Science.gov

Sample records for pandemic flu preparations

  1. Pandemic Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... address the pandemic. Characteristics and Challenges of a Flu Pandemic Rapid Worldwide Spread When a pandemic flu ... exposure could result in significant employee absenteeism. Seasonal Flu versus Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Seasonal Flu Rarely ...

  2. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  3. Avian flu: pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Jan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is unpredictable, and the risk of an avian flu outbreak is unclear. It is critical that home health providers, who may become overburdened quickly in the event of a pandemic outbreak, be prepared to ensure a sustainable healthcare response. This article offers information on strategies that may be used by home health providers to prepare for, prevent, and manage pandemic influenza. PMID:17984642

  4. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  5. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs annually, ...

  6. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  7. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  8. [The military role in a flu pandemic].

    PubMed

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the

  9. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  10. Avian flu and possible human pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Sharma, A K; Pradhan, S K

    2006-04-01

    Avian flu is affecting the poultry animals world over since first outbreak in 1997 in Hong Kong and has resulted in 92 human deaths and culling of more than 150 million poultry animals in Asia and Europe. The loss to the economy has also been enormous. 13 new countries, including India, reported occurrence of the disease in poultry animals in February 2006 only, to the World Health Organisation. This rapid rate of spread of virus along with notoriety of the virus for frequent genetic re-assortment, which might enable H5N1 to infect human beings, threatens of possible influenza pandemic since the last pandemic in 1968. The human influenza caused by this subtype of the virus (H5N1) has high case fatality of 54% and majority of affected humans are between the age of 5 to 23 years. Lack of effective vaccine, poor knowledge about treatment, and with scarcity of public health measures in developing countries are major causes of concern. The real threat of impending pandemic can be avoided only if we act immediately on the basis of currently available source of information and apply scientific knowledge rationally for containment and prevention of bird flu and treat human cases promptly. PMID:16651670

  11. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  12. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  13. The global swine flu pandemic 1: exploring the background to influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This first in a two-part unit on pandemic flu examines background information on influenza viruses and previous pandemics. As the 2009 flu pandemic gathers force, nurses and other healthcare professionals need to understand the scientific background to one of the most common and potentially the most lethal of pandemic infections. This part explores the characteristics of influenzaviruses and reviews the history and context in which human pandemics occur. PMID:19788110

  14. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  15. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  16. A pandemic flu: not if, but when. SARS was the wake-up call we slept through.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    If an influenza pandemic struck today, borders might close, the global economy would be severely impacted, international vaccine supplies and health are systems would be overwhelmed, and some people might panic. To limit the fallout, the industrialized world must create a detailed response strategy involving the public and private sectors. Some experts feel we are overdue for a flu pandemic and the SARS pandemic of 2003 could have been the wake up call to begin preparations. Fortunately there is some assistance coming from the federal government. On January 12, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt announced funding to assist in the preparation for a pandemic flu response. $100 million is being provided initially with another $250 million due later this year to assist states in pandemic flu preparedness. Texas' initial allocation is $5,875,044. While some believe that the AI (H5N1) causing illness and deaths in Asia and Turkey will be the pandemic flu strain, there is no guarantee that will occur. Thus, without knowing which strain may lead to a pandemic, development and manufacturing of a vaccine is delayed. PMID:16681227

  17. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  18. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  19. Learning to Trust Flu Shots: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Jürgen; Harris, Katherine M

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions. We examine consumer learning in influenza vaccine demand within a reduced form instrumental variable framework that exploits differences in risk characteristics of different influenza viruses as a natural experiment to distinguish the effects of learning based on previous influenza vaccination experiences from unobserved heterogeneity. The emergence of a new virus strain (influenza A H1N1/09) during the 2009 'Swine flu' pandemic resulted in two different vaccines being recommended for distinct population subgroups with some people, who were not usually targeted by seasonal vaccination programs, being specifically recommended for the new Swine flu vaccine. We use these differences in vaccination targeting to construct instrumental variables for estimating the effect of past influenza vaccination experiences on the demand for pandemic vaccine. We find large causal effects of previous seasonal vaccination on pandemic vaccination. Causal effects of past influenza vaccination experiences on perceived vaccination safety are likely to be an important pathway linking past vaccination experiences with future vaccine uptake. Our results suggest a significant role of learning in vaccination decisions. Current efforts to expand seasonal vaccination may thus have potentially important long-term effects on future influenza vaccination levels and pandemic preparedness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27381724

  20. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help. PMID:19482323

  1. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

  2. Interpreting Google flu trends data for pandemic H1N1 influenza: the New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Mason, K; Tobias, M; Peacey, M; Huang, Q S; Baker, M

    2009-01-01

    For the period of the spread of pandemic H1N1 influenza in New Zealand during 2009, we compared results from Google Flu Trends with data from existing surveillance systems. The patterns from Google Flu Trends were closely aligned with (peaking a week before and a week after) two independent national surveillance systems for influenza-like illness (ILI) cases. It was much less congruent with (delayed by three weeks) data from ILI-related calls to a national free-phone Healthline and with media coverage of pandemic influenza. Some patterns were unique to Google Flu Trends and may not have reflected the actual ILI burden in the community. Overall, Google Flu Trends appears to provide a useful free surveillance system but it should probably be seen as supplementary rather than as an alternative. PMID:19941777

  3. Pandemic influenza: Experience in a flu OPD of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, S.H.; Kushwaha, A.S.; Kotwal, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2009, Mexican health authorities announced an outbreak of a novel H1N1 influenza virus, which subsequently caused a pandemic. The world is now moving into the post-pandemic period. The experience gained in handling this pandemic at various levels under different settings has provided us many lessons for the future. Objective To study the profile of various activities undertaken at flu screening centre as a response to pandemic influenza in a tertiary care hospital. Methods Record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pune. Required data was collected from records of flu OPD, ward and local health authority and interviewing related staff. Study included data from October 2009 to October 2010. Results A total of 8020 people presenting with influenza like illness (ILI) were screened in the flu OPD under study. Out of these, only 388 (4.84%) met clinical criteria where throat samples were collected, out of which only 81 were found to be positive (20.88%). Total three fatalities (3.7%) occurred out of 81 who had tested positive. Most cases of flu were managed at home (76.54%) while only 19 (23.4%) lab confirmed cases of H1N1 required hospitalisation. Conclusion Majority of cases of H1N1 (2009) were managed at home. Early diagnosis, quick initiation of treatment, infection control measures, and good care at the hospital can effectively reduce morbidity and mortality in H1N1 pandemic. PMID:24623946

  4. Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2006-01-01

    Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

  5. Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

  6. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. PMID:21470893

  7. Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu'): diagnostic and other challenges.

    PubMed

    Burkardt, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu') virus was 'the virus of the year 2009' because it affected the lives of many people in this year. H1N1 was first described in California in April 2009 and spread very rapidly all over the globe. The fast global penetration of the swine flu caused the WHO in Geneva to call the infection with H1N1 a new pandemic with a rapid escalation of the different pandemic phases that ended on 11 June 2009, with the declaration of phase 6 (full-blown pandemic). This had far-reaching consequences for the local health authorities in the different affected countries and created awareness in the public and fear in the experts and even more so in many lay people. The consequences were: setting up reliable diagnostic tests as soon as possible; enhanced production, distribution and stock creation of the few drugs that were available to treat newly infected persons; and development, production, distribution and stock creation of new and appropriate anti-H1N1 swine flu vaccines. This all resulted in enormous costs in the local healthcare systems and also required smart and diligent logistics, because demand for all this was, in most cases, much higher than availability. Fortunately, the pandemic ended quite quickly (there was no 'second wave' as had been anticipated by some experts) and the death toll was moderate, compared with other influenza pandemic in the past and even to the regular annual appearance of the seasonal flu. This favorable outcome, however, provoked some harsh criticism that the WHO and healthcare systems in general had over-reacted and by doing so, a lot of money was thrown out of the window. This article describes the history of the H1N1 pandemic, the diagnostic challenges and resolutions, touches on treatment and vaccination very briefly and also comments on the criticism and arguments that came up immediately at the end and following the termination of the pandemic situation. PMID:21171919

  8. Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and

  9. Flu.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pandemics Current Situation Global Activities Research Activities History Flu Symptoms & Severity The flu is different from a ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder The flu vaccine is your best ...

  10. Bench-to-bedside review: Vaccine protection strategies during pandemic flu outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to respond to pandemic situations - these limitations include problems with surge capacity, the need for egg-adapted strains, the possibility of contamination, and the presence of trace egg protein. Several vaccine strategies to circumvent the deficiencies intrinsic to an egg-based influenza vaccine are in various phases of development. These include the use of cell-culture-based growth systems, concomitant use of adjuvants, whole virus vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines, and universal flu vaccines. PMID:20497595

  11. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    PubMed Central

    Gatignol, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean; Wainberg, Mark A; Cohen, Éric A; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting. PMID:17270043

  12. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

  13. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1).

    PubMed

    Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918-1919 pandemic strain (mean R0 approximately 2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19545404

  14. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19545404

  15. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... By Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone ...

  16. [Pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 flu during pregnancy: Epidemiology, diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Ami, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; Martinez, V; Guillet, M; Dupont-Bernabé, C; Donnadieu, A-C; Trichot, C; Senat, M-V; Fernandez, H; Frydman, R

    2009-12-01

    Pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 is a benign disease when infecting healthy adults, but it can lead to severe consequences in pregnant woman, for the fetus or its mother. The incidence of the disease is increasing strongly, and health authorities estimate that one third of the world population might be infected before the end of the winter. Diagnosis of infection with influenza virus H1N1 is suspected when a patient presents with the association of symptoms of the respiratory tract like sore throat, cough, or dyspnea, with general signs like fever, myalgias, or exhaustion. Diagnosis confirmation is obtained with nasopharyngeal swab and virus detection with molecular biology. This flu can lead to severe consequences for the pregnant woman and fetus. For this reason, it is advisable to treat pregnant women systematically by oseltamivir or zanamivir, and to treat preventively the pregnant woman in case of close contact with a suspected or confirmed infected person. Even if the management of influenza A H1N1 2009 infection during pregnancy relies on family physicians and gynecologists, every physician having in charge such cases should regularly update his knowledge regarding the evolution of the recommendations for the pandemic. PMID:19879070

  17. Regulating the 1918-19 pandemic: flu, stoicism and the Northcliffe press.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Social historians have argued that the reason the 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was ‘overshadowed’ by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the ‘forgotten’ pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played by wartime propaganda. Instead, I put emotion words, emotives and metaphors at the heart of my analysis in an attempt to understand the interplay between propaganda and biopolitical discourses that aimed to regulate civilian responses to the pandemic. Drawing on the letters of Wilfred Owen, the diaries of the cultural historian Caroline Playne and the reporting in the Northcliffe press, I argue that the stoicism exhibited by Owen and amplified in the columns of The Times and the Daily Mail is best viewed as a performance, an emotional style that reflected the politicisation of ‘dread’ in war as an emotion with the potential to undermine civilian morale. This was especially the case during the final year of the conflict when war-weariness set in, leading to the stricter policing of negative emotions. As a protean disease that could present as alternately benign and plague-like, the Spanish flu both drew on these discourses and subverted them, disrupting medical efforts to use the dread of foreign pathogens as an instrument of biopower. The result was that, as dread increasingly became attached to influenza, it destabilised medical attempts to regulate the civilian response to the pandemic, undermining Owen’s and the Northcliffe press’s emotives of stoicism. PMID:24070344

  18. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough in kids. If you get the flu vaccine, it will protect you from getting a bad case of the flu. You either won't get the flu at all, or if you do get it, you will have only mild symptoms and you should get better pretty quickly. Here's what the vaccine means for most kids: Kids older than 9 ...

  19. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good ...

