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1

Raccoon Poxvirus Feline Panleukopenia Virus VP2 Recombinant Protects Cats against FPV Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infectious raccoon poxvirus (RCNV) was used to express the feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) open reading frame VP2. The recombinant, RCNV\\/FPV, was constructed by homologous recombination with a chimeric plasmid for inserting the expression cassette into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus of RCNV. Expression of the VP2 DNA was regulated by the vaccinia virus late promoter P11. Southern blot and

LIANGBIAO HU; JOSEPH J. ESPOSITO; FRED W. SCOTT

1996-01-01

2

Complete protection of cats against feline panleukopenia virus challenge by a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing VP2 from FPV.  

PubMed

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an important infectious pathogen of all members of the family Felidae. Here, we describe construction of a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) expressing the VP2 protein of FPV (CAV-2-VP2) by transfection of MDCK cells with recombinant CAV-2 genome carrying a VP2 expression cassette. Ten 3-month-old cats were vaccinated with the recombinant virus with two boosters at 15-day intervals. All cats developed neutralizing antibodies of titers 1:16-1:32 by day 15 post-primary vaccination, increasing to 1:64-1:128 by day 45. Examination for clinical signs and viral presence, and total white blood cell counts in peripheral blood following FPV challenge, showed that all were completely protected. This recombinant virus appears to provide an effective alternative to attenuated and inactivated vaccines in immunizing cats against feline panleukopenia. PMID:18313810

Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Qiao, Jun; Liu, Quan; Chang, Shuang; Xie, Zhijing; Ju, Huiyan; Zou, Xiaohuan; Gao, Yuwei

2007-12-18

3

A Plaque Assay for Feline Panleukopenia Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Plaque formation with representative strains of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) has been obtained using a permanent line of feline kidney cells under agarose over- lay. FPV-infected cells appear as white plaques after neutral red staining. Plaque size is determined by the extent of cell division in the infected monolayer. FPV assay by the plaque procedure is rapid and gives

GONTER SIEGL; GERTRUD KRONAUER

1980-01-01

4

Raccoon poxvirus live recombinant feline panleukopenia virus VP2 and rabies virus glycoprotein bivalent vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A raccoon poxvirus (RCNV) recombinant for immunizing against feline panleukopenia and rabies was developed by homologous recombination with a chimeric plasmid for insertional inactivation of the RCNV thymidine kinase gene. The recombinant, RCN-FPV\\/VP2-rabG, coexpressed the feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) VP2 protein and the rabies virus spike glycoprotein (rabG) under oppositely oriented vaccinia virus P11 promoters. Cats vaccinated subcutaneously with the

Liangbiao Hu; Christopher Ngichabe; Charles V. Trimarchi; Joseph J. Esposito; Fred W. Scott

1997-01-01

5

Isolation and characterization of feline panleukopenia virus from a diarrheic monkey.  

PubMed

A feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) mutant, monkey/BJ-22/2008/CHN, was isolated from intestinal contents of a diarrheic monkey in Beijing, China. The virus was identified by morphology and physicochemical characteristics, and specific fragments were obtained by PCR using consensus primers of parvovirus and specific primers of FPV. Sequence of the full-length VP2 gene of the isolated FPV was determined and analyzed by comparison with reference FPV and canine parvovirus (CPV) isolates, showing high homology with FPV (98.75%) and CPV (98.15%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated FPV formed a monophyletic branch in FPV cluster which differed from the other 11 FPV isolates from China and other countries. The isolated virus caused typical clinical symptoms of FPV in cats. This is the first report on isolation of FPV from a monkey. PMID:20044220

Yang, Songtao; Wang, Shujun; Feng, Hao; Zeng, Lin; Xia, Zhiping; Zhang, Renzhou; Zou, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chengyu; Liu, Quan; Xia, Xianzhu

2009-11-24

6

Isolation and characterization of feline panleukopenia virus from a diarrheic monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) mutant, monkey\\/BJ-22\\/2008\\/CHN, was isolated from intestinal contents of a diarrheic monkey in Beijing, China. The virus was identified by morphology and physicochemical characteristics, and specific fragments were obtained by PCR using consensus primers of parvovirus and specific primers of FPV. Sequence of the full-length VP2 gene of the isolated FPV was determined and analyzed by

Songtao Yang; Shujun Wang; Hao Feng; Lin Zeng; Zhiping Xia; Renzhou Zhang; Xiaohuan Zou; Chengyu Wang; Quan Liu; Xianzhu Xia

2010-01-01

7

Detection of feline panleukopenia virus using a commercial ELISA for canine parvovirus.  

PubMed

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a significant pathogen of cats. Rapid virus detection is critical for treatment and management, especially in populations in which spread may occur. This study investigated the ability of the SNAP Canine Parvovirus Antigen Test Kit (SNAP Parvo, IDEXX Laboratories) to detect FPV with confirmation of viral identity by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and genetic sequencing on fecal samples (n = 97) from cats with suspected FPV infection. Fifty-five samples were positive by SNAP Parvo; 54 of 55 were also positive by conventional PCR assay and were identified as FPV by genetic sequencing. This study demonstrates that SNAP Parvo can detect FPV in clinical samples. PMID:20425728

Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Beall, Melissa J; Kennedy, Melissa A

2009-01-01

8

Nucleotide sequence of feline panleukopenia virus: comparison with canine parvovirus identifies host-specific differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strain 193 was determined and compared with the sequence of canine parvovirus (CPV) strain N and partial sequences of FPV strain Carl and CPV strain b. Base differences were identified at 115 positions in these 5.1 kb genomes and predicted amino acid differences occurred at 40 positions. The two overlap- ping capsid

John C. Martyn; Barrie E. Davidson; Michael J. Studdert

1990-01-01

9

Feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus antibody responses in seronegative specific pathogen-free cats after a single administration of two different modified live FVRCP vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) seronegative cats (five cats per group) were administered one of two modified live feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FVRCP) vaccines and the serological responses to each agent were followed over 28 days. While all cats developed detectable FPV and FCV antibody titers; only two

Michael R. Lappin; Julia Veir; Jennifer Hawley

2009-01-01

10

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

2010-01-01

11

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

2009-01-01

12

Some properties of feline panleukopenia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Feline panleukopenia virus was isolated from a peracute, fatal disease in a 3-month-old Burmese kitten by inoculation of a 1 per cent spleen suspension onto freshly seeded cultures of a feline embryo (FEmb) cell line. The virus was assayed by the detection of intranuclear inclusion bodies in stained coverslips of FEmb cells. The virus was not inactivated by ether,

M. J. Studdert; J. E. Peterson

1973-01-01

13

Apoptosis in Feline Panleukopenia Virus-Infected Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) was shown to induce apoptosis to feline lymphoid cells and to reduce the expression of interleukin-2 receptor a on the cells. FPLV-induced apoptosis might be a key element in the pathophysiology of atrophy of lymphoid tissues associated with feline panleukopenia caused by FPLV. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) are classified as host range

YASUHIRO IKEDA; JUNKO SHINOZUKA; TAKAYUKI MIYAZAWA; KYOKO KUROSAWA; YOSHIHIRO IZUMIYA; YORIHIRO NISHIMURA; KAZUYA NAKAMURA; JINSHUN CAI; KENTARO FUJITA; KUNIO DOI; TAKESHI MIKAMI

1998-01-01

14

Feline panleukopenia. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

OverviewFeline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infects all felids as well as raccoons, mink and foxes. This pathogen may survive in the environment for several months and is highly resistant to some disinfectants.

Uwe Truyen; Diane Addie; Sndor Belk; Corine Boucraut-Baralon; Herman Egberink; Tadeusz Frymus; Tim Gruffydd-Jones; Katrin Hartmann; Margaret J. Hosie; Albert Lloret; Hans Lutz; Fulvio Marsilio; Maria Grazia Pennisi; Alan D. Radford; Etienne Thiry; Marian C. Horzinek

2009-01-01

15

Identification of feline panleukopenia virus proteins expressed in Purkinje cell nuclei of cats with cerebellar hypoplasia.  

PubMed

Parvoviruses depend on initiation of host cell division for their replication. Undefined parvoviral proteins have been detected in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum after experimental feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection of neonatal kittens and in naturally occurring cases of feline cerebellar hypoplasia. In this study, a parvoviral protein in the nucleus of Purkinje cells of kittens with cerebellar hypoplasia was shown by immunoprecipitation to be the FPV viral capsid protein VP2. In PCR-confirmed, FPV-associated feline cerebellar hypoplasia, expression of the FPV VP2 protein was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in Purkinje cell nuclei in 4/10 cases and expression of the FPV non-structural protein NS1 was demonstrated in Purkinje cell nuclei in 5/10 cases. Increased nuclear ERK1 expression was observed in several Purkinje cells in 1/10 kittens. No expression of the G1 and S mitotic phase marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was evident in Purkinje cell nuclei. These results support the hypothesis that FPV is able to proceed far into its replication cycle in post-mitotic Purkinje cells. PMID:23159676

Poncelet, Luc; Hraud, Cline; Springinsfeld, Marie; Ando, Kunie; Kabova, Anna; Beineke, Andreas; Peeters, Dominique; Op De Beeck, Anne; Brion, Jean-Pierre

2012-11-16

16

Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and feline panleukopenia virus.  

PubMed

Forty-two seronegative cats received an initial vaccination at 8 weeks of age and a booster vaccination at 12 weeks. All cats were kept in strict isolation for 3 years after the second vaccination and then were challenged with feline calicivirus (FCV) or sequentially challenged with feline rhinotracheitis virus (FRV) followed by feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). For each viral challenge, a separate group of 10 age-matched, nonvaccinated control cats was also challenged. Vaccinated cats showed a statistically significant reduction in virulent FRV-associated clinical signs (P = .015), 100% protection against oral ulcerations associated with FCV infection (P < .001), and 100% protection against disease associated with virulent FPV challenge (P < .005). These results demonstrated that the vaccine provided protection against virulent FRV, FCV, and FPV challenge in cats 8 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination. PMID:17039444

Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Williams, James R; Jirjis, Faris F; Chester, S Theodore; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

2006-01-01

17

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline...

2013-01-01

18

Evidence for recombination between feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvovirus type 2.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) is a virulent pathogen that emerged in the late 1970s, probably originating from feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) or a closely related carnivore parvovirus belonging to the feline parvovirus (FPV) subspecies. In contrast to FPLV, CPV has evolved rapidly since its emergence. The original antigenic type of CPV disappeared more than two decades ago and several new antigenic as well as genetic CPV variants have appeared and spread in the field. Both high mutation rate and positive selection of mutations in the capsid gene appear to be the driving force for such rapid evolution. In addition, genetic recombination has been assessed as a factor in parvovirus evolution. Recently, we provided the first evidence of inter-antigenic type recombination of CPV in nature. Here, an inter-FPV subspecies recombinant was revealed by analyzing the genetic data deposited in databases with several recombination detection programs, and by phylogeny. FPLV strain XJ-1, submitted by Su et al., Harbin, China in 2007 (GenBank accession no. EF988660), was most likely generated by recombination between CPV and FPLV. Its genome was generally composed of the NS1 gene of CPV origin and the VP1 gene of FPLV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between different FPV subspecies in nature. Consequently, recombination should be considered as an element in the generation and evolution of parvoviruses of the FPV subspecies. PMID:19420841

Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

2009-04-01

19

Differentiation of vaccine virus from field isolates of feline panleukopenia virus by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to distinguish feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) live vaccine strains from FPLV field isolates in Japan, we compared restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified fragments of live FPLV vaccine strains with those of FPLV Japanese field isolates. On the basis of nucleotide sequence differences between PLI-IV, a live vaccine strain, and FPV-483, a recent

Motohiro Horiuchi; Kazuyo Yuri; Takehisa Soma; Hiromi Katae; Hideyuki Nagasawa; Morikazu Shinagawa

1996-01-01

20

Detection of protective antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus in shelter cats using a point-of-care ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum antibody titers are a useful measurement of protection against infection (feline panleukopenia virus [FPV]) or clinical disease (feline herpesvirus-1 [FHV] and feline calicivirus [FCV]), and their determination has been recommended as part of disease outbreak management in animal shelters. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and inter-observer and inter-assay agreement of two semi-quantitative point-of-care

Brian A DiGangi; Lauren K Gray; Julie K Levy; Edward J Dubovi; Sylvia J Tucker

2011-01-01

21

Feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus antibody responses in seronegative specific pathogen-free cats after a single administration of two different modified live FVRCP vaccines.  

PubMed

Two groups of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) seronegative cats (five cats per group) were administered one of two modified live feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus (FVRCP) vaccines and the serological responses to each agent were followed over 28 days. While all cats developed detectable FPV and FCV antibody titers; only two cats developed detectable FHV-1 antibody titers using the criteria described by the testing laboratory. For FPV and FHV-1, there were no differences in seroconversion rates between the cats that were administered the intranasal (IN) FVRCP vaccine and the cats that were administered the parenteral FVRCP vaccine on any day post-inoculation. For FCV, the cats that were administered the IN FVRCP vaccine were more likely to seroconvert on days 10 and 14 when compared to cats that were administered the parenteral FVRCP vaccine. PMID:18782676

Lappin, Michael R; Veir, Julia; Hawley, Jennifer

2008-09-07

22

Fast parallel detection of feline panleukopenia virus DNA by multi-channel microchip electrophoresis with programmed step electric field strength.  

PubMed

A multi-channel microchip electrophoresis using a programmed step electric field strength (PSEFS) method was investigated for fast parallel detection of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) DNA. An expanded laser beam, a 10 objective lens, and a charge-coupled device camera were used to simultaneously detect the separations in three parallel channels using laser-induced fluorescence detection. The parallel separations of a 100-bp DNA ladder were demonstrated on the system using a sieving gel matrix of 0.5% poly(ethylene oxide) (M(r) = 8 000 000) in the individual channels. In addition, the PSEFS method was also applied for faster DNA separation without loss of resolving power. A DNA size marker, FPV DNA sample, and a negative control were simultaneously analyzed with single-run and one-step detection. The FPV DNA was clearly distinguished within 30 s, which was more than 100 times faster than with conventional slab gel electrophoresis. The proposed multi-channel microchip electrophoresis with PSEFS was demonstrated to be a simple and powerful diagnostic method to analyze multiple disease-related DNA fragments in parallel with high speed, throughput, and accuracy. PMID:23233436

Nan, He; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kang, Seong Ho

2012-12-11

23

Growth of an autonomously replicating parvovirus (feline panleukopenia): Kinetics and morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Feline embryo (FEmb) cell cultures, in which 90 percent of cells were dividing (cycling), were synchronized, by serum deprivation, to the degree that 88 per cent of the cells divided within a 12 hour period. When such cultures were infected with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) at a multiplicity of infection of 5.7, a maximum level of cell associated virus

J. D. O'Shea; M. J. Studdert

1978-01-01

24

Specific identification of feline panleukopenia virus and its rapid differentiation from canine parvoviruses using minor groove binder probes.  

PubMed

Taking into account reports of the isolation of canine parvoviruses (CPVs) from faecal samples of cats, we developed a real-time PCR assay, based on minor groove binder (MGB) probe technology, for rapid discrimination between true feline panleukopenia viruses (FPLVs) from CPVs. The assay takes advantage of a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 3753 of the viral genome (corresponding to residue 323 of the capsid VP2 protein) and of the ability of MGB probes to bind specifically only to perfectly complementary sequences. The FPV/CPV assay was proven to be highly specific, sensitive and reproducible and correlated well with a TaqMan assay able to recognise canine as well as feline parvoviruses. Using this assay for extensive molecular surveys will provide precise information on the real circulation of the CPV antigenic variants, including the new variant 2c, in cat population worldwide. PMID:17850892

Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Lucente, Maria Stella; Amorisco, Francesca; Campolo, Marco; Elia, Gabriella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

2007-09-11

25

Genetic analysis of feline panleukopenia viruses from cats with gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine parvovirus strains contained in faecal samples collected in Italy (n=34) and UK (n=5) from cats with feline panleukopenia were characterized at the molecular level. All viruses were proven to be true feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strains by a minor groove binder probe assay, which is able to discriminate between FPLV and the closely related canine parvovirus type 2. By using sequence analysis of the VP2 gene, it was found that the FPLV strains detected in Italy and UK were highly related to each other, with a nucleotide identity of 99.1-100 and 99.4-99.8% among Italian and British strains, respectively, whereas the similarities between all the sequences analysed were 98.6-100%. Eighty-eight variable positions were detected in the VP2 gene of the field and reference FPLV strains, most of which were singletons. Synonymous substitutions (n=57) predominated over non-synonymous substitutions (n=31), and the ratio between synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) was 0.10, thus confirming that evolution of FPLV is driven by random genetic drift rather than by positive selection pressure. Some amino acid mutations in the VP2 protein affected sites that are thought to be responsible for antigenic and biological properties of the virus, but no clear patterns of segregation and genetic markers, were identified, confirming that FPLV is in evolutionary stasis. PMID:18753239

Decaro, N; Desario, C; Miccolupo, A; Campolo, M; Parisi, A; Martella, V; Amorisco, F; Lucente, M S; Lavazza, A; Buonavoglia, C

2008-09-01

26

Mixed infection by Feline astrovirus and Feline panleukopenia virus in a domestic cat with gastroenteritis and panleukopenia.  

PubMed

Astroviruses are important pathogens of human beings and animals. Feline astroviruses have been identified by electron microscopy in the feces of either asymptomatic or symptomatic cats, and experimental infection with one isolate was shown to induce enteric clinical signs and virus excretion, thus suggesting a possible role as enteric pathogen. However, due to the lack of specific diagnostic assays, feline astroviruses are not included in the diagnostic algorithms of feline infectious diseases, and their role as feline pathogens remains unclear. The present report describes a dual infection by Feline astrovirus and Feline panleukopenia virus in a 4-month-old cat with severe gastroenteritis and panleukopenia. Upon sequence analysis, the Feline astrovirus strain was found to be genetically related to astroviruses identified in human beings and felids. PMID:21908295

Moschidou, Paschalina; Martella, Vito; Lorusso, Eleonora; Desario, Costantina; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Losurdo, Michele; Catella, Cristiana; Parisi, Antonio; Bnyai, Krisztin; Buonavoglia, Canio

2011-05-01

27

Panleukopenia-like syndrome of FeLV caused by co-infection with FeLV and feline panleukopenia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of interferon on feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection, 30 specific pathogen free (SPF) cats were infected with the apathogenic FeLV A Glasgow. Unexpectedly, between 5 and 8 weeks after FeLV infection, all 19 cats with persistent FeLV infection but not the FeLV-negative cats died from a panleukopenia-like syndrome. No feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) antigen was found

H. Lutz; I. Castelli; F. Ehrensperger; A. Pospischil; M. Rosskopf; G. Siegl; M. Grob; S. Martinod

1995-01-01

28

Cloning and sequence of DNA encoding structural proteins of the autonomous parvovirus feline panleukopenia virus.  

PubMed Central

Approximately 80% of the genome of feline panleukopenia virus was cloned into pBR322. This DNA included the transcription unit for the major viral mRNA species. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned portion of the genome was determined. Comparison of the feline panleukopenia virus sequence with the sequences of the parvoviruses minute virus of mice and H-1 revealed considerable homology between the three viruses on both the nucleic acid and protein levels. Based on this homology, a model for the generation of the two size classes of viral structural proteins (VP1 and VP2') is proposed. Images

Carlson, J; Rushlow, K; Maxwell, I; Maxwell, F; Winston, S; Hahn, W

1985-01-01

29

Feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus antibody responses in seronegative specific pathogen-free kittens after parenteral administration of an inactivated FVRCP vaccine or a modified live FVRCP vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of feline panleukopenia (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) seronegative kittens (six cats per group) were administered one of two feline viral rhinotracheitis, calcivirus and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccines subcutaneously (one inactivated and one modified live) and the serological responses to each agent were followed over 49 days (days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21,

Michael R Lappin

2012-01-01

30

Differences in the Evolutionary Pattern of Feline Panleukopenia Virus and Canine Parvovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine parvovirus (CPV) suddenly appeared in the late 1970s after which it showed continuous antigenic changes. Virological and molecular genetic analyses mainly focused on feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) were conducted in this study because FPLV is the suspected ancestor of CPV; the way in which FPLV evolves may help to explain the emergence of CPV. Analysis of escape mutants against

Motohiro Horiuchi; Yumi Yamaguchi; Takashi Gojobori; Masami Mochizuki; Hideyuki Nagasawa; Yutaka Toyoda; Naotaka Ishiguro; Morikazu Shinagawa

1998-01-01

31

Canine Parvovirus: Relationship to Wild-type and Vaccine Strains of Feline Panleukopenia Virus and Mink Enteritis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV) were compared serologically, by determination of their host range in cell cultures, as well as by restriction enzyme analysis. Maps of the virus genomes were established using seven different restriction enzymes cutting at a total of 56 sites. MEV and FPLV gave maps which were identical except

JON-DURI TRATSCHIN; GARY K. MCMASTER; GERTRUD KRONAUER; GUNTER SIEGL

1982-01-01

32

Phylogenetic analysis of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strains in Korean cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen Korean feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strains were compared with 48 non-Korean strains and two vaccine strains to conduct phylogenetic analysis of the FPLVs currently circulating among cats in Korea. Most of the residues that discriminate between FPLVs and canine parvoviruses (CPV-2, -2a, -2b, and -2c), including 80-Lys, 93-Lys, 103-Val, 323-Asp, 564-Asn, and 568-Ala, were conserved in the Korean FLPVs;

Dong-Jun An; Wooseog Jeong; Hye-Young Jeoung; Sook Hee Yoon; Hyun-Jeong Kim; Jee-Yong Park; Bong-Kyun Park

2011-01-01

33

Characterisation of cross-reactivity of virus neutralising antibodies induced by feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently reported that canine parvoviruses (CPV) had entered cat populations and induced disease in infected cats, while they had affected only dogs in the past. It is important to determine whether conventional feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) vaccines protect against recent CPV infections. In this study, the cross-reactivity of virus-neutralising (VN) and haemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) antibodies in cats induced by

K Nakamura; Y Ikeda; T Miyazawa; Y Tohya; E Takahashi; M Mochizuki

2001-01-01

34

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of a fibrinonecrotic colonic cast in a kitten with feline panleukopenia virus.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography of a cat with diarrhoea and vomiting revealed a multi-layered, discrete linear structure within the large intestine with retention of the intestinal layers which could potentially be confused with an intestinal intussusception. The structure was ultimately expelled from the large intestine during defecation, and confirmed as a fibrinonecrotic cast. The origin of the fibrinonecrotic cast was assumed to be an intestinal pseudo-membrane formed in enteritis caused by immune suppression due to the panleukopenia virus. To our knowledge, this is the first ultrasonographic description of a fibrinonecrotic cast and spontaneous passage of the colonic cast in the veterinary field. PMID:22690914

Lee, H; Lee, M; Lee, J; Kim, H; Yoon, J; Choi, J

2012-06-12

35

Specific identification of feline panleukopenia virus and its rapid differentiation from canine parvoviruses using minor groove binder probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account reports of the isolation of canine parvoviruses (CPVs) from faecal samples of cats, we developed a real-time PCR assay, based on minor groove binder (MGB) probe technology, for rapid discrimination between true feline panleukopenia viruses (FPLVs) from CPVs. The assay takes advantage of a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 3753 of the viral genome (corresponding to residue

Nicola Decaro; Costantina Desario; Maria Stella Lucente; Francesca Amorisco; Marco Campolo; Gabriella Elia; Alessandra Cavalli; Vito Martella; Canio Buonavoglia

2008-01-01

36

On-line capillary electrophoresis for enhanced detection sensitivity of feline panleukopenia virus.  

