Impact of Trade Disruptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns about potential disruptions in U.S. trade flows due to a global health or security crisis are not new. The possibility of an avian flu pandemic with consequences for global trade is a concern that has received attention recently, although some ex...

D. Langton

2008-01-01

10

Pandemism of swine flu and its prospective drug therapy.  

PubMed

Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by influenza A H1N1 virus. The current pandemic of swine flu is most probably due to a mutation-more specifically, a re-assortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Antigenic variation of influenza viruses while circulating in the population is an important factor leading to difficulties in controlling influenza by vaccination. Due to the global effect of swine flu and its effect on humans, extensive investigations are being undertaken. In this context, Tamiflu is the only available drug used in the prophylaxis of this disease and is made from the compound shikimic acid. Due to the sudden increase in the demand of shikimic acid, its price has increased greatly. Thus, it is necessary to find an alternative approach for the treatment of swine flu. This review presents the overall information of swine flu, beginning from its emergence to the prevention and treatment of the disease, with a major emphasis on the alternative approach (bacterial fermentation process) for the treatment of swine flu. The alternative approach for the treatment of swine flu includes the production of shikimic acid from a fermentation process and it can be produced in large quantities without any time limitations. PMID:22895890

Saxena, R K; Tripathi, P; Rawat, G

2012-08-16

11

Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

12

Swine flu pandemic: a global concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently WHO has again declared Influenza pandemic due to the outbreak of H1N1 which has infected over 254,206 people in 80 countries, with 625 deaths. Our lab has started working on the proteome analysis of H1N1, 2009 out break strains.

Asad U Khan

2010-01-01

13

Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

Guterman, Lila

2005-01-01

14

Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this: The Flu Types—Seasonal, Pandemic, Avian (Bird), Swine Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... to create a world-wide epidemic (pandemic). Avian (Bird) Flu In nature, the flu virus also occurs ...

15

Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools…

Honawar, Vaishali

2005-01-01

16

Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions  

PubMed Central

Background Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. Methods and Findings A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT) to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. Conclusions International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while their costs are minimal, dismissal of travel restrictions as an aid in dealing with a global pandemic seems premature.

Epstein, Joshua M.; Goedecke, D. Michael; Yu, Feng; Morris, Robert J.; Wagener, Diane K.; Bobashev, Georgiy V.

2007-01-01

17

Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The first cases of influenza A\\/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings

Shona Hilton; Emily Smith

2010-01-01

18

Understanding Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems ... make sure you understand all the talk about bird (avian) flu and pandemics. The flu season in ...

19

Bird Flu, the Hanging Pandemic Threat for Human - It's Risk Assessment and Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird flu, synonym of avian influenza (AI) caused by influenza A virus, become concern across the world for the possible incidence of the next human influenza pandemic. The latent danger of AI pandemic remains very real, though, the precise timing of occurrence and severity is uncertain. Each avian influenza type A (AIA) contains one of the 16 subtypes of haemagglutinin

M Anwar Hossain; M Intakhar Ahmed; M Manjurul Karim

2008-01-01

20

Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men) to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

2010-01-01

21

Psychological Predictors of Anxiety in Response to the H1N1 (Swine Flu) Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic illnesses, such as the H1N1 influenza (swine flu) are often highly publicized in the mass media and can be associated\\u000a with high levels of anxiety and compensatory behavior (e.g., using hand sanitizers). The present research sought to investigate\\u000a the psychological processes associated with swine-flu related anxiety during the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009–2010. Participants\\u000a were 315 college students who

Michael G. Wheaton; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Noah C. Berman; Laura E. Fabricant; Bunmi O. Olatunji

22

Use of Indigenous Bubble CPAP during Swine Flu Pandemic in Pune, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the effectiveness of an indigenously assembled Nasal Bubble CPAP (NB-CPAP) in children during present swine flu\\u000a pandemic presenting with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure; in improving gas exchange and vital signs; and assess method\\u000a safety.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty Six children with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure admitted to swine flu ICU during the present H1NI pandemic were\\u000a included (18 confirmed H1N1 positive

Aarti Kinikar; Rajesh Kulkarni; Chhaya Valvi; Nikhil Gupte

23

Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy.  

PubMed

Flu pandemics (worldwide epidemics) have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals, and have been associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and economic cost. In response to the emerging potential for a new pandemic to occur, national and international preparedness plans are being drawn up specifying the use of antivirals and vaccines. A number of challenges to pandemic vaccine development, large-scale production and the timing of distribution have also been highlighted. This article reviews the rationale and consequential policy for aligned public- and private sector planning in the present inter-pandemic period despite the prevalent risks and uncertainties. We propose a model for product development of pandemic flu vaccine based on public-private partnership, including push and pull incentive mechanisms for stimulating work in this therapeutic area. In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection. PMID:16271423

Daems, Rudi; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

2005-10-18

24

Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation. Updated February 12, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Division C of P.L. 109-148 (2005), 42 U.S.C. 247d-6d, 247d-6e, also known as the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act (PREP Act), limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures. Specifically, upon a declar...

E. C. Liu

2010-01-01

25

Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the hypothesis that social media such as Twitter encodes the belief of a large number of people about some concrete statement about the world. Here, these beliefs are aggregated using a Prediction Market specically concerning the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009. Using a regression framework, we are able to show that simple features extracted from

Joshua Ritterman; Miles Osborne; Ewan Klein

26

Bird flu pandemic: history warns of economic pain, though some might gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

If such a pandemic were to be anything like the Spanish Flu of the early 20th century, expect not only tens of millions of deaths worldwide but also a blow to the world economy in the hundreds of billions of dollars.

Thomas A. Garrett

2007-01-01

27

Twitter Informatics: Tracking and Understanding Public Reaction during the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention has been focused on Twitter because it serves as a central hub for the publishing, dissemination, and discovery of online media. This is true for both traditional news outlets and user generated content, both of which can vary widely in their journalistic and scientific quality. The recent Swine Flu pandemic of 2009 highlighted this aspect perfectly; global events

Martin Szomszor; Patty Kostkova; Connie St Louis

2011-01-01

28

Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

2006-01-01

29

Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.  

PubMed

This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. PMID:21470893

Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

2011-03-16

30

SWINE FLU - Are We on The Verge of a Pandemic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine flu is a respiratory disease, caused by influenza type A which infects pigs. There are many types, and the infection is constantly changing. Until now it has normally not infected humans, but the latest form clearly does, and can be spread from person to person - probably through coughing and sneezing. The World Health Organization has confirmed that at

Sandeep Rai; Anirban Dasgupta; Shivkumar Narwade

2009-01-01

31

From the Cover: Lessons from the past: Familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21-50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter

Magnús Gottfredsson; Bjarni V. Halldórsson; Stefán Jónsson; Már Kristjánsson; Kristleifur Kristjánsson; Karl G. Kristinsson; Arthur Löve; Thorsteinn Blöndal; Cécile Viboud; Sverrir Thorvaldsson; Agnar Helgason; Jeffrey R. Gulcher; Kári Stefánsson; Ingileif Jónsdóttir

2008-01-01

32

Children's fear reactions to the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic: The role of threat information as provided by parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of threat information as provided by the parents to the development of children's fear within the context of the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic. Normal school children aged 7–12 years (N=223) and their parents completed questionnaires to measure fear of the Swine Flu and general fearfulness for medical affairs. Children

Danielle Remmerswaal; Peter Muris

2011-01-01

33

Pandemic H1N1 2009 (swine flu) and pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

H1N1 pandemic influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus. It is widely known as swine flu. Most people affected by the virus, including pregnant women, suffer a mild viral illness, and make a full recovery. The median duration of illness is around seven days. This influenza typically affects the younger age group i.e. from the ages of

Boon H. Lim; Tahir A. Mahmood

2010-01-01

34

Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front  

PubMed Central

If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

Lim, Meng-Kin

2006-01-01

35

Avian Flu Pandemic – Flight of the Healthcare Worker?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: One of the ethical issues identified in response to a possible pandemic is healthcare workers’ duty to provide care during a communicable disease outbreak. Healthcare employees may be subject to a variety of work obligations under such conditions. Questions of duty to treat remain controversial, and debate continues as to the ethical articulation of a duty to treat. This

Robert B. Shabanowitz; Judith E. Reardon

2009-01-01

36

Crisis communication in the event of a flu pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we talk about planning we cannot avoid discussing information, prevention and reaction, three notions that underlie communication in times of emergency. From a management point of view, emergency information in the event of an influenza pandemic comes under two headings: preventive information and reactive information. An example of preventive information provided by GEIG has aimed to sensitize public opinion

Pierre Saliou

1994-01-01

37

Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An

Lynn B Myers; Robin Goodwin

2011-01-01

38

Tracking the flu pandemic by monitoring the Social Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking the spread of an epidemic disease like seasonal or pandemic influenza is an important task that can reduce its impact and help authorities plan their response. In particular, early detection and geolocation of an outbreak are important aspects of this monitoring activity. Various methods are routinely employed for this monitoring, such as counting the consultation rates of general practitioners.

Vasileios Lampos; Nello Cristianini

2010-01-01

39

Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator  

PubMed Central

Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and illustrative information on health care resource capacities during future pandemics. The tool can inform both preparedness plans and simulation exercises and can help increase the general understanding of dynamics in resource capacities during a pandemic. The combination of a mathematical model with multiple resources and the linkage to GIS for creating maps makes the tool unique compared to other available software.

2012-01-01

40

PREPARING FOR THE FLU—TIMES TWO Officials Announce Distribution Plans for Seasonal and H1N1 Flu Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHAT: County health officials and local medical providers will participate in a Flu Kick Off event to encourage the public to prepare for seasonal and H1N1 flu, announce plans for distribution of seasonal and H1N1 flu vaccines, and offer tips on how people can protect themselves against both types of influenza. At the Flu Kick Off event, seasonal flu vaccine

B. Zwass; P. Hitchcock; Mark Sawyer

41

Crisis communication in the event of a flu pandemic.  

PubMed

When we talk about planning we cannot avoid discussing information, prevention and reaction, three notions that underlie communication in times of emergency. From a management point of view, emergency information in the event of an influenza pandemic comes under two headings: preventive information and reactive information. An example of preventive information provided by GEIG has aimed to sensitize public opinion about the phenomenon of influenza, correcting various preconceived ideas about the illness and reinforcing faith in the influenza vaccine. The strategy adopted by GEIG is founded on a few simple rules: (1) One message/one voice, GEIG unites its areas of competence by relying on a Scientific Council that guarantees the legitimacy of its influenza information, (2) the collection and coordination of information, (3) the identification and prioritisation of target groups, (4) an understanding of the media based on working relationships, making GEIG a reference when it comes to opinion, (5) the conception of information packs adapted to different categories of the public (press packs, documents for health professionals, leaflets for the general public, etc.), and (6) side-by-side with its role as broadcaster, the GEIG has set up a mechanism for listening and for evaluation (public opinion surveys, special enquiries, etc.). These are reliable monitoring tools allowing constant updating of our information policy. Emergency strategy: reactive information. An influenza pandemic is a special kind of crisis, since it is a crisis of collective responsibility, requiring a rapid deployment of adapted communication techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843373

Saliou, P

1994-08-01

42

Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly ... and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those ...

43

Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud  

PubMed Central

The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations.

Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

2011-01-01

44

Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1).  

PubMed

Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918-1919 pandemic strain (mean R0 approximately 2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19545404

Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

2009-06-22

45

Pandemic Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... as schools, may serve as medical facilities. Disrupted Economy and Society Travel bans, event cancellations, and school ... Potential for severe impact on domestic and world economy Manageable impact on domestic and world economy A ...

46

Seasonal Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Settings When Caring for Patients with H7N9 Interim Risk Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations for Working With Influenza ... for Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Preparedness Tools Influenza Risk Assessment Tool File Formats Help: How do I view ...

47

Canadian national surveys on pandemic influenza preparations: pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic findings  

PubMed Central

Background Prior to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic, public health authorities in Canada and elsewhere prepared for the future outbreak, partly guided by an ethical framework developed within the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP). We developed a telephone-based survey based on that framework, which was delivered across Canada in late 2008. In June, 2009, the WHO declared pandemic Phase 6 status and from the subsequent October (2009) until May 2010, the CanPREP team fielded a second (revised) survey, collecting another 1,000 opinions from Canadians during a period of pre-pandemic anticipation and peri-pandemic experience. Methods Surveys were administered by telephone with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification approximating provincial percentages of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes, and to identify divergences (between the pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic surveys). Results N = 1,029 interviews were completed from 1,986 households, yielding a gross response rate of 52% (AAPOR Standard Definition 3). Over 90% of subjects indicated the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% indicating that saving lives solely in Canada was the highest priority and 50% indicating saving lives globally was the highest priority. About 90% of respondents supported the obligation of health care workers to report to work and face influenza pandemic risks excepting those with serious health conditions which that increased risks. Strong majorities favoured stocking adequate protective antiviral dosages for all Canadians (92%) and, if effective, influenza vaccinations (95%). Over 70% agreed Canada should provide international assistance to poorer countries for pandemic preparation, even if resources for Canadians were reduced. Conclusions Results suggest Canadians trust public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis is maintained on reciprocity and respect for individual rights. Canadians also support international obligations to help poorer countries and associated efforts to save lives outside the country, even if intra-national efforts are reduced.

2013-01-01

48

The Bird Flu: A New Emerging Pandemic Threat And Its Pharmacological Intervention  

PubMed Central

Bird flu is an infection caused by avian influenza viruses, which are of different types A, B and C. Type A avian influenza viruses are the most frequently associated with avian influenza epidemics and pandemics. There are 16 hemagglutinin (H1 to H16) and 9 neuraminidase types (N1 to N9) identified till date. A peculiar characteristic of influenza A viruses is their propensity for genetic change by two main processes: antigenic drift (small, gradual changes) and antigenic shift (abrupt, major change producing a novel influenza A virus subtype). There are various modes of transmission of human influenza including inhalation, direct or indirect (fomite) contact etc., can have manifestations ranging from mild to severe or fatal disease, depend on the viral subtype causing the disease. Avian influenza A (H5N1) results in high death rate amongst infants and young children. The first outbreak of human infection by avian influenza viruses (H5N1) was observed in 1997 in Hong Kong. Since then a large number of outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the world. In fact, the spread of avian influenza H5N1 in various species including humans has lead to a current pandemic threat. Human avian influenza infections in persons at high risk of exposure can be prevented by adopting a series of protective measures, anti-viral vaccination and health monitoring. Drugs currently available for the treatment or prophylaxis of influenza infections include the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) and the newer class of neuraminidase inhibitors (zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir). However, vaccines are considered the first line of defense for reducing the excess morbidity and mortality that invariably accompany pandemics and a number of clinical trials are under way to test them.

Mittal, Niti; Medhi, Bikash

2007-01-01

49

Reflections on the UK's approach to the 2009 swine flu pandemic: Conflicts between national government and the local management of the public health response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first cases of swine flu in the UK were detected on 27th April 2009. Two weeks later Birmingham became a “hotspot” for the HIN1 pandemic in England. This paper describes the experiences of local public health agencies during the pandemic and the problems encountered when trying to work within a hierarchical and hermetic system of national policy making. We

Jacky Chambers; Kezia Barker; Andrew Rouse

50

Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... Settings When Caring for Patients with H7N9 Interim Risk Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations for Working With Influenza ... for Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Preparedness Tools Influenza Risk Assessment Tool File Formats Help: How do I view ...

51

Flu and People with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Settings When Caring for Patients with H7N9 Interim Risk Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations for Working With Influenza ... for Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Preparedness Tools Influenza Risk Assessment Tool File Formats Help: How do I view ...

52

Preparing for avian influenza: lessons from the "swine flu affair".  

PubMed

As a low-likelihood, high-consequence event, the possibility of an influenza pandemic poses a difficult challenge to policymakers. Drawing from the ill-fated swine influenza immunization program of 1976, this article outlines 7 lessons that apply to preparations for avian influenza: (1) beware of overconfidence in models drawn from meager evidence, (2) invest in a balanced portfolio of research and contemporary preparedness, (3) clarify operational responsibilities in the federal government, (4) refrain from overstatement of objectives and misrepresentation of risk, (5) strengthen local capacity for implementation, (6) communicate strategically, and (7) lay the basis for program review. PMID:18269322

Fineberg, Harvey V

2008-02-15

53

Bench-to-bedside review: Vaccine protection strategies during pandemic flu outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to

Joel V Chua; Wilbur H Chen

2010-01-01

54

La Gloria, Mexico: the possible origins and response of a worldwide H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009.  

PubMed

This article traces the spread and route of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 from its possible origin in La Gloria to Mexico City. A lack of health control measures or nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in La Gloria accounts for the unprecedented high basic reproductive number (R0) in that town and a higher incidence of H1N1 flu in Mexico City. We analyzed data collected from Mexican news articles, the Healthmaps dataset, the Google search engine, and telephone interviews with Mexican community physicians and residents. Our article uses a simple Susceptible Infected and Recovered model based on the data collected, to show the relationship between the disease curve and the implementation of NPI use. As a result of this study, we conclude that, with strict government measures to control the disease over an extended period of time, it is possible that many hundreds or even thousands of lives might be saved in the future. PMID:23716374

Hashmi, Sahar

2013-01-01

55

Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... Settings When Caring for Patients with H7N9 Interim Risk Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations for Working With Influenza ... for Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Preparedness Tools Influenza Risk Assessment Tool File Formats Help: How do I view ...

56

Reassessing google flu trends data for detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza: a comparative epidemiological study at three geographic scales.  

PubMed

The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data and computational methods for continued model-fitting and ongoing evaluation and improvement. PMID:24146603

Olson, Donald R; Konty, Kevin J; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

2013-10-17

57

Reassessing Google Flu Trends Data for Detection of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza: A Comparative Epidemiological Study at Three Geographic Scales  

PubMed Central

The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data and computational methods for continued model-fitting and ongoing evaluation and improvement.

Olson, Donald R.; Konty, Kevin J.; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

2013-01-01

58

Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0

Brian J Coburn; Bradley G Wagner; Sally Blower

2009-01-01

59

Framing Flu Prevention—An Experimental Field Test of Signs Promoting Hand Hygiene During the 2009–2010 H1N1 Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: During the 2009–2010 H1N1 flu pandemic, many institutions installed alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers in public settings in an effort to prevent the spread of the virus. Yet, usage of these dispensers remained low. Method: Point-of-use reminder signs were designed to emphasize four theoretically grounded health beliefs: perceived susceptibility, social norms, consequences of the behavior framed as gains, and consequences

John A. Updegraff; Amber S. Emanuel; Kristel M. Gallagher; Christopher T. Steinman

2011-01-01

60

Preparing for an influenza pandemic: ethical issues.  

PubMed

In the near future, experts predict, an influenza pandemic will likely spread throughout the world. Many countries have been creating a contingency plan in order to mitigate the severe health and social consequences of such an event. Examination of the pandemic plans of Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, from an ethical perspective, raises several concerns. One: scarcity of human and material resources is assumed to be severe. Plans focus on prioritization but do not identify resources that would be optimally required to reduce deaths and other serious consequences. Hence, these plans do not facilitate a truly informed choice at the political level where decisions have to be made on how much to invest now in order to reduce scarcity when a pandemic occurs. Two: mass vaccination is considered to be the most important instrument for reducing the impact of infection, yet pandemic plans do not provide concrete estimates of the benefits and burdens of vaccination to assure everyone that the balance is highly favorable. Three: pandemic plans make extraordinary demands on health care workers, yet professional organizations and unions may not have been involved in the plans' formulation and they have not been assured that authorities will aim to protect and support health care workers in a way that corresponds to the demands made on them. Four: all sectors of society and all individuals will be affected by a pandemic and everyone's collaboration will be required. Yet, it appears that the various populations have been inadequately informed by occasional media reports. Hence, it is essential that plans are developed and communication programs implemented that will not only inform but also create an atmosphere of mutual trust and solidarity; qualities that at the time of a pandemic will be much needed. PMID:16222857

Kotalik, Jaro

2005-08-01

61

H1N1 2009 pandemic flu vaccination campaign: The Homeless lesson  

PubMed Central

Homeless are deprived people of developed countries that have a particularly low vaccine coverage and are exposed to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. We report here the efficiency of a voluntary based one-day snapshot influenza vaccination in homeless shelter of Marseille, France, which allowed to obtain a 46.9% H1N1 pandemic vaccine coverage while at the same time only 6% of the French population has been vaccinated.

Brouqui, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Cassir, Nadim; Badiaga, Sekene; Gadelius, Hans

2010-01-01

62

H1N1 2009 pandemic flu vaccination campaign: The Homeless lesson.  

PubMed

Homeless are deprived people of developed countries that have a particularly low vaccine coverage and are exposed to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. We report here the efficiency of a voluntary based one-day snapshot influenza vaccination in homeless shelter of Marseille, France, which allowed to obtain a 46.9% H1N1 pandemic vaccine coverage while at the same time only 6% of the French population has been vaccinated. PMID:20177427

Brouqui, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Cassir, Nadim; Badiaga, Sékéné; Gadelius, Hans

2010-02-03

63

Adjuvant is necessary for a robust immune response to a single dose of H1N1 pandemic flu vaccine in mice.  

PubMed

Pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine antigens are currently being manufactured. The MF59 adjuvant has an established safety profile in humans and a proven ability to increase responses to some influenza vaccines in humans. To inform initial decisions on the use of these vaccine components to protect human populations, we have immunized mice with MF59-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. Immunizing unprimed mice with a single dose of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine elicits functional antibody titers equivalent to those associated with protection of humans from seasonal influenza. Without adjuvant, two doses are required for a robust antibody response. Unadjuvanted vaccines with 0.5 and 1 microgram of antigen elicit equivalent titers. These data support including MF59 in pandemic flu vaccines to rapidly protect young adults and children, who may have little or no previous exposure to influenza infection or immunization. PMID:20029611

Dormitzer, Philip R; Rappuoli, Rino; Casini, Daniele; O'Hagan, Derek; Runham, Celene; Montomoli, Emanuele; Baudner, Barbara; Donnelly Iii, John J; Lapini, Giulia; Wack, Andreas

2009-08-31

64

Adjuvant is necessary for a robust immune response to a single dose of H1N1 pandemic flu vaccine in mice  

PubMed Central

Pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine antigens are currently being manufactured. The MF59 adjuvant has an established safety profile in humans and a proven ability to increase responses to some influenza vaccines in humans. To inform initial decisions on the use of these vaccine components to protect human populations, we have immunized mice with MF59-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. Immunizing unprimed mice with a single dose of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine elicits functional antibody titers equivalent to those associated with protection of humans from seasonal influenza. Without adjuvant, two doses are required for a robust antibody response. Unadjuvanted vaccines with 0.5 and 1 microgram of antigen elicit equivalent titers. These data support including MF59 in pandemic flu vaccines to rapidly protect young adults and children, who may have little or no previous exposure to influenza infection or immunization.

Dormitzer, Philip R.; Rappuoli, Rino; Casini, Daniele; O'Hagan, Derek; Runham, Celene; Montomoli, Emanuele; Baudner, Barbara; Donnelly III, John J.; Lapini, Giulia; Wack, Andreas

2009-01-01

65

[Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro].  

PubMed

The article analyzes the political and social impacts of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's federal capital. Based on an analysis of Rio de Janeiro press reports and of other documentation (including annals, reports, and bulletins from a federal ministry, the Mayor's Office, and the Chamber of Deputies, along with studies from the Brazilian National Academy of Medicine and dissertations from Rio de Janeiro's Faculdade de Medicina), we explore use of the epidemic as a means of political engineering. Our focus is on how the epidemic impacted not only the representation of certain political and social actors but also the reaffirmation of a group of sanitarians as an intelligentsia with a vocation for political leadership who played a key role in the process of modernizing Brazilian society. PMID:16116711

Goulart, Adriana da Costa

66

Reflections on the UK's approach to the 2009 swine flu pandemic: conflicts between national government and the local management of the public health response.  

PubMed

The first cases of swine flu in the UK were detected on 27th April 2009. Two weeks later Birmingham became a "hotspot" for the HIN1 pandemic in England. This paper describes the experiences of local public health agencies during the pandemic and the problems encountered when trying to work within a hierarchical and hermetic system of national policy making. We argue that over reliance on the speculative logic of modellers, together with a failure to adapt swiftly the nation's preparedness plans and public health apparatus created in readiness for a serious and fatal disease, led to an institutional void of policy making during the pandemic, where new rules and concepts emerged about what constituted scientifically acceptable and politically legitimate interventions. The imposition of a single national approach to managing the pandemic and a disregard for the role of local authorities seriously impaired the ability of local agencies to respond in a flexible, timely and pragmatic way to the rapidly emerging situation. Future planning for pandemics must recognise that global epidemics are curbed at the local level, and ensure that any response is proportionate, flexible and effective. PMID:22682089

Chambers, Jacky; Barker, Kezia; Rouse, Andrew

2011-07-01

67

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

68

Anticipating or Precipitating Crisis? Health Agencies May Not be Heeding Best Practice Advice in Avian Flu Press Releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precrisis information disseminated by public health information officers (PIOs) will play a critical role in preparing and safeguarding publics amidst a possible avian flu pandemic. This article analyzes avian flu press releases issued by leading health agencies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health

Elizabeth Johnson Avery; Sora Kim

2009-01-01

69

Avian flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential damage from an avian flu epidemic is huge, but unlikely. Currently, the virus affects birds and humans who handle\\u000a dead birds. Only one case of suspected human-to-human transmission exists. If human-to-human transmission can occur with a\\u000a new strain of the virus, we are susceptible to a pandemic. The many subtypes of influenza act and develop differently. The\\u000a inflammatory

Tiffany Musick; Holly Cymet; Tyler Childs Cymet

2006-01-01

70

Pandemics & Emerging Diseases  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... 2009 H1N1 (Swine) Flu Virus (Biologics ... H5N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine, manufactured by ... to Support the Licensure of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/pandemics

71

VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What would happen if a flu pandemic as devastating as the 1918 Spanish flu arrived tomorrow. As Laver explains in a Perspective, preparation of the appropriate subunit vaccine (which depends on accurate identification of the flu virus strain) would take too long. He suggests that stockpiling antiviral drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, which block the action of the flu neuraminidase enzyme preventing spread of the virus throughout the host's body, would be a good place to start.

Graeme Laver (Australian National University;); Elspeth Garman (University of Oxford;Department of Biochemistry)

2001-09-07

72

Maternal flu and congenital abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionRecent case studies following swine flu pandemic show that pregnant woman are more susceptible to flu infection. Various studies have sought to find an association between fetal congenital abnormalities (CAs) and maternal flu infection.MethodologyThe authors performed a review of literature since 1950 in Medline and on the web using keywords ‘Flu’ and ‘CAs’ and collated the results.ResultsIn 2005, Acs et

S Pandey; K Singh

2010-01-01

73

Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Child Care and Early Childhood Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Child Care and Early Childhood Programs is to provide information and communication resources to help center-based and home-based child care programs, Head Start programs, and other early c...

2009-01-01

74

Applying machine learning techniques to classify H1N1 viral strains occurring in 2009 flu pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase 6 alert has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) in response to the ongoing global spread of the influenza H1N1 virus in humans. Genetic sequence analysis suggests that this pandemic strain evolves from reassortment of swine viruses. The objective of this research is to conduct a series of bioinformatics analyses to characterize currently circulating pandemic influenza

Pavan K. Attaluri; Ximeng Zheng; Zhengxin Chen; Guoqing Lu

75

Clinical Outcome of Novel H1N1 (Swine Flu)-Infected Patients During 2009 Pandemic at Tertiary Referral Hospital in Western India  

PubMed Central

Background: The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Gujarat, India, was reported in August 2009. Oseltamivir was used for treatment of pandemic influenza in India. We discuss the clinical characteristics and outcome of the hospitalized patients with H1N1 infection during 2009 pandemic influenza season. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patient with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 flu during August 2009 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Data were collected from hospital ICU charts. Patients discharged from hospital were considered cured from swine flu. Data analysis was performed using CDC software EPI Info v3.5.3. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study, of them 41 (65%) males and 22 (35%) females. Median age was 34 (3-69) years and median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 5 (2-20) days. Common presenting symptoms include fever 58 (92.06%), cough 58 (92.06%), breathlessness 38 (60.31%), common cold 14 (22.22%), vomiting 12 (19.04%), weakness 9 (14.28%), throat pain 7 (11.11%), body ache 5 (7.93%), and chest pain 4 (6.34%). Co-morbidities were seen in 13 (20.63%) patients. Steroids were used in 39 (61.90%) patients, and ventilatory support was required in 17 (26.98%) patients. On presentation chest x-ray was normal in 20 (31.74%) patients, while pulmonary opacities were seen in 43 (68.26%) patients. Forty-seven (74.60%) patients were cured and discharged from hospital, 14 (22.22%) patients died, and 2 (3.17%) patients were shifted to other hospital. Ventilatory requirement, pneumonia, and co-morbidities were the independent predictors of mortality, while age, sex, and steroid use were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: 2009 pandemic influenza A had the same clinical features as seasonal influenza except vomiting. Mortality rate was high in 2009 H1N1-infected patients with pneumonia, co-morbid conditions, and patients who required ventilatory support.

Patel, Ketan K.; Patel, Atul K.; Mehta, Parthiv M.; Amin, Richa P.; Patel, Kunal P.; Chuhan, Prakash C.; Naik, Eknath; Patel, Kamlesh R.

