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Sample records for pandemic flu preparations

  1. Pandemic Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a pandemic flu as if the entire world population is susceptible. Countries may try to delay the ... illness rates soar. A substantial percentage of the world’s population will require some form of medical care. Nations ...

  2. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  3. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  4. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  5. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,

  6. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  7. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels. PMID:20300402

  8. [The military role in a flu pandemic].

    PubMed

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) policy for the pandemic was stricter than the policy of the Ministry of Health. Defense systems in Israel and the world should prepare, the sooner the better, for the possibility of a worse pandemic, in which the army may take a major role, especially since regular life in the country, in such a case, would be disturbed. PMID:20422833

  9. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  10. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is

  11. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  12. Pandemism of swine flu and its prospective drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R K; Tripathi, P; Rawat, G

    2012-12-01

    Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by influenza A H1N1 virus. The current pandemic of swine flu is most probably due to a mutation-more specifically, a re-assortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Antigenic variation of influenza viruses while circulating in the population is an important factor leading to difficulties in controlling influenza by vaccination. Due to the global effect of swine flu and its effect on humans, extensive investigations are being undertaken. In this context, Tamiflu is the only available drug used in the prophylaxis of this disease and is made from the compound shikimic acid. Due to the sudden increase in the demand of shikimic acid, its price has increased greatly. Thus, it is necessary to find an alternative approach for the treatment of swine flu. This review presents the overall information of swine flu, beginning from its emergence to the prevention and treatment of the disease, with a major emphasis on the alternative approach (bacterial fermentation process) for the treatment of swine flu. The alternative approach for the treatment of swine flu includes the production of shikimic acid from a fermentation process and it can be produced in large quantities without any time limitations. PMID:22895890

  13. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  14. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306) or pen and paper (n = 56) questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity), intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications. PMID:21211000

  15. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  16. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  17. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into

  18. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  19. Code Flu: common-sense steps to the development of an agency pandemic flu plan for home care.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sharon Dezzani

    2007-10-01

    Calling a code is a common way to sound the alarm of an emergency. Many kinds of codes exist: for patients who arrest, for fires, and for babies who have gone missing, to name a few. This article proposes a new code, Code Flu, which will alert staff, patients, cooperating and referring agencies, and members of the community that they are to operate under the preplanned pandemic flu plan. Suggestions for developing a Code Flu plan are outlined. PMID:18049257

  20. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences. PMID:20182961

  1. [Incidence of avian flu worldwide and in the Russian Federation. Improvement of surveillance and control of influenza during preparation for potential pandemic].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    Problem of influenza and acute respiratory virus infections (ARVI) remains one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic issues in despite of certain achievements in vaccine and chemoprophylaxis. In Russia influenza and ARVI account for up to 90% of the total annual incidence of infectious disease (up to 30 million of sick people; 45-60% of them are children). Economic damage, caused by influenza and ARVI, makes around 86% of total economic damage, caused by infectious diseases. WHO predicts that in the years coming a new antigenic influenza virus will appear, which can lead to development of large pandemia with 4-5 times increase in disease incidence and 5-10 times increase in death rate. During 2005 some changes in animal influenza epidemiology were registered. New cases of people infections are detected, the virus has spread to some new countries. Avian influenza is a high contagious virus infection that can affect all bird species. For birds influenza is enteral infection, it severely affects parenchymatous organs, especially spleen, and lungs. By now it is known that carriers of avian influenza virus H5N1 can be all known species of wild waterfowl and near-water birds. Poultry is highly susceptible to many stocks of influenza virus H5N1, death rate reaches 100%. At that hens, especially chickens, are most susceptible. From January 2004 to 24th November 2005 in the world there were detected 131 cases of influenza, caused by virus A/H5N1/, 68 of them (51%) ended in lethal outcome (Vietnam--92 cases, Thailand--21 cases, Cambodia--4, Indonesia--11, China--3). Most of the described cases of avian influenza resulted from direct contact with infected birds (handling bird internal organs is especially dangerous). In frozen meat of infected birds the virus can remain for about one year. Heating kills virus (no cases of infection caused by use for food of poultry products were detected). In order to prevent wide ranging spread of infection over Russia it is necessary to organize medical monitoring of sea ships, aircraft and train crews, arriving from the countries where influenza H5N1 cases were detected, in case of need to arrange raids to outlets and markets to detect poultry and poultry products brought from these countries. In Russia it is necessary to prepare a reserve of vaccine strains of viruses--potential causative agent of pandemic, including H5N1 and H7N7, that can start to vaccine reproduction immediately in case of pandemic. PMID:16981489

  2. The global swine flu pandemic 2: infection control measures and preparedness strategies.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This second in a two-part unit on swine flu looks at infection control measures for nurses. During late spring and early summer, increasing numbers of people became infected with novel swine origin influenza type A virus (influenza A(H1N1)v 2009) and a global pandemic started. Part 1 of this unit explored the biology of influenza viruses and the origins and characteristics of flu pandemics. This part reviews viral transmission, infection prevention and control and pandemic preparedness. PMID:19791672

  3. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

  4. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early

  5. Lessons from the swine flu: pandemic, panic and/or pandemonium?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2010-11-01

    The 2009 pandemic of swine-origin A/H1N1 influenza (swine flu) spread rapidly in Australia and there was a prolonged winter outbreak lasting 18 weeks. For Australian children, the case fatality rate of swine flu was no higher than for severe seasonal influenza. Because of the high number of children infected with swine flu, however, there were more children admitted to hospital than usual and more children died. Health-care services (emergency departments, medical wards and intensive care units) were stretched. The introduction of special influenza clinics helped services cope. Pregnant women were at high risk of severe swine flu and seven pregnant women and seven of their babies died. Future pandemic planning should consider severity of influenza, in addition to rapidity of spread, as a criterion for escalating interventions. PMID:21121084

  6. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men) to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic. PMID:21078169

  7. Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2006-01-01

    Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

  8. Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly

  9. Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzone, Raphael; Potter, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a worldwide epidemic--a pandemic--that appeared in the United Sates during the latter part of the summer of 1918. During 1918 and 1919, between 50 and 100 million people around the globe fell victim to a rapidly spreading and untreatable strain of influenza. The pandemic so severely affected the U.S. population that roughly…

  10. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. PMID:21470893

  11. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Flu KidsHealth > For Kids > Flu Print A A A ... the Flu? en español La gripe What's the Flu? Influenza (say: in-floo-EN-zah) is also ...

  12. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued. PMID:17038194

  13. Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and illustrative information on health care resource capacities during future pandemics. The tool can inform both preparedness plans and simulation exercises and can help increase the general understanding of dynamics in resource capacities during a pandemic. The combination of a mathematical model with multiple resources and the linkage to GIS for creating maps makes the tool unique compared to other available software. PMID:23061807

  14. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

  15. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1).

    PubMed

    Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918-1919 pandemic strain (mean R0 approximately 2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19545404

  16. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza. PMID:19545404

  17. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of ...

  18. Canadian national surveys on pandemic influenza preparations: pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic, public health authorities in Canada and elsewhere prepared for the future outbreak, partly guided by an ethical framework developed within the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP). We developed a telephone-based survey based on that framework, which was delivered across Canada in late 2008. In June, 2009, the WHO declared pandemic Phase 6 status and from the subsequent October (2009) until May 2010, the CanPREP team fielded a second (revised) survey, collecting another 1,000 opinions from Canadians during a period of pre-pandemic anticipation and peri-pandemic experience. Methods Surveys were administered by telephone with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification approximating provincial percentages of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes, and to identify divergences (between the pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic surveys). Results N = 1,029 interviews were completed from 1,986 households, yielding a gross response rate of 52% (AAPOR Standard Definition 3). Over 90% of subjects indicated the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% indicating that saving lives solely in Canada was the highest priority and 50% indicating saving lives globally was the highest priority. About 90% of respondents supported the obligation of health care workers to report to work and face influenza pandemic risks excepting those with serious health conditions which that increased risks. Strong majorities favoured stocking adequate protective antiviral dosages for all Canadians (92%) and, if effective, influenza vaccinations (95%). Over 70% agreed Canada should provide international assistance to poorer countries for pandemic preparation, even if resources for Canadians were reduced. Conclusions Results suggest Canadians trust public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis is maintained on reciprocity and respect for individual rights. Canadians also support international obligations to help poorer countries and associated efforts to save lives outside the country, even if intra-national efforts are reduced. PMID:23530550

  19. Regulating the 1918-19 pandemic: flu, stoicism and the Northcliffe press.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Social historians have argued that the reason the 191819 Spanish influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was overshadowed by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the forgotten pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played by wartime propaganda. Instead, I put emotion words, emotives and metaphors at the heart of my analysis in an attempt to understand the interplay between propaganda and biopolitical discourses that aimed to regulate civilian responses to the pandemic. Drawing on the letters of Wilfred Owen, the diaries of the cultural historian Caroline Playne and the reporting in the Northcliffe press, I argue that the stoicism exhibited by Owen and amplified in the columns of The Times and the Daily Mail is best viewed as a performance, an emotional style that reflected the politicisation of dread in war as an emotion with the potential to undermine civilian morale. This was especially the case during the final year of the conflict when war-weariness set in, leading to the stricter policing of negative emotions. As a protean disease that could present as alternately benign and plague-like, the Spanish flu both drew on these discourses and subverted them, disrupting medical efforts to use the dread of foreign pathogens as an instrument of biopower. The result was that, as dread increasingly became attached to influenza, it destabilised medical attempts to regulate the civilian response to the pandemic, undermining Owens and the Northcliffe presss emotives of stoicism. PMID:24070344

  20. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu. PMID:25819057

  1. Preparing for pandemic influenza and its aftermath: mental health issues considered.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela K; Douglas, David B; Harrigan, Daniel C; Douglas, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    In November of 2005, President George W Bush requested $7.1 billion dollars for a global influenza epidemic preparedness initiative (Brown, 2005). Preparation measures for a biological threat or influenza pandemic focus on rapid quarantine, vaccines, developing antiviral treatments, and economic concerns (Brown, 2005; Ferguson et al., 2006; Reina, 2008). Although these public health measures are vital, they do not consider the acute mental health consequences that could develop during a pandemic and its aftermath. The most recent H1N1 swine flu has now spread to more than 70 countries (CDC, June 2009), and as of June 11, 2009, is considered a Phase 6 pandemic by the World Health Organization, indicative of ongoing community level outbreaks in multiple parts of the globe. Following recent cases of swine flu, global concern of an influenza pandemic has risen, and it is critical that metal health considerations become an integrated part of the pandemic response. Here, potential mental health consequences and high risk populations are identified and reviewed. Mental health professionals, communities, businesses, and organizations can create an infrastructure to help mitigate mental health consequences. These issues, as well as familial stressors and coping methods, are reviewed. PMID:20437844

  2. Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they breathe in tiny airborne droplets from the coughs or sneezes of someone who has the flu. ... through 4. But new symptoms occur, including: Dry cough Increased symptoms that affect breathing Runny nose (clear ...

  3. [The "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918-1919 in La Réunion (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2015-01-01

    Brought in by the ship Madonna, which was taking local survivors of World War I back to Reunion, the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic reached the island in March 1919 and lasted for three months. The controversies between doctors and between doctors and the colonial administrators, officials' desertion of their posts, and food shortages together caused a major panic. The epidemic appears to have ravaged people under the age of 40 and the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, at a period when the economy was already in the doldrums and the population had been declining since the late 19th century. Estimates indicate 2000 deaths in the capital of Saint-Denis, among a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and 7 to 20,000 deaths on the island as a whole, representing 4-11% of the population - far more than the 949 local soldiers killed on the battlefields of Europe. According to legend, salvation came from the sky as a small cyclone on May 11, 1919: it lasted an hour, swept away the "miasmas" and washed the island clean of all its impurities. PMID:25500279

  4. Children's fear reactions to the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic: the role of threat information as provided by parents.

    PubMed

    Remmerswaal, Danielle; Muris, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of threat information as provided by the parents to the development of children's fear within the context of the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic. Normal school children aged 7-12 years (N = 223) and their parents completed questionnaires to measure fear of the Swine Flu and general fearfulness for medical affairs. Children and parents were also asked to indicate to what extent parents had provided children with threat-related information about this disease. Results indicated that children's fear of the Swine Flu was significantly related to parents' fear of this disease. Further, it was found that parent's transmission of threat information was positively associated with children's fear and that this link remained significant when controlling for other sources of information (i.e., media, friends, and school) or direct experience with the disease. Most importantly, results showed that threat information as provided by the parents played a role in the association between parents' and children's fear. More precisely, support was found for a partial mediation model in which parents' fear of the Swine Flu was related with parents' threat information transmission, which in turn was associated with children's fear of the disease. PMID:21159486

  5. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  6. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    PubMed

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. PMID:24582319

  7. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009), representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics). Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06), an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25), at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews), and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males). In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups). The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the reporting rate. The finding of a low Re (close to unity threshold), combined with identification of social groups with high transmission rates would have enabled the containment of swine flu during the summer in Israel. Our unique use of contact data provided new insights into the differential dynamics of influenza in different ages and sexes, and should be promoted in future epidemiological studies. Thus our work highlights the importance of conducting a comprehensive study of the initial stage of a pandemic in real time. PMID:21492430

  8. La Gloria, Mexico: the possible origins and response of a worldwide H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the spread and route of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 from its possible origin in La Gloria to Mexico City. A lack of health control measures or nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in La Gloria accounts for the unprecedented high basic reproductive number (R0) in that town and a higher incidence of H1N1 flu in Mexico City. We analyzed data collected from Mexican news articles, the Healthmaps dataset, the Google search engine, and telephone interviews with Mexican community physicians and residents. Our article uses a simple Susceptible Infected and Recovered model based on the data collected, to show the relationship between the disease curve and the implementation of NPI use. As a result of this study, we conclude that, with strict government measures to control the disease over an extended period of time, it is possible that many hundreds or even thousands of lives might be saved in the future. PMID:23716374

  9. Early reporting of pandemic flu and the challenge of global surveillance: a lesson for Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Coker, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Abstract. An important issue at the start of the H1N1/2009 pandemic is global reporting of pandemic cases. Reports during the first few weeks of the pandemic showed spread of the disease from Mexico to many countries, but few cases were reported from low and middle income countries. Analysis of the data of international passengers departing from Mexican airports early in the H1N1/2009 outbreak shows a strong association between the number of passengers and reports of confirmed cases. In developing countries first case detection was slower and the chance of reporting the influenza cases after controlling for air traveller intensity was significantly lower. Delays in detection and reporting can jeopardize the success of a global response to a pandemic. A number of implications can be drawn from this, including the need to strengthen health system surveillance capacities in developing countries in Southeast Asia and globally for a better regional and global response. PMID:22299434

  10. Reassessing Google Flu Trends Data for Detection of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza: A Comparative Epidemiological Study at Three Geographic Scales

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Donald R.; Konty, Kevin J.; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data and computational methods for continued model-fitting and ongoing evaluation and improvement. PMID:24146603

  11. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  12. Using community triage centres or non-traditional care facilities during a flu pandemic or other infectious disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bone, Eric; Grono, Shawn; Johnson, David H; Johnson, Marcia

    2008-04-01

    One assumption of pandemic planning is that, during an influenza outbreak, acute care facilities may be quickly overrun with patients and as such must prepare in advance. In order to operationalise one component of a pandemic plan, Capital Health in Edmonton, Alberta, piloted a mobile triage centre facility (portable isolation containment systems) and tested pandemic influenza triage and assessment guidelines in the winter of 2006-07. The mobile model provided emergency department surge capacity for communicable disease emergencies with scalable deployment capabilities. The deployable module has several advantages over a fixed structure like a community facility. The triage facility is a location for short-term treatments, such as intravenous therapy, prescriptions, medication distribution, and self-care education, which are needed during a pandemic influenza outbreak. Decanting infectious patients away from the emergency department protects a highly-vulnerable hospitalised group from viral transmission. Based on the pilot, it is found that community triage centres are a viable support option for emergency departments in an urban setting during pandemic influenza. PMID:21339116

  13. [Modelling the impact of pandemic influenza].

    PubMed

    Chun, Byung-Chul

    2005-11-01

    The impact of the next influenza pandemic is difficult to predict. It is dependent on how virulent the virus is, how rapidly it spreads from population to population, and the effectiveness of prevention and response efforts. Despite the uncertainty about the magnitude of the next pandemic, estimates of the health and economic impact remain important to aid public health policy decisions and guide pandemic planning for health and emergency sectors. Planning ahead in preparation for an influenza pandemic, with its potentially very high morbidity and mortality rates, is essential for hospital administrators and public health officials. The estimation of pandemic impact is based on the previous pandemics--we had experienced at least 3 pandemics in 20th century. But the epidemiological characteristics--ie, start season, the impact of 1st wave, pathogenicity and virulence of the viruses and the primary victims of population were quite different from one another. I reviewed methodology for estimation and modelling of pandemic impact and described some nations's results using them in their national preparedness plans. And then I showed the estimates of pandemic influenza impact in Korea with FluSurge and FluAid. And, I described the results of pandemic modelling with parameters of 1918 pandemic for the sake of education and training of the first-line responder health officials to the epidemics. In preparing influenza pandemics, the simulation and modelling are the keys to reduce the uncertainty of the future and to make proper policies to manage and control the pandemics. PMID:16358821

  14. Pandemic influenza: is there a corporate duty to prepare?

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    This article considers whether in the wake of an influenza pandemic companies may be exposed to claims of legal liability for failing to provide employees with access to antiviral medications, as the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) now encourages businesses to do. It begins by describing influenza and influenza pandemics. It then discusses the benefits and limitations of antiviral therapies and the recent creation of antiviral option programs. It concludes by considering whether claims may be brought on the theory that corporate leadership is under a duty to prepare for a pandemic by considering whether to provide access to antiviral protection for employees. PMID:19998573

  15. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dominic E

    2011-07-22

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community and hospital-based investigators, to commence two worldwide clinical observational studies to describe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus activity. The purpose of these two studies was to estimate the percent of adult patients with illness due to laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks. PMID:21757105

  16. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 Studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community and hospital-based investigators, to commence two worldwide clinical observational studies to describe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus activity. The purpose of these two studies was to estimate the percent of adult patients with illness due to laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These “in progress” INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks. PMID:21757105

  17. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Paul Eckburg

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  18. Reflections on the UK's approach to the 2009 swine flu pandemic: conflicts between national government and the local management of the public health response.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jacky; Barker, Kezia; Rouse, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The first cases of swine flu in the UK were detected on 27th April 2009. Two weeks later Birmingham became a "hotspot" for the HIN1 pandemic in England. This paper describes the experiences of local public health agencies during the pandemic and the problems encountered when trying to work within a hierarchical and hermetic system of national policy making. We argue that over reliance on the speculative logic of modellers, together with a failure to adapt swiftly the nation's preparedness plans and public health apparatus created in readiness for a serious and fatal disease, led to an institutional void of policy making during the pandemic, where new rules and concepts emerged about what constituted scientifically acceptable and politically legitimate interventions. The imposition of a single national approach to managing the pandemic and a disregard for the role of local authorities seriously impaired the ability of local agencies to respond in a flexible, timely and pragmatic way to the rapidly emerging situation. Future planning for pandemics must recognise that global epidemics are curbed at the local level, and ensure that any response is proportionate, flexible and effective. PMID:22682089

  19. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  20. Clinical Outcome of Novel H1N1 (Swine Flu)-Infected Patients During 2009 Pandemic at Tertiary Referral Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan K.; Patel, Atul K.; Mehta, Parthiv M.; Amin, Richa P.; Patel, Kunal P.; Chuhan, Prakash C.; Naik, Eknath; Patel, Kamlesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Gujarat, India, was reported in August 2009. Oseltamivir was used for treatment of pandemic influenza in India. We discuss the clinical characteristics and outcome of the hospitalized patients with H1N1 infection during 2009 pandemic influenza season. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patient with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 flu during August 2009 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Data were collected from hospital ICU charts. Patients discharged from hospital were considered cured from swine flu. Data analysis was performed using CDC software EPI Info v3.5.3. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study, of them 41 (65%) males and 22 (35%) females. Median age was 34 (3-69) years and median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 5 (2-20) days. Common presenting symptoms include fever 58 (92.06%), cough 58 (92.06%), breathlessness 38 (60.31%), common cold 14 (22.22%), vomiting 12 (19.04%), weakness 9 (14.28%), throat pain 7 (11.11%), body ache 5 (7.93%), and chest pain 4 (6.34%). Co-morbidities were seen in 13 (20.63%) patients. Steroids were used in 39 (61.90%) patients, and ventilatory support was required in 17 (26.98%) patients. On presentation chest x-ray was normal in 20 (31.74%) patients, while pulmonary opacities were seen in 43 (68.26%) patients. Forty-seven (74.60%) patients were cured and discharged from hospital, 14 (22.22%) patients died, and 2 (3.17%) patients were shifted to other hospital. Ventilatory requirement, pneumonia, and co-morbidities were the independent predictors of mortality, while age, sex, and steroid use were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: 2009 pandemic influenza A had the same clinical features as seasonal influenza except vomiting. Mortality rate was high in 2009 H1N1-infected patients with pneumonia, co-morbid conditions, and patients who required ventilatory support. PMID:24049362

  1. Determinants of individuals’ risks to 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection at household level amongst Djibouti city residents - A CoPanFlu cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level. Methods From the four city administrative districts, 1,045 subjects from 324 households were included during a face-to-face encounter between 11th November 2010 and 15th February 2011. Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Risk assessments were performed in a generalised estimating equation model. Results In this study, the indicator of positive infection status was set at an HI titre of ≥ 80, which was a relevant surrogate to the seroconversion criterion. All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. An overall sero-prevalence of 29.1% and a geometrical mean titre (GMT) of 39.5% among the residents was observed. Youths, ≤ 25 years and the elderly, ≥65 years had the highest titres, with values of 35.9% and 29.5%, respectively. Significantly, risk was high amongst youths ≤ 25 years, (OR 1.5-2.2), residents of District 4(OR 2.9), students (OR 1.4) and individuals living near to river banks (OR 2.5). Belonging to a large household (OR 0.6), being employed (OR 0.5) and working in open space-outdoor (OR 0.4) were significantly protective. Only 1.4% of the cohort had vaccination against the pandemic virus and none were immunised against seasonal influenza. Conclusion Despite the limited number of incident cases detected by the surveillance system, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated broadly in Djibouti in 2010 and 2011. Age-group distribution of cases was similar to what has been reported elsewhere, with youths at the greatest risk of infection. Future respiratory infection control should therefore be tailored to reach specific and vulnerable individuals such as students and those working in groups indoors. It is concluded that the lack of robust data provided by surveillance systems in southern countries could be responsible for the underestimation of the epidemiological burden, although the main characteristics are essentially similar to what has been observed in developed countries. PMID:24468218

  2. Post-Pandemic Seroprevalence of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection (Swine Flu) among Children <18 Years in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Wirth, Stephan; Kaiser, Petra; Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Schroten, Horst; Streng, Andrea; Liese, Johannes; Shai, Sonu; Niehues, Tim; Girschick, Hermann; Kuscher, Ellen; Sauerbrey, Axel; Peters, Jochen; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz; Rückinger, Simon; Hampl, Walter; Michel, Detlef; Mertens, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1st to July 31st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT) and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1–4 and 5–17 years the prevalence of HI titers (≥1∶10) was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5–31.3) and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9–56.2) compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3–30.5) in children aged 1–4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6–52.0) in 5–17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ≥1∶10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5–28.8) reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0–96.6) of the 5–17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5–66.5) of the 1–4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009. Conclusion Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5–17 years) infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03B-adjuvanted split virion vaccine need further scrutiny. PMID:21915270

  3. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

  4. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of

  5. How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics – a scent of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires two major innovations. First, data that is obtained should be shared with the global community instantly. The strength of rapid integration of simple signals is exemplified by Google’sTM Flu Trend, which could predict the incidence of influenza-like illness based on online search engine queries. Second, omics technologies need to be fast and high-throughput. We postulate that analysis of the exhaled breath would be a simple, rapid and non-invasive alternative. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are altered by infection and inflammation. The molecular fingerprint of breath (breathprint) can be obtained using an electronic nose, which relies on sensor technology. These breathprints can be stored in an online database (a “breathcloud”) and coupled to clinical data. Comparison of the breathprint of a suspected subject to the breathcloud allows for a rapid decision on the presence or absence of a pathogen. PMID:24795745

  6. Evaluation of treatment with Oseltamivir during the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic: the problem of incomplete clinical information.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, Somayeh; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    During the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic of 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed more than 14,000 deaths globally; this included a death toll of 147 in Iran. In order to evaluate (a) the appropriateness of the Oseltamivir dose through calculation of a patient’s creatinine clearance (CrCl) and (b) the quality of data in the medical charts, we conducted a retrospective study at the Shariati Hospital in Tehran. All admissions to the hospital between the dates 1 October 2009 and 31 January 2010 were evaluated, amounting to a total of 51 patients’ charts, including 8 outpatient charts. Of these 51 charts, 26 (51%) contained all the information necessary to evaluate the CrCl. However, there was at least one piece of information missing (e.g. the patient’s weight; serum creatinine) from each of the remaining 25 charts (49% of the sample), which made it impossible for us to evaluate the dose. These results demonstrate how crucially important it is to ensure that all the necessary patient information is correctly registered at the time of admission in order to minimise medication errors. PMID:22754968

  7. Natural T Cell–mediated Protection against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza. Results of the Flu Watch Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Bermingham, Alison; Copas, Andrew; Dukes, Oliver; Millett, Elizabeth R. C.; Nazareth, Irwin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Watson, John M.; Zambon, Maria; Johnson, Anne M.; McMichael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. Methods: We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus–specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P < 0.001) in participants lacking antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09. Comparison of paired preseason and post-season sera (1,431 sets) showed 205 (14%) had evidence of infection based on fourfold influenza antibody titer rises. The presence of NP-specific T cells before exposure to virus correlated with less symptomatic, PCR-positive influenza A (overall adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.68; P = 0.005, during pandemic [P = 0.047] and seasonal [P = 0.049] periods). Protection was independent of baseline antibodies. Influenza-specific T-cell responses were detected in 43%, indicating a substantial population impact. Conclusions: Naturally occurring cross-protective T-cell immunity protects against symptomatic PCR-confirmed disease in those with evidence of infection and helps to explain why many infections do not cause symptoms. Vaccines stimulating T cells may provide important cross-protective immunity. PMID:25844934

  8. Alternative live-attenuated influenza vaccines based on modifications in the polymerase genes protect against epidemic and pandemic flu.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, Alicia; Ye, Jianqiang; Pérez, Daniel R

    2010-05-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccination is the most effective means for disease prevention. We have previously shown that mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of the live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) could be transferred to avian influenza viruses and produce partially attenuated viruses. We also demonstrated that avian influenza viruses carrying the PB1 and PB2 mutations could be further attenuated by stably introducing a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag in the PB1 gene. In this work, we wanted to determine whether these modifications would also result in attenuation of a so-called triple reassortant (TR) swine influenza virus (SIV). Thus, the TR influenza A/swine/Wisconsin/14094/99 (H3N2) virus was generated by reverse genetics and subsequently mutated in the PB1 and PB2 genes. Here we show that a combination of mutations in this TR backbone results in an attenuated virus in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show the potential of our TR backbone as a vaccine that provides protection against the 2009 swine-origin pandemic influenza H1N1 virus (S-OIV) when carrying the surface of a classical swine strain. We propose that the availability of alternative backbones to the conventional ca A/Ann Arbor/6/60 LAIV strain could also be useful in epidemic and pandemic influenza and should be considered for influenza vaccine development. In addition, our data provide evidence that the use of these alternative backbones could potentially circumvent the effects of original antigenic sin (OAS) in certain circumstances. PMID:20181702

  9. Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to lower ... flu and spreading it to others. The flu vaccine causes antibodies to develop in your body about ...

  10. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

  11. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English ...

  12. Swine flu is back again: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Deb, Rajib; Karthik, K; Kapoor, Sanjay; Mahima; Tiwari, Ruchi; Panwar, Parmod Kumar; Chakraborty, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian/Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as 'mixing bowl' for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak. PMID:24163942

  13. Is it a policy crisis or it is a health crisis? The Egyptian context--analysis of the Egyptian health policy for the H1N1 flu pandemic control.

    PubMed

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A new influenza virus that was first detected in people in April 2009, was initially referred to colloquially as "swine flu", since it contained genes from swine, avian and human influenza viruses. It can, however, not be transmitted by eating pork or dealing with pigs. In Egypt, several hundred thousand pigs were killed in May, in spite of advice from global health authorities that such an action was unnecessary. Pigs are raised and consumed mainly by the Christian minority, which constitute some 10% of the population. Health Ministry estimated there were between 300,000-350,000 pigs in Egypt. This paper will analyze the Egyptian health policy for controlling the pandemic H1N1 flu, exploring its context, content, process, and actors. The analysis is based on the Leichter Context, which refers to systemic factors-political, economic and social, both national and international-that may have an effect on health policy, and is based on data collected from literature review and policy documents. The International health officials said the swine flu virus that has caused worldwide fear is not transmitted by pigs, and that pig slaughters do nothing to stop its spread. The WHO stopped using the term "swine flu" to avoid confusion. In Egypt, even the editor of a pro-government newspaper criticized the order to slaughter: "Killing (pigs) is not a solution, otherwise, we should kill the people, because the virus spreads through them," wrote Abdullah Kamal of the daily Rose El-Youssef. The World Health organization also criticized the decision. The extinction of the Egyptian pigs is an example of how a health issue can be used to persecute a minority within a country. Although the current influenza has nothing whatsoever to do with pigs, the previous name of the epidemic was used as an argument to violate the rights of the Christian minority in Egypt. PMID:23565306

  14. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  15. [Spanish flu related data].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-10-01

    Swine flu epidemic is a current topic, and data relating to Spanish flu pandemic from 1918 to 1920 were presented for your information. Monthly trend of number of deaths due to influenza, acute bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchopneumonia together with PTB, other TB and TB of all forms from 1917 to 1920 was presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Flu epidemics in early 1917 and from winter 1917 to spring 1818 were so-called common seasonal flu epidemic, however, new pandemic started from October 1918, and the number of deaths due to flu increased 14 times compared with previous month in October, 19 times in November, and the pandemic reached the summit, and started to decrease from December, however, marked decline was seen only after April 1919. The number of deaths due to flu started to increase again from November 1919, and reached its summit again in January 1920, and the pandemic ended in July. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza in 1918 was shown in Fig. 2. The rate was high among infants, 20s and 30s and elderly, and by sex, the rate of female was higher below 35 and lower above 35. The number of deaths due to acute bronchitis and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia fluctuated in parallel with that of influenza, and deaths due to these conditions were very difficult to differentiate, and the impact of flu could better be evaluated by summing up all these three conditions, the sum of deaths due to three conditions was expressed as influenza related death. The proportion of deaths due to three conditions by age group was shown in Fig. 3. The proportion of acute bronchitis was high in infants and elderly, and in the other age groups, influenza occupied around 30% and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia around 70% of influenza related death. Total number of deaths due to influenza related diseases from 1918 to 1920 was 816,884, and the annual rate was 489.4 per 100,000. Annual age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza related diseases was shown in Fig. 4, and it showed similar pattern with that of influenza. Because of huge excess death of TB patients due to influenza and related diseases, TB mortality in Japan, which had been increasing since 1884, started to decrease since 1919, and TB mortality which had been decreasing slowly since the beginning of 20th century in European countries and the US, the decline was accelerated since 1919. PMID:19928552

  16. Influenza Pandemic: Continued Focus on the Nation's Planning and Preparedness Efforts Remains Essential. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-760T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the recent outbreak of the H1N1 (swine flu) virus underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation and to the world. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted a body of work to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In a February 2009 report, GAO synthesized the…

  17. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other

  18. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

  19. The nonadaptive nature of the H1N1 2009 Swine Flu pandemic contrasts with the adaptive facilitation of transmission to a new host

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic followed a multiple reassortment event from viruses originally circulating in swines and humans, but the adaptive nature of this emergence is poorly understood. Results Here we base our analysis on 1180 complete genomes of H1N1 viruses sampled in North America between 2000 and 2010 in swine and human hosts. We show that while transmission to a human host might require an adaptive phase in the HA and NA antigens, the emergence of the 2009 pandemic was essentially nonadaptive. A more detailed analysis of the NA protein shows that the 2009 pandemic sequence is characterized by novel epitopes and by a particular substitution in loop 150, which is responsible for a nonadaptive structural change tightly associated with the emergence of the pandemic. Conclusions Because this substitution was not present in the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus, we posit that the emergence of pandemics is due to epistatic interactions between sites distributed over different segments. Altogether, our results are consistent with population dynamics models that highlight the epistatic and nonadaptive rise of novel epitopes in viral populations, followed by their demise when the resulting virus is too virulent. PMID:21211019

  20. Bird Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. Most bird ... be possible to catch bird flu by eating poultry or eggs that are not well cooked or ...

  1. "Stomach Flu"

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en español " ... virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their stomachs. ...

  2. Bulls, Bears, and Birds: Preparing the Financial Industry for an Avian Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Maldin, Beth; Inglesby, Thomas V; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Lien, Onora; Gronvall, Gigi Kwik; Toner, Eric; O'Toole, Tara

    2005-01-01

    Bulls, Bears, and Birds: Preparing the Financial Industry for an Avian Influenza Pandemic was a half day symposium on avian influenza for senior leaders and decision makers from the financial sector with responsibility for business continuity, health, and security. The event brought together experts and leaders from the medical, public health, business continuity, and financial communities to appraise financial industry leaders on the threat of avian influenza and to offer suggestions regarding what the financial industry could do to prepare and respond. PMID:16366846

  3. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Flu > Understanding Flu Flu Understanding Flu Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  4. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Flu > Understanding Flu Flu Understanding Flu Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  5. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?

  6. H1N1: can a pandemic cycle be broken?

    PubMed

    Settembre, Ethan C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Rappuoli, Rino

    2010-03-24

    The influenza virus that caused the 2009 H1N1 swine-origin flu pandemic is antigenically similar to the one that caused the devastating 1918 pandemic. Over time, the human population became susceptible to a modified version of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus that had been archived in swine. Now, two papers, one in this issue of Science Translational Medicine and one in Science, shed mechanistic light on how glycosylation gave rise to seasonal human flu viruses that are immunologically distinct from their 1918 pandemic precursor and the 2009 pandemic strain. These findings suggest strategies to anticipate and prevent future pandemics. PMID:20375006

  7. Updated preparedness and response framework for influenza pandemics.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Rachel; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Zaza, Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Jernigan, Daniel B

    2014-09-26

    The complexities of planning for and responding to the emergence of novel influenza viruses emphasize the need for systematic frameworks to describe the progression of the event; weigh the risk of emergence and potential public health impact; evaluate transmissibility, antiviral resistance, and severity; and make decisions about interventions. On the basis of experience from recent influenza responses, CDC has updated its framework to describe influenza pandemic progression using six intervals (two prepandemic and four pandemic intervals) and eight domains. This updated framework can be used for influenza pandemic planning and serves as recommendations for risk assessment, decision-making, and action in the United States. The updated framework replaces the U.S. federal government stages from the 2006 implementation plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (US Homeland Security Council. National strategy for pandemic influenza: implementation plan. Washington, DC: US Homeland Security Council; 2006. Available at http://www.flu.gov/planning-preparedness/federal/pandemic-influenza-implementation.pdf). The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. The following eight domains are used to organize response efforts within each interval: incident management, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory, community mitigation, medical care and countermeasures, vaccine, risk communications, and state/local coordination. Compared with the previous U.S. government stages, this updated framework provides greater detail and clarity regarding the potential timing of key decisions and actions aimed at slowing the spread and mitigating the impact of an emerging pandemic. Use of this updated framework is anticipated to improve pandemic preparedness and response in the United States. Activities and decisions during a response are event-specific. These intervals serve as a reference for public health decision-making by federal, state, and local health authorities in the United States during an influenza pandemic and are not meant to be prescriptive or comprehensive. This framework incorporates information from newly developed tools for pandemic planning and response, including the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool and the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework, and has been aligned with the pandemic phases restructured in 2013 by the World Health Organization. PMID:25254666

  8. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Past Newsletters Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... an additional B virus. What kinds of flu vaccines are available for children? The trivalent flu vaccine ...

