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1

Pandemic Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the recent rise in flu outbreaks both across the United States and the rest of the world, the United States government has developed a broad range of strategies for keeping citizens up to date on the current status of these developments. The Pandemic Flu website is the official US government website for information on the subject (along with coverage of avian influenza) and should be of interest both to the general public and to those working in the fields of public health and policy. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking through the general information area on the homepage. Here they will find answers to basic questions as â??What is an influenza pandemic?â?ť and also be able to peruse materials about avian flu and vaccines and medications designed to treat both conditions. Most visitors will also want to learn about the official national strategy designed to both prepare and respond to an influenza pandemic. This document is available from the siteâ??s homepage in its entirety, as is information about what agencies (nationally and internationally) are monitoring outbreaks of these diseases.

2

Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

Dittbenner, Richard

2009-01-01

3

Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

4

How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

5

Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

Stover, Del

2006-01-01

6

Pandemic Flu: What To Know and  

E-print Network

Pandemic Flu: What To Know and What To DoWhat To Do Michele Johnson, MPH #12;What causes pandemic flu? · Appearance of a new flu virus · New virus passes easily from person top y p person · Few of CDC #12;World Experience With Flu Pandemics #12;20th Century "Pandemic Flu"y H1N1 H1N1H2N2 H3N2 1920

Tipple, Brett

7

Hawaii Community College Pandemic Flu Plan  

E-print Network

Hawaii Community College Pandemic Flu Plan April 2009 #12;HawCC Pandemic Influenza Plan 2 04 ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU.................................................. 15 #12;HawCC Pandemic Influenza Plan 3 04/09 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU? According

Olsen, Stephen L.

8

Flu...Bird flu...Flu Pandemic What does it all mean?  

E-print Network

Flu...Bird flu...Flu Pandemic What does it all mean? Human influenza (flu): · More severe than the common "cold" · Periodic outbreaks are caused by flu viruses that circulate among people Bird flu of bird flu that began in Southeast Asia is caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) · Millions of birds have

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

9

[The military role in a flu pandemic].  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) policy for the pandemic was stricter than the policy of the Ministry of Health. Defense systems in Israel and the world should prepare, the sooner the better, for the possibility of a worse pandemic, in which the army may take a major role, especially since regular life in the country, in such a case, would be disturbed. PMID:20422833

Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

2010-01-01

10

Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions  

E-print Network

Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions Joshua M. Epstein1 is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions, Wagener DK, et al (2007) Controlling Pandemic Flu: The Value of International Air Travel Restrictions. PLo

11

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new  

E-print Network

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when as many as 40 million deaths worldwide. What is swine flu? H1N1 Influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from

12

University of Hawai`i at Hilo Pandemic Flu Plan  

E-print Network

University of Hawai`i at Hilo Pandemic Flu Plan Ken Ikeda, Environmental Health & Safety Officer ........................................................................................................ 3 1.1 WHAT IS AVIAN FLU.............................................................................................. 4 2.3 Safety Officer

Wiegner, Tracy N.

13

Avian flu and possible human pandemic.  

PubMed

Avian flu is affecting the poultry animals world over since first outbreak in 1997 in Hong Kong and has resulted in 92 human deaths and culling of more than 150 million poultry animals in Asia and Europe. The loss to the economy has also been enormous. 13 new countries, including India, reported occurrence of the disease in poultry animals in February 2006 only, to the World Health Organisation. This rapid rate of spread of virus along with notoriety of the virus for frequent genetic re-assortment, which might enable H5N1 to infect human beings, threatens of possible influenza pandemic since the last pandemic in 1968. The human influenza caused by this subtype of the virus (H5N1) has high case fatality of 54% and majority of affected humans are between the age of 5 to 23 years. Lack of effective vaccine, poor knowledge about treatment, and with scarcity of public health measures in developing countries are major causes of concern. The real threat of impending pandemic can be avoided only if we act immediately on the basis of currently available source of information and apply scientific knowledge rationally for containment and prevention of bird flu and treat human cases promptly. PMID:16651670

Lahariya, Chandrakant; Sharma, A K; Pradhan, S K

2006-04-01

14

Pandemics and networks: the case of the Mexican flu  

E-print Network

Pandemics and networks: the case of the Mexican flu Jasmina Omi´c and Piet Van Mieghem Abstract--The recent widespread of the new Mexi- can flu and SARS show the high dependency on con- temporary traveling the spreading param- eters of the Mexican flu estimated in Mexico City, we determine the necessary speed

Van Mieghem, Piet

15

WHO and the pandemic flu “conspiracies”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key scientists advising the World Health Organization on planning for an influenza pandemic had done paid work for pharmaceutical firms that stood to gain from the guidance they were preparing. These conflicts of interest have never been publicly disclosed by WHO, and WHO has dismissed inquiries into its handling of the A\\/H1N1 pandemic as “conspiracy theories.” Deborah Cohen and Philip

Deborah Cohen; Philip Carter

2010-01-01

16

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY human flu pandemic could cause 20%  

E-print Network

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 419 A human flu pandemic could cause 20 optimistic predictions of how the next flu pandemic might unfold. Like most emerging virus infections that threaten human health, flu outbreaks originate from animal reservoirs. Because of rapidly changing human

Cai, Long

17

ARE YOU PREPARED FOR FLU SEASON? Seasonal Flu  

E-print Network

ARE YOU PREPARED FOR FLU SEASON? Seasonal Flu: Tufts Members are covered for the seasonal flu 9191 Watertown, MA 024719191 o http://www.brandeis.edu/humanresources/documents/2009/benefits/flu_shot_member_reimbursement_form.pdf Members who receive the flu shot between 10/1/09 ­ 3/31/10 will be reimbursed the amount they paid

Fraden, Seth

18

Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

St. Gerard, Vanessa

2007-01-01

19

Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman  

E-print Network

Using Prediction Markets and Twitter to Predict a Swine Flu Pandemic Joshua Ritterman School using a Prediction Market specifically concern- ing the possibility of a Swine Flu Pandemic in 2009 the Hubdub online prediction market1 to model public belief about the possibility that H1N1 (Swine Flu) virus

Osborne, Miles

20

Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

21

Understanding social amplification of risk : possible impact of an avian flu pandemic  

E-print Network

Today, stakeholders expect organizations to be able to endure external shocks. Hence, the real potential of an avian flu pandemic has many corporations developing business continuity plans for the disruptions that a pandemic ...

Sundrani, Aamir (Aamir Sultan)

2007-01-01

22

Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

Guterman, Lila

2005-01-01

23

E-16. PANDEMIC FLU PLAN According to the World Health Organization, Avian Influenza refers to "a large group of  

E-print Network

E-16. PANDEMIC FLU PLAN According to the World Health Organization, Avian Influenza refers to "a not previously circulated in humans. "For this reason, Avian (Flu) H5N1 is a strain with pandemic potential information and resources on the Avian Flu virus and possible pandemic, please refer to these governmental

Olsen, Stephen L.

24

flu preparations Wash your hands, cover  

E-print Network

SPEED READING flu preparations Wash your hands, cover your sneeze UVic readies for an expected increase in the number of H1N1 (swine flu) cases, providing a wealth of information and direction on how to avoid the flu and what to do if you catch it. Story, page 2 CaMpus raBBits Community help sought

Victoria, University of

25

[Incidence of avian flu worldwide and in the Russian Federation. Improvement of surveillance and control of influenza during preparation for potential pandemic].  

PubMed

Problem of influenza and acute respiratory virus infections (ARVI) remains one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic issues in despite of certain achievements in vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. In Russia influenza and ARVI account for up to 90% of the total annual incidence of infectious disease (up to 30 million of sick people; 45-60% of them are children). Economic damage, caused by influenza and ARVI, makes around 86% of total economic damage, caused by infectious diseases. WHO predicts that in the years coming a new antigenic influenza virus will appear, which can lead to development of large pandemia with 4-5 times increase in disease incidence and 5-10 times increase in death rate. During 2005 some changes in animal influenza epidemiology were registered. New cases of people infections are detected, the virus has spread to some new countries. Avian influenza is a high contagious virus infection that can affect all bird species. For birds influenza is enteral infection, it severely affects parenchymatous organs, especially spleen, and lungs. By now it is known that carriers of avian influenza virus H5N1 can be all known species of wild waterfowl and near-water birds. Poultry is highly susceptible to many stocks of influenza virus H5N1, death rate reaches 100%. At that hens, especially chickens, are most susceptible. From January 2004 to 24th November 2005 in the world there were detected 131 cases of influenza, caused by virus A/H5N1/, 68 of them (51%) ended in lethal outcome (Vietnam--92 cases, Thailand--21 cases, Cambodia--4, Indonesia--11, China--3). Most of the described cases of avian influenza resulted from direct contact with infected birds (handling bird internal organs is especially dangerous). In frozen meat of infected birds the virus can remain for about one year. Heating kills virus (no cases of infection caused by use for food of poultry products were detected). In order to prevent wide ranging spread of infection over Russia it is necessary to organize medical monitoring of sea ships, aircraft and train crews, arriving from the countries where influenza H5N1 cases were detected, in case of need to arrange raids to outlets and markets to detect poultry and poultry products brought from these countries. In Russia it is necessary to prepare a reserve of vaccine strains of viruses--potential causative agent of pandemic, including H5N1 and H7N7, that can start to vaccine reproduction immediately in case of pandemic. PMID:16981489

Onishchenko, G G

2006-01-01

26

Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

Honawar, Vaishali

2005-01-01

27

Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

2006-01-01

28

Putting Pandemics in Perspective: England and the Flu, 1889-1919  

E-print Network

is vital to comprehending how the public, medical professionals, and government officials perceived and reacted to the flu in the entire period 1889-1919. This examination shows that the pandemic of 1918-19 was the extreme, and that there are other courses...

Adams, David Lynn

2008-01-01

29

Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

2006-01-01

30

Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For  

E-print Network

Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf October 15 for the Deaf #12;Overview Fever Different "bugs" Common infections Seasonal Flu H1N1 ("Swine") Flu Prevention ­ Example is the common cold or flu Fungus ­ Small organism ­ Example is mold or yeast #12;Common Cold

Goldman, Steven A.

31

Department of Statistics: Teaching plans in the event of a swine flu pandemic Summary: The overall message in Oxford in respect of the pandemic is that it is "business as usual",  

E-print Network

1 Department of Statistics: Teaching plans in the event of a swine flu pandemic Summary into effect in the event of a swine flu pandemic within the University. MPLS has asked that we draft mechanism is possible. Illness of students Students should follow the University's official guidance (http://www.ox.ac.uk/flu

Goldschmidt, Christina

32

Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator  

PubMed Central

Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and illustrative information on health care resource capacities during future pandemics. The tool can inform both preparedness plans and simulation exercises and can help increase the general understanding of dynamics in resource capacities during a pandemic. The combination of a mathematical model with multiple resources and the linkage to GIS for creating maps makes the tool unique compared to other available software. PMID:23061807

2012-01-01

33

Pandemic preparedness for swine flu influenza in the United States.  

PubMed

In March and early April 2009, Mexico experienced outbreaks of influenza caused by the H1N1 virus, which has spread throughout the world. With the pandemic of H1N1 infections, we have discussed in this scientific article strategies that should limit the spread of the influenza A (H1N1) virus in our country. Specific vaccines against the influenza H1N1 virus are being manufactured, and a licensed vaccine is expected to be available in the United States by mid-October 2009. However, some health-care workers may be hesitant to take a vaccine because it contains a mercury preservative-thimerosal-which can be harmful to their health. When caring for patients with respiratory infections, the health-care worker should be wearing a facial respirator. In a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it was indicated that each health-care professional should be required to do a respiratory fit testing to identify the ideal model. Because it has been well documented that a vitamin D deficiency can precipitate the influenza virus, we strongly recommend that all health-care workers and patients be tested and treated for vitamin D deficiency to prevent exacerbation of a respiratory infection. PMID:20102323

Edlich, Richard F; Mason, Shelley S; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Swainston, Erin; Long, William B; Gubler, K

2009-01-01

34

PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE,  

E-print Network

11/5/10 PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, · New medical condition, the person should be vaccinated. ASSEMBLE YOUR FLU TOOLKIT NOW 1. Thermometer 2 is ok) 5. Cough syrup (similar to Robitussin DM, generic is ok) 6. Tissues Students can purchase a "Flu

Saldin, Dilano

35

Canadian national surveys on pandemic influenza preparations: pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic findings  

PubMed Central

Background Prior to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic, public health authorities in Canada and elsewhere prepared for the future outbreak, partly guided by an ethical framework developed within the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP). We developed a telephone-based survey based on that framework, which was delivered across Canada in late 2008. In June, 2009, the WHO declared pandemic Phase 6 status and from the subsequent October (2009) until May 2010, the CanPREP team fielded a second (revised) survey, collecting another 1,000 opinions from Canadians during a period of pre-pandemic anticipation and peri-pandemic experience. Methods Surveys were administered by telephone with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification approximating provincial percentages of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes, and to identify divergences (between the pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic surveys). Results N = 1,029 interviews were completed from 1,986 households, yielding a gross response rate of 52% (AAPOR Standard Definition 3). Over 90% of subjects indicated the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% indicating that saving lives solely in Canada was the highest priority and 50% indicating saving lives globally was the highest priority. About 90% of respondents supported the obligation of health care workers to report to work and face influenza pandemic risks excepting those with serious health conditions which that increased risks. Strong majorities favoured stocking adequate protective antiviral dosages for all Canadians (92%) and, if effective, influenza vaccinations (95%). Over 70% agreed Canada should provide international assistance to poorer countries for pandemic preparation, even if resources for Canadians were reduced. Conclusions Results suggest Canadians trust public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis is maintained on reciprocity and respect for individual rights. Canadians also support international obligations to help poorer countries and associated efforts to save lives outside the country, even if intra-national efforts are reduced. PMID:23530550

2013-01-01

36

General practice: professional preparation for a pandemic.  

PubMed

General practice will play a key role in both prevention and management of an influenza pandemic. Australian pandemic plans acknowledge a role for general practice, but there are few published data addressing the issues that general practitioners and their practices will face in dealing with such a crisis. The outcome will revolve around preparation in three key areas: Definition of the role of general practice within a broad primary care pandemic response, and adequate preparation within general practices so they can play that role well. Planning exercises and forums must include GPs, and rehearsals must include practical experience for general practices and their staff. Local Divisions of General Practice and GP practices can advocate for this, can define their role, and can prepare by using pandemic preparedness checklists; Definition and enactment of communication strategies to facilitate transfer of useful clinical and administrative data from practices and rapid dissemination of information into the community via general practice; Resource provision, which should be centrally funded but locally distributed, with personal protective equipment, vaccines and antivirals readily available for distribution. Resources must include support for human resource management to ensure appropriate health care professionals reach areas of workforce demand. Administrative, clinical and financial resources must be available to train GPs and practices in pandemic awareness and response. PMID:17115956

Collins, Nick; Litt, John; Moore, Michael; Winzenberg, Tania; Shaw, Kelly

2006-11-20

37

Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud.  

PubMed

The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P; Sharma, R K; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R; Kaur, A; Silambarasan, M; Tripathi, R P; Bhardwaj, J R

2011-01-01

38

Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud  

PubMed Central

The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

2011-01-01

39

Assessing and responding in real time to online anti-vaccine sentiment during a flu pandemic.  

PubMed

The perceived safety of vaccination is an important explanatory factor for vaccine uptake and, consequently, for rates of illness and death. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate Canadian attitudes around the safety of the H1N1 vaccine during the fall 2009 influenza pandemic and (2) to consider how public health communications can leverage the Internet to counteract, in real time, anti-vaccine sentiment. We surveyed a random sample of 175,257 Canadian web users from October 27 to November 19, 2009, about their perceptions of the safety of the HINI vaccine. In an independent analysis, we also assessed the popularity of online flu vaccine-related information using a tool developed for this purpose. A total of 27,382 unique online participants answered the survey (15.6% response rate). Of the respondents, 23.4% considered the vaccine safe, 41.4% thought it was unsafe and 35.2% reported ambivalence over its safety. Websites and blog posts with anti-vaccine sentiment remained popular during the course of the pandemic. Current public health communication and education strategies about the flu vaccine can be complemented by web analytics that identify, track and neutralize anti-vaccine sentiment on the Internet, thus increasing perceived vaccine safety. Counter-marketing strategies can be transparent and collaborative, engaging online "influencers" who spread misinformation. PMID:20959725

Seeman, Neil; Ing, Alton; Rizo, Carlos

2010-01-01

40

Preparing for the next influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

There are 3 requirements for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic. It must be antigenically novel, cause severe disease, and transmit easily from human to human. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype currently circulating in bird populations in Asia, Africa, and Europe have met 2 of these criteria, and there is significant concern that these viruses will be the cause of the next pandemic. International efforts to prepare for a possible pandemic are underway. Priorities for pandemic planning include surveillance of influenza viruses in wild bird populations and at the avian-human interface, research into factors affecting the pathogenicity of these strains, stockpiling effective antivirals for use as a stopgap until an appropriate vaccine can be developed and distributed, and gaining an improved understanding of the utility of nonpharmaceutical interventions to slow or prevent the spread of these viruses within humans. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years towards readying the world for such an event, there is more work to be done. Physicians and hospitals can begin by educating themselves on the problem and developing a pandemic plan for their own practice or organization. PMID:18820579

McCullers, Jonathan A

2008-10-01

41

Pandemic Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... as schools, may serve as medical facilities. Disrupted Economy and Society Travel bans, event cancellations, and school ... Potential for severe impact on domestic and world economy Manageable impact on domestic and world economy A ...

42

Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Flu and Flu Vaccines . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

43

PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season  

E-print Network

1/2013 PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season GET THE FLU VACCINE cardiovascular disease, or other long term medical condition. ASSEMBLE YOUR FLU TOOLKIT NOW 1. Thermometer 2 at 2607 Downer (near E. Bellview Place). KNOW what to do if you get sick: · The signs and symptoms of flu

Saldin, Dilano

44

Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Flu and Flu Vaccines . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

45

A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) Preparing for the Flu  

E-print Network

A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) #12;Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12) The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit Schools and Teachers Action Steps for Schools to Prevent the Spread of Flu Action Steps for Teachers

Cinabro, David

46

An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic  

SciTech Connect

Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

2006-03-10

47

Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... about 1-7 days after you come in contact with the virus. Most of the time symptoms appear in 2-3 days. The flu spreads easily. It can affect a large group of people in a very short amount of time. For example, students and workers ...

48

Flu I.Q. Widget  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... your flu knowledge." /> Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

49

Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

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50

La Gloria, Mexico: the possible origins and response of a worldwide H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009.  

PubMed

This article traces the spread and route of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 from its possible origin in La Gloria to Mexico City. A lack of health control measures or nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in La Gloria accounts for the unprecedented high basic reproductive number (R0) in that town and a higher incidence of H1N1 flu in Mexico City. We analyzed data collected from Mexican news articles, the Healthmaps dataset, the Google search engine, and telephone interviews with Mexican community physicians and residents. Our article uses a simple Susceptible Infected and Recovered model based on the data collected, to show the relationship between the disease curve and the implementation of NPI use. As a result of this study, we conclude that, with strict government measures to control the disease over an extended period of time, it is possible that many hundreds or even thousands of lives might be saved in the future. PMID:23716374

Hashmi, Sahar

2013-01-01

51

Haemagglutinin D222G mutation found in a fatal case of pandemic (H1N1) flu in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Recently, the D222G substitution was observed in the HA of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses isolated from fatal cases in several countries. We made a similar observation in one fatal case in Tunisia showing a D222G substitution in a virus isolate. The man was 47 years old and had no other subjacent pathologies or any known risk factors. He died after three days, suffering from severe respiratory symptoms of flu. The causal link of the D222G substitution in Tunisia with virulence must be verified. Further study is warranted to elucidate the intriguing relationship between the D222G substitution and severe disease. Constant molecular surveillance is important to monitor the pathogenicity of circulating strains and evaluate vaccine efficacy. PMID:22684533

El Moussi, Awatef; Ledesma, Juan; Ben Hadj Kacem, Mohamed Ali; Pozo, Francisco; Cuevas, Maria Teresa; Hamdoun, Moncef; Casas, Inmaculada; Perez-Breńa, Pilar; Slim, Amine

2012-09-01

52

Bat Influenza (Flu)  

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... Bat Flu Canine Flu Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... viruses remain unknown. A different animal (such as pigs, horses, dogs or seals) would need to serve ...

53

Flu Symptoms & Severity  

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... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... 65 years and older. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

54

Seasonal Flu Shot  

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55

Intradermal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination  

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56

Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0

Brian J Coburn; Bradley G Wagner; Sally Blower

2009-01-01

57

Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)  

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58

Avian Flu  

SciTech Connect

Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

Eckburg, Paul

2006-11-06

59

Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

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60

2009 H1N1 flu pandemic among professional basketball players: data from 18 countries.  

PubMed

Although influenza may be propagated in innumerable occasions and daily situations involving exposure, basketball may create many chances for close contact in which influenza could spread. This study aims to quantify and assess the impact of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic among professional basketball players. A multi-step strategy was followed to gather the relevant data during the 2009-10 basketball season. Possible risk factors were recorded; logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of the former. Where data were only available in the press, cases were also verified by subsequent communication with the national basketball federations. Relevant data were available for 18 countries (218 teams, 3,024 players). In all, 52 H1N1 cases in 19 teams were reported. A larger number of players presented as a risk factor for the emergence of H1N1 cases to a borderline extent (Odds Ratio, OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.41, p 0.056). A borderline association also implicated the population of the city-basis (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, p 0.094). On the other hand, no significant association with risk of H1N1 emergence was demonstrated regarding latitude and longitude of the city-basis. PMID:25551846

Kousoulis, Antonis A; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Tsiodras, Sotirios

2014-12-01

61

Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... information about this initiative. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

62

Flu and People with Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Site Pneumonia (Pneumococcal) Vaccine Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

63

Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

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64

Flu and People with Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

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65

VIROLOGY: Enhanced: The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required:What would happen if a flu pandemic as devastating as the 1918 Spanish flu arrived tomorrow. As Laver explains in a Perspective, preparation of the appropriate subunit vaccine (which depends on accurate identification of the flu virus strain) would take too long. He suggests that stockpiling antiviral drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, which block the action of the flu neuraminidase enzyme preventing spread of the virus throughout the host's body, would be a good place to start.

Graeme Laver (Australian National University;); Elspeth Garman (University of Oxford;Department of Biochemistry)

2001-09-07

66

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

67

University of Arizona Pandemic Influenza-Response Activities by Levels (Campus Specific)  

E-print Network

-to-human transmission of Pandemic Flu. STAGES III AND IV: Pandemic Plan Standby Period (WHO Phase 4) - Sustained human and training in respiratory protection from Risk Management & Safety (RM& S) 4. Involve external agencies. Assess inventories of public health supplies (masks, hand cleansers, etc.) and prepare for distribution

Ziurys, Lucy M.

68

ACADEMIC AFFAIRS POLICY Siena College Pandemic Influenza Response Plan (Extract) (Adopted May 9, 2007)  

E-print Network

: To protect and support the health, safety and welfare of the students, faculty, administration, and staff, 2007) The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have indicated has taken multiple and ongoing measures to prepare for a pandemic flu event. A Siena College Pandemic

69

Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... on the current FluView . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

70

Clinical Outcome of Novel H1N1 (Swine Flu)-Infected Patients During 2009 Pandemic at Tertiary Referral Hospital in Western India  

PubMed Central

Background: The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Gujarat, India, was reported in August 2009. Oseltamivir was used for treatment of pandemic influenza in India. We discuss the clinical characteristics and outcome of the hospitalized patients with H1N1 infection during 2009 pandemic influenza season. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patient with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 flu during August 2009 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Data were collected from hospital ICU charts. Patients discharged from hospital were considered cured from swine flu. Data analysis was performed using CDC software EPI Info v3.5.3. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study, of them 41 (65%) males and 22 (35%) females. Median age was 34 (3-69) years and median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 5 (2-20) days. Common presenting symptoms include fever 58 (92.06%), cough 58 (92.06%), breathlessness 38 (60.31%), common cold 14 (22.22%), vomiting 12 (19.04%), weakness 9 (14.28%), throat pain 7 (11.11%), body ache 5 (7.93%), and chest pain 4 (6.34%). Co-morbidities were seen in 13 (20.63%) patients. Steroids were used in 39 (61.90%) patients, and ventilatory support was required in 17 (26.98%) patients. On presentation chest x-ray was normal in 20 (31.74%) patients, while pulmonary opacities were seen in 43 (68.26%) patients. Forty-seven (74.60%) patients were cured and discharged from hospital, 14 (22.22%) patients died, and 2 (3.17%) patients were shifted to other hospital. Ventilatory requirement, pneumonia, and co-morbidities were the independent predictors of mortality, while age, sex, and steroid use were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: 2009 pandemic influenza A had the same clinical features as seasonal influenza except vomiting. Mortality rate was high in 2009 H1N1-infected patients with pneumonia, co-morbid conditions, and patients who required ventilatory support. PMID:24049362

Patel, Ketan K.; Patel, Atul K.; Mehta, Parthiv M.; Amin, Richa P.; Patel, Kunal P.; Chuhan, Prakash C.; Naik, Eknath; Patel, Kamlesh R.

2013-01-01

71

Immunization against A/H1N1 pandemic flu (2009–2010) in pediatric patients at risk. What might be the most effective strategy? The experience of an health district of Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccination coverage rates against pandemic flu were far below those required by Italian Public Health Authorities. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess how the management of vaccination against pandemic flu in the Health District of Piacenza (Northern Italy) had conditioned the adherence of patients at risk to the H1N1flu immunization program. Methods From a population of 27.018 children aged between 6?months and 16?years, 2361 pediatric patients considered at risk according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health were enrolled to receive pandemic flu vaccination. Children enrolled in the immunization program were vaccinated with one of the following three options: A) by their pediatrician in his office after contacting him directly or by phone B) by their pediatrician in his office or in a public Health District office with the assistance of a nurse after an appointment had been booked by patient’s parents using a dedicated free of charge phone number C) by a doctor of the public Health District after an appointment had been booked as for option B Results The best outcomes of population vaccination coverage for pandemic flu were achieved when patients were vaccinated with option B (44.2%). For options A and C rates coverage results were 22.8% (OR 2,69) and 24.9% (OR 2, 39) respectively. Conclusion The results of this study may be taken into account by the public health Authorities when planning the management of future immunization campaigns out of the usual vaccination schedule or in an emergency event. PMID:22594575

2012-01-01

72

Determinants of individuals’ risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level. Methods From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. Results In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of???80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ? 25 years and the elderly, ?65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths???25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Conclusion Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable individuals such as students and those working in groups indoors. It is concluded that the lack of robust data provided by surveillance systems in southern countries could be responsible for the underestimation of the epidemiological burden, although the main characteristics are essentially similar to what has been observed in developed countries. PMID:24468218

2014-01-01

73

HIV/AIDS and the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

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74

Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

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75

The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

Kelly, Elaine

2011-01-01

76

Integrative study of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza infections: design and methods of the CoPanFlu-France cohort  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of influenza infection depends on biological characteristics, individual or collective behaviors and the environmental context. The Cohorts for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu) France study was set up in 2009 after the identification of the novel swine-origin A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. This cohort of 601 households (1450 subjects) representative for the general population aims at using an integrative approach to study the risk and characteristics of influenza infection as a complex combination of data collected from questionnaires regarding sociodemographic, medical, behavioral characteristics of subjects and indoor environment, using biological samples or environmental databases. Methods/Design Households were included between December 2009 and July 2010. The design of this study relies on systematic follow-up visits between influenza seasons and additional visits during influenza seasons, when an influenza-like illness is detected in a household via an active surveillance system. During systematic visits, a nurse collects individual and environmental data on questionnaires and obtains blood samples from all members of the household. When an influenza-like-illness is detected, a nurse visits the household three times during the 12 following days, and collects data on questionnaires regarding exposure and symptoms, and biological samples (including nasal swabs) from all subjects in the household. The end of the follow-up period is expected in fall 2012. Discussion The large amount of data collected throughout the follow-up will permit a multidisciplinary study of influenza infections. Additional data is being collected and analyzed in this ongoing cohort. The longitudinal analysis of these households will permit integrative analyses of complex phenomena such as individual, collective and environmental risk factors of infection, routes of transmission, or determinants of the immune response to infection or vaccination. PMID:22676272

2012-01-01

77

How should we plan for pandemics?  