PubMed

A rapid on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for highly sensitive detection of DNA molecules with specific lengths was developed based on the combination of base stacking (BS) and programmed field strength gradients (PFSG). The BS method has been performed for on-column concentration to improve detection sensitivity without any modification of the CE system. PFSG increased the electrophoretic velocity of DNA molecules, which effectively decreased analysis time. Using the BS and PFSG combination, the amplified PCR product (340-bp DNA) of cats infected with feline panleukopenia virus was detected within 6.5min. Detection sensitivity (?10-fold) was enhanced compared to conventional CE analysis. The combined on-line CE/BS-PFSG methodology could be an effectively rapid analysis technique for the highly sensitive detection of disease-related specific DNA molecules. PMID:23153639

Shin, Ahram; Lee, Mijin; Kim, Sangduk; Kang, Seong Ho

2012-10-11

37

No evidence for a role of modified live virus vaccines in the emergence of canine parvovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the early evolution and potential origins of canine parvovirus (CPV) were examined. We cloned and sequenced the VP2 capsid protein genes of three German CPV strains isolated in 1979-1980, as well as two feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) vaccine viruses that were previously shown to have some restriction enzyme cleavage sites in common with CPV. Other partial VP2

Uwe Truyen; Klaus Geissler; Colin R. Parrish; Walter Hermanns

1998-01-01

38

Targeted Infection of Endothelial Cells by Avian Influenza Virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) in Chicken Embryos  

PubMed Central

The tissue tropism and spread of infection of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) (FPV) were analyzed in 11-day-old chicken embryos. As shown by in situ hybridization, the virus caused generalized infection that was strictly confined to endothelial cells in all organs. Studies with reassortants of FPV and the apathogenic avian strain A/chick/Germany/N/49 (H10N7) revealed that endotheliotropism was linked to FPV hemagglutinin (HA). To further analyze the factors determining endotheliotropism, the HA-activating protease furin was cloned from chicken tissue. Ubiquitous expression of furin and other proprotein convertases in the chick embryo indicated that proteolytic activation of HA was not responsible for restriction of infection to the endothelium. To determine the expression of virus receptors in embryonic tissues, histochemical analysis of ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked neuraminic acid was carried out by lectin-binding assays. These receptors were found on endothelial cells and on several epithelial cells, but not on tissues surrounding endothelia. Finally, we analyzed the polarity of virus maturation in endothelial cells. Studies on cultured human endothelial cells employing confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that HA is specifically targeted to the apical surface of these cells, and electron microscopy of embryonic tissues showed that virus maturation occurs also at the luminar side. Taken together, these observations indicate that endotheliotropism of FPV in the chicken embryo is determined, on one hand, by the high cleavability of HA, which mediates virus entry into the vascular system, and, on the other hand, by restricted receptor expression and polar budding, which prevent spread of infection into tissues surrounding endothelia.

Feldmann, Anke; Schafer, Martin K.-H.; Garten, Wolfgang; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

2000-01-01

39

Feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus antibody responses in seronegative specific pathogen-free kittens after parenteral administration of an inactivated FVRCP vaccine or a modified live FVRCP vaccine.  

PubMed

Two groups of feline panleukopenia (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) seronegative kittens (six cats per group) were administered one of two feline viral rhinotracheitis, calcivirus and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccines subcutaneously (one inactivated and one modified live) and the serological responses to each agent were followed over 49 days (days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49). While the kittens administered the modified live FPV vaccine were more likely to seroconvert on day 7 after the first inoculation than kittens administered the inactivated vaccine, all kittens had seroconverted by day 14. In contrast, FHV-1 serological responses were more rapid following administration of the inactivated FVRCP vaccine when compared with the modified live FVRCP vaccine. There were no statistical differences between the serological response rates between the two FVRCP vaccines in regard to FCV. PMID:22314095

Lappin, Michael R

2012-02-01

40

Phylogenetic analysis of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strains in Korean cats.  

PubMed

Sixteen Korean feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strains were compared with 48 non-Korean strains and two vaccine strains to conduct phylogenetic analysis of the FPLVs currently circulating among cats in Korea. Most of the residues that discriminate between FPLVs and canine parvoviruses (CPV-2, -2a, -2b, and -2c), including 80-Lys, 93-Lys, 103-Val, 323-Asp, 564-Asn, and 568-Ala, were conserved in the Korean FLPVs; however, exceptions were observed in two strains, namely K50/08 (80-Gln) and V142 (323-Asn). Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian inference and Neighbor-joining method showed that FPLVs were not segregated on a clear temporal or geographical basis. Three clusters (G1, G2, and G3) were formed by the VP2 nucleotide sequences analysed and Korean strains belonged to the G1 (n=13) and G2 (n=3) clusters. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) revealed that purifying selection acts on the VP2 gene of Korean FPLVs. PMID:20627272

An, Dong-Jun; Jeong, Wooseog; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Jee-Yong; Park, Bong-Kyun

2011-02-01

41

Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus  

PubMed Central

The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red foxs as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone martens as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Silvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonca, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luis Miguel; Barros, Tania; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Monica V.

2013-01-01

42

A Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A\\/B-Related Protein Binds to Single-Stranded DNA near the 59 End or within the Genome of Feline Parvovirus and Can Modify Virus Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phage display of cDNA clones prepared from feline cells was used to identify host cell proteins that bound to DNA-containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids but not to empty capsids. One gene found in several clones encoded a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-related protein (DBP40) that was very similar in sequence to the A\\/B-type hnRNP proteins. DBP40 bound specifically to oligonucleotides

DAI WANG; COLIN R. PARRISH

1999-01-01

43

9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph...injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or...

2013-01-01

44

Isolation of Canine Parvovirus from a Cat Manifesting Clinical Signs of Feline Panleukopenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven feline parvovirus (FPV) isolates were recovered from cats clinically diagnosed with feline pan- leukopenia (FPL) for assessing antigenic and genomic properties of FPL viruses (FPLV) recently prevalent among cats in Japan. All isolates, with the exception of one novel isolate, FPV-314, possessed homologous pro- perties,andtheirsubgroupsinFPVswereidentifiedasFPLV.TheFPV-314isolate,whichwasfroma1.5-year- old cat which manifested clinical signs of FPL and died on the 13th day

MASAMI MOCHIZUKI; MOTOHIRO HORIUCHI; HISAMI HIRAGI

1996-01-01

45

Characterization of a continuous feline mammary epithelial cell line susceptible to feline epitheliotropic viruses.  

PubMed

Mucosal epithelial cells are the primary targets for many common viral pathogens of cats. Viral infection of epithelia can damage or disrupt the epithelial barrier that protects underlying tissues. In vitro cell culture systems are an effective means to study how viruses infect and disrupt epithelial barriers, however no true continuous or immortalized feline epithelial cell culture lines are available. A continuous cell culture of feline mammary epithelial cells (FMEC UCD-04-2) that forms tight junctions with high transepithelial electrical resistance (>2000Omegacm(-1)) 3-4 days after reaching confluence was characterized. In addition, it was shown that FMECs are susceptible to infection with feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), feline coronavirus (FeCoV), and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). These cells will be useful for studies of feline viral disease and for in vitro studies of feline epithelia. PMID:19103225

Pesavento, Patricia; Liu, Hongwei; Ossiboff, Robert J; Stucker, Karla M; Heymer, Anna; Millon, Lee; Wood, Jason; van der List, Deborah; Parker, John S L

2009-01-14

46

Does a Feline Leukemia Virus Infection Pave the Way for Bartonella henselae Infection in Cats? ?  

PubMed Central

Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in catsFeline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

Buchmann, Alexandra U.; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.; Gruber, Achim D.

2010-01-01

47

Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?  

PubMed

Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence. PMID:20610682

Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

2010-07-07

48

A Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A/B-Related Protein Binds to Single-Stranded DNA near the 5? End or within the Genome of Feline Parvovirus and Can Modify Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Phage display of cDNA clones prepared from feline cells was used to identify host cell proteins that bound to DNA-containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids but not to empty capsids. One gene found in several clones encoded a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-related protein (DBP40) that was very similar in sequence to the A/B-type hnRNP proteins. DBP40 bound specifically to oligonucleotides representing a sequence near the 5? end of the genome which is exposed on the outside of the full capsid but did not bind most other terminal sequences. Adding purified DBP40 to an in vitro fill-in reaction using viral DNA as a template inhibited the production of the second strand after nucleotide (nt) 289 but prior to nt 469. DBP40 bound to various regions of the viral genome, including a region between nt 295 and 330 of the viral genome which has been associated with transcriptional attenuation of the parvovirus minute virus of mice, which is mediated by a stem-loop structure of the DNA and cellular proteins. Overexpression of the protein in feline cells from a plasmid vector made them largely resistant to FPV infection. Mutagenesis of the protein binding site within the 5? end viral genome did not affect replication of the virus.

Wang, Dai; Parrish, Colin R.

1999-01-01

49

Intrinsic interference between swine influenza and fowl plague virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Multiplication of swine influenza (SW) virus is inhibited by fowl plague virus (FPV) at the level of RNA synthesis when host cells are infected with both viruses at a high multiplicity of infection. Under these conditions reassortment between the two viruses cannot be detected. The inhibitory effect of FPV is highly reduced and recombinants between the two viruses could

R. Rott; M. Orlich; C. Scholtissek

1981-01-01

50

Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids. PMID:22779227

Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dran-Qunec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

2012-06-01

51

9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tested for: (i) Canine coronavirus; (ii) Canine distemper...arteritis virus. (5) Feline cells shall, in addition, be tested for: (i) Feline infectious peritonitis virus; and (ii) Feline panleukopenia virus....

2009-01-01

52

9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tested for: (i) Canine coronavirus; (ii) Canine distemper...arteritis virus. (5) Feline cells shall, in addition, be tested for: (i) Feline infectious peritonitis virus; and (ii) Feline panleukopenia virus....

2010-01-01

53

Characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia.  

PubMed

Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (FPL) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulcerations, that died eight days after the onset of the disease. Two pups living in the same pet shop as the cat were found to shed a CPV-2a strain genetically identical to the feline virus and were likely the source of infection. Also, non-fatal infection by a CPV-2c strain occurred in a 2.5-month-old European shorthair kitten displaying non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea and normal white blood cell counts. By sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (VP2) gene, the feline CPV-2c strain showed 100% identity to a recent canine type-2c isolate. Both kittens had been administered multivalent vaccines against common feline pathogens including FPL virus. Whether and to which extent the FPL vaccines can protect cats adequately from the antigenic variants of CPV-2 should be assessed. PMID:20334885

Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Terio, Valentina; Elia, Gabriella; Lucente, Maria Stella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

2010-03-23

54

Expansion of tropism of a feline parvovirus to target a human tumor cell line by display of an ?v integrin binding peptide on the capsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped, single strand DNA viruses. They occur in many species and they have oncolytic properties. We are modifying the capsid of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus which normally infects feline cells, with the goal of targeting human tumor cells for potential cancer therapy. Using recombinant viruses transducing a luciferase reporter, we show that insertion

IH Maxwell; JT Chapman; LC Scherrer; AL Spitzer; S Leptihn; F Maxwell; JA Corsini

2001-01-01

55

Ferric-Pyoverdine Recognition by Fpv Outer Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5  

PubMed Central

The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In addition to producing its own siderophores, Pf-5 also utilizes ferric complexes of some pyoverdines produced by other strains of Pseudomonas spp. as sources of iron. Previously, phylogenetic analysis of the 45 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins in Pf-5 indicated that six are in a well-supported clade with ferric-pyoverdine receptors (Fpvs) from other Pseudomonas spp. We used a combination of phylogenetics, bioinformatics, mutagenesis, pyoverdine structural determinations, and cross-feeding bioassays to assign specific ferric-pyoverdine substrates to each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. We identified at least one ferric-pyoverdine that was taken up by each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. Functional redundancy of the Pf-5 Fpvs was also apparent, with some ferric-pyoverdines taken up by all mutants with a single Fpv deletion but not by a mutant having deletions in two of the Fpv-encoding genes. Finally, we demonstrated that phylogenetically related Fpvs take up ferric complexes of structurally related pyoverdines, thereby establishing structure-function relationships that can be employed in the future to predict the pyoverdine substrates of Fpvs in other Pseudomonas spp.

Hartney, Sierra L.; Mazurier, Sylvie; Girard, Maeva K.; Mehnaz, Samina; Davis, Edward W.; Gross, Harald; Lemanceau, Philippe

2013-01-01

56

Reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences within the genomes of field strains of fowlpox virus display variability.  

PubMed

Nine field strains of fowlpox virus (FPV) isolated during a 24-year span from geographically diverse outbreaks of fowlpox in the United States were screened for the presence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) sequences in their genomes by PCR. Each isolate appeared to be heterogeneous in that either a nearly intact provirus or just a 248- or 508-nucleotide fusion of portions of the integrated REV 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) was exclusively present at the same genomic site. In contrast, four fowlpox vaccines of FPV origin and three originating from pigeonpox virus were genetically homogeneous in having retained only the 248-bp LTR fusion, whereas two other FPV-based vaccines had only the larger one. These remnants of integrated REV presumably arose during homologous recombination at one of the two regions common to both LTRs or during retroviral excision from the FPV genome. Loss of the provirus appeared to be a natural event because the tripartite population could be detected in a field sample (tracheal lesion). Moreover, the provirus was also readily deleted during propagation of FPV in cultured cells, as evidenced by the detection of truncated LTRs after one passage of a plaque-purified FPV recombinant having a "genetically marked" provirus. However, the deletion mutants did not appear to have a substantial replicative advantage in vitro because even after 55 serial passages the original recombinant FPV was still prevalent. As to the in vivo environment, retention of the REV provirus may confer some benefit to FPV for infection of poultry previously vaccinated against fowlpox. PMID:12719579

Singh, Pratik; Schnitzlein, William M; Tripathy, Deoki N

2003-05-01

57

Recombinant fowlpox virus for in vitro gene delivery to pancreatic islet tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using avipox virus as a vector for gene delivery to islet tissue (adult islets and fetal proislets) was examined using a recombinant fowlpox virus (FPV) engineered to express the reporter gene LacZ (FPV-LacZ). The efficiency of in vitro transduction was dose-dependent and influenced by the donor species and maturation status of the islet tissue. Reporter gene expression

Michelle F Solomon; Ian A Ramshaw; Charmaine J Simeonovic

2005-01-01

58

Embryo vaccination of turkeys against Newcastle disease infection with recombinant fowlpox virus constructs containing interferons as adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV) expressing the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as well as chicken type I interferon (IFN) or type II IFN were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys in ovo. No significant changes in the hatchability, survival rate, performance and weight gain were observed after vaccination with the rFPV vaccines in comparison to

Silke Rautenschlein; Jagdev M Sharma; Barbara J Winslow; Janis McMillen; David Junker; Mark Cochran

1999-01-01

59

Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine  

PubMed Central

Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvAPvd-Fe solubilized in C8E4 detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7? depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Francoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David

2006-01-01

60

The binding mechanism of pyoverdin with the outer membrane receptor FpvA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is dependent on its iron-loaded status.  

PubMed

In iron-deficient conditions, Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a major fluorescent siderophore named pyoverdin (Pvd), which after chelating iron(III) is transported back into the cell via its outer membrane receptor FpvA. FpvA is a TonB-dependent transport protein and has the ability to bind Pvd in its apo- or iron-loaded form. The fluorescence properties of Pvd were used to determine the binding kinetics of metal-free and metal-loaded Pvd to FpvA and showed two major features. First, the kinetics of formation of the FpvA-Pvd complex, in vivo and in vitro, are markedly slower compared to those observed for FpvA-Pvd-metal. Second, apo-Pvd and Pvd-metal absorbed with biphasic kinetics to FpvA: the bimolecular step (association of the ligand with the receptor) is followed by a slower step (t(1/2) values of 5 and 34 min for Pvd-metal and Pvd, respectively) that presumably leads to a more stable complex. The most likely explanation for this second step is that the binding of the ligand to the receptor induces a conformational change on FpvA, which may be different, depending on the loading status of Pvd. Analysis of the dissociation of metal-free Pvd from FpvA revealed an energy and a TonB dependency. The dissociation of iron-free Pvd from FpvA in the absence of the TonB protein occurs with slow kinetics in the range of hours, but it can be highly activated by the protonmotive force and TonB to reach a kinetic with a t(1/2) of 1 min. Apparently, under iron-limited conditions, TonB activates the FpvA receptor, resulting in a fast release of iron-free Pvd and generating an unloaded FpvA receptor, competent for binding extracellular Pvd-Fe. PMID:15196040

Clment, Emilie; Mesini, Philippe J; Pattus, Franc; Schalk, Isabelle J

2004-06-22

61

Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats  

PubMed Central

Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a) the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b) the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

2011-01-01

62

The Genome of Fowlpox Virus  

PubMed Central

Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a pathogenic fowlpox virus (FPV). The 288-kbp FPV genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 9.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats and contains 260 open reading frames, of which 101 exhibit similarity to genes of known function. Comparison of the FPV genome with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs) revealed 65 conserved gene homologues, encoding proteins involved in transcription and mRNA biogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein processing, and virion structure. Comparison of the FPV genome with those of other ChPVs revealed extensive genome colinearity which is interrupted in FPV by a translocation and a major inversion, the presence of multiple and in some cases large gene families, and novel cellular homologues. Large numbers of cellular homologues together with 10 multigene families largely account for the marked size difference between the FPV genome (260 to 309 kbp) and other known ChPV genomes (178 to 191 kbp). Predicted proteins with putative functions involving immune evasion included eight natural killer cell receptors, four CC chemokines, three G-protein-coupled receptors, two ? nerve growth factors, transforming growth factor ?, interleukin-18-binding protein, semaphorin, and five serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). Other potential FPV host range proteins included homologues of those involved in apoptosis (e.g., Bcl-2 protein), cell growth (e.g., epidermal growth factor domain protein), tissue tropism (e.g., ankyrin repeat-containing gene family, N1R/p28 gene family, and a T10 homologue), and avian host range (e.g., a protein present in both fowl adenovirus and Marek's disease virus). The presence of homologues of genes encoding proteins involved in steroid biogenesis (e.g., hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), antioxidant functions (e.g., glutathione peroxidase), vesicle trafficking (e.g., two ?-type soluble NSF attachment proteins), and other, unknown conserved cellular processes (e.g., Hal3 domain protein and GSN1/SUR4) suggests that significant modification of host cell function occurs upon viral infection. The presence of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase homologue in FPV suggests the presence of a photoreactivation DNA repair pathway. This diverse complement of genes with likely host range functions in FPV suggests significant viral adaptation to the avian host.

Afonso, C. L.; Tulman, E. R.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Kutish, G. F.; Rock, D. L.

2000-01-01

63

ANTIBODIES TO CANINE AND FELINE VIRUSES IN SPOTTED HYENAS (CROCUTA CROCUTA) IN THE MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are abundant predators in the Serengeti ecosystem and interact with other species of wild carnivores and domestic animals in ways that could en- courage disease transmission. Hyenas also have a unique hierarchical social system that might affect the flow of pathogens. Antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodefi- ciency virus (FIV), feline panleukopenia virus\\/canine parvovirus

Tara M. Harrison; Jonna K. Mazet; Kay E. Holekamp; Edward Dubovi; Anne L. Engh; Keith Nelson; Russell C. Van Horn; Linda Munson

64

Detection of fowl poxvirus integrated with reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences from an outbreak in backyard chickens in India.  

PubMed

Fowl poxvirus (FPV) infection was observed in unvaccinated backyard chickens. A total of 15 birds were affected in a flock of 37. Pock lesions were observed on the comb, eyelids, beak and wattles. The birds appeared sick with roughened feathers and stunted growth. No mortality was recorded. DNA was isolated from scabs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the 4b core protein gene of FPV, the envelope (env) gene of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the region of FPV flanking REV 5 long terminal repeat (LTR). Correct-size PCR products of 578 bp, 807 bp and 370 bp, respectively, were observed in agarose gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of these products suggests that the virus was an FPV with a genome containing an integrated near full-length REV provirus. Given the fact that REV has been associated with immunosuppression, its presence in the genome of FPV appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of fowl pox and presumably prolongs persistence of FPV in bird populations. In the present case, fowl pox has been observed to have persisted for about three years in fowl that were reared in backyard systems in villages. PMID:21706467

Biswas, Sanchay K; Jana, Chandrakanta; Chand, Karam; Rehman, Waseem; Mondal, Bimalendu

65

Genetic characterization of feline parvovirus sequences from various carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections with viruses of the feline parvovirus subgroup such as feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), mink enteritis virus (MEV) and canine parvovirus (CPV-2) (together with its new antigenic types (CPV-2a, CPV-2b)) have been reported from several wild carnivore species. To examine the susceptibility of different species to the various parvoviruses and their antigenic types, samples from wild carnivores with acute parvovirus

A. Steinel; L. Munson; M. van Vuuren; U. Truyen

66

The pyoverdin receptor FpvA, a TonB-dependent receptor involved in iron uptake by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (review).  

PubMed

Iron is an important element, essential for the growth of almost all living cells. Because of the high insolubility of iron(III) in aerobic conditions, many gram-negative bacteria produce, under iron limitation, small iron-chelating compounds called siderophores, together with new outer-membrane proteins, which function as receptors for the ferrisiderophores. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human opportunistic pathogen, produces at least three known siderophores when grown in iron-deficient conditions: pyochelin, salicylate and pyoverdin. This review focuses on pyoverdin and on the ability of FpvA to bind iron-free and ferric-PaA pyoverdin, in the light of recent information gained from biochemical and biophysical studies and of the recently solved 3D-structures of the related ferrichrome FhuA and enterobactin FepA receptors in Escherichia coli. PMID:11128971

Folschweiller, N; Schalk, I J; Celia, H; Kieffer, B; Abdallah, M A; Pattus, F

67

Construction and characterization of recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing F and HN genes of newcastle disease virus and gB gene of infectious larygnotracheitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fusion (F) and Haemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the glycoprotein B (gB) gene of infectious laryngothracheitis virus (ILTV) as well as a LacZ reporter gene were all inserted into a nonessential gene of fowlpox virus (FPV) 017 strain by homologous recombination. The NDV and ILTV genes were each under the control of a fowlpox virus

Hui-Ling SUN; Yun-Feng WANG; De-Yuan MIAO; Pei-Jun ZHANG; Hai-Dong ZHI; Ling-Long XU; Mei WANG; Guang-Zhi TONG; Ming WANG

2006-01-01

68

Viruses budding from either the apical or the basolateral plasma membrane domain of MDCK cells have unique phospholipid compositions.  