  9. Substantial Impact of School Closure on the Transmission Dynamics during the Pandemic Flu H1N1-2009 in Oita, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background School closure is considered as an effective measure to prevent pandemic influenza. Although Japan has implemented many class, grade, and whole school closures during the early stage of the pandemic 2009, the effectiveness of such a school closure has not been analysed appropriately. In addition, analysis based on evidence or data from a large population has yet to be performed. We evaluated the preventive effect of school closure against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and examined efficient strategies of reactive school closure. Materials and Methods Data included daily reports of reactive school closures and the number of infected students in the pandemic in Oita City, Japan. We used a regression model that incorporated a time delay to analyse the daily data of school closure based on a time continuous susceptible-exposed-infected-removed model of infectious disease spread. The delay was due to the time-lag from transmission to case reporting. We simulated the number of students infected daily with and without school closure and evaluated the effectiveness. Results The model with a 3-day delay from transmission to reporting yielded the best fit using R2 (the coefficient of determination). This result suggests that the recommended period of school closure is more than 4 days. Moreover, the effect of school closure in the simulation of school closure showed the following: the number of infected students decreased by about 24% at its peak, and the number of cumulative infected students decreased by about 8.0%. Conclusions School closure was an effective intervention for mitigating the spread of influenza and should be implemented for more than 4 days. School closure has a remarkable impact on decreasing the number of infected students at the peak, but it does not substantially decrease the total number of infected students. PMID:26669757

  10. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  11. Pandemic influenza computer model (no soundtrack)

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Lab

    2009-05-01

    Simulation of a pandemic flu outbreak in the continental United States, initially introduced by the arrival of 10 infected individuals in Los Angeles. ----------The spatiotemporal dynamics of the prevalence (number of symptomatic cases at any point in

  12. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms and their clinical judgment. Will my health care provider test me for flu if I have flu-like ... not change how you are treated. Your health care provider may diagnose you ... diagnostic test. During an outbreak of respiratory illness, testing for ...

  13. Avian and pandemic influenza: a biosocial approach. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Arthur M; Bloom, Barry R; Saich, Anthony; Mason, Katherine A; Aulino, Felicity

    2008-02-15

    The Harvard University Asian Flus and Avian Influenza Workshop, held in December 2006, introduced a biosocial approach to the preparation for and control of pandemics. A biosocial approach brings together the biological and social sciences to develop an integrative, collaborative response to the threat of pandemic influenza. The articles in this supplement provide a representative sampling of some of the ways in which the workshop worked toward this biosocial vision. These articles address the historical "siting" of epidemics, political and structural pandemic preparedness in China, lessons to be taken from the 1976 "swine flu affair," possibilities for genetic engineering as an alternative to poultry vaccination, issues to be considered in the control of infectious disease in swine and avian species, the ecology of influenza in migratory birds, and issues of stigma and trust during the control of epidemics. The need to build public trust and public health infrastructure is one of the primary messages of this collection. PMID:18269321

  14. Pandemic lessons.

    PubMed

    Collins, Nicholas

    2009-08-01

    Australia is in the midst of its traditional influenza season. This year the spectrum of viral respiratory infections has been joined by a newcomer as feared as any previous variation of influenza. Human swine flu, a novel influenza A H1N1 virus (now known as 'H1N1 09'), emerged from the Americas into the full glare of western media and the World Health Organization (WHO) spotlights. Improvements in global public health infrastructure since the 20th century pandemics were set to be challenged by 21st century advances in worldwide travel. The southern hemisphere is the theatre; the stage is primary care; general practitioners are the key players in the first act. PMID:19893775

  15. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  16. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say

  17. Pandemic planning.

    PubMed

    Snacken, R

    2002-05-15

    During the previous century, three influenza A pandemics occurred with a variable severity. The two latter were explained by a genetic re-assortment and false alarms without pandemic spread were observed later by the same mechanism or by direct animal infection. The likelihood that such an event occurs again is high and each country has to be prepared for facing what could be a catastrophe. The last event in Hong Kong in 1997 where six persons died, has allowed refining the definitions and phasing a pandemic threat from the moment that a novel virus is discovered. WHO implemented 50 years ago a large network of surveillance with five collaborating centres, including the animal influenza centre of Memphis, and 110 national influenza centres. These centres are encouraged to prepare or improve a national contingency plan that could reduce importantly medical and socio-economic consequences of an influenza A pandemic. Countries or regions are recommended to use these guidelines that provide a framework for preparing an appropriate and proportionate response. PMID:12110268

  18. Flu.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Activities History Protect Yourself and Your Family Against Flu As long as flu viruses are still circulating, ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder Your browser does not support iframes. ...

  19. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  20. Risk factors of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in a prospective household cohort in the general population: results from the CoPanFlu-France cohort

    PubMed Central

    Delabre, Rosemary M; Lapidus, Nathanael; Salez, Nicolas; Mansiaux, Yohann; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Carrat, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Background The CoPanFlu-France household cohort was set up in 2009 to identify risk factors of infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus in the general population. Objectives To investigate the determinants of infection during the 20102011 season, the first complete influenza season of study follow-up for this cohort. Patients/Methods Pre- and post-epidemic blood samples were collected for all subjects, and nasal swabs were obtained in all subjects from households where an influenza-like illness was reported. Cases were defined as either a fourfold increase in the serological titer or a laboratory-confirmed H1N1pdm09 on a nasal swab, with either RT-PCR or multiplex PCR. Risk factors for H1N1pdm09 infections were explored, without any pre-specified hypothesis, among 167 individual, collective and environmental covariates via generalized estimating equations modeling. We adopted a multimodel selection procedure to control for model selection uncertainty. Results This analysis is based on a sample size of 1121 subjects. The final multivariable model identified one risk factor (history of asthma, OR = 217; 95% CI: 102462) and three protective factors: pre-epidemic serological titer (OR = 051 per doubling of the titer; 95% CI: 039067), green tea consumption a minimum of two times a week (OR = 039; 95% CI: 018084), and proportion of subjects in the household always covering their mouth while coughing/sneezing (OR = 093 per 10% increase; 95% CI: 086100). Conclusion This exploratory study provides further support of previously reported risk factors and highlights the importance of collective protective behaviors in the household. Further analyses will be conducted to explore these findings. PMID:25495468

  1. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Khmer ( ... Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Home Care for Pandemic Flu Soins à domicile ...

  2. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n = 1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of worry about the risk of catching swine flu, whether too much fuss was being made about the pandemic, whether they or a close friend or relative had had swine flu, how effective they felt the vaccine was, whether they had previously had a seasonal flu vaccination, how well prepared they felt the government was for a pandemic and how satisfied they were with information available about the pandemic. Most participants (n = 734, 55.6%) reported being vaccinated against swine flu, compared to 396 who had not been vaccinated and were unlikely to be vaccinated in the future. Results The main reasons given for declining vaccination were concerns over the vaccine's safety, and being generally healthy. Controlling for demographic variables, risk factors for not being vaccinated were: being female, not having a long-standing infirmity or illness, not having been vaccinated against seasonal flu in previous years, feeling that too much fuss had been made about the pandemic and believing that the vaccine was ineffective. Conclusions Interventions that target these factors may be effective in improving uptake in a future pandemic. PMID:26757401

  3. Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... Treatment Evaluation Units Flu.gov ​​​ ​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  4. Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

  5. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Child All About Food Allergies First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  6. Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; Rawlinson, William; Lewis, Lundy; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. Objective To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. Methods One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. Results This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians concerns about ITs impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. Conclusions Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospitals preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementations success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and local levels with insights to refine relevant public health policies for the planning and management of pandemics from the eHealth perspective. PMID:23611788

  7. Rapid preparation of mutated influenza hemagglutinins for influenza virus pandemic prevention.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Ryosuke; Satomura, Atsushi; Yamada, Junki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Influenza viruses have periodically caused pandemic due to frequent mutation of viral proteins. Influenza viruses have two major membrane glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hemagglutinin plays a crucial role in viral entry, while NA is involved in the process of a viral escape. In terms of developing antiviral drugs, HA is a more important target than NA in the prevention of pandemic, since HA is likely to change the host specificity of a virus by acquiring mutations, thereby to increase the risk of pandemic. To characterize mutated HA functions, current approaches require immobilization of purified HA on plastic wells and carriers. These troublesome methods make it difficult to respond to emerging mutations. In order to address this problem, a yeast cell surface engineering approach was investigated. Using this technology, human HAs derived from various H1N1 subtypes were successfully and rapidly displayed on the yeast cell surface. The yeast-displayed HAs exhibited similar abilities to native influenza virus HAs. Using this system, human HAs with 190E and 225G mutations were shown to exhibit altered recognition specificities from human to avian erythrocytes. This system furthermore allowed direct measurement of HA binding abilities without protein purification and immobilization. Coupled with the ease of genetic manipulation, this system allows the simple and comprehensive construction of mutant protein libraries on yeast cell surface, thereby contributing to influenza virus pandemic prevention. PMID:26797882

  8. Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

    2006-12-01

    The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

  9. Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges that people have little or no immunity to and for which there may be no vaccine. The disease spreads easily person-to-person and causes serious illness. It can sweep across the country and around the world very quickly. It is hard to predict when the…

  10. Preventing the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the past or who are allergic to eggs If I get the flu vaccine, can I still get the flu? Yes. Even with a flu vaccine, you aren't 100% protected. Each year, the flu vaccine contains different strains (kinds) of the virus. The strains chosen are those that scientists believe ...

  11. Preparing for and Responding to Pandemic Influenza: Implications for People With Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gilyard, Jamylle A.; Sinclair, Lisa; Sternberg, Tom; Kailes, June I.

    2009-01-01

    State, local, tribal, and territorial emergency managers and public health officials must address the specific needs of people with disabilities in their pandemic influenza plans. Evidence from Hurricane Katrina indicated that this population was disproportionately affected by the storm and aftermath. People with disabilities, particularly those who require personal assistance and those who reside in congregate care facilities, may be at increased risk during an influenza pandemic because of disrupted care or the introduction of the virus by their caregivers. Emergency and public health planners must ensure that personal assistance agencies and congregate care operators make provisions for backup staffing and that those who provide critical care are given adequate antiviral drugs and vaccines as they become available. PMID:19797741

  12. Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Preparation and Delivery of Critical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Manuell, Mary-Elise; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Ellison, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    In a five week span during the 1918 influenza A pandemic, more than 2,000 patients were admitted to Cook County Hospital in Chicago with a diagnosis of either influenza or pneumonia; 642 patients, approximately 31% of those admitted, died with deaths occurring predominantly in patients twenty-five to thirty years of age.1 This review summarizes basic information on the biology, epidemiology, control, treatment and prevention of influenza overall, and then addresses the potential impact of pandemic influenza in an Intensive Care Unit setting. Issues that require consideration include workforce staffing and safety, resource management, alternate sites of care surge of patients, altered standards of care and crisis communication. PMID:21220275

  13. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past?

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. PMID:26848365

  14. Pulmonary sequelae in a patient recovered from swine flu.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Patel, Vivek

    2012-07-01

    The pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) influenza spread to involve the whole world rapidly. Many patients manifested a mild clinical illness but some developed pneumonia and respiratory failure. High mortality was observed in patients with severe disease. Among survivors, studies are limited. Ground-glass opacities on a high-resolution computerized tomography scan and reduced diffusion capacity were noted after 3 months in a study. But long-term complications in patients with swine flu pneumonia have not been studied well. We are presenting an unusual case of swine flu pneumonia who developed interstitial lung disease after recovery. PMID:22919170

  15. Pulmonary sequelae in a patient recovered from swine flu

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Patel, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) influenza spread to involve the whole world rapidly. Many patients manifested a mild clinical illness but some developed pneumonia and respiratory failure. High mortality was observed in patients with severe disease. Among survivors, studies are limited. Ground-glass opacities on a high-resolution computerized tomography scan and reduced diffusion capacity were noted after 3 months in a study. But long-term complications in patients with swine flu pneumonia have not been studied well. We are presenting an unusual case of swine flu pneumonia who developed interstitial lung disease after recovery. PMID:22919170

  16. [Pandemic A/H1N1 2009 as an international health event with a global impact].

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Alex; Mor, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    Since the end of April 2009, in proximity with the decline of the seasonal flu season, the world has been acquainted with an outbreak of influenza of a new type of A/H1N1 in Mexico and the USA. The virus has spread throughout the world and become a pandemic flu, for the first time since 1968. This article addresses the global aspects of the outbreak of this new pandemic influenza, starting from the first event of "Avian Flu" in 1997 in Hong Kong, through the outbreaks of SARS in 2003, and the Avian Flu, which also began in 2003, and is still endemic in some countries. This article overviews the International Health Regulations (IHR), which were endorsed by all Member States in 2005, and have been in effect since June 2007. For the first time in history, the Member States of World Health Organization (WHO) were prepared for the upcoming pandemic flu by establishing national preparedness plans and stockpiling anti-viral drugs, even without knowing when and where the first outbreak would take place. The IHR has delegated authority to the WHO to act and lead countries in coping with the various phases of the pandemic in a centralized fashion, starting with formulating the epidemiological surveillance and reports, indications and step-by-step declarations on the alert levels from 4 to 6 announced on June 11th, 2009. The article examines the performances of the WHO and its Director General in exercising the IHR for the first time and leading the event in a professional, harmonized and respectful fashion. Nevertheless, currently, the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 seems to be a mild disease clinically, although causing death, but it has not yet eased, and there are still major question marks concerning its future. Its future spread and severity, together with the WHO response will impact the WHO's ability to conduct global initiatives. Regional cooperation with the Palestinian Authority and Jordan before and after this pandemic influenza outbreak is noted. PMID:20088429

  17. Overcrowding and Mortality During the Influenza Pandemic of 1918.

    PubMed

    Aligne, C Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918 killed more than 50 million people. Why was 1918 such an outlier? I. W. Brewer, a US Army physician at Camp Humphreys, Virginia, during the First World War, investigated several factors suspected of increasing the risk of severe flu: length of service in the army, race, dirty dishes, flies, dust, crowding, and weather. Overcrowding stood out, increasing the risk of flu 10-fold and the risk of flu complicated with pneumonia five-fold. Calculations made with Brewer's data show that the overall relationship between overcrowding and severe flu was highly significant (P < .001). Brewer's findings suggest that man-made conditions increased the severity of the pandemic flu illness. PMID:26959269

  18. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  19. Symptoms and Complications of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Flu > Understanding Flu Flu Understanding Flu Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  20. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless) are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation. PMID:19807908

  1. [Pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus RNA isolation rate in specimens of patients diagnosed as flu in a University Hospital in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Aydın, Faruk; Buruk, C Kurtuluş; Ertürk, Murat

    2010-07-01

    Swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV) has been of global concern towards the end of 2009 with its high morbidity rate and pandemic aspect. In this study, the presence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus RNA was investigated in patients clinically diagnosed as influenza infection in the university hospital in Trabzon province (located at Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey). Oropharyngeal and nasal swab samples were collected from 211 patients (mean age: 18.5 years) who were admitted to our hospital between 16 November 2009 and 10 January 2010. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus RNA in the samples was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected in 41 of the patients (19.4%). The mean age of the cases was 11.7 years old. The highest positivity rate (44%) was seen in samples collected between 23-29 December 2009, while no positive samples were detected after 29 December 2009. PMID:21064004

  2. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  3. Pandemic H1N1 influenza: zoonoses are a two-way street

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease representing a worldwide health and economic threat to humans and animals. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern United States in 1918 concurrent with the Spanish flu human pandemic. Since the first report that flu was caused ...

  4. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  5. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PARENT S | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Flu (Influenza) and the Vaccine to Prevent It Last updated ... 2014 The best way to protect against the flu is by getting the flu vaccine. Doctors recommend ...

  6. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alan A.; Tillinghast, John; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918–1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result. PMID:21796260

  7. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A; Tillinghast, John; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-04-13

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result. PMID:21796260

  8. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  9. Pregnancy and the flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you do not get treatment: In past flu outbreaks, pregnant women who were otherwise healthy were more likely than those who were not pregnant to become very sick or ... with the flu will have mild symptoms at first. Pregnant women ...

  10. Flu Vaccination: The Gap Between Evidence and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Forcades i Vila, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this article exposes a wide gap between evidence and public policy with regard to influenza vaccination in the context of the 2009 pandemic and with regard to yearly seasonal epidemics. It shows that the World Health Organization and health authorities worldwide failed to protect the interests of the most vulnerable during the 2009 flu pandemic and demonstrates a lack of scientific base for seasonal flu vaccination campaigns. Narrowing the gap between scientific evidence and public health policies with regard to influenza is a serious and urgent matter, one that implies confronting the interests of big pharmaceutical corporations and their allies at academic and government levels. The credibility of science and the well-being of many are at stake. PMID:26077855

  11. Representations of swine flu: perspectives from a Malaysian pig farm.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Hassan, Sharifah Binti Syed; Dhanoa, Amreeta

    2011-07-01

    Novel influenza viruses are seen, internationally, as posing considerable health challenges, but public responses to such viruses are often rooted in cultural representations of disease and risk. However, little research has been conducted in locations associated with the origin of a pandemic. We examined representations and risk perceptions associated with swine flu amongst 120 Malaysian pig farmers. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents felt at particular risk of infection, two-thirds were somewhat or very concerned about being infected. Those respondents who were the most anxious believed particular societal "out-groups" (homosexuals, the homeless and prostitutes) to be at higher infection risk. Although few (4%) reported direct discrimination, 46% claimed friends had avoided them since the swine flu outbreak. Findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, social representations and terror management theories of response to pandemic threat. PMID:21936262

  12. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  13. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  14. [Infection by the pandemic virus (H1N1) 2009 in Andalusia].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortés, José María; Ruiz Fernández, Josefa; Pachón Díaz, Jerónimo; Navarro Marí, José María; Puell Gómez, Luz; Pérez Morilla, Esteban; Gallardo García, Virtudes; Duran Pla, Enric; Fernández Merino, Juan Carlos; Pajares Bernaldo-Quirós, Ignacio; Murillo Cabeza, Francisco; Pérez Ruiz, M; Guillén Enríquez, Javier; Carmona, Juan Carlos; Andérica Frías, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    In April 2009, in response to the WHO's alert due to the existence of human infection cases with a new AH1N1 influenza virus, known as swine flu, Andalusian Health Authorities trigger an specific action plan. The surveillance actions developped provided us with appropriate clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the disease. During the first few days, contingency plans were set up based on epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control measures were adopted through early alert and rapid response systems. After phase 6 was declared, influenza sentinel and severe cases surveillance were used in order to plan healthcare services, to reduce transmission and to identify and protect the most vulnerable population groups. Behaviour of pandemic influenza in Andalusia was similar to that observed in the rest of the world. Atack rate was similar to a seasonal flu and the peak was reached at the 46th/2009 week. Most of them were mild cases and affected particularly to young people. The average age of hospitalised patients was 32. Prior pulmonary disease, smoking and morbid obesity (BMI > 40) were the most common pathologies and risk factors in severe cases. An impact scenario of pandemic wave in Andalusia, with an expected attack rate from 2 to 5%, was prepared considering watt observed in the southern hemisphere. Characteristics of the epidemic concerning its extent, severity and mortality rate were adjusted to this scenario. PMID:21203717

  15. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to treat influenza illness. Antiviral drugs fight influenza viruses in your body. They are different from antibiotics, which fight against bacterial infections. What should Ido if Ithink Ihave the flu? ...

  16. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with green- or yellow-colored discharge) Sore throat Cough Sneezing Fatigue Muscle aches Headache Watery eyes Cold ... aches, especially in your back, arms and legs Cough Headache Loss of appetite What is H1N1 flu? ...

  17. Get Your Flu Shot Before the Flu Is Widespread: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the United States, health officials say the holiday season will likely change that, so everyone should get ... late to get vaccinated." In a typical flu season, flu complications -- including pneumonia -- send more than 200, ...

  18. Predominant Role of Bacterial Pneumonia as a Cause of Death in Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of published data on 4 pandemics that have occurred over the past 120 years, there is little modern information on the causes of death associated with influenza pandemics. Methods We examined relevant information from the most recent influenza pandemic that occurred during the era prior to the use of antibiotics, the 19181919 Spanish flu pandemic. We examined lung tissue sections obtained during 58 autopsies and reviewed pathologic and bacteriologic data from 109 published autopsy series that described 8398 individual autopsy investigations. Results The postmortem samples we examined from people who died of influenza during 19181919 uniformly exhibited severe changes indicative of bacterial pneumonia. Bacteriologic and histopathologic results from published autopsy series clearly and consistently implicated secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratorytract bacteria in most influenza fatalities. Conclusions The majority of deaths in the 19181919 influenza pandemic likely resulted directly from secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratorytract bacteria. Less substantial data from the subsequent 1957 and 1968 pandemics are consistent with these findings. If severe pandemic influenza is largely a problem of viral-bacterial copathogenesis, pandemic planning needs to go beyond addressing the viral cause alone (e.g., influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs). Prevention, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of secondary bacterial pneumonia, as well as stockpiling of antibiotics and bacterial vaccines, should also be high priorities for pandemic planning. PMID:18710327

  19. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drugs Antiviral Drug Supply Mixing Tamiflu Capsules Drug Resistance Information for Health Care Professionals Taking Care of ... Get Sick Cold Versus Flu Diagnosis Antiviral Drug Resistance Flu & Other Diseases Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) Staph ...

  20. Avian Flu and the Quest for Immunity: Not Just Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2006-01-01

    With the very real threat of a bird flu pandemic – and no natural immunity among humans – antiviral drug developers, the federal government, and academic researchers are racing to find innovative vaccines and therapies that are effective and can be mass produced. The commercial payoff, too, could be big. PMID:23424387

  1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  3. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Ross, Allen G P; Crowe, Suzanne M; Tyndall, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis. PMID:26253461

  4. An influenza A H1N1 virus revival - pandemic H1N1/09 virus.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, M; Doerr, H W; Cinatl, J

    2009-10-01

    In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus, the so-called pandemic H1N1/09 virus (former designations include swine influenza, novel influenza, swine-origin influenza A [H1N1] virus [S-OIV], Mexican flu, North American Flu) was identified in Mexico. The virus has since spread throughout the world and caused an influenza pandemic as defined by the criteria of the World Health Organization. This represents the first influenza A virus pandemic since the emergence of H3N2 (''Hong Kong'' Flu) in 1968. Vaccine production has started, and vaccines are expected to become available during the course of 2009. Although the pandemic H1N1/09 virus originates from the triple-reassortant swine influenza (H1) virus circulating in North American pigs, it is not epidemic in pigs. Although the H1N1/09 virus pandemic is currently mild, concerns remain that it may become more aggressive during spreading. The distribution of proper information to the public on the status of the H1N1/09 virus pandemic will be important to achieve a broad awareness of the potential risks and the optimum code of behavior during the pandemic. Here, the features of pandemic H1N1/09 virus are discussed within the framework of knowledge gained from previous influenza A virus pandemics. PMID:19768379

  5. The 2009 influenza pandemic: promising lessons for antiviral therapy for future outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Bavagnoli, L; Maga, G

    2011-01-01

    The influenza A virus is the main circulating influenza virus in the human population. It can cause disease also in birds and other mammals and is responsible for annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. The most known and deadly pandemic was the "Spanish flu" (influenza type A/H1N1), which struck the human population between 1918 and 1919, with probably the heaviest toll ever recorded in terms of human lives. The most recent flu pandemic, caused in 2009 by the swine-origin reassortant virus (pH1N1), has raised several critical issues in terms of our preparedness in responding fast to new pandemic influenza strains. Probably, the most instructive lesson that has been learned from the 2009 pandemic, was that the speed of manufacturing and distributing an effective vaccine will not be able to keep up with the pace of a rapidly spreading pandemic virus, failing to grant accessibility to the vaccine for a significant percentage of the susceptible population, before the onset of the pandemic peak. Thus, our first and most effective line of defense against a pandemic influenza virus, particularly in the early phases, are the antiviral drugs. Here we analyze our current understanding of the influenza pandemic viruses, in general, and of the pH1N1 in particular, along with the most recent approaches being pursued to design new anti-influenza drugs. PMID:22087838

  6. Swine flu (H1N1) infection among patients with neurologic disorders. A review of published evidence.

    PubMed

    Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2011-07-01

    Although the 2009 Swine flu (H1N1) pandemic has apparently been abolished, there are still lessons to be learnt. We reviewed the clinical and pathological manifestations of CNS involvement of influenza A virus infection. Neurologic disorders were most commonly seen as underlying medical conditions in swine flu, and neurological complications of the H1N1 vaccination. The major point with regard to the H1N1 pandemic is a mild disease with high contagiosity, which can have severe outcomes in those with underlying diseases including neurological ones. PMID:21677609

  7. Swine flu: a new emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Bari, M S; Bilkis, L; Hossain, M A; Islam, M A; Hoque, M M; Haque, N; Haque, S; Ahmed, S; Mirza, R; Sumona, A A; Ahmed, M U; Ara, A

    2010-01-01

    Swine flu is an important zoonotic disease that has been recognized as an important global health problem by any one of several types of swine influenza virus or swine-origin influenza virus. Due to its increasing incidence in many countries of the world and occurrence of several large outbreaks in present year, it is a burning issue nowadays. It is thought to be a mutation--more specifically, a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. Due to variability of clinical features and limited availability of laboratory facilities, the disease remains largely under-reported. Early and specific diagnosis is important to ensure a favourable outcome. In this paper we attempted to explore history, classification, transmission, sign symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of swine flu as a critical review to provide some new upgrade regarding this devastating pandemic disease. PMID:20046190

  8. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic influenza. Such a test should also discriminate influenza from pathogens that cause illnesses with flu-like symptoms. When a precise diagnosis is required to treat an adult patient with serious respiratory symptoms, sample cells are usually obtained with a nasal or throat swab and analyzed with one of several laboratory methods. The gold standard test is viral culturing, a highly sensitive method that can identify the specific strain of virus. However, viral culturing is a labor-intensive process and requires 3-10 days to produce results, too long for early intervention. Enzyme and optical immunoassays offer results in 30 minutes, but these methods are less sensitive than viral culturing so they can produce false positives or negatives. They also cannot distinguish the type of virus found. Direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) staining is as sensitive as viral culturing. It also can detect multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously by a process known as multiplexing. However, DFA staining requires expensive equipment, a skilled microscopist, and samples with enough target cells for testing. In addition, the results are ultimately subjective. Another method, called reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, offers sensitivity and specificity comparable to viral culturing and DFA staining. It also produces results in two hours and can rapidly test a large number of samples. The drawback with these tests, however, is that they must be performed in a laboratory. None of them can be used where they are needed most: in the clinic or emergency department where patients are being treated. Livermore's FluIDx diagnostic system, with its instrumentation and multiplexed assays, is designed specifically for point-of-care diagnosis. The fast, easy-to-use system is based on the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, a homeland security technology developed by LLNL. This R&D 100 Award-winning technology constantly monitors the air to detect airborne bioterrorism agents, such as anthrax. FluIDx is an integrated system designed to perform highly multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) nucleic-acid-based assays in real time. The FluIDx system processes a sample, analyzes the data, reports the results, and decontaminates itself before another sample is taken. The device currently uses 16 assays--12 for individual nucleic-acid targets and 4 for internal controls. The assays can simultaneously detect influenza A and B, parainfluenza (Types 1 and 3), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus (Groups B, C, and E).

  9. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  10. Disaster and flu: putting planning into practice.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Health care supply chain leaders nationwide are facing unprecedented times. Since April 2009, we have been overwhelmed with requests for influenza pandemic-specific products. We have had to search for additional supplies while dealing with concerns over burgeoning needs. At the same time, we have been inundated with stories about disaster preparedness as it relates to the H1N1 pandemic influenza. And now, even with the number of H1N1 cases receding, we must be prepared for whatever emergency may arise next. PMID:20178231

  11. Swine flu and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Gavin D

    2009-11-01

    Health services worldwide are likely to be hard-pressed by swine flu-related illness in the months ahead. Secondary infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes), Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are likely to be important causes of morbidity and mortality. The UK Department of Health recently published clinical pathways for the management of swine flu. Suggested severity criteria have not been validated in respiratory infection and are different from those previously published. Antibiotics are recommended for all patients assessed at hospital, regardless of severity of illness; cephalosporins or quinolones are suggested for inpatients with pneumonia. These recommendations will jeopardize recent decreases in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in UK hospitals. This article, written on behalf of the BSAC Council, considers these recommendations and provides alternative antibiotic regimens for a range of clinical scenarios. PMID:19740909

  12. Pandemic planning in the shipping industry--lessons learnt from the 2009 Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Bunyan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The events around the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic highlighted the need for better planning to ensure protection of those on vessels, protection for ports of call, and protection of business assets (business continuity). The variety of stakeholders involved in the management of a pandemic made it difficult to achieve a cohesive plan during the event itself. By considering the actions during the last pandemic, and the literature available for the shipping industry on pandemic planning, a pathway to better preparation is suggested. PMID:22258847

  13. [Pandemic preparedness planning. What did we learn from the influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009?].

    PubMed

    Schaade, L; Reuss, A; Haas, W; Krause, G

    2010-12-01

    Since 2001, the German states and federal institutions have been engaged in systematic pandemic preparedness planning. Preparedness was largely in an advanced stage and most probably contributed to successful control of the influenza H1N1 (2009) pandemic in Germany. Adaptation and improvement are needed most in the fields of vaccine logistics and communication. In the future, the national plan as well as the WHO pandemic plan should distinguish more clearly between pandemic warning phases for preparation of structures, on the one hand, and epidemiologic situations for activation of measures, on the other hand. The proper balance between a uniform national approach and the local adaptation of measures within Germany remains another challenge. Although the course of the influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was moderate, pandemic preparedness planning remains of utmost importance and must be adapted rigorously and early according to the recent experience. PMID:21161478

  14. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... flu this season. Take 3 Steps to Fight Flu The first and best way to protect against ...

  15. Caring for Someone Sick (Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Children and Flu Antiviral Drugs Caregivers of Young Children Children with Neurologic Conditions Health Care Workers Schools & Childcare Providers Guidance for School Administrators to ...

  16. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Children and Flu Antiviral Drugs Caregivers of Young Children Children with Neurologic Conditions Health Care Workers Schools & Childcare Providers Guidance for School Administrators to ...

  17. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  18. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  19. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to test your flu knowledge." /> Button 5: Summer Copy the code below for this "Test Your ... http://www.cdc.gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0613-Summer-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border: ...

  20. The flu fighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Vittoria; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-02-01

    The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in history. Beginning in 1347, the plague took just three years to spread from Constantinople in western Turkey to Italy and then on to the rest of Europe, leaving nearly a quarter of the continent's population dead in its wake. Historical studies confirm that the disease diffused smoothly, generating an epidemic front that travelled through the continent as a continuous wave at a rate of about 200–400 miles per year.

  1. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Getting a Better Grasp on Flu ... Seasonal Flu Patterns? Forecasting Flu This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  2. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found at " Thimerosal and Flu Vaccines" Can a breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Yes. Breastfeeding women should get the flu vaccine to protect ... they are too young to be vaccinated themselves. Breastfeeding women can get either a flu shot or ...

  3. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare

  4. The Open-Air Treatment of PANDEMIC INFLUENZA

    PubMed Central

    Cason, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The H1N1 Spanish flu outbreak of 19181919 was the most devastating pandemic on record, killing between 50 million and 100 million people. Should the next influenza pandemic prove equally virulent, there could be more than 300 million deaths globally. The conventional view is that little could have been done to prevent the H1N1 virus from spreading or to treat those infected; however, there is evidence to the contrary. Records from an open-air hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, suggest that some patients and staff were spared the worst of the outbreak. A combination of fresh air, sunlight, scrupulous standards of hygiene, and reusable face masks appears to have substantially reduced deaths among some patients and infections among medical staff. We argue that temporary hospitals should be a priority in emergency planning. Equally, other measures adopted during the 1918 pandemic merit more attention than they currently receive. PMID:19461112

  5. Swine flu: lessons we need to learn from our global experience.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    There are important lessons to be learnt from the recent 'Swine Flu' pandemic. Before we call it a pandemic, we need to have appropriate trigger points that involve not only the spread of the virus but also its level of virulence. This was not done for H1N1 (swine flu). We need to ensure that we improve the techniques used in trying to decrease the spread of infection-both in the community and within our hospitals. This means improved infection control and hygiene, and the use of masks, alcohol hand rubs and so on. We also need to have a different approach to vaccines. Effective vaccines were produced only after the epidemic had passed and therefore had relatively little impact in preventing many infections. Mass population strategies involving vaccines and antivirals also misused large amounts of scarce medical resources. PMID:24149036

  6. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009–10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Background A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. Objective To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Methods Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Results Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media ‘over-hyping’ the swine flu pandemic. Conclusions The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009–10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty. PMID:21131303

  7. Get Your Flu Shot Before the Flu Is Widespread: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the United States, health officials expect activity to pick up in the next few weeks, so everyone who ... peak in February." Brammer expects flu activity to pick up in the next few weeks. "It's possible that ...

  8. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  9. Study of specific oligosaccharide structures related with swine flu (H1N1) and avian flu, and tamiflu as their remedy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eun-Sun

    2011-05-01

    The infection of pandemic influenza viruses such as swine flu (H1N1) and avian flu viruses to the host cells is related to the following two factors: First, the surface protein such as HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase) of the influenza virus. Second, the specific structure of the oligosaccharide [sialic acid(alpha2-6) galactose(beta1-4)glucose or sialic acid(alpha2-3)galactose(beta1-4)glucose] on the host cell. After recognizing the specific structure of the oligosaccharide on the surface of host cells by the surface protein of the influenza virus, the influenza virus can secrete sialidase and cleave the sialic acid attached on the final position of the specific structure of the oligosaccharide on the surface of host cells. Tamiflu (oseltamivir), known as a remedy of swine flu, has a saccharide analog structure, especially the sialic acid analog. Tamiflu can inhibit the invasion of influenza viruses (swine flu and avian flu viruses) into the host cells by competition with sialic acid on the terminal position of the specific oligosaccharide on the surface of the host cell. Because of the emergence of Tamiflu resistance, the development of new potent anti-influenza inhibitors is needed. The inhibitors with positive-charge groups have potential as antiviral therapeutics, and the strain specificity must also be resolved. PMID:21617340

  10. Nurses' fears and professional obligations concerning possible human-to-human avian flu.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2006-09-01

    This survey aimed to illustrate factors that contribute to nurses' fear when faced with a possible human-to-human avian flu pandemic and their willingness to care for patients with avian flu in Taiwan. The participants were nursing students with a lesser nursing credential who were currently enrolled in a bachelor degree program in a private university in southern Taiwan. Nearly 42% of the nurses did not think that, if there were an outbreak of avian flu, their working hospitals would have sufficient infection control measures and equipment to prevent nosocomial infection in their working environment. About 57% of the nurse participants indicated that they were willing to care for patients infected with avian influenza. Nurses' fear about an unknown infectious disease, such as the H5N1 influenza virus, could easily be heightened to levels above those occurring during the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Taiwan. PMID:16961111

  11. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, wave patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  12. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may affect the safety of complementary approaches. Some Basics About Flu and Colds Each year, Americans get ... Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness ...

  13. College students and the flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu symptoms. HOW DO I TREAT MY SYMPTOMS? Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower fever. Sometimes ... you to use both types of medicine. Take acetaminophen every 4 - 6 hours. Take ibuprofen every 6 - ...