E-print Network

WHO has revised its definition of pandemic flu in response to current experience with A/H1N1. Peter Doshi argues that our plans for pandemics need to take into account more than the worst case scenarios

Doshi, Peter

78

Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

79

Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

80

Study Shows Flu Vaccination Prevents Hospitalizations in Older Adults  

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81

What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs  

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82

Thimerosal and 2014-2015 Seasonal Flu Vaccines  

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83

Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs  

MedlinePLUS

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84

Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... guide for more information. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

85

Adjuvant solution for pandemic influenza vaccine production  

PubMed Central

Extensive preparation is underway to mitigate the next pandemic influenza outbreak. New vaccine technologies intended to supplant egg-based production methods are being developed, with recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) as the most advanced program for preventing seasonal and avian H5N1 Influenza. Increased efforts are being focused on adjuvants that can broaden vaccine immunogenicity against emerging viruses and maximize vaccine supply on a worldwide scale. Here, we test protection against avian flu by using H5N1-derived rHA and GLA-SE, a two-part adjuvant system containing glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a formulated synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, and a stable emulsion (SE) of oil in water, which is similar to the best-in-class adjuvants being developed for pandemic flu. Notably, a single submicrogram dose of rH5 adjuvanted with GLA-SE protects mice and ferrets against a high titer challenge with H5N1 virus. GLA-SE, relative to emulsion alone, accelerated induction of the primary immune response and broadened its durability against heterosubtypic H5N1 virus challenge. Mechanistically, GLA-SE augments protection via induction of a Th1-mediated antibody response. Innate signaling pathways that amplify priming of Th1 CD4 T cells will likely improve vaccine performance against future outbreaks of lethal pandemic flu. PMID:23045649

Clegg, Christopher H.; Roque, Richard; Van Hoeven, Neal; Perrone, Lucy; Baldwin, Susan L.; Rininger, Joseph A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Reed, Steven G.

2012-01-01

86

Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

Steinhardt, Bernice

2009-01-01

87

The Efficacy of Echinacea Compound Herbal Tea Preparation on the Severity and Duration of Upper Respiratory and Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an echinacea compound herbal tea preparation (Echinacea Plus®) given at early onset of cold or flu symptoms in a ran- dom assignment double-blind placebo-controlled study. Design and Subjects: A total of 95 subjects with early symptoms of cold or flu (runny nose, scratchy throat, fever) were randomly assigned

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Elise B. Lindenmuth

2000-01-01

88

Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.  

PubMed

A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

2013-01-01

89

Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context - Analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control  

PubMed Central

A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as “swine flu”, since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term “swine flu” to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: “Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them,” wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

2013-01-01

90

DavidCyranoski,Tokyo A bird flu virus is the subject of intense  

E-print Network

DavidCyranoski,Tokyo A bird flu virus is the subject of intense scrutiny amid fears that it could spark a human flu pandemic. Virologists increased their vigilance after the avian virus infected two people in Hong Kong last month. Flu pandemics, which can kill millions of people, are thought to arise

Cai, Long

91

Preparing for an influenza pandemic: policy implications for rural Latino populations.  

PubMed

Abstract:The purpose of this study was to assess influenza preparedness levels among Spanish-speaking adults ages 18 and older in two rural communities in Central California. Data were collected from 209 participants using the 21-item Emergency Preparedness Measurement Scale, an instrument designed and validated for this study. Results suggest that adult Spanish-speaking Latinos are not prepared for a pandemic influenza regardless of their gender, age, number of years living in the United States, education, or income level. Furthermore, study participants cited lack of insurance, limited knowledge about needed emergency supplies, and preference for fresh foods as reasons for lacking emergency supplies at home. PMID:21857139

Witrago, Eulalia; Perez, Miguel A

2011-08-01

92

Updated preparedness and response framework for influenza pandemics.  

PubMed

The complexities of planning for and responding to the emergence of novel influenza viruses emphasize the need for systematic frameworks to describe the progression of the event; weigh the risk of emergence and potential public health impact; evaluate transmissibility, antiviral resistance, and severity; and make decisions about interventions. On the basis of experience from recent influenza responses, CDC has updated its framework to describe influenza pandemic progression using six intervals (two prepandemic and four pandemic intervals) and eight domains. This updated framework can be used for influenza pandemic planning and serves as recommendations for risk assessment, decision-making, and action in the United States. The updated framework replaces the U.S. federal government stages from the 2006 implementation plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (US Homeland Security Council. National strategy for pandemic influenza: implementation plan. Washington, DC: US Homeland Security Council; 2006. Available at http://www.flu.gov/planning-preparedness/federal/pandemic-influenza-implementation.pdf). The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. The following eight domains are used to organize response efforts within each interval: incident management, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory, community mitigation, medical care and countermeasures, vaccine, risk communications, and state/local coordination. Compared with the previous U.S. government stages, this updated framework provides greater detail and clarity regarding the potential timing of key decisions and actions aimed at slowing the spread and mitigating the impact of an emerging pandemic. Use of this updated framework is anticipated to improve pandemic preparedness and response in the United States. Activities and decisions during a response are event-specific. These intervals serve as a reference for public health decision-making by federal, state, and local health authorities in the United States during an influenza pandemic and are not meant to be prescriptive or comprehensive. This framework incorporates information from newly developed tools for pandemic planning and response, including the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool and the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework, and has been aligned with the pandemic phases restructured in 2013 by the World Health Organization. PMID:25254666

Holloway, Rachel; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Zaza, Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Jernigan, Daniel B

2014-09-26

93

How Lou Got the Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series traces the spread of the flu virus from a duck in China to a young girl in Kansas. The article begins by introducing kids to Louise and the symptoms of influenza. On a series of clickable screens, they learn how the flu virus traveled from a duck to a pig to a farmer to a shopper to a student to Louise. A sidebar (But I Got a Flu Shot Last Year...) explains why influenza is trickier to outsmart than smallpox and polio. Another sidebar (Microbes on the Go) explains the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic.

94

How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

Turner, James C.

2005-01-01

95

NATURE|Vol. 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY Aweapontheworldneeds  

E-print Network

NATURE|Vol. 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 417 Aweapontheworldneeds Both bottom-up and top, the avian flu strain of such concern in Asia; it could even rival the devas- tation of the 1918 Spanish flu means pro- duction could not be immediately ramped up if a global flu pandemic became reality. The 20

Cai, Long

96

What You Should Know and Do This Flu Season If You Are 65 Years and Older  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... Vaccine in Older Adults Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

97

New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... antivirals/summary-clinicians.htm . Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

98

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY he emergence of the highly pathogenic  

E-print Network

NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY 423 T he emergence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus in southeast Asia is a grim reminder of the deadly toll of flu pandemics throughout for pandemic flu is a global endeavour, with the World Health Organiza- tion (WHO) playing a pivotal role

Cai, Long

99

Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

Los Alamos National Lab

2009-05-01

100

Utah Pandemic Influenza Response Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An influenza pandemic has the potential to cause widespread illness and death. Planning and preparedness before the next pandemic strikes are critical for an effective response. Utah’s Pandemic Influenza Response Plan describes a coordinated strategy to prepare for and respond to an influenza pandemic. Influenza causes seasonal worldwide epidemics of disease that result in an average of 36,000 deaths each

David Sundwall; Robert T. Rolfs

2005-01-01

101

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

102

Flu Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... get that particular virus strain again. Unfortunately, flu viruses mutate (change) each year. So you aren't ... Some gastrointestinal infections are caused by non-flu viruses or bacteria. Although you may feel miserable if ...

103

Technologies to Mitigate Climate Change / Avian Flu Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though the Kyoto Protocol went into effect in February of 2005, it will not be a quick fix: global temperatures are predicted to rise well into this century. This radio broadcast takes a look at some technologies - from wind power to hydrogen fuel cells - that could curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gases. There is discussion about what countries are doing to reduce global warming, such as supporting renewable energy, and what needs to be done in the United States. This climate change broadcast is 30 minutes in length. The broadcast also discusses preparations for a possible bird flu pandemic.

104

Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

2012-07-01

105

Lessons learned: managing a pandemic in a multihospital system.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza has been a concern since the documentation of the 1918 "Spanish" flu. The potential for a novel flu virus to emerge and cause a global pandemic is real and present. Every year many people suffer severe morbidity and mortality to the seasonal strain of the flu, and a pandemic with a novel virus increases those numbers. This article describes the development, revision, and ultimately the enactment of a pandemic respiratory infectious disease plan used during the response to the 2009 H1N1 flu. The plan and related actions provided a roadmap for a robust response to the pandemic, including the protection of health care workers, visitors and patients and increased vaccination rates. PMID:21160302

Curnow, Elizabeth S; Wiles, Robert E; Wyatt, Melissa

2011-01-01

106

Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-? responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-? production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-? production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-? production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively different humoral and cellular immune responses as compared to infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. PMID:24916787

2014-01-01

107

E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

2009-01-01

108

ErikaCheck,Washington Alarmed by bird flu's grip on southeast Asia,  

E-print Network

ErikaCheck,Washington Alarmed by bird flu's grip on southeast Asia, the World Health Organization and government representatives in a bidtospeeduptheproductionof fluvaccines toavertaglobalpandemic. The three flu pandemics of last century -- in 1918, 1957 and 1968 -- were sparked when avian flu jumped the species

Cai, Long

109

CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not  

E-print Network

CORRESPONDENCE Open Access A universal long-term flu vaccine may not prevent severe epidemics universal long-term flu vaccine has become more tangible than ever before. Such a vaccine would protect against very many seasonal and pandemic flu strains for many years, making annual vaccination unnecessary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Risk factors of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in a prospective household cohort in the general population: results from the CoPanFlu-France cohort  

PubMed Central

Background The CoPanFlu-France household cohort was set up in 2009 to identify risk factors of infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus in the general population. Objectives To investigate the determinants of infection during the 2010–2011 season, the first complete influenza season of study follow-up for this cohort. Patients/Methods Pre- and post-epidemic blood samples were collected for all subjects, and nasal swabs were obtained in all subjects from households where an influenza-like illness was reported. Cases were defined as either a fourfold increase in the serological titer or a laboratory-confirmed H1N1pdm09 on a nasal swab, with either RT-PCR or multiplex PCR. Risk factors for H1N1pdm09 infections were explored, without any pre-specified hypothesis, among 167 individual, collective and environmental covariates via generalized estimating equations modeling. We adopted a multimodel selection procedure to control for model selection uncertainty. Results This analysis is based on a sample size of 1121 subjects. The final multivariable model identified one risk factor (history of asthma, OR = 2·17; 95% CI: 1·02–4·62) and three protective factors: pre-epidemic serological titer (OR = 0·51 per doubling of the titer; 95% CI: 0·39–0·67), green tea consumption a minimum of two times a week (OR = 0·39; 95% CI: 0·18–0·84), and proportion of subjects in the household always covering their mouth while coughing/sneezing (OR = 0·93 per 10% increase; 95% CI: 0·86–1·00). Conclusion This exploratory study provides further support of previously reported risk factors and highlights the importance of collective protective behaviors in the household. Further analyses will be conducted to explore these findings. PMID:25495468

Delabre, Rosemary M; Lapidus, Nathanael; Salez, Nicolas; Mansiaux, Yohann; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Carrat, Fabrice

2015-01-01

111

2009 Pandemic influenza in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic-09-H1N1 virus caused the pandemic starting in the second quarter of 2009. The world was prepared to face the pandemic\\u000a since it was anticipated for over one decade. Most countries, including India, had made detailed pandemic preparedness plans\\u000a well ahead of its actual occurrence. The infection rapidly spread to the whole country within 2-3 months. The national tactics\\u000a were to

T. Jacob John; Mahesh Moorthy

2010-01-01

112

Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics  

PubMed Central

Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants’ views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers’ exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians’ concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians’ concerns about IT’s impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital’s preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation’s success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and local levels with insights to refine relevant public health policies for the planning and management of pandemics from the eHealth perspective. PMID:23611788

Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

2012-01-01

113

1918 Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science Update from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Yoshihiro Kawaoko a virologist at the University of Wisconsin. In this interview, Kawako describes what made 1918 flu virus, which killed 20 million people, so deadly.

Science Update

2004-11-22

114

Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

115

Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic  

MedlinePLUS

... Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning Zombie Novella CDC has a fun way of teaching about emergency preparedness. Our graphic novel, "Preparedness 101: Zombie Pandemic" demonstrates the importance of being prepared in ...

116

Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.  

PubMed

The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

2006-12-01

117

Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

2006-01-01

118

[Pandemic A/H1N1 2009 as an international health event with a global impact].  

PubMed

Since the end of April 2009, in proximity with the decline of the seasonal flu season, the world has been acquainted with an outbreak of influenza of a new type of A/H1N1 in Mexico and the USA. The virus has spread throughout the world and become a pandemic flu, for the first time since 1968. This article addresses the global aspects of the outbreak of this new pandemic influenza, starting from the first event of "Avian Flu" in 1997 in Hong Kong, through the outbreaks of SARS in 2003, and the Avian Flu, which also began in 2003, and is still endemic in some countries. This article overviews the International Health Regulations (IHR), which were endorsed by all Member States in 2005, and have been in effect since June 2007. For the first time in history, the Member States of World Health Organization (WHO) were prepared for the upcoming pandemic flu by establishing national preparedness plans and stockpiling anti-viral drugs, even without knowing when and where the first outbreak would take place. The IHR has delegated authority to the WHO to act and lead countries in coping with the various phases of the pandemic in a centralized fashion, starting with formulating the epidemiological surveillance and reports, indications and step-by-step declarations on the alert levels from 4 to 6 announced on June 11th, 2009. The article examines the performances of the WHO and its Director General in exercising the IHR for the first time and leading the event in a professional, harmonized and respectful fashion. Nevertheless, currently, the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 seems to be a mild disease clinically, although causing death, but it has not yet eased, and there are still major question marks concerning its future. Its future spread and severity, together with the WHO response will impact the WHO's ability to conduct global initiatives. Regional cooperation with the Palestinian Authority and Jordan before and after this pandemic influenza outbreak is noted. PMID:20088429

Leventhal, Alex; Mor, Zohar

2009-12-01

119

Preparing for the threat of a pandemic: a Canadian student's perspective.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases, such as a pandemic influenza outbreak, pose a threat to humans and economies worldwide. A novel course at Shantou University's Medical College in China has provided me and nine other Canadian students with a unique opportunity to learn with experts in infectious disease. We are taught in a small group setting and our lecture material is supplemented with hands-on experience in the laboratory. Being placed in China offers us a distinct perspective on culture and social factors and their role in disease transmission mechanisms. This training course has offered me and the other students a deeper understanding of infectious disease in general and is likely to be an experience that we will carry with us in our future careers. This program is a step in a positive direction towards promoting interest in this field of scientific study in Canada. PMID:19762979

Ng, Derek Ck

2009-01-01

120

Transmission of Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

121

Treating Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... you will get complications from the flu, like pneumonia . The flu also can make long-term health ... also can prevent serious flu-related complications (like pneumonia). This is especially important for people with a ...

122

H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

Major, Arkady

123

Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 influenza pandemic known as the “Spanish Flu” has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide mortality ranging from 20 to 100 million deaths. Using epidemic modeling and hospital notification data during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, we estimated the reproductive numbers of the first and second waves of influenza infection to

G. Chowell; C. E. Ammon; N. W. Hengartner; J. M. Hyman

2006-01-01

124

Flu.gov  

MedlinePLUS

Early Data Suggests Severe Flu Season Based on early data, the 2014-2015 flu season could be severe. Protect yourself and your family against seasonal ... Caring for children and infants Caring for seniors Flu Vaccine Finder http://www.flu.gov/stay-connected/ ...

125

75 FR 55776 - Request for Comments on Vaccine Production and Additional Planning for Future Possible Pandemic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pandemic influenza? 3. Improving availability for developing countries. How can we support and stimulate demand for seasonal flu vaccine in middle and lower income countries? Are there other [[Page 55777

2010-09-14

126

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

SciTech Connect

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

127

Pandemic peril.  

PubMed

As avian flu has slipped from the headlines, funding for preparedness efforts has lagged. But public health experts say the threat remains, and the needed actions are expensive. Last year, $398 million was disbursed to 62 states and territories to address all hazards, and that's "not a lot of money," says Gregg Pane, left, director of national healthcare preparedness programs. And that leaves little for flu programs. PMID:19408386

Zigmond, Jessica

2009-04-01

128

Pandemic H1N1 influenza: zoonoses are a two-way street  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease representing a worldwide health and economic threat to humans and animals. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern United States in 1918 concurrent with the Spanish flu human pandemic. Since the first report that flu was caused ...

129

Modeling reduction of pandemic influenza using pharmaceutical and non pharmaceutical interventions in a heterogeneous population  

E-print Network

In an event of a pandemic influenza outbreak such as the great "Spanish Flu" of 1918 and the more recent 2009-2010 H1N1 "Swine Flu" scare, pharmaceutical as well as non-pharmaceutical resources are limited in availability ...

Teytelman, Anna

2012-01-01

130

Pandemic Panic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students engage in an inquiry into influenza A (H1N1), considering the virus and the pandemic from multiple perspectives and acting as advisers to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

2010-01-01

131

Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu?  

E-print Network

Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu? "Swine flu" is a disease caused do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been. An investigation into these cases is ongoing. Is this swine flu virus contagious? CDC has determined

Olsen, Stephen L.

132

First Aid: Influenza (Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Expect Ebola: What to Know First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

133

Algorithmen Flu probleme  

E-print Network

EĂ?ziente Algorithmen II Einf uhrung 1 ' & $ % Inhalt 1. Flu#25;probleme 2. Matching 3. Lineares Algorithmen II Flu#25;probleme 4 ' & $ % Netzwerk u#25; Gegeben ist ein System von Wasserrohren: s t Quelle Senke ie#25;en? #12; EĂ?ziente Algorithmen II Flu#25;probleme 5 ' & $ % Netzwerk u#25; Antwort: Maximal

Popeea, Corneliu - Chair for Foundations of Software Reliability and Theoretical Computer Science

134

Avoiding the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

135

A Guide For Parents FLU INFORMATION  

E-print Network

THE FLU: A Guide For Parents FLU INFORMATION What is the flu? The flu (influenza) is an infection emerges and starts spreading among people. What is 2009 H1N1 flu? Last flu season a new influenza A H1N1 it was discovered and its subtype. (This virus was sometimes called "swine flu" or "novel flu".) This flu season

Burke, Peter

136

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... People Research Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... treatment, vaccine development... More Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

137

Your Medicare Coverage: Flu Shots  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Flu shots How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) normally covers one flu shot per flu season. Who's eligible? All people ...

138

H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2 WHAT IS H1N1 INFLUENZA? The term pandemic influenza refers to a worldwide spread of a new influenza virus. The current virus of concern is the H1N1 that causes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. HOW IS H1N1 INFLUENZA SPREAD? It is believed

Major, Arkady

139

The first influenza pandemic in the new millennium: lessons learned hitherto for current control efforts and overall pandemic preparedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses pose a permanent threat to human populations due to their ability to constantly adapt to impact immunologically susceptible individuals in the forms of epidemic and pandemics through antigenic drifts and antigenic shifts, respectively. Pandemic influenza preparedness is a critical step in responding to future influenza outbreaks. In this regard, responding to the current pandemic and preparing for future

Carlos Franco-Paredes; Peter Carrasco; Jose Ignacio Santos Preciado

2009-01-01

140

Representations of swine flu: perspectives from a Malaysian pig farm.  

PubMed

Novel influenza viruses are seen, internationally, as posing considerable health challenges, but public responses to such viruses are often rooted in cultural representations of disease and risk. However, little research has been conducted in locations associated with the origin of a pandemic. We examined representations and risk perceptions associated with swine flu amongst 120 Malaysian pig farmers. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents felt at particular risk of infection, two-thirds were somewhat or very concerned about being infected. Those respondents who were the most anxious believed particular societal "out-groups" (homosexuals, the homeless and prostitutes) to be at higher infection risk. Although few (4%) reported direct discrimination, 46% claimed friends had avoided them since the swine flu outbreak. Findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, social representations and terror management theories of response to pandemic threat. PMID:21936262

Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Hassan, Sharifah Binti Syed; Dhanoa, Amreeta

2011-07-01

141

Preventing the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... less than 6 months of age What is H1N1 flu? The H1N1 influenza (also called swine influenza or ... infection caused by a virus found in pigs. H1N1 flu can infect humans. For more information, visit our ...

142

Colds and the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... legs Cough Headache Loss of appetite What is H1N1 flu? The H1N1 influenza (also called swine influenza or ... infection caused by a virus found in pigs. H1N1 flu can infect humans. For more information, see H1N1 ...

143

BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics  

E-print Network

BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics Have Health Coverage Through Mason? Free Seasonal Flu Shots are Part of Your Wellness Benefit. For faculty and staff who are enrolled in COVA Care, COVA HealthAware, COVA HDHP, and Kaiser Permanente, seasonal flu shots are part of your wellness benefit

144

Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu  

E-print Network

Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual, high (100-102°) Headache be severe 5 STEPS TO TAKE IF YOU GET THE FLU: 1. Stay at home and rest. CDC recommends that you stay home a medical condition that puts you at higher risk of flu complications (like asthma...), call your doctor

O'Toole, Alice J.

145

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

146

The Infectious Range of Flu  

E-print Network

The Infectious Range of Flu Since the H5N1 strain of avian flu started crossing into people since 1990. In graduate school, he studied the molecular complex that allows the flu virus to replicate strain of avian flu had never been known to cross into humans. The infections immediately raised alarm

Hill, Wendell T.

147

Pandemic mitigation: Bringing it home.  

PubMed

In the US, national, regional and even institutional plans for ameliorating the effects of pandemic influenza focus on stockpiling antiviral medications, early production and distribution of vaccine, mass and personal social distancing, and a number of personal hygiene activities. Essential personnel are the first scheduled to receive preventive and therapeutic pharmaceuticals, followed by high risk groups, the largest of which are the elderly. Specific recommendations for protection embody a bunker mentality with a time horizon of two weeks, emulating preparation for a natural disaster. The epidemiology of pandemic influenza is scarcely considered. We summarize here the envelope of mortality attributable to epidemic and pandemic influenza in the last 90 years of the last century as a lead in to a presentation of the multinational case age distribution of the novel H1N1 pandemic of 2009. We discuss the sparing of elderly subpopulations in pandemics and the subsequent abrupt resurgence of mortality in the spared age groups as drift variants emerge. The general decline in the baseline of age-specific excess mortality in economically developed countries is characterized and its importance assessed. Models of acute and chronic care facilities are discussed and an argument is advanced that society as a whole as well as acute care facilities cannot be protected against incursion and widespread infection in pandemics of severity above low moderate. The key findings of models of chronic care institutions and others that can control public access, such as corporations, are used to describe programs with a realistic chance of providing protection in even severe pandemics. These principles are further mapped onto individual residences. Materials directing institutional and home planning are cited. PMID:21361400

Reichert, Tom

2011-01-01

148

The general practice experience of the swine flu epidemic in Victoria — lessons from the front line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swine influenza (H1N1 09) outbreak in Victoria has provided an excellent opportunity to review the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) and to assess its performance in practice. • General practitioners play a major role in seasonal flu management, and it was expected that the AHMPPI would enable GPs on the front line to maintain this central

Peter Eizenberg

2009-01-01

149

Avian Flu and the Quest for Immunity: Not Just Chicken Feed  

PubMed Central

With the very real threat of a bird flu pandemic – and no natural immunity among humans – antiviral drug developers, the federal government, and academic researchers are racing to find innovative vaccines and therapies that are effective and can be mass produced. The commercial payoff, too, could be big. PMID:23424387

CARROLL, JOHN

2006-01-01

150

From SARS in 2003 to H1N1 in 2009: lessons learned from Taiwan in preparation for the next pandemic.  

PubMed

In anticipation of a future pandemic potentially arising from H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and in large part in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the city of Taipei, Taiwan, has developed extensive new strategies to manage pandemics. These strategies were tested during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. This article assesses pandemic preparedness in Taipei in the wake of recent pandemic experiences in order to draw lessons relevant to the broader international public health community. Drawing on Taiwan and Taipei Centers for Disease Control data on pandemic response and control, we evaluated the effectiveness of the changes in pandemic response policies developed by these governments over time, emphasizing hospital and medical interventions with particular attention paid to Traffic Control Bundling. SARS and H1N1 2009 catalysed the Taiwan and Taipei CDCs to continuously improve and adjust their strategies for a future pandemic. These new strategies for pandemic response and control have been largely effective at providing interim pandemic containment and control, while development and implementation of an effective vaccination programme is underway. As Taipei's experiences with these cases illustrate, in mitigating moderate or severe pandemic influenza, a graduated process including Traffic Control Bundles accompanied by hospital and medical interventions, as well as school- and community-focused interventions, provides an effective interim response while awaiting vaccine development. Once a vaccine is developed, to maximize pandemic control effectiveness, it should be allocated with priority given to vulnerable groups, healthcare workers and school children. PMID:24996515

Yen, M-Y; Chiu, A W-H; Schwartz, J; King, C-C; Lin, Y E; Chang, S-C; Armstrong, D; Hsueh, P-R

2014-08-01

151

VideoLab: Modeling a Pandemic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2009, H1N1 became the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, and prompted swift investigation of ways to control the virus. Vaccination can slow the flu's spread and reduce its attack rate and mortality, but the strategy's effectiveness depends on who gets the vaccine, and when. Yang et al. used household and school studies to model the effectiveness of two vaccination strategies on the spread of H1N1. They report that a 70% phased vaccination program in which the vaccine is universally available (first movie clip) is not as effective as a similar vaccination program in which children are vaccinated first, followed by adults (second clip).

Yang Yang (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;); Jonathan D. Sugimoto (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology); M. Elizabeth Halloran (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology and Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health); Nicole E. Basta (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology); Dennis L. Chao (Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington;Department of Epidemiology); Laura Matrajt (University of Washington;Department of Applied Mathematics)

2009-10-30

152

Cancer, the Flu, and You  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications Mold Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share Compartir ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Living with cancer increases your risk for complications ...

153

September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine  

E-print Network

Number 12d September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Immunization has saved more lives in Canada against viruses that cause influenza, often called the flu. The vaccine does not protect against other viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach illness, such as `stomach flu'. The vaccine is approved

154

NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU"  

E-print Network

H1N1 NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU" Student Health Service 200 West Kawili Street Campus Center of Health Epidemiologist ....................................933-0912 Websites www.flu.gov www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/general_info.htm www.hawaii.gov/health/aboutH1N1.html www.uhh.hawaii.edu (for links to other

Wiegner, Tracy N.

155

Flu Policy 20092010 Supervisory Guidelines  

E-print Network

1 Flu Policy 20092010 Supervisory Guidelines These HR guidelines will be implemented effective the reporting/notification guidelines outlined below. The employee should also be reminded to review the Flu. When Employees Exhibit FluLike Symptoms at Work Employees at work who have flulike symptoms (fever

Oklahoma, University of

156

Flu: Teamwork Nothing could be  

E-print Network

UF Voices Flu: Teamwork needed Teamwork. Nothing could be more important when many stu- dents, faculty and staff will have been in some way af- fected by this year's flu virus. Various departments for university efforts this flu season -- including frequently asked questions and self-care guidelines. If you

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

157

H1N1 and Seasonal Flu: The "New" Flu and the "Old" Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... to 20% of people get the seasonal flu. H1N1 flu is a new influenza virus that was a ... nose, headaches, body aches, chills, and fatigue. With H1N1 flu infection, vomiting and diarrhea may also occur. If ...

158

Joining the dots on the emergence of pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

Extensive research in the last 20 years has unveiled some of the factors associated with the emergence of pandemic influenza A viruses. Nonetheless, numerous extrinsic and virological factors are yet to be fully understood, especially with reference to their interconnection and interdependence. Knowledge gathered so far has motivated the scientific community to embrace the One Health-One Flu concept and to explore new scientific approaches in the field of influenza infections in order to make educated decisions when it comes to pandemic preparedness. As a result of this awareness, risk assessment methodology is currently being explored as a new tool to estimate the pandemic potential of influenza viruses circulating in animals, underlining the urgency for interdisciplinary collaboration and the need to share updated and high quality scientific and surveillance data. PMID:23643193

Capua, Ilaria

2013-10-01

159

What Is Seasonal Flu?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, talks about the seasonal flu and when ... website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. ...

160

Is it a Cold or the Flu? -Know the Difference Signs & Symptoms Cold Flu  

E-print Network

Is it a Cold or the Flu? - Know the Difference Signs & Symptoms Cold Flu Onset Gradual Sudden Fever.rochester.edu/uhs (Check Care for Colds & Flu in "Health Topics.") Centers for Disease Control www.cdc.gov/flu University

Mahon, Bradford Z.

161

H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Spanish (espańol) Arabic (???????) H1N1 Flu (Seasonal Flu) English (Arabic) ???????? ???????? - ???????? ??? ...

162

Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

2011-01-01

163

Does seasonal influenza vaccination increase the risk of illness with the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus?  

PubMed

This Perspective discusses the following study published in PLoS Medicine: Skowronski DM, De Serres G, Crocroft N, Janjua NZ, Boulianne N, et al. (2010) Association between the 2008-09 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Pandemic H1N1 Illness during Spring-Summer 2009 : Four Observational Studies from Canada. PLoS Med 7(4): e1000258. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000258. In three case-control studies and a household transmission cohort, Danuta Skowronski and colleagues find an association between prior seasonal flu vaccination and increased risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu. PMID:21673417

Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

2011-01-01

164

Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

2010-05-25

165

Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.  