2013-01-01

76

Post-Pandemic Seroprevalence of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection (Swine Flu) among Children <18 Years in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009\\/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsEight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from

Rüdiger von Kries; Susanne Weiss; Gerhard Falkenhorst; Stephan Wirth; Petra Kaiser; Hans-Iko Huppertz; Tobias Tenenbaum; Horst Schroten; Andrea Streng; Johannes Liese; Sonu Shai; Tim Niehues; Hermann Girschick; Ellen Kuscher; Axel Sauerbrey; Jochen Peters; Carl Heinz Wirsing von König; Simon Rückinger; Walter Hampl; Detlef Michel; Thomas Mertens

2011-01-01

77

The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

Kelly, Elaine

2011-01-01

78

Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving\\u000a pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on\\u000a key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our\\u000a analysis of an

Uri Roll; Rami Yaari; Guy Katriel; Oren Barnea; Lewi Stone; Ella Mendelson; Michal Mendelboim; Amit Huppert

2011-01-01

79

Evaluation of treatment with Oseltamivir during the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic: the problem of incomplete clinical information.  

PubMed

During the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic of 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed more than 14,000 deaths globally; this included a death toll of 147 in Iran. In order to evaluate (a) the appropriateness of the Oseltamivir dose through calculation of a patient’s creatinine clearance (CrCl) and (b) the quality of data in the medical charts, we conducted a retrospective study at the Shariati Hospital in Tehran. All admissions to the hospital between the dates 1 October 2009 and 31 January 2010 were evaluated, amounting to a total of 51 patients’ charts, including 8 outpatient charts. Of these 51 charts, 26 (51%) contained all the information necessary to evaluate the CrCl. However, there was at least one piece of information missing (e.g. the patient’s weight; serum creatinine) from each of the remaining 25 charts (49% of the sample), which made it impossible for us to evaluate the dose. These results demonstrate how crucially important it is to ensure that all the necessary patient information is correctly registered at the time of admission in order to minimise medication errors. PMID:22754968

Hanafi, Somayeh; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

80

Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that ?-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified ?-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (?-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of ?-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal ?-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections.

Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Mullbacher, Arno

2009-01-01

81

Alternative live-attenuated influenza vaccines based on modifications in the polymerase genes protect against epidemic and pandemic flu.  

PubMed

Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccination is the most effective means for disease prevention. We have previously shown that mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of the live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) could be transferred to avian influenza viruses and produce partially attenuated viruses. We also demonstrated that avian influenza viruses carrying the PB1 and PB2 mutations could be further attenuated by stably introducing a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag in the PB1 gene. In this work, we wanted to determine whether these modifications would also result in attenuation of a so-called triple reassortant (TR) swine influenza virus (SIV). Thus, the TR influenza A/swine/Wisconsin/14094/99 (H3N2) virus was generated by reverse genetics and subsequently mutated in the PB1 and PB2 genes. Here we show that a combination of mutations in this TR backbone results in an attenuated virus in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show the potential of our TR backbone as a vaccine that provides protection against the 2009 swine-origin pandemic influenza H1N1 virus (S-OIV) when carrying the surface of a classical swine strain. We propose that the availability of alternative backbones to the conventional ca A/Ann Arbor/6/60 LAIV strain could also be useful in epidemic and pandemic influenza and should be considered for influenza vaccine development. In addition, our data provide evidence that the use of these alternative backbones could potentially circumvent the effects of original antigenic sin (OAS) in certain circumstances. PMID:20181702

Solórzano, Alicia; Ye, Jianqiang; Pérez, Daniel R

2010-02-24

82

Pandemic Influenza Planning in Nursing Homes: Are We Prepared?  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza or Influenza A (H5N1) is caused by a viral strain that occurs naturally in wild birds, but to which humans are immunologically naïve. If an influenza pandemic occurs, it is expected to have dire consequences, including millions of deaths, social disruption, and enormous economic consequences. The Department of Health and Human Resources plan, released in November 2005, clearly affirms the threat of a pandemic. Anticipating a disruption in many factions of society, every segment of the healthcare industry, including nursing homes, will be affected and will need to be self-sufficient. Disruption of vaccine distribution during the seasonal influenza vaccine shortage during the 2004/05 influenza season is but one example of erratic emergency planning. Nursing homes will have to make vital decisions and provide care to older adults who will not be on the initial priority list for vaccine. At the same time, nursing homes will face an anticipated shortage of antiviral medications and be expected to provide surge capacity for overwhelmed hospitals. This article provides an overview of current recommendations for pandemic preparedness and the potential effect of a pandemic on the nursing home industry. It highlights the need for collaborative planning and dialogue between nursing homes and various stakeholders already heavily invested in pandemic preparedness.

Mody, Lona; Cinti, Sandro

2012-01-01

83

Swine flu is back again: a review.  

PubMed

Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian/Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as 'mixing bowl' for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak. PMID:24163942

Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Deb, Rajib; Karthik, K; Kapoor, Sanjay; Mahima; Tiwari, Ruchi; Panwar, Parmod Kumar; Chakraborty, Sandip

2012-11-01

84

[Spanish flu related data].  

PubMed

Swine flu epidemic is a current topic, and data relating to Spanish flu pandemic from 1918 to 1920 were presented for your information. Monthly trend of number of deaths due to influenza, acute bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchopneumonia together with PTB, other TB and TB of all forms from 1917 to 1920 was presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Flu epidemics in early 1917 and from winter 1917 to spring 1818 were so-called common seasonal flu epidemic, however, new pandemic started from October 1918, and the number of deaths due to flu increased 14 times compared with previous month in October, 19 times in November, and the pandemic reached the summit, and started to decrease from December, however, marked decline was seen only after April 1919. The number of deaths due to flu started to increase again from November 1919, and reached its summit again in January 1920, and the pandemic ended in July. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza in 1918 was shown in Fig. 2. The rate was high among infants, 20s and 30s and elderly, and by sex, the rate of female was higher below 35 and lower above 35. The number of deaths due to acute bronchitis and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia fluctuated in parallel with that of influenza, and deaths due to these conditions were very difficult to differentiate, and the impact of flu could better be evaluated by summing up all these three conditions, the sum of deaths due to three conditions was expressed as influenza related death. The proportion of deaths due to three conditions by age group was shown in Fig. 3. The proportion of acute bronchitis was high in infants and elderly, and in the other age groups, influenza occupied around 30% and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia around 70% of influenza related death. Total number of deaths due to influenza related diseases from 1918 to 1920 was 816,884, and the annual rate was 489.4 per 100,000. Annual age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza related diseases was shown in Fig. 4, and it showed similar pattern with that of influenza. Because of huge excess death of TB patients due to influenza and related diseases, TB mortality in Japan, which had been increasing since 1884, started to decrease since 1919, and TB mortality which had been decreasing slowly since the beginning of 20th century in European countries and the US, the decline was accelerated since 1919. PMID:19928552

Shimao, Tadao

2009-10-01

85

Could Immune Cell Discovery Lead to Universal Flu Vaccine?  

MedlinePLUS

... certain virus-killing immune cells fared better during swine flu pandemic (*this news item will not be ... September 23, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Immunization MONDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- An ...

86

Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.  

PubMed

A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

2013-02-12

87

Bird Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioEd Online is an âÂÂeducational resource for educators, students, and parentsâ from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The âÂÂHot Topicsâ section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are âÂÂreceiving national attention.â Outbreaks of viruses have had detrimental effects on human populations throughout history. Recently, there has been a spotlight on the avian influenza virus (specifically the strain known as H5N1), which has infected over 100 people throughout the world. Concerned scientists and health officials are researching this virus, which many fear could escalate and contribute to a worldwide influenza outbreak. This site, created by Deanne Erdmann, MS, and Nancy Moreno, PhD, contains a brief discussion of the avian influenza virus, and includes links to references and further reading. Related news articles, and websites can be found. Be sure to check out the related slide set, âÂÂBird Flu: Is a Pandemic Looming in Our Future?" The slide show can be easily manipulated for use in the classroom along with the other resources provided in this âÂÂHot Topicâ from BioEd Online.

Erdmann, Deanne; Moreno, Nancy

2005-10-24

88

Preparing public health nurses for pandemic influenza through distance learning.  

PubMed

As a global influenza pandemic appears imminent with the spread of avian influenza, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and the California Distance Learning Health Network (CDLHN) presented a live 90-min satellite broadcast and subsequent 2-hr small group problem-solving tabletop exercise to practice interventions needed to minimize the consequences of a pandemic event. Public health nurses (PHNs), managers, and other staff in laboratories, clinical care, veterinary medicine, environmental health, public information and safety, emergency management, and transportation down linked the program, broadcast by satellite from the CDHS Richmond Laboratory Campus, to view on-site locally. PHNs represented the professional category with the highest number of participants for those conducting the program outside of California. For those in California, PHNs represented the professional category with the second highest number of participants. Participants and distance-learning facilitators completed a training evaluation survey. Continuing education credits were provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participants who completed the satellite broadcast evaluation. This distance-learning-by-satellite method of education paired with an activities-based tabletop exercise, and a focus on local rather than State-based responsibility, marks an innovative method of training PHNs and other staff in emergency preparedness response. PMID:17214655

Macario, Everly; Benton, Lisa D; Yuen, Janet; Torres, Mara; Macias-Reynolds, Violet; Holsclaw, Patricia; Nakahara, Natalie; Jones, Marcy Connell

89

Adjuvant solution for pandemic influenza vaccine production  

PubMed Central

Extensive preparation is underway to mitigate the next pandemic influenza outbreak. New vaccine technologies intended to supplant egg-based production methods are being developed, with recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) as the most advanced program for preventing seasonal and avian H5N1 Influenza. Increased efforts are being focused on adjuvants that can broaden vaccine immunogenicity against emerging viruses and maximize vaccine supply on a worldwide scale. Here, we test protection against avian flu by using H5N1-derived rHA and GLA-SE, a two-part adjuvant system containing glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a formulated synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, and a stable emulsion (SE) of oil in water, which is similar to the best-in-class adjuvants being developed for pandemic flu. Notably, a single submicrogram dose of rH5 adjuvanted with GLA-SE protects mice and ferrets against a high titer challenge with H5N1 virus. GLA-SE, relative to emulsion alone, accelerated induction of the primary immune response and broadened its durability against heterosubtypic H5N1 virus challenge. Mechanistically, GLA-SE augments protection via induction of a Th1-mediated antibody response. Innate signaling pathways that amplify priming of Th1 CD4 T cells will likely improve vaccine performance against future outbreaks of lethal pandemic flu.

Clegg, Christopher H.; Roque, Richard; Van Hoeven, Neal; Perrone, Lucy; Baldwin, Susan L.; Rininger, Joseph A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Reed, Steven G.

2012-01-01

90

How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

Turner, James C.

2005-01-01

91

Forecasting Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... regular feature of the annual flu season. Adapting Weather Models Flu forecasting adapts approaches used by meteorologists ... when meteorologists seem to get it wrong, but weather prediction is actually very good," says Jeffrey Shaman, ...

92

Handling Mass Death by Integrating the Management of Disasters and Pandemics: Lessons from the Indian Ocean Tsunami, the Spanish Flu and Other Incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first glance, there appear to be significant differences between mass death from disasters and catastrophes and mass death from pandemics. In a disaster or catastrophe the major problem is identifying the dead and, sometimes, determining cause of death. This can be very frustrating for next of kin. In a pandemic, the identity of the dead is usually known as

Joseph Scanlon; Terry McMahon; Coen van Haastert

2007-01-01

93

Influence of the Cold War Upon Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958, also called Asian Flu Pandemic, was one of the most widespread pandemics in history. In this paper, we model the pandemic, considering the effect of the Cold War. There were some restrictions between Western and Eastern nations due to the Cold War during the pandemic. We expect that such restrictions influenced the spread of the pandemic.

Teruhiko Yoneyama; Mukkai S. Krishnamoorthy

2010-01-01

94

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

95

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV 3) viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) mimicking swine influenza (H1N1) during the swine flu pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic began in Mexico in 2009 and quickly spread worldwide. During the H1N1 pandemic, many patients were admitted to the Winthrop-University Hospital with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs). Many hospitalized adults had H1N1 pneumonia diagnosed by laboratory or clinical criteria. However, the laboratory diagnosis of H1N1 was problematic. The rapid influenza (QuickVue A\\/B [Quidel, San Diego, CA]) test

Burke A. Cunha; Michael Corbett; Nardeen Mickail

2011-01-01

96

Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 Considering the Effect of the First World War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919, also called Spanish Flu Pandemic, was one of the severest pandemics in history. It is thought that the First World War much influenced the spread of the pandemic. In this paper, we model the pandemic considering both civil and military traffic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world.

Teruhiko Yoneyama; Mukkai S. Krishnamoorthy

2010-01-01

97

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

98

Technologies to Mitigate Climate Change / Avian Flu Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though the Kyoto Protocol went into effect in February of 2005, it will not be a quick fix: global temperatures are predicted to rise well into this century. This radio broadcast takes a look at some technologies - from wind power to hydrogen fuel cells - that could curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gases. There is discussion about what countries are doing to reduce global warming, such as supporting renewable energy, and what needs to be done in the United States. This climate change broadcast is 30 minutes in length. The broadcast also discusses preparations for a possible bird flu pandemic.

99

Will the next human influenza pandemic be caused by the virus of the avian flu A\\/H5N1? Arguments pro and counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the avian influenza A subtype H5N1 that caused big outbreaks of fowl pest in mass poultry farming had emerged in Hong Kong. Its spread throughout Eurasia had given rise to concerns in terms of the possible imminence of the next human influenza pandemic. In this article, epidemiological and virological arguments supporting or declining this fear are outlined and

H. W. Doerr; Domenica Varwig; Regina Allwinn; J. Cinatl

2006-01-01

100

The Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) successfully predicts mortality and critical care resource utilization in H1N1 pandemic flu: a retrospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Triage protocols are only initiated when it is apparent that resource deficits will occur across a broad geographical area despite efforts to expand or acquire additional capacity. Prior to the pandemic the UK Department of Health (DOH) recommended the use of a staged triage plan incorporating Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) developed by the Ontario Ministry of Health to

Kayode A Adeniji; Rebecca Cusack

2011-01-01

101

Integrating an incident command system and business continuity into a healthcare response to a flu pandemic and other infectious disease emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coordinated health system response to a pandemic influenza will require a command and control process embedded in the health system. This paper will show how systemising command and control by using an incident command system in an emergency operations centre, along with business continuity through integration of public health operations with acute care operations, will create a manageable response

Eric Bone

102

Shaping Ethical Guidelines for an Influenza Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the process of shaping ethical guidelines for an influenza pandemic by the North Carolina Institute\\u000a of Medicine (NC IOM)\\/North Carolina Department of Public Health (NCDPH) Task Force. The author discusses the threat of a pandemic\\u000a in the twenty-first century, comparing a potential pandemic with past flu pandemics as well as the Severe Acute Respiratory\\u000a Syndrome (SARS) outbreak

Rosemarie Tong

103

H1N1: can a pandemic cycle be broken?  

PubMed

The influenza virus that caused the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin flu pandemic is antigenically similar to the one that caused the devastating 1918 pandemic. Over time, the human population became susceptible to a modified version of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus that had been archived in swine. Now, two papers, one in this issue of Science Translational Medicine and one in Science, shed mechanistic light on how glycosylation gave rise to seasonal human flu viruses that are immunologically distinct from their 1918 pandemic precursor and the 2009 pandemic strain. These findings suggest strategies to anticipate and prevent future pandemics. PMID:20375006

Settembre, Ethan C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Rappuoli, Rino

2010-03-24

104

Initial Psychological Responses to Swine Flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The emergence of influenza A (“swine flu”) in early 2009 led to widespread public concern. However, little research has examined\\u000a the factors that underlie initial worry about infection and subsequent behavioral responses to such worry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study seeks to model some key predictors of worry and behavioral responses in the early stages of the swine flu pandemic\\u000a (WHO pandemic stage

Robin Goodwin; Stanley O. Gaines Jr; Lynn Myers; Felix Neto

2011-01-01

105

INTRICACIES OF NEWLY EMERGED SWINE FLU PANDEMIC: A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL, MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH CHALLENGE-SHOULD THE NIGERIA BE ALARMED?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article reports on the newly emerged swine influenza pandemic: a global environemental, medical and public health challenge-should the Nigeria be alarmed? It also examines the features of H1N1, including incidence, infection, immunity, clinical management, prevention and control, and therapy globally. Swine influenza has emerged as one of the primary public health concern of the 21st century. Swine influenza

I. O. Okonko; B. A. Onoja; A. O. Adedeji; A. A. Ogun

106

Services Oriented Architecture for Managing Workflows of Avian Flu Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avian flu grid is a virtual organization dedicated to the discovery of novel inhibitors for the pandemic avian flu threat, leveraging grid technologies and computational resources provided by PRAGMA and its partners. In this context it is essential to adopt tools which increase the productivity of the computational scientists without advanced training on grid technologies. To reduce the learning

Luca Clementi; Sriram Krishnan; Wesley Goodman; Jingyuan Ren; Wilfred W. Li; Peter W. Arzberger; Guillaume Vareille; Sargis Dallakyan; Michel F. Sanner

2008-01-01

107

E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

2009-01-01

108

Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)  

ScienceCinema

Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

109

Factors Contributing to Successful Pandemic Influenza ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... H3N2 swine related outbreaks) and new ... intervention against pandemic influenza, particularly when ... Spanish Asian Hong Kong Swine Flu H5N1. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

110

Flu Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... have a high fever — for example, that person's temperature may be around 104°F (40°C). People with the flu often feel achy and extra tired. They may lose their appetites. The fever and aches usually disappear within a ...

111

Influenza - "The Flu"  

MedlinePLUS

... be extreme) ? diarrhea (especially children) What is the flu vaccine? The flu vaccine can protect you against some ... the flu season ends. Who should receive a flu vaccine? ? All adults and children 6 months of age ...

112

A pandemic response to a disease of predominantly seasonal intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the recognition of the swine flu pandemic in late April 2009, health professionals, politicians and the public needed to know how serious pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (swine flu) was in relation to other seasonal strains of influenza. • The Victorian experience suggests that the circulation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in the community was at most like influenza circulation

Heath A Kelly

113

Reflections on Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and the International Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabriel Leung and Angus Nicoll provide their reflections on the international response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, including what went well and what changes need to be made in anticipation of future flu pandemics.

Gabriel M. Leung; Angus Nicoll

2010-01-01

114

Pandemic lessons.  

PubMed

Australia is in the midst of its traditional influenza season. This year the spectrum of viral respiratory infections has been joined by a newcomer as feared as any previous variation of influenza. Human swine flu, a novel influenza A H1N1 virus (now known as 'H1N1 09'), emerged from the Americas into the full glare of western media and the World Health Organization (WHO) spotlights. Improvements in global public health infrastructure since the 20th century pandemics were set to be challenged by 21st century advances in worldwide travel. The southern hemisphere is the theatre; the stage is primary care; general practitioners are the key players in the first act. PMID:19893775

Collins, Nicholas

2009-08-01

115

Preparing for the next influenza pandemic: a New South Wales perspective.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza is one of a small number of infectious diseases that pose a significant global threat. Pandemic preparedness has accelerated around the world in recent years in response to the perceived increased risk of a pandemic developing following the emergence of H5N1 avian influenza in domestic poultry flocks in Asia, Africa and Europe. There is a hierarchy of pandemic plans - international, national, state, and local - and harmonisation of all of these is imperative for a coordinated and effective response. At the national and state levels, plans have been developed for a whole-of-government response to a pandemic, in addition to plans specifically for the health sector. It is inevitable that influenza pandemics will occur and careful planning is crucial to mitigate their potentially devastating effects. PMID:17136141

Armstrong, Paul; Chant, Kerry

116

FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment finder based on phylogenetic trees  

PubMed Central

Background Reassortments are events in the evolution of the genome of influenza (flu), whereby segments of the genome are exchanged between different strains. As reassortments have been implicated in major human pandemics of the last century, their identification has become a health priority. While such identification can be done “by hand” on a small dataset, researchers and health authorities are building up enormous databases of genomic sequences for every flu strain, so that it is imperative to develop automated identification methods. However, current methods are limited to pairwise segment comparisons. Results We present FluReF, a fully automated flu virus reassortment finder. FluReF is inspired by the visual approach to reassortment identification and uses the reconstructed phylogenetic trees of the individual segments and of the full genome. We also present a simple flu evolution simulator, based on the current, source-sink, hypothesis for flu cycles. On synthetic datasets produced by our simulator, FluReF, tuned for a 0% false positive rate, yielded false negative rates of less than 10%. FluReF corroborated two new reassortments identified by visual analysis of 75 Human H3N2 New York flu strains from 2005–2008 and gave partial verification of reassortments found using another bioinformatics method. Methods FluReF finds reassortments by a bottom-up search of the full-genome and segment-based phylogenetic trees for candidate clades—groups of one or more sampled viruses that are separated from the other variants from the same season. Candidate clades in each tree are tested to guarantee confidence values, using the lengths of key edges as well as other tree parameters; clades with reassortments must have validated incongruencies among segment trees. Conclusions FluReF demonstrates robustness of prediction for geographically and temporally expanded datasets, and is not limited to finding reassortments with previously collected sequences. The complete source code is available from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html.

2011-01-01

117

Flu and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... contagious illness, which is caused by influenza viruses. Flu vaccines are created to combat the strains of flu ... American College of Cardiology has recommended an annual flu vaccine in injection form for cardiovascular disease patients “with ...

118

Simply speaking, Swine Flu is just a new, unexpected strain of Influenza A - we all are familiar with the concept of new strains of flu * it's why we need to revaccinate every year to keep up with changes in the makeup of flu viruses. But since Swine Flu only comes around once ortwice a century, most humans have no acquired or natural immunity. Swine flu strains are typically not included in flu vaccines, and thus more people may be susceptible to illness in a pandemic situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The good news is that, unlike many strains of Influenza that are not responsive to therapy, this Swine Flu strain, H1N1 is TREATABLE with Tamiflu or Relenza. In the ast year our practice alone treated 390 cases of documented influenza - some, but not all patients received Tamiflu, but many were treated conservatively with rest, fluids, supportive care and staying

119

Your baby and the flu  

MedlinePLUS

... the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. If your baby shows any of the following signs, ...

120

H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. In 2009 a strain of swine flu called H1N1 infected many people around the world. The virus is contagious and can spread from human to human. Symptoms of swine flu in people ...

121

Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibody against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Preparations  

PubMed Central

Pre-pandemic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and sera from Kawasaki disease (KD) patients treated with this IVIG were analyzed for 2009 H1N1-specific microneutralization and hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. All six different IVIG preparations tested had significant levels of cross-reactive specific antibody at a concentration of 2.0 g/dL of immunoglobulin. Sera from 18/19 of KD patients had significant increases of cross-reactive specific antibody after 2.0 g/kg of pre-pandemic IVIG. These results suggest a role for adjunctive IVIG therapy for severe and/or drug-resistant 2009 H1N1 virus and other highly antigenically drifted influenza strains, particularly in the immunocompromised.

HONG, DAVID K.; TREMOULET, ADRIANA H.; BURNS, JANE C.; LEWIS, DAVID B.

2010-01-01

122

Colds and the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... to protect you from getting the flu. The flu shot contains dead viruses. The flu shot is safe for adults and all children 6 ... to 59 months of age get a yearly flu shot. The nasal-spray vaccine contains live but weakened ...

123

GLOBAL DISEASE MUSIC SONIFICATION OF THE 1918 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sonification presents an overview of the spread of the 1918 influenza pandemic (also known as the Spanish flu). Given the emergence of diseases like Lyme Disease, West Nile Fever, drug resistant Turberculosis, SARS and the Avian Flu, this topic is particularly relevant and compelling. While the data set is global in scope, it is incomplete and varies in temporal

Brian Willkie; Andrew Curtis

2006-01-01

124

Pregnant women unaware of Swine Flu danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study by WA researchers into the vaccination of pregnant women against pandemic, H1N1 influenza (Swine Flu), has revealed a number of patients were not aware of their specific vulnerability to the disease and opted out of preventative treatment, despite widespread public education campaigns throughout Australia.\\u000aThe collaborative study between The University of Notre Dame Australia, Edith Cowan University

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

125

A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently, the promise of a new universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary. However, due to complacency behavior, it remains unclear whether the introduction of such vaccines would maintain high and stable levels of vaccination

Raffaele Vardavas; Romulus Breban; Sally Blower

2010-01-01

126

Adjuvant Ramps Up Pandemic Flu Vaccines  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Immunologists think that the emulsion attracts competent immune cells to the site of injection and creates a local environment that facilitates the ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch

127

Avian flu pandemic: Can we prevent it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa have led to devastating consequences for poultry, and have resulted in numerous infections in humans. Although these infections from the animal reservoir continue to accumulate, the virus does not seem to spread extensively among humans. However, for example, a process of genetic reassortment could occur in a

Shingo Iwami; Yasuhiro Takeuchi; Xianning Liu

2009-01-01

128

Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.  

PubMed

The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

2006-12-01

129

Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Planning Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are in a race against a fast moving virulent virus with the potential to cause an influenza pandemic. In November when President Bush announced the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza, the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu virus was confirmed in bi...

2006-01-01

130

A Pandemic Influenza Simulation Model for Preparedness Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic influenza continues to be a national and international public health concern that has received significant attention recently with the recent swine flu outbreak worldwide. Many countries have developed and updated their preparedness plans for pandemic influenza. School closure has been recommended as one of the best ways to protect children and indeed all susceptible individuals in a community during

Ozgur M. Araz; John W. Fowler; Tim W. Lant; Megan Jehn

2009-01-01

131

2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview (June 12, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 29, 2009, in response to the global spread of a new strain of influenza, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised its influenza ('flu') pandemic alert level to Phase 5, one level below declaring that a global influenza pandemic was underway. On...

C. S. Redhead S. A. Lister

2009-01-01

132

2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview. Updated September 10, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 11, 2009, in response to the global spread of a new strain of H1N1 influenza ('flu'), the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak to be an influenza pandemic, the first since 1968. WHO said that the pandemic declaration was based on ...

C. S. Redhead S. A. Lister

2009-01-01

133

2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview. Updated August 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 11, 2009, in response to the global spread of a new strain of H1N1 influenza ('flu'), the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak to be an influenza pandemic, the first since 1968. WHO said that the pandemic declaration was based on ...

C. S. Redhead S. A. Lister

2009-01-01

134

Seasonal Influenza: Waiting for the Next Pandemic  

PubMed Central

With the ongoing cases of H1N1 influenza (aka Swine Flu) occurring around the globe, seasonal influenza has a tendency to be overlooked by the media and general population as a source of illness and death. Yet, these pandemic influenza viruses arise from these seasonal influenza viruses. This article will provide an overview of seasonal influenza, its prevention and treatment, and the global surveillance system in place, used to detect the next influenza pandemic.

Clem, Angela; Galwankar, Sagar

2009-01-01

135

2009 Influenza A(H1N1) 'Swine Flu' Outbreak: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 29, 2009, in response to the global spread of a new strain of influenza, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised its influenza ('flu') pandemic alert level to Phase 5, one level below declaring that a global influenza pandemic was underway. Ac...

C. S. Redhead S. A. Lister

2009-01-01

136

FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented. Results The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain. Conclusions The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk.

2012-01-01

137

Seasonal Flu FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... dizziness Confusion Severe or persistent vomiting If you have the flu, your doctor may prescribe an antiviral drug like Tamiflu ® . back to top Do I or my child need to get a seasonal flu vaccine? Everyone ages 6 months and ...

138

Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

Bird flu (avian influenza) Basics In-Depth Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Bird flu (avian influenza) By Mayo Clinic staff Original ...

139

Literacy Measure B - Flu  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Literacy Measure B - Flu. FLU. Frequency. Percent. Valid Percent. Cumulative Percent. Valid, Correct, 897, 99.2, 99.2, 99.2. Incorrect, 4, .4, .4, 99.7. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

140

[Pandemic A/H1N1 2009 as an international health event with a global impact].  