  14. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats

    PubMed Central

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Mirza, Sara; Winter, Christian; Feldon, Keith; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Phonekeo, Darouny; Denny, Justin; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Lylianou, Doualy; Phousavath, Sisouphane; Norasingh, Sisouveth; Boutta, Nao; Olsen, Sonja; Bresee, Joseph; Moen, Ann; Corwin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%). Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1) no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2) safety and efficacy concerns, and 3) late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1) crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao lessons learned from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential. PMID:25923779

  15. The Lao Experience in Deploying Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine: Lessons Made Relevant in Preparing for Present Day Pandemic Threats.

    PubMed

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Mirza, Sara; Winter, Christian; Feldon, Keith; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Phonekeo, Darouny; Denny, Justin; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Lylianou, Doualy; Phousavath, Sisouphane; Norasingh, Sisouveth; Boutta, Nao; Olsen, Sonja; Bresee, Joseph; Moen, Ann; Corwin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lao PDR, as did most countries of the Mekong Region, embarked on a pandemic vaccine initiative to counter the threat posed by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Overall, estimated vaccine coverage of the Lao population was 14%, with uptake in targeted health care workers and pregnant women 99% and 41%, respectively. Adverse Events Following Immunization accounted for only 6% of survey driven, reported vaccination experiences, with no severe consequences or deaths. Public acceptability of the vaccine campaign was high (98%). Challenges to vaccine deployment included: 1) no previous experience in fielding a seasonal influenza vaccine, 2) safety and efficacy concerns, and 3) late arrival of vaccine 10 months into the pandemic. The Lao success in surmounting these hurdles was in large measure attributed to the oversight assigned the National Immunization Program, and national sensitivities in responding to the avian influenza A(H5N1) crisis in the years leading up to the pandemic. The Lao "lessons learned" from pandemic vaccine deployment are made even more relevant four years on, given the many avian influenza strains circulating in the region, all with pandemic potential. PMID:25923779

  16. Laboratory diagnosis of swine flu: a review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Jagriti; Pundir, Shikha; Singh, Sandeep; Pundir, C S

    2013-06-01

    Human swine influenza A [H1N1], also referred to as "swine flu," is highly transmissible. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities will have to prepare to detect them for appropriate treatment. Most sophisticated methods include immunofluorescence staining and antigen subtyping based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Another standard method is RT-PCR targeting hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. The recent availability of rapid, reliable, and easy-to-perform tests for detecting influenza virus infections has introduced rapid viral diagnosis. This review thus summarizes the current information on the present diagnostic methods for influenza virus H1N1. PMID:23140089

  17. [Prevention of avian flu].

    PubMed

    Abadia, Geneviève; Hars, Jean

    2007-06-15

    Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza has evolved from an exclusively animal disease to a zoonosis. In 2003, the H5N1 HP virus developed in poultry in South-Eastern Asia, before spreading to European countries and Africa. Human cases are systematically associated with a close and intensive contact with infected poultry; their number is currently limited as compared to the total number of exposed people in the world. Many precautionary measures have been taken to prevent the extension of foci, as much in terms of animal health as in terms of protection of those potentially exposed to infected birds. Besides the zoonotic aspect, the genetic evolutionary potential of influenza viruses and the unusual world H5N1 HP virus circulation in birds have raised concerns about a potential new influenza pandemic. This is the reason why public authorities have initiated a large-scale preparedness plan to face this contingency. PMID:17708090

  18. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  19. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  20. Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in a pandemic similar to the 2009 H1N1 in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of bacterial coinfection in autopsy data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza (flu) pandemic suggest synergies between flu and pneumococcal disease (PD) during pandemic conditions, and highlight the importance of interventions like the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods We used a decision-analytic model, estimated from published sources, to assess the impact of pediatric vaccination with PCV13 versus the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) on PD incidence and mortality in a normal flu season (10% flu incidence) and in a pandemic similar to 2009-2010 H1N1 (20% flu incidence, mild virulence, high impact in children). Both direct and indirect (herd) effects against PD were considered. Effectiveness of PCV13 was extrapolated from observed PCV7 data, using assumptions of serotype prevalence and PCV13 protection against the 6 serotypes not in PCV7. To simulate 20092010 H1N1, autopsy data were used to estimate the overall proportion of flu deaths with bacterial coinfections. By assuming that increased risk of death during the pandemic occurred among those with comorbidity (using obesity as proxy) and bacterial coinfections primarily due to S. pneumoniae or S. aureus, we estimated the proportion co-infected among all (fatal and non-fatal) flu cases (7.6% co-infected with any organism; 2.2% with S. pneumoniae). PD incidence, mortality, and total healthcare costs were evaluated over a 1-year horizon. Results In a normal flu season, compared to PCV7, PCV13 is expected to prevent an additional 13,400 invasive PD (IPD) cases, 399,000 pneumonia cases, and 2,900 deaths, leading to cost savings of $472 M. In a pandemic similar to 20092010 H1N1, PCV13 would prevent 22,800 IPD cases, 872,000 pneumonia cases, and 3,700 deaths, resulting in cost savings of $1.0 B compared to PCV7. Conclusions In a flu pandemic similar to the 20092010 H1N1, protection against the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13 would likely be effective in preventing pandemic-related PD cases, mortality, and associated costs. PMID:23687999

  1. Computer-assisted resilience training to prepare healthcare workers for pandemic influenza: a randomized trial of the optimal dose of training

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Working in a hospital during an extraordinary infectious disease outbreak can cause significant stress and contribute to healthcare workers choosing to reduce patient contact. Psychological training of healthcare workers prior to an influenza pandemic may reduce stress-related absenteeism, however, established training methods that change behavior and attitudes are too resource-intensive for widespread use. This study tests the feasibility and effectiveness of a less expensive alternative - an interactive, computer-assisted training course designed to build resilience to the stresses of working during a pandemic. Methods A "dose-finding" study compared pre-post changes in three different durations of training. We measured variables that are likely to mediate stress-responses in a pandemic before and after training: confidence in support and training, pandemic-related self-efficacy, coping style and interpersonal problems. Results 158 hospital workers took the course and were randomly assigned to the short (7 sessions, median cumulative duration 111 minutes), medium (12 sessions, 158 minutes) or long (17 sessions, 223 minutes) version. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, the course was associated with significant improvements in confidence in support and training, pandemic self-efficacy and interpersonal problems. Participants who under-utilized coping via problem-solving or seeking support or over-utilized escape-avoidance experienced improved coping. Comparison of doses showed improved interpersonal problems in the medium and long course but not in the short course. There was a trend towards higher drop-out rates with longer duration of training. Conclusions Computer-assisted resilience training in healthcare workers appears to be of significant benefit and merits further study under pandemic conditions. Comparing three "doses" of the course suggested that the medium course was optimal. PMID:20307302

  2. FluBreaks: Early Epidemic Detection from Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Background The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. Objective To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. Methods We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Results Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the regions population size. Regions with larger populations (regions 4 and 6) had higher values of EA than region 10 (which had the smallest population) for negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms. The difference was 12.5% and 13.5% on average in negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms, respectively. Conclusions We present the first detailed comparative analysis of popular early epidemic detection algorithms on Google Flu Trends data. We note that realizing this opportunity requires moving beyond the cumulative sum and historical limits method-based normal distribution approaches, traditionally employed by the CDC, to negative binomial- and Poisson-based algorithms to deal with potentially noisy search query data from regions with varying population and Internet penetrations. Based on our work, we have developed FluBreaks, an early warning system for flu epidemics using Google Flu Trends. PMID:23037553

  3. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive ...

  4. Many Americans Dubious of Flu Shot's Effectiveness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156238.html Many Americans Dubious of Flu Shot's Effectiveness Poll finds a third of adults ... than half of Americans strongly believe that the flu shot will help them avoid the illness, and ...

  5. Flu Vaccine May Also Protect Against Pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154972.html Flu Vaccine May Also Protect Against Pneumonia Study suggests about ... had a flu shot, the researchers said. "Influenza vaccine can substantially reduce the risk of hospitalizations for ...

  6. It's Time for Your Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around you from getting the flu, said Dr. Lisa Grohskopf, a medical officer in the influenza division ... be afraid of the flu," Siegel said. SOURCES: Lisa Grohskopf, M.D., M.P.H., medical officer, ...

  7. Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157852.html Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet This year's vaccine ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be the mildest in the ...

  8. Biocommunicability and the biopolitics of pandemic threats.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L; Nichter, Mark

    2009-07-01

    In this article we assess accounts of the H1N1 virus or "swine flu" to draw attention to the ways in which discourse about biosecurity and global health citizenship during times of pandemic alarms supports calls for the creation of global surveillance systems and naturalizes forms of governance. We propose a medical anthropology of epidemics to complement an engaged anthropology aimed at better and more critical forms of epidemic surveillance. A medical anthropology of epidemics provides insights into factors and actors that shape the ongoing production of knowledge about epidemics, how dominant and competing accounts circulate and interact, how different stakeholders (citizens, politicians, journalists, and policymakers) access and interpret information available from different sources-including through a variety of new digital venues-and what they do with it. These insights together provide a compelling agenda for medical anthropology and anyone working in health-related fields. PMID:20182960

  9. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Coping With Cancer in Everyday Life (also in Spanish) National organizations and websites* Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Toll-free number: 1-800-232-4636 (1-800-CDC-INFO) Website: www.cdc.gov/cancer/flu/ Has detailed information on the flu and flu ...

  10. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and lungs. It is caused by the H1N1 influenza virus. ... Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... doorknob, desk, computer, or counter with the flu virus on it and ... while taking care of a child or adult who is ill with the flu.

  11. Reflections on the 1976 Swine Flu Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. Donald

    2006-01-01

    In 1976, 2 recruits at Fort Dix, New Jersey, had an influenzalike illness. Isolates of virus taken from them included A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1n1), a strain similar to the virus believed at the time to be the cause of the 1918 pandemic, commonly known as swine flu. Serologic studies at Fort Dix suggested that >200 soldiers had been infected and that person-to-person transmission had occurred. We review the process by which these events led to the public health decision to mass-vaccinate the American public against the virus and the subsequent events that led to the program's cancellation. Observations of policy and implementation success and failures are presented that could help guide decisions regarding avian influenza. PMID:16494713

  12. Hygrothermal environment may cause influenza pandemics through immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Lin; Luo, Yu-Hong; Chen, Jia; Yu, Bin; Liu, Kang-Li; He, Jin-Xiong; Lu, Su-Hong; Li, Jie-Xing; Wu, Sha; Jiang, Zhen-You; Chen, Xiao-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, climate warming has caused profound changes in our living environment, and human diseases, including infectious diseases, have also been influenced by these changes. However, it remains unclear if a warm-wet climate can influence the infectivity of influenza and result in influenza pandemics. This study focused on observations of how the hydrothermal environment influences the infectivity of the influenza virus and the resulting immunoreactions of the infected mice. We used a manual climatic box to establish the following 3 environments with different temperatures and humidity: normal environment (T: 24 1C, RH: 50% 4%), wet environment (T: 24 1 C, RH: 95% 4%) and warm-wet environment (T: 33 1 C, RH: 95% 4%), and the mice were fed and maintained in these 3 different environments. After 14 days, half of the mice were infected with H1N1 (A/FM1/1/47, a lung adapted strain of the flu virus specific for the mouse lung) virus for 4 d After establishing the animal model, we observed the microstructure of the lung tissue, the Th1/Th2 T cell subsets, the Th17/Treg balance, the expression of cytokines in the peripheral blood serum and the expression of the immune recognition RLH signal pathway. The results showed that mice in different environments have different reaction. Results showed that after infection, the proportion of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells in the spleen was significantly increased, and these proportions were increased the most in the infected group kept in wet-hot conditions. After infection, the mRNA levels and protein expression of the RLH (RIG-1-like helicases) signal pathway components were up-regulated while the uninfected animals in the 3 diverse environments showed no significant change. The infected mice kept in the wet and warm-wet environments showed a slight elevation in the expression of RLH pathway components compared to infected mice maintained in the normal environment. Our study suggested that the warm-wet environment may have interfered with the immune response and balance. The mice kept in the warm-wet environment displayed immune tolerance when they were exposed to the influenza virus, and the body was not able to effectively clear the virus, leading to a persistent infection. A warm-wet climate may thus be a factor that contributes to influenza pandemics, people should focus on the warm-wet climate coming and advance prepare to vaccine manufacture. PMID:26359946

  13. Why was the 2009 influenza pandemic in England so small?

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Ruben J; McLean, Angela R

    2012-01-01

    The "Swine flu" pandemic of 2009 caused world-wide infections and deaths. Early efforts to understand its rate of spread were used to predict the probable future number of cases, but by the end of 2009 it was clear that these predictions had substantially overestimated the pandemic's eventual impact. In England, the Health Protection Agency made announcements of the number of cases of disease, which turned out to be surprisingly low for an influenza pandemic. The agency also carried out a serological survey half-way through the English epidemic. In this study, we use a mathematical model to reconcile early estimates of the rate of spread of infection, weekly data on the number of cases in the 2009 epidemic in England and the serological status of the English population at the end of the first pandemic wave. Our results reveal that if there are around 19 infections (i.e., seroconverters) for every reported case then the three data-sets are entirely consistent with each other. We go on to discuss when in the epidemic such a high ratio of seroconverters to cases of disease might have been detected, either through patterns in the case reports or through even earlier serological surveys. PMID:22348001

  14. Update on 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Steven M

    2009-10-01

    The pandemic of a novel strain of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) is expected to make this a difficult flu season. Fortunately, this strain is relatively mild, and the principles of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remain the same. Physicians will have a number of complex decisions to make about when to test, when to treat, and when to simply reassure. PMID:19797457

  15. Similarity of currently circulating H1N1 virus with the 2009 pandemic clone: viability of an imminent pandemic.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rachana; Roy, Ayan; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2015-06-01

    The first influenza pandemic in the 21st century commenced in March, 2009 causing nearly 300,000 deaths globally within the first year of the pandemic. In late 2013 and in early 2014, there was gradual increase in the reported case of H1N1 infection and according to World Health Organization (WHO) report, influenza activity increased in several areas of the Southern Hemisphere and was dominated by the H1N1 pandemic strain of 2009. In the present study, a comprehensive comparison of the global amino acid composition and the structural features of all HA gene sequences of H1N1, available in the Flu Database (NCBI), from 1918 to December, 2014 has been performed to trace out the possibility of a further H1N1 pandemic in near future. The results suggest that the increased potential to enhance pathogenicity for the H1N1 samples of 2013 (latter part) and 2014 could lead to a more severe outbreak in the near future. PMID:25735729

  16. Transmissibility of swine flu at Fort Dix, 1976.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Cummings, Derek A T; Fishman, Steven; Vora, Amit; Burke, Donald S

    2007-08-22

    The 1976 outbreak of A/New Jersey/76 influenza in Fort Dix is a rare example of an influenza virus with documented human to human transmission that failed to spread widely. Despite extensive epidemiological investigation, no attempt has been made to quantify the transmissibility of this virus. The World Health Organization and the United States Government view containment of emerging influenza strains as central to combating pandemic influenza. Computational models predict that it may be possible to contain an emergent pandemic influenza if virus transmissibility is low. The A/New Jersey/76 outbreak at the United States Army Training Center at Fort Dix, New Jersey in January 1976 caused 13 hospitalizations, 1 death and an estimated 230 cases. To characterize viral transmission in this epidemic, we estimated the basic reproductive number and serial interval using deterministic epidemic models and stochastic simulations. We estimated the basic reproductive number for this outbreak to be 1.2 (supported interval 1.1-1.4), the serial interval to be 1.9 days (supported interval 1.6-3.8 days), and that the virus had at least six serial human to human transmissions. This places the transmissibility of A/New Jersey/76 virus at the lower end of circulating flu strains, well below the threshold for control. PMID:17412677

  17. Swine flu: a Birmingham experience.

    PubMed

    Scriven, James; Mcewen, Ruth; Mistry, Sanjay; Green, Chris; Osman, Husam; Bailey, Mark; Ellis, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    By the beginning of July 2009 the West Midlands had seen more cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) than any other region in the U.K. Over a three-week period almost 850 people presented to Heartlands Hospital with flu-like symptoms. Of those admitted 52 adults were subsequently confirmed as having H1N1 infection. Most were younger than 30 and not from traditional influenza risk groups. The main risk factor for severe disease was asthma, and to a lesser extent pregnancy and obesity. Seven patients were admitted to intensive care and five developed an acute lung injury requiring prolonged admission. Two patients required extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and one died. Despite increased workload normal clinical services were unaffected. The hospital was not closed to admissions nor was it paralysed by staff absence. With a predicted second wave expected at the end of 2009, efforts to maintain effective community assessment remain crucial. PMID:20095293

  18. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Boon H; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2011-08-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has been learnt from the Pandemic of 2009/2010 but the messages about vaccination and treatment seem to be taken slowly by the clinical profession. Most people affected by the virus, including pregnant women, suffer a mild viral illness, and make a full recovery. The median duration of illness is around seven days. This influenza typically affects the younger age group i.e. from the ages of 5-65 years. Current experience shows that the age group experiencing increased morbidity and mortality rates are in those under 65 years of age. Pregnant women, because of their altered immunity and physiological adaptations, are at higher risk of developing pulmonary complications, especially in the second and third trimesters. In the United Kingdom, twelve maternal deaths were reported to be associated with the H1N1 virus during the pandemic and clear avoidable factors were identified (Modder, Review of Maternal Deaths in the UK related to A H1N1 2009 influenza (CMACE). www.cmace.org.uk, 2010). The pregnancy outcomes were also poor for women who were affected by the virus with a fivefold increase in the perinatal mortality rate and threefold increase in the preterm delivery rate (Yates et al. Health Technol Assess 14(34):109-182, 2010). There continues to be a low uptake of the flu vaccine and commencement of antiviral treatment for pregnant women. PMID:22851818

  19. [Google Flu Trends--the initial application of big data in public health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Lei; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-06-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) was the first application of big data in the public health field. GFT was open online in 2009 and attracted worldwide attention immediately. However, GFT failed catching the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and kept overestimating the intensity of influenza-like illness in the 2012-2014 season in the United States. GFT model has been updated for three times since 2009, making its prediction bias controlled. Here, we summarized the mechanism GFT worked, the strategy GFT used to update, and its influence on public health. PMID:26310351

  20. Interest of a simple on-line screening registry for measuring ICU burden related to an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The specific burden imposed on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during the A/H1N1 influenza 2009 pandemic has been poorly explored. An on-line screening registry allowed a daily report of ICU beds occupancy rate by flu infected patients (Flu-OR) admitted in French ICUs. Methods We conducted a prospective inception cohort study with results of an on-line screening registry designed for daily assessment of ICU burden. Results Among the 108 centers participating to the French H1N1 research network on mechanical ventilation (REVA) - French Society of Intensive Care (SRLF) registry, 69 ICUs belonging to seven large geographical areas voluntarily participated in a website screening-registry. The aim was to daily assess the ICU beds occupancy rate by influenza-infected and non-infected patients for at least three weeks. Three hundred ninety-one critically ill infected patients were enrolled in the cohort, representing a subset of 35% of the whole French 2009 pandemic cohort; 73% were mechanically ventilated, 13% required extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22% died. The global Flu-OR in these ICUs was only 7.6%, but it exceeded a predefined 15% critical threshold in 32 ICUs for a total of 103 weeks. Flu-ORs were significantly higher in University than in non-University hospitals. The peak ICU burden was poorly predicted by observations obtained at the level of large geographical areas. Conclusions The peak Flu-OR during the pandemic significantly exceeded a 15% critical threshold in almost half of the ICUs, with an uneven distribution with time, geographical areas and between University and non-University hospitals. An on-line assessment of Flu-OR via a simple dedicated registry may contribute to better match resources and needs. PMID:22776231

  1. Swine flu: lessons we need to learn from our global experience

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    There are important lessons to be learnt from the recent ‘Swine Flu’ pandemic. Before we call it a pandemic, we need to have appropriate trigger points that involve not only the spread of the virus but also its level of virulence. This was not done for H1N1 (swine flu). We need to ensure that we improve the techniques used in trying to decrease the spread of infection—both in the community and within our hospitals. This means improved infection control and hygiene, and the use of masks, alcohol hand rubs and so on. We also need to have a different approach to vaccines. Effective vaccines were produced only after the epidemic had passed and therefore had relatively little impact in preventing many infections. Mass population strategies involving vaccines and antivirals also misused large amounts of scarce medical resources. PMID:24149036

  2. Pandemic Influenza Plans in Residential Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Mody, Lona; Levy, Cari R.; Ginde, Adit A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Elderly in long-term facilities are vulnerable to a pandemic influenza. We aimed to identify characteristics of residential care facilities (RCFs) associated with having a pandemic influenza plan. Design Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting RCFs in the United States. Participants Participating facilities in the 2010 National Survey of RCFs (n=2,294), representing 31,030 assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Measurements Facility-level characteristics associated with a pandemic influenza plan, including general organization descriptors, staffing, resident services, and immunization practices. Results Overall, 45% (95%CI, 4347) had a pandemic plan, 14% (95%CI, 1316) had a plan in preparation, and 41% (95%CI, 3843) had no plan. In the multivariable model, organization characteristics, staffing, and immunization practices were independently associated with the presence of a pandemic preparedness plan. The organization characteristics were larger size (extra-large, OR 3.27 [95%CI, 1.965.46], large, OR 2.60 [95%CI, 1.813.75], or medium, OR 1.66 [95%CI, 1.212.27], vs. small), not-for-profit status (OR 1.65 [95%CI, 1.312.09] vs. for-profit), and chain-affiliation (OR 1.65 [95%CI, 1.312.09] vs. non-affiliated). Staffing characteristics included the amount of RN hours (Less than 15 minutes, OR 1.36 [95%CI, 1.071.74] vs. no hours), any LPN hours (OR 1.47 [95%CI,1.081.99] vs. no hours), and at least 75 hours of required training for aides (OR 1.34 [95%CI, 1.051.71] vs. less than 75 hours). RCFs with high staff influenza vaccination rates (81100%, OR 2.12 [95%CI, 1.273.53] vs. 0% vaccinated) were also more likely to have a pandemic plan. Conclusion A majority of RCFs lacked a pandemic influenza plan. These facilities were smaller, for-profit, non-chain-affiliated RCFs and had lower staff vaccination rates. These characteristics may help target facilities that need to develop plans to handle a pandemic, or other disasters. PMID:24852422

  3. Phylogenesis and Clinical Aspects of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged and spread worldwide causing a pandemic influenza. Here, 329 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected from patients with flu-like symptoms were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of H1N1 2009 pandemic virus. Twenty-five samples collected from immunocompetent and immunodepressed patients contained the H1N1 pandemic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed no obvious differences in terms of similarity and/or homology between the sequences identified in immunocompetent individuals and those obtained from immunocompromised patients. Pre-existing clinical conditions may influence the outcome of H1N1 disease. PMID:21660186

  4. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  5. [Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response].

    PubMed

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Velzquez-Monroy, Oscar; Alvarez-Lucas, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia,Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs. PMID:16555537

  6. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  7. Acceptance of a vaccine against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus amongst healthcare workers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Seale, H; Kaur, R; Wang, Q; Yang, P; Zhang, Y; Wang, X; Li, X; Zhang, H; Zhang, Z; MacIntyre, C R

    2011-02-11

    Due to the advent of the new influenza A (H1N1) strain in 2009, many countries introduced mass immunization programs. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were amongst the key groups targeted for the vaccine in these programs. However, experience with the seasonal influenza vaccine has shown that there are multiple barriers related to the attitudes and perceptions of the population which influence uptake. The aim of this study was to determine pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination rate amongst a group of Chinese HCWs and the associated factors around acceptance. A cross-sectional investigation of HCWs (doctors, nurses and technicians) from 19 hospitals in Beijing, China was conducted in January 2010. The main outcome measures were awareness, risk perception of H1N1, preventive measures and uptake of H1N1 vaccination during the pandemic. A total of 1657 HCWs completed the survey. A quarter of the participants reported receiving the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Occupation (being a doctor), receiving seasonal flu vaccine and believing in the effectiveness of the vaccine were all strongly associated with accepting the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Over a thousand participants (61%, 1008/1657) agreed that they were 'concerned about the side effects of the swine flu vaccine', while 758 (46%) were 'concerned that the vaccine had not been tested adequately'. While studies reported high rates of willingness to receive the vaccine, in reality these did not transpire. Aside from promoting seasonal flu vaccination, authorities need to start educational campaigns much earlier in a pandemic. Programs that are simultaneously launched with the introduction of the vaccine will not be as successful, as those which have built momentum alongside the pandemic. PMID:21211593

  8. The Pandemic Subject: Canadian Pandemic Plans and Communicating with the Public about an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Maunula, Laena

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the goals for pandemic public communication as outlined in two Canadian plans for pandemic planning and infection control. I critique these strategies by drawing on Foucault's notions of governmentality and biopower. My argument is that the public health communication campaign goals reviewed rest upon a particular conceptualization of health in the context of pandemic planning as an individual/family duty, and that scientific/medical expert knowledge is most appropriate for guiding pandemic planning. This study contributes to a sociological understanding of how pandemic preparedness and infection control are represented in Canadian pandemic plans, how public health shapes pandemic communication messages in Canada, and the implications of those messages for subjectivity and notions of citizenship. PMID:24289936

  9. Influenza Pandemic: Gaps in Pandemic Planning and Preparedness Need to Be Addressed. Testimony before the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. GAO-09-909T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Bernice

    2009-01-01

    As the current H1N1 outbreak underscores, an influenza pandemic remains a real threat to our nation. Over the past 3 years, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a body of work, consisting of 12 reports and 4 testimonies, to help the nation better prepare for a possible pandemic. In February 2009, GAO synthesized the results of…

  10. Development and pre-clinical evaluation of two LAIV strains against potentially pandemic H2N2 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Isakova-Sivak, Irina; de Jonge, Jrgen; Smolonogina, Tatiana; Rekstin, Andrey; van Amerongen, Geert; van Dijken, Harry; Mouthaan, Justin; Roholl, Paul; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Doroshenko, Elena; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Rudenko, Larisa

    2014-01-01

    H2N2 Influenza A caused the Asian flu pandemic in 1957, circulated for more than 10 years and disappeared from the human population after 1968. Given that people born after 1968 are nave to H2N2, that the virus still circulates in wild birds and that this influenza subtype has a proven pandemic track record, H2N2 is regarded as a potential pandemic threat. To prepare for an H2N2 pandemic, here we developed and tested in mice and ferrets two live attenuated influenza vaccines based on the haemagglutinins of the two different H2N2 lineages that circulated at the end of the cycle, using the well characterized A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus as the backbone. The vaccine strains containing the HA and NA of A/California/1/66 (clade 1) or A/Tokyo/3/67 (clade 2) showed a temperature sensitive and cold adapted phenotype and a reduced reproduction that was limited to the respiratory tract of mice, suggesting that the vaccines may be safe for use in humans. Both vaccine strains induced haemagglutination inhibition titers in mice. Vaccination abolished virus replication in the nose and lung and protected mice from weight loss after homologous and heterologous challenge with the respective donor wild type strains. In ferrets, the live attenuated vaccines induced high virus neutralizing, haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition titers, however; the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 wt virus induced higher homologous and better cross-reactive antibody responses than the A/Tokyo/3/67 based vaccine. In line with this observation, was the higher virus reduction observed in the throat and nose of ferrets vaccinated with this vaccine after challenge with either of the wild type donor viruses. Moreover, both vaccines clearly reduced the infection-induced rhinitis observed in placebo-vaccinated ferrets. The results favor the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 isolate, which will be evaluated in a clinical study. PMID:25058039

  11. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Two LAIV Strains against Potentially Pandemic H2N2 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smolonogina, Tatiana; Rekstin, Andrey; van Amerongen, Geert; van Dijken, Harry; Mouthaan, Justin; Roholl, Paul; Kuznetsova, Victoria; Doroshenko, Elena; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Rudenko, Larisa

    2014-01-01

    H2N2 Influenza A caused the Asian flu pandemic in 1957, circulated for more than 10 years and disappeared from the human population after 1968. Given that people born after 1968 are nave to H2N2, that the virus still circulates in wild birds and that this influenza subtype has a proven pandemic track record, H2N2 is regarded as a potential pandemic threat. To prepare for an H2N2 pandemic, here we developed and tested in mice and ferrets two live attenuated influenza vaccines based on the haemagglutinins of the two different H2N2 lineages that circulated at the end of the cycle, using the well characterized A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus as the backbone. The vaccine strains containing the HA and NA of A/California/1/66 (clade 1) or A/Tokyo/3/67 (clade 2) showed a temperature sensitive and cold adapted phenotype and a reduced reproduction that was limited to the respiratory tract of mice, suggesting that the vaccines may be safe for use in humans. Both vaccine strains induced haemagglutination inhibition titers in mice. Vaccination abolished virus replication in the nose and lung and protected mice from weight loss after homologous and heterologous challenge with the respective donor wild type strains. In ferrets, the live attenuated vaccines induced high virus neutralizing, haemagglutination and neuraminidase inhibition titers, however; the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 wt virus induced higher homologous and better cross-reactive antibody responses than the A/Tokyo/3/67 based vaccine. In line with this observation, was the higher virus reduction observed in the throat and nose of ferrets vaccinated with this vaccine after challenge with either of the wild type donor viruses. Moreover, both vaccines clearly reduced the infection-induced rhinitis observed in placebo-vaccinated ferrets. The results favor the vaccine based on the A/California/1/66 isolate, which will be evaluated in a clinical study. PMID:25058039

  12. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  14. Evolutionary complexities of swine flu H1N1 gene sequences of 2009.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Niladri Kumar; Roy, Ayan; Das, Ballari; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2009-12-18

    A recently emerged novel influenza A (H1N1) virus continues to spread globally. The pandemic caused by this new H1N1 swine influenza virus presents an opportunity to analyze the evolutionary significance of the origin of the new strain of swine flu. Our study clearly suggests that strong purifying selection is responsible for the evolution of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus among human. We observed that the 2009 viral sequences are evolutionarily widely different from the past few years' sequences. Rather, the 2009 sequences are evolutionarily more similar to the most ancient sequence reported in the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database collected in 1918. Analysis of evolutionary rates also supports the view that all the genes in the pandemic strain of 2009 except NA and M genes are derived from triple reassorted swine viruses. Our study demonstrates the importance of using complete-genome approach as more sequences will become available to investigate the evolutionary origin of the 1918 influenza A (H1N1) swine flu strain and the possibility of future reassortment events. PMID:19769939

  15. Social versus independent interest in 'bird flu' and 'swine flu'

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The explosion of interest in H1N1, more popularly called ‘swine flu’, across the world, from late April to early May 2009, exemplified how information transmission in modern online society can affect the spread of the disease itself. A simple but effective model based on cultural evolutionary theory can characterise in such data the effective degree of social transmission versus independent decision. In a novel approach that applies this model to Google Trends search data, we find significant differences in social transmission of the exact phrase `swine flu' in 2009, compared with ‘bird flu’ in 2005. The methodology can thus inform policies for addressing public awareness of health issues, which can be more effective with knowledge of how the information is being spread or learned. PMID:20025200

  16. Bird flu, influenza and 1918: the case for mutant Avian tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Influenza is Italian for "influence", Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide. A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer "Influenza" Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, "flu" does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off. Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the "Influenza virus" on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: "Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths". Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin. By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas just prior to the first human outbreaks was a disease of avian and human tuberculosis genetically combined through mycobacteriophage interchange, with the pig, susceptible to both, as its involuntary living culture medium. What are the implications of mistaking a virus such as Influenza A for what mycobacterial disease is actually causing? They would be disastrous, with useless treatment and preventative stockpiles. The obvious need for further investigation is presently imminent and pressing. PMID:16806732

  17. Impact of cytokine in type 1 narcolepsy: Role of pandemic H1N1 vaccination ?

    PubMed

    Lecendreux, Michel; Libri, Valentina; Jaussent, Isabelle; Mottez, Estelle; Lopez, Régis; Lavault, Sophie; Regnault, Armelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pandemic influenza 2009 vaccination) provide strong support that narcolepsy type 1 is an immune-mediated disease. Considering the limited knowledge regarding the immune mechanisms involved in narcolepsy whether related to flu vaccination or not and the recent progresses in cytokine measurement technology, we assessed 30 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors using the Luminex technology in either peripheral (serum) or central (CSF) compartments in a large population of 90 children and adult patients with narcolepsy type 1 in comparison to 58 non-hypocretin deficient hypersomniacs and 41 healthy controls. Furthermore, we compared their levels in patients with narcolepsy whether exposed to pandemic flu vaccine or not, and analyzed the effect of age, duration of disease and symptom severity. Comparison for sera biomarkers between narcolepsy (n = 84, 54 males, median age: 15.5 years old) and healthy controls (n = 41, 13 males, median age: 20 years old) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and growth factors with interferon-γ, CCL11, epidermal growth factor, and interleukin-2 receptor being independently associated with narcolepsy. Increased levels of interferon-γ, CCL11, and interleukin-12 were found when close to narcolepsy onset. After several adjustments, only one CSF biomarker differed between narcolepsy (n = 44, 26 males, median age: 15 years old) and non-hypocretin deficient hypersomnias (n = 57, 24 males, median age: 36 years old) with higher CCL 3 levels found in narcolepsy. Comparison for sera biomarkers between patients with narcolepsy who developed the disease post-pandemic flu vaccination (n = 36) to those without vaccination (n = 48) revealed an increased stimulation of the immune system with high release of three cytokines, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, CXCL10, and CXCL9, being independently and significantly increased in the group exposed to the vaccine. No significant differences were found between narcoleptics whether exposed to flu vaccination or not for CSF biomarkers except for a lower CXCL10 level found in the exposed group. To conclude, we highlighted the role of sera cytokine with pro-inflammatory properties and especially interferon-γ being independently associated with narcolepsy close to disease onset. The activity of the interferon-γ network was also increased in the context of narcolepsy after the pandemic flu vaccination being a potential key player in the immune mechanism that triggers narcolepsy and that coordinates the immune response necessary for resolving vaccination assaults. PMID:25892508

  18. Human swine influenza A [H1N1]: practical advice for clinicians early in the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2009-09-01

    The influenza pandemic the world was waiting for may have arrived, but the early indications are that the first wave of human swine influenza A [H1N1], also referred to as H1N1 Mexico 09 or "swine flu", is highly transmissible but of no greater virulence than seasonal influenza to date. The new swine flu H1N1 virus is a mixture of avian, porcine and human influenza RNA. With twenty thousand confirmed cases worldwide and 117 deaths within 7 weeks of the first acknowledgement of a possible pandemic by Mexican and WHO experts, the mortality rate is less than 0.1% and the majority of deaths centred upon the origin of the epidemic in Mexico [83%]. Swine flu is thus far a relatively mild illness seen predominantly in those who are healthy and under 25 years of age, perhaps reflecting protection from previous human influenza exposure in older people. As the virus spreads internationally, border protection issues have surfaced and public health initiatives are being progressively rolled out to minimise the transmission. Vaccines are being developed which will be trialled in the coming months with a likely availability by August 2009, in time for the northern hemisphere autumn and winter. Vigilance without alarm appears to be the recommendation so far. PMID:19651387

  19. Disaster care: questions and answers on pandemic influenza. Striking a balance between risk and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Davey, Victoria J

    2007-07-01

    Disaster planning based on events such as floods or hurricanes, which are local or regional in scale, may be inadequate for responding to a lethal influenza pandemic that has the potential to overwhelm existing public health infrastructures. However, if a mild strain of the virus achieves pandemic proportions, the current public health system may be able to manage the outbreak relatively easily. Therefore, the challenge in pandemic influenza planning is to find a balance between risk and preparedness. Planners and policy makers must make realistic estimates of the consequences of a pandemic and allocate limited resources wisely, so that everyday health care and social needs aren't shortchanged. This article examines what we've learned from past influenza pandemics and answers some frequently asked questions about pandemics and how to prepare for them. PMID:17589231

  20. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by more than $500 billion. Exploring Flu Protein Biology to Improve Antivirals A representation of the structure ... combat this drug resistance by exploiting the virus's biology. One target is pocket-shaped structures on the ...