  20. [The "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918-1919 in La Réunion (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2015-01-01

    Brought in by the ship Madonna, which was taking local survivors of World War I back to Reunion, the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic reached the island in March 1919 and lasted for three months. The controversies between doctors and between doctors and the colonial administrators, officials' desertion of their posts, and food shortages together caused a major panic. The epidemic appears to have ravaged people under the age of 40 and the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, at a period when the economy was already in the doldrums and the population had been declining since the late 19th century. Estimates indicate 2000 deaths in the capital of Saint-Denis, among a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and 7 to 20,000 deaths on the island as a whole, representing 4-11% of the population - far more than the 949 local soldiers killed on the battlefields of Europe. According to legend, salvation came from the sky as a small cyclone on May 11, 1919: it lasted an hour, swept away the "miasmas" and washed the island clean of all its impurities. PMID:25500279

  1. Pandemic 2009 (A)H1N1 influenza (swine flu) - the Manitoba experience.

    PubMed

    Embree, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    The pattern of illness associated with the first wave of the pandemic influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) in the spring and early summer of 2009 in regions of the province of Manitoba in Canada was more severe, on a population basis, than any other northern hemisphere jurisdiction outside of Mexico City. Manitoba accounted for 50% of intensive care admissions and 25% of pediatric admissions, but only 6.5% of deaths, attributable to the virus in Canada during the first wave. Activation and use of emergency response protocols embedded within the routine health authority management system and good communication between the diagnostic laboratory, public health, and health care practitioners was effective in coping with the sudden need for hospitalization of large numbers of children and young adults with severe respiratory illness over a short time period. Early treatment with oseltamivir was associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization among children. Intensive education of health care providers, patients, and visitors, along with close monitoring of infection prevention and control practices, were instrumental in preventing both nosocomial and health care worker infections. PMID:20651829

  2. Science into policy: preparing for pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    Harper, D. R.; Davies, L. M.; Gadd, E. M.; Costigan, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    Authoratative government pandemic preparedness requires an evidence-based approach. The scientific advisory process that has informed the current UK pandemic preparedness plans is described. The final endorsed scientific papers are now publicly available. PMID:18603626

  3. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  4. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    PubMed

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. PMID:24582319

  5. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009), representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics). Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06), an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25), at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews), and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males). In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups). The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the reporting rate. The finding of

  6. Lessons from the past: Familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredsson, Magnús; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Jónsson, Stefán; Kristjánsson, Már; Kristjánsson, Kristleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Löve, Arthur; Blöndal, Thorsteinn; Viboud, Cécile; Thorvaldsson, Sverrir; Helgason, Agnar; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefánsson, Kári; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif

    2008-01-01

    The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21–50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter of 1918, representing >92% of all fatal domestic cases mentioned by historical accounts. The highest case fatality proportion was 2.8%, and peak excess mortality was 162/100,000/week. Fatality proportions were highest among infants, young adults, and the elderly. A genealogical database was used to study relatedness and relative risk (RR) of the fatal influenza victims and relatives of their unaffected mates. The significance of these RR computations was assessed by drawing samples randomly from the genealogical database matched for age, sex, and geographical distribution. Familial aggregation of fatalities was seen, with RRs for death ranging from 3.75 for first-degree relatives (P < 0.0001) to 1.82 (P = 0.005), 1.12 (P = 0.252), and 1.47 (P = 0.0001) for second- to fourth-degree relatives of fatal influenza victims, respectively. The RRs within the families of unaffected mates of fatal influenza victims were 2.95 (P < 0.0001), 1.27 (P = 0.267), 1.35 (P = 0.04), and 1.42 (P = 0.001), for first- to fourth-degree relatives, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of death from the Spanish flu was similar within families of patients who succumbed to the illness and within families of their mates who survived. Our data do not provide conclusive evidence for the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to the Spanish flu. PMID:18216264

  7. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2005-08-01

    In the near future, experts predict, an influenza pandemic will likely spread throughout the world. Many countries have been creating a contingency plan in order to mitigate the severe health and social consequences of such an event. Examination of the pandemic plans of Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, from an ethical perspective, raises several concerns. One: scarcity of human and material resources is assumed to be severe. Plans focus on prioritization but do not identify resources that would be optimally required to reduce deaths and other serious consequences. Hence, these plans do not facilitate a truly informed choice at the political level where decisions have to be made on how much to invest now in order to reduce scarcity when a pandemic occurs. Two: mass vaccination is considered to be the most important instrument for reducing the impact of infection, yet pandemic plans do not provide concrete estimates of the benefits and burdens of vaccination to assure everyone that the balance is highly favorable. Three: pandemic plans make extraordinary demands on health care workers, yet professional organizations and unions may not have been involved in the plans' formulation and they have not been assured that authorities will aim to protect and support health care workers in a way that corresponds to the demands made on them. Four: all sectors of society and all individuals will be affected by a pandemic and everyone's collaboration will be required. Yet, it appears that the various populations have been inadequately informed by occasional media reports. Hence, it is essential that plans are developed and communication programs implemented that will not only inform but also create an atmosphere of mutual trust and solidarity; qualities that at the time of a pandemic will be much needed. PMID:16222857

  8. The Spanish flu in Uppsala, clinical and epidemiological impact of the influenza pandemic 1918–1919 on a Swedish county

    PubMed Central

    Holtenius, Jonas; Gillman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim The Spanish flu reached Sweden in June 1918, and at least one-third of the population (then 5.8 million) became infected. Some 34,500 persons (5.9 per 1,000 people) died from influenza during the first year of the pandemic (when acute pneumonia is included, the number of deaths rose to 7.1 per 1,000 people). In this historical look back at the pandemic, our aim was to review the epidemiological impact on the Swedish county of Uppsala, the clinical outcomes and the economic impact on the regional hospital; a relevant backgound to consider the impact of a future virulent pandemic. We also focused on how the pandemic was perceived by the medical community and by health care authorities. Methods Health care reports, statistics, daily newspapers, medical journals, and records of patients treated for influenza at the Uppsala Academic Hospital from July 1918 to June 1919 were included in our review. Results An influenza related mortality rate of 693 persons (5.1 per 1,000 people) was reported in the Uppsala region from 1918–1919; from July 1918 to June 1919, 384 patients were treated for influenza at the Uppsala Academic Hospital. The first wave peaked in November 1918 with case fatality rates up to 30%; a second wave peaked in April 1919 with a lower rate of mortality. Of the patients treated, a total of 66 died. Of these, 60% were 20–29 years of age, and 85% were less than 40 years old. Autopsy reports revealed pneumonia in 89% of the cases; among these, 47% were hemorrhagic, 18% were bilateral, and 45% had additional extrapulmonary organ involvement. Signs of severe viral disease were documented, but secondary bacterial disease was the primary cause of death in the majority of cases. Conclusion The epidemiologic and pathologic results were in accordance with other publications of this time period. The costs of running the hospital doubled from 1917 to 1920 and then reversed by 45%. Today, an influenza pandemic of the same virulence would

  9. Flu Symptoms & Severity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To ... this condition triggered by flu. Top of Page Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To ...

  10. Reassessing Google Flu Trends Data for Detection of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza: A Comparative Epidemiological Study at Three Geographic Scales

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Donald R.; Konty, Kevin J.; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data

  11. Reassessing Google Flu Trends data for detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza: a comparative epidemiological study at three geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Konty, Kevin J; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data

  12. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  13. How necessary is a fast testkit for mitigation of pandemic flu?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Juxin; Koh, Geoffrey; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2010-01-01

    It is widely feared that a novel, highly pathogenic, human transmissible influenza virus may evolve that could cause the next global pandemic. Mitigating the spread of such an influenza pandemic would require not only the timely administration of antiviral drugs to those infected, but also the implementation of suitable intervention policies for stunting the spread of the virus. Towards this end, mathematical modelling and simulation studies are crucial as they allow us to evaluate the predicted effectiveness of the various intervention policies before enforcing them. Diagnosis plays a vital role in the overall pandemic management framework by detecting and distinguishing the pathogenic strain from the less threatening seasonal strains and other influenza-like illnesses. This allows treatment and intervention to be deployed effectively, given limited antiviral supplies and other resources. However, the time required to design a fast and accurate testkit for novel strains may limit the role of diagnosis. Herein, we aim to investigate the cost and effectiveness of different diagnostic methods using a stochastic agent-based city-scale model, and then address the issue of whether conventional testing approaches, when used with appropriate intervention policies, can be as effective as fast testkits in containing a pandemic outbreak. We found that for mitigation purposes, fast and accurate testkits are not necessary as long as sufficient medication is given, and are generally recommended only when used with extensive contact tracing and prophylaxis. Additionally, in the event of insufficient medication and fast testkits, the use of slower, conventional testkits together with proper isolation policies while waiting for the diagnostic results can be an equally effective substitute. PMID:20022897

  14. Understanding the risk of an avian flu pandemic: rational waiting or precautionary failure?

    PubMed

    Basili, Marcello; Franzini, Maurizio

    2006-06-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) has been proposed as the proper guide for the decision-making criteria to be adopted in the face of the new catastrophic risks that have arisen in the last decades. This article puts forward a workable definition of the PP based on the so-called alpha-maximin expected utility approach, applying it to the possible outbreak of the avian flu disease among humans. Moreover, it shows how the shortage and/or lack of effective drugs against the infection of the virus A(H5N1) among humans can be considered a precautionary failure. PMID:16834622

  15. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the flu vaccine provides protection against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, as well as two seasonal flu ... Symptoms for the seasonal flu and the 2009 H1N1 flu are similar. They include fever, cough, sore ...

  16. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  17. Reflections on the UK's approach to the 2009 swine flu pandemic: conflicts between national government and the local management of the public health response.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jacky; Barker, Kezia; Rouse, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The first cases of swine flu in the UK were detected on 27th April 2009. Two weeks later Birmingham became a "hotspot" for the HIN1 pandemic in England. This paper describes the experiences of local public health agencies during the pandemic and the problems encountered when trying to work within a hierarchical and hermetic system of national policy making. We argue that over reliance on the speculative logic of modellers, together with a failure to adapt swiftly the nation's preparedness plans and public health apparatus created in readiness for a serious and fatal disease, led to an institutional void of policy making during the pandemic, where new rules and concepts emerged about what constituted scientifically acceptable and politically legitimate interventions. The imposition of a single national approach to managing the pandemic and a disregard for the role of local authorities seriously impaired the ability of local agencies to respond in a flexible, timely and pragmatic way to the rapidly emerging situation. Future planning for pandemics must recognise that global epidemics are curbed at the local level, and ensure that any response is proportionate, flexible and effective. PMID:22682089

  18. Focus on pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Lanari, M; Capretti, M G; Decembrino, L; Natale, F; Pedicino, R; Pugni, L; Serra, L

    2010-06-01

    At the moment of the onset of the pandemic there were few data about the transmission of the 2009 H1N1 virus infection from the mother to the newborn. Nevertheless neonates born to an ill mother from 2 days before through 7 days after illness onset in the mother were thought to be exposed and potentially infected. In October 2009 the Infectious Disease Group of the Italian Society of Neonatology provided a guide regarded the management of suspected or confirmed maternal infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus within labor and delivery, postpartum, and newborn care settings in hospitals. It was based on the available scientific information, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Italian Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Policy recommendations in order to protect the infant from exposure to respiratory secretion during or immediately after delivery. Moreover, we published 300,000 copies of a more popular pamphlet for parents. Rigorous attention to Standard Precautions and Droplet Precautions is required to reduce the opportunities for the transmission of the infection in the health-care setting. PMID:21089717

  19. Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Samantha; Conrad, Corrie; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Mohebbi, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1) pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was developed using data from the beginning of pH1N1. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the accuracy of each U.S. GFT model by comparing weekly estimates of ILI (influenza-like illness) activity with the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet). For each GFT model we calculated the correlation and RMSE (root mean square error) between model estimates and ILINet for four time periods: pre-H1N1, Summer H1N1, Winter H1N1, and H1N1 overall (Mar 2009–Dec 2009). We also compared the number of queries, query volume, and types of queries (e.g., influenza symptoms, influenza complications) in each model. Both models' estimates were highly correlated with ILINet pre-H1N1 and over the entire surveillance period, although the original model underestimated the magnitude of ILI activity during pH1N1. The updated model was more correlated with ILINet than the original model during Summer H1N1 (r = 0.95 and 0.29, respectively). The updated model included more search query terms than the original model, with more queries directly related to influenza infection, whereas the original model contained more queries related to influenza complications. Conclusions Internet search behavior changed during pH1N1, particularly in the categories “influenza complications” and “term for influenza.” The complications associated with pH1N1, the fact that pH1N1 began in the summer rather than winter, and changes in health-seeking behavior each may have played a part. Both GFT models performed well prior to and during pH1N1

  20. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  1. Clinical Outcome of Novel H1N1 (Swine Flu)-Infected Patients During 2009 Pandemic at Tertiary Referral Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan K.; Patel, Atul K.; Mehta, Parthiv M.; Amin, Richa P.; Patel, Kunal P.; Chuhan, Prakash C.; Naik, Eknath; Patel, Kamlesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Gujarat, India, was reported in August 2009. Oseltamivir was used for treatment of pandemic influenza in India. We discuss the clinical characteristics and outcome of the hospitalized patients with H1N1 infection during 2009 pandemic influenza season. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patient with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 flu during August 2009 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Data were collected from hospital ICU charts. Patients discharged from hospital were considered cured from swine flu. Data analysis was performed using CDC software EPI Info v3.5.3. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study, of them 41 (65%) males and 22 (35%) females. Median age was 34 (3-69) years and median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 5 (2-20) days. Common presenting symptoms include fever 58 (92.06%), cough 58 (92.06%), breathlessness 38 (60.31%), common cold 14 (22.22%), vomiting 12 (19.04%), weakness 9 (14.28%), throat pain 7 (11.11%), body ache 5 (7.93%), and chest pain 4 (6.34%). Co-morbidities were seen in 13 (20.63%) patients. Steroids were used in 39 (61.90%) patients, and ventilatory support was required in 17 (26.98%) patients. On presentation chest x-ray was normal in 20 (31.74%) patients, while pulmonary opacities were seen in 43 (68.26%) patients. Forty-seven (74.60%) patients were cured and discharged from hospital, 14 (22.22%) patients died, and 2 (3.17%) patients were shifted to other hospital. Ventilatory requirement, pneumonia, and co-morbidities were the independent predictors of mortality, while age, sex, and steroid use were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: 2009 pandemic influenza A had the same clinical features as seasonal influenza except vomiting. Mortality rate was high in 2009 H1N1-infected patients with pneumonia, co-morbid conditions, and patients

  2. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source ... FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 swine flu pandemic originated in pigs in a small ...