PubMed

Since the end of April 2009, in proximity with the decline of the seasonal flu season, the world has been acquainted with an outbreak of influenza of a new type of A/H1N1 in Mexico and the USA. The virus has spread throughout the world and become a pandemic flu, for the first time since 1968. This article addresses the global aspects of the outbreak of this new pandemic influenza, starting from the first event of "Avian Flu" in 1997 in Hong Kong, through the outbreaks of SARS in 2003, and the Avian Flu, which also began in 2003, and is still endemic in some countries. This article overviews the International Health Regulations (IHR), which were endorsed by all Member States in 2005, and have been in effect since June 2007. For the first time in history, the Member States of World Health Organization (WHO) were prepared for the upcoming pandemic flu by establishing national preparedness plans and stockpiling anti-viral drugs, even without knowing when and where the first outbreak would take place. The IHR has delegated authority to the WHO to act and lead countries in coping with the various phases of the pandemic in a centralized fashion, starting with formulating the epidemiological surveillance and reports, indications and step-by-step declarations on the alert levels from 4 to 6 announced on June 11th, 2009. The article examines the performances of the WHO and its Director General in exercising the IHR for the first time and leading the event in a professional, harmonized and respectful fashion. Nevertheless, currently, the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 seems to be a mild disease clinically, although causing death, but it has not yet eased, and there are still major question marks concerning its future. Its future spread and severity, together with the WHO response will impact the WHO's ability to conduct global initiatives. Regional cooperation with the Palestinian Authority and Jordan before and after this pandemic influenza outbreak is noted. PMID:20088429

Leventhal, Alex; Mor, Zohar

2009-12-01

141

Pigs Might Fly: Dance in the Time of Swine Flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay takes the coincidence of pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus (so-called swine flu) and a collaborative dance-making project in Beijing in 2009 as a starting point for exploring some of the corporeal consequences of \\

Paul Rae

2011-01-01

142

Pigs Might Fly: Dance in the Time of Swine Flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This essay takes the coincidence of pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus (so-called swine flu) and a collaborative dance-making project in Beijing in 2009 as a starting point for exploring some of the corporeal consequences of \\

Paul Rae

2011-01-01

143

Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrated by the production of over 150 million doses of 'swine flu' vaccine in the USA within a 3 month period in 1976. However, there is cause for concern that the lead time to begin vaccine production is likely to be about 7-8 months. Attempts to reduce this time should receive urgent attention. Immunogenicity of vaccines in pandemic situations is compared over the period 1968-1998. A consistent feature of the vaccine trials is the demonstration that one conventional 15 microg haemagglutinin dose of vaccine is not sufficiently immunogenic in naive individuals. Much larger doses or two lower doses are needed to induce satisfactory immunity. There is some evidence that whole-virus vaccines are more immunogenic than split or subunit vaccines, but this needs substantiating by further studies. H5 vaccines appeared to be particularly poor immunogens and there is evidence that an adjuvant may be needed. Prospects for improving the development of pandemic vaccines are discussed. PMID:11779397

Wood, J M

2001-12-29

144

Likely uptake of swine and seasonal flu vaccines among healthcare workers. A cross-sectional analysis of UK telephone survey data  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2009 flu pandemic, all frontline UK healthcare workers were encouraged to have both the seasonal and swine flu vaccines. Analysis of six national telephone surveys conducted in the run-up to the UK's swine flu vaccination campaign showed that NHS workers were no more likely to accept the swine flu vaccine than non-NHS workers (55.6% versus 52.4% respectively), although

G. James Rubin; Henry W. W. Potts; Susan Michie

2011-01-01

145

Risk Communications: In Search of a Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper explores the difficulties in managing risk communications in the face of uncertainty ofan avian flu pandemic over a protracted period. The communications effort has also been made more difficult by the confusion and cacophony in the media and claims by experts and politicians worldwide. While Singapore secured much praise for its handling of the severe acute respiratory

K U Menon

146

Risk perception and chicken consumption in the avian flu age -? a consumer behaviour study on food safety information  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the avian flu pandemic threatens Europe, consumer awareness of the ?theoretical? possibility of contraction of the avian flu virus through consumption of chicken saw a decline in demand at the end of 2005, with peaks between 40% - 50% in Southern European countries such as Italy whilst having little impact on demand in Northern countries like the UK. Such

Mario Mazzocchi; W. Bruce Traill

2006-01-01

147

No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts.

Alan Cohen; John Tillinghast; Vladimir Canudas-Romo

2010-01-01

148

Preparing for an influenza pandemic: model of an immunization clinic in an urban family practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem addressed The surge in patient demand for the H1N1 influenza vaccine during the 2009 pandemic. Objective of the program To facilitate timely delivery of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine to a family practice population while preserving regular clinic function and to create a model of effective vaccination delivery for future outbreaks. Program description An academic family practice in Toronto, Ont, adopted a process-improvement approach and implemented 3 Saturday stand-alone H1N1 vaccination clinics to accommodate increased demand for the vaccine. Medical directives were developed to give nurses the authority to vaccinate patients. Consent forms with eligibility criteria and risks versus benefits sheets were provided to patients in the waiting area to make optimal use of time. The clinic with “appointment blocks” for patients had improved efficiency (ie, fewer bottlenecks from waiting area to vaccination room), which was satisfactory to both staff and patients. Conclusion During a pandemic, when patient demand for vaccination is high, such stand-alone vaccination clinics in conjunction with family practices can deliver vaccines to patients in a timely and acceptable manner while promoting continuity of care. This model requires the commitment of extra staffing resources if regular primary care delivery is to be maintained.

Bourgeois, Nicole; Franke, Carolyn; O'Connor, Shirlee A.; Shaw, Holly; Hum, Susan; Dunn, Sheila

2011-01-01

149

Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")  

PubMed Central

Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless) are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

2009-01-01

150

Your Medicare Coverage: Flu Shots  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Flu shots How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) normally covers one flu shot per flu season in the fall or winter. ...

151

Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... complications. • Helps protect others. Side effects of the flu shot The most common side effects are usually mild ... medical conditions (which includes asthma) should get the flu shot instead. Neither vaccine can cause the flu because ...

152

No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries  

PubMed Central

We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918–1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

Cohen, Alan A.; Tillinghast, John; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

2011-01-01

153

Use of two rapid influenza diagnostic tests, QuickNavi-Flu and QuickVue Influenza A+B, for rapid detection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses in Japanese pediatric outpatients over two consecutive seasons.  

PubMed

A prospective study of outpatient children conducted during 2 consecutive seasons (2009 and 2011) of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined the sensitivity of a chromatographic immunoassay test; real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the standard, and the test was 87.2% (117 patients in 2009) and 97.4% (114 patients in 2011) sensitive. PMID:23141387

Hara, Michimaru; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie

2012-11-07

154

["Hardly a house without ill people" The Spanish Flu in Styria].  

PubMed

This article examines the impact of the Spanish flu at the microscopic level. Main question was if the pandemic killed more people in a selected mountain village than the total men of the village who were being killed during the First World War. Other topics are the reaction of the local government on the flu and which prophylaxis was ordered. The main focus lies on the analysis of the parish registers by graphs. PMID:22614540

Hörzer, Thomas; Kunze, Ursula

2012-04-01

155

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

SciTech Connect

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

156

Tracking avian flu on the Web.  

PubMed

To some the term avian flu or H5N1 has become synonymous with the pandemic flu of 1918. Like the former pandemic, this current threat has the potential to cause up to 7.4 million deaths worldwide. Yet as of mid-2006, the viability of this threat is still unclear. There is no doubt that birds, especially poultry, have been the primary target of this particular strain of influenza. Human illnesses and deaths have resulted from direct contact with birds; farmers and food handlers are most at risk. Fortunately there has not been a shift to human-to-human transmission. However, it is imperative for public heath officers, health professionals, and other appropriate officials to keep current on the progress of this virus within the bird population, and its spread around the world. Preventative measures including worst case scenarios have been widely discussed and even resulted in a made-for-TV movie. The need for up-to-date information is essential in order to track the extent of transmission, location of current outbreaks, and most importantly steps for preparedness that could be vital for prevention and containment. This article explores and identifies major Web sites along with basic Internet search techniques to find informative and credible Webbased resources. doi:10.1300/J115v26n01_06. PMID:17210550

Gruwell, Cindy A

2007-01-01

157

The Enigma of the H1N1 Flu: Are You Ready?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This flu season, health care providers must be prepared to treat patients who have the seasonal flu and also those who have contracted a novel strain of the H1N1 influenza virus. Although H1N1 flu is sometimes incorrectly called “swine flu,” the virus is transmitted from person to person; it cannot be contracted from pigs or from eating pork products.Symptoms of

Kay Ball

2009-01-01

158

Epidemiological evidence of an early wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 ``Spanish flu'' was the fastest spreading and most deadly influenza pandemic in recorded history. Hypotheses of its origin have been based on a limited collection of case and outbreak reports from before its recognized European emergence in the summer of 1918. These anecdotal accounts, however, remain insufficient for determining the early diffusion and impact of the pandemic virus.

Donald R. Olson; Lone Simonsen; Paul J. Edelson; Stephen S. Morse

2005-01-01

159

Would an Influenza Pandemic Qualify as a Major Disaster Under the Stafford Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a legal analysis of the eligibility of an influenza pandemic (flu pandemic) to be declared by the President as a major disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. Given the current influenza A(H...

E. C. Liu

2009-01-01

160

The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.  

PubMed

The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

2011-07-01

161

Spanish flu epidemic in 1918 in Geneva, Switzerland.  

PubMed

In Geneva, Switzerland, the Spanish flu epidemic affected more than 50% of the population. The mortality was higher among those aged between 20-49 years and among men. The socioeconomic impact was very important, as the outbreak led to severe dysfunctions, including in health services. This epidemic shows the socio-economical burden that may be associated with influenza and highlights the need for pandemic preparedness. PMID:12631986

Ammon, C E

2002-12-01

162

FluMist  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... November 2, 2004 Approval Letter - Influenza Virus Vaccine Live, Intranasal New Storage Conditions: Storage of FluMist vaccine for the current ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

163

Developing Vaccines to Combat Pandemic Influenza  

PubMed Central

Influenza vaccine manufacturers require antigenically relevant vaccine viruses that have good manufacturing properties and are safe to use. In developing pandemic vaccine viruses, reverse genetics has been employed as a rational approach that can also be used effectively to attenuate the highly virulent H5N1 virus and at the same time place the H5 HA and N1 NA on a background of PR8, a virus that has been used over many decades to provide high yielding vaccine viruses. Reverse genetics has also been used successfully alongside classical reassorting techniques in the development of (swine flu) pandemic A(H1N1)v vaccine viruses.

Robertson, James S.; Engelhardt, Othmar G.

2010-01-01

164

Swine flu and antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health services worldwide are likely to be hard-pressed by swine flu-related illness in the months ahead. Secondary infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes), Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are likely to be important causes of morbidity and mortality. The UK Department of Health recently published clinical pathways for the management of swine flu. Suggested severity criteria have

Gavin D. Barlow

165

An alternative method for preparation of pandemic influenza strain-specific antibody for vaccine potency determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional assay used to measure potency of inactivated influenza vaccines is a single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay that utilizes an influenza strain-specific antibody to measure the content of virus hemagglutinin (HA) in the vaccine in comparison to a homologous HA reference antigen. Since timely preparation of potency reagents by regulatory authorities is challenging and always a potential bottleneck in influenza

Falko Schmeisser; Galina M. Vodeiko; Vladimir Y. Lugovtsev; Richard R. Stout; Jerry P. Weir

2010-01-01

166

Antiviral Strategies for Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza  

PubMed Central

While vaccines are the primary public health response to seasonal and pandemic flu, short of a universal vaccine there are inherent limitations to this approach. Antiviral drugs provide valuable alternative options for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Here, we will review drugs and drug candidates against influenza with an emphasis on the recent progress of a host-targeting entry-blocker drug candidate, DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein.

Hedlund, Maria; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Fang, Fang

2010-01-01

167

College students and the flu  

MedlinePLUS

... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article will give you information about the flu and college students. This is not a substitute for medical advice ...

168

Potential Influenza Pandemic: Possible Macroeconomic Effects and Policy Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is widespread concern among policymakers and public health experts about the possibility of a worldwide epidemic of avian influenza. Such pandemics are not new: there were three in the 20th century, of which one, the 1918-1919 Spanish flu outbreak, ...

2005-01-01

169

2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview (September 10, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report first provides a synopsis of key events, actions taken, and authorities invoked by WHO, the U.S. federal government, and state and local governments. It then discusses the WHO process to determine the phase of a flu pandemic, selected activiti...

C. S. Redhead S. A. Lister

2009-01-01

170

Swine flu vaccine: present status.  

PubMed

In early 2009, "swine flu", a new infectious disease, emerged in Mexico and further spread around the world. It is currently accepted as the most problematic infection at present. To control this new infection, the swine flu vaccine is the hope. The reasons that we need the swine flu vaccine will be discussed. Also, the present status, current attempts and problems of swine flu vaccine development will be presented in this commentary. PMID:19829084

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2009-11-28

171

The general practice experience of the swine flu epidemic in Victoria — lessons from the front line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swine influenza (H1N1 09) outbreak in Victoria has provided an excellent opportunity to review the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) and to assess its performance in practice. • General practitioners play a major role in seasonal flu management, and it was expected that the AHMPPI would enable GPs on the front line to maintain this central

Peter Eizenberg

2009-01-01

172

Avian Flu and the Quest for Immunity: Not Just Chicken Feed  

PubMed Central

With the very real threat of a bird flu pandemic – and no natural immunity among humans – antiviral drug developers, the federal government, and academic researchers are racing to find innovative vaccines and therapies that are effective and can be mass produced. The commercial payoff, too, could be big.

CARROLL, JOHN

2006-01-01

173

Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.  

PubMed

The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

2012-06-01

174

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian ... nine different forms of each subtype (e.g., H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N9). 4 Influenza Type B viruses ...

175

Preventing the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... women who are or will be pregnant during the flu season People who are living in nursing homes or long-term-care facilities Individuals who have long-term health problems Health care workers who have direct contact with patients Caregivers and household contacts of children less than ...

176

A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu  

SciTech Connect

People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed poly

Hazi, A U

2007-02-12

177

Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers On This Page What is swine ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

178

Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deaths during the 1918-19 infl uenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent infl uenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel infl uenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-lim- ited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of

John F. Brundage; G. Dennis Shanks

2008-01-01

179

La Grippe and World War I: conflict participation and pandemic confrontation.  

PubMed

This paper assesses whether a nation-state's participation in conflict influences its ability to confront global pandemic or disease. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed. First, increased levels of conflict participation lead to increased abilities of states to confront pandemics. A second and alternative hypothesis is that increased conflict participation decreases the ability of states to confront pandemics. The hypotheses are tested through the ultimate case of war and pandemic: the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Spanish Flu or 'La Grippe') that killed 20-100 million people worldwide. Using simple correlation and case illustrations, we test these hypotheses with special focus upon the ability of the participant countries to confront the pandemic. The findings suggest, in a limited and varied fashion, that while neutral countries enjoyed the lowest levels of pandemic deaths, of the participant countries greater levels of conflict participation correlate with lower levels of pandemic deaths. The paper concludes with some propositions regarding the relationship between the current 'war on terror' and prospective pandemics such as avian flu. PMID:19333808

Steele, B J; Collins, C D

2009-01-01

180

The 2009 influenza pandemic: promising lessons for antiviral therapy for future outbreaks.  

PubMed

The influenza A virus is the main circulating influenza virus in the human population. It can cause disease also in birds and other mammals and is responsible for annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. The most known and deadly pandemic was the "Spanish flu" (influenza type A/H1N1), which struck the human population between 1918 and 1919, with probably the heaviest toll ever recorded in terms of human lives. The most recent flu pandemic, caused in 2009 by the swine-origin reassortant virus (pH1N1), has raised several critical issues in terms of our preparedness in responding fast to new pandemic influenza strains. Probably, the most instructive lesson that has been learned from the 2009 pandemic, was that the speed of manufacturing and distributing an effective vaccine will not be able to keep up with the pace of a rapidly spreading pandemic virus, failing to grant accessibility to the vaccine for a significant percentage of the susceptible population, before the onset of the pandemic peak. Thus, our first and most effective line of defense against a pandemic influenza virus, particularly in the early phases, are the antiviral drugs. Here we analyze our current understanding of the influenza pandemic viruses, in general, and of the pH1N1 in particular, along with the most recent approaches being pursued to design new anti-influenza drugs. PMID:22087838

Bavagnoli, L; Maga, G

2011-01-01

181

Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the 2009 ... seasonal flu vaccines. For the 2010-2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the 2009 ...

182

The first influenza pandemic in the new millennium: lessons learned hitherto for current control efforts and overall pandemic preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses pose a permanent threat to human populations due to their ability to constantly adapt to impact immunologically susceptible individuals in the forms of epidemic and pandemics through antigenic drifts and antigenic shifts, respectively. Pandemic influenza preparedness is a critical step in responding to future influenza outbreaks. In this regard, responding to the current pandemic and preparing for future

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Peter Carrasco; Jose Ignacio Santos Preciado

2009-01-01

183

Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

2008-01-01

184

Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It is an ... 49 who want to be protected from the flu virus. Unlike the regular vaccine, it is a live virus. Therefore, it is ...

185

A crisis: fear toward a possible H5N1 pandemic.  

PubMed

This survey investigated individuals' fear when faced with a possible H5N1 human-to-human pandemic. It was conducted in Taiwan toward the end of 2005 with 452 participants, including physicians, nurses, and university students. The results showed that for physicians and nurses, the perceived possibility of an avian flu outbreak and the belief that hospitals lacked sufficient infection control measures contributed to their personal fear of an avian flu epidemic. For students, the perceived possibility of avian flu being a threat to humans contributed to their personal fear. With sufficient, up-to-date information, unnecessary fear, and/or panic can be avoided. PMID:18344785

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

186

[Flu vaccination in the elderly].  

PubMed

Seasonal flu is a very serious public health problem in the elderly due to its morbidity and mortality and financial and social costs arising from this. The aim of this review is to describe the magnitude and importance of seasonal flu in this population group, and its prevention by means of vaccination. For this reason, an updated account of the composition of the vaccine, its dosage and administration route, vaccine safety and the evaluation of the immunogenicity and effectiveness of vaccination. There is variation between different countries and official organisations on the age at which flu vaccination must be established in the elderly. New flu vaccination strategies need to be introduced, to further improve flu vaccination cover in Spain. PMID:21388712

Mato Chaín, Gloria; Mariano Lázaro, Alberto; Alcudia Pérez, Florentina; Verdejo Bravo, Carlos

2011-03-08

187

Effectiveness of the pandemic influenza A\\/H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccine in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 influenza pandemic was caused by a novel triple-reassortant influenza A\\/H1N1 virus that was further recombined with a Eurasian pig flu virus. Vaccination is a key countermeasure for disease; however, little data assessing vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the pandemic H1N1 virus are available. We conducted a matched case–control study to assess effectiveness of the 2009 influenza A\\/H1N1 monovalent vaccine

Joon Young Song; Hee Jin Cheong; Jung Yeon Heo; Ji Yun Noh; Won Suk Choi; Dae Won Park; Jacob Lee; Hye Won Jeong; Sae Yoon Kee; Woo Joo Kim

2011-01-01

188

Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare

Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

2009-01-01

189

The Potential Economic Impact of Avian Flu Pandemic on Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the potential consequences of an outbreak of avian influenza (H5N1) on Taiwan¡¦s macro economy and individual industries. Both the Input-Output (IO) Analysis Model and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model are used to simulate the possible damage brought by lowering domestic consumption, export, and labor supply. The simulation results indicates that if the disease is confined within the

Ching-Cheng Chang; Duu-Hwa Lee; Hsin-Chun Lin; Shih-Shun Hsu

2007-01-01

190

Pathogens Gone Wild? Medical Anthropology and the “Swine FluPandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with

Merrill Singer

2009-01-01

191

Swine flu: lessons we need to learn from our global experience  

PubMed Central

There are important lessons to be learnt from the recent ‘Swine Flupandemic. Before we call it a pandemic, we need to have appropriate trigger points that involve not only the spread of the virus but also its level of virulence. This was not done for H1N1 (swine flu). We need to ensure that we improve the techniques used in trying to decrease the spread of infection—both in the community and within our hospitals. This means improved infection control and hygiene, and the use of masks, alcohol hand rubs and so on. We also need to have a different approach to vaccines. Effective vaccines were produced only after the epidemic had passed and therefore had relatively little impact in preventing many infections. Mass population strategies involving vaccines and antivirals also misused large amounts of scarce medical resources.

Collignon, Peter

2011-01-01

192

Swine flu: lessons we need to learn from our global experience.  

PubMed

There are important lessons to be learnt from the recent 'Swine Flu' pandemic. Before we call it a pandemic, we need to have appropriate trigger points that involve not only the spread of the virus but also its level of virulence. This was not done for H1N1 (swine flu). We need to ensure that we improve the techniques used in trying to decrease the spread of infection-both in the community and within our hospitals. This means improved infection control and hygiene, and the use of masks, alcohol hand rubs and so on. We also need to have a different approach to vaccines. Effective vaccines were produced only after the epidemic had passed and therefore had relatively little impact in preventing many infections. Mass population strategies involving vaccines and antivirals also misused large amounts of scarce medical resources. PMID:24149036

Collignon, Peter

2011-07-05

193

UK newspapers' representations of the 2009-10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?  

PubMed Central

Background A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. Objective To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Methods Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Results Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media ‘over-hyping’ the swine flu pandemic. Conclusions The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009–10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty.

Hunt, Kate

2010-01-01

194

Evolutionary complexities of swine flu H1N1 gene sequences of 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently emerged novel influenza A (H1N1) virus continues to spread globally. The pandemic caused by this new H1N1 swine influenza virus presents an opportunity to analyze the evolutionary significance of the origin of the new strain of swine flu. Our study clearly suggests that strong purifying selection is responsible for the evolution of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus

Niladri Kumar Sinha; Ayan Roy; Ballari Das; Santasabuj Das; Surajit Basak

2009-01-01

195

National swine flu adult assessment guidelines: retrospective validation of objective criteria in three proxy datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo validate the objective criteria in the Department of Health Adult Swine Flu Assessment Tool against proxy datasets for pandemic influenza.DesignComparative validation study with 3 datasets.SettingUrban Emergency Department (group 1) and prehospital care (groups 2 and 3).ParticipantsAdults with community-acquired pneumonia (group 1, n=281), shortness of breath (group 2, n=211) or any respiratory diagnosis (group 3, n=300).Outcome measuresHospital admission (group 1),

K. Challen; A. Bentley; J. Bright; J. Gray; D. Walter

2010-01-01

196

Key features for designing M2 proton channel anti swine flu inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

M2 is a crucial influenza virus proton channel that facilitates viral infection. One of the common treatments for influenza is to inhibit M2 function. However, these commercially available M2 inhibitors became less effective against new drug-resistance viral strains, such as the H1N1 influenza virus that caused 2009 flu pandemic. Therefore, it became urgent to develop more effective drugs against the

Tung-Ti Chang; Mao-Feng Sun; Hsin-Yi Chen; Fuu-Jen Tsai; Jaung-Geng Lin; Calvin Yu-Chian Chen

2011-01-01

197

Swine flu vaccination: uptake and determinants of vaccination in pregnant women and hospital staff in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, the World Health Organisation declared swine flu (H1N1) as a pandemic worldwide. Accordingly, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Royal College of General Practitioners and Irish Health Service Executive recommended vaccination against H1N1 for all pregnant women after 14 weeks of gestation, and healthcare workers.The objectives of this study were to assess participant knowledge of H1N1, estimate

CM McCarthy; A Arya

2010-01-01

198

Not just for the birds. Assessing your medical practice for pandemic readiness.  

PubMed

Is your medical practice ready to deal with a pandemic avian flu--or any other potentially lethal disease? Your pandemic response plan should anticipate progressive levels relative to the event's severity. The degree of the outbreak will affect patients, staffing, supplies and basic services such as telephone, electricity, mail, Internet, water and repair support. It's likely that we can't depend on the federal government to come to our aid in a pandemic - resources will be spread too thin. The best defense is planning and preparedness. The practice that chooses not to plan for disasters risks loss of staff, patients and community status when catastrophe occurs. PMID:17803101

Cole, Ronnie L

2007-08-01

199

A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.  

PubMed Central

ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic.

Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

2001-01-01

200

An influenza A H1N1 virus revival – pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, the so-called pandemic H1N1\\/09 virus (former designations include swine influenza,\\u000a novel influenza, swine-origin influenza A [H1N1] virus [S-OIV], Mexican flu, North American Flu) was identified in Mexico.\\u000a The virus has since spread throughout the world and caused an influenza pandemic as defined by the criteria of the World Health\\u000a Organization.

M. Michaelis; H. W. Doerr; J. Cinatl Jr

2009-01-01

201

FluBreaks: Early Epidemic Detection from Google Flu Trends  

PubMed Central

Background The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. Objective To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. Methods We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Results Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region’s population size. Regions with larger populations (regions 4 and 6) had higher values of EA than region 10 (which had the smallest population) for negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms. The difference was 12.5% and 13.5% on average in negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms, respectively. Conclusions We present the first detailed comparative analysis of popular early epidemic detection algorithms on Google Flu Trends data. We note that realizing this opportunity requires moving beyond the cumulative sum and historical limits method-based normal distribution approaches, traditionally employed by the CDC, to negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms to deal with potentially noisy search query data from regions with varying population and Internet penetrations. Based on our work, we have developed FluBreaks, an early warning system for flu epidemics using Google Flu Trends.

Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

2012-01-01

202

Joining the dots on the emergence of pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

Extensive research in the last 20 years has unveiled some of the factors associated with the emergence of pandemic influenza A viruses. Nonetheless, numerous extrinsic and virological factors are yet to be fully understood, especially with reference to their interconnection and interdependence. Knowledge gathered so far has motivated the scientific community to embrace the One Health-One Flu concept and to explore new scientific approaches in the field of influenza infections in order to make educated decisions when it comes to pandemic preparedness. As a result of this awareness, risk assessment methodology is currently being explored as a new tool to estimate the pandemic potential of influenza viruses circulating in animals, underlining the urgency for interdisciplinary collaboration and the need to share updated and high quality scientific and surveillance data. PMID:23643193

Capua, Ilaria

2013-04-30

203

[Catarrhal epidemic disease (flu?) prevailed in Poland in 1788 in the light of "announcement" of March 31 of the same year].  

PubMed

In the second half of the eighteenth century the plague still decimated the population. The poor sanitary condition of towns and villages, insufficient hygiene, poverty, war were favored their spread. In view of the threats more and more were of interest to the government. One of them was catarrhal epidemic disease about the presence in Poland says "Notice" of 31 March 1788. As the result of this document this epidemic prevailed in almost all of Poland from March to April 1788, spreading rapidly and caused concern to the king and the Permanent Council. This resulted in that the royal physicians elaborated the guidance on symptoms and treatment methods and to make them public in press. In the absence of adequate access to medical care, this was a help to the population, which, based on generally available measures to address the disease itself. Given in the "Notice" treatment does not deviate from the commonly used depended on the severity of symptoms and was based on herbs and preparations expectorants, laxatives, emetics, and bloodlettings. The described of symptoms in "Notice" indicate that the disease could be flu for which the epidemic in this time says - not only in Poland but other European countries--the other references works. Under discussion subjected also the relationship between the flu epidemic of 1788 and the pandemic of the disease in the years 1782-1782. PMID:23484405

Kempi?ska-Miros?awska, Bogumi?a

2012-01-01

204

Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

2010-05-25

205

Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland.  

PubMed

The 1918 influenza pandemic known as the "Spanish Flu" has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide mortality ranging from 20 to 100 million deaths. Using epidemic modeling and hospital notification data during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, we estimated the reproductive numbers of the first and second waves of influenza infection to be R(1)=1.49 (95% CI: 1.45-1.53) and R(2)=3.75 (95% CI: 3.57-3.93), respectively. Our estimates indicate that containment of the next influenza pandemic could require strict interventions that include effective isolation strategies in hospitals and reductions in the susceptibility of the general population. PMID:16782243

Chowell, G; Ammon, C E; Hengartner, N W; Hyman, J M

2006-06-05

206

Special features of the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (09 S-OIV) has reminded the world about the global threat of the\\u000a ever changing influenza virus, many questions regarding the detailed re-assortment of influenza viruses yet remain unanswered.\\u000a Influenza A virus is the causative agent of the pandemic flu and contains 2 major antigenic glycoproteins on its surface:\\u000a (i) hemagglutinin (HA);

Christopher John Vavricka; Yue Liu; Qing Li; Yi Shi; Yan Wu; YePing Sun; JianXun Qi; George Fu Gao

2011-01-01

207

CDC Reports More Americans Getting Flu Shots  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. CDC Reports More Americans Getting Flu Shots But overall rate still low, so officials urge ... more Americans than ever are getting their annual flu shots, U.S. health officials said Thursday that the rates ...

208

Flu Vaccine Not Tied to Pregnancy Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Pregnant women who get flu shots are at no greater risk for complications like ... on 74,000 women who had received a flu shot while pregnant, in any trimester, and compared them ...

209

Innovations Expand Types of Seasonal Flu Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... Beware of Fraudulent Flu Products The Evolution, and Revolution, of Flu Vaccines - Page Last Updated: 09/26/ ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs ...

210

Is It a Cold or the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS

... Issue Past Issues Is It a Cold or the Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Cold Flu ... at the beginning of the illness Stuffy Nose Common Sometimes ...

211

Comparison: Flu Prescription Sales Data from a Retail Pharmacy in the US with Google Flu Trends and US ILINet (CDC) Data as Flu Activity Indicator  

PubMed Central

The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) for five years' aggregate data (2007–2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98).

Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

2012-01-01

212

Clinical Professionals Brief on Swine Flu Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

I encourage all clinical staff to consider carefully the evidence for swine flu vaccination in order to protect their patients, colleagues, families and themselves. This is particularly important at a time when demand on clinical services within the NHS may be high. Vaccination of frontline healthcare workers against swine flu remains a key aspect of the NHS swine flu resilience

Bruce Keogh

213

Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (“flu”) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 2009–2010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 2009–2010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 2009–2010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs.

2013-01-01

214

Flu vaccine admixture of mannan and flu antigen  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a vaccine composition comprising a carbohydrate polymer comprising mannose and flu antigen(s) (e.g. whole inactivated influenza virus) in admixture, and a method of immunising a subject comprising the step of administering the vaccine composition to a subject.

2012-05-22

215

Designing Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infections (including those of the H5N1 subtype) in poultry\\u000a and in humans (through contact with infected birds) have raised concerns that a new influenza pandemic will soon occur. Effective\\u000a vaccines against H5N1 virus are therefore urgently needed. Reverse genetics-based inactivated vaccines have been prepared\\u000a according to WHO recommendations and licensed in

Taisuke Horimoto; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

216

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine.  

PubMed

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies. PMID:19549302

Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

2009-06-23

217

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies.

Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

2009-01-01

218

Reflections on the 1976 swine flu vaccination program.  