  1. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  2. Transmission and control of an emerging influenza pandemic in a small-world airline network.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chaug-Ing; Shih, Hsien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The avian influenza virus H5N1 and the 2009 swine flu H1N1 are potentially serious pandemic threats to human health, and air travel readily facilitates the spread of infectious diseases. However, past studies have not yet incorporated the effects of air travel on the transmission of influenza in the construction of mathematical epidemic models. Therefore, this paper focused on the human-to-human transmission of influenza, and investigated the effects of air travel activities on an influenza pandemic in a small-world network. These activities of air travel include passengers' consolidation, conveyance and distribution in airports and flights. Dynamic transmission models were developed to assess the expected burdens of the pandemic, with and without control measures. This study also investigated how the small-world properties of an air transportation network facilitate the spread of influenza around the globe. The results show that, as soon as the influenza is spread to the top 50 global airports, the transmission is greatly accelerated. Under the constraint of limited resources, a strategy that first applies control measures to the top 50 airports after day 13 and then soon afterwards to all other airports may result in remarkable containment effectiveness. As the infectiousness of the disease increases, it will expand the scale of the pandemic, and move the start time of the pandemic ahead. PMID:19887149

  3. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary

  4. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

  5. Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S; Hallman, Stacey A; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D Ann; Earn, David J D; Madrenas, Joaqun

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889-90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  6. Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Alain; Miller, Matthew S.; Hallman, Stacey A.; Bourbeau, Robert; Herring, D. Ann; Earn, David JD.; Madrenas, Joaqun

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 188990. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics. PMID:23940526

  7. Recent Patents on development of nucleic acid-based antiviral drugs against seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infections.

    PubMed

    Saravolac, Edward G; Wong, Jonathan P

    2007-06-01

    Influenza viruses are etiological agents of deadly flu that continue to pose global health threats, and have caused global pandemics that killed millions of people worldwide. The global crisis involving the avian H5N1 influenza provides compelling reasons to accelerate fast track development of novel antiviral drugs against the potential pandemic virus. The availability of neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir (tamiflu) improves our ability to defend against influenza viruses, but the incidences of tamiflu-resistance are rising rapidly. Nucleic acid-based antiviral drugs are promising classes of experimental antiviral drugs that have been shown in pre-clinical studies to be effective against seasonal and avian influenza viruses. The potency and versatility of these drugs make them potential candidates to be used in seasonal and pandemic influenza scenarios. The review will assess the recent patents, research and development of antisense oligonucleotides, small interfering RNA, immunomodulating RNA for the prevention and treatment of influenza infection. PMID:18221170

  8. Conformation and Linkage Studies of Specific Oligosaccharides Related to H1N1, H5N1, and Human Flu for Developing the Second Tamiflu

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eunsun

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between viral HA (hemagglutinin) and oligosaccharide of the host plays an important role in the infection and transmission of avian and human flu viruses. Until now, this interaction has been classified by sialyl(α2-3) or sialyl(α2-6) linkage specificity of oligosaccharide moieties for avian or human virus, respectively. In the case of H5N1 and newly mutated flu viruses, classification based on the linkage type does not correlate with human infection and human-to-human transmission of these viruses. It is newly suggested that flu infection and transmission to humans require high affinity binding to the extended conformation with long length sialyl(α2-6)galactose containing oligosaccharides. On the other hand, the avian flu virus requires folded conformation with sialyl(α2-3) or short length sialyl(α2-6) containing trisaccharides. This suggests a potential future direction for the development of new species-specific antiviral drugs to prevent and treat pandemic flu. PMID:24753813

  9. Pandemic Influenza Vaccines The Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Haaheim, Lars R.; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Cox, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Recent years enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues. PMID:21994584

  10. Flu, the Common Cold, and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. Complementary Health Approaches and the Flu About the Flu The ...

  11. U.S. Flu Activity Remains Low: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156600.html U.S. Flu Activity Remains Low: CDC It's not too late to get vaccinated, ... Jan. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu activity remains low in the United States, possibly due to the ...

  12. Colds and the Flu: Respiratory Infections during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Colds and the Flu | Respiratory Infections During Pregnancy What is a viral ... respiratory tract (breathing) and cause other symptoms. The flu and the common cold are examples of viral ...

  13. Statins May Dampen Protective Powers of Flu Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Statins May Dampen Protective Powers of Flu Vaccines Research suggests cholesterol-lowering meds linked to lower ... as statins may blunt the effectiveness of flu vaccines in seniors. But experts caution that more research ...

  14. This Year's Flu Vaccine Should Be Better Match: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_154680.html This Year's Flu Vaccine Should Be Better Match: CDC Americans 6 months ... Sept. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- This year's flu vaccine should be a better match than last year's ...

  15. Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 2013 flu seasons. The researchers compared the folks who got a flu shot with more than ... study was published in the Annals of Internal Medicine . Hospital patients who are eligible should receive the ...

  16. Protect the Circle of Life: The Flu & You

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    ... to certain people, including pregnant women, children, and elders, who are all at high risk for flu- ... are a leading cause of death among Native elders. The flu also can cause certain health conditions, ...

  17. Many Parents Downplay Value of Flu Shot, Poll Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_157493.html Many Parents Downplay Value of Flu Shot, Poll Finds Confusion about effectiveness, safety tied ... of American parents took their kids to get flu shots this season, with many believing it is ...

  18. Flu Hits Poor Neighborhoods the Hardest, Study Shows

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157200.html Flu Hits Poor Neighborhoods the Hardest, Study Shows Low ... more likely to be hospitalized with complications from flu than wealthier people, a new study finds. Low ...

  19. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay

    PubMed Central

    Popowitch, Elena B.

    2015-01-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  20. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  1. OSHA pandemic guidance reinforces need to plan.

    PubMed

    2007-04-01

    As the new guidance from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) points out, there are practical steps you can take to protect your staff and to prepare for the inevitable increased absenteeism should a pandemic occur. Cross-train staff in three or four functions so they can fill in for others if needed. Encourage employees who are sick to stay home, to reduce the likelihood of spreading disease and to combat employees coming to work when they are not at their best. By reassuring staff they will be safe if they report to work, you can keep attendance numbers as high as possible. PMID:17438992

  2. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  3. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Avian/Bird Flu H1N1 - originally referred to as Swine Flu The H1N1 flu virus caused a world-wide ... was first detected in 2009, it was called “swine flu” because the virus was similar to those found ...

  4. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A ... a sore throat, cough, and high fever could it be the flu that's been going around? Or ...

  5. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Food Allergies Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿ ... cough, and high fever — could it be the flu that's been going around? Or just a common ...

  6. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. PMID:25321142

  7. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Colin A; Kasson, Peter M; Donis, Ruben O; Riley, Steven; Dunbar, John; Rambaut, Andrew; Asher, Jason; Burke, Stephen; Davis, C Todd; Garten, Rebecca J; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Hay, Simon I; Herfst, Sander; Lewis, Nicola S; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Macken, Catherine A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Elizabeth; Parrish, Colin R; Pepin, Kim M; Shepard, Samuel S; Smith, David L; Suarez, David L; Trock, Susan C; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; George, Dylan B; Lipsitch, Marc; Bloom, Jesse D

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses is an important goal in public health research. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster, and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk assessment capabilities. However, the complexities of the relationships between virus genotype and phenotype make such predictions extremely difficult. The integration of experimental work, computational tool development, and analysis of evolutionary pathways, together with refinements to influenza surveillance, has the potential to transform our ability to assess the risks posed to humans by non-human influenza viruses and lead to improved pandemic preparedness and response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03883.001 PMID:25321142

  8. Community awareness, use and preference for pandemic influenza vaccines in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Neisha; Purohit, Vidula; Schaetti, Christian; Kudale, Abhay; Joseph, Saju; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention, but limited vaccine uptake was a problem worldwide during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Community acceptance of a vaccine is a critical determinant of its effectiveness, but studies have been confined to high-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-method study in urban and rural Pune, India in 2012-2013. Semi-structured explanatory model interviews were administered to community residents (n = 436) to study awareness, experience and preference between available vaccines for pandemic influenza. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews complemented the survey. Awareness of pandemic influenza vaccines was low (25%). Some respondents did not consider vaccines relevant for adults, but nearly all (94.7%), when asked, believed that a vaccine would prevent swine flu. Reported vaccine uptake however was 8.3%. Main themes identified as reasons for uptake were having heard of a death from swine flu, health care provider recommendation or affiliation with the health system, influence of peers and information from media. Reasons for non-use were low perceived personal risk, problems with access and cost, inadequate information and a perceived lack of a government mandate endorsing influenza vaccines. A majority indicated a preference for injectable over nasal vaccines, especially in remote rural areas. Hesitancy from a lack of confidence in pandemic influenza vaccines appears to have been less of an issue than access, complacency and other sociocultural considerations. Recent influenza outbreaks in 2015 highlight a need to reconsider policy for routine influenza vaccination while paying attention to sociocultural factors and community preferences for effective vaccine action. PMID:26110454

  9. Community awareness, use and preference for pandemic influenza vaccines in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Neisha; Purohit, Vidula; Schaetti, Christian; Kudale, Abhay; Joseph, Saju; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention, but limited vaccine uptake was a problem worldwide during the 2009–2010 pandemic. Community acceptance of a vaccine is a critical determinant of its effectiveness, but studies have been confined to high-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-method study in urban and rural Pune, India in 2012–2013. Semi-structured explanatory model interviews were administered to community residents (n = 436) to study awareness, experience and preference between available vaccines for pandemic influenza. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews complemented the survey. Awareness of pandemic influenza vaccines was low (25%). Some respondents did not consider vaccines relevant for adults, but nearly all (94.7%), when asked, believed that a vaccine would prevent swine flu. Reported vaccine uptake however was 8.3%. Main themes identified as reasons for uptake were having heard of a death from swine flu, health care provider recommendation or affiliation with the health system, influence of peers and information from media. Reasons for non-use were low perceived personal risk, problems with access and cost, inadequate information and a perceived lack of a government mandate endorsing influenza vaccines. A majority indicated a preference for injectable over nasal vaccines, especially in remote rural areas. Hesitancy from a lack of confidence in pandemic influenza vaccines appears to have been less of an issue than access, complacency and other sociocultural considerations. Recent influenza outbreaks in 2015 highlight a need to reconsider policy for routine influenza vaccination while paying attention to sociocultural factors and community preferences for effective vaccine action. PMID:26110454

  10. Reducing 'swine flu': the midwife's role.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nikki

    2011-12-01

    With 70 per cent of pregnant women remaining unvaccinated in January 2011, the Department of Health (DOH) and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) provided further updated advice for providers of maternity services in February 2011, stressing that pregnant women should be included in the 'at risk' groups for GPs' seasonal flu vaccine, which would also reduce the incidence of H1N1 virus in newborns (DOH and RCOG 2011). The launch of the 'NHS Flu Fighter' this autumn is expected to increase the uptake of NHS staff being vaccinated, further reducing transmission to this vulnerable group. PMID:22216585

  11. Seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness: a global threat.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J; Monto, Arnold S

    2006-11-01

    The increase in the incidence of avian influenza worldwide in both poultry and humans introduces the potential for another influenza A pandemic that could pose a significant threat to both human health and the global economy. The impact of the next influenza pandemic will be influenced, in part, by how well the medical, government, business, and lay communities are prepared. Despite the additional tools and resources that have become available since prior epidemics, there are limits to the quantity of antiviral drugs that can be manufactured and concerns over the current vaccine production systems. Despite these challenges, there is an opportunity to take action before the emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and, possibly, to prevent its spread or at least mitigate its impact on the world. In February 2006, a group of representatives from federal, state, and local governments; professional bodies; academia; and the pharmaceutical industry met to review the current state of preparedness in the United States for a potential influenza pandemic and its relationship to seasonal influenza. The goal of the meeting was to examine the recently revised US Department of Health and Human Services plan for preparedness and response to an influenza pandemic and to make recommendations to actualize this plan at the state and local levels. PMID:17163390

  12. Point-of-care testing for pandemic influenza and biothreats.

    PubMed

    Louie, Richard F; Kitano, Tyler; Brock, T Keith; Derlet, Robert; Kost, Gerald J

    2009-12-01

    New and reemerging infectious diseases, such as pandemic viruses and resistant bacteria, pose a serious threat in the 21st century. Some of these agents represent global security threats. This review provides an overview of diagnostic challenges presented by pandemic influenza and biothreat agents. The article summarizes recent pandemics and disease outbreaks, point-of-care influenza diagnostic tests, biothreat agents, biothreat instrument systems, and technologies in development. It highlights how medical innovation and health care initiatives can help prepare health care professionals and public health personnel to handle future crises. Based on gap analysis for current point-of-care testing deficiencies, it concludes with policy recommendations that will enhance preparedness. PMID:19797963

  13. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Vulnerable Populations in Tribal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Cheyenne; LaRoque, Mic; Mason, Cheryl; McLaughlin, Joe; Neel, Lisa; Powell, Terry; Weiser, Thomas; Bryan, Ralph T.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to establish and administer public health programs within their communities and will be critical partners in national efforts to prepare for pandemic influenza. Within AIAN communities, some subpopulations will be particularly vulnerable during an influenza pandemic because of their underlying health conditions, whereas others will be at increased risk because of limited access to prevention or treatment interventions.We outline potential issues to consider in identifying and providing appropriate services for selected vulnerable populations within tribal communities. We also highlight pandemic influenza preparedness resources available to tribal leaders and their partners in state and local health departments, academia, community-based organizations, and the private sector. PMID:19461107

  14. Isolation of a High Affinity Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Virus That Binds at the ‘Sa’ Antigenic Site

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arpita; Yeolekar, Leena; Dhere, Rajeev; Kapre, Subhash; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus evades host immunity through antigenic drift and shift, and continues to circulate in the human population causing periodic outbreaks including the recent 2009 pandemic. A large segment of the population was potentially susceptible to this novel strain of virus. Historically, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been fundamental tools for diagnosis and epitope mapping of influenza viruses and their importance as an alternate treatment option is also being realized. The current study describes isolation of a high affinity (KD = 2.1±0.4 pM) murine MAb, MA2077 that binds specifically to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein of the pandemic virus. The antibody neutralized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in an in vitro microneutralization assay (IC50 = 0.08 µg/ml). MA2077 also showed hemagglutination inhibition activity (HI titre of 0.50 µg/ml) against the pandemic virus. In a competition ELISA, MA2077 competed with the binding site of the human MAb, 2D1 (isolated from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic) on pandemic H1N1 HA. Epitope mapping studies using yeast cell-surface display of a stable HA1 fragment, wherein ‘Sa’ and ‘Sb’ sites were independently mutated, localized the binding site of MA2077 within the ‘Sa’ antigenic site. These studies will facilitate our understanding of antigen antibody interaction in the context of neutralization of the pandemic influenza virus. PMID:23383214

  15. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future. PMID:19802552

  16. Assessment of pandemic preparedness in a socially vulnerable community in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Kiltz, Linda; Fonseca, Diana; Rodriguez, Christina; Munoz, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain information about general and pandemic preparedness efforts of residents within San Patricio County in South Texas, as well as to identify the most effective means of communicating the risks posed by pandemic influenza. The population of San Patricio County is socially vulnerable to a variety of disasters, including influenza pandemics due to the unique demographic profile of the county as well as its location on the Gulf Coast. The goals of this study were to help with pandemic planning efforts and to provide recommendations that could serve as a foundation for building more resilient communities within San Patricio County. Clearly the various governmental levels must work together to assist communities prepare for pandemic preparedness but broad, inclusive community participation is also necessary to strengthen community resilience. PMID:24350552

  17. BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Nigel

    2009-11-01

    The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

  18. The general practice experience of the swine flu epidemic in Victoria--lessons from the front line.

    PubMed

    Eizenberg, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The swine influenza (H1N1 09) outbreak in Victoria has provided an excellent opportunity to review the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI) and to assess its performance in practice. General practitioners play a major role in seasonal flu management, and it was expected that the AHMPPI would enable GPs on the front line to maintain this central role during the swine flu pandemic. The role of front-line GPs has been made extremely difficult by deficiencies in implementation of the AHMPPI, including resource supply failures, time-consuming administrative burdens, delays in receiving laboratory test results and approval for provision of oseltamivir to patients, and a lack of clear communication about policy changes as the situation progressed. We must use this experience to ensure timely and appropriate review of the AHMPPI and the way it is implemented. Better consultation with front-line clinicians, particularly GPs, is crucial and must occur as a matter of urgent priority. PMID:19645644

  19. A Case of American Education Flu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that the American educational system's penchant for testing may be likened to an educational flu. Notes that teachers feel increasing pressure to abandon techniques that are engaging if they are not specifically aimed at performance on test day. Contends that the American educational system needs to keep pace with international

  20. Is It a Cold or the Flu?

    MedlinePLUS

    IS IT A Cold OR THE Flu ? SYMPTOMS FEVER HEADACHE GENERAL ACHES, PAINS FATIGUE, WEAKNESS EXTREME EXHAUSTION STUFFY NOSE SNEEZING SORE THROAT CHEST ... P L I C AT I O N S COLD Rare Rare Slight Sometimes Never Common Usual Common ...

  1. Flu Season Continues to Be Mild: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common flu strain circulating this season is the H1N1 strain. Last year, it was the H3N2 strain, ... vaccinated, there is still benefit to getting vaccinated." SOURCES: Lynnette Brammer, M.P.H., epidemiologist, influenza division, ...

  2. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept model with the addition of Google Flu Trends, predicted weekly influenza cases during 4 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 80% of estimates (Figure 1). Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by individual medical centers to provide advanced warning of future influenza cases.

  3. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Methods Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (20042011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Results A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by individual medical centers to provide advanced warning of future influenza cases. PMID:23457520

  4. Chest radiography findings in adults with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza.

    PubMed

    McEwen, R E; Scriven, J E; Green, C A; Bailey, M S; Banerjee, A K

    2010-06-01

    The current pandemic of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus, commonly referred to as "swine flu", began in Mexico in March 2009 and reached the UK in April 2009. By 21 July 2009, more than 850 suspected cases of influenza had been seen at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital (BHH), including 52 adults with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 influenza who were admitted. Of seven patients (13%) requiring intensive care, six needed mechanical ventilation, two needed extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and one died. Of the 52 admitted adults, 42 (81%) had respiratory symptoms or signs and positive PCR tests for novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus. These patients also had chest radiographs (CXR) taken, which were abnormal for 12 patients (29%). Of these, six patients had bilateral consolidation, which was bibasal in three and widespread in three; all six had pleural effusions. A further six patients had unilateral consolidation with predominantly basal changes; one of these patients had a pleural effusion. The odds ratio for requiring intubation and ventilation with H1N1 influenza and an abnormal CXR was 29.0 (95% confidence interval 2.93-287.0). CXR changes were not common in swine flu, but a significant minority of those requiring admission had consolidation on their CXR. Those who required admission and had CXR changes are more likely to require intubation and ventilation than those without abnormalities on CXR. PMID:20505030

  5. Pandemic preparedness and the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT).

    PubMed

    Cox, Nancy J; Trock, Susan C; Burke, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Influenza infections have resulted in millions of deaths and untold millions of illnesses throughout history. Influenza vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza prevention and control. Recommendations are made by the World Health Organization (WHO) 6-9 months in advance of the influenza season regarding what changes, if any, should be made in the formulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. This allows time to manufacture, test, distribute, and administer vaccine prior to the beginning of the influenza season. At the same time experts also consider which viruses not currently circulating in the human population, but with pandemic potential, pose the greatest risk to public health. Experts may conclude that one or more of these viruses are of enough concern to warrant development of a high-growth reassortant candidate vaccine virus. Subsequently, national authorities may determine that a vaccine should be manufactured, tested in clinical trials, and even stockpiled in some circumstances. The Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) was created in an effort to develop a standardized set of elements that could be applied for decision making when evaluating pre-pandemic viruses. The tool is a simple, additive model, based on multi-attribute decision analysis . The ultimate goal is to identify an appropriate candidate vaccine virus and prepare a human vaccine before the virus adapts to infect and efficiently transmit in susceptible human populations. This pre-pandemic preparation allows production of vaccine-a strategy that could save lives and mitigate illness during a pandemic. PMID:25085014

  6. A Study of the Swine Flu (H1N1) Epidemic Among Health Care Providers of a Medical College Hospital of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Rajoura, Om Prakash; Roy, Rupali; Agarwal, Paras; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers) was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach. PMID:22090671

  7. Assessment of Health-Care Worker Exposure to Pandemic Flu in Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, U.; Gressel, M.; Konangi, S.; Mead, K.; Kishore, A.; Earnest, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a current Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) in protecting health-care workers (HCWs) from airborne-infection (AI) exposure, and compares HCW AI exposures within an AIIR and a traditional patient room. We numerically simulated the air-flow patterns in the rooms, using room geometries and layout (room dimensions, bathroom dimensions and details, placement of vents and furniture), ventilation parameters (flow rates at the inlet and outlet vents, diffuser design, thermal sources, etc.), and pressurization corresponding to those measured at a local hospital. A patient-cough was introduced into each simulation, and the AI dispersal was tracked in time using a multi-phase flow simulation approach. The measured data showed that ventilation rates for both rooms exceeded 12 air-changes per hour (ACH), and the AIIR was at almost 16 ACH. Thus, the AIIR met the recommended design criteria for ventilation rate and pressurization. However, the computed results revealed incomplete air mixing, and not all of the room air was changed 12 (or 16) times per hour. In fact, in some regions of the room, the air merely circulated, and did not refresh. With the main exhaust flow rate exceeding the main supply, mass flow rate conservation required a part of the deficit to be accounted for by air migration from the corridor through the gaps around the main door. Hence, the AIIR was effective in containing the infectious aerosol within the room. However, it showed increased exposure of the HCW to the AI pathogens, as the flow from the ceiling-mounted supply louver first encountered the patient and then the HCW almost directly on its way to the main exhaust, also located on the ceiling. The traditional patient room exhibited a similar flow path. In addition, for the traditional patient room, some cough-generated aerosol is observed very close to the gaps around the door to the corridor, indicating that the aerosol may escape to the corridor, and spread the infection beyond the room. The computational results suggest that ventilation arrangement can have an important role in better protecting the HCW from exposure to airborne infectious pathogens. PMID:26722128

  8. Training security officers to recognize the perils of weapons of mass destruction and pandemic flu contaminates.

    PubMed

    Luizzo, Anthony J; Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively manage disasters, hospital security operatives need to learn the ABC's of diagnosing exposure models, spotting exposed persons, and donning appropriate contaminate-controlling attire to limit potential exposure. This article spells out how the establishment of a WMD training program gives the Security Department the capability of helping to contain WMD exposures before they adversely impact the institutional setting. The department's "awesome" role in keeping hospitals free from contamination requires, according to the authors, dedicated, well trained, appropriately equipped, and highly motivated security officers who keep a watchful eye over the institutions they protect. PMID:17907601

  9. Crystal structure of the swine-origin A (H1N1)-2009 influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) reveals similar antigenicity to that of the 1918 pandemic virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qi, Jianxun; Shi, Yi; Li, Qing; Gao, Feng; Sun, Yeping; Lu, Xishan; Lu, Qiong; Vavricka, Christopher J; Liu, Di; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2010-05-01

    Influenza virus is the causative agent of the seasonal and occasional pandemic flu. The current H1N1 influenza pandemic, announced by the WHO in June 2009, is highly contagious and responsible for global economic losses and fatalities. Although the H1N1 gene segments have three origins in terms of host species, the virus has been named swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) due to a predominant swine origin. 2009 S-OIV has been shown to highly resemble the 1918 pandemic virus in many aspects. Hemagglutinin is responsible for the host range and receptor binding of the virus and is therefore a primary indicator for the potential of infection. Primary sequence analysis of the 2009 S-OIV hemagglutinin (HA) reveals its closest relationship to that of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, however, analysis at the structural level is necessary to critically assess the functional significance. In this report, we report the crystal structure of soluble hemagglutinin H1 (09H1) at 2.9 Å, illustrating that the 09H1 is very similar to the 1918 pandemic HA (18H1) in overall structure and the structural modules, including the five defined antiboby (Ab)-binding epitopes. Our results provide an explanation as to why sera from the survivors of the 1918 pandemics can neutralize the 2009 S-OIV, and people born around the 1918 are resistant to the current pandemic, yet younger generations are more susceptible to the 2009 pandemic. PMID:21203961

  10. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a pandemic, tracking the severity, molecular and phenotypic characterization of the viruses and confirming whether ILI incidence is truly related to influenza virus infections. GIS showed that web-based, self-reported ILI can be a useful addition, especially if virological self-sampling is added and an epidemic threshold could be determined. GFT showed negligible added value. PMID:24063523

  11. Factors Affecting Acceptance and Intention to Receive Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Vaccine among Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Birmingham, UK.

    PubMed

    Janks, Michaela; Cooke, Sara; Odedra, Aimee; Kang, Harkeet; Bellman, Michelle; Jordan, Rachel E

    2012-01-01

    UK pandemic influenza strategy focused on vaccination of high risk groups, although evidence shows that school-age children have the highest infection rates. Vaccination of children might be an additional strategy. We undertook a cross-sectional study amongst 149 parents of primary school children aged 4-7 years in Birmingham, UK to quantify intention to accept pandemic influenza vaccine and identify factors affecting uptake. Ninety-one (61.1%, 95% CI 52.8, 68.9) had or would accept vaccine for their child. The most common reasons for declining vaccine were concerns about safety (58.6% reported this), side effects (55.2%), or believing their child had already had swine flu (12.1%). Parents of nonwhite ethnicity (OR 2.4 (1.1, 5.0)) and with asthmatic children (OR 6.6 (1.4, 32.1)) were significantly more likely to accept pandemic vaccine, as were those whose children had ever received seasonal vaccine and those who believed swine flu to be a serious threat (OR 4.2 (1.9, 9.1)). Parents would be more likely to accept vaccination if they received a letter of invite, if the government strongly encouraged them, if it were administered at school, and if it were more thoroughly tested. Accurate media portrayal of safety of the vaccine during future pandemics will be essential. PMID:23150815

  12. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  13. Storms and Water Usage; Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. C.; Muttiah, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a contemporary, authentic application of quantitative reasoning based on media clips. Students analyze items from the media to answer mathematical questions related to the article. Volumes, economics, and growth rates of a pandemic are featured in the two clips presented. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  14. Flu virus continues to evolve in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine can be infected with human- and avian-adapted influenza viruses, which has labeled pigs as "mixing vessels" for generating novel, genetically diverse viruses that may have epidemic or pandemic potential. However, it has been documented that humans, some species of birds and other mammals may a...

  15. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  16. Less Than Half of U.S. Babies Receive Flu Vaccine: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Less Than Half of U.S. Babies Receive Flu Vaccine: CDC Many parents don't realize how deadly ... Hispanic parents and children to get the flu vaccine," she said. Flu is a serious and potentially ...

  17. Sensitivity of the Quidel Sofia Fluorescent Immunoassay Compared With 2 Nucleic Acid Assays and Viral Culture to Detect Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    PubMed

    Arbefeville, Sophie S; Fickle, Ann R; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To confirm a diagnosis of influenza at the point of care, healthcare professionals may rely on rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs). RIDTs have low to moderate sensitivity compared with viral culture or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). With the resurgence of the influenza A (Flu A; subtype H1N1) pandemic 2009 (pdm09) strain in the years 2013 and 2014, we evaluated the accuracy of the United State Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay to detect epidemic Flu A(H1N1)pdm09 in specimens from the upper-respiratory tract. During a 3-month period, we collected 40 specimens that tested positive via PCR and/or culture for Flu A of the H1N1 pdm09 subtype. Of the 40 specimens, 27 tested positive (67.5%) via Sofia assay for Flu A. Of the 13 specimens with a negative result via Sofia testing, 4 had coinfection, as detected by the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel. This sensitivity of the RIDT Sofia assay to detect Flu A(H1N1) pdm09 was comparable to previously reported sensitivities ranging from 10% to 75% for older RIDTs. PMID:26199264

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was preceded by falling temperatures. Climate influences on pandemic spread seem important and should be further investigated. PMID:25011543

  19. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Children and Flu Antiviral Drugs Caregivers of Young Children Children with Neurologic Conditions Health Care Workers Schools & Childcare Providers Guidance for School Administrators to ...

  20. Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Children and Flu Antiviral Drugs Caregivers of Young Children Children with Neurologic Conditions Health Care Workers Schools & Childcare Providers Guidance for School Administrators to ...

  1. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIAID works nationally with academic medical centers and organizations that provide a ready resource for conducting clinical trials to study promising vaccines and treatments for flu and other ...

  2. A Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Facility Pandemic Response Plan

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Lingenhol, Naomi M; Baker, Bryan; Wilkerson, Amy; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2010-01-01

    The potential of a severe influenza pandemic necessitates the development of an organized, rational plan for continued laboratory animal facility operation without compromise of the welfare of animals. A comprehensive laboratory animal program pandemic response plan was integrated into a university-wide plan. Preparation involved input from all levels of organizational hierarchy including the IACUC. Many contingencies and operational scenarios were considered based on the severity and duration of the influenza pandemic. Trigger points for systematic action steps were based on the World Health Organization's phase alert criteria. One extreme scenario requires hibernation of research operations and maintenance of reduced numbers of laboratory animal colonies for a period of up to 6 mo. This plan includes active recruitment and cross-training of volunteers for essential personnel positions, protective measures for employee and family health, logistical arrangements for delivery and storage of food and bedding, the removal of waste, and the potential for euthanasia. Strategies such as encouraging and subsidizing cryopreservation of unique strains were undertaken to protect valuable research assets and intellectual property. Elements of this plan were put into practice after escalation of the pandemic alerts due to influenza A (H1N1) in April 2009. PMID:20858365

  3. Pandemic influenza preparedness: an ethical framework to guide decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alison K; Faith, Karen; Gibson, Jennifer L; Upshur, Ross EG

    2006-01-01

    Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. Summary The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust. PMID:17144926

  4. Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

    2014-03-14

    During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza. PMID:24622286

  5. Oseltamivir-resistant 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Chan, P A; Connell, N T; Gabonay, A M; Westley, B; Larkin, J M; LaRosa, S P; Chapin, K; Mermel, L

    2010-10-01

    Although neuraminidase inhibitors are active against most 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) swine-origin strains, sporadic cases of oseltamivir resistance have been described. Since April 2009, 54 cases of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 swine-origin have been reported in the USA (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/; accessed 1 February 2010). Approximately 1.4% of tested isolates are oseltamivir resistant. We report a patient with an underlying hematological malignancy who was hospitalized with influenza A (H1N1) swine-origin and whose strain developed oseltamivir resistance during therapy. PMID:20218988

  6. A Nonlinear Pattern Recognition of Pandemic H1N1 Using a State Space Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Mai S.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic Signal Processing is a relatively new field in bioinformatics, in which signal processing algorithms and methods are used to study functional structures in the DNA. An appropriate mapping of the DNA sequence into one or more numerical sequences enables the use of many digital signal processing tools in the analysis of different genomic sequences. Also, a novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged in the spring of 2009 and spread very rapidly among people. The severity of the disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus varies greatly and can change over time. Throughout this work, Pandemic H1N1 genomic sequences were characterized according to nonlinear dynamical features such as moment invariants and largest Lyapunov exponents and then compared to those features that extracted from classical H1N1 genomic sequences. The proposed methods were applied to a number of sequences encoded into a time series using a coding measure scheme employing Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP). The aim of this work is to extract genomic features that can distinguish the new swine flu from the classical H1N1 existed before using sequences from segment 8 of the influenza genome that consists of 8 RNA segments which encodes two important proteins for immune system attack (NS1 and NS2). According to the obtained results it is evident that variability is present based on a significance test in both groups; pandemic and classical H1N1 sequences. PMID:23407581

  7. A Nonlinear Pattern Recognition of Pandemic H1N1 Using a State Space Based Methods.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Mai S

    2011-01-01

    Genomic Signal Processing is a relatively new field in bioinformatics, in which signal processing algorithms and methods are used to study functional structures in the DNA. An appropriate mapping of the DNA sequence into one or more numerical sequences enables the use of many digital signal processing tools in the analysis of different genomic sequences. Also, a novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged in the spring of 2009 and spread very rapidly among people. The severity of the disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus varies greatly and can change over time. Throughout this work, Pandemic H1N1 genomic sequences were characterized according to nonlinear dynamical features such as moment invariants and largest Lyapunov exponents and then compared to those features that extracted from classical H1N1 genomic sequences. The proposed methods were applied to a number of sequences encoded into a time series using a coding measure scheme employing Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP). The aim of this work is to extract genomic features that can distinguish the new swine flu from the classical H1N1 existed before using sequences from segment 8 of the influenza genome that consists of 8 RNA segments which encodes two important proteins for immune system attack (NS1 and NS2). According to the obtained results it is evident that variability is present based on a significance test in both groups; pandemic and classical H1N1 sequences. PMID:23407581

  8. Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-02-13

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

  9. Dating the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gavin J. D.; Bahl, Justin; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Zhang, Jinxia; Poon, Leo L. M.; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Guan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Pandemic influenza viruses cause significant mortality in humans. In the 20th century, 3 influenza viruses caused major pandemics: the 1918 H1N1 virus, the 1957 H2N2 virus, and the 1968 H3N2 virus. These pandemics were initiated by the introduction and successful adaptation of a novel hemagglutinin subtype to humans from an animal source, resulting in antigenic shift. Despite global concern regarding a new pandemic influenza, the emergence pathway of pandemic strains remains unknown. Here we estimated the evolutionary history and inferred date of introduction to humans of each of the genes for all 20th century pandemic influenza strains. Our results indicate that genetic components of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus circulated in mammalian hosts, i.e., swine and humans, as early as 1911 and was not likely to be a recently introduced avian virus. Phylogenetic relationships suggest that the A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 virus (BM/1918) was generated by reassortment between mammalian viruses and a previously circulating human strain, either in swine or, possibly, in humans. Furthermore, seasonal and classic swine H1N1 viruses were not derived directly from BM/1918, but their precursors co-circulated during the pandemic. Mean estimates of the time of most recent common ancestor also suggest that the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains may have been generated through reassortment events in unknown mammalian hosts and involved multiple avian viruses preceding pandemic recognition. The possible generation of pandemic strains through a series of reassortment events in mammals over a period of years before pandemic recognition suggests that appropriate surveillance strategies for detection of precursor viruses may abort future pandemics. PMID:19597152

  10. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Protect Your Child and Family from the Flu this School Year English 本学年家长预防子女和家人感染流感应采取的措施 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Gripe H1N1 (gripe porcina) Characters not displaying ...

  11. Disaster planning: using an 'evolving scenario' approach for pandemic influenza with primary care doctors in training.

    PubMed

    Pitts, John; Lynch, Marion; Mulholland, Michael; Curtis, Anthony; Simpson, John; Meacham, Janet

    2009-09-01

    This project adopted an 'evolving scenario' approach of an influenza pandemic to enhance factual and attitudinal learning in general practice registrars. The one-day session, held before the current outbreak, was based around a sequence of four video clips that portrayed the development and evolution of pandemic influenza through news flashes and pieces to camera. A short factual presentation was included. Small group discussions with plenary feedback followed each of these. Registrars were encouraged to consider their own feelings, what they needed as professional support at each stage, and what professional and personal issues a pandemic produced. A course structured in this way allowed participants at a training level to identify the major issues and consequences of an influenza pandemic. It was recognised that constructive preparation and planning for business continuity were possible. However, family illness and social consequences were recognised as causing a dissonance with professional practice that needs open debate. PMID:19849900

  12. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths. PMID:19997956

  13. Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

    2008-01-01

    This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  15. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  16. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print ... Text Size I just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get ...