  3. How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics – a scent of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires two major innovations. First, data that is obtained should be shared with the global community instantly. The strength of rapid integration of simple signals is exemplified by Google’sTM Flu Trend, which could predict the incidence of influenza-like illness based on online search engine queries. Second, omics technologies need to be fast and high-throughput. We postulate that analysis of the exhaled breath would be a simple, rapid and non-invasive alternative. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are altered by infection and inflammation. The molecular fingerprint of breath (breathprint) can be obtained using an electronic nose, which relies on sensor technology. These breathprints can be stored in an online database (a “breathcloud”) and coupled to clinical data. Comparison of the breathprint of a suspected subject to the breathcloud allows for a rapid decision on the presence or absence of a pathogen. PMID:24795745

  4. Determinants of individuals’ risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level. Methods From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. Results In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of ≥ 80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ≤ 25 years and the elderly, ≥65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths ≤ 25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Conclusion Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable

  5. Post-Pandemic Seroprevalence of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection (Swine Flu) among Children <18 Years in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Wirth, Stephan; Kaiser, Petra; Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Schroten, Horst; Streng, Andrea; Liese, Johannes; Shai, Sonu; Niehues, Tim; Girschick, Hermann; Kuscher, Ellen; Sauerbrey, Axel; Peters, Jochen; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz; Rückinger, Simon; Hampl, Walter; Michel, Detlef; Mertens, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1st to July 31st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT) and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1–4 and 5–17 years the prevalence of HI titers (≥1∶10) was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5–31.3) and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9–56.2) compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3–30.5) in children aged 1–4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6–52.0) in 5–17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ≥1∶10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5–28.8) reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0–96.6) of the 5–17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5–66.5) of the 1–4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009. Conclusion Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5–17 years) infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03

  6. Influenza update 2007-2008: vaccine advances, pandemic preparation.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2007-12-01

    Influenza vaccination remains our best measure to prevent epidemic and pandemic influenza. We must continue to improve vaccination rates for targeted populations. Antiviral options are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:18183839

  7. Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Overview Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

  8. Fighting flu: military pathology, vaccines, and the conflicted identity of the 1918-19 pandemic in Britain.

    PubMed

    Bresalier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the decisive role of British military medicine in shaping official approaches to the 1918 influenza pandemic. It contends that British approaches were defined through a system of military pathology, which had been established by the War Office as part of the mobilization of medicine for the First World War. Relying on the bacteriological laboratory for the identification and control of pathogenic agents, military pathology delivered therapeutic and preventive measures against a range of battlefield diseases, and military and civilian authorities trusted that it could do the same with influenza. This article traces how it shaped efforts to establish the etiology of the pandemic and to produce a general influenza vaccine. It highlights the challenges involved in both strategies. Understanding the central role of military pathology helps make sense of the nature, direction, scale, and limitations of medical mobilization against the pandemic in Britain and the authority accorded to specific medical bodies for elaborating and coordinating strategies. Crucially, it demands that we rethink the relationship between the war and pandemic as one about the social organization of medical knowledge and institutions. PMID:21911334

  9. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

  10. Pandemic Influenza Planning in Nursing Homes: Are We Prepared?

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Cinti, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza or Influenza A (H5N1) is caused by a viral strain that occurs naturally in wild birds, but to which humans are immunologically naïve. If an influenza pandemic occurs, it is expected to have dire consequences, including millions of deaths, social disruption, and enormous economic consequences. The Department of Health and Human Resources plan, released in November 2005, clearly affirms the threat of a pandemic. Anticipating a disruption in many factions of society, every segment of the healthcare industry, including nursing homes, will be affected and will need to be self-sufficient. Disruption of vaccine distribution during the seasonal influenza vaccine shortage during the 2004/05 influenza season is but one example of erratic emergency planning. Nursing homes will have to make vital decisions and provide care to older adults who will not be on the initial priority list for vaccine. At the same time, nursing homes will face an anticipated shortage of antiviral medications and be expected to provide surge capacity for overwhelmed hospitals. This article provides an overview of current recommendations for pandemic preparedness and the potential effect of a pandemic on the nursing home industry. It highlights the need for collaborative planning and dialogue between nursing homes and various stakeholders already heavily invested in pandemic preparedness. PMID:17767687

  11. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  12. Natural T Cell–mediated Protection against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza. Results of the Flu Watch Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Bermingham, Alison; Copas, Andrew; Dukes, Oliver; Millett, Elizabeth R. C.; Nazareth, Irwin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Watson, John M.; Zambon, Maria; Johnson, Anne M.; McMichael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. Methods: We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus–specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P < 0.001) in participants lacking antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09. Comparison of paired preseason and post-season sera (1,431 sets) showed 205 (14%) had evidence of infection based on fourfold influenza antibody titer rises. The presence of NP-specific T cells before exposure to virus correlated with less symptomatic, PCR-positive influenza A (overall adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.68; P = 0.005, during pandemic [P = 0.047] and seasonal [P = 0.049] periods). Protection was independent of baseline antibodies. Influenza-specific T-cell responses were detected in 43%, indicating a substantial population impact. Conclusions: Naturally occurring cross-protective T-cell immunity protects against symptomatic PCR-confirmed disease in those with evidence of infection and helps to explain why many infections do not cause symptoms. Vaccines stimulating T cells may provide important cross-protective immunity. PMID:25844934

  13. Alternative live-attenuated influenza vaccines based on modifications in the polymerase genes protect against epidemic and pandemic flu.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, Alicia; Ye, Jianqiang; Pérez, Daniel R

    2010-05-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccination is the most effective means for disease prevention. We have previously shown that mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of the live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) could be transferred to avian influenza viruses and produce partially attenuated viruses. We also demonstrated that avian influenza viruses carrying the PB1 and PB2 mutations could be further attenuated by stably introducing a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag in the PB1 gene. In this work, we wanted to determine whether these modifications would also result in attenuation of a so-called triple reassortant (TR) swine influenza virus (SIV). Thus, the TR influenza A/swine/Wisconsin/14094/99 (H3N2) virus was generated by reverse genetics and subsequently mutated in the PB1 and PB2 genes. Here we show that a combination of mutations in this TR backbone results in an attenuated virus in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show the potential of our TR backbone as a vaccine that provides protection against the 2009 swine-origin pandemic influenza H1N1 virus (S-OIV) when carrying the surface of a classical swine strain. We propose that the availability of alternative backbones to the conventional ca A/Ann Arbor/6/60 LAIV strain could also be useful in epidemic and pandemic influenza and should be considered for influenza vaccine development. In addition, our data provide evidence that the use of these alternative backbones could potentially circumvent the effects of original antigenic sin (OAS) in certain circumstances. PMID:20181702

  14. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treat seasonal and pandemic influenza, including 2009 H1N1 flu. Clinical Trials for Flu NIH has started ... trials to determine what dosages of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine can best protect healthy and high- ...

  15. Preparing public health nurses for pandemic influenza through distance learning.

    PubMed

    Macario, Everly; Benton, Lisa D; Yuen, Janet; Torres, Mara; Macias-Reynolds, Violet; Holsclaw, Patricia; Nakahara, Natalie; Jones, Marcy Connell

    2007-01-01

    As a global influenza pandemic appears imminent with the spread of avian influenza, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and the California Distance Learning Health Network (CDLHN) presented a live 90-min satellite broadcast and subsequent 2-hr small group problem-solving tabletop exercise to practice interventions needed to minimize the consequences of a pandemic event. Public health nurses (PHNs), managers, and other staff in laboratories, clinical care, veterinary medicine, environmental health, public information and safety, emergency management, and transportation down linked the program, broadcast by satellite from the CDHS Richmond Laboratory Campus, to view on-site locally. PHNs represented the professional category with the highest number of participants for those conducting the program outside of California. For those in California, PHNs represented the professional category with the second highest number of participants. Participants and distance-learning facilitators completed a training evaluation survey. Continuing education credits were provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participants who completed the satellite broadcast evaluation. This distance-learning-by-satellite method of education paired with an activities-based tabletop exercise, and a focus on local rather than State-based responsibility, marks an innovative method of training PHNs and other staff in emergency preparedness response. PMID:17214655

  16. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

  17. Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

  18. Influenza pandemic planning.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nancy J; Tamblyn, Susan E; Tam, Theresa

    2003-05-01

    Periodically, novel influenza viruses emerge and spread rapidly through susceptible populations, resulting in worldwide epidemics or pandemics. Three pandemics occurred in the 20th century. The first and most devastating of these, the "Spanish Flu" (A/H1N1) pandemic of 1918-1919, is estimated to have resulted in 20-50 million or more deaths worldwide, with unusually high mortality among young adults [C.W. Potter, Chronicle of influenza pandemics, in: K.G. Nicholson, R.G. Webster, A.J. Hay (Eds.), Textbook of Influenza, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1998, p. 3]. Mortality associated with the 1957 "Asian Flu" (A/H2N2) and the 1968 "Hong Kong Flu" (A/H3N2) pandemics was less severe, with the highest excess mortality in the elderly and persons with chronic diseases [J. Infect. Dis. 178 (1998) 53]. However, considerable morbidity, social disruption and economic loss occurred during both of these pandemics [J. Infect. Dis. 176 (Suppl. 1) (1997) S4]. It is reasonable to assume that future influenza pandemics will occur, given historical evidence and current understanding of the biology, ecology, and epidemiology of influenza. Influenza viruses are impossible to eradicate, as there is a large reservoir of all subtypes of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds. In agricultural-based communities with high human population density such as are found in China, conditions exist for the emergence and spread of pandemic viruses. It is also impossible to predict when the next pandemic will occur. Moreover, the severity of illness is also unpredictable, so contingency plans must be put in place now during the inter-pandemic period. These plans must be flexible enough to respond to different levels of disease. PMID:12686098

  19. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  20. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    PubMed

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  1. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  2. Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to lower ... flu and spreading it to others. The flu vaccine causes antibodies to develop in your body about ...

  3. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms and their clinical judgment. Will my health care provider test me for flu if I have flu-like ... flu symptoms do not require testing because the test results usually do not change how you are treated. Your health care provider may diagnose you with flu based on ...

  4. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

  5. Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Lab

    2009-05-01

    Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

  6. Bird Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. Most bird flu viruses ... become sick. It may also be possible to catch bird flu by eating poultry or eggs that ...

  7. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context - Analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control

    PubMed Central

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as “swine flu”, since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term “swine flu” to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: “Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them,” wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  8. Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  9. "Stomach Flu"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en español " ... virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their stomachs. ...

  10. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  11. Substantial Impact of School Closure on the Transmission Dynamics during the Pandemic Flu H1N1-2009 in Oita, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background School closure is considered as an effective measure to prevent pandemic influenza. Although Japan has implemented many class, grade, and whole school closures during the early stage of the pandemic 2009, the effectiveness of such a school closure has not been analysed appropriately. In addition, analysis based on evidence or data from a large population has yet to be performed. We evaluated the preventive effect of school closure against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and examined efficient strategies of reactive school closure. Materials and Methods Data included daily reports of reactive school closures and the number of infected students in the pandemic in Oita City, Japan. We used a regression model that incorporated a time delay to analyse the daily data of school closure based on a time continuous susceptible-exposed-infected-removed model of infectious disease spread. The delay was due to the time-lag from transmission to case reporting. We simulated the number of students infected daily with and without school closure and evaluated the effectiveness. Results The model with a 3-day delay from transmission to reporting yielded the best fit using R2 (the coefficient of determination). This result suggests that the recommended period of school closure is more than 4 days. Moreover, the effect of school closure in the simulation of school closure showed the following: the number of infected students decreased by about 24% at its peak, and the number of cumulative infected students decreased by about 8.0%. Conclusions School closure was an effective intervention for mitigating the spread of influenza and should be implemented for more than 4 days. School closure has a remarkable impact on decreasing the number of infected students at the peak, but it does not substantially decrease the total number of infected students. PMID:26669757

  12. Severe acute respiratory infections during the influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic in Belgium: first experience of hospital-based flu surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In September 2009, as part of the surveillance during the Influenza A(2009) pandemic, Bel-gium introduced a web-based surveillance system aimed at recording hospitalisations and deaths attributable to Influenza in real time. Methods We present the web-based application developed for the pandemic as well as a descriptive analysis of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) cases reported through this system. Results From 1 September to 31 December 2009, 1723 SARI-related hospitalisations potentially due to influenza were reported in Belgium. The median age of the patients was 29 years (range: < 1 year-99 years). Among SARI-hospitalised patients 68% were aged less than 45 years, 10.6% were vaccinated with the seasonal influenza vaccine and 7.5% with the pandemic influenza vaccine. No deaths were recorded. Conclusions This first experience showed the feasibility of getting real-time information from hospitals during a public health crisis. However, the absence of death detected through the system highlighted the importance of better defining the severity of the hospital cases.