PubMed

Influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) obtain their lipid envelope by budding through the plasma membrane of infected cells. When monolayers of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, a polarized epithelial cell line, are infected with fowl plague virus (FPV), an avian influenza virus, or with VSV, new FPV buds through the apical plasma membrane whereas VSV progeny is formed by budding through the basolateral plasma membrane. FPV and VSV were isolated from MDCK host cells prelabeled with [32P]orthophosphate and their phospholipid compositions were compared. Infection was carried out at 31 degrees C to delay cytopathic effects of the virus infection, which lead to depolarization of the cell surface. 32P-labeled FPV was isolated from the culture medium, whereas 32P-labeled VSV was released from below the cell monolayer by scraping the cells from the culture dish 8 h after infection. At this time little VSV was found in the culture medium, indicating that the cells were still polarized. The phospholipid composition of the two viruses was distinctly different. FPV was enriched in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine and VSV in phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol. When MDCK cells were trypsinized after infection and replated, non-infected control cells attached to reform a confluent monolayer within 4 h, whereas infected cells remained in suspension. FPV and VSV could be isolated from the cells in suspension and under these conditions the phospholipid composition of the two viruses was very similar. We conclude that the two viruses obtain their lipids from the plasma membrane in the same way and that the different phospholipid compositions of the viruses from polarized cells reflect differences in the phospholipid composition of the two plasma membrane domains. PMID:6329709

van Meer, G; Simons, K

1982-01-01

69

Neuraminidase Is Essential for Fowl Plague Virus Hemagglutinin to Show Hemagglutinating Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When hemagglutinin (HA) of fowl plague virus (FPV) was expressed in CV-1 cells by a simian virus 40 vector, hemadsorption was barely detectable, although HA was exposed at the cell surface. However, treatment of HA-expressing cells with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA) resulted in extensive hemadsorption. VCNA treatment enhanced the electrophoretic mobility of the HA1 subunit of HA, indicating the removal

Masanobu Ohuchi; Anke Feldmann; Reiko Ohuchi; Hans-Dieter Klenk

1995-01-01

70

Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recently developed vaccinesone based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid proteinfully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range

Jan P. M. Langeveld; Sren Kamstrup; Aase Uttenthal; Bertel Strandbygaard; Carmen Vela; Kristian Dalsgaard; Nico J. C. M. Beekman; Rob H. Meloen; J. Ignacio Casal

1995-01-01

71

Oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising form of gene therapy for cancer, employing nature's own agents to find and destroy malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to this very topical field of research and to point out some of the current observations, insights and ideas circulating in the literature. We have strived to acknowledge as many different oncolytic viruses as possible to give a broader picture of targeting cancer using viruses. Some of the newest additions to the panel of oncolytic viruses include the avian adenovirus, foamy virus, myxoma virus, yaba-like disease virus, echovirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, Saimiri virus, feline panleukopenia virus, Sendai virus and the non-human coronaviruses. Although promising, virotherapy still faces many obstacles that need to be addressed, including the emergence of virus-resistant tumor cells. PMID:17383089

Vh-Koskela, Markus J V; Heikkil, Jari E; Hinkkanen, Ari E

2007-03-23

72

Pyoverdine-Mediated Iron Uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the Tat System Is Required for PvdN but Not for FpvA Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under iron-limiting conditions, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 secretes a fluorescent siderophore called pyoverdine (Pvd). After chelating iron, this ferric siderophore is transported back into the cells via the outer membrane receptor FpvA. The Pvd-dependent iron uptake pathway requires several essential genes involved in both the synthesis of Pvd and the uptake of ferric Pvd inside the cell. A previous study describing

R. Voulhoux; A. Filloux; I. J. Schalk

2006-01-01

73

Biosynthesis, intracellular transport and enzymatic activity of an avian influenza A virus neuraminidase: role of unpaired cysteines and individual oligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular transport, glycosylation, tetrameriza- tion and enzymatic activity of the neuraminidase (NA) of fowl plague virus (FPV) were analysed in vertebrate cells after expression from a vaccinia virus vector. Tetramerization occurred with a half- time of 15 min, whereas passage through the medial Golgi apparatus and transport to the plasma membrane occurred with half-times of 2 and 3 h, respectively,

J. Hausmann; E. Kretzschmar; W. Garten; H.-D. Klenk

1997-01-01

74

Biosynthesis, intracellular transport and enzymatic activity of an avian influenza A virus neuraminidase: role of unpaired cysteines and individual oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Intracellular transport, glycosylation, tetramerization and enzymatic activity of the neuraminidase (NA) of fowl plague virus (FPV) were analysed in vertebrate cells after expression from a vaccinia virus vector. Tetramerization occurred with a half-time of 15 min, whereas passage through the medial Golgi apparatus and transport to the plasma membrane occurred with half-times of 2 and 3 h, respectively, suggesting a step in NA maturation beyond tetramerization that limits the rate of transport to the medial Golgi. NA transport rates were about fourfold slower than those of haemagglutinin (HA). Slow transport and processing of FPV NA was not altered by coexpression of FPV HA, nor was the transport rate of HA influenced by NA. The slow transport kinetics of NA were also observed in FPV-infected CV-1 cells. As deduced from the coding sequence, FPV NA has the shortest stalk of all naturally occurring NAs described to date and contains only three potential N-glycosylation sites, which are all located in the globular head domain. Elimination of each of the three N-glycosylation sites revealed that the two oligosaccharides at positions 124 and 66 are of the complex type, whereas the one at Asn-213 remains in mannose-rich form. The glycosylation mutants showed also that oligosaccharides at positions 124 and 213 of FPV NA modulate enzymatic activity. Transport of NA is not influenced by single elimination of any of the three oligosaccharide attachment sites. Mutational analysis of the three Cys residues not involved in intrachain disulfide pairing revealed that Cys-49 in the stalk of the NA molecule is responsible for the formation of disulfide-linked dimers. Analysis of cysteine mutants of FPV NA also demonstrated that disulfide-linked dimers are not absolutely necessary for the formation of enzymatically active tetramers but may stabilize the quaternary structure of NA. PMID:9400974

Hausmann, J; Kretzschmar, E; Garten, W; Klenk, H D

1997-12-01

75

Prevalence of Antibodies to Feline Parvovirus, Calicivirus, Herpesvirus, Coronavirus, and Immunodeficiency Virus and of Feline Leukemia Virus Antigen and the Interrelationship of These Viral Infections in Free-Ranging Lions in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

While viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalenceofantibodiestofelinecalicivirus(FCV),herpesvirus(FHV),coronavirus(FCoV),parvovirus(FPV), and immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting Tanzania's national

REGINA HOFMANN-LEHMANN; DANIELA FEHR; MARKUS GROB; MUHAMED ELGIZOLI; CRAIG PACKER; JANICE S. MARTENSON; STEPHEN J. O'BRIEN; ANDHANS LUTZ

1996-01-01

76

Regulation of receptor binding affinity of influenza virus hemagglutinin by its carbohydrate moiety.  

PubMed Central

The hemagglutinin (HA) of the fowl plague virus (FPV) strain of influenza A virus has two N-linked oligosaccharides attached to Asn123 and Asn149 in the vicinity of the receptor binding site. The effect of these carbohydrate side chains on the binding of HA to neuraminic acid-containing receptors has been analyzed. When the oligosaccharides were deleted by site-specific mutagenesis, HA expressed from a simian virus 40 vector showed enhanced hemadsorbing activity. Binding was so strong under these conditions that erythrocytes were no longer released by viral neuraminidase and that release was significantly reduced when neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae was used. Similarly, when these oligosaccharides were removed selectively from purified viruses by N-glycosidase F, such virions were unable to elute from receptors, although they retained neuraminidase activity. Thus, release of FPV from cell receptors depends on the presence of the HA glycans at Asn123 and Asn149. On the other hand, receptor binding was abolished when these oligosaccharides were sialylated after expression in the absence of neuraminidase (M. Ohuchi, A. Feldmann, R. Ohuchi, and H.-D. Klenk, Virology 212:77-83, 1995). These observations indicate that the receptor affinity of FPV HA is controlled by oligosaccharides adjacent to the receptor binding site.

Ohuchi, M; Ohuchi, R; Feldmann, A; Klenk, H D

1997-01-01

77

A simple touch-down polymerase chain reaction for the detection of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus in feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is described for the detection of parvovirus in feces of dogs and cats. A touch-down protocol was used which enabled the specific amplification of virion DNA from feces after a fast and simple boiling pretreatment. The sensitivity of PCR was as high as ten infectious particles per reaction which corresponds to a titer of

Barbro Schunck; Wilfried Kraft; Uwe Truyen

1995-01-01

78

Effects of maternally-derived antibodies on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.  

PubMed

The optimal vaccination protocol to induce immunity in kittens with maternal antibodies is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally-derived antibody (MDA) on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens. Vaccination with a modified live virus (MLV) product was more effective than an inactivated (IA) product at inducing protective antibody titers (PAT) against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). IA vaccination against feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) was more effective in the presence of low MDA than high MDA. Among kittens with low MDA, MLV vaccination against FCV was more effective than IA vaccination. A total of 15%, 44% and 4% of kittens had insufficient titers against FPV, FHV and FCV, respectively, at 17 weeks of age. Serologic response to vaccination of kittens varies based on vaccination type and MDA level. In most situations, MLV vaccination should be utilized and protocols continued beyond 14 weeks of age to optimize response by all kittens. PMID:22314087

Digangi, Brian A; Levy, Julie K; Griffin, Brenda; Reese, Michael J; Dingman, Patricia A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dubovi, Edward J

2012-02-01

79

[Tissue reaction and influenza virus infectiousness during multiplication in tissue culture in the presence of remantadine].  

PubMed

The effect of remantadine in tissue culture of primary chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with classical fowl plague virus (FRV) was found to be dual. On the one hand, in low concentrations remantadine effectively inhibited in CEF reproduction of the virus sensitive to it. On the other, in high (subtoxic) concentrations in CEF infected with either sensitive or remantadine-resistant FPV variants it induced virus reproduction. The latter became noninfectious for normal CEF but retained its capacity for multiplication in cells treated with high concentrations of remantadine. PMID:6495707

Votiakov, V I; Boreko, E I; Zaporozhets, L K

80

Antibody induction after combined application of an adjuvanted recombinant FeLV vaccine and a multivalent modified live virus vaccine with a chlamydial component.  

PubMed

The compatibility, safety and interaction on antibody induction of a combined vaccine application were assessed. Specific pathogen-free cats were vaccinated with either a modified live virus vaccine containing feline calici- (FCV), herpes- (FHV-1), parvovirus (FPV) and Chlamydophila felis (C. felis), an adjuvanted recombinant feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) vaccine or both vaccines in one syringe. After combined application, FeLV ELISA antibody titres were unaltered, However antibody production based on indirect immunofluorescence assay was remarkably enhanced for FCV and was at selected time points also enhanced for FHV-1 and C. felis but diminished for FPV. The use of these vaccines in combination was safe and will simplify vaccination schedules in veterinary practice. PMID:16343700

Brunner, Chantal; Kanellos, Theo; Meli, Marina L; Sutton, David J; Gisler, Ricarda; Gomes-Keller, Maria Alice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

2005-11-15

81

Serologic evaluation of vaccinated American river otters.  

PubMed

The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation acquired 20 American river otters (Lutra canadensis) between 1984 and 1985 for reintroduction into Oklahoma waterways. In 1985, 10 otters were evaluated for serum antibody titers after vaccination with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline rhinotracheitis virus (FRV), and feline calicivirus. Prevaccination serum-virus neutralization (SVN) antibody to feline rhinotracheitis virus was found in 2 otters and to feline calicivirus in 1 otter. Using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay, prevaccination antibody to CPV and FPV was found in 2 otters. A significant increase in SVN antibody titers was found after vaccination of otters with canine adenovirus type 2 (6 of 8 animals) and feline calicivirus (1 of 8 animals). One of 8 otters developed significant antibody titers to CPV and FPV, as measured by IFA assay. Otters did not develop SVN antibody titers to canine distemper virus after vaccination. Antigens of feline leukemia virus, using ELISA, or antibodies to feline infectious peritonitis, using IFA assay, were not found in the 20 otters. PMID:3001000

Hoover, J P; Castro, A E; Nieves, M A

1985-12-01

82

Protease activation mutants elicit protective immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H7 in chickens and mice  

PubMed Central

Protease activation mutants of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) have been generated that are fully dependent on the presence of trypsin for growth in cell culture. Unlike wild-type virus, the mutants do not induce systemic infection in chicken embryos and show low pathogenicity in both chicken embryos and adult chickens. Inactivated vaccines prepared from the mutants protected chickens and mice very efficiently against infection with highly pathogenic wild-type virus in a cross-reactive manner. The potential of these mutants to be used as veterinary and prepandemic vaccines will be discussed.

Wagner, Ralf; Gabriel, Gulsah; Schlesner, Matthias; Alex, Nina; Herwig, Astrid; Werner, Ortrud; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

2013-01-01

83

Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Garca, Maricarmen

2012-01-01

84

Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response.

Povey, C.

1982-01-01

85

Phylogenetic analysis reveals the emergence, evolution and dispersal of carnivore parvoviruses.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV), first recognized as an emerging virus of dogs in 1978, resulted from a successful cross-species transmission. CPV emerged from the endemic feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), or from a closely related parvovirus of another host. Here we refine our current understanding of the evolution and population dynamics of FPV and CPV. By analysing nearly full-length viral sequences we show that the majority of substitutions distinguishing CPV from FPV are located in the capsid protein gene, and that this gene is under positive selection in CPV, resulting in a significantly elevated rate of molecular evolution. This provides strong phylogenetic evidence for a prominent role of the viral capsid in host adaptation. In addition, an analysis of the population dynamics of more recent CPV reveals, on a global scale, a strongly spatially subdivided CPV population with little viral movement among countries and a relatively constant population size. Such limited viral migration contrasts with the global spread of the virus observed during the early phase of the CPV pandemic, but corresponds to the more endemic nature of current CPV infections. PMID:18753238

Hoelzer, Karin; Shackelton, Laura A; Parrish, Colin R; Holmes, Edward C

2008-09-01

86

Fowlpox virus recombinants expressing the envelope glycoprotein of an avian reticuloendotheliosis retrovirus induce neutralizing antibodies and reduce viremia in chickens.  

PubMed Central

Eight stable fowlpox virus (FPV) recombinants which express the envelope glycoprotein of the spleen necrosis virus (SNV) strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian retrovirus, were constructed. These recombinants differ in the genomic location of the inserted genes, in the orientation of the insert relative to flanking viral sequences, and in the promoter used to drive expression of the env gene. Of these variables, promoter strength seems to be the most crucial. The P7.5 promoter of vaccinia virus, which is commonly used in the construction of both vaccinia virus and FPV recombinants, resulted in lower levels of expression of the envelope antigen in infected chicken cells compared with a strong synthetic promoter, as determined by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two peptides encoded by the env gene, the 21-kDa transmembrane peptide and a 62-kDa precursor, were detected by immunoprecipitation of labeled proteins from cells infected with recombinant FPVs, using monoclonal antibodies against REV. These peptides comigrated with those precipitated from REV-infected cells. One of the recombinants (f29R-SNenv) was used for vaccination of 1-day-old chickens. Vaccinated chicks developed neutralizing antibodies to SNV more rapidly than did unvaccinated controls following SNV challenge and were protected against both viremia and the SNV-induced runting syndrome. Images

Calvert, J G; Nazerian, K; Witter, R L; Yanagida, N

1993-01-01

87

Within-host genetic diversity of endemic and emerging parvoviruses of dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Viral emergence can result from the adaptation of endemic pathogens to new or altered host environments, a process that is strongly influenced by the underlying sequence diversity. To determine the extent and structure of intrahost genetic diversity in a recently emerged single-stranded DNA virus, we analyzed viral population structures during natural infections of animals with canine parvovirus (CPV) or its ancestor, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). We compared infections that occurred shortly after CPV emerged with more recent infections and examined the population structure of CPV after experimental cross-species transmission to cats. Infections with CPV and FPV showed limited genetic diversity regardless of the analyzed host tissue or year of isolation. Coinfections with genetically distinct viral strains were detected in some cases, and rearranged genomes were seen in both FPV and CPV. The sporadic presence of some sequences with multiple mutations suggested the occurrence of either particularly error-prone viral replication or coinfection by more distantly related strains. Finally, some potentially organ-specific host effects were seen during experimental cross-species transmission, with many of the mutations located in the nonstructural protein NS2. These included residues with evidence of positive selection at the population level, which is compatible with a role of this protein in host adaptation. PMID:18768982

Hoelzer, Karin; Shackelton, Laura A; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

2008-09-03

88

Purified feline and canine transferrin receptors reveal complex interactions with the capsids of canine and feline parvoviruses that correspond to their host ranges.  

PubMed

The cell infection processes and host ranges of canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are controlled by their capsid interactions with the transferrin receptors (TfR) on their host cells. Here, we expressed the ectodomains of wild-type and mutant TfR and tested those for binding to purified viral capsids and showed that different naturally variant strains of the viruses were associated with variant interactions with the receptors which likely reflect the optimization of the viral infection processes in the different hosts. While all viruses bound the feline TfR, reflecting their tissue culture host ranges, a naturally variant mutant of CPV (represented by the CPV type-2b strain) that became the dominant virus worldwide in 1979 showed significantly lower levels of binding to the feline TfR. The canine TfR ectodomain did not bind to a detectable level in the in vitro assays, but this appears to reflect the naturally low affinity of that interaction, as only low levels of binding were seen when the receptor was expressed on mammalian cells; however, that was sufficient to allow endocytosis and infection. The apical domain of the canine TfR controls the specific interaction with CPV capsids, as a canine TfR mutant altering a glycosylation site in that domain bound FPV, CPV-2, and CPV-2b capsids efficiently. Enzymatic removal of the N-linked glycans did not allow FPV binding to the canine TfR, suggesting that the protein sequence difference is itself important. The purified feline TfR inhibited FPV and CPV-2 binding and infection of feline cells but not CPV-2b, indicating that the receptor binding may be able to prevent the attachment to the same receptor on cells. PMID:16912298

Palermo, Laura M; Hafenstein, Susan L; Parrish, Colin R

2006-09-01

89

Effects of a single dose of an intranasal feline herpesvirus 1, calicivirus, and panleukopenia vaccine on clinical signs and virus shedding after challenge with virulent feline herpesvirus 1.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether intranasal administration of a commercially available FVRCP vaccine to kittens lessened clinical signs and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) viral shedding when compared to unvaccinated control kittens after FHV-1 challenge. Three groups of 10 unvaccinated kittens were administered one dose of vaccine 6 days (group 1), 4 days (group 2), or 2 days (group 3) before challenge, respectively. One group was maintained as unvaccinated controls (group 4). FHV-1 challenge was then induced and the kittens were observed for 14 days. When the grouped vaccinated kitten results (groups 1-3) were compared to group 4 results, clinical scores following challenge were significantly lower (P<0.05) and significantly lower body temperatures (P<0.05) were detected on days 0, 5 and 9 post-challenge. When evaluated by individual group, group 1 and group 2 kittens had significantly lower clinical scores (P<0.05) than group 4 kittens post-challenge. In addition, FHV-1 shedding was lower in group 1 kittens when compared to group 4 kittens on day 6 after challenge (P<0.05). Administration of this vaccine within several days prior to exposure lessened clinical signs of disease and FHV-1 shedding compared to unvaccinated kittens. PMID:16442823

Lappin, Michael R; Sebring, Randal W; Porter, Marilyn; Radecki, Steven J; Veir, Julia

2006-01-25

90

Molecular Screening by Polymerase Chain Reaction Detects Panleukopenia Virus DNA in Formalin-Fixed Hearts from Cats with Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral myocarditis has been suggested as an etiology for cardiomyopathy in several mammalian species. Myocarditis and idiopathic cardiomyopathy have been reported in the domestic cat, although a viral etiology has not been demonstrated. Because of the continuing interest in the potential relationship between viral myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, we evaluated hearts from cats with spontaneous, idiopathic cardiomyopathy for viral genomic material

Kathryn M Meurs; Philip R Fox; Alexander L Magnon; Si-Kwang Liu; Jeffrey A Towbin

2000-01-01

91

In vitro assessment of the feline cell-mediated immune response against feline panleukopeniavirus, calicivirus and felid herpesvirus 1 using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling.  

PubMed

In this study an in vitro assay was optimized to detect feline proliferating lymphocytes as an assessment for the cell-mediated immune response. For this purpose, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling was chosen because of its sensitivity and the possibility of further characterization of proliferating cells. The assay was optimized by selecting the best batch and concentration of fetal bovine serum, ?-mercaptoethanol concentration, cell density, BrdU incubation time and antigen presenting cell type. Cats were vaccinated with the attenuated Nobivac vaccine Tricat and the peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation responses were quantified upon in vitro restimulation with inactivated and infectious feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1). Proliferation signals were detected with inactivated FeHV-1 in the CD8(+) but not in the CD8(-) T lymphocyte population, with inactivated FCV and FPV in both CD8(-) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte populations. Restimulation with infectious FCV caused significant proliferation in the CD8(-) T lymphocyte population only while infectious FPV and FeHV-1 seemed to suppress lymphocyte proliferation in both T cell populations. Additional IFN-? quantification in the culture supernatant revealed a large correlation between the proliferation signals and IFN-? production, indicating that BrdU labeling is a very reliable technique to assess and characterize feline lymphoproliferative responses to viral antigens in vitro. PMID:22460172

Vermeulen, Ben L; Gleich, Sabine E; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Olyslaegers, Dominique A; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-03-10

92

Comparison of different in-house test systems to detect parvovirus in faeces of cats.  

PubMed

In-house tests for the identification of faecal parvovirus antigen are now available. The majority of these are licensed for canine parvovirus only; but anecdotal information suggests that they will detect feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) as well. This prospective study was designed to compare five commercially available test systems. In total, 200 faecal samples from randomly selected healthy cats (148) and cats with diarrhoea (52) were tested and compared with the results of examination by electron microscopy. Ten cats were positive for FPV and all of these had diarrhoea. In-house canine parvovirus tests can be used to detect FPV. All tests were suitable to screen cats for faecal parvovirus excretion (positive predictive values for the Witness Parvo, the Snap Parvo, the SAS Parvo, the Fastest Parvo Strip, and the Speed Parvo were 100.0, 100.0, 57.1, 38.9, and 100%, respectively, negative predictive values for the Witness Parvo, the Snap Parvo, the SAS Parvo, the Fastest Parvo Strip, and the Speed Parvo were 97.4, 97.9, 98.9, 98.4, and 97.4%, respectively). In-house parvovirus tests may be positive up to 2 weeks after vaccination, and therefore, in recently vaccinated cats positive results do not necessarily mean infection. PMID:18243743

Neuerer, Felix F; Horlacher, Karin; Truyen, Uwe; Hartmann, Katrin

2008-02-20

93

Exposure to selected Pathogens in to selected pathogens in Geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central Argentina.  

PubMed

Wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. Because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 Geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central Argentina (Lihu Calel National Park, La Pampa, and Campos del Tuy National Park, Buenos Aires), as well as five domestic cats and 11 domestic dogs from catde ranches adjacent to Lihu Calel Park. Geoffroy's cats had detectable antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline coronavirus, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira interrogans (serovars Ictero/Icter and Ballum), and Dirofilaria immitis. None of the wild cats had antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus, or rabies virus. Domestic dogs had antibodies to CDV, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus, and canine parvovirus. Antibodies to FPV, FCV, FIV, and T. gondii were found in domestic cats. We provide the first data on exposure of free-ranging Geoffroy's cats to pathogens at two sites within the core area of the species distribution range, including the first report of antibodies to CDV in this species. We encourage continued monitoring for diseases in wild and domestic carnivores as well as preventive health care for domestic animals, particularly in park buffer zones where overlap is greatest. PMID:23060491

Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, M Virginia; Marull, Carolina A; Ferreyra, Hebe del Valle; Pereira, Javier A

2012-10-01

94

Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.  

PubMed

Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

2008-07-01

95

Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses  

PubMed Central

Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population.

Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

2011-01-01

96

Early steps in cell infection by parvoviruses: host-specific differences in cell receptor binding but similar endosomal trafficking.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are closely related parvoviruses that differ in their host ranges for cats and dogs. Both viruses bind their host transferrin receptor (TfR), enter cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and traffic with that receptor through endosomal pathways. Infection by these viruses appears to be inefficient and slow, with low numbers of virions infecting the cell after a number of hours. Species-specific binding to TfR controls viral host range, and in this study FPV and strains of CPV differed in the levels of cell attachment, uptake, and infection in canine and feline cells. During infection, CPV particles initially bound and trafficked passively on the filopodia of canine cells while they bound to the cell body of feline cells. That binding was associated with the TfR as it was disrupted by anti-TfR antibodies. Capsids were taken up from the cell surface with different kinetics in canine and feline cells but, unlike transferrin, most did not recycle. Capsids labeled with fluorescent markers were seen in Rab5-, Rab7-, or Rab11-positive endosomal compartments within minutes of uptake, but reached the nucleus. Constitutively active or dominant negative Rab mutants changed the intracellular distribution of capsids and affected the infectivity of virus in cells. PMID:19656887

Harbison, Carole E; Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Weichert, Wendy S; Parrish, Colin R

2009-08-05

97

A serologic assessment of exposure to viral pathogens and Leptospira in an urban raccoon (Procyon lotor) population inhabiting a large zoological park.  

PubMed

In urban environments, raccoons (Procyon lotor) may act as reservoirs for an array of pathogenic organisms, presenting spillover risks for human, domestic animal, and captive (zoo) animal populations. Over 5 yr, 159 raccoons from a high-density raccoon population in St. Louis, Missouri (USA), were surveyed for exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 1 (CAV-1); feline parvovirus (FPV; =feline panleukopenia), and several serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to each of the viruses and two Leptospira serovars (grippotyphosa and icterohemorrhagiae) was detected (prevalence of CDV = 54.1%; FPV = 49.7%; CAV-1 = 6.9%; L. interrogans icterohemorrhagiae = 8.9%; L. interrogans grippotyphosa = 6.3%). Eighty percent of raccoons showed evidence of exposure to at least one of the five primary pathogens, and 39% were positive for multiple species. Among the viruses, there was a significant co-occurrence of CDV and CAV-1. Longitudinal data on a subset of animals revealed that among individuals who were diagnosed as seropositive on first capture, 33-100% became seronegative for the pathogen of interest when reexamined at a later date. Thus, free-ranging urban raccoons have been exposed to multiple infectious agents, some of which may pose risks to humans and to nonvaccinated domestic and captive animal populations. PMID:17469271

Junge, Randall E; Bauman, Karen; King, Melanie; Gompper, Matthew E

2007-03-01

98

Serosurvey of viral infections in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).  