SciTech Connect

Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

2010-04-01

166

Cold vs. Flu Know the Difference  

E-print Network

Cold vs. Flu Know the Difference Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual ­ can be 100 to 102or higher can help prevent the spread of colds or flu F � KEEP YOUR HANDS CLEAN ­ Wash with soap and water. � STAY HOME WHEN SICK � GET VACCINATED FOR FLU Getting a flu shot or the nasal spray every year

Burke, Peter

167

A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu  

SciTech Connect

People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed poly

Hazi, A U

2007-02-12

168

The Spanish Flu and Its Legacy: Science Cases for Classroom Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book offers an interdisciplinary approach to teaching about the events surrounding the Spanish flu in 1918. By presenting three case studies of the flu from different perspectives, students will be able to use scientific, historical and medical evidence as well as a developed sense of curiosity to investigate how this pandemic emerged. This resource is organized into different sections which offer teaching approaches, activities and resources to facilitate the understanding of a pandemicâ??its nature, transmission and prevention methods for middle school to high school students.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board; )

2012-10-24

169

Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Deaths during the 1918–19 influenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent influenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel influenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-limited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of bacteria to produce highly lethal pneumonias. This sequential-infection hypothesis is consistent with characteristics of the 1918–19 pandemic, contemporaneous expert opinion, and current knowledge regarding the pathophysiologic effects of influenza viruses and their interactions with respiratory bacteria. This hypothesis suggests opportunities for prevention and treatment during the next pandemic (e.g., with bacterial vaccines and antimicrobial drugs), particularly if a pandemic strain–specific vaccine is unavailable or inaccessible to isolated, crowded, or medically underserved populations. PMID:18680641

Shanks, G. Dennis

2008-01-01

170

Decoding the Flu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" was designed to develop students' ability to read and interpret information stored in DNA. Making use of personal response systems ("clickers") along with a PowerPoint presentation, students follow the story of "Jason," a student intern at the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). While working with a CDC team in Mexico, Jason is the only person who does not get sick from a new strain of flu. It is up to Jason to use molecular data collected from different local strains of flu to identify which one may be causing the illness. Although designed for an introductory biology course for science or non-science majors, the case could be adapted for upper-level courses by including more complex problems and aspects of gene expression, such as the excision of introns.

Norris Armstrong

2011-01-01

171

Flu in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this Web site provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Infectious Diseases will find detailed, authoritative answers to any questions they may have about the flu. In addition to explanations of flu transmission, treatment, vaccination, etc., this Web site offers updated surveillance reports on the status of influenza in the US. The Questions and Answers page is a good source for quick, easy-to-absorb information, and it clears up many misconceptions regarding the flu and the flu shot. Visitors looking for more detailed information will find many useful links, particularly for recent news and reports.

1999-01-01

172

Computer-assisted resilience training to prepare healthcare workers for pandemic influenza: a randomized trial of the optimal dose of training  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Working in a hospital during an extraordinary infectious disease outbreak can cause significant stress and contribute to healthcare workers choosing to reduce patient contact. Psychological training of healthcare workers prior to an influenza pandemic may reduce stress-related absenteeism, however, established training methods that change behavior and attitudes are too resource-intensive for widespread use. This study tests the feasibility and

Robert G Maunder; William J Lancee; Reet Mae; Leslie Vincent; Nathalie Peladeau; Mary Agnes Beduz; Jonathan J Hunter; Molyn Leszcz

2010-01-01

173

Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

2008-01-01

174

Is it a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu  

E-print Network

Is it a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual; high (100°F to 102°F, occasionally higher, especially in young children); lasts 3 to 4 days Headache Rare Common General Aches, Pains Slight Usual; at the beginning of the illness Stuffy Nose Common Sometimes Sneezing Usual Sometimes Sore Throat

Weston, Ken

175

Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu  

E-print Network

Is It a Cold or the Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu Fever Rare Usual; high (100°F to 102°F, occasionally higher, especially in young children); lasts 3 to 4 days Headache Rare Common General Aches, Pains Slight Usual; at the beginning of the illness Stuffy Nose Common Sometimes Sneezing Usual Sometimes Sore Throat

Bandettini, Peter A.

176

SimFlu: a simulation tool for predicting the variation pattern of influenza A virus.  

PubMed

Since the first pandemic outbreak of avian influenza A virus (H5N1 subtype) in 1997, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has provided a large number of influenza virus sequences with well-organized annotations. Using the time-series sequences of influenza A viruses, we developed a simulation tool for influenza virus, named SimFlu, to predict possible future variants of influenza viruses. SimFlu can create variants from a seed nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus using the codon variation parameters included in the SimFlu package. The SimFlu library provides pre-calculated codon variation parameters for the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 subtypes of influenza A virus isolated from 2000 to 2011, allowing the users to simulate their own nucleotide sequences by selecting their preferred parameter options. SimFlu supports three operating systems - Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. SimFlu is publicly available at http://lcbb.snu.ac.kr/simflu. PMID:24995426

Ahn, Insung; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Jung, Sunghoon; Lee, Ji-Hae; Son, Hyeon Seok

2014-09-01

177

Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many Asian countries and their ability to cause fatal infections in humans have raised serious concerns about a global flu pandemic. Here we report the isolation of an H5N1 virus from a Vietnamese girl that is resistant to the drug oseltamivir, which is an inhibitor of the viral enzyme neuraminidase and is

Q. Mai Le; Maki Kiso; Kazuhiko Someya; Yuko T. Sakai; T. Hien Nguyen; Khan H. L. Nguyen; N. Dinh Pham; Ha H. Ngyen; Shinya Yamada; Yukiko Muramoto; Taisuke Horimoto; Ayato Takada; Hideo Goto; Takashi Suzuki; Yasuo Suzuki; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2005-01-01

178

Case Report: Cystic Fibrosis, Lung Transplantation, and the Novel H1N1 Flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H1N1 pandemic flu is a significant risk factor for both patients with chronic disease who need organ transplantation and transplant recipients. This population needs special care regarding comorbidities and related complications. MB, a 38-year-old Italian cystic fibrosis male patient with lung and pancreatic involvement, was referred to our division in July 2009 for fever-associated arthromyalgia, headache, and rhinitis. Lung

S. Bresci; B. Borchi; S. Ambu; G. Taccetti; C. Braggion; F. Leoncini

2010-01-01

179

[Mass communication during the "H1N1 flu"].  

PubMed

Nowadays communication plays a key role in healthcare, especially when a detailed risk analysis is important for correct information, as in the case of the H1N1 flu virus A. Through our study we have analyzed how the event "H1N1 flu" was addressed by the media, considering the period April 2009-June 2010. We collected the information from "Il Corriere della Sera", "La Repubblica" and "City", in addition to an online site for general information such as "TGCOM". The analyzed peak of daily news was seen a few weeks before the pandemic peak; in addition, after the peak of the pandemic, the interest of the press has completely collapsed, and eventually disappeared altogether. The media can influence the thought and consequentially how the recipients act, leading to a misperception of risk ('risk') and danger ('hazard'). Moreover the institutions and health professionals are not always able to communicate effectively to meet the needs for correct information. It is desirable in the future a greater degree of collaboration between media and authorities to have a clearer simpler and less misleading communication in the health field, helping recipients to act properly. PMID:22755497

Pellegrino, E; Martino, G; Balli, M; Puggelli, F; Tiscione, E; Bonaccorsi, G; Bonanni, P

2012-01-01

180

Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare

Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

2009-01-01

181

Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... side effects? Most children don’t have any side effects from the vaccine, but it can cause mild side effects. For ... protects your child from the flu. However, the vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects that may be mistaken for the flu. Keep ...

182

Here to assist you GET THE FLU SHOT, NOT THE FLU!  

E-print Network

Human Resources Here to assist you GET THE FLU SHOT, NOT THE FLU! Influenza is a common respiratory illness affecting millions of Canadians each year. When you get the flu, it's more than your own health that is at risk. You risk transmitting the flu to your friends, family and co-workers. A flu vaccine is your best

Kambhampati, Patanjali

183

What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection  

E-print Network

What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection caused by the influenza known as "swine flu") in humans causes similar symptoms to the seasonal flu but may also include. What are the symptoms? Flu symptoms start 1-4 days after exposure. Symptoms usually start suddenly

Virginia Tech

184

Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu  

E-print Network

Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu and other regular exercise. Manage stress. Being healthy helps fight the flu. Get a flu vaccination. Protect yourself against seasonal illness. It's the single best way to prevent the flu. Stay informed. These simple

Ferrara, Katherine W.

185

RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS  

E-print Network

RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS If you start exhibiting flu-like symptoms, call SU Health Services because of flu-like symptoms: Tell your RA. Tell your roommate (if you have one). Socially distance in their rooms or apartments because of flu-like symptoms, the sick meal policy is being expanded. When students

McConnell, Terry

186

CUNY Pandemic Flu Response Plan 5-4-09.doc Page 1 of 10 This is a DRAFT plan assembled by the CUNY Department of Environment, Health, Safety and Risk Management. The actions listed have not necessarily been agreed to by the departments and entities listed  

E-print Network

by the CUNY Department of Environment, Health, Safety and Risk Management. The actions listed have and the Campus Safety Health and Environmental Management Association (CSHEMA) for making this preparedness of Environmental, Health, Safety and Risk Management Pandemic Influenza Response Plan--Incident Level

Brinkmann, Peter

187

MDA's Flu Season Resource Center  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Ways to Help MDA Search form Search MDA's Flu Season Resource Center Individuals affected by neuromuscular ... Gifts MDA Programs Matching Gifts National Sponsors About MDA Art Collection Contact MDA Become a Volunteer Careers ...

188

Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

189

Trends in influenza vaccination behaviours--results from the CoPanFlu cohort, France, 2006 to 2011.  

PubMed

Controversies over the effectiveness and safety of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in 2009/10 may have altered the influenza vaccination coverage in France after the pandemic season. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the pandemic affected seasonal influenza vaccination behaviours in the general population by analysing vaccination behaviours from 2006/07 to 2011/12 among the 1,451 subjects of the Cohort for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu) France.We found that vaccination behaviours in 2010/11 and 2011/12 significantly differed from behaviours before the pandemic, with the notable exception of the targeted risk groups for seasonal influenza-related complications. Among the population with no risk factors,the post-pandemic influenza vaccine coverage decreased, with people aged 15 to 24 years and 45to 64 years being most likely to abandon vaccination.Therefore, this study documents a moderate negative effect of the 2009/10 pandemic episode on vaccination behaviours in the French metropolitan population that was apparent also in the following two seasons.Moreover, it does not exclude that the general trend of reduced vaccination has also affected certain targeted groups at high risk for complications. PMID:24229790

Caille-Brillet, A L; Raude, J; Lapidus, N; De Lamballerie, X; Carrat, F; Setbon, M

2013-01-01

190

Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

191

Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.  

PubMed

The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). PMID:22952719

Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

2012-01-01

192

PROCEEDINGS Open Access FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment  

E-print Network

PROCEEDINGS Open Access FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment finder based on phylogenetic in the evolution of the genome of influenza (flu), whereby segments of the genome are exchanged between different, researchers and health authorities are building up enormous databases of genomic sequences for every flu

Moret, Bernard

193

Flu Gone Viral: Syndromic Surveillance of Flu on Twitter using Temporal Topic Models  

E-print Network

Flu Gone Viral: Syndromic Surveillance of Flu on Twitter using Temporal Topic Models Liangzhe Chen for governments and public health authorities. Machine learning techniques for nowcasting the flu have made in a population. There is a disconnect between data-driven methods for forecasting flu incidence

Ramakrishnan, Naren

194

H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... H5N1 (Avian/Bird Flu) H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu) H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu virus that has caused serious outbreaks in ... been no reported infections with these viruses in birds, poultry, or people in the United States. You ...

195

Inactivated or Recombinant Flu Vaccine, 2014-2015 - What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States die from flu, and many more are hospitalized. Flu vaccine is the best protection against flu and its complications. Flu vaccine also helps prevent spreading flu from person to person. Inactivated and Recombinant Flu Vaccines You ...

196

Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine, 2014 - 2015 -- What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... in the United States die from flu, and many more are hospitalized. Flu vaccine is the best protection against flu and its complications. Flu vaccine also helps prevent spreading flu from person to person. Live, Attenuated Flu Vaccine - LAIV, Nasal ...

197

Vaccinating Schoolkids Cuts Flu in Communities  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Vaccinating Schoolkids Cuts Flu in Communities: Study Infection rate went down among ... Preidt Monday, December 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization School Health MONDAY, Dec. 15, 2014 (HealthDay ...

198

Symptoms and Complications of Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... Open All Influenza Symptoms People who have the flu often experience Fever Feeling feverish/chills Cough Sore ...

199

FDA Approves Rapivab to Treat Flu Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... FDA News Release FDA approves Rapivab to treat flu infection For Immediate Release December 22, 2014 Release ... infection in adults. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza ...

200

Bad Flu Season Getting Worse, CDC Says  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bad Flu Season Getting Worse, CDC Says 43 states reporting ... 2015) Monday, January 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Flu MONDAY, Jan. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The current ...

201

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

202

Ecology and evolution of the flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza (flu) is a common infectious disease, but it is unusual in that the primary timescales for disease dynamics (epidemics) and viral evolution (new variants) are roughly the same. Recently, extraordinarily reliable phylogenetic reconstructions of flu virus evolution have been made using samples from both extant and extinct strains. In addition, because of their public health importance, flu epidemics have

David J. D. Earn; Jonathan Dushoff; Simon A. Levin

2002-01-01

203

Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine  

E-print Network

Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine IT IS GOOD TO SEE THAT THE CENTERS FOR Disease Control are seeking ethical guid- ance about the rationing of flu shots this year ("Ethicists to guide rationing of flu vaccine," J. Couzin, News of the Week, 5 Nov., p. 960). They should also be seeking ways to reduce

Duesberg, Peter

204

September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic  

E-print Network

September 16, 2010 Volunteers for Flu Clinic The Health System's Non-Clinical Labor Pool is coordinating employee volunteers to assist with the kick off of Employee Health Services Flu Vaccination Season. Two Flu Clinics will be conducted simultaneously on Friday, October 1, 2010 at the PSSB courtyard

Leistikow, Bruce N.

205

Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English Español Share Compartir ... visit the CDC seasonal flu website . What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory ...

206

Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Two LAIV Strains against Potentially Pandemic H2N2 Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

H2N2 Influenza A caused the Asian flu pandemic in 1957, circulated for more than 10 years and disappeared from the human population after 1968. Given that people born after 1968 are naďve to H2N2, that the virus still circulates in wild birds and that this influenza subtype has a proven pandemic track record, H2N2 is regarded as a potential pandemic threat. To prepare for an H2N2 pandemic, here we developed and tested in mice and ferrets two live attenuated influenza vaccines based on the haemagglutinins of the two different H2N2 lineages that circulated at the end of the cycle, using the well characterized A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus as the backbone. The vaccine strains containing the HA and NA of A/California/1/66 (clade 1) or A/Tokyo/3/67 (clade 2) showed a temperature sensitive and cold adapted phenotype and a reduced reproduction that was limited to the respiratory tract of mice, suggesting that the vaccines may be safe for use in humans. Both vaccine strains induced haemagglutination inhibition titers in mice. Vaccination abolished virus replication in the nose and lung and protected mice from weight loss after homologous and heterologous challenge with the respective donor wild type strains. In ferrets, the live attenuated vaccines induced high virus neutralizing, haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition titers, however; the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 wt virus induced higher homologous and better cross-reactive antibody responses than the A/Tokyo/3/67 based vaccine. In line with this observation, was the higher virus reduction observed in the throat and nose of ferrets vaccinated with this vaccine after challenge with either of the wild type donor viruses. Moreover, both vaccines clearly reduced the infection-induced rhinitis observed in placebo-vaccinated ferrets. The results favor the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 isolate, which will be evaluated in a clinical study. PMID:25058039

Smolonogina, Tatiana; Rekstin, Andrey; van Amerongen, Geert; van Dijken, Harry; Mouthaan, Justin; Roholl, Paul; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Doroshenko, Elena; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Rudenko, Larisa

2014-01-01

207

Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

2011-01-01

208

Development of a triage protocol for critical care during an influenza pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The recent outbreaks of avian influenza (H5N1) have placed a renewed emphasis on preparing for an in- fluenza pandemic in humans. Of particular concern in this planning is the allocation of resources, such as ventilators and antiviral medications, which will likely become scarce during a pandemic. Methods: We applied a collaborative process using best evi- dence, expert panels, stakeholder

Michael D. Christian; Laura Hawryluck; Randy S. Wax; Tim Cook; Neil M. Lazar; Margaret S. Herridge; Matthew P. Muller; Douglas R. Gowans; Wendy Fortier; Frederick M. Burkle

2006-01-01

209

Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu  

E-print Network

Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu CDC recommends a three-step approach to fighting the flu. CDC recommends a three-step approach to fighting influenza (flu). The first and most important step is to get a flu vaccination each year. But if you get the flu

Tipple, Brett

210

Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918–19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell–mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines. PMID:22306191

Brundage, John F.

2012-01-01

211

Influenza pandemic preparedness: motivation for protection among small and medium businesses in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Community-wide preparedness for pandemic influenza is an issue that has featured prominently in the recent news media, and is currently a priority for health authorities in many countries. The small and medium business sector is a major provider of private sector employment in Australia, yet we have little information about the preparedness of this sector for pandemic influenza. This study aimed to investigate the association between individual perceptions and preparedness for pandemic influenza among small and medium business owners and managers. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 201 small and medium business owners or managers in New South Wales and Western Australia. Eligible small or medium businesses were defined as those that had less than 200 employees. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of having considered the impact of, having a plan for, and needing help to prepare for pandemic influenza. Results Approximately 6 per cent of participants reported that their business had a plan for pandemic influenza, 39 per cent reported that they had not thought at all about the impact of pandemic influenza on their business, and over 60 per cent stated that they required help to prepare for a pandemic. Beliefs about the severity of pandemic influenza and the ability to respond were significant independent predictors of having a plan for pandemic influenza, and the perception of the risk of pandemic influenza was the most important predictor of both having considered the impact of, and needing help to prepare for a pandemic. Conclusion Our findings suggest that small and medium businesses in Australia are not currently well prepared for pandemic influenza. We found that beliefs about the risk, severity, and the ability to respond effectively to the threat of pandemic influenza are important predictors of preparedness. Campaigns targeting small and medium businesses should emphasise the severity of the consequences to their businesses if a pandemic were to occur, and, at the same time, reassure them that there are effective strategies capable of being implemented by small and medium businesses to deal with a pandemic. PMID:17634112

Watkins, Rochelle E; Cooke, Feonagh C; Donovan, Robert J; MacIntyre, C Raina; Itzwerth, Ralf; Plant, Aileen J

2007-01-01

212

2014 Flu Shot Clinic Schedule Sponsored by UW Benefits  

E-print Network

2014 Flu Shot Clinic Schedule Sponsored by UW Benefits Date Time Location Room Links Monday.m. Seattle HUB 214 View Campus Map Download Printable Flyer Flu Resources: www.uw.edu/admin/hr/benefits/wellness/healthy/flu

Manchak, John

213

Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Tamiflu Cuts 1 Day Off Average Flu Bout, Study Finds Researchers reviewed ... the length of flu symptoms by about a day, and reduces the risk of flu-related complications ...

214

I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?  

MedlinePLUS

... Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Health Conditions & Illnesses > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print ...

215

OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

2010-01-01

216

Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices  

SciTech Connect

The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

217

INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu  

E-print Network

INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu Sudden onset of fever/chills, coughing, muscle aches, headache by nausea and/or vomiting, minor symptoms e.g. fatigue may last a few weeks Self-care if you get the flu

Abolmaesumi, Purang

218

Students and Staff The next flu  

E-print Network

1 Attn: UMR Students and Staff The next flu shot clinic will be held on Tuesday, Oct. 26 from 12's issue of Student Health 101 online at http:// readsh1 01.com/ umn.ht ml FLU SHOT CLINIC Where: Soldiers

Jiang, Tiefeng

219

Fish farming and influenza pandemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human influenza pandemics commonly arise by genetic reassortment between human and avian viruses in pigs. Yet global developments in aquaculture - the so-called 'Blue Revolution' - will mean increased colocation of people, ducks and pigs.

Christoph Scholtissek; Ernest Naylor

1988-01-01

220

Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.  

PubMed

Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. PMID:25321142

Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

2014-01-01

221

Behavioural responses to influenza pandemics  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the novel A/H1N1 virus has made pandemic preparedness a crucial issue for public health worldwide. Although the epidemiological aspects of the three 20th century influenza pandemics have been widely investigated, little is known about population behaviour in a pandemic situation. Such knowledge is however critical, notably for predicting population compliance with non pharmaceutical interventions. This paper reviews the relevant scientific literature for the 1918-1920, 1957-1958, 1969-1969 influenza epidemics and the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although the evidence base of most non pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and personal protection measures is debated, it appears on the basis of past experience that NPIs implemented the most systematically, the earliest, and for the longest time could reduce overall mortality rates and spread out epidemic peaks. Adequate, transparent, and targeted communication on the part of public health authorities would be also of crucial importance in the event of a serious influenza pandemic. PMID:20025201

Balinska, Marta; Rizzo, Caterina

2009-01-01

222

Assessment of pandemic preparedness in a socially vulnerable community in south Texas.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to obtain information about general and pandemic preparedness efforts of residents within San Patricio County in South Texas, as well as to identify the most effective means of communicating the risks posed by pandemic influenza. The population of San Patricio County is socially vulnerable to a variety of disasters, including influenza pandemics due to the unique demographic profile of the county as well as its location on the Gulf Coast. The goals of this study were to help with pandemic planning efforts and to provide recommendations that could serve as a foundation for building more resilient communities within San Patricio County. Clearly the various governmental levels must work together to assist communities prepare for pandemic preparedness but broad, inclusive community participation is also necessary to strengthen community resilience. PMID:24350552

Kiltz, Linda; Fonseca, Diana; Rodriguez, Christina; Munoz, Paola

2013-01-01

223

The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century  

PubMed Central

The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly known as swine flu) first appeared in Mexico and the United States in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed as a result of airline travel. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to the highest level, Phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents. The 2009 H1N1 virus contains a unique combination of gene segments from human, swine and avian influenza A viruses. Children and young adults appear to be the most affected, perhaps reflecting protection in the elderly owing to exposure to H1N1 strains before 1957. Most clinical disease is relatively mild but complications leading to hospitalization, with the need for intensive care, can occur, especially in very young children, during pregnancy, in morbid obesity, and in those with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung and cardiac diseases, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Bacterial coinfection has played a significant role in fatal cases. The case of fatality has been estimated at around 0.4%. Mathematical modeling suggests that the effect of novel influenza virus can be reduced by immunization, but the question remains: can we produce enough H1N1 vaccine to beat the pandemic? PMID:20103951

Al Hajjar, Sami; McIntosh, Kenneth

2010-01-01

224

International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

2010-03-01

225

YOU DON'T HAVE TIME FOR THE FLU.  

E-print Network

YOU DON'T HAVE TIME FOR THE FLU. HUMAN RESOURCES Programs Check www.purdue.edu/worklife to register will partner with Maxim Health Systems to provide seasonal flu shot appointments on the West Lafayette campus partner at least 24 hours in advance. Then show up with your PUID and get your flu shot. Seasonal flu

Pittendrigh, Barry

226

September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts  

E-print Network

Number 12c September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts Getting immunized against influenza or the `flu' is a safe, effective and healthy choice to make. The influenza virus can cause, or flu shot, is the best protection against illness and complications. Many people use the term the `flu

227

What You Can Do to Stop the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

228

Flu Shots Program 2002 Fall 2003 Vol. 7 No. 2  

E-print Network

Flu Shots Program 2002 Fall 2003 Vol. 7 No. 2 This is a publication for the staff of The University of Texas at Dallas In This Issue: FLU SHOTS POINSETTIA SALES TECHNOLOGY FAIR CENTRAL STORES FAIR FLU SHOTS The Staff Council is again sponsoring flu shots for UTD staff. The shots will be available on November 11

O'Toole, Alice J.

229

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS  

E-print Network

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS At this time of year, flu is becoming more common and, even with swine flu, is usually not a severe disease. However, the symptoms of meningitis can superficially resemble those of flu, so beware. Below is a brief summary of how

Oxford, University of

230

October 24, 2012 Deadline for Flu Vaccine October 31, 2012  

E-print Network

October 24, 2012 Deadline for Flu Vaccine ­ October 31, 2012 This year's deadline to get a flu shot is October 31, 2012. Employees who have not received a flu shot by then are required to wear a mask starting on November 1st and continuing through the end of flu season. Employees in academic and administrative offices

Leistikow, Bruce N.

231

Team work project 1A The bird flu  

E-print Network

Team work project 1A The bird flu By Huy Quang Nguyen Kari Johanne Kihle Attramadal Brattøra................................................................................................................. 3 2. What is the bird flu? And which virus cause bird flu? What is the situation now?.... 3 3. How be expected from Norwegian Food Safety Authority on field work area that have bird flu or in areas

Bech, Claus

232

2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

233

H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)  

MedlinePLUS

... Avian/Bird Flu) H1N1 (originally referred to as Swine Flu) The H1N1 flu virus caused a world- ... human seasonal flu virus that also circulates in pigs. While the H1N1 viruses have continued to circulate ...

234

2009 H1N1 Flu and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... diarrhea. Is H1N1 flu the same as the swine flu? The H1N1 flu was originally called “swine flu” because the virus was found to be similar to viruses causing illness in pigs. However, it is now known that H1N1 contains ...

235

Isolation of a High Affinity Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Virus That Binds at the ‘Sa’ Antigenic Site  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (KD?=?2.1±0.4 pM) murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC50?=?0.08 µg/ml). MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml) against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic) on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein ‘Sa’ and ‘Sb’ sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the ‘Sa’ antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus. PMID:23383214

Mishra, Arpita; Yeolekar, Leena; Dhere, Rajeev; Kapre, Subhash; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

236

Isolation of a high affinity neutralizing monoclonal antibody against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus that binds at the 'Sa' antigenic site.  

PubMed

Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (K(D)?=?2.1±0.4 pM) murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC(50)?=?0.08 µg/ml). MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml) against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic) on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein 'Sa' and 'Sb' sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the 'Sa' antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus. PMID:23383214

Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Mishra, Arpita; Yeolekar, Leena; Dhere, Rajeev; Kapre, Subhash; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

237

University Health Services 01/14/2014 Flu activity increasing; H1N1 strain; get your flu shot  

E-print Network

University Health Services 01/14/2014 Flu activity increasing; H1N1 strain; get your flu shot and staff to take simple preventive actions to limit the spread of seasonal influenza (flu). Health officials throughout the nation and Wisconsin are seeing increasing levels of flu-related illnesses

Balser, Teri C.

238

Cross Sectional Survey of Influenza Antibodies before and during the 2009 Pandemic in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Much information is available for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunity response, but little is known about the antibody change in seasonal influenza before and during the novel influenza A pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional serological survey of 4 types of major seasonal influenza in March and September 2009 on a full range of age groups, to investigate seasonal influenza immunity response before and during the outbreak of the sH1N1 influenza in Shenzhen – the largest migration city in China. We found that the 0–5 age group had an increased antibody level for all types of seasonal influenza during the pandemic compared to the pre-outbreak level, in contrast with almost all other age groups, in which the antibody level decreased. Also, distinct from the antibodies of A/H3N2, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria that decreased significantly during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the antibody of A/H1N1 showed no statistical difference from the pre-outbreak level. The results suggest that the antibodies against the 2009 sH1N1 cross-reacted with seasonal H1N1. Moreover, the 0–5 age group was under attack by both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza during the pandemic, hence vaccination merely against a new strain of flu might not be enough to protect the youngest group. PMID:23382854

Lv, Xing; Chen, Ying; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Zee, Benny; Cheng, Xiao-wen; He, Ming-Liang

2013-01-01

239

A BRIEF REVIEW ON TWO PANDEMIC ZOONOSES  

E-print Network

THE ARENA OF ZOONOSES 3 PANDEMIC ZOONOSES 5 PLAGE PANDEMICS 6 The Justinian Plague 6 The Black Death 6 AVIAN Illustrations on front page and page 6: Th. Kittelsen (The Black Death...) Photographs on pages 8 and 9: Scanpix

Bech, Claus

240

University of Utah Pandemic Plan Purpose  

E-print Network

1 University of Utah Pandemic Plan 2014 Purpose: To outline-401, Staff Compensation Policy University of Utah Emergency Operations Plan, 2009 (EOP) University of Utah Hospital and Clinics Draft Pandemic Influenza Surge Plan

Simons, Jack

241

Controlling avian flu at the source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global agricultural authorities should harmonize with the public-health sector to ensure the exchange of flu virus samples, and establish a single international standard for vaccines, say Robert Webster and Diane Hulse.