  13. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  14. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  15. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  16. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters The Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick Language: ...

  17. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  18. Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-γ responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-γ production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-γ production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-γ production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively

  19. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n = 1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of worry about the risk of catching swine flu, whether too much fuss was being made about the pandemic, whether they or a close friend or relative had had swine flu, how effective they felt the vaccine was, whether they had previously had a seasonal flu vaccination, how well prepared they felt the government was for a pandemic and how satisfied they were with information available about the pandemic. Most participants (n = 734, 55.6%) reported being vaccinated against swine flu, compared to 396 who had not been vaccinated and were unlikely to be vaccinated in the future. Results The main reasons given for declining vaccination were concerns over the vaccine's safety, and being generally healthy. Controlling for demographic variables, risk factors for not being vaccinated were: being female, not having a long-standing infirmity or illness, not having been vaccinated against seasonal flu in previous years, feeling that too much fuss had been made about the pandemic and believing that the vaccine was ineffective. Conclusions Interventions that target these factors may be effective in improving uptake in a future pandemic. PMID:26757401

  20. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  1. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    PubMed Central

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified γ-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (γ-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of γ-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal γ-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  2. Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

  3. Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants’ views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers’ exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians’ concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians’ concerns about IT’s impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital’s preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation’s success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and

  4. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Amharic) PDF Public Health - Seattle and King County Arabic (العربية) Home Care for Pandemic Flu (Arabic) الرعاية ...

  5. Using quality improvement methods to improve public health emergency preparedness: PREPARE for Pandemic Influenza.

    PubMed

    Lotstein, Debra; Seid, Michael; Ricci, Karen; Leuschner, Kristin; Margolis, Peter; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Many public health departments seek to improve their capability to respond to large-scale events such as an influenza pandemic. Quality improvement (QI), a structured approach to improving performance, has not been widely applied in public health. We developed and tested a pilot QI collaborative to explore whether QI could help public health departments improve their pandemic preparedness. We demonstrated that this is a promising model for improving public health preparedness and may be useful for improving public health performance overall. Further efforts are needed, however, to encourage the robust implementation of QI in public health. PMID:18628274

  6. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  7. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  8. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  9. Rapid preparation of mutated influenza hemagglutinins for influenza virus pandemic prevention.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Ryosuke; Satomura, Atsushi; Yamada, Junki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Influenza viruses have periodically caused pandemic due to frequent mutation of viral proteins. Influenza viruses have two major membrane glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hemagglutinin plays a crucial role in viral entry, while NA is involved in the process of a viral escape. In terms of developing antiviral drugs, HA is a more important target than NA in the prevention of pandemic, since HA is likely to change the host specificity of a virus by acquiring mutations, thereby to increase the risk of pandemic. To characterize mutated HA functions, current approaches require immobilization of purified HA on plastic wells and carriers. These troublesome methods make it difficult to respond to emerging mutations. In order to address this problem, a yeast cell surface engineering approach was investigated. Using this technology, human HAs derived from various H1N1 subtypes were successfully and rapidly displayed on the yeast cell surface. The yeast-displayed HAs exhibited similar abilities to native influenza virus HAs. Using this system, human HAs with 190E and 225G mutations were shown to exhibit altered recognition specificities from human to avian erythrocytes. This system furthermore allowed direct measurement of HA binding abilities without protein purification and immobilization. Coupled with the ease of genetic manipulation, this system allows the simple and comprehensive construction of mutant protein libraries on yeast cell surface, thereby contributing to influenza virus pandemic prevention. PMID:26797882

  10. Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

    2006-12-01

    The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

  11. Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

  12. Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Preparation and Delivery of Critical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Manuell, Mary-Elise; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Ellison, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    In a five week span during the 1918 influenza A pandemic, more than 2,000 patients were admitted to Cook County Hospital in Chicago with a diagnosis of either influenza or pneumonia; 642 patients, approximately 31% of those admitted, died with deaths occurring predominantly in patients twenty-five to thirty years of age.1 This review summarizes basic information on the biology, epidemiology, control, treatment and prevention of influenza overall, and then addresses the potential impact of pandemic influenza in an Intensive Care Unit setting. Issues that require consideration include workforce staffing and safety, resource management, alternate sites of care surge of patients, altered standards of care and crisis communication. PMID:21220275

  13. Preparing for and Responding to Pandemic Influenza: Implications for People With Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gilyard, Jamylle A.; Sinclair, Lisa; Sternberg, Tom; Kailes, June I.

    2009-01-01

    State, local, tribal, and territorial emergency managers and public health officials must address the specific needs of people with disabilities in their pandemic influenza plans. Evidence from Hurricane Katrina indicated that this population was disproportionately affected by the storm and aftermath. People with disabilities, particularly those who require personal assistance and those who reside in congregate care facilities, may be at increased risk during an influenza pandemic because of disrupted care or the introduction of the virus by their caregivers. Emergency and public health planners must ensure that personal assistance agencies and congregate care operators make provisions for backup staffing and that those who provide critical care are given adequate antiviral drugs and vaccines as they become available. PMID:19797741

  14. Preparing for and responding to pandemic influenza: implications for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Vincent A; Gilyard, Jamylle A; Sinclair, Lisa; Sternberg, Tom; Kailes, June I

    2009-10-01

    State, local, tribal, and territorial emergency managers and public health officials must address the specific needs of people with disabilities in their pandemic influenza plans. Evidence from Hurricane Katrina indicated that this population was disproportionately affected by the storm and aftermath. People with disabilities, particularly those who require personal assistance and those who reside in congregate care facilities, may be at increased risk during an influenza pandemic because of disrupted care or the introduction of the virus by their caregivers. Emergency and public health planners must ensure that personal assistance agencies and congregate care operators make provisions for backup staffing and that those who provide critical care are given adequate antiviral drugs and vaccines as they become available. PMID:19797741

  15. Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, J M

    2001-01-01

    Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrated by the production of over 150 million doses of 'swine flu' vaccine in the USA within a 3 month period in 1976. However, there is cause for concern that the lead time to begin vaccine production is likely to be about 7-8 months. Attempts to reduce this time should receive urgent attention. Immunogenicity of vaccines in pandemic situations is compared over the period 1968-1998. A consistent feature of the vaccine trials is the demonstration that one conventional 15 microg haemagglutinin dose of vaccine is not sufficiently immunogenic in naive individuals. Much larger doses or two lower doses are needed to induce satisfactory immunity. There is some evidence that whole-virus vaccines are more immunogenic than split or subunit vaccines, but this needs substantiating by further studies. H5 vaccines appeared to be particularly poor immunogens and there is evidence that an adjuvant may be needed. Prospects for improving the development of pandemic vaccines are discussed. PMID:11779397

  16. Overcrowding and Mortality During the Influenza Pandemic of 1918.

    PubMed

    Aligne, C Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918 killed more than 50 million people. Why was 1918 such an outlier? I. W. Brewer, a US Army physician at Camp Humphreys, Virginia, during the First World War, investigated several factors suspected of increasing the risk of severe flu: length of service in the army, race, dirty dishes, flies, dust, crowding, and weather. Overcrowding stood out, increasing the risk of flu 10-fold and the risk of flu complicated with pneumonia five-fold. Calculations made with Brewer's data show that the overall relationship between overcrowding and severe flu was highly significant (P < .001). Brewer's findings suggest that man-made conditions increased the severity of the pandemic flu illness. PMID:26959269

  17. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  18. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past?

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. PMID:26848365

  19. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  20. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (한국어) Laotian (Lao) Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) Russian (Русский) ... Khmer) PDF Public Health - Seattle and King County Korean (한국어) Home Care for Pandemic Flu 유행성 독감 ...

  1. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  2. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has ... do without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts ...

  3. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  4. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented. Results The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain. Conclusions The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk. PMID:22906155

  5. Pandemic H1N1 influenza: zoonoses are a two-way street

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease representing a worldwide health and economic threat to humans and animals. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern United States in 1918 concurrent with the Spanish flu human pandemic. Since the first report that flu was caused ...

  6. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  7. Use of two rapid influenza diagnostic tests, QuickNavi-Flu and QuickVue Influenza A+B, for rapid detection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses in Japanese pediatric outpatients over two consecutive seasons.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michimaru; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie

    2013-02-01

    A prospective study of outpatient children conducted during 2 consecutive seasons (2009 and 2011) of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined the sensitivity of a chromatographic immunoassay test; real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the standard, and the test was 87.2% (117 patients in 2009) and 97.4% (114 patients in 2011) sensitive. PMID:23141387

  8. [Pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus RNA isolation rate in specimens of patients diagnosed as flu in a University Hospital in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Aydın, Faruk; Buruk, C Kurtuluş; Ertürk, Murat

    2010-07-01

    Swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV) has been of global concern towards the end of 2009 with its high morbidity rate and pandemic aspect. In this study, the presence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus RNA was investigated in patients clinically diagnosed as influenza infection in the university hospital in Trabzon province (located at Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey). Oropharyngeal and nasal swab samples were collected from 211 patients (mean age: 18.5 years) who were admitted to our hospital between 16 November 2009 and 10 January 2010. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus RNA in the samples was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected in 41 of the patients (19.4%). The mean age of the cases was 11.7 years old. The highest positivity rate (44%) was seen in samples collected between 23-29 December 2009, while no positive samples were detected after 29 December 2009. PMID:21064004

  9. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A

  10. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... at high risk for serious flu complications. 2009 H1N1 Influenza The 2009 H1N1 flu is caused by ... 1976 should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers ...

  11. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    PubMed

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  12. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  13. [The flu epidemic after World War I and homeopathy--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" began in 1918 and was the most devastating pandemic in human history that had ever been, claiming more lives than World War I. The flu virus had not yet been discovered, and the usual therapy measures were merely symptomatic. In many parts of the world the pandemic was treated by homeopaths. At the time, homeopathic medical practices, out-patient clinics and hospitals existed in various countries. To this day homeopaths refer to the successful homeopathic treatment of the "Spanish Flu". The following paper looks at what this treatment consisted in and whether it was based on a particular concept. It also examines contemporary evaluations and figures, as well as the question as to whether homeopathy experienced a rise in demand as a consequence of its success during the pandemic. PMID:25134258

  14. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  15. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  16. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  17. Representations of swine flu: perspectives from a Malaysian pig farm.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Hassan, Sharifah Binti Syed; Dhanoa, Amreeta

    2011-07-01

    Novel influenza viruses are seen, internationally, as posing considerable health challenges, but public responses to such viruses are often rooted in cultural representations of disease and risk. However, little research has been conducted in locations associated with the origin of a pandemic. We examined representations and risk perceptions associated with swine flu amongst 120 Malaysian pig farmers. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents felt at particular risk of infection, two-thirds were somewhat or very concerned about being infected. Those respondents who were the most anxious believed particular societal "out-groups" (homosexuals, the homeless and prostitutes) to be at higher infection risk. Although few (4%) reported direct discrimination, 46% claimed friends had avoided them since the swine flu outbreak. Findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, social representations and terror management theories of response to pandemic threat. PMID:21936262

  18. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Ross, Allen G P; Crowe, Suzanne M; Tyndall, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis. PMID:26253461

  19. The health care response to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Barnitz, Laura; Berkwits, Michael

    2006-07-18

    The threat of an H5N1 influenza virus (avian flu) pandemic is substantial. The success of the current U.S. influenza pandemic response plan depends on effective coordination among state and local public health authorities and individual health care providers. This article is a summary of a public policy paper developed by the American College of Physicians to address issues in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan that involve physicians. The College's positions call for the following: 1) development of local public health task forces that include physicians representing all specialties and practice settings; 2) physician access to 2-way communication with public health authorities and to information technology tools for diagnosis and syndrome surveillance; 3) clear identification and authorization of agencies to process licensing and registration of volunteer physicians; 4) clear guidelines for overriding standard procedures for confidentiality and consent in the interest of the public's health; 5) clear and fair infection control measures that do not create barriers to care; 6) analysis of and solutions to current problems with seasonal influenza vaccination programs as a way of developing a maximally efficient pandemic flu vaccine program; 7) federal funding to provide pandemic flu vaccine for the entire U.S. population and antiviral drugs for 25% of the population; and 8) planning for health care in alternative, nonhospital settings to prevent a surge in demand for hospital care that exceeds supply. *This paper is an abridged version of a full-text position paper (available at http://www.acponline.org/college/pressroom/as06/pandemic_policy.pdf) written by Laura Barnitz, BJ, MA, and updated and adapted for publication in Annals of Internal Medicine by Michael Berkwits, MD, MSCE. The original position paper was developed for the Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians: Jeffrey P. Harris, MD

  20. [Pandemic influenza: impact on health care facilities in Lazio, Italy, and the role of hospitals in pandemic management].