PubMed

Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity have unusually high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, a trait that could be an outcome of population homogeneity or the immunomodulating effects of chronic stress. Free-ranging Namibian cheetahs share ancestry with captive cheetahs, but their susceptibility to infectious diseases has not been investigated. The largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs resides on Namibian farmlands, where they share habitat with domestic dogs and cats known to carry viruses that affect cheetah health. To assess the extent to which free-ranging cheetahs are exposed to feline and canine viruses, sera from 81 free-ranging cheetahs sampled between 1992 and 1998 were evaluated for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis virus; FCoV/ FIPV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens. Antibodies against CDV, FCoV/FIPV, FHV1, FPV, and FCV were detected in 24, 29, 12, 48, and 65% of the free-ranging population, respectively, although no evidence of viral disease was present in any animal at the time of sample collection. Neither FIV antibodies nor FeLV antigens were present in any free-ranging cheetah tested. Temporal variation in FCoV/FIPV seroprevalence during the study period suggested that this virus is not endemic in the free-ranging population. Antibodies against CDV were detected in cheetahs of all ages sampled between 1995 and 1998, suggesting the occurrence of an epidemic in Namibia during the time when CDV swept through other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This evidence in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs of exposure to viruses that cause severe disease in captive cheetahs should direct future guidelines for translocations, including quarantine of seropositive cheetahs and preventing contact between cheetahs and domestic pets. PMID:15137485

Munson, Linda; Marker, Laurie; Dubovi, Edward; Spencer, Jennifer A; Evermann, James F; O'Brien, Stephen J

2004-01-01

99

A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1).  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 cause fatal disease in poultry (fowl plague) but also have zoonotic potential. Currently commercially available vaccines often do not provide sufficient protection and do not allow easy discrimination between vaccinated and infected birds. Therefore, vaccination of domestic poultry against H5 and H7 HPAIV is not allowed in many countries, or is only possible after special permission has been provided. We generated a recombinant marker vaccine based on non-transmissible vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the HA antigen of HPAIV A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) in place of the VSV G gene. This virus, VSV*DeltaG(HA), was propagated on a helper cell line providing VSV G in trans. Since no progeny virus was produced after infection of non-complementing cells, the vector was classified as biosafety level 1 organism ("safe"). Chickens were immunized via the intramuscular route. Following booster vaccination with the same replicons high titers of serum antibodies were induced, which neutralized avian influenza viruses of subtypes H7N1 and H7N7 but not H5N2. Vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal dose of heterologous HPAIV A/chicken/Italy/445/99 (H7N1). Secretion of challenge virus was short-term and significantly reduced. Finally, it was possible to discriminate vaccinated chickens from infected ones by a simple ELISA assay. We propose that VSV replicons have the potential to be developed to high-quality vaccines for protection of poultry against different subtypes of avian influenza viruses. PMID:19135116

Kalhoro, Nazeer H; Veits, Jutta; Rautenschlein, Silke; Zimmer, Gert

2009-01-07

100

When cats' ways of life interact with their viruses: a study in 15 natural populations of owned and unowned cats (Felis silvestris catus).  

PubMed

In natural populations, virus circulation is influenced by host behavior and physiological characteristics. Cat populations exhibit a great variability in social and spatial structure, the existence of different ways of life within a same population may also result in different epidemiological patterns. To test this hypothesis, we used a logistic regression to analyze the risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline herpes virus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline parvovirus (FPV) infection in owned (fed and sheltered) and unowned (neither fed nor sheltered, unsocialized) cats living in a rural environment in the North Eastern part of France. A serological survey was carried out in 492 non-vaccinated and non-sterilized individuals from 15 populations living in the same area. The prevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was also studied, but too few were infected to analyze the risk factors of this virus. For each virus, the epidemiological pattern was different in owned and unowned cats. Unowned cats were more frequently infected by directly transmitted viruses like FIV, FHV and FCV (21.22%, 67.66%, 86.52% in unowned cats vs 9.55%, 53.88%, 77.18% in owned cats, respectively), a difference that may be explained by a more solitary and more aggressive behavior in unowned adults, and/or possibly by a higher sensitivity related to a more stressful life. On the contrary, owned cats were more frequently infected with FPV (36.41% in owned cats vs 15.61% in unowned cats), possibly as a result of their concentration around human settlements. The present study showed that owned and unowned cats living in a same area have behavioral and physiological characteristics sufficiently different to influence virus circulation. Pooling different types of cats in a single sample without taking it into account could give a wrong picture of the epidemiology of their viruses. The conclusion of this work can be extended to any epidemiological studies led in wildlife species with flexible behavior as any variations in social or spatial structure, between or within populations, could result in different virus circulation. PMID:21705099

Hellard, E; Fouchet, D; Santin-Janin, H; Tarin, B; Badol, V; Coupier, C; Leblanc, G; Poulet, H; Pontier, D

2011-06-25

101

Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are activated in course of many viral infections. Here we analyzed the activity of JNK inhibitors on influenza A virus (IAV) amplification. Human lung epithelial cells were infected with either the highly pathogenic avian virus strain A/FPV/Bratislava/79 (H7N7) or the pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/Hamburg/4/09 (H1N1v). The application of the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and AS601245 reduced IAV amplification by suppressing viral protein and RNA synthesis. Although AS601245 appeared to generally block the transcription of newly introduced genes, SP600125 specifically affected viral RNA synthesis. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of SEK/MKK4 and siRNA-mediated suppression of JNK2 expression confirmed that specific manipulation of the JNK pathway attenuates virus propagation. An IAV minigenome replication assay revealed that SP600125 did not directly affect the activity of the viral RNA polymerase complex but seems to suppress an anti-influenza nonstructural protein 1-mediated virus supportive function. Finally, when H7N7- or H1N1v-infected mice were treated with SP600125, the viral load is reduced in lungs of treated compared with untreated mice. Our data suggest that this class of ATP competitive inhibitors once optimized for antiviral action potentially represent novel drugs for antiviral intervention. PMID:22628315

Nacken, Wolfgang; Ehrhardt, Christina; Ludwig, Stephan

2012-05-01

102

[New betulin derivatives in combination with rimantadine for inhibition of influenza virus reproduction].  

PubMed

The preliminary studies mainly revealed comparable inhibition activities of 3-oxime of betulonic acid, 3beta-O-acetyl-28-O-hemiphthalate of betulin and 3,28-dioxime of betulin against reproduction of influenza viruses A (H1N1), A (H7N1), A (H3N2) and B, as well as against the strains of influenza virus A (H1N1) with intrinsic resistance to rimantadine and A (H7N1) with acquired resistance to the drug. The level of the activity depended on the system used for the virus reproduction. The highest level was observed under conditions providing higher permissibivity, i.e. in the chick embryo fibroblast cell culture for A (H7N1) and in fragments of chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (for all the viruses). In the experiments with virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) in the chick embryo fibroblast cell culture the average effective concentrations (EC50) of the triterpene compounds were 10.4-17.5 mcM in comparison to EC50 of rimantadine (0.014 mcM). The use of every of the compounds in combination with rimantadine resulted in a 2-16 times decrease of their EC50 and correction of the concentration-effect relation of rimantadine. However, when rimantadine was used alone within the higher range of the nontoxic concentrations (11.6-57.6 mcM). its antiviral properties were significantly less pronounced. As a result the virus titer difference in comparison to the control within the above range of the rimantadine concentrations increased from < 1 to > 2.35 Ig PPU/ml and the relations of the maximal tolerance concentrations of the compounds to their EC50 increased 1.7-15.9 times. PMID:20052912

Savinova, O V; Pavlova, N I; Boreko, E I

2009-01-01

103

Virus Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...

104

Recombination between vaccine and field strains of canine parvovirus is revealed by isolation of virus in canine and feline cell cultures.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with a high fatality rate in pups worldwide. Since CPV emerged in the late 1970s, its origin has been explored with the conclusion that CPV originated from feline panleukopenia virus or a closely related virus. Both high mutation rate and recombination are assumed to be key factors in the evolution of parvoviruses. Here we provide evidence for natural recombination in CPV isolated from dogs in cell culture. Antigenic and genetic properties of isolates from 10 diseased pups were elucidated. Six pups had been vaccinated beforehand with live combined vaccine containing original antigenic type CPV (CPV-2). Six isolates recovered from 4 vaccinated pups in cell cultures were found to contain either CPV-2 or CPV-2-like viruses. The other isolates, including all those from non-vaccinated pups, were CPV-2b viruses. Antigenic typing of two CPV-2-like isolates, 03-029/M and 1887/f, with a monoclonal antibody panel suggested they were a mixture of CPV-2 and CPV-2a (03-029/M) and a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2b (1887/f). Genetic analysis of the VP1 gene indicated that isolate 03-029/M was a mixture of CPV-2, CPV-2a and a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2a viruses, while isolate 1887/f was composed of a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2b viruses. This is the first demonstration of natural CPV recombination in the field and suggests that recombination in the evolution of CPV is a more frequent and important process than previously believed. PMID:19122396

Mochizuki, Masami; Ohshima, Takahisa; Une, Yumi; Yachi, Akiko

2008-12-01

105

Hepadna viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

1987-01-01

106

Camelpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelpox virus (CMLV) causes a smallpox-like illness in a unique host, the camel. The disease is enzootic in almost all regions where camel husbandry is practiced, and is responsible for severe economic losses. Although it is genetically the closest known virus to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, CMLV remains poorly studied. It is characterized by a narrow host

Sophie Duraffour; Hermann Meyer; Graciela Andrei; Robert Snoeck

2011-01-01

107

Binding Site on the Transferrin Receptor for the Parvovirus Capsid and Effects of Altered Affinity on Cell Uptake and Infection?  

PubMed Central

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and its relative feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) bind the transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR) to infect their host cells but show differences in the interactions with the feline and canine TfRs that determine viral host range and tissue tropism. We changed apical and protease-like domain residues by introducing point mutations and adding or removing glycosylation signals, and we then examined the interactions of those mutant TfRs with the capsids. Most substitutions had little effect on virus binding and uptake. However, mutations of several sites in the apical domain of the receptor either prevented binding to the capsids or reduced the affinity of receptor binding to various degrees. Glycans within the virus binding face of the apical domain also controlled capsid binding. CPV, but not the related feline parvovirus, could use receptors containing a canine TfR-specific glycosylation to mediate efficient infection, while addition of other N-linked glycosylation sites into the virus binding face of the feline apical domain reduced or eliminated both binding and infection. Replacement of critical feline TfR residue 221 with every amino acid had effects on binding and infection which were significantly associated with the biochemical properties of the residue replaced. Receptors with reduced affinities mostly showed proportional changes in their ability to mediate infection. Testing feline TfR variants for their binding and uptake patterns in cells showed that low-affinity versions bound fewer capsids and also differed in attachment to the cell surface and filopodia, but transport to the perinuclear endosome was similar.

Goodman, Laura B.; Lyi, Sangbom M.; Johnson, Natalie C.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Hafenstein, Susan L.; Parrish, Colin R.

2010-01-01

108

Binding site on the transferrin receptor for the parvovirus capsid and effects of altered affinity on cell uptake and infection.  

PubMed

Canine parvovirus (CPV) and its relative feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) bind the transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR) to infect their host cells but show differences in the interactions with the feline and canine TfRs that determine viral host range and tissue tropism. We changed apical and protease-like domain residues by introducing point mutations and adding or removing glycosylation signals, and we then examined the interactions of those mutant TfRs with the capsids. Most substitutions had little effect on virus binding and uptake. However, mutations of several sites in the apical domain of the receptor either prevented binding to the capsids or reduced the affinity of receptor binding to various degrees. Glycans within the virus binding face of the apical domain also controlled capsid binding. CPV, but not the related feline parvovirus, could use receptors containing a canine TfR-specific glycosylation to mediate efficient infection, while addition of other N-linked glycosylation sites into the virus binding face of the feline apical domain reduced or eliminated both binding and infection. Replacement of critical feline TfR residue 221 with every amino acid had effects on binding and infection which were significantly associated with the biochemical properties of the residue replaced. Receptors with reduced affinities mostly showed proportional changes in their ability to mediate infection. Testing feline TfR variants for their binding and uptake patterns in cells showed that low-affinity versions bound fewer capsids and also differed in attachment to the cell surface and filopodia, but transport to the perinuclear endosome was similar. PMID:20200243

Goodman, Laura B; Lyi, Sangbom M; Johnson, Natalie C; Cifuente, Javier O; Hafenstein, Susan L; Parrish, Colin R

2010-03-03

109

Phytophthora viruses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

2013-01-01

110

Structure and assembly of hemagglutinin mutants of fowl plague virus with impaired surface transport.  

PubMed Central

Five temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1), ts206, ts293, ts478, ts482, and ts651, displaying correct hemagglutinin (HA) insertion into the apical plasma membrane of MDCK cells at the permissive temperature but defective transport to the cell surface at the restrictive temperature, have been investigated. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA gene of the mutants and their revertants demonstrated that with each mutant a single amino acid change is responsible for the transport block. The amino acid substitutions were compared with those of mutants ts1 and ts227, which have been analyzed previously (W. Schuy, C. Will, K. Kuroda, C. Scholtissek, W. Garten, and H.-D. Klenk, EMBO J. 5:2831-2836, 1986). With the exception of ts206, the changed amino acids of all mutants and revertants accumulate in three distinct areas of the three-dimensional HA model: (i) at the tip of the 80-A (8-nm)-long alpha helix, (ii) at the connection between the globular region and stem, and (iii) in the basal domain of the stem. The concept that these areas are critical for HA assembly and hence for transport is supported by the finding that the mutants that are unable to leave the endoplasmic reticulum at the nonpermissive temperature do not correctly trimerize. Upon analysis by density gradient centrifugation, cross-linking, and digestion with trypsin and endoglucosaminidase H, two groups can be discriminated among these mutants: with ts1, ts227, and ts478, the HA forms large irreversible aggregates, whereas with ts206 and ts293, it is retained in the monomeric form in the endoplasmic reticulum. With a third group, comprising mutants ts482 and ts651 that enter the Golgi apparatus, trimerization was not impaired. Images

Garten, W; Will, C; Buckard, K; Kuroda, K; Ortmann, D; Munk, K; Scholtissek, C; Schnittler, H; Drenckhahn, D; Klenk, H D

1992-01-01

111

Ganjam virus.  

PubMed

Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent. PMID:20090098

Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

2009-11-01

112

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

113

Parainfluenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus.

Henrickson, Kelly J.

2003-01-01

114

Camelpox virus.  

PubMed

Camelpox virus (CMLV) causes a smallpox-like illness in a unique host, the camel. The disease is enzootic in almost all regions where camel husbandry is practiced, and is responsible for severe economic losses. Although it is genetically the closest known virus to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, CMLV remains poorly studied. It is characterized by a narrow host range, the capacity to induce giant cells in culture and to counteract host immune defenses; however, the genetic bases associated with these features are not understood. Also, it still needs to be demonstrated whether CMLV strains of variable virulence circulate and how arthropod vectors might be involved in virus transmission. Current evidence indicates that, under certain circumstances, CMLV can be mildly pathogenic in humans. A reservoir host other than camels is unlikely to exist. We review here current knowledge of CMLV, including clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. We also discuss prevention and therapy by use of vaccines and antiviral treatments, as well as the possibility of camelpox eradication. PMID:21945248

Duraffour, Sophie; Meyer, Hermann; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert

2011-09-16

115

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;

2007-01-09

116

Attenuated Influenza A Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...

P. Palese T. Muster B. R. Murphy M. Enami M. Bergmann

1992-01-01

117

Plant virus treatment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

It has been found that plant viruses and viroids can be inhibited by treating plants infected with or exposed to viruses or viroids with a virus-inhibiting amount of a maleic acid, maleic anhydride or fumaric acid copolymer.

1976-12-07

118

Preventing West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... carriers of the virus by feeding on infected birds. Although other animals have been infected with the virusincluding horses, bats, squirrels, and domestic animalsbirds are the most common reservoir. Once the virus ...

119

Constructing computer virus phylogenies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using ...

L. A. Goldberg P. W. Goldberg C. A. Phillips G. B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

120

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

121

Viruses in cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed. PMID:23143950

Alemany, R

2012-11-10

122

West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was previously classified as a group B\\u000a arbovirus. These disease-causing pathogens are spread to humans by insects, usually mosquitoes. Other flaviviruses include\\u000a the Yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (see sections on\\u000a flaviviruses in Chapters 19 and 23). The

Vassil St. Georgiev

123

The Family of Influenza Viruses and of Pneumotropic Animal Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Influenza viruses and pneumotropic animal viruses are characterized. The morphology, pathology and immunology of these viruses are discussed. A classification of species and types is given for the pneumotropic animal viruses. The epidemiology and mode of ...

V. M. Zhadanov

1969-01-01

124

Ferric-pyoverdine recognition by Fpv outer-membrane proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In ad...

125

Viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes. PMID:16163346

Suttle, Curtis A

2005-09-15

126

Viruses in the sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes.

Suttle, Curtis A.

2005-09-01

127

Chimeric Dengue Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates, in general, to chimeric dengue viruses. In particular, the invention relates to chimeric dengue viruses and vaccines comprising same. Further, the invention relates to segments of dengue viral DNA.

C. J. Lai M. Bray

1991-01-01

128

Advances in virus research  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

129

Human B Lymphotropic Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related generally to the isolation and characterization of a new virus. More particularly, it is related to providing a biologically pure, isolated human B lymphotropic virus, molecular clones, nucleic acid, distinctive antigenic proteins...

S. Salahuddin

1988-01-01

130

Viruses and human cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

1987-01-01

131

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

132

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0002-11-30

133

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in ...

134

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be ...

135

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the ... picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ...

136

An Undetectable Computer Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses [1]. This brief paper adds to the bad news, by pointing out that there are computer viruses which no algorithm can detect, even under a somewhat more liberal definition of detection.

David M. Chess; Steve R. White

2000-01-01

137

The evolution and control of parvovirus host ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host ranges of parvoviruses are complex, and depend on both the strain of virus and on the cell or animal being inoculated. Viruses similar to feline panleukopenia virus infect cats and cat cells in tissue culture, as well as a variety of other host animals and their cultured cells. Canine isolates infect dogs and cultured canine cells, but replication in

Uwe Truyen

1995-01-01

138

Dose Separation Does Not Overcome the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Fosamprenavir and Lopinavir\\/Ritonavir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations have shown a significant negative two-way drug interaction between fosamprenavir (FPV) and lopinavir\\/ritonavir (LPV\\/RTV) in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and seronegative volunteers. This randomized, nonblinded, three-way crossover study of HIV-seronegative adult volunteers investigated dose separation and increased doses of RTV as a means to overcome the interaction between FPV and LPV\\/RTV. Eleven HIV-seronegative volunteers were given

Amanda H. Corbett; Kristine B. Patterson; Hsiao-Chuan Tien; Leslie A. Kalvass; Joseph J. Eron; Linh T. Ngo; Michael L. Lim; Angela D. M. Kashuba

2006-01-01

139

[Viruses as biological weapons].  

PubMed

The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499

Akali, Alper

2005-07-01

140

Overview of Musa virus diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bananas and other Musa spp. are affected by fi ve known, relatively well-characterized viruses: these are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) genus Nanavirus; Banana streak virus (BSV) genus Badnavirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genus Cucumovi- rus, Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) genus Potyvirus, and Abaca mosaic virus (AbaMV) genus Potyvirus. Recently, new fi lamentous virus particles have been noted in

G. Pietersen; J. E. Thomas

141

Lipids of Archaeal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.

Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

142

Elastic Properties of Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected.

Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.

2007-01-01

143

The Acute bee paralysis virusKashmir bee virusIsraeli acute paralysis virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced

Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge

2010-01-01

144

Viruses in Antarctic lakes.  

PubMed

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:11543124

Kepner, R L; Wharton, R A; Suttle, C A

1998-11-01

145

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

146

Recombinant vaccinia viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies of recombinant gene expression have greatly enhanced the structural and functional analyses of genetic elements\\u000a and proteins. Vaccinia virus, a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypic and best characterized member of the poxvirus\\u000a family, has been an instrumental tool among these technologies and the recombinant vaccinia virus system has been widely employed\\u000a to express genes from eukaryotic,

Christopher C. Broder; Patricia L. Earl

1999-01-01

147

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains lecture notes on the origins and evolution of viruses. The primary topics covered are the diversity of extant viruses, the probability of multiple origins, and host-virus co-evolution. There are links to definitions and further explanations by the author, as well as to articles or discussions in Scientific American, MicrobiologyBytes, and Viroblogy. This page originates from an undergraduate course, but most information would be accessible to high school students.

Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.

148

Viruses in artichoke.  

PubMed

Most of the 25 viruses found in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were recorded from Europe and the Mediterranean basin, where they decrease both the productivity and the quality of the crop. Although, sometimes, these viruses are agents of diseases of different severity, most often their infections are symptomless. These conditions have contributed to spread virus-infected material since farmers multiply traditional artichoke types vegetatively with no effective selection of virus-free plants. This review reports the main properties of these viruses and the techniques used for their detection and identification. ELISA kits are commercially available for most of the viruses addressed in this review but have seldom been used for their detection in artichoke. Conversely, nucleic acid-based diagnostic reagents, some of which are commercially available, have successfully been employed to identify some viruses in artichoke sap. Control measures mainly use virus-free stocks for new plantations. A combined procedure of meristem-tip culture and thermotherapy proved useful for producing virus-free regenerants of the reflowering southern Italian cultivar Brindisino, which kept earliness and typical heads shape. PMID:22682171

Gallitelli, Donato; Mascia, Tiziana; Martelli, Giovanni P

2012-01-01

149

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2008-06-26

150

Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

151

Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

152

Computer Virus Propagation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of reliable models of computer virus propa- gation would prove useful in a number of ways, in order both to predict future threats, and to develop new containment measures. In this pa- per, we review the most popular models of virus propagation, analyzing the underlying assumptions of each of them, their strengths and their weaknesses. We also introduce

Giuseppe Serazzi; Stefano Zanero

2003-01-01

153

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

154

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

155

Deformed wing virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully

Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch

2010-01-01

156

What is a Virus?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".

Rybicki, Ed

2010-03-23

157

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

158

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location.

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

159

Virus persistence in groundwater.  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States are due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. An estimated 65% of the cases in these outbreaks are caused by enteric viruses. Little, however, is known about the persistence of viruses in groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several physical and chemical characteristics, including pH, nitrates, turbidity, and hardness, were determined for each sample. Separate water samples were inoculated with each of three viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage) and incubated at the in situ groundwater temperature; selected samples were also incubated at other temperatures. Assays were performed at predetermined intervals over a 30-day period to determine the number of infective viruses remaining. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature was the only variable significantly correlated with the decay rates of all three viruses. No significant differences were found among the decay rates of the three viruses, an indication that MS-2 coliphage might be used as a model of animal virus survival in groundwater.

Yates, M V; Gerba, C P; Kelley, L M

1985-01-01

160

Emergence and recent evolution of canine parvovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the current knowledge about the emergence of canine parvovirus from an ancestor virus similar to feline panleukopenia virus most likely from a wild carnivore host. The recent evolution of CPV, namely the emergence of new antigenic types, their biological properties and global distribution are also discussed.

U Truyen

1999-01-01

161

Giant Viruses: Conflicts in Revisiting the Virus Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the phage group (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to

Patrick Forterre

2010-01-01

162

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus.

Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

163

Cytosolic sensing of viruses.  

PubMed

Cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow them to rapidly detect and respond to viruses. These defense mechanisms rely partly on receptors that monitor the cytosol for the presence of atypical nucleic acids associated with virus infection. RIG-I-like receptors detect RNA molecules that are absent from the uninfected host. DNA receptors alert the cell to the abnormal presence of that nucleic acid in the cytosol. Signaling by RNA and DNA receptors results in the induction of restriction factors that prevent virus replication and establish cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. In light of these formidable obstacles, viruses have evolved mechanisms of evasion, masking nucleic acid structures recognized by the host, sequestering themselves away from the cytosol or targeting host sensors, and signaling adaptors for deactivation or degradation. Here, we detail recent advances in the molecular understanding of cytosolic nucleic acid detection and its evasion by viruses. PMID:23706667

Goubau, Delphine; Deddouche, Safia; Reis E Sousa, Caetano

2013-05-23

164

Virus discovery and recent insights into virus diversity in arthropods.  

PubMed

Recent studies on virus discovery have focused mainly on mammalian and avian viruses. Arbovirology with its long tradition of ecologically oriented investigation is now catching up, with important novel insights into the diversity of arthropod-associated viruses. Recent discoveries include taxonomically outlying viruses within the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, and even novel virus families within the order Nidovirales. However, the current focusing of studies on blood-feeding arthropods has restricted the range of arthropod hosts analyzed for viruses so far. Future investigations should include species from other arthropod taxa than Ixodita, Culicidae and Phlebotominae in order to shed light on the true diversity of arthropod viruses. PMID:23850098

Junglen, Sandra; Drosten, Christian

2013-07-11

165

Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original

Liu, Dennis

2007-01-01

166

Hepatitis B Virus in Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

What is hepatitis B virus? Hepatitis B virus is one of a number of hepatitis viruses that attack and damage the liver. Other types include hepatitis A, ... upper-right side of your abdomen. How is hepatitis B transmitted? Hepatitis B virus is passed from ...

167

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by sharing (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups will already be tainted with the virus (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups will be tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students will then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

168

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...this paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2009-01-01

169

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...this paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2010-01-01

170

The dengue viruses.  

PubMed Central

Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images

Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

1990-01-01

171

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

172

Influenza Virus Vaccine Actions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Approval of new bulk manufacturing facility for production of Influenza Virus Vaccine. -. Key Resources. ... Key Links. Flu.gov. -. Contact FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/vaccinesafety

173

Rubella Virus Vaccine Live  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. -. Product. MERUVAX II Merck & Co, Inc. -. Contact FDA. (800) 835-4709. (301) 827-1800. ocod ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

174

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

175

What's West Nile Virus?  