Robert Webster; Diane Hulse

2005-01-01

242

Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals  

MedlinePLUS

... and B strains, binds to a flu protein. Credit: Wilson Lab, The Scripps Research Institute. The annual ... this one could be medically and economically effective. Credit: Laura R. Zambuto, U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

243

PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA  

E-print Network

PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA Aflu pandemic is a global disease outbreak idea to practice good health habits. Eat a balanced diet. Be sure to eat a variety of nutritious foods of Kansas - Lawrence Campus PERSONAL PLANNING GUIDE FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA #12;

244

The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza  

E-print Network

The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza Troy Day1,2,*, Jean-Baptiste Andre´2,3 and Andrew¨bendorf, Switzerland 5 Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland Pandemic influenza of pandemic influenza strains remain incompletely understood. Here, we develop a stochastic model

Day, Troy

245

Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu  

PubMed Central

The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(?2-3) or sialyl(?2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(?2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(?2-3) or short length sialyl(?2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

Yoo, Eunsun

2014-01-01

246

Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention  

PubMed Central

Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a pandemic, tracking the severity, molecular and phenotypic characterization of the viruses and confirming whether ILI incidence is truly related to influenza virus infections. GIS showed that web-based, self-reported ILI can be a useful addition, especially if virological self-sampling is added and an epidemic threshold could be determined. GFT showed negligible added value. PMID:24063523

2013-01-01

247

Satisfaction and Public Health Cost of a Statewide Influenza Nurse Triage Line in Response to Pandemic H1N1 Influenza  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009 H1N1 pandemic strained healthcare systems. There was a need for supportive services, rapid antiviral access, and minimization of unnecessary healthcare contacts particularly face-to-face interactions. In response, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) launched a telephone-based nurse triage line (NTL) called the Minnesota FluLine coordinating all major MN healthcare systems with NTLs to form a single toll-free number triage service. Callers were evaluated for symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) and were prescribed an antiviral if indicated, using nurse administered protocols. Methods To determine caller outcomes, associated healthcare seeking, and satisfaction a telephone survey of Minnesota FluLine callers was conducted using a 5% random sample of those who completed the protocol and those who did not. Results Of 6,122 callers with ILI who began the nurse protocol administered by the contract NTL, 1,221 people were contacted for the survey and 325 agreed to participate; response rate was 26%. Of those who completed the nurse protocol 73% said they would have sought healthcare without the Minnesota FluLine, 89% reported the service was moderately or very helpful, and 91% reported being satisfied or very satisfied. Of those not completing the protocol, 50% reported the service was moderately or very helpful and 50% reported being satisfied or very satisfied. 72% of qualitative responses to open-ended questions were positive regarding the MN FluLine. Cost to MDH for operating the Minnesota FluLine service was $331,226 to service 27,391 callers ($12.09/call). Discussion The Minnesota FluLine diverted patients with mild ILI symptoms away from acute care visits at low cost and had a high rate of satisfaction among callers. Early intervention likely prevented morbidity and possibly additional cases. NTLs are powerful and flexible tools for pandemic response and should be considered as an important tool for future emergency responses. PMID:23335953

Spaulding, Alicen B.; Radi, Deborah; Macleod, Heather; Lynfield, Ruth; Larson, Michelle; Hyduke, Terri; Dehnel, Peter; DeVries, Aaron S.

2013-01-01

248

Antibody Recognition of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. This potential threat was realized in 2009 when an H1N1 virus emerged that resembled the 1918 virus in antigenicity but fortunately was not nearly as deadly. 5J8 is a human antibody that potently neutralizes a broad spectrum of H1N1 viruses, including the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses. Here, we present the crystal structure of 5J8 Fab in complex with a bacterially expressed and refolded globular head domain from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus. 5J8 recognizes a conserved epitope in and around the receptor binding site (RBS), and its HCDR3 closely mimics interactions of the sialic acid receptor. Electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions of 5J8 Fab in complex with an HA trimer from a 1986 H1 strain and with an engineered stabilized HA trimer from the 2009 H1 pandemic virus showed a similar mode of binding. As for other characterized RBS-targeted antibodies, 5J8 uses avidity to extend its breadth and affinity against divergent H1 strains. 5J8 selectively interacts with HA insertion residue 133a, which is conserved in pandemic H1 strains and has precluded binding of other RBS-targeted antibodies. Thus, the RBS of divergent HAs is targeted by 5J8 and adds to the growing arsenal of common recognition motifs for design of therapeutics and vaccines. Moreover, consistent with previous studies, the bacterially expressed H1 HA properly refolds, retaining its antigenic structure, and presents a low-cost and rapid alternative for engineering and manufacturing candidate flu vaccines. PMID:24027321

Hong, Minsun; Lee, Peter S.; Hoffman, Ryan M. B.; Zhu, Xueyong; Krause, Jens C.; Laursen, Nick S.; Yoon, Sung-il; Song, Langzhou; Tussey, Lynda; Crowe, James E.; Ward, Andrew B.

2013-01-01

249

Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza  

PubMed Central

Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was preceded by falling temperatures. Climate influences on pandemic spread seem important and should be further investigated. PMID:25011543

2014-01-01

250

Many Americans Still Haven't Gotten a Flu Shot  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Many Americans Still Haven't Gotten a Flu Shot Health officials cite reports on the vaccine's ... 2015) Thursday, December 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization Infections and Pregnancy THURSDAY, Dec. 11, 2014 ( ...

251

Flu Season Off to a Slow Start ... for Now  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Season Off to a Slow Start ... for Now ... November 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Flu Immunization FRIDAY, Nov. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- This ...

252

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript - 2015 Seasonal Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools NLM Director’s Comments Transcript 2015 Seasonal Flu: 01/20/2015 To use the sharing features ... Here is what's new this week in MedlinePlus. Flu.gov reports it appears to be a severe ...

253

Just Half of Nursing Home Staff Getting Flu Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Just Half of Nursing Home Staff Getting Flu Vaccine Lack of immunization may put nursing home ... Preidt Tuesday, February 3, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization Infection Control TUESDAY, Feb. 3, 2015 (HealthDay ...

254

Flu Shot May Offer Less Protection This Winter: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Shot May Offer Less Protection This Winter: CDC ... 2015) Thursday, December 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Dec. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- This ...

255

Colds and the Flu: H1N1 Influenza  

MedlinePLUS

... is H1N1 influenza? H1N1 influenza (also known as swine flu) is an infection caused by a virus. ... spring 2009. At first, the infection was called swine flu because early tests showed that the virus ...

256

Scientists Find Gene They Say Affects Flu Shot Response  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Find Gene They Say Affects Flu Shot Response Discovery could ... Thursday, December 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Genes and Gene Therapy Immunization THURSDAY, Dec. 11, 2014 ( ...

257

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure  

E-print Network

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack

Diggle, Peter J.

258

BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.  

PubMed

The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

Temperton, Nigel

2009-11-01

259

Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.  

PubMed

During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza. PMID:24622286

Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

2014-03-14

260

The Flu Buddy System To reduce the risk of a student with swine flu passing on the infection to others, they  

E-print Network

The Flu Buddy System To reduce the risk of a student with swine flu passing on the infection and will not be routinely visited by the doctor. During this time, having a flu buddy will provide students with help and support they need to aid their recovery. What is a flu buddy? Why do you need one? The flu buddy

Davies, Christopher

261

New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths  

MedlinePLUS

... 60 percent and 47 percent respectively. "Because some people who get vaccinated may still get sick, it's important to remember to use our second line of defense against flu: antiviral drugs to treat flu illness,â?ť Fry ...

262

A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer  

E-print Network

A less fit flu virus By Tim Fulmer, Senior Writer A team of researchers from the State University strains that protect mice from wild-type flu virus.1 The researchers think the strategy could lead to generate strains for the one marketed product, the seasonal FluMist vaccine. Traditional techniques

263

Guidelines on Flu-Related Absences September 8, 2009  

E-print Network

Guidelines on Flu-Related Absences September 8, 2009 Students who suspect they have H1N1 influenza or who are experiencing flu symptoms should stay at home or in their residence room in order to help to record all flu-related absences through a new tool on the Student Web Service of ROSI (www

Boonstra, Rudy

264

Shot in the Dark? Debunking Myths About Swine Flu Vaccine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What precautions should you take against the H1N1 flu? Should you get the vaccine? In this lesson, students identify and debunk some of the myths surrounding H1N1 flu, or swine flu, and the new vaccine for it.

Catherine Hutchings

2009-10-16

265

Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu?  

E-print Network

Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu? Fever Body Aches, disinfectant wipes, antiseptic hand gel and tissue to avoid extra trips out while sick. What To Do If Flu EMPLOYEE SHOULD DEVELOP FLU SYMPTOMS Send employee home and have employee seek medical attention

Fainman, Yeshaiahu

266

Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu

Grohskopf, Lisa

2012-01-01

267

Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic  

SciTech Connect

Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

2012-02-13

268

Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for ?2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For ?2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with ?2-6- and ?2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for ?2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus. PMID:22072785

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.

2012-01-01

269

F-BF Flu on Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose the swine flu, influenza H1N1, is spreading on a school campus. The following table shows the number of students, $n$, that have the flu $d$ da...

270

The Cost Effectiveness of Pandemic Influenza Interventions: A Pandemic Severity Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of a newly emerged influenza pandemic will depend on its transmissibility and severity. Understanding how these pandemic features impact on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies is important for pandemic planning. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies intended to mitigate a future pandemic was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ?30,000 in Australia. Six pandemic severity categories were defined based on case fatality ratio (CFR), using data from the 2009/2010 pandemic to relate hospitalisation rates to CFR. Results Intervention strategies combining school closure with antiviral treatment and prophylaxis are the most cost effective strategies in terms of cost per life year saved (LYS) for all severity categories. The cost component in the cost per LYS ratio varies depending on pandemic severity: for a severe pandemic (CFR of 2.5%) the cost is ?$9 k per LYS; for a low severity pandemic (CFR of 0.1%) this strategy costs ?$58 k per LYS; for a pandemic with very low severity similar to the 2009 pandemic (CFR of 0.03%) the cost is ?$155 per LYS. With high severity pandemics (CFR >0.75%) the most effective attack rate reduction strategies are also the most cost effective. During low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, while for high severity pandemics costs are dominated by hospitalisation costs and productivity losses due to death. Conclusions The most cost effective strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic involve combining sustained social distancing with the use of antiviral agents. For low severity pandemics the most cost effective strategies involve antiviral treatment, prophylaxis and short durations of school closure; while these are cost effective they are less effective than other strategies in reducing the infection rate. PMID:23585906

Milne, George J.; Halder, Nilimesh; Kelso, Joel K.

2013-01-01

271

Getting the "Edge" on the Next Flu Pandemic: We Should'a "Node" Better  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curricular materials designed to teach computational modeling to undergraduate or graduate students in science and other STEM disciplines. The module teaches the construction of a graphical network-based model of epidemiology and social networks using Mathematica.

Angela B. Shiflet

272

Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.  

PubMed

This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

2008-01-01

273

The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths. PMID:19997956

Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

2010-12-01

274

The next pandemic: anticipating an overwhelmed health care system.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In September 2005, an overview of current health care system planning efforts was presented to the audience at the Yale University Ethics Symposium on Avian and Pandemic Influenza. The speaker, also the author of this article, provided the audience with a summary of what was being undertaken with the use of federal preparedness funds to improve the overall infrastructure of the health care system. All of Connecticut's 31 acute care hospitals, the Veteran's Administration Hospital in West Haven, Hospital for Special Care, Gaylord Rehabilitation Hospital, Natchaug Psychiatric Hospital, and the state's 13 Community Health Centers are currently recipients of federal preparedness funds. Federal funding for this planning comes from Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Service's National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program. OBJECTIVES: This article outlines the planning activities around pandemic influenza that the state's health care system partners started in 2004-2005 and also those they are currently participating in or will be participating in the next 12 to 15 months. The article highlights the key objectives and strategies that health care facilities will be using in this planning. There are four major objectives that each health care facility's Emergency Operations Plan must address. They are: increasing bed availability, developing strategies to deal with the potential staffing shortages, developing strategies for dealing with potential critical equipment and pharmaceutical shortages, and, lastly, the implementation of education, training and communication strategies for their health care workers and the public they serve. These plans, and all the activities needed to operationalize the plans, such as education, training, drills, and exercises, will include their key partners, i.e., local health departments, local emergency management, police, fire, and Emergency Medical Services. This article will describe this work plan in detail. METHODS: Descriptive information was obtained through the author's observations and personal experiences, in addition to governmental guidance, reports, and plans. CONCLUSION: The "all-hazards" planning currently being undertaken by the key health care system partners in Connecticut as a result of federal funding for preparedness post 9/11 has fostered great working relationships between these entities and their local, regional, and statewide planning counterparts. Many of the specific grant dollars being provided to these facilities can assist in the planning that must be done for pandemic flu. PMID:17132342

Duley, Mary Grace Keating

2005-01-01

275

Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

Thomson, Ian

2010-01-01

276

A Case of American Education Flu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that the American educational system's penchant for testing may be likened to an educational flu. Notes that teachers feel increasing pressure to abandon techniques that are engaging if they are not specifically aimed at performance on test day. Contends that the American educational system needs to keep pace with international…

Gross, Steven Jay

2002-01-01

277

Is It a Cold or the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS

... IT A Cold OR THE Flu ? SY M P TO M S C O L D F L ... inflammatory medicines ? ? Antiviral medicines — see your healthcare provider P R E V E N T I O ... medicines — see your healthcare provider C O M P L I C AT I O N S?? Sinus ...

278

How Do I Treat the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, talks about treating seasonal flu. 0:25 ... website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. ...

279

What Are the Symptoms of the Flu?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, talks about the symptoms of the flu ... website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. ...

280

Two Years after Pandemic Influenza A/2009/H1N1: What Have We Learned?  

PubMed Central

Summary: The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, medical and scientific communities have been more prepared in mindset and infrastructure. This preparedness has allowed for rapid and effective research on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the disease, with impacts on its control. A PubMed search using the keywords “pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009” yielded over 2,500 publications, which markedly exceeded the number published on previous pandemics. Only representative works with relevance to clinical microbiology and infectious diseases are reviewed in this article. A significant increase in the understanding of this virus and the disease within such a short amount of time has allowed for the timely development of diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures. These findings could prove useful for future randomized controlled clinical trials and the epidemiological control of future pandemics. PMID:22491771

Cheng, Vincent C. C.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.

2012-01-01

281

Facing the threat of influenza pandemic - roles of and implications to general practitioners  

PubMed Central

The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza, compounded with seasonal influenza, posed a global challenge. Despite the announcement of post-pandemic period on 10 August 2010 by theWHO, H1N1 (2009) virus would continue to circulate as a seasonal virus for some years and national health authorities should remain vigilant due to unpredictable behaviour of the virus. Majority of the world population is living in countries with inadequate resources to purchase vaccines and stockpile antiviral drugs. Basic hygienic measures such as wearing face masks and the hygienic practice of hand washing could reduce the spread of the respiratory viruses. However, the imminent issue is translating these measures into day-to-day practice. The experience from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong has shown that general practitioners (GPs) were willing to discharge their duties despite risks of getting infected themselves. SARS event has highlighted the inadequate interface between primary and secondary care and valuable health care resources were thus inappropriately matched to community needs. There are various ways for GPs to contribute in combating the influenza pandemic. They are prompt in detecting and monitoring epidemics and mini-epidemics of viral illnesses in the community. They can empower and raise the health literacy of the community such as advocating personal hygiene and other precautious measures. GPs could also assist in the development of protocols for primary care management of patients with flu-like illnesses and conduct clinical audits on the standards of preventive and treatment measures. GPs with adequate liaison with public health agencies would facilitate early diagnosis of patients with influenza. In this article, we summarise the primary care actions for phases 4-6 of the pandemic. We shall discuss the novel roles of GPs as alternative source of health care for patients who would otherwise be cared for in the secondary care level. The health care system would thus remain sustainable during the public health crisis. PMID:21044300

2010-01-01

282

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets -

Braeton J. Smith; Shirley J. Starks; Verne W. Loose; Theresa Jean Brown; Drake E. Warren; Vanessa N. Vargas

2010-01-01

283

Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

Alberta Education, 2008

2008-01-01

284

Market incentives for pandemic influenza vaccines  

E-print Network

It has been estimated that 100 million plus individuals could perish if a virulent influenza pandemic were to occur. In wake of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic and in an era of economic austerity, however, industry lacks clear ...

Preis, Julia Kay

2012-01-01

285

Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template  

SciTech Connect

This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

286

About seasonal flu vaccine It's the best way to reduce your risk  

E-print Network

About seasonal flu vaccine · It's the best way to reduce your risk of contracting seasonal flu. · Seasonal flu vaccine is currently avail- able as a shot or (for those eligible) inhaled flu mist. · Seasonal flu vaccine is FREE to en- rolled Cornell students, staff, and fac- ulty. Cornell retirees

287

Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

2009-01-01

288

Flu virus continues to evolve in swine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine can be infected with human- and avian-adapted influenza viruses, which has labeled pigs as "mixing vessels" for generating novel, genetically diverse viruses that may have epidemic or pandemic potential. However, it has been documented that humans, some species of birds and other mammals may a...

289

Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and mortality, consistent with other indigenous and low-resource settings. For the first time, regional influenza-like-illness surveillance was conducted in the Pacific, allowing health authorities to monitor the pandemic’s spread and severity in real-time. Future regional outbreak responses will likely benefit from the lessons learned during this outbreak. PMID:23289407

2013-01-01

290

A look at the 2003-2004 flu season.  

PubMed

Overall, the flu hit people in the United States earlier than usual during the 2003-2004 flu season, and lab tests showed evidence of a strain of the virus that's typically associated with more severe seasons. Taking a cue from the flue season just ending, experts say it's not too early to make a note for this fall: vaccination is the best protection against the flu and can prevent many illnesses and deaths. Even for people who come down with the flu after vaccination, the illness is generally less severe than in people who didn't get vaccinated. PMID:15101358

Meadows, Michelle

2004-01-01

291

Pandemic influenza and jail facilities and populations.  

PubMed

Persons processed into and through jail facilities in the United States may be particularly vulnerable during an influenza pandemic. Among other concerns, public health and corrections officials need to consider flow issues, the high turnover and transitions between jails and the community, and the decentralized organization of jails. In this article, we examine some of the unique challenges jail facilities may face during an influenza pandemic and discuss issues that should be addressed to reduce the spread of illness and lessen the impact of an influenza pandemic on the jail population and their surrounding communities. PMID:19797746

Maruschak, Laura M; Sabol, William J; Potter, R H; Reid, Laurie C; Cramer, Emily W

2009-10-01

292

Pandemic preparedness with live attenuated influenza vaccines based on A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus.  

PubMed

Continuously evolving avian influenza viruses pose a constant threat to the human public health. In response to this threat, a number of pandemic vaccine candidates have been prepared and evaluated in animal models and clinical trials. This review summarizes the data from the development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) based on Russian master donor virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57. LAIV candidates of H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H1N1 and H2N2 subtypes were safe, immunogenic and protected animals from challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses. Clinical trials of the pandemic LAIVs demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity for healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine viruses were infectious, genetically stable and did not transmit to unvaccinated contacts. In addition, here we discuss criteria for the assessment of pandemic LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy necessary for their licensure. PMID:25555687

Rudenko, Larisa; Isakova-Sivak, Irina

2015-03-01

293

Pandemic influenza vaccination during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background: Pregnant women in Great Britain were recommended to receive influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines during the 2009/10 influenza pandemic, however uptake of the vaccines by pregnant women was reported to have been very low. Aim: We sought to estimate uptake of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines and to investigate predictors of vaccine uptake in pregnant women in Great Britain during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods: Uptake rates were calculated using data from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Predictors of vaccination were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Uptake of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines by pregnant women was 21.6%. Pregnant women with an underlying health condition increasing the risk of influenza-related complications had a higher vaccination rate than pregnant women without such conditions. The hazard ratio comparing these two groups decreased logarithmically throughout pregnancy from 9.3 in the first week to 1.3 by the end of pregnancy. Increasing maternal age (HR 1.01, CI95 1.01–1.01), having a previous delivery recorded (HR 1.21, CI95 1.16–1.27) and living in Scotland (HR 2.58, CI95 2.34–2.85) or Wales (HR 1.37, CI95 1.20–1.57) as opposed to England were all also associated with an increase in vaccination uptake rates throughout pregnancy. Discussion: Uptake of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines by pregnant women was low. None of the potential predictors evaluated in this study were strong enough to account for this, however information on health beliefs and GP recommendation were not available. If the low rates reported here are to be improved new strategies to increase uptake of influenza vaccine in pregnant women need to be identified, evaluated and implemented. PMID:23364304

Sammon, Cormac J.; McGrogan, Anita; Snowball, Julia; de Vries, Corinne S.

2013-01-01

294

Developing vaccines against potential pandemic influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an influenza pandemic, there will be an urgent need for a vaccine. The human infections with influenza A (H5N1) and A (H9N2) viruses served as pandemic warnings and initiated worldwide efforts to develop suitable vaccines. This was not straightforward however, due to safety considerations and many practical problems that were encountered. This is primarily on account

J. M. Wood; K. G. Nicholson; M. Zambon; R. Hinton; D. L. Major; R. W. Newman; U. Dunleavy; D. Melzack; J. S. Robertson; G. C. Schild

2001-01-01

295

Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample  

PubMed Central

This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years) from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population. PMID:23227350

Ravert, Russell D.; Fu, Linda Y.; Zimet, Gregory D.

2012-01-01

296

Geographic Prioritization of Distributing Pandemic Influenza Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza is an international public health concern. In light of the persistent threat of H5N1 avian influenza and the recent pandemic of A/H1N1swine influenza outbreak, public health agencies around the globe are continuously revising their preparedness plans. The A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009 demonstrated that influenza activity and severity might vary considerably among age groups and locations, and the distribution of an effective influenza vaccine may be significantly delayed and staggered. Thus, pandemic influenza vaccine distribution policies should be tailored to the demographic and spatial structures of communities. Here, we introduce a bi-criteria decision-making framework for vaccine distribution policies that is based on a geospatial and demographically-structured model of pandemic influenza transmission within and between counties of Arizona in the Unites States. Based on data from the 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic, the policy predicted to reduce overall attack rate most effectively is prioritizing counties expected to experience the latest epidemic waves (a policy that may be politically untenable). However, when we consider reductions in both the attack rate and the waiting period for those seeking vaccines, the widely adopted pro rata policy (distributing according to population size) is also predicted to be an effective strategy. PMID:22618029

Galvani, Alison; Meyers, Lauren A

2014-01-01

297

Flu's Grip on U.S. Starting to Weaken: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu's Grip on U.S. Starting to Weaken: CDC Some ... 2015) Thursday, January 29, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Jan. 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- After ...

298

Only 23 Percent Protection from This Year's Flu Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Only 23 Percent Protection From This Year's Flu Vaccine CDC urges early antiviral treatment if symptoms ... 2015) Thursday, January 15, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Jan. 15, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. ...

299

42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

2012-10-01

300

Kids Who Were Preemies More Vulnerable to Flu Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Kids Who Were Preemies More Vulnerable to Flu Complications: Study Current guidelines don't identify them ... December 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Flu Premature Babies WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

301

42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

2010-10-01

302

42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

2013-10-01

303

42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

2014-10-01

304

42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health ...Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal...

2011-10-01

305

Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Symptoms Guide Treatment Your child is sent home from school with ...

306

Case report: cystic fibrosis, lung transplantation, and the novel H1N1 flu.  

PubMed

The H1N1 pandemic flu is a significant risk factor for both patients with chronic disease who need organ transplantation and transplant recipients. This population needs special care regarding comorbidities and related complications. MB, a 38-year-old Italian cystic fibrosis male patient with lung and pancreatic involvement, was referred to our division in July 2009 for fever-associated arthromyalgia, headache, and rhinitis. Lung transplantation had been performed in September 2005, and he was subsequently treated with immunosuppressive therapy: tacrolimus, everolimus, and prednisolone. In the past, chronic respiratory colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intermittent infection with Aspergillus flavus, chronic renal failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus complicated his clinical history. He started antiviral treatment with oseltamivir despite no travel history and no respiratory symptoms. H1N1 swab was positive. Three days later, the patient was admitted to the hospital for the persistence of fever and the onset of cough. Chest x-ray showed a left lower pneumonia, which was confirmed by computerized tomography. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy led to an improvement of the clinical condition. The patient was discharged 8 days later; a control swab was negative. This case report suggests some general considerations regarding solid organ recipients: 1) Flu-related complications require early treatment (both antiviral and antibiotic); 2) active microbiologic surveillance is important to prevent lethal infections (ie, invasive aspergillosis); 3) evaluation of immunosuppressant blood levels is necessary for drug-drug interactions. Active prevention is the best option for decreasing morbidity and mortality in the transplanted patient. PMID:20692461

Bresci, S; Borchi, B; Ambu, S; Taccetti, G; Braggion, C; Leoncini, F

2010-01-01

307

Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza.  

E-print Network

Pandemic Influenza Information Visit this page for current TESC-related information on the pandemic influenza. Last updated April 28, 2009 The Evergreen State College (TESC) is continuing to assess and track influenza? At this time, the best source of current information is the website of the Federal Center

308

The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

Colbert, Fred

2013-05-01

309

Surveillance of perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the Italian adult population (18-69 years) during the 2009-2010 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

Monitoring perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of populations during pandemic flu outbreaks is important as it allows communication strategies to be adjusted to meet emerging needs and assessment to be made of the effects of recommendations for prevention. The ongoing Italian Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (PASSI) offered the setting for investigating people's opinions and behaviors regarding the A/H1N1 pandemic. PASSI surveillance is carried out in 126/148 Italian Local Health Units (LHU) through monthly telephone interviews administered by public health staff to a random sample of the resident population 18-69 years. In fall 2009 additional questions exploring issues related to the A/H1N1 flu were added to the standard questionnaire. The pandemic module was administered on a voluntary basis by the 70 participating LHUs from November 2nd, 2009 to February 7th, 2010; 4 047 interviews were collected. Overall 33% of respondents considered it likely that they would catch flu, 26% stated they were worried, 16% reported having limited some daily activities out of home and 22% said they would accept vaccination if offered. All these indicators showed a decreasing trend across the four-month period of observation. The most trusted sources of information were family doctors (81%). Willingness to be vaccinated was associated with worry about pandemic, age, sex, having a chronic disease and timing of the interview. The surveillance allowed us to gather relevant information, crucial for devising appropriate public health interventions. In future disease outbreaks, systems monitoring people's perceptions and behaviors should be included in the preparedness and response plans. PMID:21476080

Ferrante, Gianluigi; Baldissera, Sandro; Moghadam, Pirous Fateh; Carrozzi, Giuliano; Trinito, Massimo Oddone; Salmaso, Stefania

2011-03-01

310

This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu  

E-print Network

This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu www.direct.gov.uk/pandemicflu 0800 1 513 513 INFORMATION SWINE FLU www.direct.gov.uk/pandemicflu 0800 1 513 513 AM FFLIW MOCH GWYBODAETH Factsheet #12;What is swine flu? Swine Flu is a viral infection caused by a new virus which has

Davies, Christopher

311

Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Fall 2014 Table of Contents Give Your ... protect/vaccine/index.htm Signs and Symptoms of Flu People who have the flu often feel some ...

312

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"  

E-print Network

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!" How to treat influenza, a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses For most healthy people, flu resolves on its own and requires only and how can it help? Medications such as Tamiflu and Relenza are used to prevent or treat flu viruses

Bushman, Frederic

313

Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more  

E-print Network

Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more than 200,000 people are hospitalized and 36,000 people die from seasonal flu complications. This flu season could be worse. There is a new and very different flu virus spreading worldwide among people called novel or new

Ferrara, Katherine W.

314

Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

315

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"  

E-print Network

1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!" 5 tips for taking care of yourself when you have influenza, a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses For healthy people, flu sports drinks, etc.) 3. Take care of yourself: Get plenty of rest! 4. Prevent the spread of flu Wash

Bushman, Frederic

316

Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Ankit Agrawal  

E-print Network

Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Kathy Lee Ankit Agrawal Alok Choudhary insights. In this paper, we describe an online re- source for real-time surveillance of flu that we have are subsequently reported vi- sually in terms of a US flu surveillance map, distribution and timelines of flu types

317

UNC Charlotte Guidelines for H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Fall 2009 Dear Faculty and Staff  

E-print Network

UNC Charlotte Guidelines for H1N1 (Swine) Flu, Fall 2009 Dear Faculty and Staff: The H1N1 flu with H1N1 flu ­ either on or off campus ­ and contract the illness. On August 21, 2009, the CentersN1 flu in higher education institutions. Based on that information, the University has developed

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

318

What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu?  

E-print Network

What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu? Follow good practice regarding experience signs of flu-like symptoms you are advised to stay at home to limit contact with others, and seek medical advice. The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular seasonal flu

Davies, Christopher

319

FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions. PMID:20384985

2010-01-01

320

Comparison of the NOW Influenza A & B, NOW Flu A, NOW Flu B, and Directigen Flu A+B assays, and immunofluorescence with viral culture for the detection of influenza A and B viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the Binax NOW Influenza A & B combination assay, we tested upper respiratory tract samples in parallel with the Binax NOW Flu A and Binax NOW Flu B assays, the Becton–Dickinson Directigen Flu A+B assay, and immunofluorescence, and the results were compared with viral culture. Of the 521 samples tested, influenza A was cultured from 113 and influenza

Marita Smit; Kirsten A. Beynon; David R. Murdoch; Lance C. Jennings

2007-01-01

321

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza, International Measures  

PubMed Central

Since global availability of vaccine and antiviral agents against influenza caused by novel human subtypes is insufficient, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nonpharmaceutical public health interventions to contain infection, delay spread, and reduce the impact of pandemic disease. Virus transmission characteristics will not be completely known in advance, but difficulties in influenza control typically include peak infectivity early in illness, a short interval between cases, and to a lesser extent, transmission from persons with incubating or asymptomatic infection. Screening and quarantining entering travelers at international borders did not substantially delay virus introduction in past pandemics, except in some island countries, and will likely be even less effective in the modern era. Instead, WHO recommends providing information to international travelers and possibly screening travelers departing countries with transmissible human infection. The principal focus of interventions against pandemic influenza spread should be at national and community levels rather than international borders. PMID:16494722

2006-01-01

322

Management of natural and bioterrorism induced pandemics.  