    PubMed

    Fusco, Franceso Maria; Pittalis, Silvia; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 has so far caused more than 250 human cases. This virus is not transmitted efficaciously from person to person, but the capacity of human-to-human transmission could be acquired in the future. Consequently, the epidemiological and virological evolution of H5N1 is strictly monitored, insofar as the virus is a potential agent of an influenza pandemic. During such a pandemic, health care facilities would have to cope with many cases of severe respiratory illnesses, often requiring intensive care and mechanical pulmonary ventilation. In this article, the impact of the pandemic on health care facilities in Lazio, Italy, is evaluated using a statistical model, Flu-Surge. Moreover, some aspects of hospital preparedness for a pandemic, in particular in emergency departments, are discussed. PMID:17940401

  1. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  2. Preventing the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... leads to serious diseases, such as pneumonia. The influenza vaccine can help protect you from getting the flu. ... 232-0233 (Spanish) Other Organizations Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine (CDC) American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Influenza ...

  3. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be used to treat influenza illness. Antiviral drugs fight influenza viruses in your body. They are different from ... chills and fatigue. Your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to treat your flu illness. Should Istill get aflu vaccine? Yes. Antiviral ...

  4. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  5. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Should People With Cancer Get a Flu Shot? Getting a flu shot is recommended for ... need for the flu season. What types of flu vaccines are recommended for people with cancer? People ...

  6. From SARS in 2003 to H1N1 in 2009: lessons learned from Taiwan in preparation for the next pandemic.

    PubMed

    Yen, M-Y; Chiu, A W-H; Schwartz, J; King, C-C; Lin, Y E; Chang, S-C; Armstrong, D; Hsueh, P-R

    2014-08-01

    In anticipation of a future pandemic potentially arising from H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and in large part in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the city of Taipei, Taiwan, has developed extensive new strategies to manage pandemics. These strategies were tested during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. This article assesses pandemic preparedness in Taipei in the wake of recent pandemic experiences in order to draw lessons relevant to the broader international public health community. Drawing on Taiwan and Taipei Centers for Disease Control data on pandemic response and control, we evaluated the effectiveness of the changes in pandemic response policies developed by these governments over time, emphasizing hospital and medical interventions with particular attention paid to Traffic Control Bundling. SARS and H1N1 2009 catalysed the Taiwan and Taipei CDCs to continuously improve and adjust their strategies for a future pandemic. These new strategies for pandemic response and control have been largely effective at providing interim pandemic containment and control, while development and implementation of an effective vaccination programme is underway. As Taipei's experiences with these cases illustrate, in mitigating moderate or severe pandemic influenza, a graduated process including Traffic Control Bundles accompanied by hospital and medical interventions, as well as school- and community-focused interventions, provides an effective interim response while awaiting vaccine development. Once a vaccine is developed, to maximize pandemic control effectiveness, it should be allocated with priority given to vulnerable groups, healthcare workers and school children. PMID:24996515

  7. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  8. Transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic influenza in Montreal and Winnipeg of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shenghai; Yan, Ping; Winchester, Brian; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Background  The threat of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) is still causing widespread public concern. A comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of 1918 pandemic influenza commonly referred to as the Spanish flu may be helpful in offering insight into control strategies for the new pandemic. Objective  We explore how the preparedness for a pandemic at the community and individual level impacts the spread of the virus by comparing the transmissibility of the 1918 Spanish flu in two Canadian cities: Montreal and Winnipeg, bearing in mind that each pandemic is unique and the current one may not follow the pattern of the 1918 outbreak. Methods  The historical epidemiological data obtained for Montreal and Winnipeg in Canada is analyzed to estimate the basic reproduction number which is the most important summary measure of transmission potential of the pandemic. Results  The transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus in Winnipeg in the fall of 1918 was found to be much lower than in Montreal based on the estimated reproduction number obtained assuming different serial intervals which are the time between onsets of symptoms in an index case and a secondary case. Conclusion  The early preparedness and public health control measures could suggest an explanation for the fact that the number of secondary cases generated by a primary case was significantly reduced in Winnipeg comparing to it in Montreal. PMID:20021504

  9. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  10. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic

  11. A history of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and its impact on Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Raees Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2010-05-01

    Approximately ninety two years ago, the worst influenza pandemic or "Spanish flu" occurred in 1918, at the end of the First World War (WWI, 1914-1918) which resulted in the deaths of millions of people worldwide. The death toll exceeded the total number of victims of WWI. The 1918 Spanish flu was a deadly, major global event that affected many countries, including Iran. In Iran, it was accompanied by a high mortality rate estimated to be more than one million. However, detailed information on the impact of this outbreak in Iran is scarce. The present paper describes a brief history of the influenza pandemics in the world as well as the spread of the 1918 Spanish flu to Iran. PMID:20433236

  12. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  13. Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies. PMID:19549302

  14. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  15. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats.

    PubMed

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Mirza, Sara; Winter, Christian; Feldon, Keith; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Phonekeo, Darouny; Denny, Justin; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Lylianou, Doualy; Phousavath, Sisouphane; Norasingh, Sisouveth; Boutta, Nao; Olsen, Sonja; Bresee, Joseph; Moen, Ann; Corwin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%). Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1) no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2) safety and efficacy concerns, and 3) late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1) crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao "lessons learned" from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential. PMID:25923779

  16. Pandemic policy and planning considerations for universities: findings from a tabletop exercise.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Randal; Stergachis, Andy; Thompson, Jack; Osaki, Carl; Johnson, Clark; Charvat, Steven J; Marsden-Haug, Nicola

    2007-12-01

    The potential for a novel influenza virus to cause a pandemic represents a significant threat to global health. Planning for pandemic flu, as compared to planning for other types of hazards, presents some unique challenges to businesses, communities, and education institutions. To identify and address the challenges that may be faced by major metropolitan universities during a flu pandemic, a tabletop exercise was developed, offered, and evaluated. Its purpose was to assess existing University of Washington (UW) plans and policies for responding to an influenza pandemic. On May 31, 2006, more than 50 participants, including UW administrators and unit leaders and a number of key external partners, participated in a tabletop exercise designed to simulate all phases of an influenza pandemic. This exercise revealed existing gaps in university pandemic influenza plans and policies, including issues related to isolation and quarantine, continuity of operations, disaster mental health services, integration of volunteers into a disaster response, tracking travel of university students and personnel, communication problems, and ways to meet the needs of resident and foreign students and faculty during an outbreak. Policy and planning recommendations are offered that address each of these challenges faced by UW as well as other major research universities and colleges. PMID:18081492

  17. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  18. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009–10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Background A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. Objective To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Methods Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Results Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media ‘over-hyping’ the swine flu pandemic. Conclusions The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009–10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty. PMID:21131303

  19. Targeted social distancing design for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Glass, Robert J; Glass, Laura M; Beyeler, Walter E; Min, H Jason

    2006-11-01

    Targeted social distancing to mitigate pandemic influenza can be designed through simulation of influenza's spread within local community social contact networks. We demonstrate this design for a stylized community representative of a small town in the United States. The critical importance of children and teenagers in transmission of influenza is first identified and targeted. For influenza as infectious as 1957-58 Asian flu (=50% infected), closing schools and keeping children and teenagers at home reduced the attack rate by >90%. For more infectious strains, or transmission that is less focused on the young, adults and the work environment must also be targeted. Tailored to specific communities across the world, such design would yield local defenses against a highly virulent strain in the absence of vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:17283616

  20. Targeted Social Distancing Designs for Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Laura M.; Beyeler, Walter E.; Min, H. Jason

    2006-01-01

    Targeted social distancing to mitigate pandemic influenza can be designed through simulation of influenza's spread within local community social contact networks. We demonstrate this design for a stylized community representative of a small town in the United States. The critical importance of children and teenagers in transmission of influenza is first identified and targeted. For influenza as infectious as 1957–58 Asian flu (≈50% infected), closing schools and keeping children and teenagers at home reduced the attack rate by >90%. For more infectious strains, or transmission that is less focused on the young, adults and the work environment must also be targeted. Tailored to specific communities across the world, such design would yield local defenses against a highly virulent strain in the absence of vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:17283616

  1. Biocommunicability and the biopolitics of pandemic threats.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L; Nichter, Mark

    2009-07-01

    In this article we assess accounts of the H1N1 virus or "swine flu" to draw attention to the ways in which discourse about biosecurity and global health citizenship during times of pandemic alarms supports calls for the creation of global surveillance systems and naturalizes forms of governance. We propose a medical anthropology of epidemics to complement an engaged anthropology aimed at better and more critical forms of epidemic surveillance. A medical anthropology of epidemics provides insights into factors and actors that shape the ongoing production of knowledge about epidemics, how dominant and competing accounts circulate and interact, how different stakeholders (citizens, politicians, journalists, and policymakers) access and interpret information available from different sources-including through a variety of new digital venues-and what they do with it. These insights together provide a compelling agenda for medical anthropology and anyone working in health-related fields. PMID:20182960

  2. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Winter-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Fall-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ...

  3. The flu fighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-02-01

    The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in history. Beginning in 1347, the plague took just three years to spread from Constantinople in western Turkey to Italy and then on to the rest of Europe, leaving nearly a quarter of the continent's population dead in its wake. Historical studies confirm that the disease diffused smoothly, generating an epidemic front that travelled through the continent as a continuous wave at a rate of about 200-400 miles per year.

  4. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Getting a Better Grasp on Flu ... Seasonal Flu Patterns? Forecasting Flu This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  5. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  6. Does the Effectiveness of Control Measures Depend on the Influenza Pandemic Profile?

    PubMed Central

    Kernéis, Solen; Grais, Rebecca F.; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Flahault, Antoine; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2008-01-01

    Background Although strategies to contain influenza pandemics are well studied, the characterization and the implications of different geographical and temporal diffusion patterns of the pandemic have been given less attention. Methodology/Main Findings Using a well-documented metapopulation model incorporating air travel between 52 major world cities, we identified potential influenza pandemic diffusion profiles and examined how the impact of interventions might be affected by this heterogeneity. Clustering methods applied to a set of pandemic simulations, characterized by seven parameters related to the conditions of emergence that were varied following Latin hypercube sampling, were used to identify six pandemic profiles exhibiting different characteristics notably in terms of global burden (from 415 to >160 million of cases) and duration (from 26 to 360 days). A multivariate sensitivity analysis showed that the transmission rate and proportion of susceptibles have a strong impact on the pandemic diffusion. The correlation between interventions and pandemic outcomes were analyzed for two specific profiles: a fast, massive pandemic and a slow building, long-lasting one. In both cases, the date of introduction for five control measures (masks, isolation, prophylactic or therapeutic use of antivirals, vaccination) correlated strongly with pandemic outcomes. Conversely, the coverage and efficacy of these interventions only moderately correlated with pandemic outcomes in the case of a massive pandemic. Pre-pandemic vaccination influenced pandemic outcomes in both profiles, while travel restriction was the only measure without any measurable effect in either. Conclusions Our study highlights: (i) the great heterogeneity in possible profiles of a future influenza pandemic; (ii) the value of being well prepared in every country since a pandemic may have heavy consequences wherever and whenever it starts; (iii) the need to quickly implement control measures and even to