MedlinePLUS

... Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > ... are most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of West ...

176

Selective Precipitation of Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides new methods for purifying and concentrating viruses. The inventors have discovered that high molecular weight proteoglycans present in retroviral stocks are co-concentrated with the retroviruses, and can inhibit retroviral transduct...

J. M. LeDoux M. L. Yarmush J. R. Morgan

2005-01-01

177

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... often spreads very rapidly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

178

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

179

West nile virus encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) is a small RNA virus. It was first isolated in the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile district\\u000a of Uganda in 1937. Although WNV has caused human disease in Africa and Europe since its identification, the first documented\\u000a human infections occurred in the United States in 1999. Wild birds are the reservoir for

James L. Dean; Brandon J. Palermo

2005-01-01

180

Bacterial Indicators of Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between human enteric viruses and disease is well established. However, determining the presence of all of\\u000a the many types of viruses that are pathogenic to humans in food and water is not practical at this time. Because enteric bacteria\\u000a are usual inhabitants of the human intestinal tract, they have been used as indicators of fecal pollution and the

Samuel R. Farrah

181

Oncogenic Viruses of Nonhuman Primates: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oncogenic viruses of nonhuman primates were reviewed. Viruses of nonhuman primate origin oncogenic in other nonhuman primates includes Herpesvirus saimiri and ateles, simian sarcoma virus, Yaba poxvirus, and oral papilloma virus. SV-40 and simian adenovir...

C. P. Raflo

1975-01-01

182

Clarifying Bunyamwera virus riddles of the past.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing data and phylogenetic analysis for the full genome of Ilesha virus, Ngari virus and Calovo virus are described clarifying their much discussed relationship within the species Bunyamwera virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the Bunyaviridae. PMID:23686694

Dilcher, Meik; Sall, Amadou A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

2013-05-18

183

Molecular detection of respiratory viruses.  

PubMed

Over the past several years a wide variety of molecular assays for the detection of respiratory viruses has reached the market. The tests described herein range from kits containing primers and probes detecting specific groups of viruses, to self-contained systems requiring specialized instruments that extract nucleic acids and perform the polymerase chain reaction with little operator input. Some of the tests target just the viruses involved in large yearly epidemics such as influenza, or specific groups of viruses such as the adenoviruses or parainfluenza viruses; others can detect most of the known respiratory viruses and some bacterial agents. PMID:23931834

Buller, Richard S

2013-09-01

184

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

185

Bovine Leukemia Virus: An Exogenous RNA Oncogenic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term cultures of bovine leukemic lymphocytes release virus particles with biochemical properties of RNA oncogenic viruses. These particles, tentatively called bovine leukemia virus (BLV), have a high molecular weight RNA-reverse transcriptase complex and a density of 1.155 g\\/ml in sucrose solutions. Molecular hybridizations between BLV [3H]cDNA and several viral RNAs show that BLV is not related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus,

R. Kettmann; D. Portetelle; M. Mammerickx; Y. Cleuter; D. Dekegel; M. Galoux; J. Ghysdael; A. Burny; H. Chantrenne

1976-01-01

186

Maternal recognition of foetal infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV)the bovine pestivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pestiviruses are the veterinary viruses with genome homology to human hepatitis C virus (HCV). This group includes classical swine fever virus (CSFV), border disease virus of sheep (BDV) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). There are some similarities in the pathology of all three virus infections; in utero transmission to the foetus can cause early embryonic losses, severe congenital

J Brownlie; L. B Hooper; I Thompson; M. E Collins

1998-01-01

187

Pseudotypes of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus with the Coat of Murine Leukaemia and of Avian Myeloblastosis Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) grown in mouse embryo cells pre-infected with murine sarcoma virus or in chicken cells pre-infected with avian myeloblastosis virus contains, in contrast to virus grown in corresponding control cells, a proportion of virus resistant to antiserum against VSV. Infectivity of this virus fraction can specifically be neutralized with antiserum against murine leukaemia virus (MLV) and

J. Zavada

1972-01-01

188

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

189

Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizic acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus

Raffaello Pompei; Ornella Flore; Maria Antonietta Marccialis; Alessandra Pani; Bernardo Loddo

1979-01-01

190

Emerging issues in virus taxonomy.  

PubMed

Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. PMID:15078590

van Regenmortel, Marc H V; Mahy, Brian W J

2004-01-01

191

Studies Relating to Virus Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fifty years' effort to control virus infections in the USSR; Thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; Relationship between the effect of ionizing radiation on the course of virus infections and th...

O. V. Baroyan E. N. Levkovich A. G. Moroz

1968-01-01

192

Replication of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gene expression in the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was studied by three different approaches. Virus-specific RNA in infected cells was radiolabeled in the presence of actinomycin D, and analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation and agaro...

C. D. Blair

1981-01-01

193

Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus, the most common cause of bronchiolitis, is the leading cause of infant hospitalization in developed countries and accounts for substantial mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Children at increased risk of developing severe bronchiolitis are those <6 weeks of age, those born prematurely and those with an underlying cardiopulmonary disorder or immunodeficiency. Approximately 80% of cases occur in the first year of life. By two years of age, virtually all children have been infected by at least one strain of the virus. Classically, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis manifests as cough, wheezing and respiratory distress. The mainstay of treatment is supportive care, consisting of adequate fluid intake, antipyretics to control fever and use of supplemental oxygen if necessary. Frequent and meticulous hand-washing is the best measure to prevent secondary spread. Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis beyond supportive care should be individualized. Palivizumab has been shown to be effective in preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in high-risk children when given prophylactically. In the majority of cases, the disease is usually self-limited. The mortality rate is <1% and occurs predominantly in children at high risk for severe disease.

Leung, Alexander K. C.; Kellner, James D.; Davies, H. Dele

2005-01-01

194

Diagnosis of influenza virus.  

PubMed

The laboratory diagnosis of influenza uses a wide range of techniques including rapid immunoassays, immunofluorescence techniques, virus culture methods, and increasingly sophisticated molecular assays. The potential utility of each of these methods has changed over the years, most dramatically perhaps with the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. While rapid immunoassays had previously been widely used in clinics and emergency departments, their poor detection sensitivity for the 2009 subtype brought their application into question. Concerns were also raised about the detection sensitivities of antibody reagents used in immunofluorescence methods, and the safety of virus culture was initially questioned with regard to the newly emerged subtype. Early molecular detection techniques had been labor intensive, and required separate facilities in order to prevent contamination. Those techniques have largely been supplanted by more modern methods, most notably real-time reverse transcription PCR assays, which are currently the method of choice in many laboratories for the detection and subtyping of influenza viruses. Suspension and low-density array assays are also increasingly used, in an effort to detect larger numbers of viruses in a single assay, and microarrays have proven valuable for outbreak analysis and pathogen discovery. Each laboratory must assess the optimal methods for its situation and the best application of each technique, taking into account numerous factors including its budget, equipment, staff expertise, the patient population that it serves, the needs of its submitting clinicians, and its surveillance and public health responsibilities. PMID:22528153

George, Kirsten St

2012-01-01

195

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection.  

PubMed

Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567

Chen, Xiaoying; Anstey, Alex V; Bugert, Joachim J

2013-08-21

196

Infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262

Rimstad, Espen; Mjaaland, Siri

2002-04-01

197

Dissecting virus entry via endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous virus families utilize endocytosis to infect host cells, mediating virus internalization as well as trafficking to the site of replication. Recent research has demonstrated that viruses employ the full endocytic capabilities of the cell. The endocytic pathways utilized include clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae, macropinocytosis and novel non-clathrin, non-caveolae pathways. The tools to study endocytosis and, consequently, virus entry are becoming

Sara B. Sieczkarski; Gary R. Whittaker

2002-01-01

198

Virus load and antigenic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse mathematical models for the interaction between virus replication and immune responses. We show\\u000a that the immune system can provide selection pressure for or against viral diversity. The paper provides new insights into\\u000a the relationship between virus load (=the abundance of virus in an infected individual) and antigenic diversity. Antigenic\\u000a variation can increase virus load during

Barbara Bittner; Sebastian Bonhoeffer; Martin A. Nowak

1997-01-01

199

Measles Virus for Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional\\u000a so-called spontaneous tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express\\u000a SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains\\u000a of measles virus have adapted to use CD46,

S. J. Russell; K. W. Peng

200

INFLUENCE OF B-HAPLOTYPE ON THE EFFICACY OF RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VACCINE PROTECTION AGAINST MAREK'S DISEASE IN CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) containing glycoprotein gB genes from three serotypes of Marek's disease virus (MDV) was used to study the influence of B-haplotype on vaccine responses in chickens. Sequence analysis of the gB gene from three serotypes showed 80% homology. Chickens were vaccinated ...

201

Re-emerging fowlpox: Evaluation of isolates from vaccinated flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines of fowlpox or pigeonpox virus origin have been routinely used for more than half a century to prevent fowlpox in commercial poultry in areas where the disease is endemic. However, in recent years, outbreaks of fowlpox have occurred in previously vaccinated flocks. One possible explanation for this problem is the emergence of variant strains of fowlpox virus (FPV). A

P. Singh; T.-J. Kim; D. N. Tripathy

2000-01-01

202

Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect a broad range of feline calicivirus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay with SYBR Green targeting the VP2 (ORF 3) of feline caliciviruses. All of the 44 feline calicivirus isolates tested were detected, whereas neither feline herpesvirus, feline panleukopenia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus nor other calicivirus like rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and a canine calicivirus isolate

Sonja Wilhelm; Uwe Truyen

2006-01-01

203

Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus, closely related to Hendra virus emerged in northern part of Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. The virus caused an outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis in humans with a high mortality rate, whereas, in pigs, encephalitis and respiratory diseases but with a relatively low mortality rate. The outbreak subsequently spread to various regions of the country and

Kaw Bing Chua

2003-01-01

204

Virus Evolution and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intuitive that the field of virology is a discipline integral to the medical sciences. The affiliation of virology with population and conservation biology may not be as apparent. However, viruses, and in particular, virus evolution, may both contribute to and be a significant tool to understand changes in host population structure. The impact of viruses is most notable

Mary Poss; Roman Biek; Allen Rodrigo

205

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

206

Soy isoflavones and virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. Genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA viruses. At concentrations ranging from

Aline Andres; Sharon M. Donovan; Mark S. Kuhlenschmidt

2009-01-01

207

Raspberry latent virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...

208

Epidemiological Studies of Amapari Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new virus, named Amapari virus, was isolated from forest rodents and their mites caught in Amapa, Brazil. Through August 1970, more than 350 isolations of MAPARI VIRUS HAVE BEEN MADE, FROM 204/1896 RODENTS OF ONLY 2 SPECIES I.E., Oryzomys capito goeldii...

1970-01-01

209

The taxonomy of vertebrate viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses that infect vertebrates (i.e. humans and higher animals) exhibit great diversity. They also create a variety of diseases that arise from interaction with their vertebrate hosts. This review presents the diversity of the biological and molecular properties of vertebrate viruses that aid their transmission and survival using the currently accepted taxonomic system. The Universal System of Virus Taxonomy has

Craig R. Pringle

2006-01-01

210

Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and

Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graa Raposo; Mark Marsh

2004-01-01

211

Virus infection improves drought tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. Plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. However, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. Various plant species were inoculated with four different

Ping Xu; Fang Chen; Jonathan P. Mannas; Tracy Feldman; Lloyd W. Sumner; Marilyn J. Roossinck

2008-01-01

212

Deformed wing virus.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976

de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

2009-11-11

213

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses.  

PubMed

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment. PMID:15109783

Weinbauer, Markus G

2004-05-01

214

Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing.

de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

2009-01-01

215

Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in

D. Fargette; A. Pinel; M. Rakotomalala; E. Sangu; O. Traore ; D. Sereme ; F. Sorho; S. Issaka; E. Hebrard; Y. Sere; Z. Kanyeka; G. Konate

2008-01-01

216

Human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying components of the syndrome of human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy (HIVN) have been described, the most pertinent including proteinuria\\/nephrotic syndrome, progressive azotemia, normal blood pressure, enlarged and hyperechoic kidneys, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and no response to treatment regimens. The diagnosis of HIVN requires identification of excessive proteinuria or albuminuria, determined by a total protein excretion on

Jose Strauss; Gaston Zilleruelo; Carolyn Abitbol; Brenda Montane; Victoriano Pardo

1993-01-01

217

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

218

Wineberry latent virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wineberry latent virus (WLV) was discovered in a single symptomless plant of wineberry, Rubus phoenicolasius, which was growing in an experimental planting in Scotland. The plant originated in the United States, where wineberry is established in the wild in the Northeast. Experimentally, WLV can be ...

219

Yaba Virus Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salient features of the Yaba tumor are that a DNA virus, probably a member of the pox group, produces characteristic subcutaneous growths on the face and distal portions of the limbs in some, but not all, species of nonhuman primates and in man. Tumor...

E. E. McConnell

1969-01-01

220

Blueberry shock virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry shock disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, shock affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...

221

Viruses and autophagy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle.

Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth

2010-01-01

222

Algal Virus: Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater blue-green algae of the genera Lyngbya, Plectonema, and Phormidium are susceptible to a virus recently isolated from a waste-stabilization pond. Electron micrographs of a partially purified preparation show that the viral particle has an icosahedral structure about 66 mmu in diameter.

Robert S. Safferman; Mary-Ellen Morris

1963-01-01

223

VIRUS PERSISTENCE IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...

224

Evolution of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISA virus).  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus, ISA virus (genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae), emerged in Norwegian salmon culture in the mid-80s. The genome consists of eight segments coding for at least 10 proteins. ISA viruses show many of similarities to influenza A viruses but differ in many important aspects such as the number of hosts, the host population structure and the route of transmission. The only known hosts and reservoirs for ISA viruses are salmonids found in countries surrounding the North Atlantic. In this study, four different segments of the genome of about 100 ISA viruses have been sequenced in an attempt to understand the evolution of ISA viruses and how these viruses are maintained in and transmitted between populations of farmed Atlantic salmon. The four gene segments code for the nucleoprotein (NP), the putative acid polymerase (PA), the fusion protein (F) and the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE). Analysis of these four genes showed that the substitution rates of the internal proteins (NP and PA) are lower than those of the two surface proteins (F and HE). All four segments are evolving at a lower rate than similar genes in influenza A viruses. The ISA virus populations consist of avirulent viruses and pathogenic strains with variable virulence in Atlantic salmon. Recombination resulting in inserts close to the proteolytic-cleavage site of the precursor F0 protein and deletions in the stalk region of the HE protein seem to be responsible for the transition from avirulent ISA viruses to pathogenic strains. It is also shown that reassortment is a frequent event among the dominating ISA viruses in farmed Atlantic salmon. The pattern that is obtained after phylogenetic analysis of the four gene segments from ISA viruses suggests that the variation is limited to a few distinct clades and that no major changes have occurred in the ISA virus population in Norway since the first viruses were isolated. Calculation of the time of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) suggests that the Norwegian ISA viruses separated from the European subtype found in North America between 1932 and 1959. The TMRCA data also suggest that the ISA viruses in Chile were transmitted from Norway in the period from 1995 to 2007, depending on which of the four genes were used in the analysis. PMID:22886279

Plarre, Heidrun; Nylund, Are; Karlsen, Marius; Brevik, yvind; Sther, Per Anton; Vike, Siri

2012-08-12

225

Parvovirus host range, cell tropism and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few years have seen major advances in our understanding of the controls of evolution, host range and cell tropism of parvoviruses. Notable findings have included the identification of the transferrin receptor TfR as the cell surface receptor for canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus, and also the finding that specific binding to the canine TfR led to the

Karsten Hueffer; Colin R Parrish

2003-01-01

226

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

227

Infectious Enveloped RNA Virus Antigenic Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random insertion mutagenesis has been used to construct infectious Sindbis virus structural protein chimeras containing a neutralization epitope from a heterologous virus, Rift Valley fever virus. Insertion sites, permissive for recovery of chimeric viruses with growth properties similar to the parental virus, were found in the virion E2 glycoprotein and the secreted E3 glycoprotein. For the E2 chimeras, the epitope

Steven D. London; Alan L. Schmaljohn; Joel M. Dalrymple; Charles M. Rice

1992-01-01

228

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphale Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

229

Hepatitis C Virus and other Flaviviridae Viruses Enter Cells via Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor

Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang

1999-01-01

230

Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.  

PubMed

Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882

Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A; McLean, Jeffrey S; Lasken, Roger S; Williamson, Shannon J

2011-03-23

231

Virus entry mediated by hepatitis B virus envelope proteins  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of human liver disease worldwide, encodes three envelope proteins needed for the attachment and entry of the virus into susceptible host cells. A second virus, hepatitis delta virus, which is known to enhance liver disease in HBV infected patients, diverts the same HBV envelope proteins to achieve its own assembly and infection. In the lab, lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can be assembled using the HBV envelope proteins, and will similarly infect susceptible cells. This article provides a partial review and some personal reflections of how these three viruses infect and of how recipient cells become susceptible, along with some consideration of questions that remain to be answered.

Taylor, John M

2013-01-01

232

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposis sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

233

Genetic Screen of a Library of Chimeric Poxviruses Identifies an Ankyrin Repeat Protein Involved in Resistance to the Avian Type I Interferon Response  

PubMed Central

Viruses must be able to resist host innate responses, especially the type I interferon (IFN) response. They do so by preventing the induction or activity of IFN and/or by resisting the antiviral effectors that it induces. Poxviruses are no exception, with many mechanisms identified whereby mammalian poxviruses, notably, vaccinia virus (VACV), but also cowpox and myxoma viruses, are able to evade host IFN responses. Similar mechanisms have not been described for avian poxviruses (avipoxviruses). Restricted for permissive replication to avian hosts, they have received less attention; moreover, the avian host responses are less well characterized. We show that the prototypic avipoxvirus, fowlpox virus (FWPV), is highly resistant to the antiviral effects of avian IFN. A gain-of-function genetic screen identified fpv014 to contribute to increased resistance to exogenous recombinant chicken alpha IFN (ChIFN1). fpv014 is a member of the large family of poxvirus (especially avipoxvirus) genes that encode proteins containing N-terminal ankyrin repeats (ANKs) and C-terminal F-box-like motifs. By binding the Skp1/cullin-1 complex, the F box in such proteins appears to target ligands bound by the ANKs for ubiquitination. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting demonstrated that tandem affinity-purified, tagged fpv014 was complexed with chicken cullin-1 and Skp1. Prior infection with an fpv014-knockout mutant of FWPV still blocked transfected poly(IC)-mediated induction of the beta IFN (ChIFN2) promoter as effectively as parental FWPV, but the mutant was more sensitive to exogenous ChIFN1. Therefore, unlike the related protein fpv012, fpv014 does not contribute to the FWPV block to induction of ChIFN2 but does confer resistance to an established antiviral state.

Buttigieg, Karen; Laidlaw, Stephen M.; Ross, Craig; Davies, Marc; Goodbourn, Stephen

2013-01-01

234

Computer viruses: ways of reproduction in MS-DOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods used by computer viruses to reproduce themselves in IBM PC-compatibles operating under MS-DOS are studied. The results can be of use for classification of viruses and the creation of anti-virus tools. Viruses are examined under the following headings: irritating viruses, viruses that damage files, viruses that damage the file system and viruses that injure the hardware

S. I. Shoutkov; A. V. Spesivtsev

1991-01-01

235

Competitive virus assay method for titration of noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (END? and END? viruses).  

PubMed

A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. PMID:23219806

Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio

2012-12-05

236

Making Better Influenza Virus Vaccines?  

PubMed Central

Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of preparing vaccine seed viruses. By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant strains, and require less virus per dose than conventional vaccines. Furthermore, pandemic vaccines against highly virulent strains such as the H5N1 virus can only be generated by reverse genetics techniques. Other technologic breakthroughs should result in effective adjuvants for use with killed and live vaccines, increasing the number of available doses. Finally, universal influenza virus vaccines seem to be within reach. These new strategies will be successful if they are supported by regulatory agencies and if a robust market for influenza virus vaccines against interpandemic and pandemic threats is made and sustained.

2006-01-01

237

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective.

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

238

Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.  

PubMed

Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. PMID:23036091

Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

2012-10-04

239

Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. This article was reviewed by Igor B. Zhulin and Laksminarayan M. Iyer. For the full reviews, see the Reviewers reports section.

2012-01-01

240

Acid Sensitivity of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus hemagglutinin was shown to be acid resistant if precipitates which form during acidification are first removed. Adsorption of virus to precipitates formed during acidification may cause a virus to be described incorrectly as acid sensitive.

Henderson, Marilyn; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

1973-01-01

241

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy This sheet talks about ... advice from your health care provider. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that can ...

242

Advances in virus research. Volume 29  

SciTech Connect

This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses.

Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

1984-01-01

243

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors.

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

244

Virus-encoded superantigens.  

PubMed Central

Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly.

Huber, B T; Hsu, P N; Sutkowski, N

1996-01-01

245

Immunopathogenesis of dengue virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus infection causes dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), whose pathogeneses are not clearly understood. Current hypotheses of antibody-dependent enhancement, virus virulence, and IFN-?\\/TNF?-mediated immunopathogenesis are insufficient to explain clinical manifestations of DHF\\/DSS such as thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration. Dengue virus infection induces transient immune aberrant activation of CD4\\/CD8 ratio inversion and cytokine overproduction,

Huan-Yao Lei; Trai-Ming Yeh; Hsiao-Sheng Liu; Yee-Shin Lin; Shun-Hua Chen; Ching-Chuan Liu

2001-01-01

246

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus

Robert L. Unckless

2011-01-01

247

Epstein-Barr Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus. Infection with EBV is common, worldwide in distribution, and largely\\u000a subclinical in early childhood. EBV has been established as the causative agent of heterophile-positive mononucleosis, which\\u000a occurs most frequently in late adolescence or early adulthood. In addition, seroepidemologic data have suggested that EBV\\u000a also plays an etiological role in African Burkitts lymphoma

Suresh B. Boppana

248

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

249

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

250

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Variola virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variola major virus caused the human disease smallpox; interpretations of the historic record indicate that the initial introduction\\u000a of disease in a nave population had profound effects on its demographics. Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health\\u000a Organization (WHO) in 1980. This chapter reviews epidemiological, clinical and pathophysiological observations of disease,\\u000a and review some of the more recent observations

Inger K. Damon

251

Measles Virus Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus (MV) has two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein, which are responsible for attachment\\u000a and membrane fusion, respectively. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a membrane glycoprotein\\u000a expressed on immune cells, acts as the principal cellular receptor for MV, accounting for its lymphotropism and immunosuppressive\\u000a nature. MV also infects polarized epithelial cells via an

Y. Yanagi; M. Takeda; S. Ohno; T. Hashiguchi

252

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...vaccinates and five controls). Blood samples shall be drawn from...be considered susceptible to bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2010-01-01

253

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...vaccinates and five controls). Blood samples shall be drawn from...be considered susceptible to bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2009-01-01

254

Parvovirus Infections in Wild Carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Various parvoviruses infect carnivores and can cause disease. In this review article the knowledge about infections of free-ranging or captive carnivores with the feline parvoviruses, feline panleukopenia virus, and canine parvovirus, including the antigenic types CPV-2a and -2b, as well as Aleutian disease of mink virus and minute virus of canines are summarized. Particular emphasis is placed on description

Ariane Steinel; Colin R. Parrish; Marshall E. Bloom; Uwe Truyen

255

REVIEW Parvovirus Infections in Wild Carnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various parvoviruses infect carnivores and can cause disease. In this review article the knowledge about infections of free-ranging or captive carnivores with the feline parvoviruses, feline panleukopenia virus, and canine parvovirus, including the antigenic types CPV-2a and -2b, as well as Aleutian disease of mink virus and minute virus of canines are summarized. Particular emphasis is placed on description of

Ariane Steinel; Colin R. Parrish; Marshall E. Bloom; Uwe Truyen

256

Marek's disease virus morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious virus that induces T-lymphoma in chicken. This viral infection still circulates in poultry flocks despite the use of vaccines. With the emergence of new virulent strains in the field over time, MDV remains a serious threat to the poultry industry. More than 40 yr after MDV identification as a herpesvirus, the visualization and purification of fully enveloped infectious particles remain a challenge for biologists. The various strategies used to detect such hidden particles by electron microscopy are reviewed herein. It is now generally accepted that the production of cell-free virions only occurs in the feather follicle epithelium and is associated with viral, cellular, or both molecular determinants expressed in this tissue. This tissue is considered the only source of efficient virus shedding into the environment and therefore the origin of successful transmission in birds. In other avian tissues or permissive cell cultures, MDV replication only leads to a very low number of intracellular enveloped virions. In the absence of detectable extracellular enveloped virions in cell culture, the nature of the transmitted infectious material and its mechanisms of spread from cell to cell remain to be deciphered. An attempt is made to bring together the current knowledge on MDV morphogenesis and spread, and new approaches that could help understand MDV morphogenesis are discussed. PMID:23901745

Denesvre, Caroline

2013-06-01

257

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

258

Nipah Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

In 1998, an outbreak of acute encephalitis with high mortality rates among pig handlers in Malaysia led to the discovery of a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus. A multidisciplinary investigation that included epidemiology, microbiology, molecular biology, and pathology was pivotal in the discovery of this new human infection. Clinical and autopsy findings were derived from a series of 32 fatal human cases of Nipah virus infection. Diagnosis was established in all cases by a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serology. Routine histological stains, IHC, and electron microscopy were used to examine autopsy tissues. The main histopathological findings included a systemic vasculitis with extensive thrombosis and parenchymal necrosis, particularly in the central nervous system. Endothelial cell damage, necrosis, and syncytial giant cell formation were seen in affected vessels. Characteristic viral inclusions were seen by light and electron microscopy. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of Nipah virus antigens in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. Abundant viral antigens were also seen in various parenchymal cells, particularly in neurons. Infection of endothelial cells and neurons as well as vasculitis and thrombosis seem to be critical to the pathogenesis of this new human disease.