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  18. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  19. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  1. "Filoviruses": a real pandemic threat?

    PubMed

    Martina, Byron E E; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2009-04-01

    Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses. PMID:20049699

  2. The Cost Effectiveness of Pandemic Influenza Interventions: A Pandemic Severity Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milne, George J.; Halder, Nilimesh; Kelso, Joel K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of a newly emerged influenza pandemic will depend on its transmissibility and severity. Understanding how these pandemic features impact on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies is important for pandemic planning. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis of a comprehensive range of social distancing and antiviral drug strategies intended to mitigate a future pandemic was conducted using a simulation model of a community of ∼30,000 in Australia. Six pandemic severity categories were defined based on case fatality ratio (CFR), using data from the 2009/2010 pandemic to relate hospitalisation rates to CFR. Results Intervention strategies combining school closure with antiviral treatment and prophylaxis are the most cost effective strategies in terms of cost per life year saved (LYS) for all severity categories. The cost component in the cost per LYS ratio varies depending on pandemic severity: for a severe pandemic (CFR of 2.5%) the cost is ∼$9 k per LYS; for a low severity pandemic (CFR of 0.1%) this strategy costs ∼$58 k per LYS; for a pandemic with very low severity similar to the 2009 pandemic (CFR of 0.03%) the cost is ∼$155 per LYS. With high severity pandemics (CFR >0.75%) the most effective attack rate reduction strategies are also the most cost effective. During low severity pandemics costs are dominated by productivity losses due to illness and social distancing interventions, while for high severity pandemics costs are dominated by hospitalisation costs and productivity losses due to death. Conclusions The most cost effective strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic involve combining sustained social distancing with the use of antiviral agents. For low severity pandemics the most cost effective strategies involve antiviral treatment, prophylaxis and short durations of school closure; while these are cost effective they are less effective than other strategies in reducing the infection rate. PMID:23585906

  3. Influenza H1N1 (swine flu) vaccination: a safety surveillance feasibility study using self-reporting of serious adverse events and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; Shakir, Saad; Dryburgh, Moira; Mantay, Brian J; McDonnell, Patrick; Layton, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    AIMS During the global H1N1 influenza A (swine flu) pandemic 2009–2010, swine flu vaccines were expeditiously licensed and a mass vaccination programme for high risk groups, including pregnant women, was introduced in the UK. This pilot active safety surveillance study was performed to establish the feasibility of rapidly monitoring the new swine flu vaccines in large patient numbers receiving or offered the vaccination under normal conditions of use within a short time frame. METHODS A cohort design with safety data capture through modern technologies was carried out in Scotland, UK during the winter swine flu vaccination programme 2009–2010 in individuals receiving or offered the swine flu vaccination. The main outcome measures were self-reported serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS The cohort comprised 4066 people; 3754 vaccinated and 312 offered the vaccination but not vaccinated. There were 939 self-reported events (838 different events), 53 judged to fit SAE criteria by the investigators, with nine judged as possibly, probably or definitely vaccine related. None of the seven deaths (six in vaccinees) were judged as vaccine related. One hundred and twenty-eight women reported 130 pregnancies during the study with 117 pregnant at study start. There were reports of four miscarriages in three women and six possible congenital abnormalities in live births. CONCLUSIONS Overall, no significant safety issues were identified. The methodology and use of modern technologies to collect safety data from large numbers of patients was successful and could be used again in similar safety studies. PMID:22082196

  4. Pandemic influenza preparedness: a survey of businesses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip W; Hansen, Keith; Spanbauer, Lori; Shell, Duane F

    2007-09-01

    Several Omaha businesses were surveyed on pandemic influenza preparedness and general disaster preparedness. Most businesses had started pandemic influenza planning, but few had exercised the plan or used it to educate employees. Responses provided insight into the status of business planning. The survey uncovered a need for providing assistance to businesses in pandemic preparedness as well as training in infection control in the workplace, which should be a niche for infection control professionals. PMID:17765563

  5. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the Human 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Weingartl, Hana M.; Albrecht, Randy A.; Lager, Kelly M.; Babiuk, Shawn; Marszal, Peter; Neufeld, James; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Garca-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Jrgen A.

    2009-01-01

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease entity during the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. The aim of this work was to determine the virulence of a plasmid-derived human 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (reconstructed 1918, or 1918/rec, virus) in swine using a plasmid-derived A/swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 virus (1930/rec virus), representing the first isolated influenza virus, as a reference. Four-week-old piglets were inoculated intratracheally with either the 1930/rec or the 1918/rec virus or intranasally with the 1918/rec virus. A transient increase in temperature and mild respiratory signs developed postinoculation in all virus-inoculated groups. In contrast to other mammalian hosts (mice, ferrets, and macaques) where infection with the 1918/rec virus was lethal, the pigs did not develop severe respiratory distress or become moribund. Virus titers in the lower respiratory tract as well as macro- and microscopic lesions at 3 and 5 days postinfection (dpi) were comparable between the 1930/rec and 1918/rec virus-inoculated animals. In contrast to the 1930/rec virus-infected animals, at 7 dpi prominent lung lesions were present in only the 1918/rec virus-infected animals, and all the piglets developed antibodies at 7 dpi. Presented data support the hypothesis that the 1918 pandemic influenza virus was able to infect and replicate in swine, causing a respiratory disease, and that the virus was likely introduced into the pig population during the 1918 pandemic, resulting in the current lineage of the classical H1N1 swine influenza viruses. PMID:19224986

  6. Facing the threat of influenza pandemic - roles of and implications to general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert; Chuh, Antonio A T

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza, compounded with seasonal influenza, posed a global challenge. Despite the announcement of post-pandemic period on 10 August 2010 by the WHO, H1N1 (2009) virus would continue to circulate as a seasonal virus for some years and national health authorities should remain vigilant due to unpredictable behaviour of the virus. Majority of the world population is living in countries with inadequate resources to purchase vaccines and stockpile antiviral drugs. Basic hygienic measures such as wearing face masks and the hygienic practice of hand washing could reduce the spread of the respiratory viruses. However, the imminent issue is translating these measures into day-to-day practice. The experience from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong has shown that general practitioners (GPs) were willing to discharge their duties despite risks of getting infected themselves. SARS event has highlighted the inadequate interface between primary and secondary care and valuable health care resources were thus inappropriately matched to community needs.There are various ways for GPs to contribute in combating the influenza pandemic. They are prompt in detecting and monitoring epidemics and mini-epidemics of viral illnesses in the community. They can empower and raise the health literacy of the community such as advocating personal hygiene and other precautious measures. GPs could also assist in the development of protocols for primary care management of patients with flu-like illnesses and conduct clinical audits on the standards of preventive and treatment measures. GPs with adequate liaison with public health agencies would facilitate early diagnosis of patients with influenza.In this article, we summarise the primary care actions for phases 4-6 of the pandemic. We shall discuss the novel roles of GPs as alternative source of health care for patients who would otherwise be cared for in the secondary care level. The health care system would thus remain sustainable during the public health crisis. PMID:21044300

  7. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious ...

  8. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... protect/vaccine/index.htm Signs and Symptoms of Flu People who have the flu often feel some ...

  9. Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions for pandemic influenza: an evaluation of the evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Aledort, Julia E; Lurie, Nicole; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Bozzette, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    Background In an influenza pandemic, the benefit of vaccines and antiviral medications will be constrained by limitations on supplies and effectiveness. Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions will therefore be vital in curtailing disease spread. However, the most comprehensive assessments of the literature to date recognize the generally poor quality of evidence on which to base non-pharmaceutical pandemic planning decisions. In light of the need to prepare for a possible pandemic despite concerns about the poor quality of the literature, combining available evidence with expert opinion about the relative merits of non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza may lead to a more informed and widely accepted set of recommendations. We evaluated the evidence base for non-pharmaceutical public health interventions. Then, based on the collective evidence, we identified a set of recommendations for and against interventions that are specific to both the setting in which an intervention may be used and the pandemic phase, and which can be used by policymakers to prepare for a pandemic until scientific evidence can definitively respond to planners' needs. Methods Building on reviews of past pandemics and recent historical inquiries, we evaluated the relative merits of non-pharmaceutical interventions by combining available evidence from the literature with qualitative and quantitative expert opinion. Specifically, we reviewed the recent scientific literature regarding the prevention of human-to-human transmission of pandemic influenza, convened a meeting of experts from multiple disciplines, and elicited expert recommendation about the use of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions in a variety of settings (healthcare facilities; community-based institutions; private households) and pandemic phases (no pandemic; no US pandemic; early localized US pandemic; advanced US pandemic). Results The literature contained a dearth of evidence on the efficacy or effectiveness of most non-pharmaceutical interventions for influenza. In an effort to inform decision-making in the absence of strong scientific evidence, the experts ultimately endorsed hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette, surveillance and case reporting, and rapid viral diagnosis in all settings and during all pandemic phases. They also encouraged patient and provider use of masks and other personal protective equipment as well as voluntary self-isolation of patients during all pandemic phases. Other non-pharmaceutical interventions including mask-use and other personal protective equipment for the general public, school and workplace closures early in an epidemic, and mandatory travel restrictions were rejected as likely to be ineffective, infeasible, or unacceptable to the public. Conclusion The demand for scientific evidence on non-pharmaceutical public health interventions for influenza is pervasive, and present policy recommendations must rely heavily on expert judgment. In the absence of a definitive science base, our assessment of the evidence identified areas for further investigation as well as non-pharmaceutical public health interventions that experts believe are likely to be beneficial, feasible and widely acceptable in an influenza pandemic. PMID:17697389

  10. Two Years after Pandemic Influenza A/2009/H1N1: What Have We Learned?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The world had been anticipating another influenza pandemic since the last one in 1968. The pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus (A/2009/H1N1) finally arrived, causing the first pandemic influenza of the new millennium, which has affected over 214 countries and caused over 18,449 deaths. Because of the persistent threat from the A/H5N1 virus since 1997 and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in 2003, medical and scientific communities have been more prepared in mindset and infrastructure. This preparedness has allowed for rapid and effective research on the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the disease, with impacts on its control. A PubMed search using the keywords “pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009” yielded over 2,500 publications, which markedly exceeded the number published on previous pandemics. Only representative works with relevance to clinical microbiology and infectious diseases are reviewed in this article. A significant increase in the understanding of this virus and the disease within such a short amount of time has allowed for the timely development of diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures. These findings could prove useful for future randomized controlled clinical trials and the epidemiological control of future pandemics. PMID:22491771

  11. Health information during the H1N1 influenza pandemic: did the amount received influence infection prevention behaviors?

    PubMed

    Etingen, Bella; LaVela, Sherri L; Miskevics, Scott; Goldstein, Barry

    2013-06-01

    In the wake of uncertainty due to the H1N1 influenza pandemic, amount and sources of H1N1-related information were examined in a cohort at high-risk for respiratory complications. Factors associated with adequate amount of information were identified. A cross-sectional mailed survey was conducted in 2010 with veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders. Bivariate comparisons assessed adequate H1N1-realted information versus not enough and too much. Multivariate regression identified variables associated with receipt of adequate information. A greater proportion who received adequate versus not enough information received H1N1 vaccination (61.87 vs. 48.49 %, p < 0.0001). A greater proportion who received adequate versus too much information received seasonal vaccination (84.90 vs. 71.02 %, p < 0.0001) and H1N1 vaccination (61.87 vs. 42.45 %, p < 0.0001). Variables associated with greater odds of receiving adequate information included being white, a college graduate, and having VA health professionals as their primary information source. Receiving adequate information was associated with lower odds of staying home with flu/flu-like symptoms, and higher odds of H1N1 vaccine receipt and wearing a facemask. Receiving appropriate amounts of information from valid sources may impact adherence to infection control recommendations during pandemics. Findings can be used to facilitate efforts ensuring information is received by high-risk populations. PMID:23269499

  12. [The influenza pandemic of 1782, with special reference to its occurrence in the Imperial City of Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Vasold, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, very little research has been done on the flu pandemic of 1782. The year before, in 1781, an epidemic of dysentery had ravaged Central Europe quite seriously. The flu pandemic began in Germany in spring 1782. It took its origin in the Far East, probably in Imperial China. From there it slowly traveled westward and finally hit Russia and Germany. In early 1782, it arrived in eastern Prussia. Mortality rose, in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) mainly people over 30 died. From the German coast on the Baltic Sea the virus soon crossed over to England and Scotland. Within Germany it slowly moved southward, to places like Berlin, Weimar and further south. In Berlin very many people became sick. In spring 1782, in many parts of Germany, from east to west, people were bed-ridden. In Nuremberg, a young doctor described the symptoms of the disease and the therapy he gave to his patients in a pamphlet but apart from that there are few sources. Probably not many people consulted a doctor. Mortality in Nuremberg, it seems, did not rise very much. The city had been in decline since the 1750s, its population now shrunk even further. When this scourge hit Central Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was in decline, after an attack of famine and pestilence in the early 1770s and that epidemic of dysentery in 1781. It finally collapsed some 25 years later, in 1806, and the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria. PMID:22400200

  13. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  14. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  15. Low Clinical Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection during Pregnancy on the Island of La Runion

    PubMed Central

    Grardin, Patrick; El Amrani, Rachid; Cyrille, Batrice; Gabrile, Marc; Guillermin, Philippe; Boukerrou, Malik; Boumahni, Brahim; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Winer, Arnaud; Rouanet, Jean-Fabien; Bohrer, Michel; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Barau, Georges; Michault, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Background Pregnant women have been identified as a group at risk, both for respiratory complications than for the admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pdm). The purpose of this prospective register-based cohort-study was to characterize the clinical virulence of the pdm (H1N1/09)v during pregnancy in La Runion. Methods/Principal Findings Over a twelve-week pdm wave (13 July to 3 October 2009), 294 pregnant women presented with an influenza-like illness (ILI) to one of the three maternity departments of the South Reunion area, Indian Ocean. Out of these, 278 were checked by RT-PCR for influenza viruses (157 positive and 121 negative, of whom, 141 with pdm flu and 132 with ILIs of non pdm origin, 5 untyped). The median body temperature was higher in women experiencing pdm flu than in those with non pdm ILI (38.9C versus 38.3C, P<0.0001), without evidence linked to circulating viremia. Oseltamivir was given for 86% of pdm flu cases in a median time inferior than 48 hrs (range 07 days). The hospitalization rate for pdm flu was of 60% and not associated with underlying conditions. Six viral pneumonia and fourteen asthma attacks were observed among 84 hospitalized pdm flu cases, of whom, only one led to the ICU for an acute lung injury. No maternal death occurred during the pdm wave. None adverse pregnancy outcome was associated with pdm flu. No congenital birth defect, nor early-onset neonatal influenza infection was attributable to pdm flu exposure. Conclusions/Significance This report mitigates substantially the presumed severity of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza infection during pregnancy. The reasons for which the clinical burden of H1N1/09 influenza virus may differ worldwide raise questions about a differential local viral-strain effect and public health preparedness, notably in timely access to special care and antiviral treatments. PMID:20531946

  16. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Edwin D

    2006-01-01

    Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. Not classified as true pandemics are 3 notable epidemics: a pseudopandemic in 1947 with low death rates, an epidemic in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and an abortive epidemic of swine influenza in 1976 that was feared to have pandemic potential. Major influenza epidemics show no predictable periodicity or pattern, and all differ from one another. Evidence suggests that true pandemics with changes in hemagglutinin subtypes arise from genetic reassortment with animal influenza A viruses. PMID:16494710

  17. Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Three worldwide (pandemic) outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. The latter 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized. All 3 have been informally identified by their presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. They are now known to represent 3 different antigenic subtypes of influenza A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. Not classified as true pandemics are 3 notable epidemics: a pseudopandemic in 1947 with low death rates, an epidemic in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and an abortive epidemic of swine influenza in 1976 that was feared to have pandemic potential. Major influenza epidemics show no predictable periodicity or pattern, and all differ from one another. Evidence suggests that true pandemics with changes in hemagglutinin subtypes arise from genetic reassortment with animal influenza A viruses. PMID:16494710

  18. Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply.

    PubMed

    Medema, Jeroen K; Zoellner, York F; Ryan, James; Palache, Abraham M

    2004-07-01

    Influenza pandemic planning is a complex, multifactorial process, which involves public health authorities, regulatory authorities, academia and industry. It is further complicated by the unpredictability of the time of emergence and severity of the next pandemic and the effectiveness of influenza epidemic interventions. The complexity and uncertainties surrounding pandemic preparedness have so far kept the various stakeholders from joining forces and tackling the problem from its roots. We developed a mathematical model, which shows the tangible consequences of conceptual plans by linking possible pandemic scenarios to health economic outcomes of possible intervention strategies. This model helps to structure the discussion on pandemic preparedness and facilitates the translation of pandemic planning concepts to concrete plans. The case study for which the model has been used shows the current level of global pandemic preparedness in an assumed pandemic scenario, the health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply and the importance of cell culture-based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies as a tool for pandemic control. PMID:15163482

  19. It's Not Too Late to Get a Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Americans to the hospital. Death rates linked to flu vary annually, but have gone as high as 49,000 deaths in a year, the CDC says. SOURCE: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, news release, Dec. ...

  20. Flu Season Stays Mild, with Slow Uptick in Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... she noted. Unlike last year, this season the H1N1 strain of the flu is the most common ... and 60 percent effective, according to the CDC. SOURCE: Lynnette Brammer, M.P.H., epidemiologist, influenza division, ...

  1. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... used to treat influenza illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an ...

  2. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  3. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ vis ...

  4. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have the flu, pain relievers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen can reduce fever or aches. Allergies ... if you take 2 different drugs that contain acetaminophen—one for a stuffy nose and the other ...

  5. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA) facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514) and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425) accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM) for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA) that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in tetrameric stabilization. It could also participate in other biological processes associated with conserved surface residues. A RNA double hairpin secondary structure found in this segment in a majority of the H5N1 strains also supports this observation. In this paper we propose this conserved region as a probable site for designing inhibitors for broad-spectrum pandemic control of flu viruses with similar NA structure. PMID:20170556

  6. MapMyFlu: visualizing spatio-temporal relationships between related influenza sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Nicholas; Kurzawa, Nils; Eils, Roland; Herrmann, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular dynamics of viral spreading is crucial for anticipating the epidemiological implications of disease outbreaks. In the case of influenza, reassortments or point mutations affect the adaption to new hosts or resistance to anti-viral drugs and can determine whether a new strain will result in a pandemic infection or a less severe progression. To this end, tools integrating molecular information with epidemiological parameters are important to understand how molecular characteristics reflect in the infection dynamics. We present a new web tool, MapMyFlu, which allows to spatially and temporally display influenza viruses related to a query sequence on a Google Map based on BLAST results against the NCBI Influenza Database. Temporal and geographical trends appear clearly and may help in reconstructing the evolutionary history of a particular sequence. The tool is accessible through a web server, hence without the need for local installation. The website has an intuitive design and provides an easy-to-use service, and is available at http://mapmyflu.ipmb.uni-heidelberg.de PMID:25940623

  7. Management of swine-flu patients in the intensive care unit: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Raktima; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Wadhawan, Sonia; Bhadoria, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Background: H1N1 pandemic in 2009–2010 created a state of panic not only in India, but in the whole world. The clinical picture seen with H1N1 is different from the seasonal influenza involving healthy young adults. Critical care management of such patients imposes a challenge for anesthesiologist. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalized positive H1N1 patients was performed from July 2009–June 2010. Those requiring the ventilatory support were included in the study. Result: 54 patients were admitted in the swine-flu ward during the study period out of which 19 required ventilatory support. The average day of presentation to the health care facility was 6th day causing delay in initiation of antiviral therapy and increased severity of the disease. 65% of the ventilated patients were having associated comorbidities. Mortality was 74% among ventilated patients. Conclusion: Positive H1N1 with severe disease profile have a poor outcome. Early identification of high-risk factors and thus early intervention in the form of antiretroviral therapy and respiratory care will help in reducing the overall mortality. PMID:22345946

  8. MapMyFlu: visualizing spatio-temporal relationships between related influenza sequences.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Nicholas; Kurzawa, Nils; Eils, Roland; Herrmann, Carl

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular dynamics of viral spreading is crucial for anticipating the epidemiological implications of disease outbreaks. In the case of influenza, reassortments or point mutations affect the adaption to new hosts or resistance to anti-viral drugs and can determine whether a new strain will result in a pandemic infection or a less severe progression. To this end, tools integrating molecular information with epidemiological parameters are important to understand how molecular characteristics reflect in the infection dynamics. We present a new web tool, MapMyFlu, which allows to spatially and temporally display influenza viruses related to a query sequence on a Google Map based on BLAST results against the NCBI Influenza Database. Temporal and geographical trends appear clearly and may help in reconstructing the evolutionary history of a particular sequence. The tool is accessible through a web server, hence without the need for local installation. The website has an intuitive design and provides an easy-to-use service, and is available at http://mapmyflu.ipmb.uni-heidelberg.de. PMID:25940623

  9. Determinants of Refusal of A/H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination in a High Risk Population: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    d'Alessandro, Eugenie; Hubert, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Bassinet, Laurence; Lortholary, Olivier; Jaffre, Yannick; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1) it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2) it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3) this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization. PMID:22506011

  10. Avian influenza pandemic preparedness: developing prepandemic and pandemic vaccines against a moving target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Pandey, Aseem; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented global spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses within the past ten years and their extreme lethality to poultry and humans has underscored their potential to cause an influenza pandemic. Combating the threat of an impending H5N1 influenza pandemic will require a combination of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies. The emergence of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 emphasised the unpredictable nature of a pandemic influenza. Undoubtedly, vaccines offer the most viable means to combat a pandemic threat. Current egg-based influenza vaccine manufacturing strategies are unlikely to be able to cater to the huge, rapid global demand because of the anticipated scarcity of embryonated eggs in an avian influenza pandemic and other factors associated with the vaccine production process. Therefore, alternative, egg-independent vaccine manufacturing strategies should be evaluated to supplement the traditional egg-derived influenza vaccine manufacturing. Furthermore, evaluation of dose-sparing strategies that offer protection with a reduced antigen dose will be critical for pandemic influenza preparedness. Development of new antiviral therapeutics and other, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies will further supplement pandemic preparedness. This review highlights the current status of egg-dependent and egg-independent strategies against an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:20426889

  11. Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Swine and other animals.

    PubMed

    Keenliside, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus infection has been reported in a variety of mammalian and avian species. Wild waterfowl such as ducks and geese are considered the principal reservoir of many influenza A viruses. On May 2, 2009, the first confirmed case of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) in animals was reported in a small swine herd in Canada. A public health investigation concluded that transmission from people to pigs was the likely source of infection. Subsequently the pH1N1 virus has been reported in turkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets, and several wildlife species. Human to animal transmission has been confirmed or suspected in a number of cases. The naming of the virus as "swine flu" in the international media led to a drop in the demand for pork and subsequently a reduction in the price of pork paid to farmers. Estimates of losses to pork producers in North America run into hundreds of millions of dollars. Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses. In order to be successful, future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers. PMID:23254339

  12. 2009 H1N1 influenza: a twenty-first century pandemic with roots in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Farley, Monica M

    2010-09-01

    A swine-origin H1N1 triple-reassortant influenza A virus found to be a distant relative of the 1918 "Spanish flu" virus emerged in April 2009 to give rise to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Although disease was generally mild and similar to seasonal influenza, severe manifestations including respiratory failure were noted in some, particularly those with underlying conditions such as asthma, pregnancy and immunosuppression. Children and younger adults accounted for most cases, hospitalizations and deaths. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay was superior to antigen-based rapid tests for diagnosis. All 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza strains were susceptible to 1 or more neuraminidase inhibitors. Monovalent, unadjuvanted 2009 H1N1 vaccines were licensed in the United States in September 2009 and initially targeted to younger individuals, pregnant women, caretakers of infants and healthcare providers. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlights the need for modernization of influenza vaccines, improved diagnostics and more rigorous evaluation of mitigation strategies. PMID:20697263

  13. H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Italy Revisited: Has the Willingness to Get Vaccinated Suffered in the Long Run?

    PubMed Central

    Ludolph, Ramona; Nobile, Marta; Hartung, Uwe; Castaldi, Silvana; Schulz, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the long-term secondary effects of personal experience with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009/2010 and the perception of the institutional reaction to it on Italians’ willingness to get vaccinated in case of a novel influenza pandemic. Design and Methods We conducted 140 face-to-face interviews in the Registry Office of the Municipality of Milan, Italy, from October to December 2012. Results Willingness to get vaccinated during a novel influenza pandemic was best predicted by having been vaccinated against the seasonal flu in the past (OR=5.18; 95%CI: 1.40 to 19.13) and fear of losing one’s life in case of an infection with H1N1 (OR=4.09; 95%CI: 1.68 to 9.97). It was unaffected by the assessment of institutional performance. Conclusions The findings of this study do not point to long-term secondary effects of the institutional handling of the H1N1 pandemic. The results highlight the fact that behavioural intention is not the same as behaviour, and that the former cannot simply be taken as an indicator of the latter. Significance for public health Whereas influenza pandemics occurred rather rarely in the last centuries, their frequency can be expected to increase in the future due to the enhanced globalisation and still raising importance of air travelling. Recent examples (Ebola, H1N1, SARS, avian influenza) demonstrate that initially local disease outbreaks often become worldwide health threats of international concern. National and international health authorities are consequently urged to present preparedness plans on how to manage such health crises. However, their success highly depends on their acceptance by the public. To ensure the public compliance with recommended actions, effective communication is needed. Since communication is most successful when it meets the needs of the target audience, a full understanding of the audience is crucial. This study can help public health experts to better understand the variables determining people’s willingness to get vaccinated during influenza pandemic, in terms of behavioural and perceptual variables. This knowledge enables them to correctly address the public’s concerns when having to communicate during the next outbreak of pandemic influenza. PMID:26425501

  14. Pandemic preparedness with live attenuated influenza vaccines based on A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Larisa; Isakova-Sivak, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Continuously evolving avian influenza viruses pose a constant threat to the human public health. In response to this threat, a number of pandemic vaccine candidates have been prepared and evaluated in animal models and clinical trials. This review summarizes the data from the development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) based on Russian master donor virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57. LAIV candidates of H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H1N1 and H2N2 subtypes were safe, immunogenic and protected animals from challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses. Clinical trials of the pandemic LAIVs demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity for healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine viruses were infectious, genetically stable and did not transmit to unvaccinated contacts. In addition, here we discuss criteria for the assessment of pandemic LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy necessary for their licensure. PMID:25555687

  15. Early-warning signals for an outbreak of the influenza pandemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Di; Gao, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of human history, influenza pandemics have been seen as major disasters, so studies on the influenza virus have become an important issue for many experts and scholars. Comprehensive research has been performed over the years on the biological properties, chemical characteristics, external environmental factors and other aspects of the virus, and some results have been achieved. Based on the chaos game representation walk model, this paper uses the time series analysis method to study the DNA sequences of the influenza virus from 1913 to 2010, and works out the early-warning signals indicator value for the outbreak of an influenza pandemic. The variances in the CGR walk sequences for the pandemic years (or + -1 to 2 years) are significantly higher than those for the adjacent years, while those in the non-pandemic years are usually smaller. In this way we can provide an influenza early-warning mechanism so that people can take precautions and be well prepared prior to a pandemic.

  16. The swine flu episode and the fog of epidemics.

    PubMed

    Krause, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has shaped research and public health for nearly a century. In 1976, the specter of 1918 loomed large when a pandemic threatened the country again. Public health officials initiated a mass vaccination campaign, but the anticipated pandemic failed to occur. An examination of the available data in 1976 and the decision to vaccinate, as well as lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s, may help shape an appropriate public health response to future threats from avian influenza or other infectious diseases. PMID:16494715

  17. The Swine Flu Episode and the Fog of Epidemics1

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has shaped research and public health for nearly a century. In 1976, the specter of 1918 loomed large when a pandemic threatened the country again. Public health officials initiated a mass vaccination campaign, but the anticipated pandemic failed to occur. An examination of the available data in 1976 and the decision to vaccinate, as well as lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1980s, may help shape an appropriate public health response to future threats from avian influenza or other infectious diseases. PMID:16494715

  18. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Antiviral Drug Supply Mixing Tamiflu Capsules Drug Resistance Information for Health ... The Flu Season Seasonal Influenza Q&A Vaccine Supply for 2015-2016 Season Seasonal Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations ...

  19. Study Links Flu Vaccine to Short-Term Drop in Stroke Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155171.html Study Links Flu Vaccine to Short-Term Drop in Stroke Risk Research ... the study did not prove that the flu vaccine causes a drop in stroke risk. Exactly why ...

  20. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely to cause disease in the upcoming flu season. But even when the vaccine doesnt exactly ... after vaccination, and protection lasts through the flu season. 3 Sthoismveapcecoinpele should not get Tell the person ...

  1. Patient-To-Doctor Spread of Bird Flu Reported in China

    MedlinePLUS

    ... usually get this flu from infected birds, but clusters of infections in households have been reported. This ... infect humans as easily as seasonal flu does. "Clusters of human cases do not predict a larger ...

  2. FDA Approves First Flu Shot with Added Ingredient to Boost Immune Response

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155913.html FDA Approves First Flu Shot With Added Ingredient to Boost Immune Response ... WEDNESDAY, Nov. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The first flu vaccine with an adjuvant has been approved for ...

  3. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of

  4. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  5. Pandemic and post-pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. Methods A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Results Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Conclusion Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection. PMID:22126648

  6. The zombie thermographer apocalypse preparedness 101: zombie thermographer pandemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Fred

    2013-05-01

    Fact: The U.S Government Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, rather remarkably has dedicated part of their web site to" Zombie Preparedness". See: http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/zombies.htm for more information. This is a tongue-incheek campaign with messages to engage audiences with the hazards of unpreparedness. The CDC director, U.S. Assistant Surgeon General Ali S. Khan (RET), MD, MPH notes, "If you are generally well equipped to deal with a zombie apocalypse you will be prepared for a hurricane, pandemic, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Make a plan, and be prepared!" (CDC Website, April 26th, 2013). Today we can make an easy comparison between the humor that the CDC is bringing to light, and what is actually happening in the Thermographic Industry. It must be acknowledge there are "Zombie Thermographers" out there. At times, it can be observed from the sidelines as a pandemic apocalypse attacking the credibility and legitimacy of the science and the industry that so many have been working to advance for over 30 years. This paper outlines and explores the trends currently taking place, the very real risks to facility plant, property, and human life as a result, and the strategies to overcome these problems.