  7. Signs of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic in the New York-Presbyterian Hospital Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Khiabanian, Hossein; Holmes, Antony B.; Kelly, Brendan J.; Gururaj, Mrinalini; Hripcsak, George; Rabadan, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Background In June of 2009, the World Health Organization declared the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, and by July, New York City's New York-Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH) experienced a heavy burden of cases, attributable to a novel strain of the virus (H1N1pdm). Methods and Results We present the signs in the NYPH electronic health records (EHR) that distinguished the 2009 pandemic from previous seasonal influenza outbreaks via various statistical analyses. These signs include (1) an increase in the number of patients diagnosed with influenza, (2) a preponderance of influenza diagnoses outside of the normal flu season, and (3) marked vaccine failure. The NYPH EHR also reveals distinct age distributions of patients affected by seasonal influenza and the pandemic strain, and via available longitudinal data, suggests that the two may be associated with distinct sets of comorbid conditions as well. In particular, we find significantly more pandemic flu patients with diagnoses associated with asthma and underlying lung disease. We further observe that the NYPH EHR is capable of tracking diseases at a resolution as high as particular zip codes in New York City. Conclusion The NYPH EHR permits early detection of pandemic influenza and hypothesis generation via identification of those significantly associated illnesses. As data standards develop and databases expand, EHRs will contribute more and more to disease detection and the discovery of novel disease associations. PMID:20844592

  8. Hygrothermal environment may cause influenza pandemics through immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Lin; Luo, Yu-Hong; Chen, Jia; Yu, Bin; Liu, Kang-Li; He, Jin-Xiong; Lu, Su-Hong; Li, Jie-Xing; Wu, Sha; Jiang, Zhen-You; Chen, Xiao-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, climate warming has caused profound changes in our living environment, and human diseases, including infectious diseases, have also been influenced by these changes. However, it remains unclear if a warm-wet climate can influence the infectivity of influenza and result in influenza pandemics. This study focused on observations of how the hydrothermal environment influences the infectivity of the influenza virus and the resulting immunoreactions of the infected mice. We used a manual climatic box to establish the following 3 environments with different temperatures and humidity: normal environment (T: 24 ± 1°C, RH: 50% ± 4%), wet environment (T: 24 ± 1 °C, RH: 95% ± 4%) and warm-wet environment (T: 33 ± 1 °C, RH: 95% ± 4%), and the mice were fed and maintained in these 3 different environments. After 14 days, half of the mice were infected with H1N1 (A/FM1/1/47, a lung adapted strain of the flu virus specific for the mouse lung) virus for 4 d After establishing the animal model, we observed the microstructure of the lung tissue, the Th1/Th2 T cell subsets, the Th17/Treg balance, the expression of cytokines in the peripheral blood serum and the expression of the immune recognition RLH signal pathway. The results showed that mice in different environments have different reaction. Results showed that after infection, the proportion of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells in the spleen was significantly increased, and these proportions were increased the most in the infected group kept in wet-hot conditions. After infection, the mRNA levels and protein expression of the RLH (RIG-1-like helicases) signal pathway components were up-regulated while the uninfected animals in the 3 diverse environments showed no significant change. The infected mice kept in the wet and warm-wet environments showed a slight elevation in the expression of RLH pathway components compared to infected mice maintained in the normal environment. Our study suggested that

  9. Why was the 2009 influenza pandemic in England so small?

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Ruben J; McLean, Angela R

    2012-01-01

    The "Swine flu" pandemic of 2009 caused world-wide infections and deaths. Early efforts to understand its rate of spread were used to predict the probable future number of cases, but by the end of 2009 it was clear that these predictions had substantially overestimated the pandemic's eventual impact. In England, the Health Protection Agency made announcements of the number of cases of disease, which turned out to be surprisingly low for an influenza pandemic. The agency also carried out a serological survey half-way through the English epidemic. In this study, we use a mathematical model to reconcile early estimates of the rate of spread of infection, weekly data on the number of cases in the 2009 epidemic in England and the serological status of the English population at the end of the first pandemic wave. Our results reveal that if there are around 19 infections (i.e., seroconverters) for every reported case then the three data-sets are entirely consistent with each other. We go on to discuss when in the epidemic such a high ratio of seroconverters to cases of disease might have been detected, either through patterns in the case reports or through even earlier serological surveys. PMID:22348001

  10. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Web site . What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for the Flu ... tea Oscillococcinum Vitamin C Vitamin D What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Colds The ...

  11. College students and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu symptoms. HOW DO I TREAT MY SYMPTOMS? Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower fever. Check with your health care provider before taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen if you have liver disease. Take ...

  12. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  13. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  14. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  15. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  16. The threat and prospects for control of an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Stiver, H Grant

    2004-02-01

    Influenza constitutes the most widespread and significant respiratory infectious disease in the world, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality and economic loss each epidemic year. Pandemic influenza is a worldwide epidemic usually caused by a new virus variant to which the majority of the population has no immunity. As demonstrated in the devastating pandemic of 1918 to 1919, a pandemic virus may infect 30 to 50% of the worlds population and kill 1 to 2% of those infected. Pandemic control must be a concerted and co-ordinated world strategy and under the auspices of the World Health Organization, pandemic preparedness plans have been formulated, including: intensified surveillance for more rapid identification of new reassortant viruses with potential human virulence and infectivity, laboratory characterization of the new viruses so that vaccine may be prepared, development of techniques for more rapid vaccine production and the manufacture and stock piling of antiviral drugs. The H5N1 outbreak of virulent chicken influenza in 1997 in Hong Kong which resulted in the deaths of six of 18 infected persons serves as a wake-up call. Should such a virus attain high transmissibility in humans, a pandemic of tragic proportions might ensue. Even though the timing of onset of the next pandemic cannot be precisely predicted, world governments must understand the urgency of the problem and increase funding for influenza pandemic control. PMID:14761242

  17. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive ...

  18. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  19. Comparison: Flu Prescription Sales Data from a Retail Pharmacy in the US with Google Flu Trends and US ILINet (CDC) Data as Flu Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) for five years' aggregate data (2007–2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). PMID:22952719

  20. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). PMID:22952719

  1. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model. PMID:25056069

  2. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  3. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu virus that has caused serious outbreaks in ... been no reported infections with these viruses in birds, poultry, or people in the United States. You ...

  4. [The influenza pandemic of 1918-20 in medical debate].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2006-03-01

    The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-20 in medical debate. The history of the so called Spanish Influenza 1918-1920 is summarized especially in regard to the developments in medical debate. In Germany, Richard Pfeiffer, who had discovered Haemophilus influenzae after the previous pandemic 1890/91, managed it to defend his thesis that his "bacillus" was the causative agent of the flu, by modifying his theory moderately. The Early Virology of influenza in postwar times was still fixed to bacteriology and did not yet have the force of school-building. Aggressive therapy, e.g. with derivatives of chinine, were used in a concept of polypragmasy. The connection between influenza in animals and influenza in mankind was unknown or of no major interest till the rise of virology as an academic discipline in the 1950s. Since the outbreak of avian influenza in Asia 1997 virological archaeology is challenged to fill the historical part in the attempt to fight the threat of the highly pathogenic bird flu. In the beginning of the "short 20. century" politicians and doctors had no interest to build a "monument" of influenza. Today, virological reductionism does not have the power to (re-)construct such a monument. PMID:17146957

  5. Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant records. Information was available for nine flu seasons from December 2005 through March 2014. Only about ... shot during any trimester of pregnancy during flu season, Tan said. The new study found that 97 ...

  6. Caring for Your Child's Cold or Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Caring for Your Child’s Cold or Flu Page Content ​Unfortunately, there's no cure for the ... Liquid Medicine Safely for more information. Prevent & Treatment: Flu vaccine Children 6 months or older should get ...

  7. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibodies after getting flu vaccine. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or clinic about getting vaccinated as soon as ... have already had a flu shot--call your doctor, nurse, or clinic right away. Doctors can prescribe medicine ...

  8. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... the most important steps to help protect your family against the flu this season. Take 3 Steps ...

  9. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  10. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  11. Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158080.html Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk Australian researchers find ... THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A seasonal flu shot may reduce a pregnant woman's risk of ...

  12. Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157852.html Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet This year's vaccine ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be the mildest in the ...

  13. It's coming: cold and flu season--can we make a difference? Implications for home care and hospice.

    PubMed

    Polzien, Gladys

    2006-10-01

    Health promotion and disease prevention is possible with accurate information and patient education. By being prepared to answer questions from patients and caregivers early this cold and flu season, we can make a difference to prevent the spread of colds and flu and their potentially serious complications. PMID:17252968

  14. Preparation of genetically engineered A/H5N1 and A/H7N1 pandemic vaccine viruses by reverse genetics in a mixture of Vero and chicken embryo cells

    PubMed Central

    Legastelois, Isabelle; Garcia‐Sastre, Adolfo; Palese, Peter; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Maines, Taronna R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Vogel, Frederick R.; Moste, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Background  In case of influenza pandemic, a robust, easy and clean technique to prepare reassortants would be necessary. Objectives  Using reverse genetics, we prepared two vaccine reassortants (A/H5N1 × PR8 and A/H7N1 × PR8) exhibiting the envelope glycoproteins from non‐pathogenic avian viruses, A/Turkey/Wisconsin/68 (A/H5N9) and A/Rhea/New Caledonia/39482/93 (A/H7N1) and the internal proteins of the attenuated human virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Methods  The transfection was accomplished using a mixture of Vero and chicken embryo cells both of which are currently being used for vaccine manufacturing. Results  This process was reproducible, resulting in consistent recovery of influenza viruses in 6 days. Because it is mainly the A/H5N1 strain that has recently crossed the human barrier, it is the A/PR8 × A/H5N1 reassortant (RG5) that was further amplified, either in embryonated hen eggs or Vero cells, to produce vaccine pre‐master seed stocks that met quality control specifications. Safety testing in chickens and ferrets was performed to assess the non‐virulence of the reassortant, and finally analysis using chicken and ferret sera immunized with the RG5 virus showed that the vaccine candidate elicited an antibody response cross‐reactive with the Hong Kong 1997 and 2003 H5N1 strains but not the Vietnam/2004 viruses. Conclusions  The seeds obtained could be used as part of a pandemic vaccine strain ‘library’ available in case of propagation in humans of a new highly pathogenic avian strain. PMID:19453414

  15. Interest of a simple on-line screening registry for measuring ICU burden related to an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The specific burden imposed on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during the A/H1N1 influenza 2009 pandemic has been poorly explored. An on-line screening registry allowed a daily report of ICU beds occupancy rate by flu infected patients (Flu-OR) admitted in French ICUs. Methods We conducted a prospective inception cohort study with results of an on-line screening registry designed for daily assessment of ICU burden. Results Among the 108 centers participating to the French H1N1 research network on mechanical ventilation (REVA) - French Society of Intensive Care (SRLF) registry, 69 ICUs belonging to seven large geographical areas voluntarily participated in a website screening-registry. The aim was to daily assess the ICU beds occupancy rate by influenza-infected and non-infected patients for at least three weeks. Three hundred ninety-one critically ill infected patients were enrolled in the cohort, representing a subset of 35% of the whole French 2009 pandemic cohort; 73% were mechanically ventilated, 13% required extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22% died. The global Flu-OR in these ICUs was only 7.6%, but it exceeded a predefined 15% critical threshold in 32 ICUs for a total of 103 weeks. Flu-ORs were significantly higher in University than in non-University hospitals. The peak ICU burden was poorly predicted by observations obtained at the level of large geographical areas. Conclusions The peak Flu-OR during the pandemic significantly exceeded a 15% critical threshold in almost half of the ICUs, with an uneven distribution with time, geographical areas and between University and non-University hospitals. An on-line assessment of Flu-OR via a simple dedicated registry may contribute to better match resources and needs. PMID:22776231

  16. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... season, visit About the Current Flu Season . Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Language: English Español File Formats Help: How do ...

  17. [Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response].