Wong, Kum Thong; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Kumar, Shalini; Norain, Karim; Abdullah, Wahidah; Guarner, Jeannette; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Chua, Kaw Bing; Lam, Sai Kit; Tan, Chong Tin; Goh, Khean Jin; Chong, Heng Thay; Jusoh, Rani; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Zaki, Sherif R.

2002-01-01

259

Characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten

Nicola Decaro; Domenico Buonavoglia; Costantina Desario; Francesca Amorisco; Maria Loredana Colaianni; Antonio Parisi; Valentina Terio; Gabriella Elia; Maria Stella Lucente; Alessandra Cavalli; Vito Martella; Canio Buonavoglia

2010-01-01

260

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

261

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

262

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald

2008-01-01

263

Physicochemical Properties of Tipula Iridescent Virus 1  

PubMed Central

The molecular weight of Tipula iridescent virus, based on sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, was 5.51 108, with hydration of 0.57 g of water per g of virus. Deoxyribonucleic acid content, based on total inorganic phosphorus liberated, was 19 0.2%. At 260 m?, the virus gave an uncorrected absorbance of 18.2 cm2/mg of virus and a light-scattering corrected absorbance of 9.8 cm2/mg of virus. Amino acid analyses of the virus protein revealed a remarkable similarity to Sericesthis iridescent virus. The possibility is discussed that the four iridescent insect viruses reported to date bear a strain relationship. Images

Kalmakoff, J.; Tremaine, J. H.

1968-01-01

264

Genome of crocodilepox virus.  

PubMed

Here, we present the genome sequence, with analysis, of a poxvirus infecting Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) (crocodilepox virus; CRV). The genome is 190,054 bp (62% G+C) and predicted to contain 173 genes encoding proteins of 53 to 1,941 amino acids. The central genomic region contains genes conserved and generally colinear with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs). CRV is distinct, as the terminal 33-kbp (left) and 13-kbp (right) genomic regions are largely CRV specific, containing 48 unique genes which lack similarity to other poxvirus genes. Notably, CRV also contains 14 unique genes which disrupt ChPV gene colinearity within the central genomic region, including 7 genes encoding GyrB-like ATPase domains similar to those in cellular type IIA DNA topoisomerases, suggestive of novel ATP-dependent functions. The presence of 10 CRV proteins with similarity to components of cellular multisubunit E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, including 9 proteins containing F-box motifs and F-box-associated regions and a homologue of cellular anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11 (Apc11), suggests that modification of host ubiquitination pathways may be significant for CRV-host cell interaction. CRV encodes a novel complement of proteins potentially involved in DNA replication, including a NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase and a protein with similarity to both vaccinia virus F16L and prokaryotic serine site-specific resolvase-invertases. CRV lacks genes encoding proteins for nucleotide metabolism. CRV shares notable genomic similarities with molluscum contagiosum virus, including genes found only in these two viruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CRV is quite distinct from other ChPVs, representing a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and it lacks recognizable homologues of most ChPV genes involved in virulence and host range, including those involving interferon response, intracellular signaling, and host immune response modulation. These data reveal the unique nature of CRV and suggest mechanisms of virus-reptile host interaction. PMID:16641289

Afonso, C L; Tulman, E R; Delhon, G; Lu, Z; Viljoen, G J; Wallace, D B; Kutish, G F; Rock, D L

2006-05-01

265

Magnetic Fluorescent Composite Nanoparticles for the Fluoroimmunoassays of Newcastle Disease Virus and Avian Virus Arthritis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new detection format for multiplexed analysis based on the use of magnetic fluorescent composite nanoparticles was presented\\u000a in this paper. Two different antigens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigen and Avian virus arthritis virus (AVAV) antigen,\\u000a were conjugated to two kinds of magnetic fluorescent composite nanoparticles of different luminescent colors, while red-emitting\\u000a CdTe QDs were attached to the antibody of

Guannan Wang; Ping Xie; Chengrui Xiao; Pingfan Yuan; Xingguang Su

2010-01-01

266

DETECTION OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS IN LIVE VIRUS VACCINES OF POULTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian oncornavirus that is structurally and antigenically unrelated to the leukosis-sarcoma group of viruses. All REV isolates are antigenically related to each other. However, using monoclonal antibodies, REV isolates can be classed into three different subty...

267

Peptide inhibitors of dengue virus and West Nile virus infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral

Yancey M Hrobowski; Robert F Garry; Scott F Michael

2005-01-01

268

Phylogenetic and histological variation in avipoxviruses isolated in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Thirteen novel avipoxviruses were isolated from birds from different regions of South Africa. These viruses could be divided into six groups, according to gross pathology and pock appearance on chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs). Histopathology revealed distinct differences in epidermal and mesodermal cell proliferation, as well as immune cell infiltration, caused by the different avipoxviruses, even within groups of viruses causing similar CAM gross pathology. In order to determine the genetic relationships among the viruses, several conserved poxvirus genetic regions, corresponding to vaccinia virus (VACV) A3L (fpv167 locus, VACV P4b), G8R (fpv126 locus, VLTF-1), H3L (fpv140 locus, VACV H3L) and A11RA12L (fpv175176 locus) were analysed phylogenetically. The South African avipoxvirus isolates in this study all grouped in clade A, in either subclade A2 or A3 of the genus Avipoxvirus and differ from the commercial fowlpox vaccines (subclade A1) in use in the South African poultry industry. Analysis of different loci resulted in different branching patterns. There was no correlation between gross morphology, histopathology, pock morphology and phylogenetic grouping. There was also no correlation between geographical distribution and virus phenotype or genotype.

Offerman, Kristy; Carulei, Olivia; Gous, Tertius A.; Douglass, Nicola

2013-01-01

269

Phylogenetic and histological variation in avipoxviruses isolated in South Africa.  

PubMed

Thirteen novel avipoxviruses were isolated from birds from different regions of South Africa. These viruses could be divided into six groups, according to gross pathology and pock appearance on chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs). Histopathology revealed distinct differences in epidermal and mesodermal cell proliferation, as well as immune cell infiltration, caused by the different avipoxviruses, even within groups of viruses causing similar CAM gross pathology. In order to determine the genetic relationships among the viruses, several conserved poxvirus genetic regions, corresponding to vaccinia virus (VACV) A3L (fpv167 locus, VACV P4b), G8R (fpv126 locus, VLTF-1), H3L (fpv140 locus, VACV H3L) and A11R-A12L (fpv175-176 locus) were analysed phylogenetically. The South African avipoxvirus isolates in this study all grouped in clade A, in either subclade A2 or A3 of the genus Avipoxvirus and differ from the commercial fowlpox vaccines (subclade A1) in use in the South African poultry industry. Analysis of different loci resulted in different branching patterns. There was no correlation between gross morphology, histopathology, pock morphology and phylogenetic grouping. There was also no correlation between geographical distribution and virus phenotype or genotype. PMID:23860490

Offerman, Kristy; Carulei, Olivia; Gous, Tertius A; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2013-07-16

270

Electron microscopy of viruses and virus-cell interactions.  

PubMed

Electron microscopy is a powerful tool to visualize viruses in diagnostic as well as in research settings for investigating viral structure and virus-cell interactions. Here, a simple but efficient method is described for demonstrating viruses by negative staining, and its limit is discussed. A prerequisite to obtain reliable information on virus-cell interactions is excellent preservation of cellular and viral ultrastructure. The crux is that during fixation and embedding, by applying conventional protocols about 50% of the lipids are lost, which results in loss of integrity of cell membranes. To achieve good preservation of cellular architectures, good contrast, and both high spatial and temporal resolution, methods for freezing, freeze-substitution, and freeze-etching are described and their applicability discussed mostly taking complicated built herpes viruses as examples. PMID:18617049

Wild, Peter

2008-01-01

271

Prevalence and transmission of honeybee viruses.  

PubMed

Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097

Chen, Y P; Pettis, J S; Collins, A; Feldlaufer, M F

2006-01-01

272

INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

273

Antivirals for High Hazard Viruses,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In large areas of the world there exist extremely high hazard viruses for which there are no vaccines for prophylaxis and no effective drugs for therapy. Examples of such viruses are Ebola, Argentine, Bolivian, Crimean-Congo, and Korean hemorrhagic fevers...

P. G. Canonico

1988-01-01

274

Influenza Virus Assembly and Budding  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses.

Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

2011-01-01

275

Preventing zoonotic influenza virus infection.  

PubMed

We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza. PMID:16707061

Ramirez, Alejandro; Capuano, Ana W; Wellman, Debbie A; Lesher, Kelly A; Setterquist, Sharon F; Gray, Gregory C

2006-06-01

276

VIRUS TRANSPORT IN THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of virus transport in the subsurface is highlighted by implications to human health as well as drinking water regulations. The structure of virus particles is defined along with their colloidal physiochemical properties and a discussion of their more prominent sou...

277

Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

278

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

2004-01-01

279

Cassava virus diseases in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava plays a key role in the food security of sub-Saharan Africa, but as a vegetatively propagated crop, it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of virus diseases and these therefore represent a major threat to the livelihoods of millions of Africans. Nine viruses have been isolated from African cassava, but only cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) and Cassava brown streak

J. M. Threshb

280

Cassava virus diseases in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Cassava plays a key role in the food security of sub-Saharan Africa, but as a vegetatively propagated crop, it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of virus diseases and these therefore represent a major,threat to the livelihoods of millions of Africans. Nine viruses have been isolated from African cassava, but only cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) and Cassava brown streak

J. p. Legg; J. m. Thresh

281

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed.

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

282

Genetic Diversity of Toscana Virus  

PubMed Central

Distribution of Toscana virus (TOSV) is evolving with climate change, and pathogenicity may be higher in nonexposed populations outside areas of current prevalence (Mediterranean Basin). To characterize genetic diversity of TOSV, we determined the coding sequences of isolates from Spain and France. TOSV is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g.,Rift Valley fever virus).

Collao, Ximena; Palacios, Gustavo; Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Negredo, Ana I.; Navarro-Mari, Jose-Maria; Grandadam, Marc; Aransay, Ana Maria; Lipkin, W. Ian; Tenorio, Antonio

2009-01-01

283

Evaluation of inflammation and immunity in cats with spontaneous parvovirus infection: consequences of recombinant feline interferon-omega administration.  

PubMed

Administration of recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN) has been proposed for the prophylaxis of canine and feline parvovirosis. In the present study, the influence of the administration of rFeIFN on blood markers of inflammation (alpha-globulins, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein) and immune system activation (gamma-globulins, IgG, IgM, specific anti-feline parvovirus IgG or IgM) was evaluated in a cattery developing an outbreak of feline panleukopenia due to feline parvovirus (FPV) infection few days after initial administration of rFeIFN. Kittens (n=23) were injected with rFeIFN (1MU/kg subcutaneously, once a day for 3 days) and their blood parameters were compared with those of 17 untreated cats. Cats that survived the outbreak were vaccinated and re-sampled 1 month after the last rFeIFN administration. Time of emergence of clinical signs and survival rate were not significantly different between the two groups. Controls and treated cats surviving the infection had high levels of gamma-globulins, total- and anti-FPV specific IgGs, likely due to passive transfer of maternal immunity. Compared to controls, treated kittens had lower levels of alpha(1)-globulins and higher mean values of gamma-globulins and immunoglobulins. Data from samples collected after vaccination revealed a higher level of gamma-globulins, total- and anti-FPV specific IgGs in treated kittens, compared with controls, suggesting that rFeIFN stimulates antibody production. Based on this results, rFeIFN should be administered to the queen, to increase passive maternal immunity, or to kittens before introduction in a potentially contaminated environment. PMID:17521745

Paltrinieri, Saverio; Crippa, Alessia; Comerio, Teodora; Angioletti, Andrea; Roccabianca, Paola

2007-04-19

284

Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. RESULTS: Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)

Qiong Hu; Yanbing Niu; Kai Zhang; Yong Liu; Xueping Zhou

2011-01-01

285

New aspects of influenza viruses.  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands.

Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

1992-01-01

286

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

287

EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed autologous lymphoblasts were repeatedly inoculated into three squirrel monkeys. Each animal developed the heterophile antibodies of infectious mononucleosis and EBV-specific antibodies. After serologic responses had disappeared or markedly declined, the animals were challenged with either whole cells, cell filtrate, or cell ghosts. Animals challenged with living cells and cell ghosts developed agglutinin responses; the recipient of filtrate did not. The results suggest that EBV induces the appearance of the infectious mononucleosis heterophile antigen on the transformed cell membrane.

Shope, Thomas; Miller, George

1973-01-01

288

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus.

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

289

Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 influenza A H1N1 virus caused the worst pandemic of influenza ever recorded. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to the 1918 pandemic virus, we generated recombinant influenza viruses possessing two to five genes of the 1918 influenza virus. Recombinant influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nonstructural (NS), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes or any

Terrence M. Tumpey; Adolfo Garca-Sastre; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; David E. Swayne; Christopher F. Basler

2004-01-01

290

A Seven-Segmented Influenza A Virus Expressing the Influenza C Virus Glycoprotein HEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF

Qinshan Gao; Edward W. A. Brydon; Peter Palese

2008-01-01

291

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

292

STRAWBERRY NECROTIC SHOCK VIRUS: A NEW VIRUS PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT TO BE TOBACCO STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tobacco streak virus (TSV) has a wide host range that exceeds 80 species (Fulton, 1948). Most of the efforts carried out previously comparing TSV isolates was based on immunological relations between them. The isolates of the virus from Fragaria and Rubus have been considered very closely related, ...

293

The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.  

PubMed

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

2009-11-11

294

Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene

Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn

2006-01-01

295

Pheasant Virus: New Class of Ribodeoxyvirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocultivation of cells derived from embryos of golden pheasants or Amherst pheasants with chicken embryo cells infected with Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus resulted in the detection of viruses which appear to be endogenous in these pheasant cells. The pheasant viruses (PV) were similar to avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses (ALSV) in their gross morphology, in the size of their RNA,

T. Hanafusa; H. Hanafusa; C. E. Metroka; W. S. Hayward; C. W. Rettenmier; R. C. Sawyer; R. M. Dougherty; H. S. Distefano

1976-01-01

296

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

297

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

298

Polyoma Virus: Production in Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles of complete polyoma virus are produced in competent Bacillus subtilis incubated with DNA isolated from purified, conventionally grown polyoma virus. The virus grown in B. subtilis is biologically identical to polyoma virus produced by animal cells. Quantitative parameters of the system have been established, and fluctuation tests indicate that viral replication occurs within the infected bacteria.

K. E. Bayreuther; W. R. Romig

1964-01-01

299

Taxonomic Classification of Human Hepatitis B Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sufficient data have accumulated to permit the ICTV Study Group on the Nomenclature of Hepatitis Viruses to recognize human hepatitis B virus as a member of a unique group of viruses and to classify it, together with a number of related animal viruses, into a new family called the Hepadnaviridae. Over the past decade, the International Committee on Taxonomy

Ian D. Gust; Christopher J. Burrell; Anthony G. Coulepis; William S. Robinson; Arie J. Zuckerman

1986-01-01

300

Analysis of Complete Puumala Virus Genome, Finland  

PubMed Central

Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant.

Plyusnina, Angelina; Razzauti, Maria; Sironen, Tarja; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki

2012-01-01

301

Analysis of complete Puumala virus genome, Finland.  

PubMed

Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant. PMID:23171600

Plyusnina, Angelina; Razzauti, Maria; Sironen, Tarja; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander

2012-12-01

302

Interference Between the Vaccinal Virus and the Common Rabies Virus (Interference Entre le Virus Vaccinal et le Virus Rabique des Rues).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interference between the vaccinal virus and the virus of rabies has been demonstrated using the rabbit. The method of inoculation for the vaccinal virus as well as for the rabies virus was the intradermal method and this method allowed the demonstratio...

J. Vieuchange M. A. Chabaud C. Vialat

1969-01-01

303

Detection and molecular characterization of avipoxviruses isolated from different avian species in Egypt.  

PubMed

Six clinical cases of avipoxvirus (APV) infection were investigated and molecular biologically studied. The samples were collected from different domesticated birds reared in the Egyptian backyard management system and were propagated on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolation was confirmed via PCR amplification of fpv167 (P4b) gene locus. All the studied isolates were characterized as Fowlpox-like viruses based on the amplicon length of fpv140 gene locus. The phylogenetic analysis of fpv167 (P4b) gene clustered Elsharqyia_FWPV1, Elsharqyia_FWPV2, Elsharqyia_FWPV3, Elsharqyia_FWPV4, and Elsharqyia_TKPV strains within subclade A1. Furthermore, Elsharqyia_PGPV strain was clustered within subclade A2 (Turkeypox virus) and showed 100% nucleic acid identity with the wood pigeon Indian which was isolated in 2009. On the other hand, when the fpv140 gene was used for the phylogenetic analysis, Elsharqyia_PGPV was clustered within subclade A4 (Pigeonpox virus) with the other PGPVs. This study is considered the first molecular record for APVs circulating in the Egyptian birds. Further studies in a larger scale need to be developed to have a better understanding about the molecular characterization of the Egyptian APV strains. PMID:22996736

Abdallah, Fatma M; Hassanin, Ola

2012-09-21

304

African swine fever virus morphogenesis.  

PubMed

This review summarizes recent structural and molecular biology studies related to the morphogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV possesses icosahedral morphology and is constituted by four concentric layers: the central nucleoid, the core shell, the inner envelope and the icosahedral capsid. The extracellular virus acquires an external envelope by budding through the plasma membrane. The genes coding for 19 of the 54 structural proteins of the ASFV particle are known and the localization within the virion of 18 of these components has been identified. ASFV morphogenesis occurs in specialized areas in the cytoplasm, named viral factories, which are proximal to the microtubule organization center near the nucleus. Investigations of the different steps of morphogenesis by immunocytochemical and electron microscopy techniques, as well as molecular biology and biochemical studies, have shed light on the formation of the different domains of the virus particle, including the recognition of endoplasmic reticulum membranes as the precursors of the virus inner envelope, the progressive formation of the capsid on the convex face of the inner envelope and the simultaneous assembly of the core shell on the concave side of the envelope, with the pivotal contribution of the virus polyproteins and their proteolytic processing by the virus protease for the development of this latter domain. The use of ASFV inducible recombinants as a tool for the study of the individual function of structural and nonstructural proteins has been determinant to understand their role in virus assembly and has provided new insights into the morphogenetic process. PMID:23059353

Salas, Mara L; Andrs, Germn

2012-10-08

305

Viruses and Interactomes in Translation*  

PubMed Central

A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.

Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurene; de Chassey, Benoit; Andre, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

2012-01-01

306

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

307

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2013-01-01

308

Primary Virus-Cell Interactions in the Immunofluorescence Assay of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions under which Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus attached to host cells markedly influenced the assay of virus by the fluorescent cell-counting technique. When virus inoculum was centrifuged onto McCoy cell monolayers, approximat...

N. Hahon K. O. Cooke

1967-01-01

309

Morphology and morphogenesis of Soldado virus (Hughes group); similarities with viruses of the Bunyaviridae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Morphology and morphogenesis of Soldado virus were studied in the brain of infected suckling mice. The results suggest this virus and other viruses of Hughes group may be classified as members of Bunyaviridae family.

C. Chastel; G. Rogues; J.-C. Beaucournu

1979-01-01

310

Why do RNA viruses recombine?  

PubMed Central

Recombination occurs in many RNA viruses and can be of major evolutionary significance. However, rates of recombination vary dramatically among RNA viruses, which can range from clonal to highly recombinogenic. Here, we review the factors that might explain this variation in recombination frequency and show that there is little evidence that recombination is favoured by natural selection to create advantageous genotypes or purge deleterious mutations, as predicted if recombination functions as a form of sexual reproduction. Rather, recombination rates seemingly reflect larger-scale patterns of viral genome organization, such that recombination may be a mechanistic by-product of the evolutionary pressures acting on other aspects of virus biology.

Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.

2012-01-01

311

NEUTRALIZATION OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

A linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the quantity of epidemic influenza virus neutralized and the logarithm of the quantity of antiserum which is capable of achieving this result. This relationship is the same for the serum of a ferret convalescent from experimental influenza as for the serum of a rabbit immunized with the virus. By means of the linear relationship between virus and antiserum it is possible to determine a fixed, rather than a relative, value for the neutralizing capacity of a serum.

Horsfall, Frank L.

1939-01-01

312

Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and AntiVirus Techniques: A Short Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process,

Babak Bashari Rad; Maslin Masrom; Suhaimi Ibrahim

2011-01-01

313

CROP VIRUSES AND VIRUS DISEASES: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses were distinguished as a separate group of plant pathogens in the 1890s, as a consequence of pioneering studies in\\u000a Russia and the Netherlands (Bos, 2000). They have since received much attention from plant pathologists and more recently\\u000a from molecular biologists. Nevertheless, the information available on the distribution, prevalence, and importance of plant\\u000a viruses and the diseases they cause is

J. M. Thresh

314

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and RNA Viruses as Gene Therapy Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of RNA viruses to efficiently reproduce in transformed cells was first recognized nearly 100 yr ago. However,\\u000a it wasnt until the late 1990s that a resurrection of the interest in the ability of certain viruses to preferentially replicate\\u000a in malignant cells and less so in normal cells occurred, the curiosity being to evaluate whether these agents could be

Glen N. Barber

315

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess antihuman immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.

Razonable, Raymund R.

2011-01-01

316

Simultaneous detection of cucumber mosaic virus, tomato mosaic virus and potato virus Y by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The simultaneous detection is described of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) by flow cytometry. Extracts from leaves of healthy and CMV or PVY infected plants were incubated with latex particles, each with a diameter of 3 microm. Extracts from ToMV infected or uninfected plants, however, were incubated with particles, each with a diameter of 6 microm. Beads were washed and incubated in succession with primary and secondary antibodies, the latter labeled with phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein (FITC). CMV and PVY were distinguished on the basis of the fluorescence emitted by FITC and PE; ToMV was distinguished from CMV and PVY on the basis of the different diameter (6 microm) of the particles on which it was adsorbed. The three viruses were detected also by another approach. Latex particles with a diameter of 3, 6 and 10 microm were separately sensitized with antibodies specific for CMV, PVY and ToMV. An equal number of sensitized particles was mixed and incubated with the plant extracts containing the three viruses and then with anti-CMV, anti-PVY and anti-ToMV antibodies labeled with FITC. The study describes also a virus purification method based on the use of antibody coated latex particles. The method is simple technically and applicable to the purification of large as well as minute amounts of different viruses (CMV, PVY and ToMV). PMID:9504759

Iannelli, D; D'Apice, L; Cottone, C; Viscardi, M; Scala, F; Zoina, A; Del Sorbo, G; Spigno, P; Capparelli, R

1997-12-01

317

Toscana Virus in Spain  

PubMed Central

Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture or reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction from a region of the L gene. Nucleotide sequence homology was 99%100% in TOSV from vectors and patients and 80%81% compared to the Italian strain ISS Phl.3. Sequencing of the N gene of TOSV isolates from patients and vectors indicated 87%88% and 100% homology at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, compared to the Italian strain. These findings demonstrate the circulation of at least 2 different lineages of TOSV in the Mediterranean basin, the Italian lineage and the Spanish lineage.

Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Collao, Ximena; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Morillas-Marquez, Francisco; de la Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Navarro-Mari, Jose Maria; Tenorio, Antonio

2005-01-01

318

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

PubMed Central

Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication.