  7. The 1918 influenza pandemic: Lessons for 2009 and the future

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Harvey, Hillery A.; Memoli, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The 1918 to 1919 H1N1 influenza pandemic is among the most deadly events in recorded human history, having killed an estimated 50 to 100 million persons. Recent H5N1 avian influenza epizootics associated with sporadic human fatalities have heightened concern that a new influenza pandemic, one at least as lethal as that of 1918, could be developing. In early 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus appeared, but it has not exhibited unusually high pathogenicity. Nevertheless, because this virus spreads globally, some scientists predict that mutations will increase its lethality. Therefore, to accurately predict, plan, and respond to current and future influenza pandemics, we must first better-understand the events and experiences of 1918. Although the entire genome of the 1918 influenza virus has been sequenced, many questions about the pandemic it caused remain unanswered. In this review, we discuss the origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, the pandemics unusual epidemiologic features and the causes and demographic patterns of fatality, and how this information should impact our response to the current 2009 H1N1 pandemic and future pandemics. After 92 yrs of research, fundamental questions about influenza pandemics remain unanswered. Thus, we must remain vigilant and use the knowledge we have gained from 1918 and other influenza pandemics to direct targeted research and pandemic influenza preparedness planning, emphasizing prevention, containment, and treatment. PMID:20048675

  8. FluTE, a publicly available stochastic influenza epidemic simulation model.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dennis L; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J; Longini, Ira M

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A(H2N2) and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza viruses. We present examples of how this model can be used to study the dynamics of influenza epidemics in the United States and simulate how to mitigate or delay them using pharmaceutical interventions and social distancing measures. Computer simulation models play an essential role in informing public policy and evaluating pandemic preparedness plans. We have made the source code of this model publicly available to encourage its use and further development. PMID:20126529

  9. FluTE, a Publicly Available Stochastic Influenza Epidemic Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dennis L.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Obenchain, Valerie J.; Longini, Ira M.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and computer models of epidemics have contributed to our understanding of the spread of infectious disease and the measures needed to contain or mitigate them. To help prepare for future influenza seasonal epidemics or pandemics, we developed a new stochastic model of the spread of influenza across a large population. Individuals in this model have realistic social contact networks, and transmission and infections are based on the current state of knowledge of the natural history of influenza. The model has been calibrated so that outcomes are consistent with the 1957/1958 Asian A(H2N2) and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza viruses. We present examples of how this model can be used to study the dynamics of influenza epidemics in the United States and simulate how to mitigate or delay them using pharmaceutical interventions and social distancing measures. Computer simulation models play an essential role in informing public policy and evaluating pandemic preparedness plans. We have made the source code of this model publicly available to encourage its use and further development. PMID:20126529

  10. Influenza pneumonia among adolescents and adults: a concurrent comparison between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) in the post-pandemic period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu Qiao; Qu, Jiu Xin; Wang, Chen; Yu, Xiao Min; Liu, Ying Mei; Cao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Comparisons of the characteristics between the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and common seasonal influenza are important for both clinical management and epidemiological studies. However, the differences between pandemic and seasonal influenza during the post-pandemic period are poorly understood. Objectives The aim of our research was to investigate clinical and immune response differences between patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) pneumonia in the post-pandemic period. Methods During the first flu season in post-pandemic period, patients from Beijing Network for Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia present A (H1N1) pdm09 or A (H3N2) influenza were compared concurrently in the aspects of clinical characteristics and inflammatory profile in acute phase. Result Patients with A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza pneumonia showed a close mean age to A (H3N2) pneumonia (51 20 vs 53 16, mean standard deviation, years) but tended to have more underlying diseases (32.8% vs 10%, P = 0.036). Although clinical characteristics were similar, no statistical difference were found in pneumonia severity index (PSI) score or intensive care unit admission rate or mortality, patients in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort present higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactase dehydrogenase (P = 0.006, 0.018, respectively) in blood and also longer duration of fever than A (H3N2) cohort. Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 (p70) were higher in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort (P = 0.031, 0.047, respectively). Conclusios During the first post-pandemic flu season, patients with the A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia showed similar clinical characteristics but slightly higher disease severity and stronger systemic inflammatory response than A (H3N2) pneumonia. PMID:24106842

  11. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  12. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around

  13. Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza: Therapeutic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Memoli, Matthew J.; Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality annually, and the threat of a pandemic underscores the need for new therapeutic strategies. Here we briefly discuss novel antiviral agents under investigation, the limitations of current antiviral therapy and stress the importance of secondary bacterial infections in seasonal and pandemic influenza. Additionally, the lack of new antibiotics available to treat increasingly drug resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, Acinetobacter, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is highlighted as an important component of influenza treatment and pandemic preparedness. Addressing these problems will require a multidisciplinary approach, which includes the development of novel antivirals and new antibiotics, as well as a better understanding of the role secondary infections play on the morbidity and mortality due to influenza infection. PMID:18598914

  14. Flu, risks, and videotape: escalating fear and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S; Prager, Fynnwin

    2012-04-01

    While extensive risk perception research has focused on emotions, cognitions, and behavior at static points in time, less attention has been paid to how these variables might change over time. This study assesses how negative affect, threat beliefs, perceived risk, and intended avoidance behavior change over the course of an escalating biological disaster. A scenario simulation methodology was used that presents respondents with a video simulation of a 15-day series of local news reports to immerse respondents in the developing details of the disaster. Systemic manipulation of the virus's causal origin (terrorist attack, medical lab accident, unknown) and the respondent's proximity to the virus (local vs. opposite coast) allowed us to investigate the dynamics of public response. The unfolding scenario was presented in discrete episodes, allowing responses to be tracked over the episodes. The sample includes 600 respondents equally split by sex and by location, with half in the Washington, DC area, and half in the Los Angeles area. The results showed respondents' reactions to the flu epidemic increased as the disaster escalated. More importantly, there was considerable consistency across respondents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to the epidemic over the episodes. In addition, the reactions of respondents proximally closer to the epidemic increased more rapidly and with greater intensity than their distant counterparts. Finally, as the flu epidemic escalated, both terrorist and accidental flu releases were perceived as being less risky and were less likely to lead to avoidance behavior compared to the unknown flu release. PMID:22332702

  15. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members

  16. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  17. Clinical Profile of Swine Flu in Children at Puducherry

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, P.; Kumar, Manish; Renitha, R.; Mondal, Nivedita

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical profile and outcome of children screened and diagnosed for Swine flu at a tertiary care hospital. Methods All Children with suspicion of swine flu infection attending our hospital during the epidemic from August 2009 through January 2010 were screened and categorized into A, B and C as per guidelines of National Health and family welfare. Patients in Category A were advised home quarantine, Category B tested and treated with ostelamivir and Category C were hospitalized. Results Among 424 cases screened for Swine flu, 79 were children in the age group 0–12 years of age (18.6%). The median age of presentation was 5 years. Children belonging to Category A were 43(54.4%), Category B were 31(39.2%) and Category C were 5(6.3%). Out of the cases that were screened, 19 children were confirmed positive for H1N1 infection(30.2%).Out of positive cases 8 were in category A (42%), eight were in category B (42%) and five were in category C (26.3%). Conclusions During the epidemic of swine flu at puducherry, majority of cases were category A with mild symptoms. Home quarantine and preventive measures during the epidemic were found to be far more important than testing and treating with Oseltamivir. PMID:20886318

  18. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  19. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  20. Evolution of human receptor binding affinity of H1N1 hemagglutinins from 1918 to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Malaisree, Maturos; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Decha, Panita; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Poovorawan, Yong; Hannongbua, Supot

    2010-08-23

    The recent outbreak of the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza in humans has focused global attention on this virus, which could potentially have introduced a more dangerous pandemic of influenza flu. In the initial step of the viral attachment, hemagglutinin (HA), a viral glycoprotein surface, is responsible for the binding to the human SIA alpha2,6-linked sialopentasaccharide host cell receptor (hHAR). Dynamical and structural properties, based on molecular dynamics simulations of the four different HAs of Spanish 1918 (H1-1918), swine 1930 (H1-1930), seasonal 2005 (H1-2005), and a novel 2009 (H1-2009) H1N1 bound to the hHAR were compared. In all four HA-hHAR complexes, major interactions with the receptor binding were gained from HA residue Y95 and the conserved HA residues of the 130-loop, 190-helix, and 220-loop. However, introduction of the charged HA residues K145 and E227 in the 2009 HA binding pocket was found to increase the HA-hHAR binding efficiency in comparison to the three previously recognized H1N1 strains. Changing of the noncharged HA G225 residue to a negatively charged D225 provides a larger number of hydrogen-bonding interactions. The increase in hydrophilicity of the receptor binding region is apparently an evolution of the current pandemic flu from the 1918 Spanish, 1930 swine, and 2005 seasonal strains. Detailed analysis could help the understanding of how different HAs effectively attach and bind with the hHAR. PMID:20726599

  1. Lessons from pandemic influenza A(H1N1): the research-based vaccine industry's perspective.

    PubMed

    Abelin, Atika; Colegate, Tony; Gardner, Stephen; Hehme, Norbert; Palache, Abraham

    2011-02-01

    As A(H1N1) influenza enters the post-pandemic phase, health authorities around the world are reviewing the response to the pandemic. To ensure this process enhances future preparations, it is essential that perspectives are included from all relevant stakeholders, including vaccine manufacturers. This paper outlines the contribution of R&D-based influenza vaccine producers to the pandemic response, and explores lessons that can be learned to improve future preparedness. The emergence of 2009 A(H1N1) influenza led to unprecedented collaboration between global health authorities, scientists and manufacturers, resulting in the most comprehensive pandemic response ever undertaken, with a number of vaccines approved for use three months after the pandemic declaration. This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken during the last decade. During this period, manufacturers greatly increased influenza vaccine production capacity, and estimates suggest a further doubling of capacity by 2014. Producers also introduced cell-culture technology, while adjuvant and whole virion technologies significantly reduced pandemic vaccine antigen content. This substantially increased pandemic vaccine production capacity, which in July 2009 WHO estimated reached 4.9 billion doses per annum. Manufacturers also worked with health authorities to establish risk management plans for robust vaccine surveillance during the pandemic. Individual producers pledged significant donations of vaccine doses and tiered-pricing approaches for developing country supply. Based on the pandemic experience, a number of improvements would strengthen future preparedness. Technical improvements to rapidly select optimal vaccine viruses, and processes to speed up vaccine standardization, could accelerate and extend vaccine availability. Establishing vaccine supply agreements beforehand would avoid the need for complex discussions during a period of intense time pressure. Enhancing international regulatory co-operation and mutual recognition of approvals could accelerate vaccine supply, while maintaining safety standards. Strengthening communications with the public and healthcare workers using new approaches and new channels could help improve vaccine uptake. Finally, increasing seasonal vaccine coverage will be particularly important to extend and sustain pandemic vaccine production capacity. PMID:21115061

  2. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  3. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Mller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wsten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  4. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 200910 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Methods Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Results Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. Conclusions We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be more prone to the dissemination of viral information. The page ranking analysis revealed the crucial role of search engines regarding access to information on the Internet. PMID:23360311

  5. Pandemic response lessons from influenza H1N1 2009 in Asia.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Dale; Hui, David S; Gao, Zhancheng; Lee, Christopher; Oh, Myoung-Don; Cao, Bin; Hien, Tran Tinh; Patlovich, Krista; Farrar, Jeremy

    2011-08-01

    During April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain was identified in Mexico and the USA. Within weeks the virus had spread globally and the first pandemic of the 21st Century had been declared. It is unlikely to be the last and it is crucial that real lessons are learned from the experience. Asia is considered a hot spot for the emergence of new pathogens including past influenza pandemics. On this occasion while preparing for an avian, highly virulent influenza virus (H5N1 like) originating in Asia in fact the pandemic originated from swine, and was less virulent. This discrepancy between what was planned for and what emerged created its own challenges. The H1N1 pandemic has tested national health-care infrastructures and exposed shortcomings in our preparedness as a region. Key health challenges include communication throughout the region, surge capacity, access to reliable information and access to quality care, health-care worker skills, quality, density and distribution, access to essential medicines and lack of organizational infrastructure for emergency response. Despite years of preparation the public health and clinical research community were not ready to respond and opportunities for an immediate research response were missed. Despite warm words and pledges efforts to engage the international community to ensure equitable sharing of limited resources such as antivirals and vaccines fell short and stockpiles in the main remained in the rich world. This manuscript with authors from across the region describes some of the major challenges faced by Asia in response to the pandemic and draws lessons for the future. PMID:21627715

  6. Quantifying the transmission potential of pandemic influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    This article reviews quantitative methods to estimate the basic reproduction number of pandemic influenza, a key threshold quantity to help determine the intensity of interventions required to control the disease. Although it is difficult to assess the transmission potential of a probable future pandemic, historical epidemiologic data is readily available from previous pandemics, and as a reference quantity for future pandemic planning, mathematical and statistical analyses of historical data are crucial. In particular, because many historical records tend to document only the temporal distribution of cases or deaths (i.e. epidemic curve), our review focuses on methods to maximize the utility of time-evolution data and to clarify the detailed mechanisms of the spread of influenza. First, we highlight structured epidemic models and their parameter estimation method which can quantify the detailed disease dynamics including those we cannot observe directly. Duration-structured epidemic systems are subsequently presented, offering firm understanding of the definition of the basic and effective reproduction numbers. When the initial growth phase of an epidemic is investigated, the distribution of the generation time is key statistical information to appropriately estimate the transmission potential using the intrinsic growth rate. Applications of stochastic processes are also highlighted to estimate the transmission potential using similar data. Critically important characteristics of influenza data are subsequently summarized, followed by our conclusions to suggest potential future methodological improvements.

  7. Colleges and Universities Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, colleges and universities will play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of students, employees and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist as a framework to assist colleges and…

  8. Bosnia and Herzegovina Healthcare System Preparedness for Pandemic Influenza as of 2010

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Almir; Pilav, Aida; Dzananovic, Lejla; Cavaljuga, Semra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system is prepared for influenza pandemic; and to indicate strengths and weaknesses in planed resolution of pandemic influenza in Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system. Methodology: Qualitative systematic review, comparing established elements of healthcare systems with WHO’s guidelines on pandemic preparedness. Critical evaluations of available findings on preparedness of healthcare system of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) compared in details to preparedness of healthcare system of United Kingdom (UK) but in certain elements with some other European countries. Results and Discussion: Analysis of preparedness plans of B&H and UK are presented in details, with comparison of B&H with eight other countries by WHO guidelines categories and phases of pandemic preparedness and contingency plans. Conclusions: Disregarding the obstacles in B&H health care system policy Bosnia and Herzegovina has preparedness plans, that are made based on WHO’s guidelines but unlike all other analyzed countries does not have contingency plan. This can be seen as strength while weaknesses of B&H’s healthcare system are: late forming of preparedness plan with poor implementation of set activities, and lack of contingency plan. PMID:24511267

  9. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic. PMID:18522251

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 sequences from pandemic infections during 2009 in India.

    PubMed

    Flavia, Guntupally Balaswamy Arti; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009, a serious pandemic infection has been rapidly spread across the world. These infections are caused due to the novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus and hence these are commonly called as "Swine Flu". This new virus is the reassortment of avian, human and swine influenza viruses and thus it has a unique genome composition. There are 16 different types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 different types of neuraminidase (NA) that can be genetically and antigenetically differentiated. The first influenza A virus isolated from pigs was of the H1N1 subtype and these viruses have been reported to cause infection in pigs in many countries. The outbreak of this virus has been transmitted from pigs to humans. This new reassorted (exchange of genes) virus which is the cause of 2009 pandemic infections has the ability to spread from human to human. This spread of infection should be brought to an end. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the RNA segments of human H1N1 viruses was carried using MEGA version 4.0 to demonstrate the route map of infection to India. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences from India, published in Influenza Virus Resource (a database that integrates information gathered from the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) and the genbank of the (NCBI)) was retrieved and used for the analysis. The results showed that the various segments of the Indian isolates clustered well with the sequences from American, Asian and European countries and thus indicating the transmission of viruses from these places to India. PMID:21423887

  11. A social-cognitive model of pandemic influenza H1N1 risk perception and recommended behaviors in Italy.

    PubMed

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Zani, Bruna

    2011-04-01

    The outbreak of the pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 (swine flu) between March and April 2009 challenged the health services around the world. Indeed, misconceptions and worries have led the public to refuse to comply with precautionary measures. Moreover, there have been limited efforts to develop models incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of compliance with recommended behaviors. The aim of this study was to apply a social-cognitive model of risk perception and individual response to pandemic influenza H1N1 in a representative sample of Italian population. A sample of 1,010 Italians of at least 18 years of age took part in a telephone survey. The survey included measures of perceived preparedness of institutions, family members and friends' levels of worry, exposure to media campaigns (social-contextual factors), perceived coping efficacy, likelihood of infection, perceived seriousness, personal impact, and severity of illness (cognitive evaluations), affective response and compliance with recommended behaviors. Results demonstrated that affective response fully mediated the relationship between cognitive evaluations and social-contextual factors (with the exception of exposure to media campaigns) and compliance with recommended behaviors. Perceived coping efficacy and preparedness of institutions were not related to compliance with recommended behaviors. PMID:21077927

  12. Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Monica Fern; Palaniyar, Nades

    2014-01-01

    For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. Comparing genotypes for measures of poor lung function, inflammation, and admission to intensive care, these authors identified three variants of the SP-A gene SFTPA2 that positively correlated with flu severity. Remarkably, they also found the haplotype 1A(1) of SFTPA2 to be protective against these indicators, suggesting that targeted therapy with a recombinant form of SP-A2 may improve patient outcome. Although further work is required to confirm the specificity and efficacy of SP-A in therapeutic H1N1 protection, this study is one of the first to suggest a clinical role for SP-A in pandemic influenza. PMID:25184962

  13. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenggang; Yang, Penghui; Sun, Yang; Li, Taisheng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhong; Zou, Zhen; Yan, Yiwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Zhongwei; Xing, Li; Tang, Chong; Ju, Xiangwu; Guo, Feng; Deng, Jiejie; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Peng; Tang, Jun; Wang, Huanling; Zhao, Zhongpeng; Yin, Zhinan; Cao, Bin; Wang, Xiliang; Jiang, Chengyu

    2012-03-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease. The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model. Moreover, elevated levels of IL-17, Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing. IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice. These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics. PMID:22025253

  14. The production of hemagglutinin-based virus-like particles in plants: a rapid, efficient and safe response to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    D'Aoust, Marc-André; Couture, Manon M-J; Charland, Nathalie; Trépanier, Sonia; Landry, Nathalie; Ors, Frédéric; Vézina, Louis-P

    2010-06-01

    During the last decade, the spectre of an influenza pandemic of avian origin has led to a revision of national and global pandemic preparedness plans and has stressed the need for more efficient influenza vaccines and manufacturing practices. The 2009 A/H1N1 (swine flu) outbreak has further emphasized the necessity to develop new solutions for pandemic influenza vaccines. Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs)-non-infectious particles resembling the influenza virus-represent a promising alternative to inactivated and split-influenza virions as antigens, and they have shown uniqueness by inducing a potent immune response through both humoral and cellular components of the immune system. Our group has developed a plant-based transient influenza VLP manufacturing platform capable of producing influenza VLPs with unprecedented speed. Influenza VLP expression and purification technologies were brought to large-scale production of GMP-grade material, and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that low doses of purified, plant-produced influenza VLPs induce a strong and broad immune response in mice and ferrets. This review positions the recent developments towards the successful production of influenza VLPs in plants, including the production of VLPs from other human viruses and other forms of influenza antigens. The platform developed for large-scale production of VLPs is also presented along with an assessment of the speed of the platform to produce the first experimental vaccine lots from the identification of a new influenza strain. PMID:20199612

  15. [Christopher Columbus flu. A hypothesis for an ecological catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2006-05-01

    When Christopher Columbus and his men embarked on the second Colombian expedition to the New World (1493), the crew suffered from fever, respiratory symptoms and malaise. It is generally accepted that the disease was influenza. Pigs, horses and hens acquired in Gomera (Canary Islands) traveled in the same ship. The pigs may well have been the origin of the flu and the intermediary hosts for genetic recombination of other viral subtypes. The Caribbean archipelago had a large population of birds, the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus. In this ecological scenario there was a concurrence of several biological elements that had never before coexisted in the New World: pigs, horses, the influenza virus and humans. We propose that birds are likely to have played an important role in the epidemiology of the flu occurring on the second Colombian trip, which caused a fatal demographic catastrophe, with an estimated mortality of 90% among the natives. PMID:16762260

  16. The role of cell culture vaccines in the control of the next influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Audsley, J M; Tannock, G A

    2004-05-01

    Pandemic influenza A viruses of avian origin are of particular concern and have crossed the species barrier several times in recent years, giving rise to illness and occasionally death in humans. This situation could become dramatically worse if the infectivity of avian viruses for humans were increased by reassortment between the genes of human and avian viruses. Co-infection of humans or an intermediate host with an avian strain and an existing human strain could produce new viruses of unknown pathogenicity to which the entire population would be susceptible. Inactivated vaccines against influenza have been prepared for many years using viruses grown in embryonated chicken eggs. However, the use of eggs presents difficulties when vaccine supplies need to be expanded at short notice. It seems likely that future vaccines will be prepared in high-yielding cell cultures from continuous lines that are preferably anchorage-independent. At present, only certain preparations of the Vero and Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines, grown and maintained in serum-free medium, are acceptable to all regulatory authorities. However, this situation is likely to change with increasing need for non-pandemic and pandemic vaccines. PMID:15155162

  17. The swine flu immunization program: scientific venture or political folly?

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wecht CH

    1978-01-01

    The author of this Article, an internationally recognized coroner perhaps best known among laymen for his incisive and tenacious criticism of the Warren Commission report on the Kennedy assassination, turns his attention to the federal government's 1976--1977 Swine Flu Immunization Program. Dr. Wecht contends that although this program may have been viewed by its key proponents as having great public health importance, or perhaps even political value, its creation and continuation nevertheless were scientifically unjustified. Furthermore, he contends, the federal government failed to inform the public adequately of important facts about the program's origins and progress, and it mismanaged the program in several important respects. Among the topics he discusses are swine flu's epidemiological history (including the 1976 Fort Dix outbreak that propelled swine flu into the national consciousness); the key elements leading to the government's decision to immunize; the government's failure to reevaluate the program seriously as problems arose; the shortcomings of the federal swine flu statute; the inadequacy of the government's investigation of the deaths of three persons in Pittsburgh within a few hours after being vaccinated (a matter that was of immediate concern to the author in his role as Coroner of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania); the long-delayed termination of the program following the emergence of a possible statistical link between the immunizations and an increase in the incidence of the Guillain-Barr Syndrome; the financial and human costs of the program; and the need for calmer, more objective decision making in future situations where immunization of the general populace is being considered.

  18. The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, N; Di Bella, S; Drapeau, C M; Grilli, E

    2009-10-01

    In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7- 35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000- 750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic. PMID:19881161

  19. Molecular virology: was the 1918 flu avian in origin?

    PubMed

    Antonovics, Janis; Hood, Michael E; Baker, Christi Howell

    2006-04-27

    Taubenberger et al. claim that the 1918 influenza virus was derived from an avian source and adapted to humans shortly before the pandemic. However, we do not believe that this conclusion, which has been widely disseminated in the popular press and in scientific journals, is supported by their phylogenetic evidence. PMID:16641950

  20. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  1. Infectious disease modeling methods as tools for informing response to novel influenza viruses of unknown pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Manoj; Bozio, Catherine; O'Hagan, Justin J; Uzicanin, Amra; Johnson, Lucinda E; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Swerdlow, David L

    2015-05-01

    The rising importance of infectious disease modeling makes this an appropriate time for a guide for public health practitioners tasked with preparing for, and responding to, an influenza pandemic. We list several questions that public health practitioners commonly ask about pandemic influenza and match these with analytical methods, giving details on when during a pandemic the methods can be used, how long it might take to implement them, and what data are required. Although software to perform these tasks is available, care needs to be taken to understand: (1) the type of data needed, (2) the implementation of the methods, and (3) the interpretation of results in terms of model uncertainty and sensitivity. Public health leaders can use this article to evaluate the modeling literature, determine which methods can provide appropriate evidence for decision-making, and to help them request modeling work from in-house teams or academic groups. PMID:25878297

  2. Red state, blue state, flu state: media self-selection and partisan gaps in Swine flu vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Baum, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the H1N1 virus (swine flu) crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly nonpartisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes and that such polarization is attributable, at least partly, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the U.S. mass media from roughly the 1950s until the early 1990s. In its place has arisen an increasingly fragmented and niche-oriented media marketplace in which individuals are better able to limit their information exposure to attitudes and opinions that reinforce, rather than challenge, their preexisting beliefs. I test my argument against a variety of data sources, including opinion surveys and state-level swine flu vaccination rate data. PMID:21948819

  3. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza, National and Community Measures

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization's recommended pandemic influenza interventions, based on limited data, vary by transmission pattern, pandemic phase, and illness severity and extent. In the pandemic alert period, recommendations include isolation of patients and quarantine of contacts, accompanied by antiviral therapy. During the pandemic period, the focus shifts to delaying spread and reducing effects through population-based measures. Ill persons should remain home when they first become symptomatic, but forced isolation and quarantine are ineffective and impractical. If the pandemic is severe, social distancing measures such as school closures should be considered. Nonessential domestic travel to affected areas should be deferred. Hand and respiratory hygiene should be routine; mask use should be based on setting and risk, and contaminated household surfaces should be disinfected. Additional research and field assessments during pandemics are essential to update recommendations. Legal authority and procedures for implementing interventions should be understood in advance and should respect cultural differences and human rights. PMID:16494723

  4. Investing in Immunity: Prepandemic Immunization to Combat Future Influenza Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jesse L

    2016-02-15

    We are unlikely, with current technologies, to have sufficient pandemic influenza vaccine ready in time to impact the first wave of the next pandemic. Emerging data show that prior immunization with an immunologically distinct hemagglutinin of the same subtype offers the potential to "prime" recipients for rapid protection with a booster dose, years later, of a vaccine then manufactured to match the pandemic strain. This article proposes making prepandemic priming vaccine(s) available for voluntary use, particularly to those at high risk of early occupational exposure, such as first responders and healthcare workers, and to others maintaining critical infrastructure. In addition to providing faster protection and potentially reducing social disruption, being able, early in a pandemic, to immunize those who had received prepandemic vaccine with one dose of the pandemic vaccine, rather than the 2 doses typically required, would reduce the total doses of pandemic vaccine then needed, extending vaccine supplies. PMID:26585520

  5. VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2010-10-23

    The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

  6. Strategies towards universal pandemic influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Leyrer, Sonja; Kwang, Jimmy

    2016-02-01

    Vaccination is considered to be the most effective and economical strategy against pandemic influenza. Vaccine development for multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, for example, H5N1, is hindered by antigenic drift, especially in the hemagglutinin (HA) sequence, as well as the antigenic shift. Growing efforts have been made to generate universal pandemic influenza vaccines. As mainly shown in animal trials, cross-clade and heterosubtypic protection by these universal vaccines are generally elicited by either a broad antigen-specific antibody response or influenza-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Strain selection, HA engineering and broad neutralizing antigen determination are major strategies to achieve universal and specific antibody response, while studies on other factors including vectors, adjuvants and administration routes aim for enhanced T-cell responses against diverse influenza subtypes. Prospectively, cost-effective universal vaccines developed based on these combined technologies are promising solutions for broad protection against influenza. PMID:26641724

  7. “Filoviruses”: a real pandemic threat?

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Byron EE; Osterhaus, Albert DME

    2009-01-01

    Filoviruses are zoonotic and among the deadliest viruses known to mankind, with mortality rates in outbreaks reaching up to 90%. Despite numerous efforts to identify the host reservoir(s), the transmission cycle of filoviruses between the animal host(s) and humans remains unclear. The last decade has witnessed an increase in filovirus outbreaks with a changing epidemiology. The high mortality rates and lack of effective antiviral drugs or preventive vaccines has propagated the fear that filoviruses may become a real pandemic threat. This article discusses the factors that could influence the possible pandemic potential of filoviruses and elaborates on the prerequisites for the containment of future outbreaks, which would help prevent the evolution of filovirus into more virulent and more transmissible viruses. PMID:20049699

  8. What You Should Know and Do This Flu Season If You Are 65 Years and Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Children and Flu Antiviral Drugs Caregivers of Young Children Children with Neurologic Conditions Health Care Workers Schools & Childcare Providers Guidance for School Administrators to ...

  9. Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Holmes

    2005-01-01

    A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

  10. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    PubMed Central

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or skipped) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance. PMID:26046930

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of surface proteins of novel H1N1 virus isolated from 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Danishuddin, Mohd; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

    2009-01-01

    Swine Influenza Virus (H1N1) is a known causative agent of swine flu. Transmission of Swine Influenza Virus form pig to human is not a common event and may not always cause human influenza. The 2009 outbreak by subtype H1N1 in humans is due to transfer of Swine Influenza Virus from pig to human. Thus to analyze the origin of this novel virus we compared two surface proteins (HA and NA) with influenza viruses of swine, avian and humans isolates recovered from 1918 to 2008 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of hemagglutinin gene from 2009 pandemic found to be clustered with swine influenza virus (H1N2) circulated in U.S.A during the 1999-2004 outbreaks. Whereas, neuraminidase gene was clustered with H1N1 strains isolated from Europe and Asia during 1992-2007 outbreaks. This study concludes that the new H1N1 strain appeared in 2009 outbreak with high pathogenicity to human was originated as result of re-assortment (exchange of gene). Moreover, our data also suggest that the virus will remain sensitive to the pre-existing therapeutic strategies. PMID:20198180

  12. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-06-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or “skipped”) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance.

  13. Prediction, risk and control of anti-influenza drugs in the Yodo River Basin, Japan during seasonal and pandemic influenza using the transmission model for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Takashi; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2015-07-15

    To reduce the risk of producing an anti-influenza drug-resistant virus from wildfowl, it is important to estimate the concentrations of anti-influenza drugs in river water during an influenza pandemic and to evaluate the concentrations that keep river basins safe. We first created a newly designed infectious disease transmission model based on the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model. This model was then applied to replicate the transitional changes of three representative anti-influenza drugs, oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), and zanamivir (ZAN), in the urban area of the Yodo River system, which is one of the major basins in Japan with a population of 12 million; this region contains nearly 10% of the country's flu cases during the seasonal influenza outbreaks between 1999 and 2010. The results showed high correlations between the estimated number of influenza cases and the concentrations of the three investigated anti-influenza drugs with the reported values. We then extended the application of the model to estimate the concentration level of these anti-influenza drugs during the several influenza pandemics. The maximum estimated concentrations for OS, OC, and ZAN were known to be 260-450ng/L, 1500-2600ng/L and 40-70ng/L, respectively, at the peak of the influenza pandemic. These results suggest that it is possible that a drug-resistant influenza virus can originate from wild mallard when there is a large-scale influenza pandemic. However, ozonation before discharge at sewage treatment plants is known to significantly reduce the release of such drugs into the aquatic environment to reduce the risk of a drug-resistant virus outbreak. It was also suggested that further environmental risk could be reduced by decreasing these concentrations further in river water. PMID:25828414

  14. The H1N1 influenza pandemic: need for solutions to ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    The rapid spread of the novel influenza virus of H1N1 swine origin led to widespread fear, panic and unrest among the public and healthcare personnel. The pandemic not only tested the world's health preparedness, but also brought up new ethical issues which need to be addressed as soon as possible. This article highlights these issues and suggests ethical answers to the same. The main areas that require attention are the distribution of scarce resources, prioritisation of antiviral drugs and vaccines, obligations of healthcare workers, and adequate dissemination and proper communication of information related to the pandemic. It is of great importance to plan in advance how to confront these issues in an ethical manner. This is possible only if a comprehensive contingency plan is prepared with the involvement of and in consultation with all the stakeholders concerned. PMID:24152353

  15. Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vellozzi, Claudia; Burwen, Dale R; Dobardzic, Azra; Ball, Robert; Walton, Kimp; Haber, Penina

    2009-03-26

    In preparation for pandemic vaccine safety monitoring, we assessed adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines among adults from 1990 through 2005. We calculated reporting rates for nonserious, serious, and neurological adverse events. We reviewed reports of recurrent events and deaths, as well as reports identified through advanced signal detection. The most frequently reported events were local reactions and systemic symptoms. Guillain-Barr syndrome was the most frequently reported serious event (0.70 reports per million vaccinations). Adverse event reporting rates have been reasonably constant over time. No new safety concerns emerged after our review of 15 years of post-licensure surveillance data. These findings provide useful information if pandemic vaccine is rapidly distributed and pre-licensure data are limited. PMID:19356614

  16. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  17. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I plan ahead with my child's school or child care? Find out your child's school or child care providers plan for flu season. Let them know ... Additional Information: Preventing the Flu: Resources for Parents & Child Care Providers Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child ...

  18. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  19. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  20. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their

  1. [Epizootic situation with the avian flu in Kurgan region].

    PubMed

    Kilevo?, L Ia; Kosareva, A Ia; Pankratova, O A

    2006-01-01

    The epizootia on avian flu and a measure on its liquidation are stated. The increase in number of a wild waterfowl in 2005 is marked in comparison with 2002. It is determined, that disease among poultry arose in the facilities which are taking place near of reservoirs at ride out of its contents. The complex of sanitary-and-hygienic measures are carried out with the purpose of the prevention of disease among people. Cases of disease caused by an avian influenza among people it is not revealed. PMID:16981506

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the US...

  3. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures. PMID:20718996

  4. Achieving clinical equality in an influenza pandemic: patent realities.

    PubMed

    Kane, Eileen M

    2009-01-01

    A twenty-first century novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic is currently unfolding, and the eventual scope of this public health crisis is not clear. In addition, ongoing surveillance of the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus reveals outbreaks of human-to-human transmission of the virus, with significant mortality. Effective pandemic management depends on pharmaceutical intervention with two different clinical objectives: the generation of an immune response to specific viral strains (vaccination) and the reduction of viral replication in an infected individual (antiviral administration). The ability to offer pharmaceutical interventions for a public health crisis depends on three factors: development, capacity, and access. Pharmaceutical measures must be developed, capacity must be established, and access must be ensured. The article discusses the three nodes of patenting that influence the availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures in an influenza pandemic. Identification of the causative influenza virus is the first step in pandemic management and precedes vaccine design, and the virus and its RNA sequence are both knowledge assets and inputs for vaccine design. Vaccine development, therefore, will be influenced by any patents on the genetic sequences or proteins of the pandemic virus, as well as on novel methods for vaccine production, the actual vaccine or adjuvant technology, all of which are relevant to the assembly of a working vaccine on short notice. Pharmaceutical treatment of influenza infection during a pandemic could also rely on use of patented antiviral drugs, whose efficacy may be revealed as the pandemic unfolds. Unlike vaccines, these are not generally developed de novo for a pandemic, but their availability could be dependent on the exercise of patent rights by market incumbents. Patent rights could control capacity, which may determine access. Pandemic planning must consider how patenting can influence development, capacity and access to pharmaceutical interventions. The national and international public health authorities are slowly integrating intellectual property considerations into pandemic planning. Further integration will anticipate the emergence of patent claims, identify any relevant patents, encourage access norms, and consider the use of legal mechanisms that could alleviate patent-mediated obstacles to the availability of critical products and methods that may be patented. Pandemic management must also co-exist with existing efforts to control seasonal influenza outbreaks. The article analyzes the intersection of patent nodes relevant to vaccine development and to antiviral distribution during a global influenza pandemic, identifying where such patents may facilitate or inhibit the availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures, and offers preliminary observations on the emerging novel H1N1 pandemic. The goal of international clinical equality is essential for the eradication of an influenza pandemic, and strategies for its achievement can also be applied to other diseases. PMID:20718133

  5. Ethics for pandemics beyond influenza: Ebola, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and anticipating future ethical challenges in pandemic preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maxwell J; Silva, Diego S

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has raised several novel ethical issues for global outbreak preparedness. It has also illustrated that familiar ethical issues in infectious disease management endure despite considerable efforts to understand and mitigate such issues in the wake of past outbreaks. To improve future global outbreak preparedness and response, we must examine these shortcomings and reflect upon the current state of ethical preparedness. To this end, we focus our efforts in this article on the examination of one substantial area: ethical guidance in pandemic plans. We argue that, due in part to their focus on considerations arising specifically in relation to pandemics of influenza origin, pandemic plans and their existing ethical guidance are ill-equipped to anticipate and facilitate the navigation of unique ethical challenges that may arise in other infectious disease pandemics. We proceed by outlining three reasons why this is so, and situate our analysis in the context of the EVD outbreak and the threat posed by drug-resistant tuberculosis: (1) different infectious diseases have distinct characteristics that challenge anticipated or existing modes of pandemic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery, (2) clear, transparent, context-specific ethical reasoning and justification within current influenza pandemic plans are lacking, and (3) current plans neglect the context of how other significant pandemics may manifest. We conclude the article with several options for reflecting upon and ultimately addressing ethical issues that may emerge with different infectious disease pandemics. PMID:26507138

  6. Swine flu: false-positive rapid flu swab with resulting misdiagnosis of a case of Legionella pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Robert; Trent, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    A 59-year-old man presented with a severe flu-like illness and widespread pulmonary infiltrates on chest x-ray. A rapid influenza direct test was positive and the patient was nursed in isolation. On subsequent review, a diagnosis of probable atypical pneumonia was made, which was confirmed with positive urinary serology for Legionella pneumophila and treatment with appropriate antibiotics was started. A real-time PCR test for influenza A and B was negative at 72 h. The patient made a slow but full recovery and was discharged after 14 days. PMID:22767692

  7. Persuasiveness of online flu-vaccination promotional banners.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yu-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Young people appear to have relatively little motivation to participate in flu-vaccination programs. This study assessed the effectiveness of online banners in efforts to persuade young people to get vaccinated. Specifically, a 2 x 3 between-subjects factorial design was used to examine the effects of message framing (gain vs loss) and color configuration (white text on a red background, black text on a yellow background, and white text on a blue background) on 180 college students' perceptions of the persuasiveness of flu-vaccination promotional banners. Each participant completed a four-item questionnaire, and the results of an analysis of variance showed that persuasiveness scores were higher among participants exposed to a loss-framed than to a gain-framed message, but only when the loss-framed message was presented in white text on a red background. The theoretical and practical implications of manipulating these two factors in the development of effective health-promotion materials are discussed. PMID:23833868

  8. Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Ebert, David S.; Corley, Courtney D.; Maciejewski, Ross; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.

    2010-05-30

    Federal, State, and local decision makers and public health officials must prepare and exercise complex plans to contend with a variety of possible mass casualty events, such as pandemic influenza. Through the provision of quick look tools (QLTs) focused on mass casualty events, such planning can be done with higher accuracy and more realism through the combination of interactive simulation and visualization in these tools. If an event happens, the QLTs can then be employed to rapidly assess and execute alternative mitigation strategies, and thereby minimize casualties. This can be achieved by conducting numerous 'what-if' assessments prior to any event in order to assess potential health impacts (e.g., number of sick individuals), required community resources (e.g., vaccinations and hospital beds), and optimal mitigative decision strategies (e.g., school closures) during the course of a pandemic. In this presentation, we overview and demonstrate a pandemic influenza QLT, discuss some of the modeling methods and construct and visual analytic components and interface, and outline additional development concepts. These include the incorporation of a user selectable infectious disease palette, simultaneous visualization of decision alternatives, additional resource elements associated with emergency response (e.g., first responders and medical professionals), and provisions for other potential disaster events.

  9. Optimizing Distribution of Pandemic Influenza Antiviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P.; Johnson, Gregory P.; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P.; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa's HIV pandemic.