    PubMed

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Velázquez-Monroy, Oscar; Alvarez-Lucas, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia,Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs. PMID:16555537

  18. Pandemic influenza and the hospitalist: apocalypse when?

    PubMed

    Pile, James C; Gordon, Steven M

    2006-03-01

    Beginning with a cluster of human cases in Hong Kong in 1997, avian influenza (H5N1) has spread progressively through, and beyond, Asia in poultry and other birds; and has resulted in sporadic cases of human disease associated with high mortality. The potential for H5N1 influenza to cause a pandemic of human disease continues to be the subject of intense scrutiny by both the media and the scientific community. While the likelihood of such a prospect is uncertain, the inevitability of future pandemics of influenza is clear. Planning for the eventuality of a virulent influenza pandemic at the local, national and global level is critical to limiting the mortality and morbidity of such an occurrence. Hospitalists have a key role to play in institutional efforts to prepare for a influenza pandemic, and should be aware of lessons that my be applied from both the response to Hurricane Katrina, as well as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. PMID:17219482

  19. The pandemic subject: Canadian pandemic plans and communicating with the public about an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Maunula, Laena

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I examine the goals for pandemic public communication as outlined in two Canadian plans for pandemic planning and infection control. I critique these strategies by drawing on Foucault's notions of governmentality and biopower. My argument is that the public health communication campaign goals reviewed rest upon a particular conceptualization of health in the context of pandemic planning as an individual/family duty, and that scientific/medical expert knowledge is most appropriate for guiding pandemic planning. This study contributes to a sociological understanding of how pandemic preparedness and infection control are represented in Canadian pandemic plans, how public health shapes pandemic communication messages in Canada, and the implications of those messages for subjectivity and notions of citizenship. PMID:24289936

  20. The Pandemic Subject: Canadian Pandemic Plans and Communicating with the Public about an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Maunula, Laena

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the goals for pandemic public communication as outlined in two Canadian plans for pandemic planning and infection control. I critique these strategies by drawing on Foucault's notions of governmentality and biopower. My argument is that the public health communication campaign goals reviewed rest upon a particular conceptualization of health in the context of pandemic planning as an individual/family duty, and that scientific/medical expert knowledge is most appropriate for guiding pandemic planning. This study contributes to a sociological understanding of how pandemic preparedness and infection control are represented in Canadian pandemic plans, how public health shapes pandemic communication messages in Canada, and the implications of those messages for subjectivity and notions of citizenship. PMID:24289936

  1. Influenza Pandemic: Gaps in Pandemic Planning and Preparedness Need to Be Addressed. Testimony before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. GAO-09-909T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the current H1N1 outbreak underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a body of work, consisting of 12 reports and 4 testimonies, to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In February 2009, GAO synthesized the results of…

  2. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Two LAIV Strains against Potentially Pandemic H2N2 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smolonogina, Tatiana; Rekstin, Andrey; van Amerongen, Geert; van Dijken, Harry; Mouthaan, Justin; Roholl, Paul; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Doroshenko, Elena; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Rudenko, Larisa

    2014-01-01

    H2N2 Influenza A caused the Asian flu pandemic in 1957, circulated for more than 10 years and disappeared from the human population after 1968. Given that people born after 1968 are naïve to H2N2, that the virus still circulates in wild birds and that this influenza subtype has a proven pandemic track record, H2N2 is regarded as a potential pandemic threat. To prepare for an H2N2 pandemic, here we developed and tested in mice and ferrets two live attenuated influenza vaccines based on the haemagglutinins of the two different H2N2 lineages that circulated at the end of the cycle, using the well characterized A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus as the backbone. The vaccine strains containing the HA and NA of A/California/1/66 (clade 1) or A/Tokyo/3/67 (clade 2) showed a temperature sensitive and cold adapted phenotype and a reduced reproduction that was limited to the respiratory tract of mice, suggesting that the vaccines may be safe for use in humans. Both vaccine strains induced haemagglutination inhibition titers in mice. Vaccination abolished virus replication in the nose and lung and protected mice from weight loss after homologous and heterologous challenge with the respective donor wild type strains. In ferrets, the live attenuated vaccines induced high virus neutralizing, haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition titers, however; the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 wt virus induced higher homologous and better cross-reactive antibody responses than the A/Tokyo/3/67 based vaccine. In line with this observation, was the higher virus reduction observed in the throat and nose of ferrets vaccinated with this vaccine after challenge with either of the wild type donor viruses. Moreover, both vaccines clearly reduced the infection-induced rhinitis observed in placebo-vaccinated ferrets. The results favor the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 isolate, which will be evaluated in a clinical study. PMID:25058039

  3. 108 Development of universal vaccines against flu: reality and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shmarov, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the main antigens for obtaining traditional flu vaccines due to their high immunogenicity and ability to induce generation of neutralizing antibodies. High genetically instability of influenza virus provides antigenic diversity of these glycoproteins between strains. Subunit vaccines based on one of these surface antigens are characterized by narrow specificity. Modern vaccines should provide protection against several or all subtypes of influenza A viruses. In addition sporadic influenza outbreaks of newly emerged influenza A viruses may cause the next pandemic. Today there are no flu vaccines of a wide range of action, so-called “universal” vaccines. Several flu vaccines with a broad cross-protectivity are tested in different phases of clinical trials. In this report the analysis of the modern researches directed on creation of flu “universal” vaccines including data obtained by researchers of Gamaleya institute of epidemiology and microbiology is carried out. Genetic immunization technology is used for development of “universal” vaccine. Recombinant pseudoadenoviral particles coding of influenza virus conservative antigens were used as a vector for gene delivery. Polypeptide, containing hemagglutinin conservative epitopes, was used in addition to traditional influenza conservative antigens M1, M2 and NP. Animal experiments demonstrated that developed vaccines were very efficient against different influenza subtypes (80%–100% survivability).

  4. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... or the child has not urinated for the last 8 hours. Alternative Names Babies and the flu; Your infant and the ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  5. Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savard, Christian; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilène; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic. PMID:21747909

  6. [Google Flu Trends--the initial application of big data in public health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Lei; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-06-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) was the first application of big data in the public health field. GFT was open online in 2009 and attracted worldwide attention immediately. However, GFT failed catching the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and kept overestimating the intensity of influenza-like illness in the 2012-2014 season in the United States. GFT model has been updated for three times since 2009, making its prediction bias controlled. Here, we summarized the mechanism GFT worked, the strategy GFT used to update, and its influence on public health. PMID:26310351

  7. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Boon H; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2011-08-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has been learnt from the Pandemic of 2009/2010 but the messages about vaccination and treatment seem to be taken slowly by the clinical profession. Most people affected by the virus, including pregnant women, suffer a mild viral illness, and make a full recovery. The median duration of illness is around seven days. This influenza typically affects the younger age group i.e. from the ages of 5-65 years. Current experience shows that the age group experiencing increased morbidity and mortality rates are in those under 65 years of age. Pregnant women, because of their altered immunity and physiological adaptations, are at higher risk of developing pulmonary complications, especially in the second and third trimesters. In the United Kingdom, twelve maternal deaths were reported to be associated with the H1N1 virus during the pandemic and clear avoidable factors were identified (Modder, Review of Maternal Deaths in the UK related to A H1N1 2009 influenza (CMACE). www.cmace.org.uk, 2010). The pregnancy outcomes were also poor for women who were affected by the virus with a fivefold increase in the perinatal mortality rate and threefold increase in the preterm delivery rate (Yates et al. Health Technol Assess 14(34):109-182, 2010). There continues to be a low uptake of the flu vaccine and commencement of antiviral treatment for pregnant women. PMID:22851818

  8. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L.; McIntyre, Anne F.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010–11 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and 10 deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010–11). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

  9. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L; McIntyre, Anne F; Jamieson, Denise J; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line (PFL) during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010-2011 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and ten deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010-2011). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

  10. Tackle the problem when it gets here: pandemic preparedness among small and medium businesses.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Cooke, Feonagh C; Donovan, Robert J; Macintyre, C Raina; Itzwerth, Ralf; Plant, Aileen J

    2008-07-01

    Globally, governments and health authorities are preparing for pandemic influenza and producing resources to promote preparedness planning; however, there is little information available to inform the design of strategies to promote preparedness. Three focus groups were conducted to identify and to describe beliefs and perceptions about pandemic influenza and response planning among small and medium business owners and managers. Most participants were not concerned about the risk of pandemic influenza, and none had engaged in any planning for a pandemic. Findings show that participants were uncertain of the modes of transmission of pandemic influenza and what precautions could be taken prior to, or in the event of, a pandemic. Among the most important findings was participants' perceived inability to effectively prevent or control the spread of influenza within their workplace. These findings have important implications for the design of communication strategies to promote preparedness. PMID:18552317

  11. Impact of cytokine in type 1 narcolepsy: Role of pandemic H1N1 vaccination ?

    PubMed

    Lecendreux, Michel; Libri, Valentina; Jaussent, Isabelle; Mottez, Estelle; Lopez, Régis; Lavault, Sophie; Regnault, Armelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pandemic influenza 2009 vaccination) provide strong support that narcolepsy type 1 is an immune-mediated disease. Considering the limited knowledge regarding the immune mechanisms involved in narcolepsy whether related to flu vaccination or not and the recent progresses in cytokine measurement technology, we assessed 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors using the Luminex technology in either peripheral (serum) or central (CSF) compartments in a large population of 90 children and adult patients with narcolepsy type 1 in comparison to 58 non-hypocretin deficient hypersomniacs and 41 healthy controls. Furthermore, we compared their levels in patients with narcolepsy whether exposed to pandemic flu vaccine or not, and analyzed the effect of age, duration of disease and symptom severity. Comparison for sera biomarkers between narcolepsy (n = 84, 54 males, median age: 15.5 years old) and healthy controls (n = 41, 13 males, median age: 20 years old) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and growth factors with interferon-γ, CCL11, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-2 receptor being independently associated with narcolepsy. Increased levels of interferon-γ, CCL11, and interleukin-12 were found when close to narcolepsy onset. After several adjustments, only one CSF biomarker differed between narcolepsy (n = 44, 26 males, median age: 15 years old) and non-hypocretin deficient hypersomnias (n = 57, 24 males, median age: 36 years old) with higher CCL 3 levels found in narcolepsy. Comparison for sera biomarkers between patients with narcolepsy who developed the disease post-pandemic flu vaccination (n = 36) to those without vaccination (n = 48) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of three cytokines, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed

  12. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prevent seasonal influenza . Antiviral drugs are a second line of defense to treat the flu (including seasonal flu and variant flu viruses ) if you get sick. What are the benefits of antiviral drugs? When used for treatment, antiviral ...

  13. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

  14. Transmission and control of an emerging influenza pandemic in a small-world airline network.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chaug-Ing; Shih, Hsien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus H5N1 and the 2009 swine flu H1N1 are potentially serious pandemic threats to human health, and air travel readily facilitates the spread of infectious diseases. However, past studies have not yet incorporated the effects of air travel on the transmission of influenza in the construction of mathematical epidemic models. Therefore, this paper focused on the human-to-human transmission of influenza, and investigated the effects of air travel activities on an influenza pandemic in a small-world network. These activities of air travel include passengers' consolidation, conveyance and distribution in airports and flights. Dynamic transmission models were developed to assess the expected burdens of the pandemic, with and without control measures. This study also investigated how the small-world properties of an air transportation network facilitate the spread of influenza around the globe. The results show that, as soon as the influenza is spread to the top 50 global airports, the transmission is greatly accelerated. Under the constraint of limited resources, a strategy that first applies control measures to the top 50 airports after day 13 and then soon afterwards to all other airports may result in remarkable containment effectiveness. As the infectiousness of the disease increases, it will expand the scale of the pandemic, and move the start time of the pandemic ahead. PMID:19887149

  15. Equity in the Receipt of Oseltamivir in the United States During the H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Brill, Gregory; Matlin, Olga S.; Fischer, Michael A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Avorn, Jerry; Brennan, Troyen A.; Shrank, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the relationship between individual characteristics and receipt of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in the United States during the H1N1 pandemic and other flu seasons. Methods. In a cohort of individuals enrolled in pharmacy benefit plans, we used a multivariate logistic regression model to measure associations between subscriber characteristics and filling a prescription for oseltamivir during 3 flu seasons (October 2006–May 2007, October 2007–May 2008, and October 2008–May 2010). In 19 states with county-level influenza rates reported, we controlled for disease burden. Results. Approximately 56 million subscribers throughout the United States were included in 1 or more study periods. During pandemic flu, beneficiaries in the highest income category had 97% greater odds of receiving oseltamivir than those in the lowest category (P < .001). After we controlled for disease burden, subscribers in the 2 highest income categories had 2.18 and 1.72 times the odds of receiving oseltamivir compared with those in the lowest category (P < .001 for both). Conclusions. Income was a stronger predictor of oseltamivir receipt than prevalence of influenza. These findings corroborate concerns about equity of treatment in pandemics, and they call for improved approaches to distributing potentially life-saving treatments. PMID:24825206

  16. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27,000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  17. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  18. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  19. Recipients of vaccine against the 1976 "swine flu" have enhanced neutralization responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    McCullers, Jonathan A; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Allison, Kim J; Branum, Kristen C; Webby, Richard J; Flynn, Patricia M

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND. The world is facing a novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A pandemic scare with a similar influenza virus in 1976 resulted in the vaccination of nearly 45 million persons. We hypothesized that prior receipt of the 1976 "swine flu" vaccine would enhance immune responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza strain. METHODS. A prospective, volunteer sample of employees aged > or = 55 years at a children's cancer hospital in August 2009 was assessed for antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. RESULTS. Antibody responses by hemagglutination-inhibition assay were high against both the seasonal influenza virus (89.7% had a titer considered seroprotective) and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (88.8% had a seroprotective titer). These antibodies were effective at neutralizing the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in 68.1% of participants (titer > or = 40), but only 18.1% had detectable neutralizing titers against the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Of 116 participants, 46 (39.7%) received the 1976 "swine flu" vaccine. Receipt of this vaccine significantly enhanced neutralization responses; 8 (17.4%) of 46 vaccine recipients had titers > or = 160, compared with only 3 (4.3%) of 70 who did not receive the vaccine (P = .018 by chi(2) test). CONCLUSIONS. In this cohort, persons aged > or = 55 years had evidence of robust immunity to the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. These antibodies were cross-reactive but nonneutralizing against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Receipt of a vaccine to a related virus significantly enhanced the neutralization capacity of these responses, suggesting homologous vaccination against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus would have a similar effect. PMID:20415539