2013-01-01

319

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency.  

PubMed

Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-07-06

320

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

321

Varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization.

Arvin, A M

1996-01-01

322

Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an under-recognized yet treatable cause of stroke. No animal model exists for stroke caused by VZV infection of cerebral arteries. Thus, we analyzed cerebral and temporal arteries from 3 patients with VZV vasculopathy to identify features that will help in diagnosis and lead to a better understanding of VZV-induced vascular remodeling. Methods: Normal and VZV-infected cerebral and temporal arteries were examined histologically and by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against VZV, endothelium, and smooth muscle actin and myosin. Results: All VZV-infected arteries contained 1) a disrupted internal elastic lamina; 2) a hyperplastic intima composed of cells expressing ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-myosin) but not endothelial cells expressing CD31; and 3) decreased medial smooth muscle cells. The location of VZV antigen, degree of neointimal thickening, and disruption of the media were related to the duration of disease. Conclusions: The presence of VZV primarily in the adventitia early in infection and in the media and intima later supports the notion that after reactivation from ganglia, VZV spreads transaxonally to the arterial adventitia followed by transmural spread of virus. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina, progressive intimal thickening with cells expressing ?-SMA and SM-MHC, and decreased smooth muscle cells in the media are characteristic features of VZV vasculopathy. Stroke in VZV vasculopathy may result from changes in arterial caliber and contractility produced in part by abnormal accumulation of smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts in thickened neointima and disruption of the media.

Nagel, M.A.; Traktinskiy, I.; Azarkh, Y.; Kleinschmidt- DeMasters, B.; Hedley-Whyte, T.; Russman, A.; VanEgmond, E.M.; Stenmark, K.; Frid, M.; Mahalingam, R.; Wellish, M.; Choe, A.; Cordery-Cotter, R.; Cohrs, R.J.

2011-01-01

323

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Complete List of Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US. -. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated. -. JE-Vax. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

324

Viruses in Soil and Groundwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human viruses usually gain access to soil systems through intentional or unintentional discharges of domestic wastewater. Intentional land treatment/disposal systems represent an attractive alternative to surface water discharges, providing both economic ...

J. M. Vaughn E. F. Landry

1981-01-01

325

Novel vaccines against influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Killed and live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of influenza epidemics when the strains present in the vaccines are closely matched with the predicted epidemic strains. These vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the variable major target antigen, hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. However, current vaccines are not effective in preventing the emergence of new pandemic or highly virulent viruses. New approaches are being investigated to develop universal influenza virus vaccines as well as to apply more effective vaccine delivery methods. Conserved vaccine targets including the influenza M2 ion channel protein and HA stalk domains are being developed using recombinant technologies to improve the level of cross protection. In addition, recent studies provide evidence that vaccine supplements can provide avenues to further improve current vaccination.

Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Compans, Richard W.

2011-01-01

326

Feasibility Study: Rubella Virus Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The attenuated strain of rubella virus, was serially passed 14 times in AGMK cells and the markers of attenuation were verified. Rubella hemagglutinin and complement fixing antigen were produced in good titers in BHK-21 cells in sufficient quantities for ...

R. G. Brackett

1967-01-01

327

Virus Diseases of Small Fruits,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The illustrated handbook was compiled by international authorities on virus and viruslike diseases of small fruits. Crops covered are in the plant genera Fragaria (strawberry), Vaccinium (blueberry and cranberry), Ribes (currant and gooseberry), and Rubus...

R. H. Converse

1987-01-01

328

MEASLES VIRUS VACCINE LIVE (ATTENUVAX)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Measles is a common childhood disease, caused by measles virus (paramyxovirus), that may be associated with serious complications and/or ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

329

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name bronchiolitis means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

330

Rapid Detection of Enveloped Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the continuing effort to enhance the sensitivity of type A influenza virus detection systems utilizing the monoclonal antibodies to M-protein. Combinations of purified monoclonal antibodies to M-protein used as capture antibodies for...

D. J. Bucher

1986-01-01

331

Russian winter wheat mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chapter contains a description of the Winter wheat (Russian) mosaic disease symptoms, transmission and occurrence. Characteristics of the disease agent, Winter wheat (Russian) mosaic virus are outlined, as are control measures....

332

Viroids and hepatitis delta virus.  

PubMed

There is a subviral world, whose most prominent representatives are viroids. Despite being solely composed by a circular, highly structured RNA of ~250 to 400 nucleotides without protein-coding ability (all viruses code for one or more proteins), viroids can infect and incite specific diseases in higher plants. The RNA of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV), the smallest genome of an animal virus, displays striking similarities with viroids: It is circular, folds into a rodlike secondary structure, and replicates through a rolling-circle mechanism catalyzed by host enzymes and cis-acting ribozymes. However, HDV RNA is larger (~1700 nucleotides), encodes a protein in its antigenomic polarity (the ? antigen), and depends for transmission on hepatitis B virus. The presence of ribozymes in some viroids and in HDV RNA, along with their structural simplicity, makes them candidates for being molecular fossils of the RNA world that presumably preceded our extant world based on DNA and proteins. PMID:22932968

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Serra, Pedro

2012-08-29

333

Arthropod viruses and small RNAs.  

PubMed

The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976

Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C

2013-08-08

334

SEROPREVALENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN FREE-RANGING FLORIDA PANTHERS (FELlS CONCOLOR CORY!)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples obtained from 38 free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi) in southern Florida, March 1978 through February 1991, were tested for antibodies against eight bacterial, parasitic, and viral disease agents. Sera were positive for antibodies against feline pan- leukopenia virus (FPV) (78%), feline calicivirus (56%), feline immunodeficiency virus\\/puma len- tivirus (37%), feline enteric coronavirus\\/feline infectious peritonitis virus (19%), and

Melody E. Roelke; Donald J. Forrester; Elliott R. Jacobson; George V. Kollias; Fred W. Scott; Margaret C. Barr; James F. Evermann; Eugene C. Pirtle

335

Overview of hepatitis E virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted virus usually presenting as an acute self-limiting disease. However,\\u000a mortality increases dramatically from around 1% to 20% in pregnant women. HEV has been the cause of very large outbreaks of\\u000a hepatitis in developing countries and is also responsible for a significant number of sporadic cases. It is clear that cases\\u000a occur outside

Susan Skidmore

2002-01-01

336

Measles virus antigen in panencephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study of 42 cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) or similar panencephalitic processes, measles virus antigen was traced by means of indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) techniques on protease-pretreated histological sections from formol-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain biopsy or autopsy tissue, stored for up to 32 years. Measles virus antigen was detected in 28

H. Budka; H. Lassmann; Th. Popow-Kraupp

1982-01-01

337

Simian virus 40 in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 footprints in humans have been found associated

Fernanda Martini; Alfredo Corallini; Veronica Balatti; Silvia Sabbioni; Cecilia Pancaldi; Mauro Tognon

2007-01-01

338

Plant Viruses Transmitted by Whiteflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the EuropeanMediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to

David R. Jones

2003-01-01

339

Transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by sendai virus (parainfluenza I). II. Mechanism of the interference by inactivated virus.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by betapropiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus was studied. Polyoma virus early functions did not appear to be affected, although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and structural protein synthesis were inhibited 60 and 35% respectively. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis was not sufficient to account for the 90% inhibition of infectious progeny formation. Encapsidation of polyoma DNA into mature virions appears to be completely inhibited after superinfection by beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus preparations abolishes the interfering capacity, indicating that a functional Sendai virus ribonucleic acid molecule is the interfering component. PMID:4345489

Smith, G L; Consigli, R A

1972-12-01

340

Transient Inhibition of Polyoma Virus Synthesis by Sendai Virus (Parainfluenza I) II. Mechanism of the Interference by Inactivated Virus 1  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of the transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by betapropiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus was studied. Polyoma virus early functions did not appear to be affected, although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and structural protein synthesis were inhibited 60 and 35% respectively. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis was not sufficient to account for the 90% inhibition of infectious progeny formation. Encapsidation of polyoma DNA into mature virions appears to be completely inhibited after superinfection by beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus preparations abolishes the interfering capacity, indicating that a functional Sendai virus ribonucleic acid molecule is the interfering component.

Smith, Gary L.; Consigli, Richard A.

1972-01-01

341

Canine Parvovirus: Strain Difference in Haemagglutination Activity and Antigenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Canine parvovirus (CPV) strains were compared for haemagglutination (HA) activity and antigenicity and were divided into two types by HA activity. Strains Cp49 and 29-F showed temperature-dependent HA, like feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV), whereas strains Sp-80 and Y-1 showed temperature- independent HA with erythrocytes from eight species of animals. The results of a cross

MEGUMI SENDA; NORIO HIRAYAMA; OSAMU ITOH; HISASHI YAMAMOTO

1988-01-01

342

Virus detection using nanoelectromechanical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5 ?m6 ?m cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19 g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 310-15 g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107 pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50 attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.

Ilic, B.; Yang, Y.; Craighead, H. G.

2004-09-01

343

Virus-Like Particles, Methods of Preparation, and Immunogenic Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Briefly described, virus-like particles, methods of preparing virus-like particles, immunogenic compositions that include virus-like particles, and methods of liciting an immune response using immunogenic compositions that include virus-like particles are...

C. Yang Q. Yao R. W. Compans S. M. Kang

2003-01-01

344

Polynucleotide Ligase Activity in Cells Infected with Simian Virus 40, Polyoma Virus, or Vaccinia Virus  

PubMed Central

The conversion of simian virus 40 (SV40) component II deoxyribonucleic acid to component I has been used to assay polynucleotide ligase in extracts of tissue culture cells. All cell types examined, including chicken, hamster, mouse, monkey, and human cells, contained adenosine triphosphate-dependent ligase. After infection of mouse embryo, monkey kidney, and HeLa cells with polyoma virus, SV40, and vaccinia virus, respectively, the enzyme activity increased, but its cofactor requirement was unchanged. In vaccinia virus-infected cells, the increased activity was localized in the cytoplasm. Ligase induction occurred in the presence of cytosine arabinoside but was prevented by puromycin. Rifampicin blocked the production of infectious vaccinia particles but had little effect on the induction of ligase.

Sambrook, J.; Shatkin, A. J.

1969-01-01

345

Structure of viruses: a short history.  

PubMed

This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction. Starting in the 1990s, these enveloped viruses were studied by combining cryo-electron microscopy of the whole virus with X-ray crystallography of their protein components. These structures gave information on virus assembly, virus neutralization by antibodies, and virus fusion with and entry into the host cell. The same techniques were also employed in the study of complex bacteriophages that were too large to crystallize. Nevertheless, there still remained many pleomorphic, highly pathogenic viruses that lacked the icosahedral symmetry and homogeneity that had made the earlier structural investigations possible. Currently some of these viruses are starting to be studied by combining X-ray crystallography with cryo-electron tomography. PMID:23889891

Rossmann, Michael G

2013-05-01

346

Serologic evidence of nonfatal rabies exposure in a free-ranging oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) in Cotapata National Park, Bolivia.  

PubMed

A clinically healthy free-ranging oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) was live-trapped in Boliva in 2000. Based on serology, we concluded that this animal was exposed to feline panleukopenia virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and rabies virus. The rabies virus-neutralizing antibody titer (>70 IU/ml) in this oncilla was unusual for an asymptomatic animal exposed to street virus and at a level expected in animals exposed to a large amount of virus, clinically affected, or vaccinated. Based on a subsequent 18 mo of radiotracking, we concluded that the oncilla had a nonfatal exposure to rabies virus. PMID:15650107

Deem, Sharon L; Davis, Rolan; Pacheco, Luis F

2004-10-01

347

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

348

Occurrence of Six Honeybee Viruses in Diseased Austrian Apiaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depop- ulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites

Olga Berenyi; Tamas Bakonyi; Irmgard Derakhshifar; Hemma Koglberger; Norbert Nowotny

2006-01-01

349

Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.

Campbell, Rehmann, L. L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R. W.

1999-01-01

350

Recombinant infectious bursal disease virus carrying hepatitis C virus epitopes.  

PubMed

The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding epitope tags (FLAG, c-Myc, or hepatitis C virus epitopes) were engineered in the open reading frames of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and the capsid protein (VP2). Attempts were also made to generate recombinant IBDV that displayed foreign epitopes in the exposed loops (P(BC) and P(HI)) of the VP2 trimer. We successfully recovered recombinant IBDVs expressing c-Myc and two different virus-neutralizing epitopes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E in the VP5 region. Western blot analyses with anti-c-Myc and anti-HCV antibodies provided positive identification of both the c-Myc and HCV epitopes that were fused to the N terminus of VP5. Genetic analysis showed that the recombinants carrying the c-Myc/HCV epitopes maintained the foreign gene sequences and were stable after several passages in Vero and 293T cells. This is the first report describing efficient expression of foreign peptides from a replication-competent IBDV and demonstrates the potential of this virus as a vector. PMID:21106739

Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Patel, Deendayal; Kovesdi, Imre; Vakharia, Vikram N

2010-11-24

351

Emerging and Re-emerging Swine Viruses.  

PubMed

In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J

2012-01-01

352

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

353

Phylogenetic Properties of RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions.

Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

2012-01-01

354

Adaptive Mutations in Sindbis Virus E2 and Ross River Virus E1 That Allow Efficient Budding of Chimeric Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alphavirus glycoproteins E2 and E1 form a heterodimer that is required for virus assembly. We have studied adaptive mutations in E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) and E1 of Ross River virus (RR) that allow these two glycoproteins to interact more efficiently in a chimeric virus that has SIN E2 but RR E1. These mutations include K129E, K131E, and V237F in

KYONGMIN HWANG KIM; ELLEN G. STRAUSS; JAMES H. STRAUSS

2000-01-01

355

Adeno-associated viruses.  

PubMed

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have evolved over the past decade as a particularly useful gene -vector for in vivo applications. In contrast to oncoretro- and lentiviral vectors, this vector stays essentially episomal after gene transfer, making it safer because of the absence of insertional mutagenesis. AAV's non-pathogenicity is a further advantage. For decades, this vector could only be produced at a small scale for research purposes and, eventually, used at very small doses for clinical studies, because only transfection methods were available, which have limited scalability. However, since the development of scalable production methods, this bottleneck is resolved and, from a technical point of view, large quantities of AAV vectors can be produced, opening the possibility of using AAV vectors for whole body treatments in gene therapy trials. This chapter presents the basic principles of small- and large-scale production procedures as well as detailed procedure of small-scale production, purification, and analytical protocols for AAV vectors. In Chapter 10, the reader will find a large-scale production method based on the use of the insect cell/baculovirus system. PMID:21590399

Mezzina, Mauro; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

2011-01-01

356

Virus-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis Blocked by the Herpes Simplex Virus Latency-Associated Transcript  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT- virus but not with LAT+ viruses. In addition, a plasmid expressing LAT blocked apoptosis in

Guey-Chuen Perng; Clinton Jones; Janice Ciacci-Zanella; Melissa Stone; Gail Henderson; Ada Yukht; Susan M. Slanina; Florence M. Hofman; Homayon Ghiasi; Anthony B. Nesburn; Steven L. Wechsler

2000-01-01

357

Synthesis of Virus-Specific Proteins in Cells Infected with Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of polyacrylamide jells has facilitated the investigation of virus-specific proteins both in the form of virions and in cells infected by the virus. This method has made possible the separation of virus-specific proteins of the polio-virus and the...

F. I. Ershov L. V. Uryvaev V. M. Zhdanov

1971-01-01

358

Mechanisms for enveloped virus budding: Can some viruses do without an ESCRT?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many enveloped viruses complete their replication cycle by forming vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. Some viruses encode late (L) domain motifs that are able to hijack host proteins involved in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway, a cellular budding process that gives rise to multivesicular bodies and that is topologically equivalent to virus budding. Although many enveloped viruses

Benjamin J. Chen; Robert A. Lamb

2008-01-01

359

Protection against respiratory infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus by passively acquired antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Howard, C. J., Clarke, M. C. and Brownlie, J., 1989. Protection against respiratory infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus by passively acquired antibody. Vet. Microbiol., 19: 195-203. Susceptibility to infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was compared for calves with varying amounts of specific antibody in their sera passively acquired from the ingestion of colostrum. Challenge consisted of intranasal

C. J. HOWARD; M. C. CLARKE; J. BROWNLIE

1989-01-01

360

Sendai Virus and Herpes Virus Type 1 Induce Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports suggest that several viruses, besides human immunodeficiency virus, induce apoptosis in infected cells. We report here that Sendai virus or Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), two potent inducers of interferon-?, caused cell death in a consistent number of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A careful analysis of infected cells by different techniques, such as optical and electron

Franco Tropea; Leonarda Troiano; Daniela Monti; Elena Lovato; Walter Malorni; Gabriella Rainaldi; Paolo Mattana; Giuseppe Viscomi; Maria Cristina Ingletti; Marinella Portolani; Claudio Cermelli; Andrea Cossarizza; Claudio Franceschi

1995-01-01

361

Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to Dugbe virus (DUGV), family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. Six isolates of the virus were obtained from pools of Amblyomma gemma and Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks collected from hides of cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, in October 1999. We report results of further characterization of this virus, including growth kinetics in

Mary B. Crabtree; Rosemary Sang; Barry R. Miller

2009-01-01

362

Mouse Neuroinvasive Phenotype of West Nile Virus Strains Varies Depending upon Virus Genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic

David W. C. Beasley; Li Li; Miguel T. Suderman; Alan D. T. Barrett

2002-01-01

363

Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

2009-01-01

364

GENOMIC SEQUENCING OF DEER TICK VIRUS AND PHYLOGENY OF POWASSAN-RELATED VIRUSES OF NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we

G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG

2001-01-01

365

GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus replicates in human haematopoietic cells and vascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel flavivirus, GB virus C (GBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV), has been detected in chronic liver disease patients. It is known that the viral RNA can be detected in C 5% of American blood donors. However, the implications for liver disease and the sites of virus replication remain unknown. Possible sites of virus replication were studied by using cell lines

Atsushi Handa; Kevin E. Brown

366

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

367

Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), that

Chung-Da Yang; Jia-Teh Liao; Chen-Yen Lai; Ming-Hwa Jong; Chi-Ming Liang; Yeou-Liang Lin; Na-Sheng Lin; Yau-Heiu Hsu; Shu-Mei Liang

2007-01-01

368

Realistic Approach to Virus Classification and Nomenclature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by Professor Lwoff's article ``Principles of Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses'' (Nature, 215, 13; 1967), Drs Gibbs and Harrison defend the idea of the cryptogram, and explain its advantage over a binomial system of nomenclature for viruses.

A. J. Gibbs

1968-01-01

369

Predicting "Airborne" Influenza Viruses: (Trans-) mission Impossible?  

PubMed Central

Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year which viruses have the potential to become airborne, and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating airborne transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand and predict influenza pandemics.

Sorrell, E.M.; Schrauwen, E.J.A.; Linster, M.; De Graaf, M.; Herfst, S.; Fouchier, R.A.M.

2011-01-01

370

Recombination and Transmission Studies with Influenza Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission of influenza virus infection in mice can be correlated with demonstrable airborne virus in the vicinity of infector mice during the period of their infectiousness; the critical difference that distinguishes transmissible and non-transmissible...

E. D. Kilbourne

1966-01-01

371

Predicting 'airborne' influenza viruses: (trans-) mission impossible?  

PubMed

Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine-out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year-which viruses have the potential to become 'airborne', and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating 'airborne' transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand-and predict-influenza pandemics. PMID:22440921

Sorrell, E M; Schrauwen, E J A; Linster, M; De Graaf, M; Herfst, S; Fouchier, R A M

2011-09-03

372

West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Add this to... Aadir en... ... Most people (70-80%) who become infected with West Nile virus do not develop any symptoms. Febrile illness ...

373

Adaptation of Newcastle Virus to Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strain 'T' of the Newcastle virus was adapted to guinea pigs and other mammals. Following the intracerebral inoculation, the adapted virus caused an infection, clinically expressed by signs of central nervous system disease (irritability, anorexia, locomo...

V. N. Syurin

1966-01-01

374

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg Google Bookmarks FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

375

Differentiation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus N protein using a virus-based ELISA.  

PubMed

The bacterially expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was used as immunogen to generate a rabbit-derived polyclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of the protein to the antibody was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Using PRRSV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, pseudorabies virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus as coating antigens, a virus-based ELISA was established. The polyclonal antibody against PRRSV N protein used as a diagnostic agent was capable of differentiating PRRSV from the other viruses. PMID:21529294

Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng

2011-04-01

376

The dsRNA viruses.  

PubMed

The dsRNA viruses represent a large, diverse group of pathogens (affecting a very wide range of host species), several of which are of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance. Many of the icosahedral dsRNA viruses show striking structural and functional similarities that reflect the similar problems that they face replicating their dsRNA genomes while avoiding the dsRNA activated defence mechanisms of their host species. These similarities appear to indicate a common if distant ancestry that is not always evident simply by comparison of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. To facilitate the identification and comparisons of cognate proteins from different species, genera and families of dsRNA viruses, a series of tables were originally constructed for the 7th International Symposium of dsRNA viruses held in Aruba in 2000. These have now been updated and extended (for the 8th Symposium, held in Tuscany 2003) and are available from the dsRNA virus website at. PMID:15010213

Mertens, Peter

2004-04-01

377

Why genes overlap in viruses  

PubMed Central

The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genestwo or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. Several explanations have been proposed for the evolution of this phenomenon, and we test these by comparing the amount of gene overlap in all known virus species. We conclude that gene overlap is unlikely to have evolved as a way of compressing the genome in response to the harmful effect of mutation because RNA viruses, despite having generally higher mutation rates, have less gene overlap on average than DNA viruses of comparable genome length. However, we do find a negative relationship between overlap proportion and genome length among viruses with icosahedral capsids, but not among those with other capsid types that we consider easier to enlarge in size. Our interpretation is that a physical constraint on genome length by the capsid has led to gene overlap evolving as a mechanism for producing more proteins from the same genome length. We consider that these patterns cannot be explained by other factors, namely the possible roles of overlap in transcription regulation, generating more divergent proteins and the relationship between gene length and genome length.

Chirico, Nicola; Vianelli, Alberto; Belshaw, Robert

2010-01-01

378

Fungal transmission of plant viruses.  

PubMed

Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study. PMID:15012536

Campbell, R N

1996-01-01

379

Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

380

Viruses and thyroiditis: an update  

PubMed Central

Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

2009-01-01

381

Serological relationship of the Tacaribe complex of viruses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.  

PubMed

By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses. PMID:4985595

Rowe, W P; Pugh, W E; Webb, P A; Peters, C J

1970-03-01

382

Serological Relationship of the Tacaribe Complex of Viruses to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus  

PubMed Central

By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses.

Rowe, Wallace P.; Pugh, Wendell E.; Webb, Patricia A.; Peters, Clarence J.

1970-01-01

383

The wonder world of microbial viruses  

PubMed Central

The first congress on Viruses of Microbes took place at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, on 2125 June 2010. The advances in genomics and metagenomics reported at this meeting reveal striking and unexpected complexity of the virus world. Viruses, in particular viruses that infect prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, are emerging as the most abundant class of biological entities on earth and a major evolutionary and geochemical force.

Koonin, Eugene V

2012-01-01

384

Reassortment of Thogoto Virus (a Tick-borne Influenza-like Virus) in a Vertebrate Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Reassortment is an important factor in the evolution of segmented genome viruses. For arthropod-borne viruses it is important to determine whether the vertebrate host acts as a site of reassortant virus formation since vertebrates often act as amplifying hosts. Mutants of Thogoto virus, a tick-borne orthomyxo-like virus, were shown to produce wild-type progeny in a dually infected permissive host

LINDA D. JONES; CLIVE R. DAVIES; BERNADETTE M. GREEN; PATRICIA A. NUTTALL

1987-01-01

385

Reverse Genetics of Measles Virus and Resulting Multivalent Recombinant Vaccines: Applications of Recombinant Measles Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses\\u000a from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses ( Mononegavirales ), as exemplified for measles virus\\u000a (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects\\u000a of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly,

M. A. Billeter; H. Y. Naim; S. A. Udem

386

Variation and evolution of plant virus populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 15years, interest in plant virus evolution has re-emerged, as shown by the increasing number of papers published on this subject. In recent times, research in plant virus evolution has been viewed from a molecular, rather than populational, standpoint, and there is a need for work aimed at understanding the processes involved in plant virus evolution. However, accumulated

Fernando Garca-Arenal; Aurora Fraile; Jos M. Malpica

2003-01-01

387

Studies with rinderpest virus in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The stability of cultured rinderpest virus, in maintenance medium containing 5% normal ox serum, was studied at 4, 37, and 56 C. The half-life at these temperatures was calculated and the results compared with figures available for other strains of rinderpest virus in cattle tissues and for measles virus in tissue culture fluids.