PubMed

A recent approach for bioterrorism risk management calls for stricter regulations over biotechnology as a way to control subversion of technology that may be used to create a man-made pandemic. This approach is largely unworkable given the increasing pervasiveness of molecular techniques and tools throughout society. Emerging technology has provided the tools to design much deadlier pathogens but concomitantly the ability to respond to emerging pandemics to reduce mortality has also improved significantly in recent decades. In its historical context determining just how 'risky' biological weapons is an important consideration for decision making and resource allocation. Management should attempt to increase capacity, share resources, provide accurate infectious disease reporting, deliver information transparency and improve communications to help mitigate the magnitude of future pandemics. PMID:17845462

Tyshenko, Michael G

2007-09-01

323

Cultural epidemiology of pandemic influenza in urban and rural Pune, India: a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify and compare sociocultural features of pandemic influenza with reference to illness-related experience, meaning and behaviour in urban and rural areas of India. Design Cross-sectional, mixed-methods, cultural epidemiological survey with vignette-based interviews. Semistructured explanatory model interviews were used to study community ideas of the 2009 influenza pandemic. In-depth interviews elaborated respondents’ experience during the pandemic. Setting Urban and rural communities, Pune district, western India. Participants Survey of urban (n=215) and rural (n=221) residents aged between 18 and 65?years. In-depth interviews of respondents with a history of 2009 pandemic influenza (n=6). Results More urban (36.7%) than rural respondents (16.3%, p<0.001) identified the illness in the vignette as ‘swine flu’. Over half (56.7%) believed the illness would be fatal without treatment, but with treatment 96% predicted full recovery. Worry (‘tension’) about the illness was reported as more troubling than somatic symptoms. The most common perceived causes—‘exposure to a dirty environment’ and ‘cough or sneeze of an infected person’–were more prominent in the urban group. Among rural respondents, climatic conditions, drinking contaminated water, tension and cultural ideas on humoral imbalance from heat-producing or cold-producing foods were more prominent. The most widely reported home treatment was herbal remedies; more rural respondents suggested reliance on prayer, and symptom relief was more of a priority for urban respondents. Government health services were preferred in the urban communities, and rural residents relied more than urban residents on private facilities. The important preventive measures emphasised were cleanliness, wholesome lifestyle and vaccines, and more urban respondents reported the use of masks. In-depth interviews indicated treatment delays during the 2009 pandemic, especially among rural patients. Conclusions Although the term was well known, better recognition of pandemic influenza cases is needed, especially in rural areas. Improved awareness, access to treatment and timely referrals by private practitioners are also required to reduce treatment delays. PMID:25492273

Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Purohit, Vidula; Kudale, Abhay; Weiss, Mitchell G

2014-01-01

324

Parkfield Quake / Flu Vaccine / Mt. St. Helens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains three radio broadcasts discussing: the Parkfield, California earthquake of October 2004; the Mount Saint Helens volcano; and the shortage of flu vaccine in 2004. The 15 minute Parkfield broadcast explains how the Parkfield earthquake was the most monitored earthquake in history. Scientists are studying the San Andreas Fault in the area. Data collected from the recent earthquake is expected to lead to improvements in: earthquake prediction; and understanding of how earthquake energy builds up as well as the mechanical laws that cause the shaking. The 15 minute Mount Saint Helens broadcast discusses why less seismic activity at the volcano has been observed in 2004, and that danger of an imminent eruption has passed - at least for now.

325

Pathology Case Study: Flu-Like Symptoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which presents a "37-year-old white female who was in excellent health until three years prior, when she developed flu-like symptoms." Visitors are given an extensive patient history along with pathologic findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in cardiovascular pathology.

Klionsky, Bernard

326

Pandemic Influenza as a Current Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pandemics of influenza emerge from the aquatic bird reservoir, adapt to humans, modify their severity, and cause seasonal\\u000a influenza. The catastrophic Spanish H1N1 virus may have obtained all of its eight gene segments from the avian reservoir,\\u000a whereas the Asian H2N2 and the Hong Kong H3N2 pandemics emerged by reassortment between the circulating human virus and an\\u000a avian H2 or

Hui-Ling Yen; Robert G. Webster

327

A model to evaluate mass vaccination against pneumococcus as a countermeasure against pandemic influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed for the purpose of evaluating vaccination against pneumococcus as a countermeasure against pandemic influenza. As the characteristics of a future pandemic cannot be known in advance, three distinct pandemic scenarios were considered, corresponding to a 1918-like pandemic, a 1957\\/1968-like pandemic and a 2009-like pandemic.Model estimates for each of these pandemic scenarios are presented for

Sonya Crowe; Martin Utley; Guy Walker; Peter Grove; Christina Pagel

2011-01-01

328

Access to the NHS by telephone and Internet during an influenza pandemic: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine use of a novel telephone and Internet service—the National Pandemic Flu Service (NPFS)—by the population of England during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Setting National telephone and Internet-based service. Participants Service available to population of England (n=51.8 million). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: service use rate, by week. Numbers and age-specific and sex-specific rates of population who: accessed service; were authorised to collect antiviral medication; collected antiviral medication; were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment. Secondary: daily mean contacts by hour; proportion using service by telephone/Internet. Results The NPFS was activated on 23 July 2009, operated for 204?days and assessed 2.7 million patients (5200 consultations/100?000 population). This was six times the number of people who consulted their general practitioner with influenza-like illness during the same period (823 consultations/100?000 population, rate ratio (RR)=6.30, 95% CI 6.28 to 6.32). Women used the service more than men (52.6 vs 43.4 assessments/1000 population, RR1 21, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.22). Among adults, use of the service declined with age (16–29 years: 74.4 vs 65 years+: 9.9 assessments/1000 population (RR 7.46 95% CI 7.41 to 7.52). Almost three-quarters of those assessed met the criteria to receive antiviral medication (1?807?866/2?488?510; 72.6%). Most of the people subsequently collected this medication, although more than one-third did not (n=646?709; 35.8%). Just over one-third of those assessed were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment with a practitioner (951?332/2?488?504; 38.2%). Conclusions This innovative healthcare service operated at large scale and achieved its aim of relieving considerable pressure from mainstream health services, while providing appropriate initial assessment and management for patients. This offers proof-of-concept for such a service that, with further refinement, England can use in future pandemics. Other countries may wish to adopt a similar system as part of their pandemic emergency planning. PMID:24491382

Rutter, Paul; Mytton, Oliver; Ellis, Benjamin; Donaldson, Liam

2014-01-01

329

The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 2 Policy 6.17 Disaster Preparedness Work Life Guidance Revised 07/01/13  

E-print Network

Work Life Guidance to Prepare for Pandemic Flu or Other Catastrophic Disaster At Work Employees Find out if you can work from home in the event of a pandemic flu or natural catastrophe and identify. Have materials, such as books, on hand. Also plan recreational activities that your children can do

Howat, Ian M.

330

Pandemic response lessons from influenza H1N1 2009 in Asia.  

PubMed

During April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain was identified in Mexico and the USA. Within weeks the virus had spread globally and the first pandemic of the 21st Century had been declared. It is unlikely to be the last and it is crucial that real lessons are learned from the experience. Asia is considered a hot spot for the emergence of new pathogens including past influenza pandemics. On this occasion while preparing for an avian, highly virulent influenza virus (H5N1 like) originating in Asia in fact the pandemic originated from swine, and was less virulent. This discrepancy between what was planned for and what emerged created its own challenges. The H1N1 pandemic has tested national health-care infrastructures and exposed shortcomings in our preparedness as a region. Key health challenges include communication throughout the region, surge capacity, access to reliable information and access to quality care, health-care worker skills, quality, density and distribution, access to essential medicines and lack of organizational infrastructure for emergency response. Despite years of preparation the public health and clinical research community were not ready to respond and opportunities for an immediate research response were missed. Despite warm words and pledges efforts to engage the international community to ensure equitable sharing of limited resources such as antivirals and vaccines fell short and stockpiles in the main remained in the rich world. This manuscript with authors from across the region describes some of the major challenges faced by Asia in response to the pandemic and draws lessons for the future. PMID:21627715

Fisher, Dale; Hui, David S; Gao, Zhancheng; Lee, Christopher; Oh, Myoung-Don; Cao, Bin; Hien, Tran Tinh; Patlovich, Krista; Farrar, Jeremy

2011-08-01

331

Protect the Circle of Life: The Flu & You  

MedlinePLUS

... year. • Stop the spread of germs, including influenza viruses: ? Cover your coughs and sneezes ? Wash your hands ... to people across the country for decades. The viruses in the flu shot are killed and the ...

332

Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... viruses attach to cells, and a protein called neuraminidase lets replicated viruses escape from infected cells and ... scientists found a mutant flu virus with a neuraminidase that enables the virus to attach to host ...

333

Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Facts About Vaccination Flu vaccines have a very good safety record. ... in a given year. About two weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection against influenza virus infection ...

334

Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Allergy? Health Capsules Genetic Clues to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak NIH Health Information at Your ... Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment You’re feeling pretty lousy. You’ve got ...

335

The age distribution of mortality due to influenza: pandemic and peri-pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic influenza is said to 'shift mortality' to younger age groups; but also to spare a subpopulation of the elderly population. Does one of these effects dominate? Might this have important ramifications? Methods We estimated age-specific excess mortality rates for all-years for which data were available in the 20th century for Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the UK, and the USA for people older than 44 years of age. We modeled variation with age, and standardized estimates to allow direct comparison across age groups and countries. Attack rate data for four pandemics were assembled. Results For nearly all seasons, an exponential model characterized mortality data extremely well. For seasons of emergence and a variable number of seasons following, however, a subpopulation above a threshold age invariably enjoyed reduced mortality. 'Immune escape', a stepwise increase in mortality among the oldest elderly, was observed a number of seasons after both the A(H2N2) and A(H3N2) pandemics. The number of seasons from emergence to escape varied by country. For the latter pandemic, mortality rates in four countries increased for younger age groups but only in the season following that of emergence. Adaptation to both emergent viruses was apparent as a progressive decrease in mortality rates, which, with two exceptions, was seen only in younger age groups. Pandemic attack rate variation with age was estimated to be similar across four pandemics with very different mortality impact. Conclusions In all influenza pandemics of the 20th century, emergent viruses resembled those that had circulated previously within the lifespan of then-living people. Such individuals were relatively immune to the emergent strain, but this immunity waned with mutation of the emergent virus. An immune subpopulation complicates and may invalidate vaccine trials. Pandemic influenza does not 'shift' mortality to younger age groups; rather, the mortality level is reset by the virulence of the emerging virus and is moderated by immunity of past experience. In this study, we found that after immune escape, older age groups showed no further mortality reduction, despite their being the principal target of conventional influenza vaccines. Vaccines incorporating variants of pandemic viruses seem to provide little benefit to those previously immune. If attack rates truly are similar across pandemics, it must be the case that immunity to the pandemic virus does not prevent infection, but only mitigates the consequences. PMID:23234604

2012-01-01

336

Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic. PMID:18522251

Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

2008-01-01

337

Bosnia and Herzegovina Healthcare System Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza as of 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine if Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system is prepared for influenza pandemic; and to indicate strengths and weaknesses in planed resolution of pandemic influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system. Methodology: Qualitative systematic review, comparing established elements of healthcare systems with WHO’s guidelines on pandemic preparedness. Critical evaluations of available findings on preparedness of healthcare system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) compared in details to preparedness of healthcare system of United Kingdom (UK) but in certain elements with some other European countries. Results and Discussion: Analysis of preparedness plans of B&H and UK are presented in details, with comparison of B&H with eight other countries by WHO guidelines categories and phases of pandemic preparedness and contingency plans. Conclusions: Disregarding the obstacles in B&H health care system policy Bosnia and Herzegovina has preparedness plans, that are made based on WHO’s guidelines but unlike all other analyzed countries does not have contingency plan. This can be seen as strength while weaknesses of B&H’s healthcare system are: late forming of preparedness plan with poor implementation of set activities, and lack of contingency plan. PMID:24511267

Begic, Almir; Pilav, Aida; Dzananovic, Lejla; Cavaljuga, Semra

2013-01-01

338

Hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin containing high titers of pandemic H1N1 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antibodies provides dose-dependent protection against lethal virus challenge in SCID mice  

PubMed Central

Background Convalescent plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins have been suggested as prophylactic or therapeutic interventions during an influenza pandemic. Findings Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations manufactured from human plasma collected before the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and post-pandemic hyperimmune (H)-IVIG preparations were characterized with respect to hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN) and neuraminidase-inhibiting (NAi) antibody titers against pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses. The protective efficacy of the IVIG and H-IVIG preparations was evaluated in a SCID mouse challenge model. Substantial levels of HI, MN and NAi antibodies against pH1N1 (GMTs 1:45, 1:204 and 1: 727, respectively) and sH1N1 (GMTs 1:688, 1:4,946 and 1:312, respectively) were present in pre-pandemic IVIG preparations. In post-pandemic H-IVIG preparations, HI, MN and NAi antibody GMTs against pH1N1 were 1:1,280, 1:11,404 and 1:2,488 (28-, 56- and 3.4-fold enriched), respectively, compared to pre-pandemic IVIG preparations (p?pandemic H-IVIG (HI titer 1:1,280) provided complete protection from lethality of SCID mice against pH1N1 challenge (100% of mice survived for 29 days post-challenge). Pre-pandemic IVIG (HI titer 1:70) did not provide significant protection against pH1N1 challenge (50% of mice survived 29 days post-challenge compared to 40% survival in the buffer control group). There was a highly significant correlation between circulating in vivo HI and MN antibody titers and survival (p?pandemic influenza for immunocompromised patients and other risk groups. PMID:24739285

2014-01-01

339

Public Willingness to Take a Vaccine or Drug Under Emergency Use Authorization during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

On April 26, 2009, the United States declared a public health emergency in response to a growing but uncertain threat from H1N1 influenza, or swine flu. In June, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic. In the U.S., hospitalizations due to swine flu numbered 6,506 on August 6, 2009, with 436 deaths; all 50 states have reported cases. The declaration of a public health emergency, followed by the approval of multiple Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) by the Food and Drug Administration, allowed the distribution of unapproved drugs or the off-label use of approved drugs to the public. Thus far, there are 2 antiviral medications available to the public as EUA drugs. It is possible that an H1N1 vaccine will be initially released as an EUA in the fall in the first large-scale use of the EUA mechanism. This study explores the public's willingness to use a drug or vaccine under the conditions stipulated in the FDA's nonbinding guidance regarding EUAs. Using Knowledge Networks' panel, we conducted an internet survey with 1,543 adults from a representative sample of the U.S. population with 2 oversamples of African Americans and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. Our completion rate was 62%. We examined willingness to accept an EUA drug or an H1N1 vaccine, the extent of worry associated with taking either, the conditions under which respondents would accept an EUA drug or vaccine, and the impact of language from the EUA fact sheets on people's willingness to accept a drug for themselves or their children. We also examined the association among these variables and race/ethnicity, education level, trust in government, previous vaccine acceptance, and perceived personal consequences from H1N1 influenza. These results provide critical insights into the challenges of communicating about EUA drugs and vaccine in our current pandemic. PMID:19775200

Kumar, Supriya; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Kidwell, Kelley; Musa, Donald

2009-01-01

340

Vaccines for seasonal and pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

Seasonal influenza continues to have a huge annual impact in the United States, accounting for tens of millions of illnesses, hundreds of thousands of excess hospitalizations, and tens of thousands of excess deaths. Vaccination remains the mainstay for the prevention of influenza. In the United States, 2 types of influenza vaccine are currently licensed: trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and live attenuated influenza vaccine. Both are safe and effective in the populations for which they are approved for use. Children, adults <65 years of age, and the elderly all receive substantial health benefits from vaccination. In addition, vaccination appears to be cost-effective, if not cost saving, across the age spectrum. Despite long-standing recommendations for the routine vaccination of persons in high-priority groups, US vaccination rates remain too low across all age groups. Important issues to be addressed include improving vaccine delivery to current and expanded target groups, ensuring timely availability of adequate vaccine supply, and development of even more effective vaccines. Development of a vaccine against potentially pandemic strains is an essential part of the strategy to control and prevent a pandemic outbreak. The use of existing technologies for influenza vaccine production would be the most straightforward approach, because these technologies are commercially available and licensing would be relatively simple. Approaches currently being tested include subvirion inactivated vaccines and cold-adapted, live attenuated vaccines. Preliminary results have suggested that, for some pandemic antigens, particularly H5, subvirion inactivated vaccines are poorly immunogenic, for reasons that are not clear. Data from evaluation of live pandemic vaccines are pending. Second-generation approaches designed to provide improved immune responses at lower doses have focused on adjuvants such as alum and MF59, which are currently licensed for influenza or other vaccines. Additional experimental approaches are required to achieve the ultimate goal for seasonal and pandemic influenza prevention--namely, the ability to generate broadly cross-reactive and durable protection in humans. PMID:17163383

Nichol, Kristin L; Treanor, John J

2006-11-01

341

Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing pandemic H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia from interpandemic community-acquired pneumonia in adults  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of patients with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia is desirable for the early instigation of antiviral agents. A study was undertaken to investigate whether adults admitted to hospital with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia could be distinguished clinically from patients with non-H1N1 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Between May 2009 and January 2010, clinical and epidemiological data of patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection admitted to 75 hospitals in the UK were collected by the Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN). Adults with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia were identified and compared with a prospective study cohort of adults with CAP hospitalised between September 2008 and June 2010, excluding those admitted during the period of the pandemic. Results Of 1046 adults with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection in the FLU-CIN cohort, 254 (25%) had H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia on admission to hospital. In-hospital mortality of these patients was 11.4% compared with 14.0% in patients with inter-pandemic CAP (n=648). A multivariate logistic regression model was generated by assigning one point for each of five clinical criteria: age ?65?years, mental orientation, temperature ?38°C, leucocyte count ?12×109/l and bilateral radiographic consolidation. A score of 4 or 5 predicted H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia with a positive likelihood ratio of 9.0. A score of 0 or 1 had a positive likelihood ratio of 75.7 for excluding it. Conclusion There are substantial clinical differences between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and inter-pandemic CAP. A model based on five simple clinical criteria enables the early identification of adults admitted with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia. PMID:21252388

Bewick, Thomas; Myles, Puja; Greenwood, Sonia; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Brett, Stephen J; Semple, Malcolm G; Openshaw, Peter J; Bannister, Barbara; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; McMenamin, Jim; Enstone, Joanne E; Nicholson, Karl G

2011-01-01

342

The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update  

PubMed Central

In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7–35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000–750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic. PMID:19881161

Petrosillo, N.; Di Bella, S.; Drapeau, C. M.; Grilli, E.

2009-01-01

343

Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccinations: what is known and unknown about the neurological disorder, the role for autoimmunity, and vaccine adjuvants.  

PubMed

The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59®-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with the European inactivation/purification protocol are needed. PMID:24559657

Ahmed, S Sohail; Schur, Peter H; MacDonald, Noni E; Steinman, Lawrence

2014-05-01

344

New health risks and sociocultural contexts: bird flu impacts on consumers and poultry businesses in Lao PDR.  

PubMed

Avian flu has been identified as one of the most challenging new risks, global in impact due to the "highly interconnected and integrated world economy along with other unpredictable events such as the Asian financial crisis and global terrorism." We have chosen the case of Lao PDR to shed light on an area in which local people consume chicken as one of their staple foods. Our research analyzes consumer behavior, poultry business modification patterns in a high-risk country, and government reaction for business resilience. The geographic choice is motivated by the 2006 EIU report on Catastrophe Risk Management that indicated that Asian-Pacific companies are better prepared for such risks as bird flu than European business is, despite the many cases found in both regions. PMID:18304102

Suder, Gabriele; Inthavong, Saynakhone

2008-02-01

345

IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus  

PubMed Central

The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease. The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-17, Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing. IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice. These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics. PMID:22025253

Li, Chenggang; Yang, Penghui; Sun, Yang; Li, Taisheng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhong; Zou, Zhen; Yan, Yiwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Zhongwei; Xing, Li; Tang, Chong; Ju, Xiangwu; Guo, Feng; Deng, Jiejie; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Peng; Tang, Jun; Wang, Huanling; Zhao, Zhongpeng; Yin, Zhinan; Cao, Bin; Wang, Xiliang; Jiang, Chengyu

2012-01-01

346

Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A.  

PubMed

For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. Comparing genotypes for measures of poor lung function, inflammation, and admission to intensive care, these authors identified three variants of the SP-A gene SFTPA2 that positively correlated with flu severity. Remarkably, they also found the haplotype 1A1 of SFTPA2 to be protective against these indicators, suggesting that targeted therapy with a recombinant form of SP-A2 may improve patient outcome. Although further work is required to confirm the specificity and efficacy of SP-A in therapeutic H1N1 protection, this study is one of the first to suggest a clinical role for SP-A in pandemic influenza. PMID:25184962

Tolosa, Monica; Palaniyar, Nades

2014-08-01

347

Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?  

MedlinePLUS

... Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? It's ... really work? What does the science say? The Flu Vaccination is the best protection against getting the ...

348

Many States Still in Flu's Grip, but Some Areas Report Declines  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Many States Still in Flu's Grip, But Some Areas Report Declines CDC expects ... 2015) Friday, February 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- While ...

349

Bad Flu Season Continues to Take Toll, Especially Among the Young and Old  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bad Flu Season Continues to Take Toll, Especially Among the ... and Old Not too late to get a flu shot, health officials say; antiviral meds strongly recommended (* ...

350

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza, National and Community Measures  

PubMed Central

The World Health Organization's recommended pandemic influenza interventions, based on limited data, vary by transmission pattern, pandemic phase, and illness severity and extent. In the pandemic alert period, recommendations include isolation of patients and quarantine of contacts, accompanied by antiviral therapy. During the pandemic period, the focus shifts to delaying spread and reducing effects through population-based measures. Ill persons should remain home when they first become symptomatic, but forced isolation and quarantine are ineffective and impractical. If the pandemic is severe, social distancing measures such as school closures should be considered. Nonessential domestic travel to affected areas should be deferred. Hand and respiratory hygiene should be routine; mask use should be based on setting and risk, and contaminated household surfaces should be disinfected. Additional research and field assessments during pandemics are essential to update recommendations. Legal authority and procedures for implementing interventions should be understood in advance and should respect cultural differences and human rights. PMID:16494723

2006-01-01

351

76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...response, including implementation of the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza...sought in light of the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic...

2011-09-21

352

How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

2012-01-01

353

When Pictures Waste a Thousand Words: Analysis of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic on Television News  

PubMed Central

Objectives Effective communication by public health agencies during a pandemic promotes the adoption of recommended health behaviours. However, more information is not always the solution. Rather, attention must be paid to how information is communicated. Our study examines the television news, which combines video and audio content. We analyse (1) the content of television news about the H1N1 pandemic and vaccination campaign in Alberta, Canada; (2) the extent to which television news content conveyed key public health agency messages; (3) the extent of discrepancies in audio versus visual content. Methods We searched for “swine flu” and “H1N1” in local English news broadcasts from the CTV online video archive. We coded the audio and visual content of 47 news clips during the peak period of coverage from April to November 2009 and identified discrepancies between audio and visual content. Results The dominant themes on CTV news were the vaccination rollout, vaccine shortages, long line-ups (queues) at vaccination clinics and defensive responses by public health officials. There were discrepancies in the priority groups identified by the provincial health agency (Alberta Health and Wellness) and television news coverage as well as discrepancies between audio and visual content of news clips. Public health officials were presented in official settings rather than as public health practitioners. Conclusion The news footage did not match the main public health messages about risk levels and priority groups. Public health agencies lost control of their message as the media focused on failures in the rollout of the vaccination campaign. Spokespeople can enhance their local credibility by emphasizing their role as public health practitioners. Public health agencies need to learn from the H1N1 pandemic so that future television communications do not add to public confusion, demonstrate bureaucratic ineffectiveness and contribute to low vaccination rates. PMID:23691150

Luth, Westerly; Jardine, Cindy; Bubela, Tania

2013-01-01

354

Containing Pandemic Influenza at the Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (subtype H5N1) is threatening to cause a human pandemic of potentially devastating proportions. We used a stochastic influenza simulation model for rural Southeast Asia to investigate the effectiveness of targeted antiviral prophylaxis, quarantine, and pre-vaccination in containing an emerging influenza strain at the source. If the basic reproductive number (R0) was below 1.60, our simulations

Ira M. Longini; Azhar Nizam; Shufu Xu; Kumnuan Ungchusak; Wanna Hanshaoworakul; Derek A. T. Cummings; M. Elizabeth Halloran

2005-01-01

355

Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.  

PubMed Central

A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

Rolston, Holmes

2005-01-01

356

INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is  

E-print Network

2009 H1N1 INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is caused by a new strain of influenza virus. It has spread to many countries. Like other flu viruses, 2009 H1N1 spreads should get 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine and when?4 Seasonal flu viruses change from year to year

Suzuki, Masatsugu

357

Academic Planning for H1N1 Flu: Strategies for Students at the University of Toronto  

E-print Network

/1 Academic Planning for H1N1 Flu: Strategies for Students at the University of Toronto As you have probably heard in the media, H1N1 flu is expected to recur this fall. For ongoing updates things we can all do to help reduce the risk of catching or spreading the flu: · Wash and/or sanitize

Boonstra, Rudy

358

SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009  

E-print Network

SWINE FLU (H1N1) VIRUS RESPONSE PLAN Updated May 4, 2009 Provided by the Office of the Vice established the following plan to respond to the emergence of swine flu (H1N1 virus). Our plan is based and will be updated as new information about swine flu becomes available. 1) Communication with the Campus Community a

359

Claim Form --Flu Shot Only One patient and one provider per claim form, please.  

E-print Network

Claim Form -- Flu Shot Only One patient and one provider per claim form, please. See reverse side is signed and dated. An incomplete form may delay the processing of your claim. Services other than flu vaccine must be submitted on a separate claim form. Phone number ( ) _____________________ 10. Name of flu

360

SWINE FLU GUIDANCE FOR LINE MANAGERS MANAGING STAFF WHO ARE PREGNANT/OR IN  

E-print Network

SWINE FLU GUIDANCE FOR LINE MANAGERS MANAGING STAFF WHO ARE PREGNANT/OR IN OTHER HIGH RISK HEALTH GROUPS INTRODUCTION All line managers must ensure that all staff are aware that there is swine flu pages for advice/guidance regarding swine flu and inform their line managers if they are in the high

Davies, Christopher

361

Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do.  

E-print Network

Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do. IF YOU ARE Not at High Risk * High Risk Anybody medicine for flu. Don't go to a hospital. Get to a hospital right away. If you call 911, say you may have severe influenza. * PEOPLE AT HIGHER RISK OF FLU COMPLICATIONS INCLUDE: Babies under 2 I Seniors I

Tipple, Brett

362

Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer  

E-print Network

Real-Time Disease Surveillance Using Twitter Data: Demonstration on Flu and Cancer Kathy Lee Ankit and actionable healthcare insights. In this paper, we describe a novel real-time flu and can- cer surveillance such as flu, but also for monitoring distribution of cancer patients with different cancer types and symptoms

363

Managing in the Home How to protect yourself and care for your family with the flu  

E-print Network

Managing in the Home How to protect yourself and care for your family with the flu If you't get close to others If you or members of your family have the flu you must all stay home from work and on what to do. We need to keep doctors' waiting rooms flu-free. A person with influenza could be sick

Hickman, Mark

364

November 15, 2010 Get a flu shot and be eligible to win an iPad!  

E-print Network

November 15, 2010 Get a flu shot and be eligible to win an iPad! To encourage employees and students to receive their flu vaccinations, UC Davis Health System will award iPads to five randomly employees and students who receive flu vaccinations, from either the health system or an external provider

Leistikow, Bruce N.

365

INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused  

E-print Network

2009 H1N1 INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused by a new strain of influenza virus. It has spread to many countries. Like other flu viruses, 2009 H1N1 spreads from person should get 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine and when?4 Seasonal flu viruses change from year to year

Suzuki, Masatsugu

366

What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms include sudden onset of  

E-print Network

What are the symptoms of flu? · Symptoms include sudden onset of: o fever/chills o cough o muscle a doctor? Most people recover without needing to see a doctor; the flu usually lasts 7 ­ 10 days and goes · Disorientation or confusion · Pain or pressure in chest · Severe or persistent vomiting · Flu-like symptoms

Ellis, Randy

367

Innovative in silico approaches to address avian flu using grid technology Vincent BRETONa,*  

E-print Network

1 Innovative in silico approaches to address avian flu using grid technology Vincent BRETONa flu. Among the biggest challenges raised by infectious emerging diseases, one is related and animals around the earth, as recently demonstrated by the avian flu epidemics. For 3 years now

Boyer, Edmond

368

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick  

E-print Network

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 1 Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 20132014 Flu Season David Lazer,1,2 * Ryan Kennedy,1: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408560 2 Last year was difficult for Google Flu Trends (GFT). In early

369

Flu Trend Prediction -Regression Random Forest with GP leaves Algorithm and its Applications  

E-print Network

050 051 052 053 Flu Trend Prediction - Regression Random Forest with GP leaves Algorithm and its will be derived. Its applications in flu trend prediction and geology measurement regression will also smart life for human beings. For example, in terms of the recent hot topic of bird flu burst as spring

de Freitas, Nando

370

Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark Dredze  

E-print Network

Separating Fact from Fear: Tracking Flu Infections on Twitter Alex Lamb, Michael J. Paul, Mark work has relied on simple content anal- ysis, which conflates flu tweets that report infection with those that express concerned awareness of the flu. By discriminating these categories, as well as tweets

Dredze, Mark

371

Genes from a flu strain created in a lab in 1940 have been found in samples  

E-print Network

ErikaCheck Genes from a flu strain created in a lab in 1940 have been found in samples taken from pigs in South Korea, a US biologist claims. Data from the flu virus samples were put last October company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, examined the data as part of an analysis of flu sequences. He

Cai, Long

372

Many health-care workers shun flu shots By SONJA ISGER  

E-print Network

Many health-care workers shun flu shots By SONJA ISGER Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 2:04 p patients to get flu shots. But it turns out that persuading the doctors - and nurses, and other clinicians, on the cusp of a new flu season, the hospital announced plans to improve that rate with a mandatory

Belogay, Eugene A.