PubMed

In 1976, 2 recruits at Fort Dix, New Jersey, had an influenza like illness. Isolates of virus taken from them included A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1n1), a strain similar to the virus believed at the time to be the cause of the 1918 pandemic, commonly known as swine flu. Serologic studies at Fort Dix suggested that >200 soldiers had been infected and that person-to-person transmission had occurred. We review the process by which these events led to the public health decision to mass-vaccinate the American public against the virus and the subsequent events that led to the program's cancellation. Observations of policy and implementation success and failures are presented that could help guide decisions regarding avian influenza. PMID:16494713

Sencer, David J; Millar, J Donald

2006-01-01

219

Flu and People with Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

... Population News & Highlights Avian Flu Current Situation In Birds In Humans Past Outbreaks Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus H5N1 In Birds and Other Animals H5N1 In Humans H5N1 Genetic ...

220

Computer-assisted resilience training to prepare healthcare workers for pandemic influenza: a randomized trial of the optimal dose of training  

PubMed Central

Background Working in a hospital during an extraordinary infectious disease outbreak can cause significant stress and contribute to healthcare workers choosing to reduce patient contact. Psychological training of healthcare workers prior to an influenza pandemic may reduce stress-related absenteeism, however, established training methods that change behavior and attitudes are too resource-intensive for widespread use. This study tests the feasibility and effectiveness of a less expensive alternative - an interactive, computer-assisted training course designed to build resilience to the stresses of working during a pandemic. Methods A "dose-finding" study compared pre-post changes in three different durations of training. We measured variables that are likely to mediate stress-responses in a pandemic before and after training: confidence in support and training, pandemic-related self-efficacy, coping style and interpersonal problems. Results 158 hospital workers took the course and were randomly assigned to the short (7 sessions, median cumulative duration 111 minutes), medium (12 sessions, 158 minutes) or long (17 sessions, 223 minutes) version. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, the course was associated with significant improvements in confidence in support and training, pandemic self-efficacy and interpersonal problems. Participants who under-utilized coping via problem-solving or seeking support or over-utilized escape-avoidance experienced improved coping. Comparison of doses showed improved interpersonal problems in the medium and long course but not in the short course. There was a trend towards higher drop-out rates with longer duration of training. Conclusions Computer-assisted resilience training in healthcare workers appears to be of significant benefit and merits further study under pandemic conditions. Comparing three "doses" of the course suggested that the medium course was optimal.

2010-01-01

221

Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Deaths during the 1918–19 influenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent influenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel influenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-limited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of bacteria to produce highly lethal pneumonias. This sequential-infection hypothesis is consistent with characteristics of the 1918–19 pandemic, contemporaneous expert opinion, and current knowledge regarding the pathophysiologic effects of influenza viruses and their interactions with respiratory bacteria. This hypothesis suggests opportunities for prevention and treatment during the next pandemic (e.g., with bacterial vaccines and antimicrobial drugs), particularly if a pandemic strain–specific vaccine is unavailable or inaccessible to isolated, crowded, or medically underserved populations.

Shanks, G. Dennis

2008-01-01

222

Extending the environmental risk assessment for oseltamivir (Tamiflu ®) under pandemic use conditions to the coastal marine compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In case of an avian-influenza-derived human flu pandemic, an inordinately high use of medicines over several weeks is predicted, in particular for the recommended influenza antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu). While the risk of oseltamivir to sewage works and freshwater bodies has already been assessed, the fact that a large percentage of the human population worldwide lives relatively close to the sea

Thomas H. Hutchinson; Amanda Beesley; Patricia E. Frickers; James W. Readman; Jenny P. Shaw; Jürg Oliver Straub

2009-01-01

223

Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957

Rui Xu; Ryan McBride; James C. Paulson; Christopher F. Basler; Ian A. Wilson

2010-01-01

224

Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3%) were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3%) were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53%) were found among young people with ? 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type. Conclusion The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type.

2011-01-01

225

Department of Health and Human Services - Report to Congress: Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Spending. Prepared in Response to Request in Conference Report 109-359, January 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concern surrounding the threat of an influenza pandemic sparked by the existence of a novel influenza virus reemerged in August 2005 when animal outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were reported in twelve countries around the world w...

2009-01-01

226

Computer-assisted resilience training to prepare healthcare workers for pandemic influenza: a randomized trial of the optimal dose of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Working in a hospital during an extraordinary infectious disease outbreak can cause significant stress and contribute to healthcare workers choosing to reduce patient contact. Psychological training of healthcare workers prior to an influenza pandemic may reduce stress-related absenteeism, however, established training methods that change behavior and attitudes are too resource-intensive for widespread use. This study tests the feasibility and

Robert G Maunder; William J Lancee; Reet Mae; Leslie Vincent; Nathalie Peladeau; Mary Agnes Beduz; Jonathan J Hunter; Molyn Leszcz

2010-01-01

227

Pandemic Influenza: Current Perspectives  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... CDC. Why are so afraid of bird flu? INFLUENZA. DIVISION. Increased swine influenza detection in humans 2005-9. January ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

228

[1918 lurks in everybody's mind. The "Spanish" flu and us].  

PubMed

The 1918 pandemic is still unique in the history of flu pandemics. The pathogenicity of the virus was extreme, and young adults more than infants and old people were its main victims. Many a death was caused by complications. The response of the French authorities didn't live up to the emergency requirements. Hospitals being requisitioned by the military, the civilian population lacked everything: beds, doctors, nurses, ambulances, drugs. For want of preventive or curative medicine, authorities could have done very little at any rate: public health measures (quarantine and isolation of the sicks) were unable to stop contagion. More than the war itself, present day historians indict the war-boosted increase in railways and sea communications between the continents and between the rear and the front. This momentous growth in transportation activities brought about a "bacterial equalization" throughout social categories and regions of the world. A most singular episode, whose historical chances to replicate within the next ten years are rather slim. PMID:16962054

Zylberman, Patrick

229

Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic.

Savard, Christian; Guerin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilene; Laliberte-Gagne, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

2011-01-01

230

Pregnancy and the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus: experiences in Leicester including the women referred for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since April 2009, the novel pandemic A\\/H1N1 influenza virus began causing illness in the UK. While causing mild flu-like symptoms in the majority of cases, the virus has been also identified as the cause of an outbreak of febrile respiratory infection.34 confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 in pregnant women were admitted to the maternity unit in Leicester. Leicester Glenfield Hospital

A Moronke; G Faulkner; F Siddiqui; C Roy; R Firmin

2010-01-01

231

Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output\\u000a of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian\\u000a flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http:\\/\\/www.avian-flu.info) from

Di Liu; Quan-He Liu; Lin-Huan Wu; Bin Liu; Jun Wu; Yi-Mei Lao; Xiao-Jing Li; George Fu Gao; Jun-Cai Ma

2009-01-01

232

Implications of pandemic influenza for bioterrorism response.  

PubMed

The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) had catastrophic effects upon urban populations in the United States. Large numbers of frightened, critically ill people overwhelmed health care providers. Mortuaries and cemeteries were severely strained by rapid accumulation of corpses of flu victims. Understanding of the outbreak's extent and effectiveness of containment measures was obscured by the swiftness of the disease and an inadequate health reporting system. Epidemic controls such as closing public gathering places elicited both community support and resistance, and fear of contagion incited social and ethnic tensions. Review of this infamous outbreak is intended to advance discussions among health professionals and policymakers about an effective medical and public health response to bioterrorism, an infectious disease crisis of increasing likelihood. Elements of an adequate response include building capacity to care for mass casualties, providing emergency burials that respect social mores, properly characterizing the outbreak, earning public confidence in epidemic containment measures, protecting against social discrimination, and fairly allocating health resources. PMID:11096011

Schoch-Spana, M

2000-11-17

233

Science and Technology Review. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Livermore's Biosecurity Research Directly Benefits Public Health; Diagnosing Flu Fast (Livermore's FluIDx device can diagnose flu and four other respiratory viruses in just two hours); An Action Plan to Reopen a Contaminated Airport (New plannin...

H. B. Radousky

2006-01-01

234

Should I Get a Flu Shot if I Have Psoriasis?  

MedlinePLUS

... your anxiety. People who have psoriasis can get flu shots While people who have psoriasis should not get ... smallpox, they can get the 2009 - 2010: Seasonal flu shot H1N1 (a.k.a swine flu) shot Notice ...

235

Protect the Circle of Life: The Flu & You  

MedlinePLUS

... HELP PREVENT the SPREAD ofthe FLU • Get a flu vaccine each year. • Stop the spread of germs, including ... for you. PROTECT YOURSELF. PROTECT YOUR PEOPLE. The influenza vaccine is safe. You can’t get the flu ...

236

2009 H1N1 (Swine) Flu Virus (Biologics)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Related Information. H1N1 Flu Vaccination Resources (CDC); CDC H1N1 Flu Page; Flu.gov; World Health Organization (WHO) Exit Disclaimer. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/vaccinesafety

237

Pandemic Influenza: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay, written ten years after the first human death from avian influenza, reviews scientific, social, and policy aspects of pandemic influenza, and asks whether the near-crisis level of concern is justified. That there will be another influenza pandemic is certain, and a number of factors suggest it will occur sooner rather than later. It is impossible, however, to predict

Landis MacKellar

2007-01-01

238

Pandemic Planning Update IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How will we know when a pandemic begins. The answer to that key question has driven the search for new and better ways to scan the world for clues that a pandemic influenza virus might be emerging. In April 2007, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) aw...

2007-01-01

239

Flu Season Is Around the Corner - Get Vaccinated to Protect You and Your Loved Ones from Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Flu Season Is Around the Corner - Get Vaccinated to Protect ... Get Vaccinated . Get a Flu Vaccine Every Flu Season You should get vaccinated every year for two ...

240

Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A\\/California\\/04\\/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody

Rui Xu; Damian C. Ekiert; Jens C. Krause; Rong Hai; Crowe Jr. James E; Ian A. Wilson

2010-01-01

241

The impact of the H1N1 pandemic in pregnancy – a district General Hospital Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSwine flu (Influenza A H1N1) has been implicated in 289 deaths in England since it reached pandemic levels in April 2009. At least 2 pregnant women in the UK are thought to have died directly as a result of H1N1. The authors describe our experiences.Case 1: A 17-year-old brittle asthmatic, 22 weeks pregnant with twins, was admitted with bibasal pneumonia.

C Mullan; J Davies

2010-01-01

242

Transmission and control of an emerging influenza pandemic in a small-world airline network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avian influenza virus H5N1 and the 2009 swine flu H1N1 are potentially serious pandemic threats to human health, and air travel readily facilitates the spread of infectious diseases. However, past studies have not yet incorporated the effects of air travel on the transmission of influenza in the construction of mathematical epidemic models. Therefore, this paper focused on the human-to-human

Chaug-Ing Hsu; Hsien-Hung Shih

2010-01-01

243

Why was the 2009 influenza pandemic in England so small?  

PubMed

The "Swine flu" pandemic of 2009 caused world-wide infections and deaths. Early efforts to understand its rate of spread were used to predict the probable future number of cases, but by the end of 2009 it was clear that these predictions had substantially overestimated the pandemic's eventual impact. In England, the Health Protection Agency made announcements of the number of cases of disease, which turned out to be surprisingly low for an influenza pandemic. The agency also carried out a serological survey half-way through the English epidemic. In this study, we use a mathematical model to reconcile early estimates of the rate of spread of infection, weekly data on the number of cases in the 2009 epidemic in England and the serological status of the English population at the end of the first pandemic wave. Our results reveal that if there are around 19 infections (i.e., seroconverters) for every reported case then the three data-sets are entirely consistent with each other. We go on to discuss when in the epidemic such a high ratio of seroconverters to cases of disease might have been detected, either through patterns in the case reports or through even earlier serological surveys. PMID:22348001

Kubiak, Ruben J; McLean, Angela R

2012-02-10

244

Is It a Cold or the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS

Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual; high (100°F to 102°F, occasionally higher, especially in young children); lasts 3 to ... can be life-threatening. Complications more likely in the elderly, those with chronic ... Diseases November 2008 www.niaid.nih.gov

245

OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch.

Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

2010-01-01

246

Pandemic Planning Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza assigns responsibility to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for leading the Federal Governments animal health efforts to combat highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenz...

2006-01-01

247

Transmission by super-spreading event of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza during road and train travel.  

PubMed

The investigation of clustered cases of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection (21 children, 3 adults) during a summer camp, led to the identification of transportation as the circumstance of transmission. Results suggest that super-spreading of flu can occur in a confined space without sufficient air renewal. PMID:22148980

Pestre, Vincent; Morel, Bruno; Encrenaz, Nathalie; Brunon, Amandine; Lucht, Frédéric; Pozzetto, Bruno; Berthelot, Philippe

2011-12-08

248

Interest of a simple on-line screening registry for measuring ICU burden related to an influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The specific burden imposed on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during the A/H1N1 influenza 2009 pandemic has been poorly explored. An on-line screening registry allowed a daily report of ICU beds occupancy rate by flu infected patients (Flu-OR) admitted in French ICUs. METHODS: We conducted a prospective inception cohort study with results of an on-line screening registry designed for daily assessment of ICU burden. RESULTS: Among the 108 centers participating to the French H1N1 research network on mechanical ventilation (REVA) - French Society of Intensive Care (SRLF) registry, 69 ICUs belonging to seven large geographical areas voluntarily participated in a website screening-registry. The aim was to daily assess the ICU beds occupancy rate by influenza-infected and non-infected patients for at least three weeks. Three hundred ninety-one critically ill infected patients were enrolled in the cohort, representing a subset of 35% of the whole French 2009 pandemic cohort; 73% were mechanically ventilated, 13% required extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22% died. The global Flu-OR in these ICUs was only 7.6%, but it exceeded a predefined 15% critical threshold in 32 ICUs for a total of 103 weeks. Flu-ORs were significantly higher in University than in non-University hospitals. The peak ICU burden was poorly predicted by observations obtained at the level of large geographical areas. CONCLUSIONS: The peak Flu-OR during the pandemic significantly exceeded a 15% critical threshold in almost half of the ICUs, with an uneven distribution with time, geographical areas and between University and non-University hospitals. An on-line assessment of Flu-OR via a simple dedicated registry may contribute to better match resources and needs. PMID:22776231

Richard, Jean-Christophe Marie; Pham, Tài; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Reignier, Jean; Mercat, Alain; Beduneau, Gaëtan; Régnier, Bernard; Mourvillier, Bruno; Guitton, Christophe; Castanier, Matthias; Combes, Alain; Tulzo, Yves Le; Brochard, Laurent

2012-07-01

249

Interest of a simple on-line screening registry for measuring ICU burden related to an influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Introduction The specific burden imposed on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during the A/H1N1 influenza 2009 pandemic has been poorly explored. An on-line screening registry allowed a daily report of ICU beds occupancy rate by flu infected patients (Flu-OR) admitted in French ICUs. Methods We conducted a prospective inception cohort study with results of an on-line screening registry designed for daily assessment of ICU burden. Results Among the 108 centers participating to the French H1N1 research network on mechanical ventilation (REVA) - French Society of Intensive Care (SRLF) registry, 69 ICUs belonging to seven large geographical areas voluntarily participated in a website screening-registry. The aim was to daily assess the ICU beds occupancy rate by influenza-infected and non-infected patients for at least three weeks. Three hundred ninety-one critically ill infected patients were enrolled in the cohort, representing a subset of 35% of the whole French 2009 pandemic cohort; 73% were mechanically ventilated, 13% required extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22% died. The global Flu-OR in these ICUs was only 7.6%, but it exceeded a predefined 15% critical threshold in 32 ICUs for a total of 103 weeks. Flu-ORs were significantly higher in University than in non-University hospitals. The peak ICU burden was poorly predicted by observations obtained at the level of large geographical areas. Conclusions The peak Flu-OR during the pandemic significantly exceeded a 15% critical threshold in almost half of the ICUs, with an uneven distribution with time, geographical areas and between University and non-University hospitals. An on-line assessment of Flu-OR via a simple dedicated registry may contribute to better match resources and needs.

2012-01-01

250

H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Avian/Bird Flu) H1N1 (originally referred to as Swine Flu) The H1N1 flu virus caused a world- ... human seasonal flu virus that also circulates in pigs. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the ...

251

Epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 strains in a tertiary hospital of Maharashtra.  

PubMed

Swine-flu is a viral fever caused by a new mutated strain Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, which infects humans. Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1/2009) virus was detected in the first quarter of 2009 in the west coastal region of North America and spread very rapidly to the other countries during April-June, 2009. This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 strains using a cross-sectional study design in a tertiary hospital. The symptomatic patients attending the flu outpatient department (OPD)/emergency from August 2009 to April 2011 at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur were included using a standard case definition. A total of 67 (27.01%) samples from 247 patients were pandemic influenza A/H1N1 positive. None of the patients had a history of foreign travel, whereas 23.88% of the patients gave history of travel to an endemic area. Overall, 22.38% of the patients came in contact with proven cases of pandemic H1N1. pH1N1 transmission activity has increased since May 2010. PMID:23229220

Shrikhande, Sunanda; Bhoyar, S K; Tenpe, S H; Deogade, N G

252

Flu epidemic: shots, new treatments available.  

PubMed

The flu can be more threatening to persons with HIV disease than to the general population. Persons with HIV disease need to contact their physician to determine if they should receive a flu shot. A physician should also provide information on how and when to obtain the shot, and the prevalence of an influenza epidemic in the persons' geographic area. If a person already has the flu, two new drugs, Tamiflu and Relenza (zanamivir), are now available. Advice from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to physicians on prescribing influenza drugs and contact information are provided. PMID:11367203

James, J S

2000-01-21

253

Applying social science and public health methods to community-based pandemic planning.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza is a unique threat to communities, affecting schools, businesses, health facilities and individuals in ways not seen in other emergency events. This paper aims to outline a local government project which utilised public health and social science research methods to facilitate the creation of an emergency response plan for pandemic influenza coincidental to the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 ('swine flu') outbreak. A multi-disciplinary team coordinated the creation of a pandemic influenza emergency response plan which utilised emergency planning structure and concepts and encompassed a diverse array of county entities including schools, businesses, community organisations, government agencies and healthcare facilities. Lessons learned from this project focus on the need for (1) maintaining relationships forged during the planning process, (2) targeted public health messaging, (3) continual evolution of emergency plans, (4) mutual understanding of emergency management concepts by business and community leaders, and (5) regional coordination with entities outside county boundaries. PMID:21177224

Danforth, Elizabeth J; Doying, Annette; Merceron, Georges; Kennedy, Laura

2010-11-01

254

The changing nature and scope of public health emergencies in response to annual flu.  

PubMed

The rapid spread of influenza during the 2012-13 season brought a series of public health challenges and corresponding response efforts. For decades, responses to annual flu have been undertaken routinely without extensive legal intervention. With the recent declaration of states of public health emergencies in Boston (January 9, 2013) and New York State (January 12, 2013), however, the legal baseline is changing. Propelled by a slate of state and local emergency declarations during the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, public officials are beginning to show cause for the issuance of formal emergency declarations in support of flu response efforts. The legal effects of these types of declarations are profound. Public and private actors are given significant, expedited public health powers. Scarce resources like vaccines can be more efficiently allocated. Laws relating to licensure, scope of practice, and liability can be effectively waived. Though originally conceptualized and once reserved for catastrophic, long-term health-related or bioterrorism events, public health emergency declarations are evolving to address temporary impacts on health care and public health services arising annually from flu outbreaks. This commentary explores the changing nature of public health emergencies and their current and potential impact on the provision of healthcare services in response to national or regional threats to the public's health. PMID:23641729

Hodge, James G

2013-05-03

255

A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the promise of a new universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary. However, due to complacency behavior, it remains unclear whether the introduction of such vaccines would maintain high and stable levels of vaccination coverage year after year. Findings To predict the impact of universal long-term flu vaccines on influenza epidemics we developed a mathematical model that linked human cognition and memory with the transmission dynamics of influenza. Our modeling shows that universal vaccines that provide short-term protection are likely to result in small frequent epidemics, whereas universal vaccines that provide long-term protection are likely to result in severe infrequent epidemics. Conclusions Influenza vaccines that provide short-term protection maintain risk awareness regarding influenza in the population and result in stable vaccination coverage. Vaccines that provide long-term protection could lead to substantial drops in vaccination coverage and should therefore include an annual epidemic risk awareness programs in order to minimize the risk of severe epidemics.

2010-01-01

256

[Cognitive, affective and behavioral changes in crisis: preventing swine flu infection].  

PubMed

Calling attention to potential risks does not always lead to preventative actions. To investigate changes in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses towards potential risks, longitudinal studies targeting nonclinical samples of undergraduate students were conducted at 4 time points (April, May, June, and July 2009) during the outbreak of swine flu in 2009, which eventually developed in to a global pandemic. During the course of the study, the risk of swine flu infection for the seventy-nine participants became more and more self-relevant as the situation developed in the news and as their university was temporarily closed off. The results indicate that despite increasing knowledge about the swine flu, the level of anxiety showed steady decrease as the time went by. Similarly, despite the expanding infection around the globe, the level of preventative behavior remained low. Moreover, participants reported perceiving their own risk to be significantly lower than that of average undergraduate students at all time points. These findings indicate that even when potential risks are clearly communicated, too much information, saturated emotions, and optimistic bias may obstruct people from taking appropriate preventative actions. PMID:21061513

Oikawa, Haruka; Oikawa, Masanori

2010-10-01

257

Bird flu, influenza and 1918: the case for mutant Avian tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Influenza is Italian for "influence", Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide. A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer "Influenza" Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, "flu" does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off. Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the "Influenza virus" on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: "Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths". Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin. By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas just prior to the first human outbreaks was a disease of avian and human tuberculosis genetically combined through mycobacteriophage interchange, with the pig, susceptible to both, as its involuntary living culture medium. What are the implications of mistaking a virus such as Influenza A for what mycobacterial disease is actually causing? They would be disastrous, with useless treatment and preventative stockpiles. The obvious need for further investigation is presently imminent and pressing. PMID:16806732

Broxmeyer, Lawrence

2006-06-27

258

Surveillance of perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the Italian adult population (18–69 years) during the 2009–2010 A\\/H1N1 influenza pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of populations during pandemic flu outbreaks is important as it\\u000a allows communication strategies to be adjusted to meet emerging needs and assessment to be made of the effects of recommendations\\u000a for prevention. The ongoing Italian Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (PASSI) offered the setting for investigating\\u000a people’s opinions and behaviors regarding the A\\/H1N1 pandemic.

Gianluigi Ferrante; Sandro Baldissera; Pirous Fateh Moghadam; Giuliano Carrozzi; Massimo Oddone Trinito; Stefania Salmaso

2011-01-01

259

HIV/AIDS and the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers HIV (human immunodeficiency ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with HIV/ ...

260

A Model for Characterizing Annual Flu Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza outbreaks occur seasonally and peak during winter season in temperate zones of the Northern and Southern hemisphere.\\u000a The occurrence and recurrence of flu epidemics has been alluded to variability in mechanisms such temperature, climate, host\\u000a contact and traveling patterns [4]. This work promotes a Gaussian–type regression model to study flu outbreak trends and predict\\u000a new cases based on influenza–like–illness

Miriam Nuño; Marcello Pagano

2007-01-01

261

Pandemic influenza and the hospitalist: apocalypse when?  

PubMed

Beginning with a cluster of human cases in Hong Kong in 1997, avian influenza (H5N1) has spread progressively through, and beyond, Asia in poultry and other birds; and has resulted in sporadic cases of human disease associated with high mortality. The potential for H5N1 influenza to cause a pandemic of human disease continues to be the subject of intense scrutiny by both the media and the scientific community. While the likelihood of such a prospect is uncertain, the inevitability of future pandemics of influenza is clear. Planning for the eventuality of a virulent influenza pandemic at the local, national and global level is critical to limiting the mortality and morbidity of such an occurrence. Hospitalists have a key role to play in institutional efforts to prepare for a influenza pandemic, and should be aware of lessons that my be applied from both the response to Hurricane Katrina, as well as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. PMID:17219482

Pile, James C; Gordon, Steven M

2006-03-01

262

Impact of flu on hospital admissions during 4 flu seasons in Spain, 2000–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Seasonal flu epidemics in the European region cause high numbers of cases and deaths. Flu-associated mortality has been estimated but morbidity studies are necessary to understand the burden of disease in the population. Our objective was to estimate the excess hospital admissions in Spain of diseases associated with influenza during four epidemic influenza periods (2000 – 2004). METHODS: Hospital

Annick D Lenglet; Victoria Hernando; Pilar Rodrigo; Amparo Larrauri; Juan DM Donado; Salvador de Mateo

2007-01-01

263

A pandemic warning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of new influenza type-A viruses, carrying different combinations of the viral envelope glycoproteins haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), have led to three major pandemics of influenza in humans this century. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these viruses have originated from avian influenza A viruses, either unchanged or after reassortment with humaninfluenza A viruses. In aquatic birds, all of the known

J. C. de Jong; E. C. J. Claas; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; R. G. Webster; W. L. Lim

1997-01-01

264

Human swine influenza A [H1N1]: practical advice for clinicians early in the pandemic.  

PubMed

The influenza pandemic the world was waiting for may have arrived, but the early indications are that the first wave of human swine influenza A [H1N1], also referred to as H1N1 Mexico 09 or "swine flu", is highly transmissible but of no greater virulence than seasonal influenza to date. The new swine flu H1N1 virus is a mixture of avian, porcine and human influenza RNA. With twenty thousand confirmed cases worldwide and 117 deaths within 7 weeks of the first acknowledgement of a possible pandemic by Mexican and WHO experts, the mortality rate is less than 0.1% and the majority of deaths centred upon the origin of the epidemic in Mexico [83%]. Swine flu is thus far a relatively mild illness seen predominantly in those who are healthy and under 25 years of age, perhaps reflecting protection from previous human influenza exposure in older people. As the virus spreads internationally, border protection issues have surfaced and public health initiatives are being progressively rolled out to minimise the transmission. Vaccines are being developed which will be trialled in the coming months with a likely availability by August 2009, in time for the northern hemisphere autumn and winter. Vigilance without alarm appears to be the recommendation so far. PMID:19651387

Fitzgerald, Dominic A

2009-07-16

265

Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms. Many different germs, called viruses, cause colds. The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and ( ... What to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - adult; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - adult; ...

266

Get Vaccinated - Flu Activity Expected to Increase in Coming Weeks  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccinated - Flu Activity Expected to Increase in Coming Weeks Everyone 6 months and older should get an annual flu vaccine. It takes about two weeks after vaccination for your body to develop an ...

267

Flu Can Kill Even Healthy Children, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Can Kill Even Healthy Children, Study Finds Unvaccinated ... October 28, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Flu MONDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Children, even those ...

268

Awareness and acceptance of the pandemic influenza (H1N1v 2009) vaccination among antenatal patients in a district general hospital.  

PubMed

Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was the cause of worldwide respiratory infection in 2009. The majority of these infections were self-limiting, however, high-risk groups, including pregnant women were at increased risk of mortality and morbidity from swine flu. Because of these risks, the World Health Organization recommended that pregnant women should receive the swine flu vaccine during pregnancy. The swine flu vaccine, like the seasonal flu vaccine, is safe to use in pregnancy. In view of the obvious benefits and safety of the pandemic flu vaccine, we decided to undertake a survey to assess the awareness and uptake of the vaccine among pregnant women in our local community. In our survey, lack of counselling from healthcare providers and fears of risks from the vaccine are the main reasons for refusal. For these reasons, healthcare professionals are provided with up-to-date information about the vaccine and are asked to provide this information to pregnant women at all stages of pregnancy in order to increase their awareness and acceptance of the vaccine. PMID:22779956

Moukarram, H; Nargund, A; Photiou, A; Kiran, T S U

2012-08-01

269

Influenza Mortality in the United States, 2009 Pandemic: Burden, Timing and Age Distribution  

PubMed Central

Background In April 2009, the most recent pandemic of influenza A began. We present the first estimates of pandemic mortality based on the newly-released final data on deaths in 2009 and 2010 in the United States. Methods We obtained data on influenza and pneumonia deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Age- and sex-specific death rates, and age-standardized death rates, were calculated. Using negative binomial Serfling-type methods, excess mortality was calculated separately by sex and age groups. Results In many age groups, observed pneumonia and influenza cause-specific mortality rates in October and November 2009 broke month-specific records since 1959 when the current series of detailed US mortality data began. Compared to the typical pattern of seasonal flu deaths, the 2009 pandemic age-specific mortality, as well as influenza-attributable (excess) mortality, skewed much younger. We estimate 2,634 excess pneumonia and influenza deaths in 2009–10; the excess death rate in 2009 was 0.79 per 100,000. Conclusions Pandemic influenza mortality skews younger than seasonal influenza. This can be explained by a protective effect due to antigenic cycling. When older cohorts have been previously exposed to a similar antigen, immune memory results in lower death rates at older ages. Age-targeted vaccination of younger people should be considered in future pandemics.

Nguyen, Ann M.; Noymer, Andrew

2013-01-01

270

Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

2011-01-01

271

[Immunosuppression at pregnancy and flu].  

PubMed

The hypothesis of the development of immunosuppression at the pregnancy is put forward in this review. This hypothesis is explaining the complicated character of the pandemic H1N1pdm09 infection among pregnant women. Physiological immunosuppression at pregnancy is based on suppression of various T-lymphocyte subpopulations using a unique mechanism: dimerization blockade of TcR receptors by special domains known as immunosuppressive sequences. These protein sequences were recognized in placentary Syntcytins and in proteins of pathogenic viruses, including Ebola virus and retroviruses. Among H5N1 and H1N1pdm09 influenza virus homologs of immunosuppressive domains are revealed and identified as the pathogenicity factors. Synthetic peptides, homologs of these domains, suppress an antigen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting of TcR and NKG2D receptor activation. Integration of immunosuppressive domains into T-lymphocyte membrane leads to electrostatic pair formation and dimerization through interaction with transmembrane domains of TcR and NKG2D receptors. PMID:23477246

Kiselev, O I

272

Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu

Grohskopf, Lisa

2012-01-01

273

Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission

Siwi Padmawati; Mark Nichter

2008-01-01

274

F-BF Flu on Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose the swine flu, influenza H1N1, is spreading on a school campus. The following table shows the number of students, $n$, that have the flu $d$ da...