    PubMed

    Simms, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies and household surveys suggest that sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA's) HIV/AIDS crisis is not a pandemic of the poor but rather one of inequalities, where wealthier individuals are more likely to be infected as a result of greater mobility and multiple relationships (Fox, 2012). This is in sharp contrast to the situation in the United States, where HIV infections "are concentrated among the poor with very few people in the middle and upper social strata contracting HIV" (Pellowski, Kalichman, Matthews, & Adler, May-June 2013, p. 199). Yet from a global perspective, wherein SSA is the poorest region in the world, the pandemic is of course one of poverty as well as one with pronounced racial and gender disparities. Both the May-June 2013 special issue of the American Psychologist ("HIV/AIDS: Social Determinants and Health Disparities") and another American Psychologist special issue 25 years earlier ("Psychology and AIDS," November 1988) help shed light on Africa's HIV/AIDS crisis. PMID:24446856

  11. Evaluation of vaccination strategies during pandemic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Christopher S; Arino, Julien; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2011-01-01

    During pandemic influenza, several factors could significantly impact the outcome of vaccination campaigns, including the delay in pandemic vaccine availability, inadequate protective efficacy, and insufficient number of vaccines to cover the entire population. Here, we incorporate these factors into a vaccination model to investigate and compare the effectiveness of the single-dose and two-dose vaccine strategies. The results show that, if vaccination starts early enough after the onset of the outbreak, a two-dose strategy can lead to a greater reduction in the total number of infections. This, however, requires the second dose of vaccine to confer a substantially higher protection compared to that induced by the first dose. For a sufficiently long delay in start of vaccination, the single-dose strategy outperforms the two-dose vaccination program regardless of its protection efficacy. The findings suggest that the population-wide benefits of a single-dose strategy could in general be greater than the two-dose vaccination program, in particular when the second dose offers marginal increase in the protection induced by the first dose. PMID:21361403

  12. Assessing infection control measures for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Atkinson, Michael P

    2009-07-01

    We construct a mathematical model of aerosol (i.e., droplet-nuclei) transmission of influenza within a household containing one infected and embed it into an epidemic households model in which infecteds occasionally infect someone from another household; in a companion paper, we argue that the contribution from contact transmission is trivial for influenza and the contribution from droplet transmission is likely to be small. Our model predicts that the key infection control measure is the use of N95 respirators, and that the combination of respirators, humidifiers, and ventilation reduces the threshold parameter (which dictates whether or not an epidemic breaks out) by approximately 20% if 70% of households comply, and by approximately 40% if 70% of households and workplaces comply (approximately 28% reduction would have been required to control the 1918 pandemic). However, only approximately 30% of the benefits in the household are achieved if these interventions are used only after the infected develops symptoms. It is also important for people to sleep in separate bedrooms throughout the pandemic, space permitting. Surgical masks with a device (e.g., nylon hosiery) to reduce face-seal leakage are a reasonable alternative to N95 respirators if the latter are in short supply. PMID:19392673

  13. Allogeneic transplantation with myeloablative FluBu4 conditioning improves survival compared to reduced intensity FluBu2 conditioning for acute myeloid leukemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Magenau, John M; Braun, Thomas; Reddy, Pavan; Parkin, Brian; Pawarode, Attaphol; Mineishi, Shin; Choi, Sung; Levine, John; Li, Yumeng; Yanik, Gregory; Kitko, Carrie; Churay, Tracey; Frame, David; Riwes, Mary Mansour; Harris, Andrew; Bixby, Dale; Couriel, Daniel R; Goldstein, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    The optimal intensity of conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains undefined. Traditionally, myeloablative conditioning regimens improve disease control, but at the risk of greater nonrelapse mortality. Because fludarabine with myeloablative doses of intravenous busulfan using pharmacokinetic monitoring has excellent tolerability, we reasoned that this regimen would limit relapse without substantially elevating toxicity when compared to reduced intensity conditioning. We retrospectively analyzed 148 consecutive AML patients in remission receiving T cell replete HCT conditioned with fludarabine and intravenous busulfan at doses defined as reduced (6.4 mg/kg; FluBu2, n = 63) or myeloablative (12.8 mg/kg; FluBu4, n = 85). Early and late nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was similar among FluBu4 and FluBu2 recipients, respectively (day + 100: 4 vs 0 %; 5 years: 19 vs 22 %; p = 0.54). NRM did not differ between FluBu4 and FluBu2 in patients >50 years of age (24 vs 22 %, p = 0.75). Relapse was lower in recipients of FluBu4 (5 years: 30 vs 49 %; p = 0.04), especially in patients with poor risk cytogenetics (22 vs 59 %; p = 0.02) and those >50 years of age (28 vs 51 %; p = 0.02). Overall survival favored FluBu4 recipients at 5 years (53 vs 34 %, p = 0.02), a finding confirmed in multivariate analysis (HR: 0.57; 95 % CI: 0.34-0.95; p = 0.03). These data suggest that myeloablative FluBu4 may provide equivalent NRM, reduced relapse, and improved survival compared to FluBu2, emphasizing the importance of busulfan dose in conditioning for AML. PMID:25784222

  14. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the United States during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Martin I; Patel, Anita; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for US public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding "rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a "low severity" scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%-0.1%, or a "high severity" scenario (CFR: 0.25%-0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (eg, drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic. PMID:25878301

  15. Death patterns during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A; Viboud, Ccile

    2014-11-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  16. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  17. Healthy Bodies, Toxic Medicines: College Students and the Rhetorics of Flu Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Heidi Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines flu vaccination beliefs and practices produced during a survey of undergraduate students in Spring 2012 (IRB#10-732). This research uses the methods of rhetorical analysis or the study of persuasive features and arguments used in language to examine statements respondents made regarding flu and flu vaccine. In these responses, students generated unique categories of arguments about the perceived dangers of flu vaccination, including the assertion that vaccines cause disease (including illnesses and conditions other than flu), that vaccines are toxic medicines, and that vaccines carry unknown, population-wide risks that are inadequately acknowledged. This study provides insight into vaccination beliefs and rationales among a population at risk of flu (college students) and suggests that further study of this population may yield important keys to addressing flu vaccine concerns as expressed by college students. Rhetorical analysis also offers a useful set of methods to understanding vaccination beliefs and practices, adding to existing methods of study and analysis of vaccination practices and beliefs in medicine and public health. PMID:25506277

  18. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students attitudes about population health, highlights the programs outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  19. Awareness, perception and myths towards swine flu in school children of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Varsha; Singh, R K; Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    The deadly disease swine flu is, without a speck of doubt, causing a massive havoc among the common people of India and has created fear across the various strata of the society. The objective was to find out the awareness, perception, and myths of school going children of class 9 th to 12 th toward swine flu. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in two randomly selected (using random number table) senior secondary schools of Bareilly among 400 students of class 9 th to 12 th . A total of 200 students were selected from each school. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Almost all the students (97.75%) have heard about of swine flu and are aware of it as a disease entity. Fever was found to be the main symptom while coughing and sneezing were main way of spread of swine flu known to them. About 97% of the students mention use of mask as most effective way to prevent them from swine flu. Knowledge of availability of medicine was present in less than half of the students. TV was found to be the main source from which they get knowledge (79%), and they are trying to get knowledge (53.2%) of swine flu. Among them, 74% students were taking precaution against swine flu. PMID:21245588

  20. Analysis of fluG mutations that affect light-dependent conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, L N; Lee, H O; Nagle, D L; Zimmerman, J E

    1998-01-01

    Conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans is induced by exposure to red light but can also be induced by blue light in certain mutant strains. We have isolated a mutation in the fluG gene that abolishes responsiveness to red light but does not affect the response to blue light. It has been shown that the veA1 (velvet) mutation allows conidiation to occur in the absence of light. We have identified three other fluG mutations that suppress the veA1 phenotype; these double mutants do not conidiate in the dark. The mutations described here define two new phenotypic classes of fluG alleles that display abnormal responses to light. We have characterized these mutations with respect to their molecular identity and to their effect on fluG transcription. Although it has been shown that fluG is required for the synthesis of an extracellular factor that directs conidiation, we do not detect this factor under conditions that promote conidiation in the veA1 suppressors. Furthermore, extracellular rescue is not observed in fluG deletion strains containing the wild-type veA allele. We propose that a genetic interaction between fluG and veA influences the production of the extracellular signal and regulates the initiation of conidiation. PMID:9691036

  1. Attending to social vulnerability when rationing pandemic resources.

    PubMed

    Vawter, Dorothy E; Garrett, J Eline; Gervais, Karen G; Prehn, Angela Witt; DeBruin, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic plans are increasingly attending to groups experiencing health disparities and other social vulnerabilities. Although some pandemic guidance is silent on the issue, guidance that attends to socially vulnerable groups ranges widely, some procedural (often calling for public engagement), and some substantive. Public engagement objectives vary from merely educational to seeking reflective input into the ethical commitments that should guide pandemic planning and response. Some plans that concern rationing during a severe pandemic recommend ways to protect socially vulnerable groups without prioritizing access to scarce resources based on social vulnerability per se. The Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project (MPEP), a public engagement project on rationing scarce health resources during a severe influenza pandemic, agrees and recommends an integrated set of ways to attend to the needs of socially vulnerable people and avoid exacerbation of health disparities during a severe influenza pandemic. Among other things, MPEP recommends: 1. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to clarify unique needs and effective strategies; 2. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to elicit ethical values and perspectives on rationing; 3. Rejecting rationing based on race, socioeconomic class, citizenship, quality of life, length of life-extension and first-come, first-served; 4. Prioritizing those in the general population for access to resources based on combinations of risk (of death or severe complications from influenza, exposure to influenza, transmitting influenza to vulnerable groups) and the likelihood of responding well to the resource in question. 5. Protecting critical infrastructures on which vulnerable populations and the general public rely; 6. Identifying and removing access barriers during pandemic planning and response; and 7. Collecting and promptly analyzing data during the pandemic to identify groups at disproportionate risk of influenza-related mortality and serious morbidity and to optimize the distribution of resources. PMID:21595354

  2. Reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu: Qualitative interviews with callers to NHS Direct

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the early stages of the 2009 swine flu (influenza H1N1) outbreak, the large majority of patients who contacted the health services about the illness did not have it. In the UK, the NHS Direct telephone service was used by many of these patients. We used qualitative interviews to identify the main reasons why people approached NHS Direct with concerns about swine flu and to identify aspects of their contact which were reassuring, using a framework approach. Methods 33 patients participated in semi-structured interviews. All patients had telephoned NHS Direct between 11 and 14 May with concerns about swine flu and had been assessed as being unlikely to have the illness. Results Reasons for seeking advice about swine flu included: the presence of unexpectedly severe flu-like symptoms; uncertainties about how one can catch swine flu; concern about giving it to others; pressure from friends or employers; and seeking 'peace of mind.' Most participants found speaking to NHS Direct reassuring or useful. Helpful aspects included: having swine flu ruled out; receiving an alternative explanation for symptoms; clarification on how swine flu is transmitted; and the perceived credibility of NHS Direct. No-one reported anything that had increased their anxiety and only one participant subsequently sought additional advice about swine flu from elsewhere. Conclusions Future major incidents involving other forms of chemical, biological or radiological hazards may also cause large numbers of unexposed people to seek health advice. Our data suggest that providing telephone triage and information is helpful in such instances, particularly where advice can be given via a trusted, pre-existing service. PMID:20678192

  3. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendona; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  4. Factors associated with post-seasonal serological titer and risk factors for infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in the French general population.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Nathanael; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Salez, Nicolas; Setbon, Michel; Delabre, Rosemary M; Ferrari, Pascal; Moyen, Nanikaly; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Vely, Frdric; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Cauchemez, Simon; Bolle, Pierre-Yves; Vivier, Eric; Abel, Laurent; Schwarzinger, Michal; Legeas, Michle; Le Cann, Pierre; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households). The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 45.1, 49.2). According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort. PMID:23613718

  5. The failing heart: a bad case of the 'flu'.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Julie; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Modi, Bhavik; Emmanuel, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old Nepali man presented to hospital with a short history of feeling unwell with a flu-like illness. He subsequently went into acute renal failure requiring several sessions of renal replacement therapy by haemofiltration. The underlying aetiology of his renal failure was unclear. His renal function recovered following haemofiltration and he was discharged home with a plan for outpatient follow-up and investigations. He re-presented to hospital 6 days later with severe fluid overload. Echocardiogram was suggestive of impaired left ventricular systolic function; subsequent cardiac MRI confirmed this and was indicative of a dilated cardiomyopathy. A diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy with cardiorenal syndrome was made, most likely secondary to viral myocarditis in view of his initial presentation. He was diuresed and treated with prognostic medications for heart failure. His symptoms resolved and on subsequent outpatient review he was feeling well. PMID:25657194

  6. Street youth and the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luna, G C; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    1992-01-01

    Children responsible for their own survival exist in all countries. Despite social and cultural differences between street youth in developing countries versus homeless youth in developed countries, the predictors and correlates of homelessness are similar among youth. The AIDS pandemic is inextricably linked to homelessness and is a particularly devastating threat to the welfare of the world's disenfranchised youth, as they are continually forced into multiple HIV-related high risk situations and behaviors. Specific recommendations regarding clinical care, prevention programs, research, and the implications for policy and legislative action are discussed in relation to reducing the incidences and impact of HIV. For the world's populations of street children the issue of globally providing AIDS education and prevention within the context of health care services is emphasized, particularly by the promotion and training of physicians and other health professionals in street-based care. PMID:1389865

  7. Diagnostic Flow Cytometry and the AIDS Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Clift, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    The onset of the AIDS pandemic in the early 1980s coincided with the convergence of technologies now collectively known as flow cytometry (FCM). Major advances in FCM led significantly toward our understanding of the pathogenicity of the disease, which in turn led to wider adoption of the technology, including using it effectively in a variety of diagnostics. CD4+ T lymphocyte population counts, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load, remain the gold standard in diagnosis and continue to play a major role in the monitoring of advanced retroviral therapies. Arguably, the spread of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the HIV virus, and the toll of the virus on humanity have been considerably altered by the concurrent development of FCM, the details of which are presented herein. PMID:26283697

  8. Pandemic preparedness: perceptions of vulnerable migrants in Thailand towards WHO-recommended non-pharmaceutical interventions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) constituted the principal public health response to the previous influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic and are one key area of ongoing preparation for future pandemics. Thailand is an important point of focus in terms of global pandemic preparedness and response due to its role as the major transportation hub for Southeast Asia, the endemic presence of multiple types of influenza, and its role as a major receiving country for migrants. Our aim was to collect information about vulnerable migrants’ perceptions of and ability to implement NPIs proposed by the WHO. We hope that this information will help us to gauge the capacity of this population to engage in pandemic preparedness and response efforts, and to identify potential barriers to NPI effectiveness. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed. The study was conducted during the influenza H1N1 2009 pandemic and included 801 migrant participants living in border areas thought to be high risk by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health. Data were collected by Migrant Community Health Workers using a 201-item interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Univariate descriptive analyses were conducted. Results With the exception of border measures, to which nearly all participants reported they would be adherent, attitudes towards recommended NPIs were generally negative or uncertain. Other potential barriers to NPI implementation include limited experience applying these interventions (e.g., using a thermometer, wearing a face mask) and inadequate hand washing and household disinfection practices. Conclusions Negative or ambivalent attitudes towards NPIs combined with other barriers identified suggest that vulnerable migrants in Thailand have a limited capacity to participate in pandemic preparedness efforts. This limited capacity likely puts migrants at risk of propagating the spread of a pandemic virus. Coordinated risk communication and public education are potential strategies that may reduce barriers to individual NPI implementation. PMID:24973943

  9. A novel system of artificial antigen-presenting cells efficiently stimulates Flu peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hui; Peng, Ji-Run; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Gong, Lei; Qiao, Shi-Shi; Wang, Wen-Zhen; Cui, Zhu-Qingqing; Yu, Xin; Wei, Yu-Hua; Leng, Xi-Sheng

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Adoptive immunotherapy depends on relevant numbers of cytolytic T lymphocytes. {yields} An ideal artificial APCs system was successfully prepared in vivo. {yields} Controlled release of IL-2 leads to much more T-cell expansion. {yields} This system is better than general cellular APCs on T-cell expansion. -- Abstract: Therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors in successful adoptive immunotherapy. However, efficient and reproducible methods to meet the qualification remain poor. To address this issue, we designed the artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A modified emulsion method was used for the preparation of PLGA particles encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2). Biotinylated molecular ligands for recognition and co-stimulation of T cells were attached to the particle surface through the binding of avidin-biotin. These formed the aAPC system. The function of aAPCs in the proliferation of specific CTLs against human Flu antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and MTT staining methods. Finally, we successfully prepared this suitable aAPC system. The results show that IL-2 is released from aAPCs in a sustained manner over 30 days. This dramatically improves the stimulatory capacity of this system as compared to the effect of exogenous addition of cytokine. In addition, our aAPCs promote the proliferation of Flu antigen-specific CTLs more effectively than the autologous cellular APCs. Here, this aAPC platform is proved to be suitable for expansion of human antigen-specific T cells.

  10. Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Itzwerth, Ralf L; Macintyre, C Raina; Shah, Smita; Plant, Aileen J

    2006-11-20

    Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic. PMID:17115957

  11. Lessons learned from the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2009-12-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic was one of the most virulent strains of influenza in history. Phylogenic evidence of the novel H1N1 strain of influenza discovered in Mexico last spring (2009) links it to the 1918 influenza strain. With information gained from analyzing viral genetics, public health records and advances in medical science we can confront the 2009 H1N1 influenza on a global scale. The paper analyses the causes and characteristics of a pandemic, and major issues in controlling the spread of the disease. Wide public vaccination and open communication between government and health sciences professionals will be an essential and vital component in managing the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and any future pandemics. PMID:23100796

  12. The pandemic H1N1 influenza experience.

    PubMed

    Richt, Juergen A; Webby, Richard J; Kahn, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic H1N1 influenza that began in Mexico in the spring of 2009 spread rapidly to southern California within days and around the world within a few months. Because the genetic make-up of the new virus was novel, several months of lead-in time were required before a suitable vaccine for human use could be produced and distributed. The effort to confront the virus on the part of the World Health Organization which included almost every nation on earth and a vast array of scientists and public health officials was extensive and timely. However, it was the moderate severity of the virus itself that saved global public health from catastrophe. Because of the extensive publicity and research that occurred during the H1N1 pandemic, many lessons were learned that will be useful in confronting future influenza pandemics. A "One Health" approach to prevent, detect, and combat future pandemics is essential. PMID:23430412

  13. Role of the Primary Care Safety Net in Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Melbourne, Mollie; Truman, Benedict I.; Daniels, Elvan; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Curtin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An influenza pandemic would have a disproportionately adverse impact on minority populations, the poor, the uninsured, and those living in underserved communities. Primary care practices serving the underserved would face special challenges in an influenza pandemic. Although not a formalized system, components of the primary care safety net include federally qualified health centers, public hospital clinics, volunteer or free clinics, and some local public health units. In the event of an influenza pandemic, the primary care safety net is needed to treat vulnerable populations and to provide health care surge capacity to prevent the overwhelming of hospital emergency departments. We examined the strength, capacity, and preparedness of key components of the primary care safety net in responding to pandemic influenza. PMID:19797743

  14. Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

    2011-08-01

    Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains. PMID:21793787

  15. HealthLines - Plan to Get Your Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... government's comprehensive flu information Web site. Egg or Milk Allergy and Peanut, too? Infants who are allergic ... try to relieve their pain by taking the dietary supplements glucosamine and chondroitin. New data from a long- ...

  16. Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low: Study Researchers also found ... but when lightning strikes, and that previously healthy kid has a stroke, we're still trying to ...

  17. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  18. Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? Share: It's that time of year again— ... But do they really work? What does the science say? Vaccination is the best protection against getting ...

  19. Understanding the Influenza A H1N1 2009 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Muharrmi, Zakariya

    2010-01-01

    A new strain of Influenza A virus, with quadruple segment translocation in its RNA, caused an outbreak of human infection in April 2009 in USA and Mexico. It was classified as Influenza A H1N1 2009. The genetic material originates from three different species: human, avian and swine. By June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) had classified this strain as a pandemic virus, making it the first pandemic in 40 years. Influenza A H1N1 2009 is transmitted by respiratory droplets; the transmissibility of this strain is higher than other influenza strains which made infection control difficult. The majority of cases of H1N1 2009 were mild and self limiting, but some people developed complications and others died. Most laboratory tests are insensitive except the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is expensive and labour intensive. The Influenza A H1N1 2009 virus is sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), but some isolates resistant to oseltamivir have been reported. A vaccine against the new pandemic strain was available by mid-September 2009 with very good immunogenicity and safety profile. Surveillance is very important at all stages of any pandemic to detect and monitor the trend of viral infections and to prevent the occurrence of future pandemics. The aim of this review is to understand pandemic influenza viruses, and what strategies can be used for surveillance, mitigation and control. PMID:21509228

  20. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available. PMID:24404173

  1. Characterization of the role of the FluG protein in asexual development of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, C A; Lee, B N; Adams, T H

    2001-01-01

    We showed previously that a DeltafluG mutation results in a block in Aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation and that overexpression of fluG activates sporulation in liquid-submerged culture, a condition that does not normally support sporulation of wild-type strains. Here we demonstrate that the entire N-terminal region of FluG ( approximately 400 amino acids) can be deleted without affecting sporulation, indicating that FluG activity resides in the C-terminal half of the protein, which bears significant similarity with GSI-type glutamine synthetases. While FluG has no apparent role in glutamine biosynthesis, we propose that it has an enzymatic role in sporulation factor production. We also describe the isolation of dominant suppressors of DeltafluG(dsg) that should identify components acting downstream of FluG and thereby define the function of FluG in sporulation. The dsgA1 mutation also suppresses the developmental defects resulting from DeltaflbA and dominant activating fadA mutations, which both cause constitutive induction of the mycelial proliferation pathway. However, dsgA1 does not suppress the negative influence of these mutations on production of the aflatoxin precursor, sterigmatocystin, indicating that dsgA1 is specific for asexual development. Taken together, our studies define dsgA as a novel component of the asexual sporulation pathway. PMID:11454752

  2. Insufficient preparedness of primary care practices for pandemic influenza and the effect of a preparedness plan in Japan: a prefecture-wide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cases of emerging infectious diseases, including H5N1 influenza, H7N9 influenza, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, have been reported in recent years, and the threat of pandemic outbreaks persists. In Japan, primary care is the frontline against emerging infectious diseases in communities. Although the importance of pandemic preparedness in primary care has been highlighted previously, few studies have thus far investigated the preparedness among primary care practices (PCPs) or differences in the preparedness of different institutional settings. We examined PCP preparedness and response to the 2009 influenza pandemic in Japan, and explored the role of a pandemic preparedness plan during the pandemic. Methods We used a survey questionnaire to assess how well individual PCPs in Okinawa, Japan, were prepared for the 2009 influenza pandemic. The questionnaire was mailed to all eligible PCPs (N?=?465) in Okinawa, regardless of their institutional setting. In addition, we assessed the differences in the preparedness of clinics and hospitals and determined whether the national preparedness plan affected individual preparedness and response. Data were analyzed using descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 174 (37.4%) PCPs responded to our survey. In general, high-level personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95 masks (45.4%), gowns (30.5%), and eye protection (21.3%) was stocked at a low rate. Clinic-based PCPs were significantly less prepared than hospital-based PCPs to provide N95 masks (OR 0.34), gowns (OR 0.15), and eye protection (OR 0.18). In addition, only 32.8% of PCPs adopted an adequate business continuity plan (BCP). After controlling for institutional setting, reading the national preparedness plan was significantly associated with establishment of a BCP (OR 5.86), and with knowledge of how to transfer a swab specimen to a local medical laboratory (OR 5.60). Conclusions With regard to PPE availability, PCPs (especially clinic-based PCPs) were not adequately prepared for the influenza pandemic. Awareness of the national pandemic preparedness plan is likely to promote prefecture-wide implementation of BCPs and surveillance activity. PMID:24252688

  3. Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-03-04

    The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  4. Racial Disparities in Exposure, Susceptibility, and Access to Health Care in the US H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Supriya; Freimuth, Vicki S.; Musa, Donald; Casteneda-Angarita, Nestor; Kidwell, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted the first empirical examination of disparities in H1N1 exposure, susceptibility to H1N1 complications, and access to health care during the H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods. We conducted a nationally representative survey among a sample drawn from more than 60 000 US households. We analyzed responses from 1479 adults, including significant numbers of Blacks and Hispanics. The survey asked respondents about their ability to impose social distance in response to public health recommendations, their chronic health conditions, and their access to health care. Results. Risk of exposure to H1N1 was significantly related to race and ethnicity. Spanish-speaking Hispanics were at greatest risk of exposure but were less susceptible to complications from H1N1. Disparities in access to health care remained significant for Spanish-speaking Hispanics after controlling for other demographic factors. We used measures based on prevalence of chronic conditions to determine that Blacks were the most susceptible to complications from H1N1. Conclusions. We found significant race/ethnicity-related disparities in potential risk from H1N1 flu. Disparities in the risks of exposure, susceptibility (particularly to severe disease), and access to health care may interact to exacerbate existing health inequalities and contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in these populations. PMID:21164098

  5. Extracorporeal Life Support for Pandemic Influenza: The Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Pandemic Management

    PubMed Central

    DeLaney, Ed; Smith, Michael J.; Harvey, Brian T.; Pelletier, Keith J.; Aquino, Michael P.; Stone, Justin M.; Jean-Baptiste, Gerald C.; Johnson, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The recent global threat of a severe pandemic influenza outbreak has suggested that extracorporeal life support will begin to play an evolving role in the care of critically ill influenza stricken patients. The highly communicable attributes of influenza could result in widespread infection and an associated increased need for advanced life support. Supply and demand equilibrium may be abruptly disrupted, and ethical decisions regarding the allocation of life saving resources will inevitably need to be made. Protocol oriented planning, research analysis, and advanced technologies are critical factors in averting catastrophe. This review article details the epidemiology, diagnostic techniques, and interventions for the influenza A virus, including H1N1. PMID:21313924

  6. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  7. Skip the Trip: Air Travelers' Behavioral Responses to Pandemic Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over swine flu, as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication. PMID:23526970

  8. The pandemic potential of Nipah virus.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P

    2013-10-01

    Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus whose wildlife reservoir is Pteropus bats, was first discovered in a large outbreak of acute encephalitis in Malaysia in 1998 among persons who had contact with sick pigs. Apparently, one or more pigs was infected from bats, and the virus then spread efficiently from pig to pig, then from pigs to people. Nipah virus outbreaks have been recognized nearly every year in Bangladesh since 2001 and occasionally in neighboring India. Outbreaks in Bangladesh and India have been characterized by frequent person-to-person transmission and the death of over 70% of infected people. Characteristics of Nipah virus that increase its risk of becoming a global pandemic include: humans are already susceptible; many strains are capable of limited person-to-person transmission; as an RNA virus, it has an exceptionally high rate of mutation: and that if a human-adapted strain were to infect communities in South Asia, high population densities and global interconnectedness would rapidly spread the infection. Appropriate steps to estimate and manage this risk include studies to explore the molecular and genetic basis of respiratory transmission of henipaviruses, improved surveillance for human infections, support from high-income countries to reduce the risk of person-to-person transmission of infectious agents in low-income health care settings, and consideration of vaccination in communities at ongoing risk of exposure to the secretions and excretions of Pteropus bats. PMID:23911335

  9. Using results from infectious disease modeling to improve the response to a potential H7N9 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Redd, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other government agencies prepared for a possible H7N9 pandemic, many questions arose about the virus's expected burden and the effectiveness of key interventions. Public health decision makers need information to compare interventions so that efforts can be focused on interventions most likely to have the greatest impact on morbidity and mortality. To guide decision making, CDC's pandemic response leadership turned to experts in modeling for assistance. H7N9 modeling results provided a quantitative estimate of the impact of different interventions and emphasized the importance of key assumptions. In addition, these H7N9 modeling efforts highlighted the need for modelers to work closely with investigators collecting data so that model assumptions can be adjusted as new information becomes available and with decision makers to ensure that the results of modeling impact policy decisions. PMID:25878303

  10. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Smolinski, Mark S.; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Chunara, Rumi; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Wójcik, Oktawia; Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, Andre; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We summarized Flu Near You (FNY) data from the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons in the United States. Methods. FNY collects limited demographic characteristic information upon registration, and prompts users each Monday to report symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced during the previous week. We calculated the descriptive statistics and rates of ILI for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons. We compared raw and noise-filtered ILI rates with ILI rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ILINet surveillance system. Results. More than 61 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2012–2013 season, totaling 327 773 reports. Nearly 40 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2013–2014 season, totaling 336 933 reports. Rates of ILI as reported by FNY tracked closely with ILINet in both timing and magnitude. Conclusions. With increased participation, FNY has the potential to serve as a viable complement to existing outpatient, hospital-based, and laboratory surveillance systems. Although many established systems have the benefits of specificity and credibility, participatory systems offer advantages in the areas of speed, sensitivity, and scalability. PMID:26270299

  11. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions. PMID:25869886

  12. 76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... influenza preparedness via the Federal Register on September 14, 2010; 75 FR 55776-55777. The Department of... International Trade Administration Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza... the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (...

  13. Public health intelligence and the detection of potential pandemics.

    PubMed

    French, Martin; Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2013-02-01

    This article considers contemporary developments in public health intelligence (PHI), especially their focus on health events of pandemic potential. It argues that the sociological study of PHI can yield important insights for the sociology of pandemics. PHI aims to detect health events as (or even before) they unfold. Whilst its apparatuses envelope traditional public health activities, such as epidemiological surveillance, they increasingly extend to non-traditional public health activities such as data-mining in electronically mediated social networks. With a focus on non-traditional PHI activities, the article first situates the study of PHI in relation to the sociology of public health. It then discusses the conceptualisation and actualisation of pandemics, reflecting on how public health professionals and organisations must equip themselves with diverse allies in order to realise the claims they make about pandemic phenomena. Finally, using the analytic tools of actor-network theory, sites for future empirical research that can contribute to the sociology of pandemics are suggested. PMID:23278393

  14. Humanized antibody neutralizing 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Chaudhary, Piyush; Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2014-12-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 S-OIV (swine origin influenza A virus) caused noticeable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to vaccine and antiviral drug therapy, the use of influenza virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for treatment purposes is a viable alternative. We previously reported the isolation of a high affinity, potently neutralizing murine MAb MA2077 against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. We describe here the humanization of MA2077 and its expression in a mammalian cell line. Six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of MA2077 were grafted onto the human germline variable regions; along with six and eight back mutations in the framework of heavy and light chains, respectively, pertaining to the vernier zone and interchain packing residues to promote favorable CDR conformation and facilitate antigen binding. The full length humanized antibody, 2077Hu2, expressed in CHO-K1 cells, showed high affinity to hemagglutinin protein (KD = 0.75 ± 0.32 nM) and potent neutralization of pandemic H1N1 virus (IC50 = 0.17 μg/mL), with marginally higher IC50 as compared to MA2077 (0.08 μg/mL). In addition, 2077Hu2 also retained the epitope specificity for the "Sa" antigenic site on pandemic HA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a humanized neutralizing antibody against pandemic H1N1 virus. PMID:25044602

  15. An avian live attenuated master backbone for potential use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Danielle; Hossain, Md Jaber; Song, Haichen; Araya, Yonas; Solórzano, Alicia; Perez, Daniel R

    2008-11-01

    The unprecedented emergence in Asia of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes with a broad host range poses a major challenge in the design of vaccination strategies that are both effective and available in a timely manner. The present study focused on the protective effects of a genetically modified AIV as a source for the preparation of vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. It has previously been demonstrated that a live attenuated AIV based on the internal backbone of influenza A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2), called WF10att, is effective at protecting poultry species against low- and high-pathogenicity influenza strains. More importantly, this live attenuated virus provided effective protection when administered in ovo. In order to characterize the WF10att backbone further for use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines, this study evaluated its protective effects in mice. Intranasal inoculation of modified attenuated viruses in mice provided adequate protective immunity against homologous lethal challenges with both the wild-type influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) viruses. Adequate heterotypic immunity was also observed in mice vaccinated with modified attenuated viruses carrying H7N2 surface proteins. The results presented in this report suggest that the internal genes of a genetically modified AIV confer similar protection in a mouse model and thus could be used as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. PMID:18931063

  16. What We Have Learned from the Influenza A pH1N1 2009/10 Pandemic: High Clinical Impact of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Markus; Grund, Sebastian; Pandey, Subashjung; Mayatepek, Ertan; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Adams, Ortwin

    2016-01-21

    The influenza pandemic in 2009/2010 shifted public awareness to respiratory tract infections caused by the influenza virus. A prospective study was conducted during the influenza pandemic from November 2009 through April 2010 to determine the causative pathogens and clinical symptoms present in all children and adolescents admitted to the University Children's Hospital, Duesseldorf, Germany, with signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection. A total of 272 children and adolescents were admitted with symptomes of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) or influenza-like illness. Viral pathogens were detected in 80% (218/272). However, influenza A pH1N1 infection was only detected in 11% (30/272) of children. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the predominant identified pathogens that led to the admission of young tachypneic children with pneumonia in the post pandemic phase and the requirement for more intense treatment. During the pandemic and early post-pandemic phase the clinical impact of other respiratory viruses, such as HMPV and RSV, led to a higher clinical disease burden than pH1N1. Consequently, HMPV testing should be performed as routinely as RSV testing in patients hospitalized for ARI. Even while preparing for pandemics, the awareness of other respiratory viruses must be maintained. PMID:25971322

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry.