373

I Don't Need a Flu Shot!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this “clicker case,” Ryan, a college student, receives an email from the campus health education office urging students to get a flu shot. Ryan thinks it is too late since he just had the stomach flu, and besides, even if he did catch it, he would just take antibiotics. Fortunately, his girlfriend Ashley is able to correct these and other commonly held misconceptions. In learning about the dangers of flu and how to prevent becoming sick, students also learn about viral mutations (antigenic drift) and viral recombination (genetic shift). The case was written for a large introductory biology course for both science majors and non-majors that makes use of personal response systems (“clickers”). In class, the instructor presents the case using a PowerPoint presentation (~1.6 MB) punctuated by multiple choice questions that students answer with their clickers. The case could be adapted for use without these technologies.

William D. Rogers

2010-01-01

374

NATURE MEDICINE VOLUME 11 | NUMBER 9 | SEPTEMBER 2005 909 Threat of pandemic brings flu drug back to life  

E-print Network

. But Relenza, which was the first neuraminidase inhibitor on the market, claims only one percent of the growingtrials, boosted by a $5.5 million National Institutes of Health grant, of a neuraminidase inhibitor days of infection, says Graeme Laver, whose work led to the design of neuraminidase inhibitors, "you

Cai, Long

375

Microdroplet Sandwich Real-Time RT-PCR for Detection of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Subtypes  

PubMed Central

As demonstrated by the recent 2012/2013 flu epidemic, the continual emergence of new viral strains highlights the need for accurate medical diagnostics in multiple community settings. If rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostics for influenza subtyping were available, it would help identify epidemics, facilitate appropriate antiviral usage, decrease inappropriate antibiotic usage, and eliminate the extra cost of unnecessary laboratory testing and treatment. Here, we describe a droplet sandwich platform that can detect influenza subtypes using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Using clinical samples collected during the 2010/11 season, we effectively differentiate between H1N1p (swine pandemic), H1N1s (seasonal), and H3N2 with an overall assay sensitivity was 96%, with 100% specificity for each subtype. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect viral loads as low as 104 copies/mL, which is two orders of magnitude lower than viral loads in typical infected patients. This platform performs diagnostics in a miniaturized format without sacrificing any sensitivity, and can thus be easily developed into devices which are ideal for small clinics and pharmacies. PMID:24066051

Angione, Stephanie L.; Inde, Zintis; Beck, Christina M.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Tripathi, Anubhav

2013-01-01

376

Students with the University-sponsored health insurance can now get a flu shot at participating pharmacies FREE!  

E-print Network

Students with the University-sponsored health insurance can now get a flu shot at participating pharmacies FREE! To receive a flu shot: 1. Go to your local pharmacy and ask if they participate in the Flu pharmacies 2. Show your Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Florida Member ID card. 3. Get a FREE Flu Shot! Over 3400

McQuade, D. Tyler

377

NATURE|VOL431|28OCTOBER2004|www.nature.com/nature 1023 Struggling with the flu  

E-print Network

NATURE|VOL431|28OCTOBER2004|www.nature.com/nature 1023 Struggling with the flu The shortages of flu that was supposedtosupplyhalf of it--graphicallydemonstratestheirpoint. The flu vaccine is tricky to produce, because it must on the private sector to distribute flu vaccines at grocery stores,pharmaciesanddoctors'surgeries. As a result

Cai, Long

378

Find may yield flu early warning -The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING  

E-print Network

Find may yield flu early warning - The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Find may yield flu early warning By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff | January 7, 2008 For a decade, disease flu to easily infect people and ignite a firestorm of human illness akin to the 1918 global flu

Sasisekharan, Ram

379

HIGH-RISK GROUPS Some people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu, and  

E-print Network

HIGH-RISK GROUPS Some people are more at risk of serious illness if they catch swine flu regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health or your line manager. High-Risk groups and the Swine flu vaccine A vaccine to protect against swine flu is being developed

Davies, Christopher

380

How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009–10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Methods Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Results Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. Conclusions We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be more prone to the dissemination of “viral” information. The page ranking analysis revealed the crucial role of search engines regarding access to information on the Internet. PMID:23360311

2013-01-01

381

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009–related encephalitis in an immunocompetent woman. Although rare cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 associated with encephalitis have been reported previously, in this patient, direct viral invasion of the central nervous system was shown by simultaneous detection of viral RNA and pleocytosis. PMID:22000373

Cheng, Aristine; Kuo, Kuei-Hong

2011-01-01

382

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza, National and Community Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization's recommended pan- demic influenza interventions, based on limited data, vary by transmission pattern, pandemic phase, and illness severity and extent. In the pandemic alert period, recom- mendations include isolation of patients and quarantine of contacts, accompanied by antiviral therapy. During the pan- demic period, the focus shifts to delaying spread and reducing effects through population-based measures.

Angus Nicoll; Keiji Fukuda; Peter Horby; Arnold Monto; Frederick Hayden; Clare Wylks; Lance Sanders; Jonathan Van Tam

2006-01-01

383

Miasma To Microscopes: The Russian Influenza Pandemic in Hamilton  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many readers will be familiar with the well known “Spanish Influenza”, aterm that refers to the iconic 1918 influenza pandemic, its predecessor, theRussian Influenza – a pandemic that occurred in several waves during the latenineteenth century (1889-94) – seems to have been lost from public memory. Yet,in a mere four months it spread rapidly around a world that was

Ann Herring; Sally Carraher; Marie K. Lim; Melissa Mrmak; Kelly Hancock; Natasha K. Maris; Samantha Thompson; Kelly A. Martel; Devan Schafer; Lisa Emes; Vanessa Colasanti; Melinda Spry; Marta Montero; Frances Murray; Gabrielle S. Toth; Sarah K. Byford; Meghan Steenhoek; Ema Rubignoni; Courtney A. Hartwick; Jennifer Alonso; Stephanie Da Silva; Jessica Monnaie

2011-01-01

384

Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pandemic influenza virus of 1918-1919 killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide. With the recent availability of the complete 1918 influenza virus coding sequence, we used reverse genetics to generate an influenza virus bearing all eight gene segments of the pandemic virus to study the properties associated with its extraordinary virulence. In stark contrast to contemporary human

Terrence M. Tumpey; Christopher F. Basler; Patricia V. Aguilar; Hui Zeng; Alicia Solórzano; David E. Swayne; Nancy J. Cox; Jacqueline M. Katz; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; Adolfo García-Sastre

2005-01-01

385

Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic  

E-print Network

Intervention simulations for U.S. influenza pandemic Short-circuited atmosphere convections Warming States of America www.pnas.org #12;Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised

Duisburg-Essen, Universität

386

75 FR 10268 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines--Amendment Authority: 42...Whereas there are or may be multiple animal influenza A viruses, circulating in wild birds...capable of causing a pandemic of human influenza because these viruses may cause...

2010-03-05

387

"FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

2014-01-01

388

Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

Fischman, Josh

2012-01-01

389

Should I Get a Flu Shot if I Have Psoriasis?  

MedlinePLUS

... effects Taking these precautions before getting a flu vaccine can help reduce side effects: Do not get vaccinated if you have an ... dead virus also may be called an “attenuated” vaccine. ... without experiencing any side effects or worsening of their psoriasis. If you do ...

390

FLU: A negative regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Tetrapyrroles such as chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls play a fundamental role in the energy absorption and transduction activities of photosynthetic organisms. Because of these molecules, however, photosynthetic organisms are also prone to photooxidative damage. They had to evolve highly efficient strategies to control tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and to prevent the accumulation of free intermediates that potentially are extremely destructive when illuminated. In higher plants, the metabolic flow of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is regulated at the step of ?-aminolevulinic acid synthesis. This regulation previously has been attributed to feedback control of Glu tRNA reductase, the first enzyme committed to tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, by heme. With the recent discovery of chlorophyll intermediates acting as signals that control both nuclear gene activities and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, it seems likely that heme is not the only regulator of this pathway. A genetic approach was used to identify additional factors involved in the control of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, we have found a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, FLU, which operates independently of heme and seems to selectively affect only the Mg2+ branch of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. The identity of this protein was established by map-based cloning and sequencing the FLU gene. FLU is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein that, after import and processing, becomes tightly associated with plastid membranes. It is unrelated to any of the enzymes known to be involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Its predicted features suggest that FLU mediates its regulatory effect through interaction with enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis. PMID:11606728

Meskauskiene, Rasa; Nater, Mena; Goslings, David; Kessler, Felix; op den Camp, Roel; Apel, Klaus

2001-01-01

391

UHH Flu Vaccination Information 112409 Dear UH Hilo Students,  

E-print Network

UHH Flu Vaccination Information 112409 Dear UH Hilo Students, As part of the ongoing vaccination effort by the CDC and Hawaii State Department of Health, a small allotment of H1N1 vaccine and should receive the vaccine before others: · Pregnant women · People who live with or care

Wiegner, Tracy N.

392

Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy  

E-print Network

1 1663 Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy Dark Universe Mysteries WILL NOT NEED TESTING Expanding Nuclear Energy the Right Way GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS AND AN ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE sense.The Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy

393

What Hunters Should Know About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)  

E-print Network

What Hunters Should Know About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Quick Facts About Avian Influenza and H5N1 · Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A influenza viruses influenza viruses. · Avian influenza virus is common in wild waterfowl and shorebird populations

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

394

FluTCHA: Using Fluency to Distinguish Humans from Computers  

E-print Network

understanding technologies are making it possible for computers to pass traditional CAPTCHA tests with high difficult for computers. In this paper, we introduce Fluency CAPTCHA (FluTCHA), a novel method College Park, MD 20742 bederson@cs.umd.edu #12;2 For example, reCAPTCHA [1] asks people to read and enter

Golbeck, Jennifer

395

Early observational research and registries during the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic  

PubMed Central

As a critical care community, we have an obligation to provide not only clinical care but also the research that guides initial and subsequent clinical responses during a pandemic. There are many challenges to conducting such research. The first is speed of response. However, given the near inevitability of certain events, for example, viral respiratory illness such as the 2009 pandemic, geographically circumscribed natural disasters, or acts of terror, many study and trial designs should be preplanned and modified quickly when specific events occur. Template case report forms should be available for modification and web entry; centralized research ethics boards and funders should have the opportunity to preview and advise on such research beforehand; and national and international research groups should be prepared to work together on common studies and trials for common challenges. We describe the early international critical care research response to the influenza A 2009 (H1N1) pandemic, including specifics of observational study case report form, registry, and clinical trial design, cooperation of international critical care research organizations, and the early results of these collaborations. PMID:20101176

Fowler, Robert A.; Webb, Steven A. R.; Rowan, Kathy M.; Sprung, Charles L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Randolph, Adrienne G.; Jouvet, Philippe; Lapinsky, Stephen; Rubinson, Lewis; Rello, Jordi; Cobb, J. Perren; Rice, Todd W.; Uyeki, Tim; Marshall, John C.

2013-01-01

396

Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool  

SciTech Connect

Federal, State, and local decision makers and public health officials must prepare and exercise complex plans to contend with a variety of possible mass casualty events, such as pandemic influenza. Through the provision of quick look tools (QLTs) focused on mass casualty events, such planning can be done with higher accuracy and more realism through the combination of interactive simulation and visualization in these tools. If an event happens, the QLTs can then be employed to rapidly assess and execute alternative mitigation strategies, and thereby minimize casualties. This can be achieved by conducting numerous 'what-if' assessments prior to any event in order to assess potential health impacts (e.g., number of sick individuals), required community resources (e.g., vaccinations and hospital beds), and optimal mitigative decision strategies (e.g., school closures) during the course of a pandemic. In this presentation, we overview and demonstrate a pandemic influenza QLT, discuss some of the modeling methods and construct and visual analytic components and interface, and outline additional development concepts. These include the incorporation of a user selectable infectious disease palette, simultaneous visualization of decision alternatives, additional resource elements associated with emergency response (e.g., first responders and medical professionals), and provisions for other potential disaster events.

Brigantic, Robert T.; Ebert, David S.; Corley, Courtney D.; Maciejewski, Ross; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.

2010-05-30

397

University life and pandemic influenza: Attitudes and intended behaviour of staff and students towards pandemic (H1N1) 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In a pandemic young adults are more likely to be infected, increasing the potential for Universities to be explosive disease outbreak centres. Outbreak management is essential to reduce the impact in both the institution and the surrounding community. Through the use of an online survey, we aimed to measure the perceptions and responses of staff and students towards pandemic

Debbie Van; Mary-Louise McLaws; Jacinta Crimmins; C. Raina MacIntyre; Holly Seale

2010-01-01

398

The 2009–2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual and national\\/cultural differences were apparent in response to the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Overall pandemic influenza immunization rates were low across all nations, including among healthcare workers. Among the reasons for the low coverage rates may have been a lack of concern about the individual risk of influenza, which may translate into a lack of willingness or urgency to be

Gregory A. Poland

2010-01-01

399

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

400

Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naďve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

2014-01-01

401

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urges you to take the following steps to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu)  

E-print Network

to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu): CDC URGES YOU TO TAKE 3 ACTIONS TO PROTECT AGAINST THE FLU. #1 Vaccinate #2 Stop Germs #3 Antiviral Drugs ·CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccine as the first and most important step in protecting against flu viruses. ·While there are many different flu viruses

Tipple, Brett

402

Optimizing distribution of pandemic influenza antiviral drugs.  

PubMed

We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

Singh, Bismark; Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P; Johnson, Gregory P; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A

2015-02-01

403

Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of humans is caused by two lentiviruses, human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). Here, we describe the origins and evolution of these viruses, and the circumstances that led to the AIDS pandemic. Both HIVs are the result of multiple cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) naturally infecting African primates. Most of these transfers resulted in viruses that spread in humans to only a limited extent. However, one transmission event, involving SIVcpz from chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon, gave rise to HIV-1 group M—the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. We discuss how host restriction factors have shaped the emergence of new SIV zoonoses by imposing adaptive hurdles to cross-species transmission and/or secondary spread. We also show that AIDS has likely afflicted chimpanzees long before the emergence of HIV. Tracing the genetic changes that occurred as SIVs crossed from monkeys to apes and from apes to humans provides a new framework to examine the requirements of successful host switches and to gauge future zoonotic risk. PMID:22229120

Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2011-01-01

404

Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs  

PubMed Central

We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P.; Johnson, Gregory P.; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A.

2015-01-01

405

Pandemic H1N1 influenza  

PubMed Central

The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus that has targeted not only those with chronic medical illness, the very young and old, but also a large segment of the patient population that has previously been afforded relative protection - those who are young, generally healthy, and immune naive. The illness is mild in most, but results in hospitalization and severe ARDS in an important minority. Among those who become critically ill, 20-40% will die, predominantly of severe hypoxic respiratory failure. However, and potentially in part due to the young age of those affected, intensive care with aggressive oxygenation support will allow most people to recover. The volume of patients infected and with critical illness placed substantial strain on the capacity of the health care system and critical care most specifically. Despite this, the 2009 pandemic has engaged our specialty and highlighted its importance like no other. Thus far, the national and global critical care response has been brisk, collaborative and helpful - not only for this pandemic, but for subsequent challenges in years ahead. PMID:22263101

Kumar, Anand

2011-01-01

406

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile  

PubMed Central

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

2014-01-01

407

U.S. Faces Another Flu Vaccine Shortage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some 36,000 Americans die from flu complications every year so public alarm in reaction to the recent decision by British regulators to shut down the supplier of 46 million doses, or about the half this year's planned supply to the U.S., was hardly surprising. The action leaves only about 54 million flu shots available to Americans from a competing firm, and the U.S. government quickly decided that most healthy adults should delay or skip them to leave enough vaccine for the elderly and other high-risk patients. The government has urged voluntary rationing before, during a shortage in 2000. This year, however, will mark a record shortage just before flu season begins. Although the Bush administration offered assurances that anyone who needed a flu shot would get one, the shortage quickly developed into a political issue, with President Bush and Senator Kerry trading blame for the scarcity on the campaign trail. Meanwhile, U.S. and Canadian officials scrambled to come up with a plan to allow 1.2 million doses of Canadian-manufactured vaccine to be imported as an experimental drug.The first link offered here leads to an overview news story that summarizes the shortage situation so far and the outlook for fresh supplies of vaccine later in the flu season. The second link describes how the shortage has been playing out as a personal issue in a presidential campaign otherwise dominated by war and terrorism. The third link goes to a New York Times piece which notes that the shortage follows decades of warnings from health experts about problems with the flu vaccine supply and distribution system. The fourth link leads to the Centers for Disease Control influenza information page and a broad range of information targeted to both consumers and health care professionals. The fifth link describes the negotiations underway between the U.S. and Canadian governments to allow importation of vaccine from Canada under FDA regulations. The last link is the home page of the American Medical Association conference on influenza vaccine held in April and includes links to all speakers' presentations in either pdf or PowerPoint formats.

408

Evaluation of a fully human monoclonal antibody against multiple influenza A viral strains in mice and a pandemic H1N1 strain in nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. Frequent mutations of surface molecules, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), contribute to low efficacy of the annual flu vaccine and therapeutic resistance to standard antiviral agents. The populations at high risk of influenza virus infection, such as the elderly and infants, generally mount low immune responses to vaccines, and develop severe disease after infection. Novel therapeutics with high effectiveness and mutation resistance are needed. Previously, we described the generation of a fully human influenza virus matrix protein 2 (M2) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), Z3G1, which recognized the majority of M2 variants from natural viral isolates, including highly pathogenic avian strains. Passive immunotherapy with Z3G1 significantly protected mice from the infection when administered either prophylactically or 1-2days post infection. In the present study, we showed that Z3G1 significantly protected mice from lethal infection when treatment was initiated 3days post infection. In addition, therapeutic administration of Z3G1 reduced lung viral titers in mice infected with different viral strains, including amantadine and oseltamivir-resistant strains. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Z3G1 sustained O2 saturation and reduced lung pathology in monkeys infected with a pandemic H1N1 strain. Finally, de-fucosylated Z3G1 with an IgG1/IgG3 chimeric Fc region was generated (AccretaMab® Z3G1), and showed increased ADCC and CDC in vitro. Our data suggest that the anti-M2 mAb Z3G1 has great potential as a novel anti-flu therapeutic agent. PMID:25218949

Song, Aihua; Myojo, Kensuke; Laudenslager, John; Harada, Daisuke; Miura, Toru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kuni-Kamochi, Reiko; Soloff, Rachel; Ohgami, Kinya; Kanda, Yutaka

2014-11-01

409

Planning for Pandemics: Lessons From the Past Decade.  

PubMed

It is now 10 years since the disease we now know as SARS-severe acute respiratory syndrome-caused more than 700 deaths around the world and made more than 8,000 people ill. More recently, in 2009 the global community experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century-the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This paper analyses the major developments in international public health law relating to infectious diseases in the period since SARS and considers their implications for pandemic planning. PMID:25000924

Bennett, Belinda; Carney, Terry

2014-07-01

410

PhD in Public and Community Health Faculty Department/Institute Faculty Classification  

E-print Network

Pediatric surgical outcomes, trauma, registry development, identification and evaluation of risk factors issues of justice, bioterrorism defense and response, childhood vaccinations, and pandemic flu prepare interventions, coalition building and public health policy; childhood asthma, health disparities, nutrition

411

Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

2007-01-01

412

D M E The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and  

E-print Network

D M E S S The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and SelfOscilla ons of an Elas c purpose of this project is the inves ga on of the effect of changes in the loca on of a shock wave on flu. The crea on of the methodology for researching flu er boundaries of an airplane and parameters limit cycle

Barthelat, Francois

413

Evaluation of Three Live Attenuated H2 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Candidates in Mice and Ferrets  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT H2 influenza viruses have not circulated in humans since 1968, and therefore a significant portion of the population would be susceptible to infection should H2 influenza viruses reemerge. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in avian reservoirs worldwide, and these reservoirs are a potential source from which these viruses could emerge. Three reassortant cold-adapted (ca) H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidates with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the wild-type A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2) (Jap/57), A/mallard/6750/1978 (H2N2) (mal/78), or A/swine/MO/4296424/2006 (H2N3) (sw/06) viruses and the internal protein gene segments from the A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca virus were generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics (Jap/57 ca, mal/78 ca, and sw/06 ca, respectively). The vaccine candidates exhibited the in vitro phenotypes of temperature sensitivity and cold adaptation and were restricted in replication in the respiratory tract of ferrets. In mice and ferrets, the vaccines elicited neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against homologous wild-type virus challenge. Of the three candidates, the sw/06 ca vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibodies and provided significant protection against the greatest number of heterologous viruses. These observations suggest that the sw/06 ca vaccine should be further evaluated in a clinical trial as an H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidate. IMPORTANCE Influenza pandemics arise when novel influenza viruses are introduced into a population with little prior immunity to the new virus and often result in higher rates of illness and death than annual seasonal influenza epidemics. An influenza H2 subtype virus caused a pandemic in 1957, and H2 viruses circulated in humans till 1968. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds, and the development of an H2 influenza vaccine candidate is therefore considered a priority in preparing for future pandemics. However, we cannot predict whether a human H2 virus will reemerge or a novel avian H2 virus will emerge. We identified three viruses as suitable candidates for further evaluation as vaccines to protect against H2 influenza viruses and evaluated the immune responses and protection that these three vaccines provided in mice and ferrets. PMID:24371061

Chen, Grace L.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Cheng, Xing; Torres-Velez, Fernando; Orandle, Marlene; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George

2014-01-01

414

An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt  

E-print Network

Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

2010-01-01

415

AT&T" flu, M/Lfi >B fi,U "" / @< Ml~fl  

E-print Network

· · · · · · · · · AT&T" flu, ¤M/Lfi £ « ~ ´ / ¶ ¤>B fi§,U¯ ""· / ·@¡N...s"x¶}fii· y¤ §@'M"º´ u/¤M ¤.AT&T " flu, ¤M/Lfi ¡M§@flu]¡NAT&T Business Exchange 'M AT&T OE ­M·" (AT&T VPN)¡M... ¤>`{¤ ,, "">­,, >­·|~.AT&T " flu, ¤M/Lfi ­N "M l W¡N> W

Greenberg, Albert

416

Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent human deaths due to infection by highly pathogenic (H5N1) avian influenza A virus have raised the specter of a devastating pandemic like that of 1917-1918, should this avian virus evolve to become readily transmissible among humans. We introduce and use a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S.

Timothy C. Germann; Kai Kadau; Ira M. Longini; Catherine A. Macken

2006-01-01

417

Combining estimates from two surveys: an example from monitoring 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic vaccination.  

PubMed

During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, there was an ongoing need to monitor 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage at the national and state level to evaluate the vaccination campaign; thus, precise vaccination coverage estimates were needed in a timely fashion. The current objective is to describe and evaluate the methodology used to combine 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage estimates from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS). H1N1 state level vaccination coverage estimates were combined by taking weighted averages of the BRFSS and NHFS estimates, with more weight given to the estimate with the larger effective sample size (sample size/design effect). The impact of the choice of weights was evaluated by comparing estimates when the design effect was removed from the weights. Combined vaccination coverage estimates for children generally fell midway between NHFS and BRFSS estimates because of larger NHFS sample sizes but smaller BRFSS design effects. Adult estimates were more closely weighted to BRFSS estimates because of larger BRFSS sample sizes. Combined standard errors were smaller than the survey-specific standard errors. When removing the design effect from the weights, the child combined estimates were more closely weighted to those from NHFS, resulting in larger standard errors. Adult combined estimates were similar regardless of choice of weight because of similar design effects across the two surveys. Combining estimates by weighting by the effective sample size allowed timely release of more precise estimates in all states during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. PMID:22859268

Furlow-Parmley, Carolyn; Singleton, James A; Bardenheier, Barbara; Bryan, Leah

2012-11-30

418

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Among Medical and Dental Residents and Fellowships in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Influenza disease is one of the oldest medical problems that can cause severe illness and high mortality rates, worldwide. In flu pandemics, medical and dental students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is critical to save patients life. The aim of this study was to determine the score of KAP toward the Pandemic H1N1 and their predictor factors among the medical and dental residents and fellowships of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Methods: In 2009, 125 participants were recruited in a convenient sampling cross-sectional survey. Self-reported questionnaire were used and results were analyzed applying appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean score of participants’ knowledge, attitude and practice were 22.6, 21.1 and 26.5 respectively. Participants practice had significant linear positive correlation with knowledge and attitude. Also, their age was significantly and directly correlated to knowledge and practice. The educational major, age, and sex were significant predictors of responder's knowledge score and age was the only significant predictor of both attitude and practice scores. Conclusions: High knowledge is not sufficient lonely for improve attitude and practices. It seems that traditional educational models are not efficient and governments should emphasize to advanced and motivational education methods including health belief model and motivational interview at postgraduate levels. Perhaps younger students, dentists and males have less motivation to change their attitude and behavior, so we can focuses our interventions in these groups. PMID:23671770

Askarian, Mehrdad; Danaei, Mina; Vakili, Veda

2013-01-01

419

Factors Associated with Post-Seasonal Serological Titer and Risk Factors for Infection with the Pandemic A/H1N1 Virus in the French General Population  

PubMed Central

The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households). The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 45.1, 49.2). According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort. PMID:23613718

Lapidus, Nathanael; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Salez, Nicolas; Setbon, Michel; Delabre, Rosemary M.; Ferrari, Pascal; Moyen, Nanikaly; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Vely, Frédéric; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Cauchemez, Simon; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Vivier, Éric; Abel, Laurent; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Legeas, Michčle; Le Cann, Pierre; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

2013-01-01

420

The influenza pandemic of 2009: lessons and implications.  

PubMed

Influenza is a moving target, which evolves in unexpected directions and is recurrent annually. The 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus was unlike the 2009 seasonal virus strains and originated in pigs prior to infecting humans. Three strains of viruses gave rise to the pandemic virus by antigenic shift, reassortment, and recombination, which occurred in pigs as 'mixing vessels'. The three strains of viruses had originally been derived from birds, pigs, and humans. The influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) external proteins are used to categorize and group influenza viruses. The internal proteins (PB1, PB1-F2, PB2, PA, NP, M, and NS) are involved in the pathogenesis of influenza infection. A major difference between the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses is the lack of the pathogenic protein PB1-F2 in the 2009 pandemic strains, which was present in the more virulent 1918 pandemic strains. We provide an overview of influenza infection since 1847 and the advent of influenza vaccination since 1944. Vaccines and chemotherapy help reduce the spread of influenza, reduce morbidity and mortality, and are utilized by the global rapid-response organizations associated with the WHO. Immediate identification of impending epidemic and pandemic strains, as well as sustained vigilance and collaboration, demonstrate continued success in combating influenza. PMID:21623644

Shapshak, Paul; Chiappelli, Francesco; Somboonwit, Charurut; Sinnott, John

2011-04-01

421

Double Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation after Novel Myeloablative Conditioning Using FluBu4/TLI  

PubMed Central

We conducted a pilot study evaluating double umbilical cord blood transplantation (dCBT) after myeloablative (MA) conditioning with Fludarabine/Busulfan 3.2mg/kg IV × 4, followed by Total Lymphoid Irradiation at 400cGy (FluBu4/TLI) for any indicated hematological disorder without a suitable donor. Twenty patients with predominantly high-risk disease underwent dCBT according to protocol. The regimen was well tolerated, with mucositis as the primary observed toxicity (n=19). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 89% (95% C.I., 64-97%), with a median time to recovery of 16 days (range: 12-31 days). All evaluable patients with neutrophil engraftment achieved complete donor chimerism by day 40. The cumulative incidence of grade III/IV acute GVHD at day 100 was 10% (95% C.I., 2-27%), and the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 35% (95% C.I. 16-55%) by the end of the study. At one year, the cumulative incidence of treatment related mortality (TRM) was 35% (95% C.I. 16-55%). The leading cause of non-relapse mortality was acute GVHD (n=4), followed by graft failure (n=2), and chronic GVHD (n=1). Treatment-related mortality was significantly associated with a pre-transplant HCT-CI score ?3 (p=0.005). At one year, disease relapse occurred in six patients, and overall survival was 40% (95% C.I. 19-60%). We conclude that MA FluBu4/TLI is an adequate preparative regiment prior to dCBT, providing high engraftment rates, and relatively early neutrophil recovery. The best survival outcomes were seen in patients without significant comorbidities pre-transplant, and are comparable to previously published dCBT studies. PMID:25046834

Abedin, Sameem; Levine, John E.; Choi, Sung; Yanik, Gregory; Couriel, Daniel R.