275

Social justice in pandemic preparedness.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies. PMID:22397337

DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

2012-02-16

276

2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu: What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs?  

MedlinePLUS

... against the flu. Antiviral drugs are not sold over-the-counter and are different from antibiotics. You can only get them if you have a prescription from your doctor or health care provider. What ...

277

Avian flu: the wrath of birdzilla or Polly got the sniffles?  

PubMed

The potential damage from an avian flu epidemic is huge, but unlikely. Currently, the virus affects birds and humans who handle dead birds. Only one case of suspected human-to-human transmission exists. If human-to-human transmission can occur with a new strain of the virus, we are susceptible to a pandemic. The many subtypes of influenza act and develop differently. The inflammatory response generated by the virus accounts for the illness. Vaccines are being developed, but the difficulties are real, and the time to success cannot be confidently stated. Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes are common. Treatment has to take into account societal issues as well as the individual health of every patient. PMID:16845151

Musick, Tiffany; Cymet, Holly; Cymet, Tyler Childs

2006-01-01

278

Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

Thomson, Ian

2010-01-01

279

How tobacco protects you against the flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the heading “How tobacco protects you against the flu”, the German chemical industry portrays a tobacco grower in an idyllic tobacco plantation. Despite the recent ban of transnational tobacco advertising within the European Union, using tobacco to promote another industry and potential societal health benefits might indirectly promote the social acceptability of tobacco to social leaders. The tobacco control

N K Schneider; P M Ling

2008-01-01

280

Legal aspects of administering the flu vaccine.  

PubMed

Although effective, the influenza vaccine is not compulsory and it is essential that doctors only administer the injection in accordance with a patient's real and informed consent. This article discusses the requirements for the lawful administration of flu vaccine to both capable and incapable patients. PMID:17370704

Griffith, Richard

2007-02-01

281

Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 – 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept model with the addition of Google Flu Trends, predicted weekly influenza cases during 4 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 80% of estimates (Figure 1). Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by individual medical centers to provide advanced warning of future influenza cases.

Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

2013-01-01

282

The general practice experience of the swine flu epidemic in Victoria--lessons from the front line.  

PubMed

The swine influenza (H1N1 09) outbreak in Victoria has provided an excellent opportunity to review the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) and to assess its performance in practice. General practitioners play a major role in seasonal flu management, and it was expected that the AHMPPI would enable GPs on the front line to maintain this central role during the swine flu pandemic. The role of front-line GPs has been made extremely difficult by deficiencies in implementation of the AHMPPI, including resource supply failures, time-consuming administrative burdens, delays in receiving laboratory test results and approval for provision of oseltamivir to patients, and a lack of clear communication about policy changes as the situation progressed. We must use this experience to ensure timely and appropriate review of the AHMPPI and the way it is implemented. Better consultation with front-line clinicians, particularly GPs, is crucial and must occur as a matter of urgent priority. PMID:19645644

Eizenberg, Peter

2009-08-01

283

[Chile between pandemic: the influenza of 1918, globalization and the new medicine].  

PubMed

In 1918 Chile met the deadly presence of the Spanish influenza pandemic twentieth century's most important. For many historians, this event is an important milestone in the historical process of the unification of the world through sickness and in which our country has been involved. In this context, this paper aims to examine how the flu broke into Chilean society and how that situation helped give new impetus to the modernization of the Chilean public health and the establishment in the 1920s to model new medicine or preventive medicine. PMID:23677160

López, Marcelo; Beltrán, Miriam

2013-04-01

284

Pandemic influenza: confronting a re-emergent threat. The 1976 experience.  

PubMed

The Swine Influenza Immunization Program began in January 1976 with an outbreak of swine influenza among trainees at Ft. Dix, New Jersey. The program ended in December 1976 after an increased incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome was attributed to the vaccine. The issues and events of 1976 provide valuable lessons for the future. A thorough and objective review of the swine flu program should be a prerequisite for influenza pandemic planning. Strong consideration should be given to creating separate structures for risk assessment and risk management. Risk assessment estimates the probability of a pandemic, the options available for control, and the relative benefits of those options as situations change. Risk management is the political response to that assessment. PMID:9240699

Dowdle, W R

1997-08-01

285

[The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].  

PubMed

The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles. PMID:22169920

Witte, W

2011-12-14

286

New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services Influenza Pandemic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This planning document has been designed to ensure that New Jersey is prepared to implement an effective response before an influenza pandemic arrives. The response methods in this plan will help minimize morbidity and mortality, and maintain the operatio...

2002-01-01

287

A Study of the Swine Flu (H1N1) Epidemic Among Health Care Providers of a Medical College Hospital of Delhi  

PubMed Central

Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers) was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.

Rajoura, Om Prakash; Roy, Rupali; Agarwal, Paras; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

2011-01-01

288

The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century  

PubMed Central

The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly known as swine flu) first appeared in Mexico and the United States in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed as a result of airline travel. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to the highest level, Phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents. The 2009 H1N1 virus contains a unique combination of gene segments from human, swine and avian influenza A viruses. Children and young adults appear to be the most affected, perhaps reflecting protection in the elderly owing to exposure to H1N1 strains before 1957. Most clinical disease is relatively mild but complications leading to hospitalization, with the need for intensive care, can occur, especially in very young children, during pregnancy, in morbid obesity, and in those with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung and cardiac diseases, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Bacterial coinfection has played a significant role in fatal cases. The case of fatality has been estimated at around 0.4%. Mathematical modeling suggests that the effect of novel influenza virus can be reduced by immunization, but the question remains: can we produce enough H1N1 vaccine to beat the pandemic?

Al Hajjar, Sami; McIntosh, Kenneth

2010-01-01

289

International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

2010-03-01

290

The Ethics of Care: Social Workers in an Influenza Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many healthcare organizations and government agencies are making detailed preparations for the possibility of a pandemic of highly virulent influenza. All plans to date have recognized that there will undoubtedly be a greater need for medical resources than will be available. Thus, we will be faced with a situation in which not all will be offered curative care, even if

Philip M. Rosoff

2008-01-01

291

Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices  

SciTech Connect

The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

292

Isolation of a High Affinity Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Virus That Binds at the 'Sa' Antigenic Site  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (KD?=?2.1±0.4 pM) murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC50?=?0.08 µg/ml). MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml) against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic) on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein ‘Sa’ and ‘Sb’ sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the ‘Sa’ antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus.

Mishra, Arpita; Yeolekar, Leena; Dhere, Rajeev; Kapre, Subhash; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

293

Isolation of a high affinity neutralizing monoclonal antibody against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus that binds at the 'Sa' antigenic site.  

PubMed

Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (K(D)?=?2.1±0.4 pM) murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC(50)?=?0.08 µg/ml). MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml) against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic) on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein 'Sa' and 'Sb' sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the 'Sa' antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus. PMID:23383214

Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Mishra, Arpita; Yeolekar, Leena; Dhere, Rajeev; Kapre, Subhash; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2013-01-31

294

Influenza Pandemic: Federal Agencies Should Continue to Assist States to Address Gaps in Pandemic Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Implementation Plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza states that in an influenza pandemic, the primary response will come from states and localities. To assist them with pandemic planning and exercising, Congress has provided $600 mill...

2008-01-01

295

Influenza A\\/pandemic 2009\\/H1N1 in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a potentially catastrophic problem in a vulnerable population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Influenza A\\/pandemic 2009\\/H1N1 in two allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. The main presentation\\u000a in both cases consisted of flu-like symptoms manifesting as, fever, arthralgias and myalgias. The virus was isolated in one\\u000a case from a throat swab and in another case following a bronchoalveolar lavage. Both patients received oseltamivir at a dose\\u000a of 75 mg orally twice day. The

Mohamed A. Kharfan-Dabaja; Ana Velez; Karla Richards; John N. Greene; Teresa Field; Ramon Sandin

2010-01-01

296

How organizations framed the 2009 H1N1 pandemic via social and traditional media: Implications for U.S. health communicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a quantitative content analysis, this study reveals how 13 organizations differently framed the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic crisis via their traditional (n=211) and social media (n=534) responses. When framing the crisis as a disaster, a health crisis, or a general health issue organizations relied more on traditional than social media. However, they tended to use social media as much

Brooke Fisher Liu; Sora Kim

2011-01-01

297

Cross Sectional Survey of Influenza Antibodies before and during the 2009 Pandemic in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Much information is available for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunity response, but little is known about the antibody change in seasonal influenza before and during the novel influenza A pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional serological survey of 4 types of major seasonal influenza in March and September 2009 on a full range of age groups, to investigate seasonal influenza immunity response before and during the outbreak of the sH1N1 influenza in Shenzhen – the largest migration city in China. We found that the 0–5 age group had an increased antibody level for all types of seasonal influenza during the pandemic compared to the pre-outbreak level, in contrast with almost all other age groups, in which the antibody level decreased. Also, distinct from the antibodies of A/H3N2, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria that decreased significantly during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the antibody of A/H1N1 showed no statistical difference from the pre-outbreak level. The results suggest that the antibodies against the 2009 sH1N1 cross-reacted with seasonal H1N1. Moreover, the 0–5 age group was under attack by both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza during the pandemic, hence vaccination merely against a new strain of flu might not be enough to protect the youngest group.

Lv, Xing; Chen, Ying; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Zee, Benny; Cheng, Xiao-wen; He, Ming-Liang

2013-01-01

298

Pandemic Influenza Vaccines - The Challenges  

PubMed Central

Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues.

Haaheim, Lars R.; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Cox, Rebecca

2009-01-01

299

Do People Taking Flu Vaccines Need Them the Most?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA well targeted flu vaccine strategy can ensure that vaccines go to those who are at the highest risk of getting infected if unvaccinated. However, prior research has not explicitly examined the association between the risk of flu infection and vaccination rates.PurposeThis study examines the relationship between the risk of flu infection and the probability of getting vaccinated.MethodsNationally representative data

Qian Gu; Neeraj Sood

2011-01-01

300

Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)|

Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

2009-01-01

301

Fish farming and influenza pandemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human influenza pandemics commonly arise by genetic reassortment between human and avian viruses in pigs. Yet global developments in aquaculture - the so-called 'Blue Revolution' - will mean increased colocation of people, ducks and pigs.

Christoph Scholtissek; Ernest Naylor

1988-01-01

302

Behavioural responses to influenza pandemics  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the novel A/H1N1 virus has made pandemic preparedness a crucial issue for public health worldwide. Although the epidemiological aspects of the three 20th century influenza pandemics have been widely investigated, little is known about population behaviour in a pandemic situation. Such knowledge is however critical, notably for predicting population compliance with non pharmaceutical interventions. This paper reviews the relevant scientific literature for the 1918-1920, 1957-1958, 1969-1969 influenza epidemics and the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although the evidence base of most non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and personal protection measures is debated, it appears on the basis of past experience that NPIs implemented the most systematically, the earliest, and for the longest time could reduce overall mortality rates and spread out epidemic peaks. Adequate, transparent, and targeted communication on the part of public health authorities would be also of crucial importance in the event of a serious influenza pandemic.

Balinska, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina

2009-01-01

303

Evolving Pandemic Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

The expanding impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to pandemic diabetes mellitus is recounted emphasizing its epidemiology that has induced global socioeconomic stress on health care systems in industrialized nations now attempting to proffer optimal therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Strategies to delay and perhaps prevent progression of diabetic nephropathy from minimal proteinuria through nephrotic range proteinuria and azotemia to ESRD appear to have decreased the rate of persons with diabetes who develop ESRD. For those with ESRD attributed to diabetes, kidney transplantation affords better survival and rehabilitation than either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. It is likely that advances in genetics and molecular biology will suggest early interventions that will preempt diabetic complications including renal failure.

Friedman, Eli A.

2010-01-01

304

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Saudi Arabia: description of the first one hundred cases  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In April 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared pandemic influenza A (H1N1) “public health emergency of international concern”. On June 11, 2009, WHO raised the pandemic alert level to phase 6, indicating a global pandemic. By December 2009, more than 208 countries and territories had reported swine flu cases. The descriptive epidemiology of the first reported 100 cases of this virus in Saudi Arabia are summarized in this report. METHODS: Data were collected from 1 June to 3 July, 2009 using a predesigned questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled by Field Epidemiology Training Program residents. Data for the first 100 complete cases of confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were compiled and analyzed. RESULTS: The age of reported cases was in the range of 1 to 56 years. The highest percentage of cases was in the age group of 20 to 30 years followed by the age group of 1 to 10 years. Females represented 55% of the cases; imported cases represented 47%, 58% of whom had come via the King Khaled Airport. The most common nationalities most were from Saudi Arabia and the Philippines. The main symptoms were fever (56%), cough (54%), and sore throat and the number of cases was seen to peak from the 27 to 29 June. CONCLUSION: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) is still a threat to Saudi Arabia. Thus, comprehensive and effective measures for surveillance and prevention of the disease are needed to control its spread.

AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Memish, Ziad A.; AlWadey, Ali M.

2010-01-01

305

Ten lessons for the next influenza pandemic-an English perspective: a personal reflection based on community surveillance data.  

PubMed

We review experience in England of the swine flu pandemic between May 2009 and April 2010. The surveillance data from the Royal College of General Practitioners Weekly Returns Service and the linked virological data collected in the integrated program with the Health Protection Agency are used as a reference frame to consider issues emerging during the pandemic. Ten lessons are summarized. (1) Delay between illness onset in the first worldwide cases and virological diagnosis restricted opportunities for containment by regional prophylaxis. (2) Pandemic vaccines are unlikely to be available for effective prevention during the first wave of a pandemic. (3) Open, realistic and continuing communication with the public is important. (4) Surveillance programs should be continued through summer as well as winter. (5) Severity of illness should be incorporated in pandemic definition. (6) The reliability of diagnostic tests as used in routine clinical practice calls for further investigation. (7) Evidence from serological studies is not consistent with evidence based on health care requests made by sick persons and is thus of limited value in cost effectiveness studies. (8) Pregnancy is an important risk factor. (9) New strategies for administering vaccines need to be explored. (10) Acceptance by the public and by health professionals of influenza vaccination as the major plank on which the impact of influenza is controlled has still not been achieved. PMID:22251996

Fleming, Douglas M; Durnall, Hayley

2012-01-01

306

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication in a Pandemic: A Model for Building Capacity and Resilience of Minority Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing

Sandra Crouse Quinn

2008-01-01

307

Surfing the web during pandemic flu: availability of World Health Organization recommendations on prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: People often search for information on influenza A(H1N1)v prevention on the web. The extent to which information found on the Internet is consistent with recommendations issued by the World Health Organization is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a search for \\

Francesco Gesualdo; Mariateresa Romano; Elisabetta Pandolfi; Caterina Rizzo; Lucilla Ravà; Daniela Lucente; Alberto E Tozzi

2010-01-01

308

Getting the "Edge" on the Next Flu Pandemic: We Should'a "Node" Better  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curricular materials designed to teach computational modeling to undergraduate or graduate students in science and other STEM disciplines. The module teaches the construction of a graphical network-based model of epidemiology and social networks using Mathematica.

Shiflet, Angela B.; Shiflet, George W.

309

Comments on the nonpharmaceutical interventions in New York City and Chicago during the 1918 flu pandemic  

PubMed Central

This commentary was originally published in CIDRAP News and it is here reported almost verbatim to allow divulgation through open access. The Editorial summarizes John Barry's concerns about the value of accurate historical reporting and its implications in public policy determination. This short abstract was written by the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Translational Medicine to introduce the Editorial.

Barry, John M

2007-01-01

310

Training security officers to recognize the perils of weapons of mass destruction and pandemic flu contaminates.  

PubMed

In order to effectively manage disasters, hospital security operatives need to learn the ABC's of diagnosing exposure models, spotting exposed persons, and donning appropriate contaminate-controlling attire to limit potential exposure. This article spells out how the establishment of a WMD training program gives the Security Department the capability of helping to contain WMD exposures before they adversely impact the institutional setting. The department's "awesome" role in keeping hospitals free from contamination requires, according to the authors, dedicated, well trained, appropriately equipped, and highly motivated security officers who keep a watchful eye over the institutions they protect. PMID:17907601

Luizzo, Anthony J; Scaglione, Bernard J

2007-01-01

311

Understanding the Risk of an Avian Flu Pandemic: Rational Waiting or Precautionary Failure&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precautionary principle (PP) has been proposed as the proper guide for the decision-making criteria to be adopted in the face of the new catastrophic risks that have arisen in the last decades. This article puts forward a workable definition of the PP based on the so-called ?-maximin expected utility approach, applying it to the possible outbreak of the avian

Marcello Basili; Maurizio Franzini

2006-01-01

312

The national pandemic flu service, oseltamivir, and a case of pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The recent outbreak of the influenza virus H1N1 continues to pose a serious public health threat at a population wide level. In response to this, the UK National Health Service has made antiviral medication available to the general public in a unique way. Individuals can receive treatment without having to consult a medical practitioner, by simply answering a set of questions online or over the telephone. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman who developed a case of acute pancreatitis shortly after taking oseltamivir. Extensive investigation revealed that she had no risk factors or other identifiable cause for developing pancreatitis, and the possible adverse drug reaction has been reported to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Concerns regarding the strategy to provide antiviral medication to the population using this novel approach are discussed in light of patient safety and implications for health policy.

Newton, Richard; King, Dominic; Lee, Henry; Anderson, Mike; Lynn, John

2010-01-01

313

Evolutionary patterning of hemagglutinin gene sequence of 2009 H1N1 pandemic.  

PubMed

The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first pandemic in decades. Infectivity of the influenza virus for human host depends largely on its ability to evade antibodies specific for viral protein called hemagglutinin (HA) that mediates attachment to the host. In the present study we analysed large number of HA gene sequences available in Flu Database maintained at NCBI. Our sequence based analysis clearly demonstrates that the amino acid usage pattern may dramatically change during the course of evolution, and there exists a clear link between a particular pattern of amino acid usage of HA genes and its potential to become infectious. Structural studies revealed how binding efficiency between the HA and sialic acid may alter the pandemic potential of infection. Our work highlights the evolutionary significance and biochemical basis of the selective advantage of certain amino acids of HA in 2009 and provides a link between the characteristics changes in HA protein and their potential to pronounce a global menace to public health. PMID:22208275

Banerjee, Rachana; Roy, Ayan; Ahmad, Fayaz; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

2012-01-01

314

Factors Affecting Acceptance and Intention to Receive Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Vaccine among Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Birmingham, UK  

PubMed Central

UK pandemic influenza strategy focused on vaccination of high risk groups, although evidence shows that school-age children have the highest infection rates. Vaccination of children might be an additional strategy. We undertook a cross-sectional study amongst 149 parents of primary school children aged 4–7 years in Birmingham, UK to quantify intention to accept pandemic influenza vaccine and identify factors affecting uptake. Ninety-one (61.1%, 95% CI 52.8, 68.9) had or would accept vaccine for their child. The most common reasons for declining vaccine were concerns about safety (58.6% reported this), side effects (55.2%), or believing their child had already had swine flu (12.1%). Parents of nonwhite ethnicity (OR 2.4 (1.1, 5.0)) and with asthmatic children (OR 6.6 (1.4, 32.1)) were significantly more likely to accept pandemic vaccine, as were those whose children had ever received seasonal vaccine and those who believed swine flu to be a serious threat (OR 4.2 (1.9, 9.1)). Parents would be more likely to accept vaccination if they received a letter of invite, if the government strongly encouraged them, if it were administered at school, and if it were more thoroughly tested. Accurate media portrayal of safety of the vaccine during future pandemics will be essential.

Janks, Michaela; Cooke, Sara; Odedra, Aimee; Kang, Harkeet; Bellman, Michelle; Jordan, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

315

Factors Affecting Acceptance and Intention to Receive Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Vaccine among Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Birmingham, UK.  

PubMed

UK pandemic influenza strategy focused on vaccination of high risk groups, although evidence shows that school-age children have the highest infection rates. Vaccination of children might be an additional strategy. We undertook a cross-sectional study amongst 149 parents of primary school children aged 4-7 years in Birmingham, UK to quantify intention to accept pandemic influenza vaccine and identify factors affecting uptake. Ninety-one (61.1%, 95% CI 52.8, 68.9) had or would accept vaccine for their child. The most common reasons for declining vaccine were concerns about safety (58.6% reported this), side effects (55.2%), or believing their child had already had swine flu (12.1%). Parents of nonwhite ethnicity (OR 2.4 (1.1, 5.0)) and with asthmatic children (OR 6.6 (1.4, 32.1)) were significantly more likely to accept pandemic vaccine, as were those whose children had ever received seasonal vaccine and those who believed swine flu to be a serious threat (OR 4.2 (1.9, 9.1)). Parents would be more likely to accept vaccination if they received a letter of invite, if the government strongly encouraged them, if it were administered at school, and if it were more thoroughly tested. Accurate media portrayal of safety of the vaccine during future pandemics will be essential. PMID:23150815

Janks, Michaela; Cooke, Sara; Odedra, Aimee; Kang, Harkeet; Bellman, Michelle; Jordan, Rachel E

2012-10-17

316

Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1997, a new avian influenza virus (H5N1 avian flu) emerged in Hong Kong, killing 6 people. This was the first time that an avian influenza virus was shown to be transmitted directly from birds to humans. The virus persisted in the region, and has since...

S. A. Lister

2005-01-01

317

[Short communication: Evaluation of the flu vaccine administered to health care workers in Trakya University Hospital in 2006].  

PubMed

After the detection of human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Eastern Turkey in January 2006, Turkish Ministry of Health has had declared "National Plans of Activity for Pandemic Influenza". All health-care facilities were recommended to develop contingency plans. Then the essential activities were started in August 2006 in Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine (Edirne, Trace region of Turkey), and institutional education about pandemic influenza and preventive measures was implemented to health care workers (HCWs). In November 2006, health care workers were offered inactivated flu vaccine (Vaxigrip, Sanofi Pasteur, France) supplied by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this questionary survey was to evaluate the visions and conceptions of health care workers about influenza vaccination during the vaccination campaign. All the participants were informed by using an information form including the indications, contraindications and possible adverse reactions of flu vaccine, and were requested to complete the questionnaire about influenza vaccination according to their own perception before vaccination. Vaccine recipients were also invited to the vaccination unit if they had any adverse reaction. A total of 1041 HCWs (560 female, 481 male; mean age: 32.8 +/- 8.2 years) completed the questionnaire. Of them 884 subjects (85%) have accepted to be vaccinated, while 157 subjects (15%) have not. It was determined that 72 HCWs (6.9%) had been administered flu vaccine in 2005, and 38 (3.7%) have had an underlying chronic disease requiring medical therapy. Six subjects (16%) with an underlying chronic disease were vaccinated in 2005, while 66 HCWs (6.6%) without any chronic disease received vaccination voluntarily. Seven workers (0.7%) declined vaccination as they defined hypersensitivity to egg, and 84 workers (8%) had influenza vaccine voluntarily before the campaign in 2006. Sixty six workers (6.3%) have refused to be vaccinated as they considered influenza vaccination ineffective to protect against flu. Two workers (0.2%) had allergic skin reactions such as erythema and itching after vaccination. It can be concluded that influenza vaccination of the health care workers is a part of infection control policies and it is also a matter of patient safety. The implementation of necessary education programmes and attempts to emphasize the importance of vaccination of health care workers especially dealing with high risk patients, would be of crucial importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality due to influenza infections. PMID:18444572

Kulo?lu, Figen; Celik', Aygül Do?an; Yulu?kural, Zerrin; Erkan, Tülay; Keskin, Serap; Akata, Filiz

2008-01-01

318

Developing Countries, Donor Leverage, and Access to Bird Flu Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2007, the Indonesian government decided to withhold its bird flu virus samples from WHO’s collaborating centres pending a new global mechanism for virus sharing that had better terms for developing countries. The 60th World Health Assembly subsequently resolved to establish an international stockpile of avian flu vaccines, and mandated WHO to formulate mechanisms and guidelines for equitable access

CHAN Chee Khoon; Gilles de Wildt

2007-01-01

319

Public Attitudes Toward the Swine Flu Immunization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beginning in August 1976, the Opinion Research Corporation conducted 9 monthly national opinion surveys (with approximately 1,500 adults in each survey) to determine (1) awareness of the swine flu problem and the Swine Flu Immunization Program, (2) the le...

W. J. Gunn

1981-01-01

320

Modeling the spread of bird flu and predicting outbreak diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu, is an epidemic caused by H5N1 virus that primarily affects birds like chickens, wild water birds, etc. On rare occasions, these can infect other species including pigs and humans. In the span of less than a year, the lethal strain of bird flu is spreading very fast across the globe mainly in South

Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay; Nitu Kumari; V. Sree Hari Rao

2008-01-01

321

Your Flu Shot May Also Help Your Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your Flu Shot May Also Help Your Heart Study found ... 2014) Tuesday, October 22, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Heart Diseases--Prevention Immunization TUESDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay ...

322

A study to identify winning strategies for the business community during the next pandemic.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between the healthcare system and the corporate sector to answer the following research question: how does the healthcare system best prepare small to medium-sized businesses for the next pandemic influenza? Data were collected and collated through a literature review, electronic survey and semi-structured follow-up telephone interviews. The participants were businesses with membership in the Alberta Chambers of Commerce, a provincial lobby group in Alberta, Canada. The findings indicate strategies that were effective in minimising impact to the business community during the H1N1 pandemic and suggest areas for the business community to improve in preparation for the next pandemic influenza. Recommendations focus on establishing new links for communication between the business community and the healthcare sector and improving strategies to increase the resilience of small to medium-sized businesses for the next pandemic influenza. PMID:23835426

Spriggs, Martin

2013-01-01

323

Economic and Policy Implications of Pandemic Influenza.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious econo...

B. J. Smith D. E. Warren S. J. Starks T. J. Brown V. N. Vargas V. W. Loose

2010-01-01

324

Antibody Recognition of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site.  

PubMed

Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. This potential threat was realized in 2009 when an H1N1 virus emerged that resembled the 1918 virus in antigenicity but fortunately was not nearly as deadly. 5J8 is a human antibody that potently neutralizes a broad spectrum of H1N1 viruses, including the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses. Here, we present the crystal structure of 5J8 Fab in complex with a bacterially expressed and refolded globular head domain from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus. 5J8 recognizes a conserved epitope in and around the receptor binding site (RBS), and its HCDR3 closely mimics interactions of the sialic acid receptor. Electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions of 5J8 Fab in complex with an HA trimer from a 1986 H1 strain and with an engineered stabilized HA trimer from the 2009 H1 pandemic virus showed a similar mode of binding. As for other characterized RBS-targeted antibodies, 5J8 uses avidity to extend its breadth and affinity against divergent H1 strains. 5J8 selectively interacts with HA insertion residue 133a, which is conserved in pandemic H1 strains and has precluded binding of other RBS-targeted antibodies. Thus, the RBS of divergent HAs is targeted by 5J8 and adds to the growing arsenal of common recognition motifs for design of therapeutics and vaccines. Moreover, consistent with previous studies, the bacterially expressed H1 HA properly refolds, retaining its antigenic structure, and presents a low-cost and rapid alternative for engineering and manufacturing candidate flu vaccines. PMID:24027321

Hong, Minsun; Lee, Peter S; Hoffman, Ryan M B; Zhu, Xueyong; Krause, Jens C; Laursen, Nick S; Yoon, Sung-Il; Song, Langzhou; Tussey, Lynda; Crowe, James E; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A

2013-09-11

325

Do People Taking Flu Vaccines Need Them the Most?  

PubMed Central

Background A well targeted flu vaccine strategy can ensure that vaccines go to those who are at the highest risk of getting infected if unvaccinated. However, prior research has not explicitly examined the association between the risk of flu infection and vaccination rates. Purpose This study examines the relationship between the risk of flu infection and the probability of getting vaccinated. Methods Nationally representative data from the US and multivariate regression models were used to estimate what individual characteristics are associated with (1) the risk of flu infection when unvaccinated and (2) flu vaccination rates. These results were used to estimate the correlation between the probability of infection and the probability of getting vaccinated. Separate analyses were performed for the general population and the high priority population that is at increased risk of flu related complications. Results We find that the high priority population was more likely to get vaccinated compared to the general population. However, within both the high priority and general populations the risk of flu infection when unvaccinated was negatively correlated with vaccination rates (r?=??0.067, p<0.01). This negative association between the risk of infection when unvaccinated and the probability of vaccination was stronger for the high priority population (r?=??0.361, p<0.01). Conclusions There is a poor match between those who get flu vaccines and those who have a high risk of flu infection within both the high priority and general populations. Targeting vaccination to people with low socioeconomic status, people who are engaged in unhealthy behaviors, working people, and families with kids will likely improve effectiveness of flu vaccine policy.

Gu, Qian; Sood, Neeraj

2011-01-01

326

Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic infl uenza planning is well under way across the globe. Antiviral drugs and vaccines have dominated the therapeutic agenda. Far less work has been conducted on stockpiling and planning for deployment of antimicrobial drugs against secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cause of substantial illness and death in previous pandemics and ep- idemics. In the event of a pandemic, effective antimicrobial

Ravindra K. Gupta; Robert George; Jonathan S. Nguyen-Van-Tam

2008-01-01

327

Rapid flu diagnosis using silicon nanowire sensor.  