    PubMed

    Datta, S S; Kuppuraman, D; Boratne, A V; Abraham, S B; Singh, Z

    2011-03-01

    Para-medical workers (PMWs) are first contacts for suspected Swine flu patients and also the media to spread key messages regarding its prevention and control strategies. Present study was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among PMWs during May-July, 2010. KAP regarding Swine flu was collected through pre-designed questionnaire and information on attitude towards Swine flu was also collected through FGD-free list analysis. Data was analysed using Epi_Info and Anthropac software. A total of 237 PMWs responded. Majority of the PMWs knew about signs and symptoms (89.03%), mode of transmission (91.56%) and route of transmission (91.98%) of Swine flu. Television (67.51%) was the major source of information. 75.53% and 58.65% PMWs respectively knew about organ of the body chiefly affected and type of specimen to be collected during Swine flu. 196 (82.7%) and 191 (80.59%) PMWs respectively knew about availability of vaccine and treatment against Swine flu. 94.09% PMWs stated that extra precautions such as use of face mask, frequent handwashing, use of gloves etc. should be taken while handling any suspected Swine flu case and 73.84% PMWs do take such precautions. 80.17% PMWs opined that epidemic of Swine flu can be halted at current stage. In the present study, PMWs possessed good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu and this fact should be utilized while designing and guiding containment strategies against existing Swine flu epidemic. PMID:23785876

  18. The Alzheimer Pandemic: Is Paracetamol to Blame?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Günther Robert Norman

    2013-01-01

    Historical Background: The clinical recognition of a form of dementia closely resembling Alzheimer's disease dates from around 1800. The role of analgesics derived from coal-tar in the spread of the pandemic is traced in terms of the introduction of phenacetin (PN) in 1887; its nephrotoxicity; the observation of lesions characteristic of the disease by Fischer and Alzheimer; the discovery of paracetamol (PA) as the major metabolite of PN; the linking of kidney injury and dementia with high PN usage; and the failure of PN replacement by PA to halt and reverse the exponential, inexorable rise in the incidence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Fischer observed his first case before Alzheimer; it is proposed to rename the syndrome Fischer-Alzheimer disease (F-AD). Disease development: PA-metabolising enzymes are localised in the synaptic areas of the frontal cortex and hippocampus, where F-AD lesions arise. The initiating chemical lesions in liver poisoning comprise covalent binding of a highly reactive product of PA metabolism to proteins; similar events are believed to occur in brain, where alterations in the antigenic profiles of cerebral proteins activate the microglia. β-Amyloid forms, and, like PA itself, induces nitric oxide synthase. Peroxynitrite modifies cerebral proteins by nitrating tyrosine residues, further challenging the microglia and exacerbating the amyloid cascade. Spontaneous reinnervation, N-acetyl cysteine administration and tyrosine supplementation may attenuate the early stages of F-AD development. Conclusion: F-AD is primarily a man-made condition with PA as its principal risk factor. PMID:24350947

  19. The First Influenza Pandemic of the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, a novel influenza A virus of the H1N1 subtype emerged that transmitted efficiently among humans; by June of 2009, the outbreak reached pandemic status. The pandemic virus possesses six viral RNA segments from so-called triple reassortant swine viruses that emerged in North American pig populations in the late 1990s, and two viral RNA segments from Eurasian avian-like swine influenza viruses. Most human infections with the virus have been mild; however, severe and fatal infections occurred among certain risk groups, but also among those without any known risk factors. Here, we summarize the evolutionary, epidemiological, clinical, and molecular findings on the pandemic virus. We also discuss the arsenal of antiviral compounds and vaccines available to prevent and treat infections with the virus. PMID:21477134

  20. Avian influenza A viruses: from zoonosis to pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Mathilde; de Graaf, Miranda; Herfst, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses originating from the animal reservoir pose a threat for humans, as they have the ability to trigger pandemics upon adaptation to and invasion of an immunologically naive population. Of particular concern are the H5N1 viruses that continue to circulate in poultry in numerous countries in Europe, Asia and Africa, and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses in China, due to their relatively high number of human fatalities and pandemic potential. To start a pandemic, zoonotic influenza A viruses should not only acquire the ability to attach to, enter and replicate in the critical target cells in the respiratory tract of the new host, but also efficiently spread between humans by aerosol or respiratory droplet transmission. Here, we discuss the latest advances on the genetic and phenotypic determinants required for avian influenza A viruses to adapt to and transmit between mammals. PMID:25214882

  1. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-01-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, JuneJuly, and OctoberNovember, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  2. Pandemic Influenza Planning: Addressing the Needs of Children

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Lisa; Cordell, Ralph; Delozier, David; Gorman, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Odom, Erica; Polder, Jacquelyn; Randolph, Jean; Shimabukuro, Tom; Singleton, Christa

    2009-01-01

    Children represent one quarter of the US population. Because of its enormous size and special needs, it is critically important to address this population group in pandemic influenza planning. Here we describe the ways in which children are vulnerable in a pandemic, provide an overview of existing plans, summarize the resources available, and, given our experience with influenza A(H1N1), outline the evolving lessons we have learned with respect to planning for a severe influenza pandemic. We focus on a number of issues affecting childrenvaccinations, medication availability, hospital capacity, and mental health concernsand emphasize strategies that will protect children from exposure to the influenza virus, including infection control practices and activities in schools and child care programs. PMID:19797738

  3. The next influenza pandemic: lessons from Hong Kong, 1997.

    PubMed

    Snacken, R; Kendal, A P; Haaheim, L R; Wood, J M

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 Hong Kong outbreak of an avian influenzalike virus, with 18 proven human cases, many severe or fatal, highlighted the challenges of novel influenza viruses. Lessons from this episode can improve international and national planning for influenza pandemics in seven areas: expanded international commitment to first responses to pandemic threats; surveillance for influenza in key densely populated areas with large live-animal markets; new, economical diagnostic tests not based on eggs; contingency procedures for diagnostic work with highly pathogenic viruses where biocontainment laboratories do not exist; ability of health facilities in developing nations to communicate electronically, nationally and internationally; licenses for new vaccine production methods; and improved equity in supply of pharmaceutical products, as well as availability of basic health services, during a global influenza crisis. The Hong Kong epidemic also underscores the need for national committees and country-specific pandemic plans. PMID:10221870

  4. Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. We summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public. If ignored, current communication gaps for vulnerable populations could result in unequal protection across society during an influenza pandemic. We offer insights on communication preparedness gleaned from scientific studies and the deliberations of public health experts at a meeting convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 1 and 2, 2008. PMID:19797744

  5. Changing Perceptions: of Pandemic Influenza and Public Health Responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest World Bank estimates, over the past decade some US $4.3 billion has been pledged by governments to combat the threat of pandemic influenza. Presidents, prime ministers, and even dictators the world over have been keen to demonstrate their commitment to tackling this disease, but this has not always been the case. Indeed, government-led intervention in responding to the threat of pandemic influenza is a relatively recent phenomenon. I explore how human understandings of influenza have altered over the past 500 years and how public policy responses have shifted accordingly. I trace the progress in human understanding of causation from meteorological conditions to the microscopic, and how this has prompted changes in public policy to mitigate the disease's impact. I also examine the latest trend of viewing pandemic influenza as a security threat and how this has changed contemporary governance structures and power dynamics. PMID:22095332

  6. Influenza pandemics in Singapore, a tropical, globally connected city.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vernon J; Chen, Mark I; Chan, Slew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-07-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June-July, and October-November, and resulted in > or = 2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) related to the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Chinese General Population: a Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background China is at greatest risk of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 due to its huge population and high residential density. The unclear comprehension and negative attitudes towards the emerging infectious disease among general population may lead to unnecessary worry and even panic. The objective of this study was to investigate the Chinese public response to H1N1 pandemic and provide baseline data to develop public education campaigns in response to future outbreaks. Methods A close-ended questionnaire developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among 10,669 responders recruited from seven urban and two rural areas of China sampled by using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Results 30.0% respondents were not clear whether food spread H1N1 virusand. 65.7% reported that the pandemic had no impact on their life. The immunization rates of the seasonal flu and H1N1vaccine were 7.5% and 10.8%, respectively. Farmers and those with lower education level were less likely to know the main transmission route (cough or talk face to face). Female and those with college and above education had higher perception of risk and more compliance with preventive behaviors. Relationships between knowledge and risk perception (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.54-1.86), and knowledge and practices (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.42-1.73) were found among the study subjects. With regard to the behavior of taking up A/H1N1 vaccination, there are several related factors found in the current study population, including the perception of life disturbed (OR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.11-1.50), the safety of A/H1N1 vaccine (OR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.04-0.11), the knowledge of free vaccination policy (OR = 7.20; 95%CI 5.91-8.78), the state's priority vaccination strategy(OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.64), and taking up seasonal influenza vaccine behavior (OR = 4.69; 95%CI 3.53-6.23). Conclusions This A/H1N1 epidemic has not caused public panic yet, but the knowledge of A/H1N1 in residents is not optimistic. Public education campaign may take the side effects of vaccine and the knowledge about the state's vaccination strategy into account. PMID:21575222

  8. Mitigation Strategies for Pandemic Influenza A: Balancing Conflicting Policy Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic) or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention), our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R0 and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies to mitigate the impact of an influenza pandemic. PMID:21347316

  9. Comparative Epidemiology of Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza A in Households

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Benjamin J.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Fang, Vicky J.; Lau, Lincoln L.H.; So, Hau Chi; Fung, Rita O.P.; Ma, Edward S.K.; Kwong, Alfred S.K.; Chan, Chi-Wai; Tsui, Wendy W.S.; Ngai, Ho-Yin; Chu, Daniel W.S.; Lee, Paco W.Y.; Chiu, Ming-Chee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are few data on the comparative epidemiology and virology of the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and cocirculating seasonal influenza A viruses in community settings. METHODS We recruited 348 index patients with acute respiratory illness from 14 outpatient clinics in Hong Kong in July and August 2009. We then prospectively followed household members of 99 patients who tested positive for influenza A virus on rapid diagnostic testing. We collected nasal and throat swabs from all household members at three home visits within 7 days for testing by means of quantitative reverse-transcriptasepolymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay and viral culture. Using hemagglutination-inhibition and viral-neutralization assays, we tested baseline and convalescent serum samples from a subgroup of patients for antibody responses to the pandemic and seasonal influenza A viruses. RESULTS Secondary attack rates (as confirmed on RT-PCR assay) among household contacts of index patients were similar for the pandemic influenza virus (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3 to 14) and seasonal influenza viruses (9%; 95% CI, 5 to 15). The patterns of viral shedding and the course of illness among index patients were also similar for the pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. In a subgroup of patients for whom baseline and convalescent serum samples were available, 36% of household contacts who had serologic evidence of pandemic influenza virus infection did not shed detectable virus or report illness. CONCLUSIONS Pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus has characteristics that are broadly similar to those of seasonal influenza A viruses in terms of rates of viral shedding, clinical illness, and transmissibility in the household setting. PMID:20558368

  10. Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza A: balancing conflicting policy objectives.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, T Dirdre; Klinkenberg, Don; Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy M

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation of a severe influenza pandemic can be achieved using a range of interventions to reduce transmission. Interventions can reduce the impact of an outbreak and buy time until vaccines are developed, but they may have high social and economic costs. The non-linear effect on the epidemic dynamics means that suitable strategies crucially depend on the precise aim of the intervention. National pandemic influenza plans rarely contain clear statements of policy objectives or prioritization of potentially conflicting aims, such as minimizing mortality (depending on the severity of a pandemic) or peak prevalence or limiting the socio-economic burden of contact-reducing interventions. We use epidemiological models of influenza A to investigate how contact-reducing interventions and availability of antiviral drugs or pre-pandemic vaccines contribute to achieving particular policy objectives. Our analyses show that the ideal strategy depends on the aim of an intervention and that the achievement of one policy objective may preclude success with others, e.g., constraining peak demand for public health resources may lengthen the duration of the epidemic and hence its economic and social impact. Constraining total case numbers can be achieved by a range of strategies, whereas strategies which additionally constrain peak demand for services require a more sophisticated intervention. If, for example, there are multiple objectives which must be achieved prior to the availability of a pandemic vaccine (i.e., a time-limited intervention), our analysis shows that interventions should be implemented several weeks into the epidemic, not at the very start. This observation is shown to be robust across a range of constraints and for uncertainty in estimates of both R(0) and the timing of vaccine availability. These analyses highlight the need for more precise statements of policy objectives and their assumed consequences when planning and implementing strategies to mitigate the impact of an influenza pandemic. PMID:21347316

  11. Assessing the Ecotoxicologic Hazards of a Pandemic Influenza Medical Response

    PubMed Central

    Colizza, Vittoria; Schmitt, Heike; Andrews, Johanna; Balcan, Duygu; Huang, Wei E.; Keller, Virginie D.J.; Vespignani, Alessandro; Williams, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The global public health community has closely monitored the unfolding of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to best mitigate its impact on society. However, little attention has been given to the impact of this response on the environment. Antivirals and antibiotics prescribed to treat influenza are excreted into wastewater in a biologically active form, which presents a new and potentially significant ecotoxicologic challenge to microorganisms responsible for wastewater nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and receiving rivers. Objectives: We assessed the ecotoxicologic risks of a pandemic influenza medical response. Methods: To evaluate this risk, we coupled a global spatially structured epidemic model that simulates the quantities of antivirals and antibiotics used during an influenza pandemic of varying severity and a water quality model applied to the Thames catchment to determine predicted environmental concentrations. An additional model was then used to assess the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms in WWTPs and rivers. Results: Consistent with expectations, our model projected a mild pandemic to exhibit a negligible ecotoxicologic hazard. In a moderate and severe pandemic, we projected WWTP toxicity to vary between 014% and 532% potentially affected fraction (PAF), respectively, and river toxicity to vary between 014% and 030% PAF, respectively, where PAF is the fraction of microbial species predicted to be growth inhibited (lower and upper 95% reference range). Conclusions: The current medical response to pandemic influenza might result in the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater into receiving rivers, thereby increasing the risk of eutrophication and contamination of drinking water abstraction points. Widespread drugs in the environment could hasten the generation of drug resistance. Our results highlight the need for empirical data on the effects of antibiotics and antiviral medications on WWTPs and freshwater ecotoxicity. PMID:21367688

  12. Does correcting myths about the flu vaccine work? An experimental evaluation of the effects of corrective information.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars of medical costs per year in the United States, but influenza vaccination coverage remains substantially below public health targets. One possible obstacle to greater immunization rates is the false belief that it is possible to contract the flu from the flu vaccine. A nationally representative survey experiment was conducted to assess the extent of this flu vaccine misperception. We find that a substantial portion of the public (43%) believes that the flu vaccine can give you the flu. We also evaluate how an intervention designed to address this concern affects belief in the myth, concerns about flu vaccine safety, and future intent to vaccinate. Corrective information adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website significantly reduced belief in the myth that the flu vaccine can give you the flu as well as concerns about its safety. However, the correction also significantly reduced intent to vaccinate among respondents with high levels of concern about vaccine side effects--a response that was not observed among those with low levels of concern. This result, which is consistent with previous research on misperceptions about the MMR vaccine, suggests that correcting myths about vaccines may not be an effective approach to promoting immunization. PMID:25499651

  13. The role of population heterogeneity and human mobility in the spread of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Little is known on how different levels of population heterogeneity and different patterns of human mobility affect the course of pandemic influenza in terms of timing and impact. By employing a large-scale spatially explicit individual-based model, founded on a highly detailed model of the European populations and on a careful analysis of air and railway transportation data, we provide quantitative measures of the influence of such factors at the European scale. Our results show that Europe has to be prepared to face a rapid diffusion of a pandemic influenza, because of the high mobility of the population, resulting in the early importation of the first cases from abroad and highly synchronized local epidemics. The impact of the epidemic in European countries is highly variable because of the marked differences in the sociodemographic structure of European populations. R0, cumulative attack rate and peak daily attack rate depend heavily on sociodemographic parameters, such as the size of household groups and the fraction of workers and students in the population. PMID:19864279

  14. Longitudinal Investigation of Public Trust in Institutions Relative to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Bangerter, Adrian; Krings, Franciska; Mouton, Audrey; Gilles, Ingrid; Green, Eva G. T.; Clémence, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background The 2009 H1N1 pandemic left a legacy of mistrust in the public relative to how outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are managed. To prepare for future outbreaks, it is crucial to explore the phenomenon of public trust in the institutions responsible for managing disease outbreaks. We investigated the evolution of public trust in institutions during and after the 2009 pandemic in Switzerland. We also explored respondents’ perceptions of the prevention campaign and the roles of the government and media. Methodology/Principal Findings A two-wave longitudinal survey was mailed to 2,400 members of the Swiss public. Wave 1 was in Spring 2009. Wave 2 was in Spring 2010. Six hundred and two participants responded in both waves. Participants indicated moderate to high levels of trust in medical organizations, the WHO, the Swiss government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the EU. On the other hand, trust in the media was low. Moreover, trust in almost all institutions decreased over time. Participants were satisfied with the amount of information received and indicated having followed official recommendations, but widespread concerns about the vaccine were evident. A large majority of participants agreed the vaccine might have unknown or undesirable side effects. Perceptions of the government’s and the media’s role in handling the outbreak were characterized by a substantial degree of skepticism and mistrust. Conclusions/Significance Results show clear patterns of skepticism and mistrust on the part of the public relative to various institutions and their actions. Results underscore the importance of systematically investigating trust of the public relative to epidemics. Moreover, studies investigating the evolution of the public’s memories of the pandemic over the coming years may be important to understand reactions to future pandemics. A systematic research program on trust can inform public health communication campaigns, enabling tailored communication initiatives. PMID:23185444

  15. Seroepidemiological study of pandemic influenza H1N1 following the 2009-2010 wave in Greece.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Mavrouli, Maria; Lourida, Athanasia; Routsias, John G; Spanakis, Nicholas; Maragos, Antonios; Tedoma, Anastasia; Bassiakos, Yiannis; Koratzanis, Georgios; Mantagos, Stephanos; Metallidis, Simeon; Katragkou, Aspasia; Nikolaidis, Pavlos; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of seroprevalence rates against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus will assist vaccination recommendations and the preparation of the health-care system during subsequent years. This study was conducted in Greece during June-August 2010 to estimate the seroprevalence rate against pandemic H1N1 virus. Persons presenting in 29 health-care facilities across the country were studied. Seroprevalence was estimated employing a virus-free ELISA that specifically recognizes 2009 H1N1 virus antibodies in human sera. Sera collected from 2005 to April 2009 were also used to estimate pre-pandemic seroprevalence rates. A total of 954 persons were studied. The overall seroprevalence rate was 28.5% (95% confidence interval=25.6-31.3%). Age-specific rates were 34.2% in persons 0-4 years, 36.3% in persons 5-19 years, 25.0% in persons 20-39 years, 23.4% in persons 40-59 years, and 31.8% in persons ? 60 years. The highest rates were recorded in the Regions of Ionian Islands (67%) and Epirus (42.9%), while the lowest (8.4%) in the Region of Thessaly. Age-specific attack rates of infection during 2009-2010 were 28.8% in persons 0-4 years, 32.5% in persons 5-19 years, 14.3% in persons 20-39 years, 19.1% in persons 40-59 years, and 14.4% in persons ? 60 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that Region of residence and caring for children <5 years were associated with increased risk for seropositivity. Urbanity, personal and family characteristics, working in a health-care facility or in a school, history of pandemic H1N1 vaccination or history of influenza-like illness during 2009-2010 were not associated with increased risk for seropositivity. PMID:21762749

  16. Effectiveness of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in England and Scotland 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, P; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Andrews, N; Robertson, C; SebastianPillai, P; Ellis, J; Carman, W; Wreghitt, T; Watson, J M; Pebody, R G

    2011-01-01

    Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines in preventing confirmed pandemic influenza infection. Some 5,982 individuals with influenza-like illness seen in general practices between November 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled. Those testing positive on PCR for pandemic influenza were assigned as cases and those testing negative as controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the relative reduction in odds of confirmed infection between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Fourteen or more days after immunisation with the pandemic vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21% to 90%). If protection was assumed to start after seven or more days, the adjusted VE was 71% (95% CI: 37% to 87%). Pandemic influenza vaccine was highly effective in preventing confirmed infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 from one week after vaccination. No evidence of effectiveness against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was found for the 2009/10 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (adjusted VE of -30% (95% CI: -89% to 11%)). PMID:21251487

  17. 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1): Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention- Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Swedish, Kristin A

    2011-04-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The virus- a previously unknown triple-reassortant virus containing segments of avian, human, and swine origins- generally caused mild disease. Unlike seasonal influenza, 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) primarily affected adults 18 to 64 years of age. During the course of the pandemic, public health officials tried to facilitate diagnostic procedures and share information about treatment modalities globally. Efforts to contain the spread of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) included personal protective mechanisms and the 2009 H1N1 vaccine, which was not produced quickly enough or in large enough quantities. The lessons learned from this pandemic should be applied to ensure better preparedness in case of future pandemics. PMID:21365380

  18. Pandemics in the Age of Twitter: Content Analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Cynthia; Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary infoveillance approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1) monitor the use of the terms H1N1 versus swine flu over time; 2) conduct a content analysis of tweets; and 3) validate Twitter as a real-time content, sentiment, and public attention trend-tracking tool. Methodology/Principal Findings Between May 1 and December 31, 2009, we archived over 2 million Twitter posts containing keywords swine flu, swineflu, and/or H1N1. using Infovigil, an infoveillance system. Tweets using H1N1 increased from 8.8% to 40.5% (R2?=?.788; p<.001), indicating a gradual adoption of World Health Organization-recommended terminology. 5,395 tweets were randomly selected from 9 days, 4 weeks apart and coded using a tri-axial coding scheme. To track tweet content and to test the feasibility of automated coding, we created database queries for keywords and correlated these results with manual coding. Content analysis indicated resource-related posts were most commonly shared (52.6%). 4.5% of cases were identified as misinformation. News websites were the most popular sources (23.2%), while government and health agencies were linked only 1.5% of the time. 7/10 automated queries correlated with manual coding. Several Twitter activity peaks coincided with major news stories. Our results correlated well with H1N1 incidence data. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential of using social media to conduct infodemiology studies for public health. 2009 H1N1-related tweets were primarily used to disseminate information from credible sources, but were also a source of opinions and experiences. Tweets can be used for real-time content analysis and knowledge translation research, allowing health authorities to respond to public concerns. PMID:21124761

  19. Two resource distribution strategies for dynamic mitigation of influenza pandemics.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Snchez, Andrs; Savachkin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    As recently pointed out by the Institute of Medicine, the existing pandemic containment and mitigation models lack the dynamic decision support capabilities. We present two simulation-based optimization models for developing dynamic predictive resource distribution strategies for cross-regional pandemic outbreaks. In both models, the underlying simulation mimics the disease and population dynamics of the affected regions. The quantity-based optimization model generates a progressive allocation of limited quantities of mitigation resources, including vaccines, antiviral, administration capacities, and social distancing enforcement resources. The budget-based optimization model strives instead allocating a total resource budget. Both models seek to minimize the impact of ongoing outbreaks and the expected impact of potential outbreaks. The models incorporate measures of morbidity, mortality, and social distancing, translated into the societal and economic costs of lost productivity and medical expenses. The models were calibrated using historic pandemic data and implemented on a sample outbreak in Florida, with over four million inhabitants. The quantity-based model was found to be inferior to the budget-based model, which was advantageous in its ability to balance the varying relative cost and effectiveness of individual resources. The models are intended to assist public health policy makers in developing effective distribution policies for mitigation of influenza pandemics. PMID:21197356

  20. The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most, if not all, of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. This article, which is written for ...

  1. Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008

    PubMed Central

    Strikas, Raymond A.; Gensheimer, Kathleen F.; Cox, Nancy J.; Redd, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community’s response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises. PMID:23731839

  2. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus. PMID:22305505

  3. 75 FR 10268 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... FR 51153) pursuant to section 319F-3 of the Public Health Service Act (``the Act'') ] (42 U.S.C. 247d... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines--Amendment Authority: 42 U.S.C. 247d..., H7, H9 and 2009-H1N1 Vaccines: Whereas there are or may be multiple animal influenza A...

  4. WOULD THE 1918 PANDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS BE A THREAT TODAY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1918 influenza pandemic caused more than 20 million deaths worldwide. Under biosafety level 3Ag containment, a recombinant influenza virus bearing the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) was generated. This virus is highly virulent in mice, pointing to the 1918 HA and...

  5. Pandemic influenza planning, United States, 1978-2008.

    PubMed

    Iskander, John; Strikas, Raymond A; Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Cox, Nancy J; Redd, Stephen C

    2013-06-01

    During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community's response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises. PMID:23731839

  6. ECD and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lynette; O'Gara, Chloe; Akinware, Margaret; Akomas, Olive; Nyesigomwe, Lydia; Sabaa, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An unprecedented number of young children in Sub-Saharan Africa are being adversely affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, yet programs specifically designed to meet the developmental needs of orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) from birth to age 8 are rare. This article summarizes the daunting array of challenges facing young OVC in Sub-Saharan…

  7. The 1918-19 influenza pandemic in Boyac, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Ccile; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Daz, Juan M Ospina; Martnez-Martn, Abel Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To quantify age-specific excess-mortality rates and transmissibility patterns for the 1918-20 influenza pandemic in Boyac, Colombia, we reviewed archival mortality records. We identified a severe pandemic wave during October 1918-January1919 associated with 40 excess deaths per 10,000 population. The age profile for excess deaths was W shaped; highest mortality rates were among infants (<5 y of age), followed by elderly persons (>60 y) and young adults (25-29 y). Mean reproduction number was estimated at 1.4-1.7, assuming 3- or 4-day generation intervals. Boyac, unlike cities in Europe, the United States, or Mexico, experienced neither a herald pandemic wave of deaths early in 1918 nor a recrudescent wave in 1920. In agreement with reports from Mexico, our study found no death-sparing effect for elderly persons in Colombia. We found regional disparities in prior immunity and timing of introduction of the 1918 pandemic virus across populations. PMID:22257780

  8. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most pandemics—eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza—originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

  9. Mortality Associated with Influenza in Tropics, State of So Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011: The Pre-Pandemic, Pandemic, and Post-Pandemic Periods

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Andr Ricardo Ribas; Francisco, Priscila M. S. Bergamo; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the seasonal influenza and 2009 AH1N1 pandemic influenza on mortality is not yet completely understood, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. The trends of influenza related mortality rate in different age groups and different outcomes on a area in tropical and subtropical climate with more than 41 million people (State of So Paulo, Brazil), were studied from 2002 to 2011 were studied. Serfling-type regression analysis was performed using weekly mortality registries and virological data obtained from sentinel surveillance. The prepandemic years presented a well-defined seasonality during winter and a clear relationship between activity of AH3N2 and increase of mortality in all ages, especially in individuals older than 60 years. The mortality due to pneumonia and influenza and respiratory causes associated with 2009 pandemic influenza in the age groups 04 years and older than 60 was lower than the previous years. Among people aged 519 and 2059 years the mortality was 2.6 and 4.4 times higher than that in previous periods, respectively. The mortality in all ages was higher than the average of the previous years but was equal mortality in epidemics of AH3N2. The 2009 pandemic influenza mortality showed significant differences compared to other years, especially considering the age groups most affected. PMID:23844285

  10. Acceptance of Vaccinations in Pandemic Outbreaks: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J.; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Bliemer, Michiel; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive measures are essential to limit the spread of new viruses; their uptake is key to their success. However, the vaccination uptake in pandemic outbreaks is often low. We aim to elicit how disease and vaccination characteristics determine preferences of the general public for new pandemic vaccinations. Methods In an internet-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) a representative sample of 536 participants (49% participation rate) from the Dutch population was asked for their preference for vaccination programs in hypothetical communicable disease outbreaks. We used scenarios based on two disease characteristics (susceptibility to and severity of the disease) and five vaccination program characteristics (effectiveness, safety, advice regarding vaccination, media attention, and out-of-pocket costs). The DCE design was based on a literature review, expert interviews and focus group discussions. A panel latent class logit model was used to estimate which trade-offs individuals were willing to make. Results All above mentioned characteristics proved to influence respondents’ preferences for vaccination. Preference heterogeneity was substantial. Females who stated that they were never in favor of vaccination made different trade-offs than males who stated that they were (possibly) willing to get vaccinated. As expected, respondents preferred and were willing to pay more for more effective vaccines, especially if the outbreak was more serious (€6–€39 for a 10% more effective vaccine). Changes in effectiveness, out-of-pocket costs and in the body that advises the vaccine all substantially influenced the predicted uptake. Conclusions We conclude that various disease and vaccination program characteristics influence respondents’ preferences for pandemic vaccination programs. Agencies responsible for preventive measures during pandemics can use the knowledge that out-of-pocket costs and the way advice is given affect vaccination uptake to improve their plans for future pandemic outbreaks. The preference heterogeneity shows that information regarding vaccination needs to be targeted differently depending on gender and willingness to get vaccinated. PMID:25057914

  11. Spatial Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza in the US

    PubMed Central

    Gog, Julia R.; Ballesteros, Sbastien; Viboud, Ccile; Simonsen, Lone; Bjornstad, Ottar N.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Chao, Dennis L.; Khan, Farid; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic provides a unique opportunity for detailed examination of the spatial dynamics of an emerging pathogen. In the US, the pandemic was characterized by substantial geographical heterogeneity: the 2009 spring wave was limited mainly to northeastern cities while the larger fall wave affected the whole country. Here we use finely resolved spatial and temporal influenza disease data based on electronic medical claims to explore the spread of the fall pandemic wave across 271 US cities and associated suburban areas. We document a clear spatial pattern in the timing of onset of the fall wave, starting in southeastern cities and spreading outwards over a period of three months. We use mechanistic models to tease apart the external factors associated with the timing of the fall wave arrival: differential seeding events linked to demographic factors, school opening dates, absolute humidity, prior immunity from the spring wave, spatial diffusion, and their interactions. Although the onset of the fall wave was correlated with school openings as previously reported, models including spatial spread alone resulted in better fit. The best model had a combination of the two. Absolute humidity or prior exposure during the spring wave did not improve the fit and population size only played a weak role. In conclusion, the protracted spread of pandemic influenza in fall 2009 in the US was dominated by short-distance spatial spread partially catalysed by school openings rather than long-distance transmission events. This is in contrast to the rapid hierarchical transmission patterns previously described for seasonal influenza. The findings underline the critical role that school-age children play in facilitating the geographic spread of pandemic influenza and highlight the need for further information on the movement and mixing patterns of this age group. PMID:24921923

  12. Pandemics and immune memory in the noisy Penna model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, Stanis?aw; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Biecek, Przemys?aw

    2007-06-01

    In the noisy Penna model of ageing, instead of counting the number of defective loci which eventually kill an individual, the noise describing the health status of individuals is introduced. This white noise is composed of two components: the environmental one and the personal one. If the sum of both trespasses the limit set for the individuals homeodynamics the individual dies. The energy of personal fluctuations depends on the number of defective loci expressed in the individuals genome. Environmental fluctuations, the same for all individuals can include some signals, corresponding to the exposition to pathogens which could be dangerous for a fraction of the organisms. Personal noise and the component of random environmental fluctuations, when superimposed on the signal can be life threatening if they are stronger than the limit set for individuals homeodynamics. Nevertheless, some organisms survive the period of dangerous signal and they may remember the signal in the future, like antigens are remembered by our immune systems. Unfortunately, this memory weakens with time and, even worse, some additional defective genes are switched on during the ageing. If the same pathogens (signals) emerge during the lifespan of the population, a fraction of the population could remember it and could respond by increasing the resistance to it. Again, unfortunately for some individuals, their memory could be too weak and their own health status has worsened due to the accumulated mutations, they have to die. Though, a fraction of individuals can survive the pandemics due to the immune memory, but a fraction of population has no such a memory because they were born after the last pandemic or they didnt notice this pandemic. Our simple model, by implementing the noise instead of deterministic threshold of genetic defects, describes how the impact of pandemics on populations depends on the time which elapsed between the two incidents and how the different age groups of populations can respond for the second pandemic.

  13. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

  14. Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Human host immune response following infection with the new variant of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nvH1N1) is poorly understood. We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1. Methods We profiled 29 cytokines and chemokines and evaluated the haemagglutination inhibition activity as quantitative and qualitative measurements of host immune responses in serum obtained during the first five days after symptoms onset, in two cohorts of nvH1N1 infected patients. Severe patients required hospitalization (n = 20), due to respiratory insufficiency (10 of them were admitted to the intensive care unit), while mild patients had exclusively flu-like symptoms (n = 15). A group of healthy donors was included as control (n = 15). Differences in levels of mediators between groups were assessed by using the non parametric U-Mann Whitney test. Association between variables was determined by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. Viral load was performed in serum by using real-time PCR targeting the neuraminidase gene. Results Increased levels of innate-immunity mediators (IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1?), and the absence of anti-nvH1N1 antibodies, characterized the early response to nvH1N1 infection in both hospitalized and mild patients. High systemic levels of type-II interferon (IFN-?) and also of a group of mediators involved in the development of T-helper 17 (IL-8, IL-9, IL-17, IL-6) and T-helper 1 (TNF-?, IL-15, IL-12p70) responses were exclusively found in hospitalized patients. IL-15, IL-12p70, IL-6 constituted a hallmark of critical illness in our study. A significant inverse association was found between IL-6, IL-8 and PaO2 in critical patients. Conclusions While infection with the nvH1N1 induces a typical innate response in both mild and severe patients, severe disease with respiratory involvement is characterized by early secretion of Th17 and Th1 cytokines usually associated with cell mediated immunity but also commonly linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. The exact role of Th1 and Th17 mediators in the evolution of nvH1N1 mild and severe disease merits further investigation as to the detrimental or beneficial role these cytokines play in severe illness. PMID:20003352

  15. The H1N1 pandemic: media frames, stigmatization and coping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Throughout history, people have soothed their fear of disease outbreaks by searching for someone to blame. Such was the case with the April 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak. Mexicans and other Latinos living in the US were quickly stigmatized by non-Latinos as carriers of the virus, partly because of news reports on the outbreak’s alleged origin in Mexican pig farms. Methods In this exploratory study we examined the psychological processes of cue convergence and associative priming, through which many people likely conflated news of the H1N1 outbreak with pre-existing cognitive scripts that blamed Latino immigrants for a variety of social problems. We also used a transactional model of stress and coping to analyze the transcripts from five focus groups, in order to examine the ways in which a diverse collection of New England residents appraised the threat of H1N1, processed information about stereotypes and stigmas, and devised personal strategies to cope with these stressors. Results Twelve themes emerged in the final wave of coding, with most of them appearing at distinctive points in the stress and coping trajectories of focus group participants. Primary and secondary appraisals were mostly stressful or negative, with participants born in the USA reporting more stressful responses than those who were not. Latino participants reported no stressful primary appraisals, but spoke much more often than Whites or Non-Hispanic Blacks about negative secondary appraisals. When interactions between participants dealt with stigmas regarding Latinos and H1N1, Latinos in our focus groups reported using far more negative coping strategies than Whites or Non-Hispanic Blacks. When discussions did not focus on stereotypes or stigmas, Latino participants spoke much more often about positive coping strategies compared to members of these same groups. Conclusions Participants in all five focus groups went through a similar process of stress and coping in response to the threat of H1N1, though individual responses varied by race and ethnicity. Stigmatization has often been common during pandemics, and public health and emergency preparedness practitioners can help to mitigate its impacts by developing interventions to address the social stressors that occur during outbreaks in highly-localized geographic regions. PMID:24299568

  16. Detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: availability of diagnostic testing led to rapid pandemic response.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D B; Lindstrom, S L; Johnson, J R; Miller, J D; Hoelscher, M; Humes, R; Shively, R; Brammer, L; Burke, S A; Villanueva, J M; Balish, A; Uyeki, T; Mustaquim, D; Bishop, A; Handsfield, J H; Astles, R; Xu, X; Klimov, A I; Cox, N J; Shaw, M W

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic tests for detecting emerging influenza virus strains with pandemic potential are critical for directing global influenza prevention and control activities. In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received US Food and Drug Administration approval for a highly sensitive influenza polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Devices were deployed to public health laboratories in the United States and globally. Within 2 weeks of the first recognition of 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and began distributing a new approved pandemic influenza H1N1 PCR assay, which used the previously deployed device platform to meet a >8-fold increase in specimen submissions. Rapid antigen tests were widely used by clinicians at the point of care; however, test sensitivity was low (40%-69%). Many clinical laboratories developed their own pandemic influenza H1N1 PCR assays to meet clinician demand. Future planning efforts should identify ways to improve availability of reliable testing to manage patient care and approaches for optimal use of molecular testing for detecting and controlling emerging influenza virus strains. PMID:21342897

  17. Occurrence of AH1N1 viral infection and clinical features in symptomatic patients who received medical care during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 a new influenza serotype (AH1N1) was identified in Mexico that spread rapidly generating worldwide alarm. San Luis Potosi (SLP) was the third state with more cases reported in that year. The clinical identification of this flu posed a challenge to medical staff. This study aimed at estimating the AH1N1 infection, hospitalization and mortality rates, and at identifying related clinical features in persons who received medical care during the influenza pandemic. Methods Retrospective study with persons with flu-like illness who received public or private medical care in SLP from 15.03.09 to 30.10.09. Physicians purposely recorded many clinical variables. Samples from pharyngeal exudate or bronchoalveolar lavage were taken to diagnose AH1N1 using real-time PCR. Clinical predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with infection as a dependent variable. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Analyses were stratified by age group based on the distribution of positive cases. Results From the 6922 persons with flu symptoms 6158 had available laboratory results from which 44.9% turned out to be positive for AH1N1. From those, 5.8% were hospitalized and 0.7% died. Most positive cases were aged 514 years and, in this subgroup, older age was positively associated with A H1N1 infection (95% CI 1.05-1.1); conversely, in patients aged 15 years or more, older age was negatively associated with the infection (95% CI 0.97-0.98). Fever was related in those aged 15 years or more (95% CI 1.4-3.5), and headache (95% CI 1.2-2.2) only in the 014 years group. Clear rhinorrhea and cough were positively related in both groups (p?

  18. 'Rhyme or reason?' Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-12-01

    During the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes. This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narratives and stories about the media or 'big pharma capitalism' are entangled with private memories, accidental coincidences and serendipitous associations. It is obvious that vaccination interventions that require compliance from large groups of people need to take into account the kind of personal experience narratives that are produced by the complex interplay of the factors described by the informants. PMID:26077985

  19. ‘Rhyme or reason?’ Saying no to mass vaccination: subjective re-interpretation in the context of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in Sweden 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    During the swine flu pandemic of 2009–2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes. This article explores written responses to a questionnaire from a Swedish folk life archive as an unconventional source for analysing vaccine decisions. The aim is to investigate how laypersons responded to and re-interpreted the message about the recommended vaccination in their answers. The answers show the confusion and complex circumstances and influences in everyday life that people reflect on when making such important decisions. The issue of confusion is traced back to the initial communications about the vaccination intervention in which both autonomy and solidarity were expected from the population. Common narratives and stories about the media or ‘big pharma capitalism’ are entangled with private memories, accidental coincidences and serendipitous associations. It is obvious that vaccination interventions that require compliance from large groups of people need to take into account the kind of personal experience narratives that are produced by the complex interplay of the factors described by the informants. PMID:26077985

  20. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…