2015-01-01

422

Comparison of CATs, CURB-65 and PMEWS as Triage Tools in Pandemic Influenza Admissions to UK Hospitals: Case Control Analysis Using Retrospective Data  

PubMed Central

Triage tools have an important role in pandemics to identify those most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. We compared Community Assessment Tools (CATs), the CURB-65 score, and the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS); to predict higher levels of care (high dependency - Level 2 or intensive care - Level 3) and/or death in patients at or shortly after admission to hospital with A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza. This was a case-control analysis using retrospectively collected data from the FLU-CIN cohort (1040 adults, 480 children) with PCR-confirmed A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Area under receiver operator curves (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated. CATs best predicted Level 2/3 admissions in both adults [AUROC (95% CI): CATs 0.77 (0.73, 0.80); CURB-65 0.68 (0.64, 0.72); PMEWS 0.68 (0.64, 0.73), p<0.001] and children [AUROC: CATs 0.74 (0.68, 0.80); CURB-65 0.52 (0.46, 0.59); PMEWS 0.69 (0.62, 0.75), p<0.001]. CURB-65 and CATs were similar in predicting death in adults with both performing better than PMEWS; and CATs best predicted death in children. CATs were the best predictor of Level 2/3 care and/or death for both adults and children. CATs are potentially useful triage tools for predicting need for higher levels of care and/or mortality in patients of all ages. PMID:22509303

Myles, Puja R.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Lim, Wei Shen; Nicholson, Karl G.; Brett, Stephen J.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Bannister, Barbara; Semple, Malcolm G.

2012-01-01

423

Genetic characteristics of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza a viruses isolated from Mainland China.  

PubMed

A total of 100 H1N1 flu real-time-PCR positive throat swabs collected from fever patients in Zhejiang, Hubei and Guangdong between June and November 2009, were provided by local CDC laboratories. After MDCK cell culture, 57 Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) viruses were isolated and submitted for whole genome sequencing. A total of 39 HA sequences, 52 NA sequences, 36 PB2 sequences, 31 PB1 sequences, 40 PA sequences, 48 NP sequences, 51 MP sequences and 36 NS sequences were obtained, including 20 whole genome sequences. Sequence comparison revealed they shared a high degree of homology (96%-99%) with known epidemic strains (A/California/04/2009(H1N1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that although the sequences were highly conserved, they clustered into a small number of groups with only a few distinct strains. Site analysis revealed three substitutions at loop 220 (221-228) of the HA receptor binding site in the 39 HA sequences: A/Hubei/86/2009 PKVRDQEG ? PKVRDQEA, A/Zhejiang/08/2009 PKVRDQEG ? PKVRDQER, A/Hubei/75/2009 PKVRDQEG ? PKVRDQGG, the A/Hubei/75/2009 was isolated from an acute case, while the other two were from patients with mild symptoms. Other key sites such as 119, 274, 292 and 294 amino acids of NA protein, 627 of PB2 protein were conserved. Meanwhile, all the M2 protein sequences possessed the Ser32Asn mutation, suggesting that these viruses were resistant to adamantanes. Comparison of these sequences with other H1N1 viruses collected from the NCBI database provides insight into H1N1 transmission and circulation patterns. PMID:22160942

Zhao, Jiu-Ru; Li, Yong-Dong; Pan, Li-Min; Zhu, Na; Ni, Hong-Xia; Xu, Guo-Zhang; Jiang, Yong-Zhong; Huo, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Jun-Qiang; Xia, Han; Han, Na; Tang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong; Kou, Zheng; Rayner, Simon; Li, Tian-Xian

2011-12-01

424

What are the symptoms of influenza? Influenza is also known as "the flu." The most common symptoms are fever with  

E-print Network

What are the symptoms of influenza? Influenza is also known as "the flu." The most common symptoms disinfectant seven days a week. During cold and Flu season, we disinfect public touch points daily (door

Taylor, Jerry

425

THE SWINE FLU VACCINE AND GUILLAIN-BARR E SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY IN RELATIVE RISK AND SPECIFIC CAUSATION  

E-print Network

THE SWINE FLU VACCINE AND GUILLAIN-BARR ´E SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY IN RELATIVE RISK AND SPECIFIC must be considered too. The issues are explored in the context of the swine flu vaccine and Guillain-Barr

Stark, Philip B.

426

Flu Symptom Advisory for Outside Visitors to Princeton's Campus In light of continuing cases of H1N1 (swine) flu in New Jersey, the United States and around the  

E-print Network

Flu Symptom Advisory for Outside Visitors to Princeton's Campus In light of continuing cases of H1N1 (swine) flu in New Jersey, the United States and around the world, Princeton University wants to their visitors as they best deem appropriate: Stay at home if you're feeling sick. Persons with flu

Bou-Zeid, Elie

427

Many of us have been urged to get lots of Vitamin C in order to stay healthy during flu season. Although Vitamin C has not been proven to prevent or cure the cold and flu, eating  

E-print Network

Many of us have been urged to get lots of Vitamin C in order to stay healthy during flu season. Although Vitamin C has not been proven to prevent or cure the cold and flu, eating Vitamin C rich foods't the only nutritional powerhouse during flu season. Here are some other nutrients to pay particular

Huang, Jianyu

428

Experimental infection with a Thai reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin induced disease  

PubMed Central

Background Following the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus in 2009 in humans, this novel virus spread into the swine population. Pigs represent a potential host for this virus and can serve as a mixing vessel for genetic mutations of the influenza virus. Reassortant viruses eventually emerged from the 2009 pandemic and were reported in swine populations worldwide including Thailand. As a result of the discovery of this emergent disease, pathogenesis studies of this novel virus were conducted in order that future disease protection and control measures in swine and human populations could be enacted. Methods The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus (pH1N1) and its reassortant virus (rH1N1) isolated from pigs in Thailand were inoculated into 2 separate cohorts of 9, 3-week-old pigs. Cohorts were consisted of one group experimentally infected with pH1N1 and one group with rH1N1. A negative control group consisting of 3 pigs was also included. Clinical signs, viral shedding and pathological lesions were investigated and compared. Later, 3 pigs from viral inoculated groups and 1 pig from the control group were necropsied at 2, 4, and 12 days post inoculation (DPI). Results The results indicated that pigs infected with both viruses demonstrated typical flu-like clinical signs and histopathological lesions of varying severity. Influenza infected-pigs of both groups had mild to moderate pulmonary signs on 1-4 DPI. Interestingly, pigs in both groups demonstrated viral RNA detection in the nasal swabs until the end of the experiment (12 DPI). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that both the pH1N1 and rH1N1 influenza viruses, isolated from naturally infected pigs, induced acute respiratory disease in experimentally inoculated nursery pigs. Although animals in the rH1N1-infected cohort demonstrated more severe clinical signs, had higher numbers of pigs shedding the virus, were noted to have increased histopathological severity of lung lesions and increased viral antigen in lung tissue, the findings were not statistically significant in comparison with the pH1N1-infected group. Interestingly, viral genetic material of both viruses could be detected from the nasal swabs until the end of the experiment. Similar to other swine influenza viruses, the clinical signs and pathological lesions in both rH1N1 and pH1N1 were limited to the respiratory tract. PMID:23497073

2013-01-01

429

Many Flu Infections Aren't Good Match for Vaccine: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many Flu Infections Aren't Good Match for Vaccine: CDC ... 2015) Thursday, December 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization THURSDAY, Dec. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The ...

430

Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

2008-01-01

431

H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

432

Flu Now Epidemic in U.S., with 15 Child Deaths Reported  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Now Epidemic in U.S., With 15 Child Deaths ... 2015) Tuesday, December 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Immunization TUESDAY, Dec. 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The ...

433

DOCUMENTATION TO SUPPORT FLU VACCINATION RECEIVED OUTSIDE OF THE STATE HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM IN ORDER TO  

E-print Network

DOCUMENTATION TO SUPPORT FLU VACCINATION RECEIVED OUTSIDE OF THE STATE HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM: Please indicate which option you wish to use to report your flu vaccination and provide the requested documentation. Option I: attach documentation which must include: Name of individual receiving the vaccine

Lien, Jyh-Ming

434

October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st  

E-print Network

October 15, 2012 Over 4,500 Employees Receive Flu Vaccination; October 31st Deadline Approaches Employee Health Services has been providing free flu vaccinations to employees and students at various locations around the Sacramento campus since September 12, 2012. In addition to taking the vaccine

Leistikow, Bruce N.

435

Students experiencing flu-like symptoms, such as fever with cough and/or sore throat,  

E-print Network

immediately call University Health Services at (609) 258-3141. Don't let flu ruin your semester. Environmental Health and Safety Isolate Self-isolate in your room during illness and for at least 24 hours after yourStudents experiencing flu-like symptoms, such as fever with cough and/or sore throat, should

Bou-Zeid, Elie

436

Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInfluenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus

Mohammed Alsharifi; Yoichi Furuya; Timothy R. Bowden; Mario Lobigs; Aulikki Koskinen; Matthias Regner; Lee Trinidad; David B. Boyle; Arno Müllbacher; Derya Unutmaz

2009-01-01

437

Description: Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that cause regular  

E-print Network

Description: Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that cause regular outbreaks in pigs. People do not usually get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from person to person

Blows, Mark

438

"When I have a cold or `flu' my mucus turns yellow. My mom always says that means I  

E-print Network

"When I have a cold or `flu' my mucus turns yellow. My mom always says that means I have a sinus and influenza) that cause colds and "flu" first infect the nose, sinuses and throat, the nose makes clear mucus or `flu'?" The best treatment is watchful waiting, 8 hours of sleep a night, fluids, and the use of cold

Virginia Tech

439

What can you do to stop the flu? Cover your cough! Help stop the spread of germs by  

E-print Network

What can you do to stop the flu? · Cover your cough! Help stop the spread of germs by covering your 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine every year. All UC-sponsored medical plans offer to go to the doctor and get treated. Around 5-20% of the population becomes infected by the flu every

Burke, Peter

440

Predicting Flu Trends using Twitter Data Harshavardhan Achrekar Avinash Gandhe Ross Lazarus Ssu-Hsin Yu Benyuan Liu  

E-print Network

Predicting Flu Trends using Twitter Data Harshavardhan Achrekar Avinash Gandhe Ross Lazarus Ssu available in aggregate ILI reports. In this paper we present the Social Network Enabled Flu Trends (SNEFT) framework, which monitors messages posted on Twitter with a mention of flu indicators to track and predict

Liu, Benyuan

441

To: Wesleyan student, staff, faculty and parents: This year's flu season has occurred early and is widespread. In order  

E-print Network

To: Wesleyan student, staff, faculty and parents: This year's flu season has occurred early aspirin can be dangerous for those of you under 19 if you have the flu). Practice good hand hygiene Wash this way. Get a seasonal flu shot (it is not too late)! Shots are widely available this year through your

Devoto, Stephen H.

442

The pandemic potential of Nipah virus.  

PubMed

Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus whose wildlife reservoir is Pteropus bats, was first discovered in a large outbreak of acute encephalitis in Malaysia in 1998 among persons who had contact with sick pigs. Apparently, one or more pigs was infected from bats, and the virus then spread efficiently from pig to pig, then from pigs to people. Nipah virus outbreaks have been recognized nearly every year in Bangladesh since 2001 and occasionally in neighboring India. Outbreaks in Bangladesh and India have been characterized by frequent person-to-person transmission and the death of over 70% of infected people. Characteristics of Nipah virus that increase its risk of becoming a global pandemic include: humans are already susceptible; many strains are capable of limited person-to-person transmission; as an RNA virus, it has an exceptionally high rate of mutation: and that if a human-adapted strain were to infect communities in South Asia, high population densities and global interconnectedness would rapidly spread the infection. Appropriate steps to estimate and manage this risk include studies to explore the molecular and genetic basis of respiratory transmission of henipaviruses, improved surveillance for human infections, support from high-income countries to reduce the risk of person-to-person transmission of infectious agents in low-income health care settings, and consideration of vaccination in communities at ongoing risk of exposure to the secretions and excretions of Pteropus bats. PMID:23911335

Luby, Stephen P

2013-10-01

443

The future of the HIV pandemic.  

PubMed

The emerging HIV epidemics in countries of Asia and Eastern Europe will contribute significantly to the future of the HIV pandemic. Forecasts of the scale of these epidemics are subject to massive uncertainty, however, mainly because of the sensitivity of predictions to small alterations in parameters that are difficult to estimate. In most of these countries, HIV is currently concentrated among vulnerable populations such as injecting drug users, sex workers and their clients, or men who have sex with men. This distribution suggests an alternative to disease forecasting based on the techniques of risk assessment routinely used by environmental epidemiologists. Exposure mapping, dose-response curves and the concept of acceptable risk are some of the tools that may be useful for HIV risk management. This approach is illustrated by a description of exposure in Indonesia and an assessment of currently accepted risk of death for different causes including HIV in the Russian Federation. Although inappropriate for forecasts of heterosexual HIV transmission, mathematical models are shown to be useful for making qualitative predictions about the relative importance of different behaviours for the spread of HIV over time and for interpreting observed trends in HIV prevalence from sentinel surveillance sites. PMID:15976879

Grassly, Nicholas C; Garnett, Geoffrey P

2005-05-01

444

Interaction of FLU, a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, with the glutamyl-tRNA reductase requires the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of FLU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in plants has been attributed to feedback control of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GLU-TR) by heme. Recently, another negative regulator, the FLU protein, has been discovered that operates independently of heme. A truncated form of FLU that contains two domains implicated in protein–protein interaction was co-expressed in yeast with either GLU-TR or glutamate-1-semialdehyde-2-1-aminotransferase (GSA-AT), the second enzyme involved

Rasa Meskauskiene; Klaus Apel

2002-01-01

445

Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic  

SciTech Connect

The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps)

2010-03-04

446

Exploring determinants of acceptance of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccination in nurses.  

PubMed

This study investigated the anticipated vaccination rate against pandemic human influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the health care setting. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess nurses' acceptance of vaccination against seasonal flu and H1N1. They were sent to nurses by post through various nurses' unions before initiation of the vaccination program. Only 13.3% of the respondents planned to receive the H1N1 vaccine, compared with 37.5% for the seasonal influenza vaccine. Vaccination against seasonal influenza in the preceding season strongly predicted the likelihood of H1N1 vaccination. The main reason cited for H1N1 vaccination was self-protection, and reasons for rejecting vaccination included possible side effects, ineffectiveness of the vaccine, and the mild nature of the disease. Personal contact with patients with H1N1 or severe acute respiratory syndrome at work did not significantly increase the likelihood of receiving the H1N1 vaccine. More than 40% of the respondents were undecided at the time of the survey. The promotion of vaccination against seasonal influenza may play a role in improving H1N1 vaccination coverage. Efforts are needed to address concerns about vaccination risk and to incorporate H1N1 vaccination in standard infection control practice with policy support. PMID:20566229

To, Kin-Wang; Lee, Sing; Chan, Tat-On; Lee, Shui-Shan

2010-10-01

447

Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis  

PubMed Central

Most pandemics—eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza—originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

448

Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Around the globe, school closures were used sporadically to mitigate the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. However, such closures can detrimentally impact economic and social life. Methods Here, we couple a decision analytic approach with a mathematical model of influenza transmission to estimate the impact of school closures in terms of epidemiological and cost effectiveness. Our method assumes that the transmissibility and the severity of the disease are uncertain, and evaluates several closure and reopening strategies that cover a range of thresholds in school-aged prevalence (SAP) and closure durations. Results Assuming a willingness to pay per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) threshold equal to the US per capita GDP ($46,000), we found that the cost effectiveness of these strategies is highly dependent on the severity and on a willingness to pay per QALY. For severe pandemics, the preferred strategy couples the earliest closure trigger (0.5% SAP) with the longest duration closure (24?weeks) considered. For milder pandemics, the preferred strategies also involve the earliest closure trigger, but are shorter duration (12?weeks for low transmission rates and variable length for high transmission rates). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of obtaining early estimates of pandemic severity and provide guidance to public health decision-makers for effectively tailoring school closures strategies in response to a newly emergent influenza pandemic. PMID:22713694

2012-01-01

449

Pandemic influenza: overview of vaccines and antiviral drugs.  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza has become a high priority item for all public health authorities. An influenza pandemic is believed to be imminent, and scientists agree that it will be a matter of when, where, and what will be the causative agent. Recently, most attention has been directed to human cases of avian influenza caused by a H5N1 avian influenza virus. An effective vaccine will be needed to substantially reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic. Current influenza vaccine manufacturing technology is not adequate to support vaccine production in the event of an avian influenza outbreak, and it has now become clear that new innovative production technology is required. Antiviral drugs, on the other hand, can play a very important role in slowing the disease spread but are in short supply and resistance has been a major issue. Here, we provide an update on the status of pandemic vaccine development and antiviral drugs. Finally, we conclude with some proposed areas of focus in pandemic vaccine preparedness. PMID:17132338

Cox, Manon M. J.

2005-01-01

450

Swine flu: false-positive rapid flu swab with resulting misdiagnosis of a case of Legionella pneumonia.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man presented with a severe flu-like illness and widespread pulmonary infiltrates on chest x-ray. A rapid influenza direct test was positive and the patient was nursed in isolation. On subsequent review, a diagnosis of probable atypical pneumonia was made, which was confirmed with positive urinary serology for Legionella pneumophila and treatment with appropriate antibiotics was started. A real-time PCR test for influenza A and B was negative at 72 h. The patient made a slow but full recovery and was discharged after 14 days. PMID:22767692

Schofield, Robert; Trent, Roger J

2010-01-01

451

Pandemic influenza in Australia: Using telephone surveys to measure perceptions of threat and willingness to comply  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Baseline data is necessary for monitoring how a population perceives the threat of pandemic influenza, and perceives how it would behave in the event of pandemic influenza. Our aim was to develop a module of questions for use in telephone health surveys on perceptions of threat of pandemic influenza, and on preparedness to comply with specific public health behaviours

Margo Barr; Beverley Raphael; Melanie Taylor; Garry Stevens; Louisa Jorm; Michael Giffin; Sanja Lujic

2008-01-01

452

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

Millar, Andrew J.

453

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA PLANNING GUIDELINES AND RESPONSE PLAN for Colorado State University  

E-print Network

1 June, 2007 PANDEMIC INFLUENZA PLANNING GUIDELINES AND RESPONSE PLAN for Colorado State University A. Characteristics of an Influenza Pandemic 8 B. Vaccines and Antivirals 9 C. Nonpharmaceutical. Training and Exercises 24 VI. College/ Department/ Unit Pandemic Influenza Planning 24 A. Campus Community

454

A hypothesis: Sunspot cycles may detect pandemic influenza A in 1700-2000 A.D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Influenza pandemics in this century (1946-1947, 1957 and 1968) have fascinated some people for the idea of 11-year pattern pandemic cycles. In solar physics, it is well known that sunspot cycles also have regular periods of around 11 years. This study therefore aims to investigate the association between sunspot cycles and the occurrences of pandemic influenza. The hypothesis

John W. K. Yeung

2006-01-01

455

Dear CSU students, faculty and staff, There has been a lot of attention recently paid to the severity of this flu season and the importance of  

E-print Network

to the severity of this flu season and the importance of taking steps to avoid getting sick or spreading the flu to others if you do get sick. Because of the severity of the current strains of flu, Larimer County Department of Public Health has requested that CSU employees and students stay home if they get the flu

Stephens, Graeme L.

456

Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

2013-01-01

457

Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza  

PubMed Central

Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over “swine flu,” as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

2013-01-01

458

Ethics of triage in the event of an influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

The prospect of a severe influenza pandemic poses a daunting public health threat to hospitals and the public they serve. The event of a severe influenza pandemic will put hospitals under extreme stress; only so many beds, ventilators, nurses, and physicians will be available, and it is likely that more patients will require medical attention than can be completely treated. Triage is the process of sorting patients in a time of crisis to determine who receives what level of medical attention. How will hospitals sort patients to determine priority for treatment? What criteria will be used? Who will develop these criteria? This article formulates an answer to these questions by constructing a conceptual framework for anticipating and responding to the ethical issues raised by triage in the event of a severe influenza pandemic. PMID:18525374

Tabery, James; Mackett, Charles W

2008-06-01

459

Age-specific mortality risk from pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

Younger age groups account for proportionally more mortality in influenza pandemics than in seasonal influenza epidemics. Mechanisms that might explain this include young people suffering from an over-reactive immune system ("cytokine storm"), older people benefiting from cross-immunity from a wider variety of previous influenza infections ("antigenic history"), and lifetime immune responses in all people being shaped by their first influenza A infection ("antigenic imprinting" or "original antigenic sin"). We examined whether these mechanisms can explain age-specific influenza mortality patterns, using the complete database of individual deaths in Canada from 1951 to 1999. The mortality pattern during the 1957 pandemic indicates that antigenic imprinting plays an important role in determining age-specific influenza virulence and that both shift years and major drift years contribute significantly to antigenic imprints. This information should help pandemic planners to identify age groups that might respond differently to novel influenza strains. PMID:21856313

Ma, Junling; Dushoff, Jonathan; Earn, David J D

2011-11-01

460

The Alzheimer Pandemic: Is Paracetamol to Blame?  

PubMed Central

Historical Background: The clinical recognition of a form of dementia closely resembling Alzheimer's disease dates from around 1800. The role of analgesics derived from coal-tar in the spread of the pandemic is traced in terms of the introduction of phenacetin (PN) in 1887; its nephrotoxicity; the observation of lesions characteristic of the disease by Fischer and Alzheimer; the discovery of paracetamol (PA) as the major metabolite of PN; the linking of kidney injury and dementia with high PN usage; and the failure of PN replacement by PA to halt and reverse the exponential, inexorable rise in the incidence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Fischer observed his first case before Alzheimer; it is proposed to rename the syndrome Fischer-Alzheimer disease (F-AD). Disease development: PA-metabolising enzymes are localised in the synaptic areas of the frontal cortex and hippocampus, where F-AD lesions arise. The initiating chemical lesions in liver poisoning comprise covalent binding of a highly reactive product of PA metabolism to proteins; similar events are believed to occur in brain, where alterations in the antigenic profiles of cerebral proteins activate the microglia. ?-Amyloid forms, and, like PA itself, induces nitric oxide synthase. Peroxynitrite modifies cerebral proteins by nitrating tyrosine residues, further challenging the microglia and exacerbating the amyloid cascade. Spontaneous reinnervation, N-acetyl cysteine administration and tyrosine supplementation may attenuate the early stages of F-AD development. Conclusion: F-AD is primarily a man-made condition with PA as its principal risk factor. PMID:24350947

Jones, Günther Robert Norman

2013-01-01

461

Genome plasticity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: microevolution of the 'pandemic group'  

PubMed Central

Background Outbreak of V. parahaemolyticus infections occurred since 1996 was linked to a proposed clonal complex, the pandemic group. The whole genome sequence provides an unprecedented opportunity for dissecting genome plasticity and phylogeny of the populations of V. parahaemolyticus. In the present work, a whole-genome cDNA microarray was constructed to compare the genomic contents of a collection of 174 strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Results Genes that present variably in the genome accounted for about 22% of the whole gene pool on the genome. The phylogenetic analysis of microarray data generated a minimum spanning tree that depicted the phylogenetic structure of the 174 strains. Strains were assigned into five complexes (C1 to C5), and those in each complex were related genetically and phylogenetically. C3 and C4 represented highly virulent clinical clones. C2 and C3 constituted two different clonal complexes 'old-O3:K6 clone' and 'pandemic clone', respectively. C3 included all the 39 pandemic strains tested (trh-, tdh+ and GS-PCR+), while C2 contained 12 pre-1996 'old' O3:K6 strains (trh+, tdh- and GS-PCR-) tested herein. The pandemic clone (post-1996 'new' O3:K6 and its derivates O4:K68, O1:K25, O1:KUT and O6:K18) might be emerged from the old-O3:K6 clone, which was promoted by acquisition of toxRS/new sequence and genomic islands. A phylogenetic intermediate O3:K6 clade (trh-, tdh- and GS-PCR+) was identified between the pandemic and old-O3:K6 clones. Conclusion A comprehensive overview of genomic contents in a large collection of global isolates from the microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization data enabled us to construct a phylogenetic structure of V. parahaemolyticus and an evolutionary history of the pandemic group (clone) of this pathogen. PMID:19038058

Han, Haihong; Wong, Hin-chung; Kan, Biao; Guo, Zhaobiao; Zeng, Xiaotao; Yin, Shengjun; Liu, Xiumei; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Dongsheng

2008-01-01

462

Comparative Epidemiology of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza A in Households  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There are few data on the comparative epidemiology and virology of the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and cocirculating seasonal influenza A viruses in community settings. METHODS We recruited 348 index patients with acute respiratory illness from 14 outpatient clinics in Hong Kong in July and August 2009. We then prospectively followed household members of 99 patients who tested positive for influenza A virus on rapid diagnostic testing. We collected nasal and throat swabs from all household members at three home visits within 7 days for testing by means of quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay and viral culture. Using hemagglutination-inhibition and viral-neutralization assays, we tested baseline and convalescent serum samples from a subgroup of patients for antibody responses to the pandemic and seasonal influenza A viruses. RESULTS Secondary attack rates (as confirmed on RT-PCR assay) among household contacts of index patients were similar for the pandemic influenza virus (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3 to 14) and seasonal influenza viruses (9%; 95% CI, 5 to 15). The patterns of viral shedding and the course of illness among index patients were also similar for the pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. In a subgroup of patients for whom baseline and convalescent serum samples were available, 36% of household contacts who had serologic evidence of pandemic influenza virus infection did not shed detectable virus or report illness. CONCLUSIONS Pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus has characteristics that are broadly similar to those of seasonal influenza A viruses in terms of rates of viral shedding, clinical illness, and transmissibility in the household setting. PMID:20558368

Cowling, Benjamin J.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Fang, Vicky J.; Lau, Lincoln L.H.; So, Hau Chi; Fung, Rita O.P.; Ma, Edward S.K.; Kwong, Alfred S.K.; Chan, Chi-Wai; Tsui, Wendy W.S.; Ngai, Ho-Yin; Chu, Daniel W.S.; Lee, Paco W.Y.; Chiu, Ming-Chee

2014-01-01

463

Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza A: balancing conflicting policy objectives.  

PubMed

Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic) or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention), our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R(0) and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies to mitigate the impact of an influenza pandemic. PMID:21347316

Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Klinkenberg, Don; Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M

2011-01-01

464

Pandemic influenza virus surveillance, Izu-Oshima Island, Japan.  

PubMed

A population-based influenza surveillance study (using PCR virus subtyping) on Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, found that the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections 2 seasons after the pandemic was highest for those 10-14 years of age (43.1%). No postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the pandemic season. PMID:23092603

Inamasu, Tomoko; Sudo, Kouji; Kato, Shingo; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Tadanori; Maeda, Tadami; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Takebayashi, Toru; Saito, Tomoya

2012-11-01

465

Pandemic Influenza Virus Surveillance, Izu-Oshima Island, Japan  

PubMed Central

A population-based influenza surveillance study (using PCR virus subtyping) on Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, found that the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections 2 seasons after the pandemic was highest for those 10–14 years of age (43.1%). No postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the pandemic season. PMID:23092603

Inamasu, Tomoko; Sudo, Kouji; Kato, Shingo; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Tadanori; Maeda, Tadami; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Takebayashi, Toru

2012-01-01

466

Healthy Bodies, Toxic Medicines: College Students and the Rhetorics of Flu Vaccination  

PubMed Central

This article examines flu vaccination beliefs and practices produced during a survey of undergraduate students in Spring 2012 (IRB#10-732). This research uses the methods of rhetorical analysis — or the study of persuasive features and arguments used in language — to examine statements respondents made regarding flu and flu vaccine. In these responses, students generated unique categories of arguments about the perceived dangers of flu vaccination, including the assertion that vaccines cause disease (including illnesses and conditions other than flu), that vaccines are toxic medicines, and that vaccines carry unknown, population-wide risks that are inadequately acknowledged. This study provides insight into vaccination beliefs and rationales among a population at risk of flu (college students) and suggests that further study of this population may yield important keys to addressing flu vaccine concerns as expressed by college students. Rhetorical analysis also offers a useful set of methods to understanding vaccination beliefs and practices, adding to existing methods of study and analysis of vaccination practices and beliefs in medicine and public health. PMID:25506277

Lawrence, Heidi Y.