PubMed

Influenza epidemics worldwide result in substantial economic and human costs annually. However, rapid and reliable flu diagnosis methods are significantly lacking. Here we have demonstrated the selective detection of influenza A viruses down to 29 viruses/?L in clinical exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples (diluted by 100-fold) within minutes using silicon nanowire (SiNW) sensor devices. For 90% of the cases, we have observed that EBC samples tested positive or negative by gold standard method RT-qPCR generated corresponding positive or negative SiNW sensor responses. High selectivity of SiNW sensing was also demonstrated using H1N1 viruses, 8 iso PGF 2a, and inert nanoparticles. Finally, magnetic beads were shown capable of enhancing SiNW sensing directly for low level viruses and 8 iso PGF 2a. When calibrated by virus standards and EBC controls, our work suggests that the SiNW sensor device can be reliably applied to the diagnosis of flu in a clinical setting with 2 orders of magnitude less time compared to the gold standard method RT-qPCR. PMID:22731392

Shen, Fangxia; Wang, Jindong; Xu, Zhenqiang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Li, Xiaoguang; Jie, Xu; Li, Lidong; Yao, Maosheng; Guo, Xuefeng; Zhu, Tong

2012-06-26

328

2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick  

MedlinePLUS

2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick This flu season CDC expects the new 2009 H1N1 flu to cause illness, hospital stays, and deaths in the United States along with seasonal flu. This flyer has information about what to do ...

329

Pandemic influenza preparedness: an ethical framework to guide decision-making  

PubMed Central

Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. Summary The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust.

Thompson, Alison K; Faith, Karen; Gibson, Jennifer L; Upshur, Ross EG

2006-01-01

330

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

HCTT-CHE

2011-04-14

331

FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

2010-01-01

332

A Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Facility Pandemic Response Plan  

PubMed Central

The potential of a severe influenza pandemic necessitates the development of an organized, rational plan for continued laboratory animal facility operation without compromise of the welfare of animals. A comprehensive laboratory animal program pandemic response plan was integrated into a university-wide plan. Preparation involved input from all levels of organizational hierarchy including the IACUC. Many contingencies and operational scenarios were considered based on the severity and duration of the influenza pandemic. Trigger points for systematic action steps were based on the World Health Organization's phase alert criteria. One extreme scenario requires hibernation of research operations and maintenance of reduced numbers of laboratory animal colonies for a period of up to 6 mo. This plan includes active recruitment and cross-training of volunteers for essential personnel positions, protective measures for employee and family health, logistical arrangements for delivery and storage of food and bedding, the removal of waste, and the potential for euthanasia. Strategies such as encouraging and subsidizing cryopreservation of unique strains were undertaken to protect valuable research assets and intellectual property. Elements of this plan were put into practice after escalation of the pandemic alerts due to influenza A (H1N1) in April 2009.

Roble, Gordon S; Lingenhol, Naomi M; Baker, Bryan; Wilkerson, Amy; Tolwani, Ravi J

2010-01-01

333

A comprehensive laboratory animal facility pandemic response plan.  

PubMed

The potential of a severe influenza pandemic necessitates the development of an organized, rational plan for continued laboratory animal facility operation without compromise of the welfare of animals. A comprehensive laboratory animal program pandemic response plan was integrated into a university-wide plan. Preparation involved input from all levels of organizational hierarchy including the IACUC. Many contingencies and operational scenarios were considered based on the severity and duration of the influenza pandemic. Trigger points for systematic action steps were based on the World Health Organization's phase alert criteria. One extreme scenario requires hibernation of research operations and maintenance of reduced numbers of laboratory animal colonies for a period of up to 6 mo. This plan includes active recruitment and cross-training of volunteers for essential personnel positions, protective measures for employee and family health, logistical arrangements for delivery and storage of food and bedding, the removal of waste, and the potential for euthanasia. Strategies such as encouraging and subsidizing cryopreservation of unique strains were undertaken to protect valuable research assets and intellectual property. Elements of this plan were put into practice after escalation of the pandemic alerts due to influenza A (H1N1) in April 2009. PMID:20858365

Roble, Gordon S; Lingenhol, Naomi M; Baker, Bryan; Wilkerson, Amy; Tolwani, Ravi J

2010-09-01

334

Structural characterization of the hemagglutinin receptor specificity from the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for ?2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For ?2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with ?2-6- and ?2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for ?2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus. PMID:22072785

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

2011-11-09

335

The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1918 an epidemic of influenza killed 20 million people worldwide. Spanish flu, as it was called, was a horrific disease. The flu would start with headaches, muscular pain, and fever. These would be rapidly followed by vomiting, dizziness, labored breathing, and profuse sweating. Sometimes purple blisters would appear on the skin, and often blood would spurt out of the

W. Graeme Laver; Norbert Bischofberger; Robert G. Webster

2000-01-01

336

Avian Flu Epidemic 2003: Public health consequences. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary Avian flu epidemic 2003: public health\\u000aconsequences.Risk factors, health, well-being, health care needs and\\u000apreventive measures during the H7N7 avian flu outbreak control in the\\u000aNetherlands.An estimated thousand people, possibly more have been\\u000ainfected with avian flu during the outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003. \\u000aOne third of the poultry farmers whose holdings were cleared reported\\u000astress reactions,

Bosman A; Mulder YM; Leeuw JRJ de; Meijer A; Du Ry van Beest Holle M; Kamst RA; Velden PG van der; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Koopmans MPG; Ruijten MWMM; Instituut voor Psychotrauma

2007-01-01

337

The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Management and vaccination strategies in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Prior to 2009, The Netherlands had prepared itself extensively for a potential pandemic. Multidisciplinary guidelines had been drafted to control transmission and limit adverse outcomes for both a phase of early incidental introduction and for a phase with widespread transmission. The Ministry of Health had ensured a supply and distribution schedule for antivirals and negotiated a contract for vaccine purchases. During the pandemic, existing surveillance was expanded, the established infectious disease response structure was activated, and the previously prepared protocols for communication, diagnostics, use of antivirals, and vaccination implementation were operationalized and implemented. When the pandemic turned out to be less severe than many had anticipated, risk communication and rapid modification of guidelines and communication became a major challenge. Antivirals and pandemic vaccines were reserved for those at high risk for severe outcomes only. Overall, the impact of the pandemic was comparable to the impact of an average seasonal influenza epidemic, but with a shift in (severe) outcomes from the very young and elderly toward young adults. Established prepared protocols enabled timely coordinated responses. In preparing for the worst, sufficient attention must be given to preparing for a mild scenario as well. PMID:23275958

van der Sande, M A B; Jacobi, A; Meijer, A; Wallinga, J; van der Hoek, W; van der Lubben, M

2013-01-01

338

Pandemic influenza and Canada's children  

Microsoft Academic Search

aediatricians and others who care for children are familiar with the regular epidemic of respiratory illnesses that accompanies the annual visit of influenza virus each winter. In recent years, media interest in new strains of influenza has generated much public interest in, and often anxiety about, the threat of an influenza pandemic. Around the world, local, regional and national jurisdictions

Joanne Langley

339

Why the French did not choose to panic: a dynamic analysis of the public response to the influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

To understand the French public's response to the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza health threat a sequence analysis framework has been employed mobilising different theoretical strands such as innovations diffusion theory, surprise theory and social representation theory. These tend to suggest that disease episodes, public health policy and the public's response should be considered within a larger socio-cognitive frame incorporating representations anchored by prior disease episodes and campaigns. It is suggested in this article that the public's response was greatly influenced by the pervasive anchoring of the social representations of the pandemic threat to the 1918 Spanish flu in the lay and scientific media. These representations were eventually seen not to match the reality of the disease and consequently the French public did not panic during the 2009 pandemic. This hypothesis has been tested empirically by examining retrospective media, bibliographical data and an analysis of risk perception carried out through three cross-sectional studies prior to and during the pandemic episode and one month after the launch of the vaccination campaign. These findings suggest that alarmist framings of health threats may be counterproductive since they may reduce the capacity of public health organisations to mobilise the public in the case of more serious emerging disease. PMID:23030815

Sherlaw, William; Raude, Jocelyn

2012-10-03

340

Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.  

PubMed

This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

341

[Spanish 'flu in Leipzig 1918-1920].  

PubMed

Town archives enable reconstruction of an outbreak of a flu epidemic and its consequences for Leipzig in 1918 in 1919. First news of the 'Spanish disease' reaching Leipzig appeared in local press on 1st July 1918. The danger was on purpose underestimated not to upset the public and weaken its 'moral resistance'. Eventually because of parents' protests schools were closed at the end of October. The statistics and resources of the archives indicate 1409 persons dying between July 1918 and March 1919. Naturally the youngest and the oldest suffered most fatalities. The disease caused also interference in public life when a theatre and a number of public institutions were closed and public gatherings forbidden. PMID:11619181

Decker, N

1996-01-01

342

Influenza Virus Vaccine Live, Intranasal (FluMist)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... threatening reactions to previous influenza vaccinations. ... a live virus vaccine, to immunocompromised ... to other influenza vaccines because FluMist ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

343

A checklist for planning flu vaccination clinics for 2006.  

PubMed

Flu vaccination clinics have reached crisis point this year, with increasing numbers of patients and a shortage of vaccine. Joyce Skeet provides a checklist to help in the planning of the 2006 programme. PMID:16350520

Skeet, Joyce

344

Summary Basis for Regulatory Action - FluLaval  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... to include results from the efficacy and immunogenicity studies and the applicant committed to submit the results of ongoing Study FLU Q-QIV-006 ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

345

Researchers Discover How Flu Gains Foothold in The Body  

MedlinePLUS

... flu-specific B cells. They then used a cloning technique to create a line of mice with ... animals often fails to produce similar results in humans. "This is research that could help with rational ...

346

Statistical Review and Evaluation - FluMist Quadrivalent  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 3 subjects reported 4 SAEs (appendicitis[Q/LAIV group], salmonella gastroenteritis with dehydration[Q/LAIV group], and major depression[FluMist/ ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

347

Media Coverage of Events Relating to the Swine Flu Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed analyses are offered of media coverage of the Swine Flu Immunization Program and related events. Most data were collected from January 1976 to February 1977. Coverage was rated as either 'positive,' 'balanced,' or 'negative'. Sources surveyed wer...

M. Porte E. Weiler

1977-01-01

348

July 19, 2013 Approval Letter - FluMist Quadrivalent  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... license application for Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal (FluMist®) manufactured at your Liverpool facility in the United Kingdom, to include the ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

349

Pandemics of focal plant disease, a model.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT An analytical model of a pandemic, initiated by a single focus and spreading over a continent, is developed using foci as the smallest units of disease and fields as the smallest units of host. A few generalizing assumptions lead to a parameter-sparse model that may answer general questions on pandemics in a qualitative manner. For pandemic spread of disease during one season, a 'within-season velocity of pandemic spread,' C, is expressed as a set of integral equations. Reduction of inoculum during the off-season is expressed by a 'survival ratio' of inoculum, epsilon. The effect of the off-season is a 'push-back' of the pandemic front over a distance Deltah. It will be shown how Deltah is related to C and epsilon. The mean pandemic spread over successive years is calculated as the 'polyetic velocity of pandemic spread,' V, which depends on C and the push-back distance. The concept of 'pandemic effectiveness' is parameterized. Relations between the two velocities of pandemic spread and several model parameters are studied. Somewhat unexpectedly, velocities of pandemic spread depend only in a very limited way on field density represented by the 'cropping ratio' zeta. This implies that our model and methods will also apply to situations with inhomogeneous field distributions. The effect of parameter values on rates of severity increase are analyzed. Finally, generalizations of the model are developed and their applications discussed. PMID:18944722

van den Bosch, F; Metz, J A; Zadoks, J C

1999-06-01

350

Dating the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza viruses cause significant mortality in humans. In the 20th century, 3 influenza viruses caused major pandemics: the 1918 H1N1 virus, the 1957 H2N2 virus, and the 1968 H3N2 virus. These pandemics were initiated by the introduction and successful adaptation of a novel hemagglutinin subtype to humans from an animal source, resulting in antigenic shift. Despite global concern regarding a new pandemic influenza, the emergence pathway of pandemic strains remains unknown. Here we estimated the evolutionary history and inferred date of introduction to humans of each of the genes for all 20th century pandemic influenza strains. Our results indicate that genetic components of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus circulated in mammalian hosts, i.e., swine and humans, as early as 1911 and was not likely to be a recently introduced avian virus. Phylogenetic relationships suggest that the A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 virus (BM/1918) was generated by reassortment between mammalian viruses and a previously circulating human strain, either in swine or, possibly, in humans. Furthermore, seasonal and classic swine H1N1 viruses were not derived directly from BM/1918, but their precursors co-circulated during the pandemic. Mean estimates of the time of most recent common ancestor also suggest that the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains may have been generated through reassortment events in unknown mammalian hosts and involved multiple avian viruses preceding pandemic recognition. The possible generation of pandemic strains through a series of reassortment events in mammals over a period of years before pandemic recognition suggests that appropriate surveillance strategies for detection of precursor viruses may abort future pandemics. PMID:19597152

Smith, Gavin J D; Bahl, Justin; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Zhang, Jinxia; Poon, Leo L M; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G; Peiris, J S Malik; Guan, Yi

2009-07-13

351

Swine flu vaccination: why won't women have it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPregnant women are high risk for severe influenza A H1N1\\/09 infection (‘Swine Flu’) and subsequent fetal and maternal complications. Trivalent seasonal flu vaccination offers protection against influenza A H1N1\\/09. Recent Department of Health and Health Protection Agency advice is to vaccinate all pregnant women with trivalent influenza vaccine (including H1N1\\/09). The CEMACE report into H1N1 infection related deaths showed that

L C Ashelby; J Trinder

2011-01-01

352

Clinical Profile of Swine Flu in Children at Puducherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To study the clinical profile and outcome of children screened and diagnosed for Swine flu at a tertiary care hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All Children with suspicion of swine flu infection attending our hospital during the epidemic from August 2009 through January\\u000a 2010 were screened and categorized into A, B and C as per guidelines of National Health and family welfare. Patients in

P. Sriram; Manish Kumar; R. Renitha; Nivedita Mondal; Vishnu B. Bhat

2010-01-01

353

Mechanisms of symptoms of common cold and flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the familiar symptoms of sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and nasal congestion, muscle aches, chilliness and fever,\\u000a etc., that define the common cold and flu syndromes as self-diagnosed illnesses. Although there is much information about\\u000a the molecular biology of the viruses that cause the common cold and flu syndromes, there is relatively little research on\\u000a the immunological, physiological

Ronald Eccles

354

[The flu syndrome: update and therapeutic and prophylactic approach].  

PubMed

Authors in the present work analyse the history of the flu from V century A.C. until our days. We can know the different flu epidemic the structure of the virus and to take note of the different preventing device; of these the core is the vaccine. Thanks the vaccine is possible to weaken the big epidemics. Authors attract the importance on the mass vaccine and conclude to mention the new antivirus drugs per os. PMID:11865535

Abetti, P; Bossi, A; Monaco, E; Melino, C; Messineo, A

355

Patterns of perception toward influenza pandemic among the front-line responsible health personnel in southern Thailand: a Q methodology approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thailand has joined the World Health Organization effort to prepare against a threat of an influenza pandemic. Regular monitoring on preparedness of health facilities and assessment on perception of the front-line responsible health personnel has never been done. This study aimed to document the patterns of perception of health personnel toward the threat of an influenza pandemic. METHODS: Q

Tapanan Prateepko; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

2009-01-01

356

The Cost Effectiveness of Pandemic Influenza Interventions: A Pandemic Severity Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of a newly emerged influenza pandemic will depend on its transmissibility and severity. Understanding how these pandemic features impact on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies is important for pandemic planning. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies intended to mitigate a future pandemic was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ?30,000 in Australia. Six pandemic severity categories were defined based on case fatality ratio (CFR), using data from the 2009/2010 pandemic to relate hospitalisation rates to CFR. Results Intervention strategies combining school closure with antiviral treatment and prophylaxis are the most cost effective strategies in terms of cost per life year saved (LYS) for all severity categories. The cost component in the cost per LYS ratio varies depending on pandemic severity: for a severe pandemic (CFR of 2.5%) the cost is ?$9 k per LYS; for a low severity pandemic (CFR of 0.1%) this strategy costs ?$58 k per LYS; for a pandemic with very low severity similar to the 2009 pandemic (CFR of 0.03%) the cost is ?$155 per LYS. With high severity pandemics (CFR >0.75%) the most effective attack rate reduction strategies are also the most cost effective. During low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, while for high severity pandemics costs are dominated by hospitalisation costs and productivity losses due to death. Conclusions The most cost effective strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic involve combining sustained social distancing with the use of antiviral agents. For low severity pandemics the most cost effective strategies involve antiviral treatment, prophylaxis and short durations of school closure; while these are cost effective they are less effective than other strategies in reducing the infection rate.

Milne, George J.; Halder, Nilimesh; Kelso, Joel K.

2013-01-01

357

Facing the threat of influenza pandemic - roles of and implications to general practitioners.  

PubMed

The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza, compounded with seasonal influenza, posed a global challenge. Despite the announcement of post-pandemic period on 10 August 2010 by the WHO, H1N1 (2009) virus would continue to circulate as a seasonal virus for some years and national health authorities should remain vigilant due to unpredictable behaviour of the virus. Majority of the world population is living in countries with inadequate resources to purchase vaccines and stockpile antiviral drugs. Basic hygienic measures such as wearing face masks and the hygienic practice of hand washing could reduce the spread of the respiratory viruses. However, the imminent issue is translating these measures into day-to-day practice. The experience from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong has shown that general practitioners (GPs) were willing to discharge their duties despite risks of getting infected themselves. SARS event has highlighted the inadequate interface between primary and secondary care and valuable health care resources were thus inappropriately matched to community needs.There are various ways for GPs to contribute in combating the influenza pandemic. They are prompt in detecting and monitoring epidemics and mini-epidemics of viral illnesses in the community. They can empower and raise the health literacy of the community such as advocating personal hygiene and other precautious measures. GPs could also assist in the development of protocols for primary care management of patients with flu-like illnesses and conduct clinical audits on the standards of preventive and treatment measures. GPs with adequate liaison with public health agencies would facilitate early diagnosis of patients with influenza.In this article, we summarise the primary care actions for phases 4-6 of the pandemic. We shall discuss the novel roles of GPs as alternative source of health care for patients who would otherwise be cared for in the secondary care level. The health care system would thus remain sustainable during the public health crisis. PMID:21044300

Lee, Albert; Chuh, Antonio A T

2010-11-02

358

Facing the threat of influenza pandemic - roles of and implications to general practitioners  

PubMed Central

The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza, compounded with seasonal influenza, posed a global challenge. Despite the announcement of post-pandemic period on 10 August 2010 by theWHO, H1N1 (2009) virus would continue to circulate as a seasonal virus for some years and national health authorities should remain vigilant due to unpredictable behaviour of the virus. Majority of the world population is living in countries with inadequate resources to purchase vaccines and stockpile antiviral drugs. Basic hygienic measures such as wearing face masks and the hygienic practice of hand washing could reduce the spread of the respiratory viruses. However, the imminent issue is translating these measures into day-to-day practice. The experience from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong has shown that general practitioners (GPs) were willing to discharge their duties despite risks of getting infected themselves. SARS event has highlighted the inadequate interface between primary and secondary care and valuable health care resources were thus inappropriately matched to community needs. There are various ways for GPs to contribute in combating the influenza pandemic. They are prompt in detecting and monitoring epidemics and mini-epidemics of viral illnesses in the community. They can empower and raise the health literacy of the community such as advocating personal hygiene and other precautious measures. GPs could also assist in the development of protocols for primary care management of patients with flu-like illnesses and conduct clinical audits on the standards of preventive and treatment measures. GPs with adequate liaison with public health agencies would facilitate early diagnosis of patients with influenza. In this article, we summarise the primary care actions for phases 4-6 of the pandemic. We shall discuss the novel roles of GPs as alternative source of health care for patients who would otherwise be cared for in the secondary care level. The health care system would thus remain sustainable during the public health crisis.

2010-01-01

359

[Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009].  

PubMed

In the past, influenza pandemics have been occurring every 20 to 30 years. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) has been causing unprecedented global outbreaks since 2003 and many human cases with a high case fatality rate have also been reported. But the virus that caused a pandemic in 2009 was A(H1N1) that was originated from swine influenza. The same subtype, A(H1N1) has been circulating in human population since 1977. This pandemic (H1N1) 2009 is also not as virulent as A(H5N1) in humans. Many aspects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 are different from what we had been expecting. We should reconsider the concepts and the strategies for influenza pandemic by reviewing current pandemic (H1N1). PMID:20218322

Oshitani, Hitoshi

2009-12-01

360

Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA) toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI) response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission while preparation for later pandemic stages was limited. The interfaces and linkages between health system contexts and pandemic preparedness programmes in these countries were explored. Conclusion Health system context influences how the six countries have been preparing themselves for a pandemic. At the same time, investment in pandemic preparation in the six Asian countries has contributed to improvement in health system surveillance, laboratory capacity, monitoring and evaluation and public communications. A number of suggestions for improvement were presented to strengthen the pandemic preparation and mitigation as well as to overcome some of the underlying health system constraints.

2010-01-01

361

Low Clinical Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection during Pregnancy on the Island of La R?union  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women have been identified as a group at risk, both for respiratory complications than for the admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pdm). The purpose of this prospective register-based cohort-study was to characterize the clinical virulence of the pdm (H1N1/09)v during pregnancy in La Réunion. Methods/Principal Findings Over a twelve-week pdm wave (13 July to 3 October 2009), 294 pregnant women presented with an influenza-like illness (ILI) to one of the three maternity departments of the South Reunion area, Indian Ocean. Out of these, 278 were checked by RT-PCR for influenza viruses (157 positive and 121 negative, of whom, 141 with pdm flu and 132 with ILIs of non pdm origin, 5 untyped). The median body temperature was higher in women experiencing pdm flu than in those with non pdm ILI (38.9°C versus 38.3°C, P<0.0001), without evidence linked to circulating viremia. Oseltamivir was given for 86% of pdm flu cases in a median time inferior than 48 hrs (range 0–7 days). The hospitalization rate for pdm flu was of 60% and not associated with underlying conditions. Six viral pneumonia and fourteen asthma attacks were observed among 84 hospitalized pdm flu cases, of whom, only one led to the ICU for an acute lung injury. No maternal death occurred during the pdm wave. None adverse pregnancy outcome was associated with pdm flu. No congenital birth defect, nor early-onset neonatal influenza infection was attributable to pdm flu exposure. Conclusions/Significance This report mitigates substantially the presumed severity of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza infection during pregnancy. The reasons for which the clinical burden of H1N1/09 influenza virus may differ worldwide raise questions about a differential local viral-strain effect and public health preparedness, notably in timely access to special care and antiviral treatments.

Gerardin, Patrick; El Amrani, Rachid; Cyrille, Beatrice; Gabriele, Marc; Guillermin, Philippe; Boukerrou, Malik; Boumahni, Brahim; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Winer, Arnaud; Rouanet, Jean-Fabien; Bohrer, Michel; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Barau, Georges; Michault, Alain

2010-01-01

362

Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza pandemic planning is a complex, multifactorial process, which involves public health authorities, regulatory authorities, academia and industry. It is further complicated by the unpredictability of the time of emergence and severity of the next pandemic and the effectiveness of influenza epidemic interventions. The complexity and uncertainties surrounding pandemic preparedness have so far kept the various stakeholders from joining forces

Jeroen K. Medema; York F. Zoellner; James Ryan; Abraham M. Palache

2004-01-01

363

Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza pandemic planning is a complex, multifactorial process, which involves public health authorities, regulatory authorities, academia and industry. It is further complicated by the unpredictability of the time of emergence and severity of the next pandemic and the effectiveness of influenza epidemic interventions. The complexity and uncertainties surrounding pandemic preparedness have so far kept the various stakeholders from joining forces

Jeroen K. Medemaa; York F. Zoellner; James Ryan; Abraham M. Palachea

364

The emergence of pandemic influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic influenza has posed an increasing threat to public health worldwide in the last decade. In the 20th century, three\\u000a human pandemic influenza outbreaks occurred in 1918, 1957 and 1968, causing significant mortality. A number of hypotheses\\u000a have been proposed for the emergence and development of pandemic viruses, including direct introduction into humans from an\\u000a avian origin and reassortment between

Yi Guan; Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna; Justin Bahl; Huachen Zhu; Jia Wang; Gavin J. D. Smith

2010-01-01

365

"Filoviruses": a real pandemic threat?  

PubMed Central

Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses.

Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

2009-01-01

366

Virulence determinants of pandemic influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses cause recurrent, seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. The ability of influenza A viruses to adapt to various hosts and undergo reassortment events ensures constant generation of new strains with unpredictable degrees of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and pandemic potential. Currently, the combination of factors that drives the emergence of pandemic influenza is unclear, making it impossible to foresee the details of a future outbreak. Identification and characterization of influenza A virus virulence determinants may provide insight into genotypic signatures of pathogenicity as well as a more thorough understanding of the factors that give rise to pandemics.

Tscherne, Donna M.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo

2011-01-01

367

Two years after pandemic influenza A/2009/H1N1: what have we learned?  

PubMed

The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, medical and scientific communities have been more prepared in mindset and infrastructure. This preparedness has allowed for rapid and effective research on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the disease, with impacts on its control. A PubMed search using the keywords "pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009" yielded over 2,500 publications, which markedly exceeded the number published on previous pandemics. Only representative works with relevance to clinical microbiology and infectious diseases are reviewed in this article. A significant increase in the understanding of this virus and the disease within such a short amount of time has allowed for the timely development of diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures. These findings could prove useful for future randomized controlled clinical trials and the epidemiological control of future pandemics. PMID:22491771

Cheng, Vincent C C; To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F N; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2012-04-01

368

Two Years after Pandemic Influenza A/2009/H1N1: What Have We Learned?  

PubMed Central

Summary: The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, medical and scientific communities have been more prepared in mindset and infrastructure. This preparedness has allowed for rapid and effective research on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the disease, with impacts on its control. A PubMed search using the keywords “pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009” yielded over 2,500 publications, which markedly exceeded the number published on previous pandemics. Only representative works with relevance to clinical microbiology and infectious diseases are reviewed in this article. A significant increase in the understanding of this virus and the disease within such a short amount of time has allowed for the timely development of diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures. These findings could prove useful for future randomized controlled clinical trials and the epidemiological control of future pandemics.

Cheng, Vincent C. C.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.

2012-01-01

369

Adjuvants for Pandemic Influenza Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of adjuvants is being explored as a means of improving vaccine immunogenicity. This is particularly important for\\u000a the development of vaccines against potential pandemic influenza virus strains. Adjuvants act by prolonging the exposure time\\u000a of antigen to the immune system, enhancing the delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells, or providing immunostimulatory\\u000a signals that potentiate the immune response. Aluminum

Robert L. Atmar; Wendy A. Keitel

370

Influenza: Forecast for a Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, great speculation about a possible influenza pandemic has been made. However, the facts supporting the possibility of this threat are less discussed. During the last decade highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 subtype, crossed the species barriers from birds to humans and caused fatal disease. The Z strain of H5N1 subtype is characterized by pathogenicity

Gustavo Reyes-Teran

2005-01-01

371

Predictors of flu vaccination among urban Hispanic children and adults  

PubMed Central

Background Flu vaccination is effective for preventing infection, but coverage levels in the USA remain low—especially among racial/ethnic minorities. This study examines factors associated with flu vaccination in a predominantly Hispanic community in Manhattan, New York. Methods Households were recruited during the 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 flu seasons. Primary household respondents were interviewed to determine knowledge of flu transmission/treatment and vaccination status and demographic information for all household members. Results Vaccination coverage was 47.3% among children <5, 39.3% among 5–17-year-olds, 15.3% among 18–49-year-olds, 31.0% among 50–64-year-olds and 37.1% among adults ?65 in year 1; and 53.1% among children <5, 43.6% among 5–17-year-olds, 19.5% among 18–49-year-olds, 34.1% among 50–64-year-olds and 34.3% among adults ?65 in year 2. For children, younger age, having a chronic respiratory condition (eg, asthma), and greater primary respondent knowledge of flu were positively associated with vaccination. Among adults, female gender, older age, higher education, greater primary respondent knowledge of flu, having been born in the USA and having a chronic respiratory condition were positively associated with vaccination. The most common reasons cited for not being vaccinated were the beliefs that flu vaccination was unnecessary or ineffective. Conclusions Possible methods for increasing vaccination levels in urban Hispanic communities include improving health literacy, making low-cost vaccination available and encouraging providers to use other office visits as opportunities to mention vaccination to patients. Registration number This study is registered at http://ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00448981).

Cohen, Bevin; Ferng, Yu-hui; Wong-McLoughlin, Jennifer; Jia, Haomiao; Morse, Stephen S.; Larson, Elaine L.

2013-01-01

372

WHO knows best? National and international responses to pandemic threats and the "lessons" of 1976.  

PubMed

The discovery of a novel influenza strain at Fort Dix, New Jersey, in 1976-dubbed Swine Flu-prompted differing responses from national and international health organizations. The United States crafted a vaccination campaign to inoculate every citizen; conversely, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a 'wait and see' policy. An examination of the WHO conference that issued the influenza policy reveals the decision was driven by the limits of its member states' ability to produce inactivated vaccine and concern over the premature use of unstable live-virus vaccines. The WHO recommendation's reliance upon an uneven surveillance system would have replicated the 1957 and 1968 vaccination failures if a pandemic had appeared. PMID:20231159

Dehner, George

2010-03-15

373

Action, not talk: a simulation of risk communication during the first hours of a pandemic.  