  20. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  1. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  2. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  3. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  4. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. PMID:25321142

  5. Pandemic influenza planning by videoconference.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Ann Marie; Arima, Yuzo; French, H Matthew; Osaki, Carl S; Hoff, Rodney; Lee, Soo-Sim; Schafer, Lisa; Nabae, Koji; Chen, Chang-Hsun; Hsun, Chang; Hishamuddin, Pengiran; Nelson, Rodney; Woody, Karalee; Brown, Jacqueline; Fox, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between nations and sectors is crucial to improve regional preparedness against pandemic influenza. In 2008, a Virtual Symposium was organized in the Asia-Pacific region by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Emerging Infections Network (APEC EINet) to discuss pandemic preparedness. The multipoint videoconference lasted approximately 4.5 hours and was attended by 16 APEC members who shared best practices in public-private partnerships for pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Twelve of the 16 APEC members who participated responded to a post-event survey. The overall experience of the event was rated highly. Partnering public health, technology and business communities to discuss best practices in preparedness using videoconferencing may be an effective way to improve regional preparedness. Utilization of videoconferencing on a routine basis should be considered to improve preparedness among APEC members and enhance its usability during a pandemic. PMID:19815907

  6. Pandemic Influenza's 500th Anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2010-01-01

    It is impossible to know with certainty the first time that an influenza virus infected humans or when the first influenza pandemic occurred. However, many historians agree that the year 1510 a.d.—500 years ago—marks the first recognition of pandemic influenza. On this significant anniversary it is timely to ask: what were the circumstances surrounding the emergence of the 1510 pandemic, and what have we learned about this important disease over the subsequent five centuries?We conclude that in recent decades significant progress has been made in diagnosis, prevention, control, and treatment of influenza. It seems likely that, in the foreseeable future, we may be able to greatly reduce the burden of influenza pandemics with improved vaccines and other scientific and public health approaches. PMID:21067353

  7. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03883.001 PMID:25321142

  8. Zika - A Pandemic in Progress?

    PubMed

    Mohamad Idris, Fauziah

    2016-03-01

    The emerging threat of Zika virus outbreak with associated neurological abnormalities needs to be assessed in perspective in terms of its ability to cause a pandemic. This article attempts to throw some light on the issue. PMID:27547117

  9. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  10. The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Al Hajjar, Sami; McIntosh, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly known as swine flu) first appeared in Mexico and the United States in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed as a result of airline travel. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to the highest level, Phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents. The 2009 H1N1 virus contains a unique combination of gene segments from human, swine and avian influenza A viruses. Children and young adults appear to be the most affected, perhaps reflecting protection in the elderly owing to exposure to H1N1 strains before 1957. Most clinical disease is relatively mild but complications leading to hospitalization, with the need for intensive care, can occur, especially in very young children, during pregnancy, in morbid obesity, and in those with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung and cardiac diseases, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Bacterial co-infection has played a significant role in fatal cases. The case of fatality has been estimated at around 0.4%. Mathematical modeling suggests that the effect of novel influenza virus can be reduced by immunization, but the question remains: can we produce enough H1N1 vaccine to beat the pandemic? PMID:20103951

  11. The changing nature and scope of public health emergencies in response to annual flu.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G

    2013-06-01

    The rapid spread of influenza during the 2012-13 season brought a series of public health challenges and corresponding response efforts. For decades, responses to annual flu have been undertaken routinely without extensive legal intervention. With the recent declaration of states of public health emergencies in Boston (January 9, 2013) and New York State (January 12, 2013), however, the legal baseline is changing. Propelled by a slate of state and local emergency declarations during the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, public officials are beginning to show cause for the issuance of formal emergency declarations in support of flu response efforts. The legal effects of these types of declarations are profound. Public and private actors are given significant, expedited public health powers. Scarce resources like vaccines can be more efficiently allocated. Laws relating to licensure, scope of practice, and liability can be effectively waived. Though originally conceptualized and once reserved for catastrophic, long-term health-related or bioterrorism events, public health emergency declarations are evolving to address temporary impacts on health care and public health services arising annually from flu outbreaks. This commentary explores the changing nature of public health emergencies and their current and potential impact on the provision of healthcare services in response to national or regional threats to the public's health. PMID:23641729

  12. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu Planning & Preparedness Business Planning Community Planning School ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H1N1 - originally referred to as Swine Flu ...

  13. Patterns of early transmission of pandemic influenza in London – link with deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Sooria; Ogilvie, Flora; Glasswell, Amy; Anderson, Charlotte; Cleary, Vivien; Turbitt, Deborah; McCloskey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Balasegaram et al. (2012) Patterns of early transmission of pandemic influenza in London – link with deprivation. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e35–e41. Background  During the early containment phase in England from April to June 2009, the national strategy for H1N1 pandemic influenza involved case investigation and treatment, and tracing and prophylaxis of contacts. Objective  To describe the relationship between early transmission of H1N1 pandemic influenza in London and age and socio‐economic status. Methods  Epidemiological data on cases of pandemic flu in London reported to the London Flu Response Centre were analysed to determine patterns of transmission. Results  There were 3487 reported cases (2202 confirmed, 1272 presumed and 14 probable) from 20 April to 28 June 2009, during the ‘containment’ period. The highest report rate of 206 per 100 000 (95% CI 195–218) was seen in primary school–age children (5−11 years) followed by 129 (95% CI 119–139) in secondary school–age children (12–18 years). Reports of cases were initially concentrated in affluent areas but overall showed a clear trend with deprivation and risk ratio of 2·32 (95% CI 1·94–2·78) between the most deprived and the least deprived. Conclusion  Early transmissions were highest amongst school‐aged children but linked with socio‐economic deprivation across all age groups. PMID:22236079

  14. Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review

    PubMed Central

    Boëlle, Pierre‐Yves; Ansart, Séverine; Cori, Anne; Valleron, Alain‐Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Boëlle P‐Y et al. (2011) Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 306–316. Background  The new influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), identified in mid‐2009, rapidly spread over the world. Estimating the transmissibility of this new virus was a public health priority. Methods  We reviewed all studies presenting estimates of the serial interval or generation time and the reproduction number of the A/H1N1 (2009) virus infection. Results  Thirteen studies documented the serial interval from household or close‐contact studies, with overall mean 3 days (95% CI: 2·4, 3·6); taking into account tertiary transmission reduced this estimate to 2·6 days. Model‐based estimates were more variable, from 1·9 to 6 days. Twenty‐four studies reported reproduction numbers for community‐based epidemics at the town or country level. The range was 1·2–3·1, with larger estimates reported at the beginning of the pandemic. Accounting for under‐reporting in the early period of the pandemic and limiting variation because of the choice of the generation time interval, the reproduction number was between 1·2 and 2·3 with median 1·5. Discussion  The serial interval of A/H1N1 (2009) flu was typically short, with mean value similar to the seasonal flu. The estimates of the reproduction number were more variable. Compared with past influenza pandemics, the median reproduction number was similar (1968) or slightly smaller (1889, 1918, 1957). PMID:21668690

  15. Community awareness, use and preference for pandemic influenza vaccines in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Neisha; Purohit, Vidula; Schaetti, Christian; Kudale, Abhay; Joseph, Saju; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention, but limited vaccine uptake was a problem worldwide during the 2009–2010 pandemic. Community acceptance of a vaccine is a critical determinant of its effectiveness, but studies have been confined to high-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-method study in urban and rural Pune, India in 2012–2013. Semi-structured explanatory model interviews were administered to community residents (n = 436) to study awareness, experience and preference between available vaccines for pandemic influenza. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews complemented the survey. Awareness of pandemic influenza vaccines was low (25%). Some respondents did not consider vaccines relevant for adults, but nearly all (94.7%), when asked, believed that a vaccine would prevent swine flu. Reported vaccine uptake however was 8.3%. Main themes identified as reasons for uptake were having heard of a death from swine flu, health care provider recommendation or affiliation with the health system, influence of peers and information from media. Reasons for non-use were low perceived personal risk, problems with access and cost, inadequate information and a perceived lack of a government mandate endorsing influenza vaccines. A majority indicated a preference for injectable over nasal vaccines, especially in remote rural areas. Hesitancy from a lack of confidence in pandemic influenza vaccines appears to have been less of an issue than access, complacency and other sociocultural considerations. Recent influenza outbreaks in 2015 highlight a need to reconsider policy for routine influenza vaccination while paying attention to sociocultural factors and community preferences for effective vaccine action. PMID:26110454

  16. Community awareness, use and preference for pandemic influenza vaccines in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Neisha; Purohit, Vidula; Schaetti, Christian; Kudale, Abhay; Joseph, Saju; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention, but limited vaccine uptake was a problem worldwide during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Community acceptance of a vaccine is a critical determinant of its effectiveness, but studies have been confined to high-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-method study in urban and rural Pune, India in 2012-2013. Semi-structured explanatory model interviews were administered to community residents (n = 436) to study awareness, experience and preference between available vaccines for pandemic influenza. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews complemented the survey. Awareness of pandemic influenza vaccines was low (25%). Some respondents did not consider vaccines relevant for adults, but nearly all (94.7%), when asked, believed that a vaccine would prevent swine flu. Reported vaccine uptake however was 8.3%. Main themes identified as reasons for uptake were having heard of a death from swine flu, health care provider recommendation or affiliation with the health system, influence of peers and information from media. Reasons for non-use were low perceived personal risk, problems with access and cost, inadequate information and a perceived lack of a government mandate endorsing influenza vaccines. A majority indicated a preference for injectable over nasal vaccines, especially in remote rural areas. Hesitancy from a lack of confidence in pandemic influenza vaccines appears to have been less of an issue than access, complacency and other sociocultural considerations. Recent influenza outbreaks in 2015 highlight a need to reconsider policy for routine influenza vaccination while paying attention to sociocultural factors and community preferences for effective vaccine action. PMID:26110454

  17. Assessment of pandemic preparedness in a socially vulnerable community in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Kiltz, Linda; Fonseca, Diana; Rodriguez, Christina; Munoz, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain information about general and pandemic preparedness efforts of residents within San Patricio County in South Texas, as well as to identify the most effective means of communicating the risks posed by pandemic influenza. The population of San Patricio County is socially vulnerable to a variety of disasters, including influenza pandemics due to the unique demographic profile of the county as well as its location on the Gulf Coast. The goals of this study were to help with pandemic planning efforts and to provide recommendations that could serve as a foundation for building more resilient communities within San Patricio County. Clearly the various governmental levels must work together to assist communities prepare for pandemic preparedness but broad, inclusive community participation is also necessary to strengthen community resilience. PMID:24350552

  18. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  19. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... everyone 6 months and older should receive the influenza vaccine. Alternative Names Influenza A; Influenza B; Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) - ... LZ, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ...

  20. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  1. Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eunsun

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(α2-3) or sialyl(α2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(α2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(α2-3) or short length sialyl(α2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

  2. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government. PMID:6582366

  3. A study to identify winning strategies for the business community during the next pandemic.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the healthcare system and the corporate sector to answer the following research question: how does the healthcare system best prepare small to medium-sized businesses for the next pandemic influenza? Data were collected and collated through a literature review, electronic survey and semi-structured follow-up telephone interviews. The participants were businesses with membership in the Alberta Chambers of Commerce, a provincial lobby group in Alberta, Canada. The findings indicate strategies that were effective in minimising impact to the business community during the H1N1 pandemic and suggest areas for the business community to improve in preparation for the next pandemic influenza. Recommendations focus on establishing new links for communication between the business community and the healthcare sector and improving strategies to increase the resilience of small to medium-sized businesses for the next pandemic influenza. PMID:23835426

  4. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a

  5. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  6. Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Shot far more effective against current influenza strains, ... 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray flu vaccine is ineffective and should not be used in ...

  7. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - adult; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - adult; Upper respiratory ... what to ask your doctor - adult; H1N1 ("Swine") flu - what to ask your doctor - adult

  8. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Health Capsules Genetic Clues ... infection, middle ear infection, asthma search Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Wise Choices Links Cold, ...

  9. Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157754.html Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study ... increased risk for complications if they receive a flu shot in the hospital, a new study suggests. ...

  10. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was