2014-01-01

467

Longitudinal Investigation of Public Trust in Institutions Relative to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009 H1N1 pandemic left a legacy of mistrust in the public relative to how outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are managed. To prepare for future outbreaks, it is crucial to explore the phenomenon of public trust in the institutions responsible for managing disease outbreaks. We investigated the evolution of public trust in institutions during and after the 2009 pandemic in Switzerland. We also explored respondents’ perceptions of the prevention campaign and the roles of the government and media. Methodology/Principal Findings A two-wave longitudinal survey was mailed to 2,400 members of the Swiss public. Wave 1 was in Spring 2009. Wave 2 was in Spring 2010. Six hundred and two participants responded in both waves. Participants indicated moderate to high levels of trust in medical organizations, the WHO, the Swiss government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the EU. On the other hand, trust in the media was low. Moreover, trust in almost all institutions decreased over time. Participants were satisfied with the amount of information received and indicated having followed official recommendations, but widespread concerns about the vaccine were evident. A large majority of participants agreed the vaccine might have unknown or undesirable side effects. Perceptions of the government’s and the media’s role in handling the outbreak were characterized by a substantial degree of skepticism and mistrust. Conclusions/Significance Results show clear patterns of skepticism and mistrust on the part of the public relative to various institutions and their actions. Results underscore the importance of systematically investigating trust of the public relative to epidemics. Moreover, studies investigating the evolution of the public’s memories of the pandemic over the coming years may be important to understand reactions to future pandemics. A systematic research program on trust can inform public health communication campaigns, enabling tailored communication initiatives. PMID:23185444

Bangerter, Adrian; Krings, Franciska; Mouton, Audrey; Gilles, Ingrid; Green, Eva G. T.; Clémence, Alain

2012-01-01

468

A novel system of artificial antigen-presenting cells efficiently stimulates Flu peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Adoptive immunotherapy depends on relevant numbers of cytolytic T lymphocytes. {yields} An ideal artificial APCs system was successfully prepared in vivo. {yields} Controlled release of IL-2 leads to much more T-cell expansion. {yields} This system is better than general cellular APCs on T-cell expansion. -- Abstract: Therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors in successful adoptive immunotherapy. However, efficient and reproducible methods to meet the qualification remain poor. To address this issue, we designed the artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A modified emulsion method was used for the preparation of PLGA particles encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2). Biotinylated molecular ligands for recognition and co-stimulation of T cells were attached to the particle surface through the binding of avidin-biotin. These formed the aAPC system. The function of aAPCs in the proliferation of specific CTLs against human Flu antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and MTT staining methods. Finally, we successfully prepared this suitable aAPC system. The results show that IL-2 is released from aAPCs in a sustained manner over 30 days. This dramatically improves the stimulatory capacity of this system as compared to the effect of exogenous addition of cytokine. In addition, our aAPCs promote the proliferation of Flu antigen-specific CTLs more effectively than the autologous cellular APCs. Here, this aAPC platform is proved to be suitable for expansion of human antigen-specific T cells.

Han, Hui [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Peng, Ji-Run, E-mail: pengjr@medmail.com.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Peng-Cheng; Gong, Lei [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Qiao, Shi-Shi [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Wen-Zhen; Cui, Zhu-Qingqing; Yu, Xin; Wei, Yu-Hua [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China); Leng, Xi-Sheng, E-mail: lengxs2003@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044 (China)

2011-08-05

469

Reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu: Qualitative interviews with callers to NHS Direct  

PubMed Central

Background During the early stages of the 2009 swine flu (influenza H1N1) outbreak, the large majority of patients who contacted the health services about the illness did not have it. In the UK, the NHS Direct telephone service was used by many of these patients. We used qualitative interviews to identify the main reasons why people approached NHS Direct with concerns about swine flu and to identify aspects of their contact which were reassuring, using a framework approach. Methods 33 patients participated in semi-structured interviews. All patients had telephoned NHS Direct between 11 and 14 May with concerns about swine flu and had been assessed as being unlikely to have the illness. Results Reasons for seeking advice about swine flu included: the presence of unexpectedly severe flu-like symptoms; uncertainties about how one can catch swine flu; concern about giving it to others; pressure from friends or employers; and seeking 'peace of mind.' Most participants found speaking to NHS Direct reassuring or useful. Helpful aspects included: having swine flu ruled out; receiving an alternative explanation for symptoms; clarification on how swine flu is transmitted; and the perceived credibility of NHS Direct. No-one reported anything that had increased their anxiety and only one participant subsequently sought additional advice about swine flu from elsewhere. Conclusions Future major incidents involving other forms of chemical, biological or radiological hazards may also cause large numbers of unexposed people to seek health advice. Our data suggest that providing telephone triage and information is helpful in such instances, particularly where advice can be given via a trusted, pre-existing service. PMID:20678192

2010-01-01

470

Effectiveness of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in England and Scotland 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines in preventing confirmed pandemic influenza infection. Some 5,982 individuals with influenza-like illness seen in general practices between November 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled. Those testing positive on PCR for pandemic influenza were assigned as cases and those testing negative as controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the relative reduction in odds of confirmed infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Fourteen or more days after immunisation with the pandemic vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21% to 90%). If protection was assumed to start after seven or more days, the adjusted VE was 71% (95% CI: 37% to 87%). Pandemic influenza vaccine was highly effective in preventing confirmed infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 from one week after vaccination. No evidence of effectiveness against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was found for the 2009/10 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (adjusted VE of -30% (95% CI: -89% to 11%)). PMID:21251487

Hardelid, P; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; SebastianPillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Watson, J M; Pebody, R G

2011-01-01

471

The Possible Impact of Vaccination for Seasonal Influenza on Emergence of Pandemic Influenza via Reassortment  

PubMed Central

Background One pathway through which pandemic influenza strains might emerge is reassortment from coinfection of different influenza A viruses. Seasonal influenza vaccines are designed to target the circulating strains, which intuitively decreases the prevalence of coinfection and the chance of pandemic emergence due to reassortment. However, individual-based analyses on 2009 pandemic influenza show that the previous seasonal vaccination may increase the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 infection. In view of pandemic influenza preparedness, it is essential to understand the overall effect of seasonal vaccination on pandemic emergence via reassortment. Methods and Findings In a previous study we applied a population dynamics approach to investigate the effect of infection-induced cross-immunity on reducing such a pandemic risk. Here the model was extended by incorporating vaccination for seasonal influenza to assess its potential role on the pandemic emergence via reassortment and its effect in protecting humans if a pandemic does emerge. The vaccination is assumed to protect against the target strains but only partially against other strains. We find that a universal seasonal vaccine that provides full-spectrum cross-immunity substantially reduces the opportunity of pandemic emergence. However, our results show that such effectiveness depends on the strength of infection-induced cross-immunity against any novel reassortant strain. If it is weak, the vaccine that induces cross-immunity strongly against non-target resident strains but weakly against novel reassortant strains, can further depress the pandemic emergence; if it is very strong, the same kind of vaccine increases the probability of pandemic emergence. Conclusions Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated and live attenuated, only live attenuated vaccines can induce heterosubtypic immunity. Current vaccines are effective in controlling circulating strains; they cannot always help restrain pandemic emergence because of the uncertainty of the oncoming reassortant strains, however. This urges the development of universal vaccines for prevention of pandemic influenza. PMID:25494180

Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard; De Angelis, Daniela; White, Peter J.; Charlett, Andre; McCauley, John W.

2014-01-01

472

The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most, if not all, of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. This article, which is written for ...

473

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Captive Cheetah  

PubMed Central

We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus. PMID:22305505

Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

2012-01-01

474

Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008  

PubMed Central

During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community’s response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises. PMID:23731839

Strikas, Raymond A.; Gensheimer, Kathleen F.; Cox, Nancy J.; Redd, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

475

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.  

PubMed

We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus. PMID:22305505

Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

2012-02-01

476

Lifelines Episode 13: Is Quercetin a Flu Fighter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion quetsions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking "collections" tab in the left hand column. J. Mark Davis (Starts at 3:55) of the University of South Carolina on stressful exercise, the flu and quercetin. Rick Lieber (Starts at 12:56) of the University of California San Diego and The VA Medical Center San Diego talks on elite athletes and muscles. Physiology in the News gives a quick look on a study that finds a possible link between your genes and activity level. Another looks at a benefit of hydrogen sulfide gas. We also talk to APS member Jim Hicks (Starts at 2:45) of the University of California Irvine about his involvement with the film, Wall-E.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2008-09-01

477

The failing heart: a bad case of the 'flu'.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old Nepali man presented to hospital with a short history of feeling unwell with a flu-like illness. He subsequently went into acute renal failure requiring several sessions of renal replacement therapy by haemofiltration. The underlying aetiology of his renal failure was unclear. His renal function recovered following haemofiltration and he was discharged home with a plan for outpatient follow-up and investigations. He re-presented to hospital 6?days later with severe fluid overload. Echocardiogram was suggestive of impaired left ventricular systolic function; subsequent cardiac MRI confirmed this and was indicative of a dilated cardiomyopathy. A diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy with cardiorenal syndrome was made, most likely secondary to viral myocarditis in view of his initial presentation. He was diuresed and treated with prognostic medications for heart failure. His symptoms resolved and on subsequent outpatient review he was feeling well. PMID:25657194

Wilson, Julie; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Modi, Bhavik; Emmanuel, Julian

2015-01-01

478

Acceptance of Vaccinations in Pandemic Outbreaks: A Discrete Choice Experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Preventive measures are essential to limit the spread of new viruses; their uptake is key to their success. However, the vaccination uptake in pandemic outbreaks is often low. We aim to elicit how disease and vaccination characteristics determine preferences of the general public for new pandemic vaccinations. Methods In an internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) a representative sample of 536 participants (49% participation rate) from the Dutch population was asked for their preference for vaccination programs in hypothetical communicable disease outbreaks. We used scenarios based on two disease characteristics (susceptibility to and severity of the disease) and five vaccination program characteristics (effectiveness, safety, advice regarding vaccination, media attention, and out-of-pocket costs). The DCE design was based on a literature review, expert interviews and focus group discussions. A panel latent class logit model was used to estimate which trade-offs individuals were willing to make. Results All above mentioned characteristics proved to influence respondents’ preferences for vaccination. Preference heterogeneity was substantial. Females who stated that they were never in favor of vaccination made different trade-offs than males who stated that they were (possibly) willing to get vaccinated. As expected, respondents preferred and were willing to pay more for more effective vaccines, especially if the outbreak was more serious (€6–€39 for a 10% more effective vaccine). Changes in effectiveness, out-of-pocket costs and in the body that advises the vaccine all substantially influenced the predicted uptake. Conclusions We conclude that various disease and vaccination program characteristics influence respondents’ preferences for pandemic vaccination programs. Agencies responsible for preventive measures during pandemics can use the knowledge that out-of-pocket costs and the way advice is given affect vaccination uptake to improve their plans for future pandemic outbreaks. The preference heterogeneity shows that information regarding vaccination needs to be targeted differently depending on gender and willingness to get vaccinated. PMID:25057914

Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J.; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Bliemer, Michiel; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.

2014-01-01

479

Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

2009-01-01

480

Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Until now, mortality and spreading mechanisms of influenza pandemics have been studied only for the 1918, 1957, and 1968 pandemics; none have concerned the 19th century. Herein, we examined the 1889 “Russian” pandemic. Clinical attack rates were retrieved for 408 geographic entities in 14 European countries and in the United States. Case fatality ratios were estimated from datasets in the French, British and German armies, and morbidity and mortality records of Swiss cities. Weekly all-cause mortality was analyzed in 96 European and American cities. The pandemic spread rapidly, taking only 4 months to circumnavigate the planet, peaking in the United States 70 days after the original peak in St. Petersburg. The median and interquartile range of clinical attack rates was 60% (45–70%). The case fatality ratios ranged from 0.1% to 0.28%, which is comparable to those of 1957 and 1968, and 10-fold lower than in 1918. The median basic reproduction number (R0) was 2.1, which is comparable to the values found for the other pandemics, despite the different viruses and contact networks. R0 values varied widely from one city to another, and only a small minority of those values was within the range in which modelers’ mitigation scenarios predicted effectiveness. The 1889 and 1918 R0 correlated for the subset of cities for which both values were available. Social and geographic factors probably shape the local R0, and they could be identified to design optimal mitigation scenarios tailored to each city. PMID:20421481

Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Cori, Anne; Valtat, Sophie; Meurisse, Sofia; Carrat, Fabrice; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

481

Be Smart: Antibiotics Will Not Help a Cold or the Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Americans/Alaska Natives Be Smart: Antibiotics Will Not Help a Cold or the Flu Print-friendly color ... Farm National MRSA Education Initiative More File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

482

Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?  

MedlinePLUS

... natural product is useful against the flu. Colds Zinc Zinc taken orally (by mouth) may help to treat ... can cause side effects and interact with medicines. Zinc is available in two forms—oral zinc (e. ...

483

Risk Communication Research at the University of Maryland TERROR PLOTS. SUPER FLU. CONTAMINATED FOOD.  

E-print Network

Risk Communication Research at the University of Maryland TERROR PLOTS. SUPER FLU. CONTAMINATED. Behind every headline are corporate leaders, government officials, and healthcare providers who need effective communication strategies for controlling and preventing public risk. Risk communication research

Hill, Wendell T.

484

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2006 139 A DNA flu vaccine in practice  

E-print Network

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2006 139 A DNA flu vaccine in practice in Biotechnology Progress (21, 1577­1592, 2005) and suggest that though challenging, it should be possible. However

Church, George M.

485

Mortality Burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in France: Comparison to Seasonal Influenza and the A/H3N2 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Background The mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic remains unclear in many countries due to delays in reporting of death statistics. We estimate the age- and cause-specific excess mortality impact of the pandemic in France, relative to that of other countries and past epidemic and pandemic seasons. Methods We applied Serfling and Poisson excess mortality approaches to model weekly age- and cause-specific mortality rates from June 1969 through May 2010 in France. Indicators of influenza activity, time trends, and seasonal terms were included in the models. We also reviewed the literature for country-specific estimates of 2009 pandemic excess mortality rates to characterize geographical differences in the burden of this pandemic. Results The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic was associated with 1.0 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 0.2–1.9) excess respiratory deaths per 100,000 population in France, compared to rates per 100,000 of 44 (95% CI 43–45) for the A/H3N2 pandemic and 2.9 (95% CI 2.3–3.7) for average inter-pandemic seasons. The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic had a 10.6-fold higher impact than inter-pandemic seasons in people aged 5–24 years and 3.8-fold lower impact among people over 65 years. Conclusions The 2009 pandemic in France had low mortality impact in most age groups, relative to past influenza seasons, except in school-age children and young adults. The historical A/H3N2 pandemic was associated with much larger mortality impact than the 2009 pandemic, across all age groups and outcomes. Our 2009 pandemic excess mortality estimates for France fall within the range of previous estimates for high-income regions. Based on the analysis of several mortality outcomes and comparison with laboratory-confirmed 2009/H1N1 deaths, we conclude that cardio-respiratory and all-cause mortality lack precision to accurately measure the impact of this pandemic in high-income settings and that use of more specific mortality outcomes is important to obtain reliable age-specific estimates. PMID:23028756

Lemaitre, Magali; Carrat, Fabrice; Rey, Grégoire; Miller, Mark; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cécile

2012-01-01

486

Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan  

PubMed Central

Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey) aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries) the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08%) participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92%) of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39%) of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92%) subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members. PMID:25105007

Bhat, Nagesh; Patel, Rahul; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Singh, Sopan; Sharma, Ashish; Multani, Suraj

2014-01-01

487

Isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome: A rare side effect.  

PubMed

Drug-induced flu-like syndrome is very rare. It is mainly produced by rifampicin. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) that developed isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome, but could be cured with a modified regimen replacing isoniazid with levofloxacin. A 10-year-old girl with PTB was treated with isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), and pyrazinamide (Z). She developed features of flu from the sixth day. Symptoms recurred everyday within 1 h of drug ingestion and subsided automatically by next 12 h. After admission, HREZ were continued. She developed symptoms of flu after 1 h of drug ingestion. Antitubercular therapy (ATT) was stopped and symptoms subsided automatically. Individual drug was started one by one after three days. Severe symptoms of flu developed after taking isoniazid, while other drugs were tolerated well. Levofloxacin was used as an alternative to isoniazid. She was cured after 6 months of chemotherapy. Isoniazid can possibly cause flu-like syndrome and the treating physician should be aware of this possible side effect when using ATT. PMID:23661919

Pandit, Sudipta; Choudhury, Sabyasachi; Das, Anirban; Datta, Samadarshi; Das, Sibes K

2013-01-01

488

Challenges and changes: Immunization program managers share perspectives in a 2012 national survey about the US immunization system since the H1N1 pandemic response.  

PubMed

In mid-2012 we conducted survey of immunization program managers (IPMs) for the purpose of describing relationships between immunization programs and emergency preparedness programs, IPM's perceptions of challenges encountered and changes made or planned in programmatic budgeting, vaccine allocation and pandemic plans as a result of the H1N1 vaccination campaign. Over 95% of IPMs responded (61/64) to the survey. IPMs reported that a primary budget-related challenge faced during H1N1 included staff-related restrictions that limited the ability to hire extra help or pay regular staff overtime resulting in overworked regular staff. Other budget-related challenges related to operational budget shortfalls and vaccine procurement delays. IPMs described overcoming these challenges by increasing staff where possible, using executive order or other high-level support by officials to access emergency funds and make policy changes, as well as expedite hiring and spending processes according to their pandemic influenza plan or by direction from leadership. Changes planned for response to future pandemic vaccine allocation strategies were to "tailor the strategy to the event" taking into account disease virulence, vaccine production rates and public demand, having flexible vaccine allocation strategies, clarifying priority groups for vaccine receipt to providers and the public, and having targeted clinics such as through pharmacies or schools. Changes already made to pandemic plans were improving strategies for internal and external communication, improving vaccine allocation efficiency, and planning for specific scenarios. To prepare for future pandemics, programs should ensure well-defined roles, collaborating during non-emergency situations, sustaining continuity in preparedness funding, and improved technologies. PMID:25483633

Seib, Katherine; Chamberlain, Allison; Wells, Katelyn; Curran, Eileen; Whitney, Ellen As; Orenstein, Walter A; Hinman, Alan R; Omer, Saad B

2014-10-01

489

The spatiotemporal association of non-prescription retail sales with cases during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether retail sales of non-prescription products can be used for syndromic surveillance and whether it can detect influenza activity at different spatial scales. A secondary objective was to assess whether changes in purchasing behaviour were related to public health advice or levels of media or public interest. Setting The UK. Participants National and regional influenza case estimates and retail sales from a major British supermarket. Outcome measures Weekly, seasonally adjusted sales of over-the-counter symptom remedies and non-pharmaceutical products; recommended as part of the advice offered by public health agencies; were compared with weekly influenza case estimates. Comparisons were made at national and regional spatial resolutions. We also compared sales to national measures of contemporaneous media output and public interest (Internet search volume) related to the pandemic. Results At a national scale there was no significant correlation between retail sales of symptom remedies and cases for the whole pandemic period in 2009. At the regional scale, a minority of regions showed statistically significant positive correlations between cases and sales of adult ‘cold and flu’ remedies and cough remedies (3.2%, 5/156, 3.8%, 6/156), but a greater number of regions showed a significant positive correlation between cases and symptomatic remedies for children (35.6%, 55/156). Significant positive correlations between cases and sales of thermometers and antiviral hand gels/wash were seen at both spatial scales (Cor 0.477 (95% CI 0.171 to 0.699); 0.711 (95% CI 0.495 to 0.844)). We found no significant association between retail sales and media reporting or Internet search volume. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the British public responded appropriately to health messaging about hygiene. Non-prescription retail sales at a national level are not useful for the detection of cases. However, at finer spatial scales, in particular age-groups, retail sales may help augment existing surveillance and merit further study. PMID:24780494

Todd, Stacy; Diggle, Peter J; White, Peter J; Fearne, Andrew; Read, Jonathan M

2014-01-01

490

An Evaluation of Community Assessment Tools (CATs) in Predicting Use of Clinical Interventions and Severe Outcomes during the A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic  

PubMed Central

During severe influenza pandemics healthcare demand can exceed clinical capacity to provide normal standards of care. Community Assessment Tools (CATs) could provide a framework for triage decisions for hospital referral and admission. CATs have been developed based on evidence that supports the recognition of severe influenza and pneumonia in the community (including resource limited settings) for adults, children and infants, and serious feverish illness in children. CATs use six objective criteria and one subjective criterion, any one or more of which should prompt urgent referral and admission to hospital. A retrospective evaluation of the ability of CATs to predict use of hospital-based interventions and patient outcomes in a pandemic was made using the first recorded routine clinical assessment on or shortly after admission from 1520 unselected patients (800 female, 480 children <16 years) admitted with PCR confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (the FLU-CIN cohort). Outcome measures included: any use of supplemental oxygen; mechanical ventilation; intravenous antibiotics; length of stay; intensive or high dependency care; death; and “severe outcome” (combined: use of intensive or high dependency care or death during admission). Unadjusted and multivariable analyses were conducted for children (age <16 years) and adults. Each CATs criterion independently identified both use of clinical interventions that would in normal circumstances only be provided in hospital and patient outcome measures. “Peripheral oxygen saturation ?92% breathing air, or being on oxygen” performed well in predicting use of resources and outcomes for both adults and children; supporting routine measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation when assessing severity of disease. In multivariable analyses the single subjective criterion in CATs “other cause for clinical concern” independently predicted death in children and in adults predicted length of stay, mechanical ventilation and “severe outcome”; supporting the role of clinical acumen as an important independent predictor of serious illness. PMID:24069409

Nicholson, Karl G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; Brett, Stephen J.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Enstone, Joanne E.; McMenamin, James; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

491

Immunity to seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses  

PubMed Central

The introduction of a new influenza strain into human circulation leads to rapid global spread. This review summarizes innate and adaptive immunity to influenza viruses, with an emphasis on T-cell responses that provide cross-protection between distinct subtypes and strains. We discuss antigenic variation within T-cell immunogenic peptides and our understanding of pre-existing immunity towards the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 strain. PMID:21295153

Valkenburg, Sophie A; Rutigliano, John A; Ellebedy, Ali H; Doherty, Peter C; Thomas, Paul G; Kedzierska, Katherine

2013-01-01

492

Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A viruses are now endemic in avian populations in Southeast Asia, and human cases continue to accumulate. Although currently incapable of sustained human-to-human transmission, H5N1 represents a serious pandemic threat owing to the risk of a mutation or reassortment generating a virus with increased transmissibility. Identifying public health interventions that might be able to halt a

Neil M. Ferguson; Derek A. T. Cummings; Simon Cauchemez; Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Aronrag Meeyai; Sopon Iamsirithaworn; Donald S. Burke

2005-01-01

493

Thermoresponsive ophthalmic poloxamer/tween/carbopol in situ gels of a poorly water-soluble drug fluconazole: preparation and in vitro-in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to optimize the formulations of the thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gels of a poorly water-soluble drug fluconazole (FLU) and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo properties of the formulations. The thermoresponsive ophthalmic FLU in situ gels were prepared by mixing FLU, Poloxamer407, Tween80, benzalkonium chloride and carbopol934 in borate buffer solution. The in vivo eye irritation tests and ophthalmic absorption were carried out in rabbits. The formulation compositions influenced the physicochemical properties of FLU in situ gels. The amount of poloxamer407 in the formulation was the main factor that affected the sol-gel transition temperature of the products. Tween80 not only improved the solubility of the FLU but also affected the products' sol-gel transition temperature. In this study, sol-gel transition temperature was not affected by carbopol934. However, carbopol934 affected pH value, transparency and gelling capacity of the products. The product of the optimized formulation was a pseudoplastic fluid and its sol-gel transition temperature was 30.6?±?1.2?°C. The autoclaving test showed that the sol-gel transition temperature, the flow ability and the flow behavior of the test samples did not change obviously after autoclaving sterilization at 121?°C and 15?psi for 20?min, thus the autoclaving was an acceptable sterilization method for this preparation. The thermoresponsive ophthalmic FLU in situ gels' in vivo ophthalmic absorption was superior to the conventional FLU eye drop. In conclusion, the thermoresponsive ophthalmic FLU in situ gel is a better alternative than the FLU eye drop. PMID:23944837

Lihong, Wang; Xin, Che; Yongxue, Guo; Yiying, Bian; Gang, Cheng

2014-10-01

494

Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses  

PubMed Central

Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2001-01-01

495

Virus-specific factors associated with zoonotic and pandemic potential.  

PubMed

Influenza A is a highly contagious respiratory virus in constant evolution and represents a threat to both veterinary and human public health. IA viruses (IAVs) originate in avian reservoirs but may adapt to humans, either directly or through the spillover to another mammalian species, to the point of becoming pandemic. IAVs must successfully be able to (i) transmit from animal to human, (ii) interact with host cells, and (iii) transmit from human to human. The mechanisms by which viruses evolve, cause zoonotic infections, and adapt to a new host species are indeed complex and appear to be a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events rather than a single phenomenon. Progress has been made in identifying some of the genetic markers mainly associated with virulence and transmission; this achievement has improved our knowledge of how to manage a pandemic event and of how to identify IAVs with pandemic potential. Early evidence of emerging viruses and surveillance of animal IAVs is made possible only by strengthening the collaboration between the public and veterinary health sectors. PMID:24034478

Romero-Tejeda, Aurora; Capua, Ilaria

2013-09-01

496

Healthcare worker compliance with seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination.  

PubMed

Healthcare workers (HCWs) can be an important source of transmission of influenza to patients and family members, and their well-being is fundamental to the maintenance of healthcare services during influenza outbreaks and pandemics. Unfortunately, studies have shown consistently low levels of compliance with influenza vaccination among HCWs, a finding that became particularly pronounced during recent pandemic vaccination campaigns. Among the variables associated with vaccine acceptance in this group are demographic factors, fears and concerns over vaccine safety and efficacy, perceptions of risk and personal vulnerability, past vaccination behaviours and experience with influenza illness, as well as certain situational and organisational constructs. We report the findings of a review of the literature on these factors and highlight some important challenges in interpreting the data. In particular, we point out the need for longitudinal study designs, as well as focused research and interventions that are adapted to the most resistant HCW groups. Multi-pronged strategies are an important step forward in ensuring that future influenza vaccination campaigns, whether directed at seasonal or pandemic strains, will be successful in ensuring broad coverage among HCWs. PMID:24034493

Bellia, Claire; Setbon, Michel; Zylberman, Patrick; Flahault, Antoine

2013-09-01

497

Priority Setting for Pandemic Influenza: An Analysis of National Preparedness Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide a targeted review of national pandemic influenza plans from the developed and developing world, describing national variations in prioritization of vaccines and antiviral medications.

Lori Uscher-Pines; Saad B. Omer; Daniel J. Barnett; Thomas A. Burke; Ran D. Balicer

2006-01-01

498

Crossing the species barrier: the threat of an avian influenza pandemic  

PubMed Central

Avian influenza (H5N1) has recently been recognized as a new emerging infectious disease that may pose a threat to international public health. Most recent developments lead to the belief that H5N1 could become the cause of the next influenza pandemic. This review discusses the characteristics of H5N1 avian influenza virus as an emerging infectious disease with the potential for pandemic development. In addition, the current pandemic influenza alert status and guidelines for pandemic preparedness, treatment, and prevention are discussed. PMID:16424926

2006-01-01

499

Household Transmission of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Seasons  

PubMed Central

Background The transmission of influenza viruses occurs person to person and is facilitated by contacts within enclosed environments such as households. The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary attack rates and factors associated with household transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the pandemic and post-pandemic seasons. Methods During the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons, 76 sentinel physicians in Navarra, Spain, took nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from patients diagnosed with influenza-like illness. A trained nurse telephoned households of those patients who were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to ask about the symptoms, risk factors and vaccination status of each household member. Results In the 405 households with a patient laboratory-confirmed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 977 susceptible contacts were identified; 16% of them (95% CI 14–19%) presented influenza-like illness and were considered as secondary cases. The secondary attack rate was 14% in 2009–2010 and 19% in the 2010–2011 season (p?=?0.049), an increase that mainly affected persons with major chronic conditions. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of being a secondary case was higher in the 2010–2011 season than in the 2009–2010 season (adjusted odds ratio: 1.72; 95% CI 1.17–2.54), and in children under 5 years, with a decreasing risk in older contacts. Influenza vaccination was associated with lesser incidence of influenza-like illness near to statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio: 0.29; 95% CI 0.08–1.03). Conclusion The secondary attack rate in households was higher in the second season than in the first pandemic season. Children had a greater risk of infection. Preventive measures should be maintained in the second pandemic season, especially in high-risk persons. PMID:25254376

Casado, Itziar; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Burgui, Rosana; Irisarri, Fátima; Arriazu, Maite; Elía, Fernando; Navascués, Ana; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Aldaz, Pablo; Castilla, Jesús

2014-01-01

500

[Epizootological and epidemiological features of the avian flu outbreak in the Chelyabinsk region in season 2005].  

PubMed

Results of the analysis of epizootological and epidemiological situations on avian flu in the Chelyabinsk region in season 2005 are submitted. Features of the foci of the avian flu in the given territory are marked. In particular, the struck settlements were marked by a plenty of nearby reservoirs. On all farmsteads perished on the average from 53% up to 68% of a bird contained at the moment of disease. Hens were mainly amazed. However in well isolated private enterprises the poultry remained healthy. The conclusion that the primary foci of the avian flu are connected to disease of wild birds which case was marked on reservoirs of this territory is made. The forecast for spring and autumn of 2006 on disease the bird's flu remains adverse, presence of the infected territories kept since 2005 is possible. Feature epizootic process in 2006 can be a presence of a plenty of the young growth more subject to disease that can lead to increase in a level of disease the bird's flu. PMID:16981505

Semenov, A I; Luchinina, S V; Ural'shina, N P; Baeva, L A

2006-01-01