PubMed

This article describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a simulation of risk communication in the first hours of a pandemic. The simulation design was based on Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication principles espoused by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the collective experience of the authors. Over 4 hours, 17 local health district risk communicators in Georgia responded to a scenario in which every community in the state had teenagers infected with avian flu after returning from an international conference. The evaluation revealed that local risk communicators had much greater difficulty following risk communication principles under the time pressures of a realistic and stressful event than they did in a tabletop exercise. Strengths and weaknesses of the performance of the local risk communicators are identified in addition to lessons learned about the design and implementation of a risk communication simulation. PMID:18936258

Freimuth, Vicki S; Hilyard, Karen M; Barge, J Kevin; Sokler, Lynn A

2008-10-01

374

Pandemics: avoiding the mistakes of 1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

As bodies piled up, the United States' response to the 'Spanish flu' was to tell the public that there was no cause for alarm. The authority figures who glossed over the truth lost their credibility, says John M. Barry.

John M. Barry

2009-01-01

375

The low-pH stability discovered in neuraminidase of 1918 pandemic influenza A virus enhances virus replication.  

PubMed

The "Spanish" pandemic influenza A virus, which killed more than 20 million worldwide in 1918-19, is one of the serious pathogens in recorded history. Characterization of the 1918 pandemic virus reconstructed by reverse genetics showed that PB1, hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes contributed to the viral replication and virulence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. However, the function of the NA gene has remained unknown. Here we show that the avian-like low-pH stability of sialidase activity discovered in the 1918 pandemic virus NA contributes to the viral replication efficiency. We found that deletion of Thr at position 435 or deletion of Gly at position 455 in the 1918 pandemic virus NA was related to the low-pH stability of the sialidase activity in the 1918 pandemic virus NA by comparison with the sequences of other human N1 NAs and sialidase activity of chimeric constructs. Both amino acids were located in or near the amino acid resides that were important for stabilization of the native tetramer structure in a low-pH condition like the N2 NAs of pandemic viruses that emerged in 1957 and 1968. Two reverse-genetic viruses were generated from a genetic background of A/WSN/33 (H1N1) that included low-pH-unstable N1 NA from A/USSR/92/77 (H1N1) and its counterpart N1 NA in which sialidase activity was converted to a low-pH-stable property by a deletion and substitutions of two amino acid residues at position 435 and 455 related to the low-pH stability of the sialidase activity in 1918 NA. The mutant virus that included "Spanish Flu"-like low-pH-stable NA showed remarkable replication in comparison with the mutant virus that included low-pH-unstable N1 NA. Our results suggest that the avian-like low-pH stability of sialidase activity in the 1918 pandemic virus NA contributes to the viral replication efficiency. PMID:21151571

Takahashi, Tadanobu; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Ikeya, Kumiko; Mizuno, Takashi; Fukushima, Keijo; Kawamoto, Hiroko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Suzuki, Takashi

2010-12-09

376

Serological study of the 2009 pandemic due to influenza A H1N1 in the metropolitan French population.  

PubMed

We looked for evidence of antibodies to the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in panels of sera from individuals living in metropolitan France, obtained either before, during or after the epidemic, using standard haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization tests. The difference between seroprevalence values measured in post- and pre-epidemic panels was used as an estimate of seroconversion rate in different age groups (23.4% (0-24 years, age-group 0); 16.5% (25-34); 7.9% (35-44); 7.2% (45-54); 1.6% (55-64); and 3.1% (>65)), confirming that the distribution of cases in different age groups was similar to that of the seasonal H1N1 virus. During the pre-pandemic period low-titre cross-reactive antibodies were present in a large proportion of the population (presumably acquired against seasonal H1N1) whereas cross-reactive antibodies were detected in individuals over the age of 65 years with significantly higher prevalence and serological titres (presumably acquired previously against Spanish flu-related H1N1 strains). Clinical data and analysis of post-pandemic seroprevalence showed that few of these latter patients were infected by the influenza virus during the epidemic. In contrast, the majority of both clinical cases and seroconversions were recorded in the 0-24 age group and a global inverse relationship between prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1 in the pre-pandemic period and rate of seroconversion was observed amongst age groups. Our results emphasize the complex relationships involved in antigenic reactivity to pandemic and seasonal H1N1 viral antigens; hence the difficulty in distinguishing between low-titre specific and cross-reactive antibodies, establishing precise seroprevalence numbers and fully understanding the relationship between previous immunity to seasonal viruses and protection against the novel variant. PMID:21635661

Delangue, J; Salez, N; Ninove, L; Kieffer, A; Zandotti, C; Seston, M; Lina, B; Nougairede, A; Charrel, R; Flahault, A; de Lamballerie, X

2011-06-02

377

Strengthened standards on flu vaccinations to pressure hospitals for progress.  

PubMed

Although, it is well-known that high flu vaccination rates among health care workers reduce the risk of hospital-related influenza cases, health care workers continue to resist getting vaccinated each year. Consequently, the Joint Commission has strengthened its standards on this issue for accredited hospitals, putting provisions in place that are designed to get health care worker vaccination rates up to 90% by 2020. Some hospitals are already achieving this standard by making the vaccinations free and highly accessible to employees, and by establishing firm flu vaccination policies. The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta estimates that only 63.5% of health care workers received the flu vaccination last year, only a slight increase over the 2009-2010 flu season. In provisions set to go into effect in July, the Joint Commission expects accredited hospitals to monitor vaccination rates and regularly implement enhancements designed to reach the 90% threshold by 2020. The Emergency Nurses Association believes the focus should be on encouraging vaccinations, providing vaccinations, and education, but it opposes flu vaccination mandates. PMID:23687737

2012-03-01

378

New China H7N9 Bird Flu Cases 'Signal Potential Winter Epidemic'  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New China H7N9 bird flu cases 'signal potential winter ... human cases in eastern China of a deadly new strain of bird flu signal the potential for " ...

379

It's Not Too Soon to Get Your Flu Shot, Doctor Says  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. It's Not Too Soon to Get Your Flu Shot, Doctor Says This season's vaccine protects against 4 ... is now available, and Americans should get their flu shot as soon as possible, an expert says. "Contrary ...

380

HealthLines - Plan to Get Your Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 Table of Contents Plan to Get Your Flu Shot The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has ... is why people are advised to get a flu shot every year. The Centers for Disease Control and ...

381

Carrot and stick - whitehall's dual approach to flu-jab uptake.  

PubMed

Viv Bennett (Voices October 9) says nurses are vital in helping to prevent a flu epidemic. She writes: 'One urgent aspect of protection is nurses' participation in the seasonal flu immunisation programme.' PMID:24128243

Evans, Helen

2013-10-16

382

Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Article Body Influenza (flu) ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

383

Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template  

SciTech Connect

This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

384

Getting Beyond Getting Ready for Pandemic Influenza.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pandemic influenza is not a new phenomenon. Historically, there have been other influenza pandemics, enough so that we now believe the planet is well overdue. We watch avian influenza move across the world, worry about how more than 60% of those people th...

2009-01-01

385

Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to…

Alberta Education, 2008

2008-01-01

386

How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

2012-01-01

387

Space-Time Dynamic Analysis of Global Bird Flu Based on Internet and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the information about bird flu collected from Internet, this paper analyzed the space-time change of global bird flu with the application of geographic information system (GIS) and discovered the principles of the inter-years periodicity of global bird flu attacks in recent 100 years, its within-year change since 2003 and the originating areas of global bird flu, thus finding

Lixin Yu

2010-01-01

388

Influenza pandemics of the 20th century.  

PubMed

Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. Not classified as true pandemics are 3 notable epidemics: a pseudopandemic in 1947 with low death rates, an epidemic in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and an abortive epidemic of swine influenza in 1976 that was feared to have pandemic potential. Major influenza epidemics show no predictable periodicity or pattern, and all differ from one another. Evidence suggests that true pandemics with changes in hemagglutinin subtypes arise from genetic reassortment with animal influenza A viruses. PMID:16494710

Kilbourne, Edwin D

2006-01-01

389

1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics  

PubMed Central

The "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918–1919, which caused ?50 million deaths worldwide, remains an ominous warning to public health. Many questions about its origins, its unusual epidemiologic features, and the basis of its pathogenicity remain unanswered. The public health implications of the pandemic therefore remain in doubt even as we now grapple with the feared emergence of a pandemic caused by H5N1 or other virus. However, new information about the 1918 virus is emerging, for example, sequencing of the entire genome from archival autopsy tissues. But, the viral genome alone is unlikely to provide answers to some critical questions. Understanding the 1918 pandemic and its implications for future pandemics requires careful experimentation and in-depth historical analysis.

Morens, David M.

2006-01-01

390

Flu Vaccine: Supply Problems Heighten Need to Ensure Access for High-Risk People.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Until the 2000-01 flu season, production and distribution of flu vaccine generally occurred without major difficulties. For the 2000-01 flu season, manufacturing difficulties resulted in an overall delay of about 6-8 weeks in shipping vaccine to most cust...

2001-01-01

391

Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

2012-01-01

392

FluTE, a Publicly Available Stochastic Influenza Epidemic Simulation Model  

PubMed Central

Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A(H2N2) and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza viruses. We present examples of how this model can be used to study the dynamics of influenza epidemics in the United States and simulate how to mitigate or delay them using pharmaceutical interventions and social distancing measures. Computer simulation models play an essential role in informing public policy and evaluating pandemic preparedness plans. We have made the source code of this model publicly available to encourage its use and further development.

Chao, Dennis L.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J.; Longini, Ira M.

2010-01-01

393

“Swine Flu” Vaccine of 1976 Protected Older Adults from the ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... While the 1976 outbreak was limited to the base, the recent 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus spread rapidly around the world. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch

394

Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply.  

PubMed

Influenza pandemic planning is a complex, multifactorial process, which involves public health authorities, regulatory authorities, academia and industry. It is further complicated by the unpredictability of the time of emergence and severity of the next pandemic and the effectiveness of influenza epidemic interventions. The complexity and uncertainties surrounding pandemic preparedness have so far kept the various stakeholders from joining forces and tackling the problem from its roots. We developed a mathematical model, which shows the tangible consequences of conceptual plans by linking possible pandemic scenarios to health economic outcomes of possible intervention strategies. This model helps to structure the discussion on pandemic preparedness and facilitates the translation of pandemic planning concepts to concrete plans. The case study for which the model has been used shows the current level of global pandemic preparedness in an assumed pandemic scenario, the health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply and the importance of cell culture-based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies as a tool for pandemic control. PMID:15163482

Medema, Jeroen K; Zoellner, York F; Ryan, James; Palache, Abraham M

2004-07-01

395

Have the public's expectations for antibiotics for acute uncomplicated respiratory tract infections changed since the H1N1 influenza pandemic? A qualitative interview and quantitative questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on the public's expectations for a general practice consultation and antibiotic for acute respiratory illness. Design Mixed methods. Participants Qualitative interviews: 17 participants with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) visiting English pharmacies. Face-to-face survey: about 1700 adults aged 15?years and older were recruited from households in England in January 2008, 2009 and 2011. Results The qualitative data indicated that the general public had either forgotten about the ‘swine flu’ (H1N1 influenza) pandemic or it did not concern them as it had not affected them directly or affected their management of their current RTI illness. Between 2009 and 2011, we found that there was little or no change in people's expectations for antibiotics for runny nose, colds, sore throat or cough, but people's expectations for antibiotics for flu increased (26%–32%, p=0.004). Of the 1000 respondents in 2011 with an RTI in the previous 6?months, 13% reported that they took care of themselves without contacting their general practitioners and would not have done so before the pandemic, 9% reported that they had contacted their doctor's surgery and would not have done so before the pandemic and 0.6% stated that they had asked for antibiotics and would not have done so before the pandemic. In 2011, of 123 respondents with a young child (0–4?years) having an RTI in the previous 6?months, 7.4% requested antibiotics and would not have done so before the pandemic. Unprompted, 20% of respondents thought Tamiflu© (oseltamivir) was a vaccine. Conclusions Expectations of the general public for a consultation or antibiotics with an RTI are similar now to before the H1N1 influenza pandemic; therefore, public antibiotic campaign messages and general practice advice to patients can remain unchanged. Parents with young children and those with personal experience of the H1N1 influenza are more likely to consult and will need more reassurance. The public need more education about Tamiflu©.

Joshi, Puja; Butler, Chris C; Atkinson, Lou; Nichols, Tom; Hogan, Angela; French, David

2012-01-01

396

Spatiotemporal dynamics in the early stages of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology and public health planning will increasingly rely on the analysis of genetic sequence data. The ongoing influenza A/H1N1 pandemic may represent a tipping point in this trend, with A/H1N1 being the first human pathogen routinely genotyped from the beginning of its spread. To take full advantage of this genetic information, we introduce a novel method to reconstruct the spatiotemporal dynamics of outbreaks from sequence data. The approach is based on a new paradigm were ancestries are inferred directly rather than through the reconstruction of most recent common ancestors (MRCAs) as in phylogenetics. Using 279 A/H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences, we confirm the emergence of the 2009 flu pandemic in Mexico. The virus initially spread to the US, and then to the rest of the world with both Mexico and the US acting as the main sources. While compatible with current epidemiological understanding of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, our results provide a much finer picture of the spatiotemporal dynamics. The results also highlight how much additional epidemiological information can be gathered from genetic monitoring of a disease outbreak.

Jombart, Thibaut; Eggo, Rosalind M; Dodd, Pete; Balloux, Francois

2009-01-01

397

Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and mortality, consistent with other indigenous and low-resource settings. For the first time, regional influenza-like-illness surveillance was conducted in the Pacific, allowing health authorities to monitor the pandemic’s spread and severity in real-time. Future regional outbreak responses will likely benefit from the lessons learned during this outbreak.

2013-01-01

398

Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample  

PubMed Central

This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years) from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population.

Ravert, Russell D.; Fu, Linda Y.; Zimet, Gregory D.

2012-01-01

399

Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Swine and other animals.  

PubMed

Influenza A virus infection has been reported in a variety of mammalian and avian species. Wild waterfowl such as ducks and geese are considered the principal reservoir of many influenza A viruses. On May 2, 2009, the first confirmed case of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) in animals was reported in a small swine herd in Canada. A public health investigation concluded that transmission from people to pigs was the likely source of infection. Subsequently the pH1N1 virus has been reported in turkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets, and several wildlife species. Human to animal transmission has been confirmed or suspected in a number of cases. The naming of the virus as "swine flu" in the international media led to a drop in the demand for pork and subsequently a reduction in the price of pork paid to farmers. Estimates of losses to pork producers in North America run into hundreds of millions of dollars. Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses. In order to be successful, future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers. PMID:23254339

Keenliside, Julia

2013-01-01

400

Hospital stockpiling for influenza pandemics with pre-determined response levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the problem of hospital stock-piling of critical medical supplies in preparation for a possible influenza pandemic.We consider a regional network of hospitals that have mutual aid agreements in place such that they may borrow or lend supplies from each other during medical emergencies. We assume that the attack rate is a random variable with known distribution and

Po-Ching C. DeLaurentis; Elodie Adida; Mark Lawley

2009-01-01

401

Epidemiology of pandemic influenza: use of surveillance and modeling for pandemic preparedness.  

PubMed

Along with continual enhancement of current influenza surveillance programs, pandemic preparedness also involves application of current surveillance techniques to past pandemics to identify their viruses and patterns, as well as estimation of the potential burden of future pandemics. Although mortality surveillance has been in place in selected locations for more than a century, the recent development of molecular diagnostics has shed new light on the origin and structure of the viruses responsible for the past 3 pandemics, allowing for comparisons with new viruses identified through ongoing viral surveillance. Models previously used to estimate hospitalizations and mortality associated with past epidemics and pandemics have evolved to estimate the burden and required surge capacity of future pandemics of different severities. PMID:17163395

Monto, Arnold S; Comanor, Lorraine; Shay, David K; Thompson, William W

2006-11-01

402

Pandemic Influenza: A Never-Ending Story  

PubMed Central

A novel pandemic influenza emerged in 2009, something that hasn't been seen since 1977. The following issues will be introduced and discussed in this review: the history of influenza pandemics, the emergence of the novel pandemic influenza of 2009, epidemics in the southern and northern hemispheres after the recognition of index cases in the United States, mortality, viral characteristics, prevention in the household setting, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment and immunization. Some questions have been answered. However, a number of other questions remain. Scientific research must follow up on these unanswered questions.

Kageyama, Seiji

2011-01-01

403

Stockpiling supplies for the next influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems. PMID:21970033

Radonovich, Lewis J; Magalian, Paul D; Hollingsworth, Mary Kay; Baracco, Gio

2009-06-01

404

Using blackmail tactics on flu vaccinations is unacceptable.  

PubMed

Trusts in England will be barred from receiving a share of £500 million additional winter funding in 2014/15 unless a minimum of 75 per cent of staff are vaccinated against flu this winter (analysis September 25). No vaccination, no additional funding. This amounts to blackmail. PMID:24093413

Harrison, Malcolm

2013-10-01

405

Flu Shots, Mammograms, and the Perception of Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study individuals' decisions to decline or accept preventive health care interventions such as flu shots and mammograms. In particular, we analyze the role of perceptions of the effectiveness of the intervention, by eliciting individuals' subjective probabilities of sickness and survival, with and without the interventions. Respondents appear to be aware of some of the qualitative relationships between risk factors

Katherine Grace Carman; Peter Kooreman

2011-01-01

406

Flu Shots, Mammogram, and the Perception of Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study individuals’ decisions to decline or accept preventive health care interventions such as flu shots and mammograms. In particular, we analyze the role of perceptions of the effectiveness of the intervention, by eliciting individuals' subjective probabilities of sickness and survival, with and without the interventions. Respondents appear to be aware of some of the qualitative relationships between risk factors

K. G. Carman; P. Kooreman

2010-01-01

407

Technology evaluation: FluMist, University of Michigan.  

PubMed

FluMist is an intranasal influenza vaccine, which has been developed by Aviron. The genetically engineered, live, attenuated, cold-adapted virus vaccine produces influenza infection without the symptoms. The product has been field for approval in the US, where Merrill Lynch expects it to be marketed by mid-2000 [336561]. PMID:11249630

Billich, A

2000-06-01

408

FLU: A negative regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Tetrapyrroles such as chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls play a fundamental role in the energy absorption and transduction activities of photosynthetic organisms. Because of these molecules, however, photosynthetic organisms are also prone to photooxidative damage. They had to evolve highly efficient strategies to control tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and to prevent the accumulation of free intermediates that potentially are extremely destructive when illuminated. In higher plants, the metabolic flow of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is regulated at the step of ?-aminolevulinic acid synthesis. This regulation previously has been attributed to feedback control of Glu tRNA reductase, the first enzyme committed to tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, by heme. With the recent discovery of chlorophyll intermediates acting as signals that control both nuclear gene activities and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, it seems likely that heme is not the only regulator of this pathway. A genetic approach was used to identify additional factors involved in the control of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, we have found a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, FLU, which operates independently of heme and seems to selectively affect only the Mg2+ branch of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. The identity of this protein was established by map-based cloning and sequencing the FLU gene. FLU is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein that, after import and processing, becomes tightly associated with plastid membranes. It is unrelated to any of the enzymes known to be involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Its predicted features suggest that FLU mediates its regulatory effect through interaction with enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis.

Meskauskiene, Rasa; Nater, Mena; Goslings, David; Kessler, Felix; op den Camp, Roel; Apel, Klaus

2001-01-01

409

Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

Fischman, Josh

2012-01-01

410

Flu, risks, and videotape: escalating fear and avoidance.  

PubMed

While extensive risk perception research has focused on emotions, cognitions, and behavior at static points in time, less attention has been paid to how these variables might change over time. This study assesses how negative affect, threat beliefs, perceived risk, and intended avoidance behavior change over the course of an escalating biological disaster. A scenario simulation methodology was used that presents respondents with a video simulation of a 15-day series of local news reports to immerse respondents in the developing details of the disaster. Systemic manipulation of the virus's causal origin (terrorist attack, medical lab accident, unknown) and the respondent's proximity to the virus (local vs. opposite coast) allowed us to investigate the dynamics of public response. The unfolding scenario was presented in discrete episodes, allowing responses to be tracked over the episodes. The sample includes 600 respondents equally split by sex and by location, with half in the Washington, DC area, and half in the Los Angeles area. The results showed respondents' reactions to the flu epidemic increased as the disaster escalated. More importantly, there was considerable consistency across respondents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to the epidemic over the episodes. In addition, the reactions of respondents proximally closer to the epidemic increased more rapidly and with greater intensity than their distant counterparts. Finally, as the flu epidemic escalated, both terrorist and accidental flu releases were perceived as being less risky and were less likely to lead to avoidance behavior compared to the unknown flu release. PMID:22332702

Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S; Prager, Fynnwin

2012-02-14

411

The 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: This historical research was accomplished by reviewing the city archives, medical publications and the daily press of 1918–1919. Data relating to the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva were collected. Results: More than 50% of the population was hit by the infection during three consecutive waves in 1918. Mortality was highest for the age group 21–40 years. Mortality and morbidity

Catherine E Ammon

2001-01-01

412

Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

Fischman, Josh

2012-01-01

413

Avian influenza pandemic preparedness: developing prepandemic and pandemic vaccines against a moving target  

PubMed Central

The unprecedented global spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses within the past ten years and their extreme lethality to poultry and humans has underscored their potential to cause an influenza pandemic. Combating the threat of an impending H5N1 influenza pandemic will require a combination of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies. The emergence of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 emphasised the unpredictable nature of a pandemic influenza. Undoubtedly, vaccines offer the most viable means to combat a pandemic threat. Current egg-based influenza vaccine manufacturing strategies are unlikely to be able to cater to the huge, rapid global demand because of the anticipated scarcity of embryonated eggs in an avian influenza pandemic and other factors associated with the vaccine production process. Therefore, alternative, egg-independent vaccine manufacturing strategies should be evaluated to supplement the traditional egg-derived influenza vaccine manufacturing. Furthermore, evaluation of dose-sparing strategies that offer protection with a reduced antigen dose will be critical for pandemic influenza preparedness. Development of new antiviral therapeutics and other, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies will further supplement pandemic preparedness. This review highlights the current status of egg-dependent and egg-independent strategies against an avian influenza pandemic.

Singh, Neetu; Pandey, Aseem; Mittal, Suresh K.

2010-01-01

414

Early-warning signals for an outbreak of the influenza pandemic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of human history, influenza pandemics have been seen as major disasters, so studies on the influenza virus have become an important issue for many experts and scholars. Comprehensive research has been performed over the years on the biological properties, chemical characteristics, external environmental factors and other aspects of the virus, and some results have been achieved. Based on the chaos game representation walk model, this paper uses the time series analysis method to study the DNA sequences of the influenza virus from 1913 to 2010, and works out the early-warning signals indicator value for the outbreak of an influenza pandemic. The variances in the CGR walk sequences for the pandemic years (or + -1 to 2 years) are significantly higher than those for the adjacent years, while those in the non-pandemic years are usually smaller. In this way we can provide an influenza early-warning mechanism so that people can take precautions and be well prepared prior to a pandemic.

Ren, Di; Gao, Jie

2011-12-01

415

Alberta family physicians' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Effective pandemic responses rely on frontline healthcare workers continuing to work despite increased risk to themselves. Our objective was to investigate Alberta family physicians willingness to work during an influenza pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Alberta prior to the fall wave of the H1N1 epidemic. Participants: 192 participants from a random sample of 1000 Alberta family physicians stratified by region. Main Outcome Measures: Willingness to work through difficult scenarios created by an influenza epidemic. Results The corrected response rate was 22%. The most physicians who responded were willing to continue working through some scenarios caused by a pandemic, but in other circumstances less than 50% would continue. Men were more willing to continue working than women. In some situations South African and British trained physicians were more willing to continue working than other groups. Conclusions Although many physicians intend to maintain their practices in the event of a pandemic, in some circumstances fewer are willing to work. Pandemic preparation requires ensuring a workforce is available. Healthcare systems must provide frontline healthcare workers with the support and resources they need to enable them to continue providing care.

2013-01-01

416

Hospital Viability during a Pandemic Influenza Outbreak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past 8 years since September 11, many improvements have been made to the National response capabilities; however, the 'all hazards' approach is still inadequate to respond to a moderate pandemic outbreak. Shortcomings of our fragile healthcare fram...

J. K. Blackwell

2009-01-01

417

Responding to Pandemic Threats: Lessons of Past ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... that we are due for pandemic with cartoon in NY Times ... Wecht "bad vaccine definitely a possibility" • 10/14: NY Post: "Scene at Pennsylvania Death ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents

418

Ethical issues in pandemic planning.  

PubMed

In the event of an influenza pandemic, many ethical issues will arise in terms of health risks, resource allocation, and management decisions. Planning decisions may be controversial, such as rationing of antivirals, resource allocation (including hospital beds and vaccinations), occupational risk, rostering of staff, responsibilities of health care workers, quarantine measures, and governance issues. A clear ethical framework is needed to enable understanding of the decision-making process and optimise acceptance of decisions by health care workers and other members of an affected community. Planning decisions need to start being examined now, and will require input from a broad group of experts: health care providers, infrastructure managers, lawyers, ethicists, public health physicians, and community members. The process will need to be open, honest and dynamic. PMID:17115958

Torda, Adrienne

2006-11-20

419

How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009–10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Methods Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Results Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. Conclusions We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be more prone to the dissemination of “viral” information. The page ranking analysis revealed the crucial role of search engines regarding access to information on the Internet.

2013-01-01

420

Post-exposure prophylaxis during pandemic outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: With the rise of the second pandemic wave of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in the current season in the Northern Hemisphere, pandemic plans are being carefully re-evaluated, particularly for the strategic use of antiviral drugs. The recent emergence of oseltamivir-resistant in treated H1N1 patients has raised concerns about the prudent use of neuraminidase inhibitors for both treatment

Seyed M Moghadas; Christopher S Bowman; Gergely Röst; David N Fisman; Jianhong Wu

2009-01-01

421

U.S. Faces Another Flu Vaccine Shortage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some 36,000 Americans die from flu complications every year so public alarm in reaction to the recent decision by British regulators to shut down the supplier of 46 million doses, or about the half this year's planned supply to the U.S., was hardly surprising. The action leaves only about 54 million flu shots available to Americans from a competing firm, and the U.S. government quickly decided that most healthy adults should delay or skip them to leave enough vaccine for the elderly and other high-risk patients. The government has urged voluntary rationing before, during a shortage in 2000. This year, however, will mark a record shortage just before flu season begins. Although the Bush administration offered assurances that anyone who needed a flu shot would get one, the shortage quickly developed into a political issue, with President Bush and Senator Kerry trading blame for the scarcity on the campaign trail. Meanwhile, U.S. and Canadian officials scrambled to come up with a plan to allow 1.2 million doses of Canadian-manufactured vaccine to be imported as an experimental drug.The first link offered here leads to an overview news story that summarizes the shortage situation so far and the outlook for fresh supplies of vaccine later in the flu season. The second link describes how the shortage has been playing out as a personal issue in a presidential campaign otherwise dominated by war and terrorism. The third link goes to a New York Times piece which notes that the shortage follows decades of warnings from health experts about problems with the flu vaccine supply and distribution system. The fourth link leads to the Centers for Disease Control influenza information page and a broad range of information targeted to both consumers and health care professionals. The fifth link describes the negotiations underway between the U.S. and Canadian governments to allow importation of vaccine from Canada under FDA regulations. The last link is the home page of the American Medical Association conference on influenza vaccine held in April and includes links to all speakers' presentations in either pdf or PowerPoint formats.

422

Modelling the Proportion of Influenza Infections within Households during Pandemic and Non-Pandemic Years  

PubMed Central

Background The key epidemiological difference between pandemic and seasonal influenza is that the population is largely susceptible during a pandemic, whereas, during non-pandemic seasons a level of immunity exists. The population-level efficacy of household-based mitigation strategies depends on the proportion of infections that occur within households. In general, mitigation measures such as isolation and quarantine are more effective at the population level if the proportion of household transmission is low. Methods/Results We calculated the proportion of infections within households during pandemic years compared with non-pandemic years using a deterministic model of household transmission in which all combinations of household size and individual infection states were enumerated explicitly. We found that the proportion of infections that occur within households was only partially influenced by the hazard h of infection within household relative to the hazard of infection outside the household, especially for small basic reproductive numbers. During pandemics, the number of within-household infections was lower than one might expect for a given because many of the susceptible individuals were infected from the community and the number of susceptible individuals within household was thus depleted rapidly. In addition, we found that for the value of at which 30% of infections occur within households during non-pandemic years, a similar 31% of infections occur within households during pandemic years. Interpretation We suggest that a trade off between the community force of infection and the number of susceptible individuals in a household explains an apparent invariance in the proportion of infections that occur in households in our model. During a pandemic, although there are more susceptible individuals in a household, the community force of infection is very high. However, during non-pandemic years, the force of infection is much lower but there are fewer susceptible individuals within the household.

Kwok, Kin On; Leung, Gabriel M.; Riley, Steven

2011-01-01

423

Economic analysis of pandemic influenza mitigation strategies for five pandemic severity categories  

PubMed Central

Background The threat of emergence of a human-to-human transmissible strain of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) is very real, and is reinforced by recent results showing that genetically modified A(H5N1) may be readily transmitted between ferrets. Public health authorities are hesitant in introducing social distancing interventions due to societal disruption and productivity losses. This study estimates the effectiveness and total cost (from a societal perspective, with a lifespan time horizon) of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies, under a range of pandemic severity categories. Methods An economic analysis was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ~30,000 in Australia. Data from the 2009 pandemic was used to derive relationships between the Case Fatality Rate (CFR) and hospitalization rates for each of five pandemic severity categories, with CFR ranging from 0.1% to 2.5%. Results For a pandemic with basic reproduction number R0?=?1.8, adopting no interventions resulted in total costs ranging from $441 per person for a pandemic at category 1 (CFR 0.1%) to $8,550 per person at category 5 (CFR 2.5%). For severe pandemics of category 3 (CFR 0.75%) and greater, a strategy combining antiviral treatment and prophylaxis, extended school closure and community contact reduction resulted in the lowest total cost of any strategy, costing $1,584 per person at category 5. This strategy was highly effective, reducing the attack rate to 5%. With low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, whereas higher severity pandemic costs are dominated by healthcare costs and costs arising from productivity losses due to death. Conclusions For pandemics in high severity categories the strategies with the lowest total cost to society involve rigorous, sustained social distancing, which are considered unacceptable for low severity pandemics due to societal disruption and cost.

2013-01-01

424

Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection.

2011-01-01

425

"Prepandemic" immunization for novel influenza viruses, "swine flu" vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and the detection of rare severe adverse events.  

PubMed

The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against "swine" influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or "priming" of populations in the so-called "prepandemic" (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the interpandemic period. For example, wide-scale interpandemic use of H5N1 vaccines could lead to millions of persons receiving vaccines of uncertain efficacy potentially associated with rare severe adverse events and against a virus that may not cause a pandemic. Here, we first review aspects of the 1976 National Influenza Immunization Programme against "swine flu" and its well-documented association with Guillain-Barré syndrome as a case study illustration of a suspected vaccine-associated severe adverse event in a mass interpandemic immunization setting. This case study is especially timely, given the recent spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans in Mexico and beyond. Following this, we examine available safety data from clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines and briefly discuss how vaccine safety could be monitored in a postmarketing surveillance setting. PMID:19563262

Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G

2009-08-01

426

"Prepandemic" Immunization for Novel Influenza Viruses, "Swine Flu" Vaccine, Guillain-Barr? Syndrome, and the Detection of Rare Severe Adverse Events  

PubMed Central

The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against “swine” influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or “priming” of populations in the so-called “prepandemic” (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the interpandemic period. For example, wide-scale interpandemic use of H5N1 vaccines could lead to millions of persons receiving vaccines of uncertain efficacy potentially associated with rare severe adverse events and against a virus that may not cause a pandemic. Here, we first review aspects of the 1976 National Influenza Immunization Programme against “swine flu” and its well-documented association with Guillain-Barré syndrome as a case study illustration of a suspected vaccine-associated severe adverse event in a mass interpandemic immunization setting. This case study is especially timely, given the recent spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans in Mexico and beyond. Following this, we examine available safety data from clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines and briefly discuss how vaccine safety could be monitored in a postmarketing surveillance setting.

Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G

2010-01-01

427

[An influenza pandemic--a chronicle of an epidemic foretold].  

PubMed

Influenza is a striking example of a viral disease in which pathogens constantly change and adaptation is of major significance in the appearance of seasonal outbreaks. These, in turn, can become widespread, possibly pandemic. Pandemic influenza differs from seasonal influenza outbreaks essentially by the emergence of a novel strain of the virus that, at times, is also characterized by enhanced pathogenicity and virulence. The last three influenza pandemics have risen from avian influenza strains, although other subtypes are equally capable of producing pandemic strains. For example, the Latest influenza outbreak, which was declared by the World Health Organization as a pandemic, is of swine origin. A severe influenza pandemic may have significant consequences on social and economicaL structures. Therefore, proper prior planning is essential for capabilities built-up to better cope with possibly worse future pandemics. Each influenza pandemic poses a different challenge, but, nevertheless the basic means for response are similar. PMID:19899248

Bodas, Moran; Balicer, Ran D

2009-08-01

428

Staying well: physicians, staff need flu shots first.  

PubMed

The 2009-10 influenza season is well under way, but this year it is complicated by the accompanying H1N1 flu sweeping Texas and the nation. Physicians are concerned about immunizing their patients, obviously, but public health experts say they need to be as concerned about vaccinating themselves. Look at this way: You're no good to your patients if you're sick. PMID:19885751

Conde, Crystal

2009-10-01

429

Swine flu in Buenos Aires: beyond the principle of resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Throughout April\\/May of 2009 a new type of virus surfaced in Mexico and the USA, denominated H1N1 or swine flu, that has been immediately disseminated worldwide. Even though the mortality of this virus has been slow, comparing with other antecedents, the mass-media articulated a troublesome discourse that put the world in tenterhooks waiting for the evolution of the

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

2011-01-01

430

Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din

2009-01-01

431

Risk, expert uncertainty, and Australian news media: public and private faces of expert opinion during the 2009 swine flu pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the outbreak of emerging infectious diseases scientists and public health officials play a key role in informing communities about what is happening, why and what they can do about it, and the news media are critical to how expert knowledge is presented to the public. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the media-oriented practices of experts and to gauge

Kate Holland; R. Warwick Blood; Michelle Imison; Simon Chapman; Andrea Fogarty

2012-01-01

432

Feasibility of GDAHA Hospitals Meeting the Surge Capacity and Capability Requirements of an Avian Flu Pandemic in the Miami Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital surge capacity is a crucial portion of disaster preparedness planning within a community. The demands generated by a disaster require additional capacity, in the form of beds, equipment, personnel, and special capabilities. The scope and urgency of these requirements must be balanced with a practical approach addressing cost and space concerns. The advent of new infectious disease threats, particularly

Raymond P. Ten Eyck

2006-01-01

433

An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use

Robert T. Brigantic; James R. Campbell; Pamela G; Alan Johnson; P. Coomber

2006-01-01

434

Dynamic modelling of costs and health consequences of school closure during an influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this article is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of school closure during a potential influenza pandemic and to examine the trade-off between costs and health benefits for school closure involving different target groups and different closure durations. Methods We developed two models: a dynamic disease model capturing the spread of influenza and an economic model capturing the costs and benefits of school closure. Decisions were based on quality-adjusted life years gained using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The disease model is an age-structured SEIR compartmental model based on the population of Oslo. We studied the costs and benefits of school closure by varying the age targets (kindergarten, primary school, secondary school) and closure durations (1–10 weeks), given pandemics with basic reproductive number of 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5. Results The cost-effectiveness of school closure varies depending on the target group, duration and whether indirect costs are considered. Using a case fatality rate (CFR) of 0.1-0.2% and with current cost-effectiveness threshold for Norway, closing secondary school is the only cost-effective strategy, when indirect costs are included. The most cost-effective strategies would be closing secondary schools for 8 weeks if R0=1.5, 6 weeks if R0=2.0, and 4 weeks if R0= 2.5. For severe pandemics with case fatality rates of 1-2%, similar to the Spanish flu, or when indirect costs are disregarded, the optimal strategy is closing kindergarten, primary and secondary school for extended periods of time. For a pandemic with 2009 H1N1 characteristics (mild severity and low transmissibility), closing schools would not be cost-effective, regardless of the age target of school children. Conclusions School closure has moderate impact on the epidemic’s scope, but the resulting disruption to society imposes a potentially great cost in terms of lost productivity from parents’ work absenteeism.

2012-01-01

435

Avian flu (H5N1): its epidemiology, prevention, and implications for anesthesiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian flu, influenza A subtype H5N1, is an emergent and virulent disease that poses a threat to the health and safety of the world community. Avian flu is 1 of more than 25 influenza A viruses that reside primarily in birds but also infect humans and other mammals. Avian flu is responsible for the current outbreak in Asia; H5N1 has

Alice A. Edler

2006-01-01

436

Human influenza surveillance in areas with animal flu epidemics and China visitors in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study investigates the changes in human flu viruses in areas where unique animal flu viruses or epidemics were isolated in Taiwan and Kinmen islet. Materials and methods: Sentinel physicians obtained throat swabs from patients presenting with flu-like illness and two-step RT-PCR, using five sets of primers for matrix (M) and HA2, to detect all the animal influenza viruses

Yie-Jen Liao; Ching-Ping Tsai; Ming-Chu Cheng; Chuan-Liang Kao; N Cox; Chwan-Chuen King

2004-01-01

437

Crisis and emergency risk communication in a pandemic: a model for building capacity and resilience of minority communities.  

PubMed

As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments. Examples of such engagement and potential strategies to enhance trust include tools familiar to many health educators. PMID:18936256

Crouse Quinn, Sandra

2008-10-01

438

Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.  

PubMed

Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724

Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H

2006-11-25

439

Recombination in the Hemagglutinin Gene of the 1918 ``Spanish Flu''  

Microsoft Academic Search

When gene sequences from the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic were first compared with those of related viruses, they yielded few clues about its origins and virulence. Our reanalysis indicates that the hemagglutinin gene, a key virulence determinant, originated by recombination. The ``globular domain'' of the 1918 hemagglutinin protein was encoded by a part of a gene derived

Mark J. Gibbs; John S. Armstrong; Adrian J. Gibbs

2001-01-01

440

mHealth for Influenza Pandemic Surveillance in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza pandemics caused millions of deaths and massive economic losses worldwide in the last century. The impact of any future pandemic is likely to be greatest in developing countries as a result of their limited surveillance and healthcare resources. eHealth facilitates the detection and reporting of potential pandemic strains by using digital data transmitted, sorted and retrieved electronically both at

JunHua Li; Nathan Moore; Shahriar Akter; Steven Bleisten; Pradeep Ray

2010-01-01

441

Predicting the Next Pandemic: An Exercise in Imprecise Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Inuenza pandemics have swept the world numerous times during the last few centuries. Cases of bird u,infecting humans have prompted predictions that we are due for another pandemic soon, but skeptics dismiss such prognostications as panic caused by a misunderstanding of probability. The issue can be re- duced mathematically to the question of whether the pandemic process has an

Mik Elis Bickis; U Gis Bickis; Phoenix Ohc

442

Pandemic Influenza: Ethics, Law, and the Public's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic Influenza (HPAI) has captured the close attention of policy makers who regard pandemic influenza as a national security threat. Although the prevalence is currently very low, recent evidence that the 1918 pandemic was caused by an avian influenza virus lends credence to the theory that current outbreaks could have pandemic potential. If the threat becomes a reality, massive

Lawrence O. Gostin; Benjamin E. Berkman

2007-01-01

443

REVIEW Planning for the next pandemic of influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Worldwide influenza pandemics have occurred at irregular and unpredictable intervals throughout history and it is confidently expected that they will continue to occur in the future. It is now recognised that these pandemics result when avian influenza A viruses succeed in adaption to and transmission between humans. The impact of pandemic influenza is substantial in terms of morbidity, mortality

Ian D. Gust; Alan W. Hampson; Daniel Lavanchy

444

The impact of pandemic influenza, with special reference to 1918  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic influenza, by definition, affects the overwhelming majority of countries and population subgroups in the world in a very short period of time. The impact of pandemics is not merely a matter of the biology of the particular virus in individuals. Pandemics are a social phenomenon affected by prevailing social circumstances, e.g., war, economic conditions, crowding, and food supply. In

Stephen C Schoenbaum

2001-01-01

445

Pandemic controllability: a concept to guide a proportionate and flexible operational response to future influenza pandemics.  

PubMed

The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic posed challenges for governments worldwide. Strategies designed to limit community transmission, such as antiviral deployment, were largely ineffective due to both feasibility constraints and the generally mild nature of disease, resulting in incomplete case ascertainment. Reviews of national pandemic plans have identified pandemic impact, primarily linked to measures of transmissibility and severity, as a key concept to incorporate into the next generation of plans. While an assessment of impact provides the rationale under which interventions may be warranted, it does not directly provide an assessment on whether particular interventions may be effective. Such considerations motivate our introduction of the concept of pandemic controllability. For case-targeted interventions, such as antiviral treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify the visibility and transmissibility of a pandemic as the key drivers of controllability. Taking a case-study approach, we suggest that high-impact pandemics, for which control is most desirable, are likely uncontrollable with case-targeted interventions. Strategies that do not rely on the identification of cases may prove relatively more effective. By introducing a pragmatic framework for relating the assessment of impact to the ability to mitigate an epidemic (controllability), we hope to address a present omission identified in pandemic response plans. PMID:23735960

McCaw, J M; Glass, K; Mercer, G N; McVernon, J

2013-06-01

446

Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing pandemic H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia from interpandemic community-acquired pneumonia in adults  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of patients with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia is desirable for the early instigation of antiviral agents. A study was undertaken to investigate whether adults admitted to hospital with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia could be distinguished clinically from patients with non-H1N1 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Between May 2009 and January 2010, clinical and epidemiological data of patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection admitted to 75 hospitals in the UK were collected by the Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN). Adults with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia were identified and compared with a prospective study cohort of adults with CAP hospitalised between September 2008 and June 2010, excluding those admitted during the period of the pandemic. Results Of 1046 adults with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection in the FLU-CIN cohort, 254 (25%) had H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia on admission to hospital. In-hospital mortality of these patients was 11.4% compared with 14.0% in patients with inter-pandemic CAP (n=648). A multivariate logistic regression model was generated by assigning one point for each of five clinical criteria: age ?65?years, mental orientation, temperature ?38°C, leucocyte count ?12×109/l and bilateral radiographic consolidation. A score of 4 or 5 predicted H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia with a positive likelihood ratio of 9.0. A score of 0 or 1 had a positive likelihood ratio of 75.7 for excluding it. Conclusion There are substantial clinical differences between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and inter-pandemic CAP. A model based on five simple clinical criteria enables the early identification of adults admitted with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia.

Bewick, Thomas; Myles, Puja; Greenwood, Sonia; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Brett, Stephen J; Semple, Malcolm G; Openshaw, Peter J; Bannister, Barbara; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; McMenamin, Jim; Enstone, Joanne E; Nicholson, Karl G

2011-01-01

447

State Plans for Containment of Pandemic Influenza  

PubMed Central

This review assesses differences and similarities of the states in planning for pandemic influenza. We reviewed the recently posted plans of 49 states for vaccination, early epidemic surveillance and detection, and intraepidemic plans for containment of pandemic influenza. All states generally follow vaccination priorities set by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. They all also depend on National Sentinel Physician Surveillance and other passive surveillance systems to alert them to incipient epidemic influenza, but these systems may not detect local epidemics until they are well established. Because of a lack of epidemiologic data, few states explicitly discuss implementing nonpharmaceutical community interventions: voluntary self-isolation (17 states [35%]), school or other institutional closing (18 [37%]), institutional or household quarantine (15 [31%]), or contact vaccination or chemoprophylaxis (12 [25%]). This review indicates the need for central planning for pandemic influenza and for epidemiologic studies regarding containment strategies in the community.

Layton, Christine M.; Ghneim, George S.; Wagener, Diane K.

2006-01-01

448

Modelling during an emergency: the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, decision-makers had access to mathematical and computational models that were not available in previous pandemics in 1918, 1957, and 1968. How did models contribute to policy and action during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic? Modelling encountered six primary challenges: (i) expectations of modelling were not clearly defined; (ii) appropriate real-time data were not readily available; (iii) modelling results were not generated, shared, or disseminated in time; (iv) decision-makers could not always decipher the structure and assumptions of the models; (v) modelling studies varied in intervention representations and reported results; and (vi) modelling studies did not always present the results or outcomes that are useful to decision-makers. However, there were also seven general successes: (i) modelling characterized the role of social distancing measures such as school closure; (ii) modelling helped to guide data collection; (iii) modelling helped to justify the value of the vaccination programme; (iv) modelling helped to prioritize target populations for vaccination; (v) modelling addressed the use of antiviral medications; (vi) modelling helped with health system preparedness planning; and (vii) modellers and decision-makers gained a better understanding of how to work with each other. In many ways, the 2009 pandemic served as practice and a learning opportunity for both modellers and decision-makers. Modellers can continue working with decision-makers and other stakeholders to help overcome these challenges, to be better prepared when the next emergency inevitably arrives. PMID:23800220

Lee, B Y; Haidari, L A; Lee, M S

2013-06-25

449

IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.  

PubMed

The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease. The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-17, Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing. IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice. These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics. PMID:22025253

Li, Chenggang; Yang, Penghui; Sun, Yang; Li, Taisheng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhong; Zou, Zhen; Yan, Yiwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Zhongwei; Xing, Li; Tang, Chong; Ju, Xiangwu; Guo, Feng; Deng, Jiejie; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Peng; Tang, Jun; Wang, Huanling; Zhao, Zhongpeng; Yin, Zhinan; Cao, Bin; Wang, Xiliang; Jiang, Chengyu

2011-10-25

450

Epidemiologic Characterization of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Summer Wave in Copenhagen: Implications for Pandemic Control Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The 1918-1919 A\\/H1N1 influenza pandemic killed 50 million people worldwide. Historical records suggest that an early pandemic wave struck Europe during the summer of 1918. Methods. We obtained surveillance data that were compiled weekly, during 1910-1919, in Copenhagen, Den- mark; the records included medically treated influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), hospitalizations, and deaths by age. We used a Serfling seasonal regression

Viggo Andreasen; Cécile Viboud; Lone Simonsen

2008-01-01

451

Phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 sequences from pandemic infections during 2009 in India.  

PubMed

Since April 2009, a serious pandemic infection has been rapidly spread across the world. These infections are caused due to the novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus and hence these are commonly called as "Swine Flu". This new virus is the reassortment of avian, human and swine influenza viruses and thus it has a unique genome composition. There are 16 different types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 different types of neuraminidase (NA) that can be genetically and antigenetically differentiated. The first influenza A virus isolated from pigs was of the H1N1 subtype and these viruses have been reported to cause infection in pigs in many countries. The outbreak of this virus has been transmitted from pigs to humans. This new reassorted (exchange of genes) virus which is the cause of 2009 pandemic infections has the ability to spread from human to human. This spread of infection should be brought to an end. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the RNA segments of human H1N1 viruses was carried using MEGA version 4.0 to demonstrate the route map of infection to India. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences from India, published in Influenza Virus Resource (a database that integrates information gathered from the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) and the genbank of the (NCBI)) was retrieved and used for the analysis. The results showed that the various segments of the Indian isolates clustered well with the sequences from American, Asian and European countries and thus indicating the transmission of viruses from these places to India. PMID:21423887

Flavia, Guntupally Balaswamy Arti; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

2011-02-15

452

Impact of BSE and bird flu on consumers’ meat demand in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the impact of BSE and bird flu on consumers’ meat demand in Japan by using the ‘almost ideal’ demand system. The BSE and bird flu scares brought about a fall in demand for beef and chicken, respectively, and an upturn in demand for pork and fishery products, which are substitutes for beef and chicken in

Takashi Ishida; Noriko Ishikawa; Mototsugu Fukushige

2010-01-01

453

Impact of BSE and Bird Flu on Consumersf Meat Demand in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impacts of the BSE and Bird Flu on consumersf meat demand in Japan using the Almost Ideal demand system. BSE and Bird Flu scares bring about a fall in demand for beef and chicken respectively, and an upturn in demand for pork and fishery products, both of which are substitutes for beef and chicken in Japan.

Takashi Ishida; Noriko Ishikawa; Mototsugu Fukushige

2006-01-01

454

Who Takes Advantage of Free Flu Shots? Examining the Effects of an Expansion in Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the high risk of costly complications (including death) and the externalities of contagious diseases, many countries provide free flu shots to certain populations free of charge. This paper examines the expansion of the free flu shot program in the Netherlands. This program expanded in 2008 to cover all individuals over the age of 60, instead of 65. We

K. G. Carman; I. Mosca

2011-01-01

455

The Effects of Framing and Action Instructions on Whether Older Adults Obtain Flu Shots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested the effects of cues to action—messages intended to increase flu immunizations. North Dakota counties were randomly assigned to reminder letters, action letters, or no letters. Within the reminder-letter counties, Medicare recipients received either (a) a reminder from the state peer review organization (PRO) to obtain a flu shot or (b) a reminder from the PRO, framed either

Kevin D. McCaul; Rebecca J. Johnson; Alexander J. Rothman

2002-01-01

456

Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

2008-01-01

457

An econometric analysis of SARS and Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the impacts of SARS and human deaths arising from Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia. The effects of SARS and human deaths from Avian Flu are compared directly according to the number of human deaths. The nature of the short run and long run relationship is examined empirically by estimating a static line fixed effect

Michael Mcaleer; Biing-wen Huang; Hsiao-I. Kuo; Chi-chung Chen; Chia-lin Chang

2010-01-01

458

China Reports First New Case of H7N9 Bird Flu Since August  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. China reports first new case of H7N9 bird flu since August (*this news item will not ... 2014) Wednesday, October 16, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bird Flu International Health BEIJING (Reuters) - China has confirmed ...

459

Network News Coverage of Avian Flu: Identifying the Characteristics of Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first of its kind examining network TV news coverage of avian flu over the past decade. It is the only study to date analyzing sources of avian flu media coverage and analyzing the stories for risk characteristics. Researchers found that prevention\\/preparedness effort was the most frequent frame type. Scientists\\/MDs were the most frequently quoted sources. A

Sonya Forte Duhé; Sooyoung Cho

2009-01-01

460

H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

461

Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInfluenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus

Mohammed Alsharifi; Yoichi Furuya; Timothy R. Bowden; Mario Lobigs; Aulikki Koskinen; Matthias Regner; Lee Trinidad; David B. Boyle; Arno Müllbacher; Derya Unutmaz

2009-01-01

462

Social Representation of a Food Risk: The Hong Kong Avian Bird Flu Epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the social representation of the 2001 Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic from the perspective of local women. Fifty women were asked to describe their first thoughts about the flu, and these were subsequently explored. Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the first thoughts were characterized by: (a) the origin of the epidemic, (b) anchors

Hélène Joffe; N. Y. Louis Lee

2004-01-01

463

Quantifying the transmission potential of pandemic influenza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews quantitative methods to estimate the basic reproduction number of pandemic influenza, a key threshold quantity to help determine the intensity of interventions required to control the disease. Although it is difficult to assess the transmission potential of a probable future pandemic, historical epidemiologic data is readily available from previous pandemics, and as a reference quantity for future pandemic planning, mathematical and statistical analyses of historical data are crucial. In particular, because many historical records tend to document only the temporal distribution of cases or deaths (i.e. epidemic curve), our review focuses on methods to maximize the utility of time-evolution data and to clarify the detailed mechanisms of the spread of influenza. First, we highlight structured epidemic models and their parameter estimation method which can quantify the detailed disease dynamics including those we cannot observe directly. Duration-structured epidemic systems are subsequently presented, offering firm understanding of the definition of the basic and effective reproduction numbers. When the initial growth phase of an epidemic is investigated, the distribution of the generation time is key statistical information to appropriately estimate the transmission potential using the intrinsic growth rate. Applications of stochastic processes are also highlighted to estimate the transmission potential using similar data. Critically important characteristics of influenza data are subsequently summarized, followed by our conclusions to suggest potential future methodological improvements.

Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

2008-03-01

464

Diagnostic Testing for Pandemic Influenza in Singapore  

PubMed Central

With the relative global lack of immunity to the pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus that emerged in April 2009 as well as the sustained susceptibility to infection, rapid and accurate diagnostic assays are essential to detect this novel influenza A variant. Among the molecular diagnostic methods that have been developed to date, most are in tandem monoplex assays targeting either different regions of a single viral gene segment or different viral gene segments. We describe a dual-gene (duplex) quantitative real-time RT-PCR method selectively targeting pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009. The assay design includes a primer-probe set specific to only the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of this novel influenza A variant and a second set capable of detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of all swine-origin influenza A virus. In silico analysis of the specific HA oligonucleotide sequence used in the assay showed that it targeted only the swine-origin pandemic strain; there was also no cross-reactivity against a wide spectrum of noninfluenza respiratory viruses. The assay has a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 100%, respectively, a lower detection limit of 50 viral gene copies/PCR, and can be adapted to either a qualitative or quantitative mode. It was first applied to 3512 patients with influenza-like illnesses at a tertiary hospital in Singapore, during the containment phase of the pandemic (May to July 2009).

Lee, Hong Kai; Lee, Chun Kiat; Loh, Tze Ping; Tang, Julian Wei-Tze; Chiu, Lily; Tambyah, Paul A.; Sethi, Sunil K.; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

2010-01-01

465

Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thor- oughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic

Edwin D. Kilbourne

2006-01-01

466

Simple models for containment of a pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic simulations of network models have become the standard approach to studying epidemics. We show that many of the predictions of these models can also be obtained from simple classical deterministic compartmental models. We suggest that simple models may be a better way to plan for a threatening pandemic with location and parameters as yet unknown, reserving more detailed network

Julien Arino; Fred Brauer; P. van den Driessche; James Watmough; Jianhong Wu

2006-01-01

467

Targeted Social Distancing Design for Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted social distancing to mitigate pandemic influenza can be designed through simulation of influenza's spread within local community social contact networks. We demonstrate this design for a stylized community represen- tative of a small town in the United States. The critical importance of children and teenagers in transmission of influenza is first identified and targeted. For influenza as infectious as

Robert J. Glass; Laura M. Glass; Walter E. Beyeler; H. Jason Min

2006-01-01

468

Delaying the International Spread of Pandemic Influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The recent emergence of hypervirulent subtypes of avian influenza has underlined the potentially devastating effects of pandemic influenza. Were such a virus to acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, control would almost certainly be hampered by limited vaccine supplies unless global spread could be substantially delayed. Moreover, the large increases that have occurred in international air travel

Ben S. Cooper; Richard J. Pitman; W. John Edmunds; Nigel J. Gay

2006-01-01

469

Towards forecasting flu dynamics using a regionalized state space model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of H1N1 in 2009 and a subsequent pandemic onset illustrated the importance of developing effective models with useful predictive capabilities for infectious diseases. The early identification of epidemic peaks can help the authorities to strategize effective anti-epidemic plans. In this regard, we propose a particle filter approach using the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected and Recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The epidemic model

P Loganathan; Chee Siang Ho; Hao Ran Lee; S Lakshminarayanan

2011-01-01

470

A seroepidemiological study of pandemic A/H1N1(2009) influenza in a rural population of Mali.  

PubMed

The swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1(2009)) started to circulate worldwide in 2009, and cases were notified in a number of sub-Saharan African countries. However, no epidemiological data allowing estimation of the epidemic burden were available in this region, preventing comprehensive comparisons with other parts of the world. The CoPanFlu-Mali programme studied a cohort of 202 individuals living in the rural commune of Dioro (southern central Mali). Pre-pandemic and post-pandemic paired sera (sampled in 2006 and April 2010, respectively) were tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) method. Different estimates of pH1N1(2009) infection during the 2009 first epidemic wave were used (increased prevalence of HI titre of ?1/40 or ?1/80, seroconversions) and provided convergent attack rate values (12.4-14.9%), the highest values being observed in the 0-19-year age group (16.0-18.4%). In all age groups, pre-pandemic HI titres of ?1/40 were associated with complete absence of seroconversion; and geometric mean titres were <15 in individuals who seroconverted and >20 in others. Important variations in seroconversion rate existed among the different villages investigated. Despite limitations resulting from the size and composition of the sample analysed, this study provides strong evidence that the impact of the pH1N1(2009) first wave was more important than previously believed, and that the determinants of the epidemic spread in sub-Saharan populations were quite different from those observed in developed countries. PMID:22221838

Koita, O A; Sangare, L; Poudiougou, B; Aboubacar, B; Samake, Y; Coulibaly, T; Pronyk, P; Salez, N; Kieffer, A; Ninove, L; Flahault, A; de Lamballerie, X

2012-01-05

471

When Pictures Waste a Thousand Words: Analysis of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic on Television News  

PubMed Central

Objectives Effective communication by public health agencies during a pandemic promotes the adoption of recommended health behaviours. However, more information is not always the solution. Rather, attention must be paid to how information is communicated. Our study examines the television news, which combines video and audio content. We analyse (1) the content of television news about the H1N1 pandemic and vaccination campaign in Alberta, Canada; (2) the extent to which television news content conveyed key public health agency messages; (3) the extent of discrepancies in audio versus visual content. Methods We searched for “swine flu” and “H1N1” in local English news broadcasts from the CTV online video archive. We coded the audio and visual content of 47 news clips during the peak period of coverage from April to November 2009 and identified discrepancies between audio and visual content. Results The dominant themes on CTV news were the vaccination rollout, vaccine shortages, long line-ups (queues) at vaccination clinics and defensive responses by public health officials. There were discrepancies in the priority groups identified by the provincial health agency (Alberta Health and Wellness) and television news coverage as well as discrepancies between audio and visual content of news clips. Public health officials were presented in official settings rather than as public health practitioners. Conclusion The news footage did not match the main public health messages about risk levels and priority groups. Public health agencies lost control of their message as the media focused on failures in the rollout of the vaccination campaign. Spokespeople can enhance their local credibility by emphasizing their role as public health practitioners. Public health agencies need to learn from the H1N1 pandemic so that future television communications do not add to public confusion, demonstrate bureaucratic ineffectiveness and contribute to low vaccination rates.

Luth, Westerly; Jardine, Cindy; Bubela, Tania

2013-01-01

472

Vaccination Deep Into a Pandemic Wave  

PubMed Central

Background In December 2009, when the H1N1 influenza pandemic appeared to be subsiding, public health officials and unvaccinated individuals faced the question of whether continued H1N1 immunization was still worthwhile. Purpose To delineate what combinations of possible mechanisms could generate a third pandemic wave and then explore whether vaccinating the population at different rates and times would mitigate the wave. Methods As part of ongoing work with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response at the USDHHS during the H1N1 influenza pandemic, the University of Pittsburgh Models of Infectious Disease Agents Study team employed an ag