W. Plowright; R. D. Ferris

1962-01-01

388

Chimeric Measles Viruses with a Foreign Envelope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus (MV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are both members of the Mononegavirales but are only distantly related. We generated two genetically stable chimeric viruses. In MGV, the reading frames of the MV envelope glycoproteins H and F were substituted by a single reading frame encoding the VSV G glyco- protein; MG\\/FV is similar but encodes a G\\/F hybrid

PIUS SPIELHOFER; THOMAS BACHI; THOMAS FEHR; GUDRUN CHRISTIANSEN; ROBERTO CATTANEO; KARIN KAELIN; MARTIN A. BILLETER; HUSSEIN Y. NAIM

1998-01-01

389

Signal Transduction in Resistance to Plant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is part of a signal transduction pathway that induces resistance to viruses, bacteria and fungi. In tobacco and Arabidopsis the defensive signal transduction pathway branches downstream of salicylic acid. One branch induces PR-1 proteins and resistance to bacteria and fungi, while the other triggers induction of resistance to RNA and DNA viruses. This virus-specific branch can be activated

Alex M. Murphy; Androulla Gilliland; Chui Eng Wong; Joanne West; Davinder P. Singh; John P. Carr

2001-01-01

390

Further immunization studies with mammary tumor virus.  

PubMed

A single i.m. dose of formalin-inactivated murine mammary tumor virus greatly reduces viral expression and mammary tumorigenesis in Af (tumor incidence, 39%) and RIIIf (tumor incidence, 11%) mice, which carry only endogenous, gamete-transmitted virus. In C57BL mice, 1 mug of vaccine in Freund's complete adjuvant protects against later challenge with RIII virus. PMID:175938

Charney, J; Holben, J A; Cody, C M; Moore, D H

1976-02-01

391

Beet mosaic virus: epidemiology and damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview:<\\/strong>The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to obtain a thorough understanding of the main factors determining the spread of a potyvirus in a high plant density crop. The factors studied included the relationships between virus, host and vector, the spread of the virus around an initial virus source consisting of one or more infected plants, the

A. N. Dusi

1999-01-01

392

Advances in virus research. Volume 32  

SciTech Connect

This book describes advances in the field of virus research. Topics covered include: Retroid virus genome replication; viral oncogenes, v-yes and kerbB, and their cellular counterparts; hepatitis A; and molecular studies of brome Mosaic virus using infectious transcripts from cloned cDNA.

Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.

1987-01-01

393

Advances in virus research. Volume 31  

SciTech Connect

This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.

Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.

1986-01-01

394

Plant virus taxonomy : some current issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Classification of viruses is regulated by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). This organisation provides not only the rules to be applied but has to approve all new names for virus species, genera or higher taxa. Anybody may make a taxonomic proposal but most frequently they are generated by specialist study groups that exist for most

M. J. ADAMS

395

Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dengue-2 vaccine virus (S-1) and its parent virus (PR-159) were compared for their ability to infect orally, to replicate in, and subsequently to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The vaccine virus was markedly less efficient in its ability ...

B. J. Beaty T. H. G. Aitken

1982-01-01

396

Ubiquitous Reassortments in influenza a viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A virus is a negative stranded RNA virus, composed of eight segmented RNA molecules, including polymerases (PB2, PB1, PA), haemaglutin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructure gene (NS). The influenza A viruses are notorious for rapid mutations, frequent genomic reassortments, and possible recombinations. Among these evolutionary events, genetic reassortments refer to exchanges of internal fragments

Xiu-feng Wan; Mufit Ozden; Guohui Lin

2008-01-01

397

Arctic-like rabies virus, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ?32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh. PMID:23171512

Jamil, Khondoker Mahbuba; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Hossain, Moazzem; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Hossain, Sohrab; Hossain, Shakhawat; Islam, Aminul; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

2012-12-01

398

Role of viruses in human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of viral molecular genetics has produced a considerable body of research into the se- quences and phylogenetic relationships of human and an- imal viruses. A review of this literature suggests that humans have been afflicted by viruses throughout their evolutionary history, although the number and types have changed. Some viruses show evidence of long-standing inti- mate relationship and

Linda M. Van Blerkom

2003-01-01

399

RNAi suppressors encoded by pathogenic human viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses affect the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, some applications of the viral RNAi suppressor functions and the consequences

Walter de Vries; Ben Berkhout

2008-01-01

400

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

401

Computer Viruses and Safe Educational Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and

Azarmsa, Reza

1991-01-01

402

A Classification of Viruses Through Recursion Theorems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study computer virology from an abstract point of view. Viruses and worms are self-replicating programs, whose constructions are essen- tially based on Kleene's second recursion theorem. We show that we can classify viruses as solutions of fixed point equations which are obtained from dierent versions of Kleene's second recursion theorem. This lead us to consider four classes of viruses

Guillaume Bonfante; Matthieu Kaczmarek; Jean-yves Marion

2007-01-01

403

Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with

Dimiter S. Dimitrov

2004-01-01

404

Persistent rubella virus infection in laboratory animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several strains of rubella virus were able to establish a persistent or carrier-type infection in adult hamsters and suckling rabbits. No evidence of rubella virus persistence for prolonged periods was detected in suckling and adult ferrets or in adult rabbits, although serological studies suggested that these animals had been infected with rubella virus.

J. S. Oxford; C. W. Potter

1971-01-01

405

Inhibition of Interferons by Ectromelia Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice. Mousepox is a useful model of OPV infection because EV is likely to be a natural mouse pathogen, unlike its close relatives vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mouse interferons (IFNs) in resistance to and recovery from

Vincent P. Smith; Antonio Alcami

2002-01-01

406

An Epidemiological View of Worms and Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communal nature of the Internet exposes organizations and home computer users to a multitude of worms, viruses, and other malicious software (malware) threats such as spyware and Trojan horses. Viruses are program fragments attached to normal programs or files that hijack the execution control of the host program to reproduce copies of the virus. Worms are automated self-replicating programs

Thomas M. Chen

407

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUS FROM GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, has been shown to be susceptible to insect virus infections. A new virus was isolated from field caught GWSS and partially sequenced. Sequence identity showed that this was a new sharpshooter virus separate from those already reported by Hunter et. al. 2004, and...

408

Occult hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that hepatitis B virus infection may also occur in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative patients. This occult infection has been identified both in patients with cryptogenic liver disease and in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis, and much evidence suggests that it may be a risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma development. However several aspects of this occult infection remain unclear such as its prevalence and the factor(s) involved in the lack of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen. Moreover, it is uncertain whether the occult hepatitis B virus infection may contribute to chronic liver damage, considering that it is usually associated with a suppressed viral replication. Evidence and hypotheses concerning this fascinating field of bio-medical research are reviewed. PMID:11215565

Raimondo, G; Balsano, C; Crax, A; Farinati, F; Levrero, M; Mondelli, M; Pollicino, T; Squadrito, G; Tiribelli, C

2000-12-01

409

[Capping strategies in RNA viruses].  

PubMed

Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871

Bouvet, Mickal; Ferron, Franois; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

2012-04-25

410

Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV  

PubMed Central

HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA.

Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

2008-01-01

411

Treatment of gastrointestinal viruses.  

PubMed

The most common enteric viruses responsible for diarrhoea are rotavirus, enteric adenoviruses, caliciviruses including the Norwalk agent and astrovirus. These infections are usually mild to moderate in severity, self-limiting and of short duration and thus, specific antiviral therapy is not recommended. The standard management of these infections is restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance and then maintenance of hydration until the infection resolves. WHO oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced about 30 years ago and has saved the lives of many infants and young children. During the last 10 years it has become evident that the efficacy of ORT can be increased by reducing the osmolality of the WHO oral rehydration solution (ORS) to produce a relatively hypotonic solution. Hypotonic ORS appears to be safe and effective in all forms of acute diarrhoea in childhood. Complex substrate ORS, which is also usually hypotonic, has been shown to have increased efficacy in cholera but not in other bacterial or viral diarrhoeas. Nevertheless, the scientific rationale for using rice or resistant starch as substrate in ORS is of physiological interest. Other treatments such as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, probiotics and antiviral agents are largely experimental and have not been introduced into routine clinical practice. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract occurs mainly in the immunocompromised although it has been reported in immunocompetent individuals. CMV infects both the oesophagus and colon to produce oesophagitis, often with discrete ulcers, and colitis, respectively. Both conditions can be treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Failure to respond to monotherapy is an indication to use both agents concurrently. PMID:11444033

Farthing, M J

2001-01-01

412

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection.

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

413

Preventing respiratory syncytial virus infections  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Palivizumab, a respiratory syncytial virus-specific monoclonal antibody, reduces the hospitalization rate of high-risk children but it is very costly. This statement replaces three previous position statements from the Canadian Paediatric Society about this topic, and was updated primarily to discuss recent changes in the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in the Canadian context. It reviews the published literature and provides recommendations regarding palivizumab use in high-risk children.

Robinson, JL

2011-01-01

414

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-04-01

415

Charting the host adaptation of influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Four influenza pandemics have struck the human population during the last 100 years causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The pandemics were caused by the introduction of a new virus into the human population from an avian or swine host or through the mixing of virus segments from an animal host with a human virus to create a new reassortant subtype virus. Understanding which changes have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the human host is essential in assessing the pandemic potential of current and future animal viruses. Here, we develop a measure of the level of adaptation of a given virus strain to a particular host. We show that adaptation to the human host has been gradual with a timescale of decades and that none of the virus proteins have yet achieved full adaptation to the selective constraints. When the measure is applied to historical data, our results indicate that the 1918 influenza virus had undergone a period of preadaptation prior to the 1918 pandemic. Yet, ancestral reconstruction of the avian virus that founded the classical swine and 1918 human influenza lineages shows no evidence that this virus was exceptionally preadapted to humans. These results indicate that adaptation to humans occurred following the initial host shift from birds to mammals, including a significant amount prior to 1918. The 2009 pandemic virus seems to have undergone preadaptation to human-like selective constraints during its period of circulation in swine. Ancestral reconstruction along the human virus tree indicates that mutations that have increased the adaptation of the virus have occurred preferentially along the trunk of the tree. The method should be helpful in assessing the potential of current viruses to found future epidemics or pandemics. PMID:21109586

dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif U; Hay, Alan J; Goldstein, Richard A

2010-11-25

416

Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recombinant vaccinia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce

M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq

1984-01-01

417

Viruses and host evolution: virus-mediated self identity.  

PubMed

Virus evolution has become a topic that involves population based selection. Both quasispecies based populations and reticulated mosaic exchange of populations of genetic elements are now well established. This has led us to the understanding that a cooperative consortia can be a crucial aspect of virus driven evolution. Thus viruses exist in groups that can cooperate. However, consortial based evolution (group selection) has long been dismissed by evolutionary biologist. Recently, biocommunication theory has concluded that the evolution and editing of any code or language requires a consortial based process in order to adhere to pragmatic (context) requirements for meaning (in conflict with survival of the fittest concepts). This has led to the idea that viruses are the natural editors of biological codes or language. In this chapter, I present the view that the persistence of virus information in their host provides a natural process of host code editing that is inherently consortial. Since persistence requires mechanisms to attain stability and preclude competition, it also provided mechanisms that promote group identity. Accordingly, I review the viral origins of addiction modules and how these affect both persistence and group identity. The concepts emerging from addiction module based group identity are then generalized and applied to social identity systems as well. I then examine the prokaryotes and the involvement of viral elements in the emergence of their group identity systems (biofilms). Here, integrating dsDNA agents prevailed. In the eukaryotes, however, a large shift in virus-host evolution occurred in which the role of dsDNA agents was diminished but the role of retroviruses and retroposons was greatly enhanced. These agents provided greatly expanded and network based regulatory complexity that was controlled by sensory inputs. From this perspective, the role of virus in the origin of the adaptive immune system is then outlined. I then consider human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity. PMID:22399381

Villarreal, Luis

2012-01-01

418

Genetic variability and viral seroconversion in an outcrossing vertebrate population  

PubMed Central

Inverse correlations between genetic variability and parasitism are important concerns for conservation biologists. We examined correlations between neutral genetic variability and the presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) in a free-ranging population of raccoons. Over 3 years there was a strong relationship between age and seroprevalence rates. Most young animals were seronegative to CDV and FPV, but the oldest age class was greater than 80 per cent seropositive to both viruses. CDV-seropositive animals had greater heterozygosity and lower measures of inbreeding compared with CDV-seronegative animals. This relationship was strongest among the youngest animals and did not occur during a 1 year CDV epidemic. In contrast, FPV-seropositive animals only had significantly lower measures of inbreeding in 1 year, perhaps because FPV-associated mortality is relatively low or primarily occurs among very young individuals that were under-represented in our sampling. These results suggest that even in large outcrossing populations, animals with lower heterozygosity and higher measures of inbreeding are less likely to successfully mount an immune response when challenged by highly pathogenic parasites.

Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Eggert, Lori S.

2011-01-01

419

Genetic variability and viral seroconversion in an outcrossing vertebrate population.  

PubMed

Inverse correlations between genetic variability and parasitism are important concerns for conservation biologists. We examined correlations between neutral genetic variability and the presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) in a free-ranging population of raccoons. Over 3 years there was a strong relationship between age and seroprevalence rates. Most young animals were seronegative to CDV and FPV, but the oldest age class was greater than 80 per cent seropositive to both viruses. CDV-seropositive animals had greater heterozygosity and lower measures of inbreeding compared with CDV-seronegative animals. This relationship was strongest among the youngest animals and did not occur during a 1 year CDV epidemic. In contrast, FPV-seropositive animals only had significantly lower measures of inbreeding in 1 year, perhaps because FPV-associated mortality is relatively low or primarily occurs among very young individuals that were under-represented in our sampling. These results suggest that even in large outcrossing populations, animals with lower heterozygosity and higher measures of inbreeding are less likely to successfully mount an immune response when challenged by highly pathogenic parasites. PMID:20667873

Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Eggert, Lori S

2010-07-28

420

A cross-species view on viruses  

PubMed Central

We describe the creative ways that virologists are leveraging experimental cross-species infections to study the interactions between viruses and hosts. While viruses are usually well adapted to their hosts, cross-species approaches involve pairing viruses with species that they dont naturally infect. These cross-species infections pit viruses against animals, cell lines, or even single genes from foreign species. We highlight examples where cross-species infections have yielded insights into mechanisms of host innate immunity, viral countermeasures, and the evolutionary interplay between viruses and hosts.

Sawyer, Sara L.; Elde, Nels C.

2012-01-01

421

First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) specific antibodies and antigen, respectively, by Western blot for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and by indirect ELISA for antibodies to puma lentivirus (PLV). Antibodies to FHV 1, FCV, FCoV, FPV, FeLV, FIV, PLV or related viruses, and to B. henselae were detected. Furthermore, high-titered antibodies to E. canis or a closely related agent were detected in a puma for the first time. PMID:16870878

Filoni, Claudia; Cato-Dias, Jos Luiz; Bay, Gert; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2006-04-01

422

Persistence of virus lipid signatures upon silicification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date there is no known evidence of viruses within the rock record. Their small size and absence of a metabolism has led to the hypothesis that they lack unique biological signatures, and the potential to become preserved. Biosignature research relevant to early Earth has focused on prokaryotic communities; however, the most abundant member of modern ecosystems, viruses, have been ignored. In order to establish a baseline for research on virus biosignatures, we have initiated laboratory research on known lipid-containing viruses. PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects and replicates in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. PRD1 is a 65 nm spherical virus with an internal lipid membrane, which is a few nanometers thick. When the PRD1 virus stock was mixed with a 400 ppm SiO2 (final concentration) solution and incubated for six months. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and lipid analysis using gas chromatography revealed that the virus lipids were still detectable despite complete removal of dissolved silica. Free fatty acids were also detected. Titers of infectious PRD1 viruses after six months in the presence of silica decreased 40 times more than without silica. Though virus biosignature research is in its incipient stages, the data suggest that virus lipid signatures are preserved under laboratory conditions and may offer the potential for contribution to the organic geochemical record.

Kyle, J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Stedman, K. M.

2011-12-01

423

Method for detecting viruses in aerosols.  

PubMed Central

A simple method with poliovirus as the model was developed for recovering human enteric viruses from aerosols. Filterite filters (pore size, 0.45 micron; Filterite Corp., Timonium, Md.) moistened with glycine buffer (pH 3.5) were used for adsorbing the aerosolized virus. No virus passed the filter, even with air flow rates of 100 liters/min. Virus recovery from the filter was achieved by rapid elution with 800 ml of glycine buffer, pH 10. The virus in the primary eluate was reconcentrated by adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding AlCl3 to 0.0005 M, collecting the virus on a 0.25-micron-pore Filerite disk (diameter, 25 mm) and and eluting with 6 ml of buffer, pH 10. With this method, virus could be detected regularly in aerosols produced by flushing when 3 X 10(8) PFU of poliovirus were present in the toilet bowl. Poliovirus-containing fecal material from two of four infants who had recently received oral polio vaccine also yielded virus in the aerosols when feces containing 2.4 X 10(7) to 4.5 X 10(7) PFU of virus had been added to the toilet bowl. Persons infected with a variety of natural enteric viruses are known to excrete this amount of virus in their daily stools. Images

Wallis, C; Melnick, J L; Rao, V C; Sox, T E

1985-01-01

424

SEROLOGICAL STUDIES OF SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

1. Cross-neutralization tests with sera from swine recovered from infection with swine influenza indicated the serological identity of 7 strains of swine influenza virus obtained from different sources. 2. Cross-neutralization tests with sera from rabbits, immunized to swine influenza virus, exposed serological differences among the same 7 swine influenza virus strains. Two strains appeared to be serologically similar and were characterized by the ability to produce effective homologous virus-neutralizing sera which were, however, poor or ineffective against the heterologous virus strains. Two other strains were also serologically similar but produced antibodies effective not only against themselves, but against all heterologous strains as well. The remaining 3 strains were intermediate in their ability to produce heterologous virus-neutralizing antibodies. 3. The human influenza viruses included, especially strains WS and Oakham, were most effectively differentiated serologically from the swine influenza viruses by rabbit antisera. 4. The suggestion is advanced that swine antisera express the antigenic composition of the swine influenza viruses, while rabbit antisera reflect either their antigenic arrangement or the arrangement of the components responsible for their mouse pathogenicity. On this interpretation the 7 strains of swine influenza virus studied would be considered to have similar antigenic compositions but differing antigenic structures. 5. The serological differences among strains of the swine influenza virus, detectible by rabbit antisera, are probably of no practical significance so far as the natural disease, swine influenza, is concerned.

Shope, Richard E.

1939-01-01

425

Expanding networks of RNA virus evolution  

PubMed Central

In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of dsRNA viruses. The results support the old scenario of polyphyletic origin of dsRNA viruses from different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses and additionally reveal extensive horizontal gene transfer between diverse viruses consistent with the network-like rather than tree-like mode of viral evolution. Together with the unexpected discoveries of the first putative archaeal RNA virus and a RNA-DNA virus hybrid, this work shows that RNA viral genomics has major surprises to deliver. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/91

2012-01-01

426

Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review.

Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

2012-01-01

427

Virus-induced aggregates in infected cells.  

PubMed

During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461

Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

2012-10-17

428

Determination of Virus Abundance in Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

In this study, we optimized procedures to enumerate viruses from marine sediments by epifluorescence microscopy using SYBR Green I as a stain. The highest virus yields from the bulk of the sediments were obtained by utilizing pyrophosphate and 3 min of sonication. The efficiency of extraction benthic viruses by pyrophosphate-ultrasound treatment was about 60% of the extractable virus particles. Samples treated with nucleases had increased virus counts, suggesting a masking effect of extracellular DNA. No significant differences were observed between virus counts obtained by epifluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde gave significant reductions of virus counts after only 24 h of sediment storage, but no further loss occurred after 7 days.

Danovaro, R.; Dell'Anno, A.; Trucco, A.; Serresi, M.; Vanucci, S.

2001-01-01

429

Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in the expression of viral components. Here, we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901

Wickner, Reed B; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

2013-01-01

430

Neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus in vitro  

SciTech Connect

We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.

West, B.C.; Eschete, M.L.; Cox, M.E.; King, J.W.

1987-10-01

431

Emerging infectious diseases associated with bat viruses.  

PubMed

Bats play important roles as pollen disseminators and pest predators. However, recent interest has focused on their role as natural reservoirs of pathogens associated with emerging infectious diseases. Prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 60 bat virus species had been reported. The number of identified bat viruses has dramatically increased since the initial SARS outbreak, and most are putative novel virus species or genotypes. Serious infectious diseases caused by previously identified bat viruses continue to emerge throughout in Asia, Australia, Africa and America. Intriguingly, bats infected by these different viruses seldom display clinical symptoms of illness. The pathogenesis and potential threat of bat-borne viruses to public health remains largely unknown. This review provides a brief overview of bat viruses associated with emerging human infectious diseases. PMID:23917838

Shi, ZhengLi

2013-08-07

432

VIRUS DISEASES OF ORNAMENTAL HIBISCUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diagnosis of virus diseases of ornamental hibiscus or shoe flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and H. hybrid, was conducted using tissue blot immunoassay techniques. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the viral coat protein (CP) gene from infected hibiscus and its nu...

433

Reflections on viruses and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years human and animal cancers have increasingly been shown to have a viral component in their aetiology. Oncogenic viruses will continue to be discovered although with certain cancers there is also an important environmental component, and with others congenital cancers and cancers of early childhood an important genetic component. There is thus the probability that cancer

C. Darcel

1994-01-01

434

Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis.

Sonnesyn, Steven

2012-01-01

435

Powassan virus encephalitis, Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed

Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

Birge, Justin; Sonnesyn, Steven

2012-10-01

436

Ecological Studies on Amapari Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(1) Amapari virus has been isolated from only two of the many species of rodents and other vertebrates studied at Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. These are Oryzomys capito goeldii and Neacomys guianae. The isolation rate for each species over 4 years was c...

F. P. Pinheiro J. P. Woodall

1969-01-01

437

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

438

A virus-based biocatalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

Carette, Nolle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

2007-04-01

439

Viruses as Quasispecies: Biological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

During viral infections, the complex and dynamic distributions of variants, termed viral quasispecies, play a key role in the adaptability of viruses to changing environments and the fate of the population as a whole. Mutant spectra are continuously and avoidably generated during RNA genome replication, and they are not just a by-product of error-prone replication, devoid of biological relevance. On

E. Domingo; V. Martn; C. Perales; A. Grande-Prez; J. Garca-Arriaza; A. Arias

440

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (;)

2004-05-01

441

Classifying Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was classified into four genotypes by a sequence divergence in the entire genome exceeding 8%, and designated by capital letters of the alphabet from A to D. There are seven genotypes of HBV (AG) at present, and an eighth is on the horizon. They have an uneven geographical distribution, and only a few of

Yuzo Miyakawa; Masashi Mizokami

2003-01-01

442

Recombination in Hepatitis C Virus  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Lopez-Labrador, F. Xavier; Bracho, Maria Alma

2011-01-01

443

West Nile Virus Research Continues  

Microsoft Academic Search

t was the summer of 2002 and the West Nile Virus (WNV) was making its inexorable journey across the United States. The equine population had already been devastated and there were reports of neurological disease and death in camelids, but no one really knew what the risk was to alpacas and llamas. The Alpaca Research Foundation (ARF) Board of Directors

Michelle Anne Kutzler

444

Autoimmunity in Dengue Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a complicated disease associated with viral and immune pathogenesis. There is still no effective vaccine to prevent the progression of DHF because of its undefined pathogenic mechanisms. The generation of autoimmunity in dengue virus (DEN) infection has been implicated in dengue pathogenesis. Based on our previous studies showing antibodies (Abs) against DEN nonstructural protein 1

Chiou-Feng Lin; Huan-Yao Lei; Ching-Chuan Liu; Hsiao-Sheng Liu; Trai-Ming Yeh; Shun-Hua Chen; Yee-Shin Lin

2004-01-01

445

Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are a diverse group of viruses that naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGMs) and sooty mangabey monkeys (SMs). Although natural infection is widespread in feral populations of AGMs and SMs, this infection generally does not result in immunodeficiency. However, experimental inoculation of Asian macaques results in an immunodeficiency syndrome remarkably similar to human AIDS. Thus, natural nonprogressive SIV infections appear to represent an evolutionary adaptation between these animals and their primate lentiviruses. Curiously, these animals maintain robust virus replication but have evolved strategies to avoid disease progression. Adaptations observed in these primates include phenotypic changes to CD4+ T cells, limited chronic immune activation, and altered mucosal immunity. It is probable that these animals have achieved a unique balance between T-cell renewal and proliferation and loss through activation-induced apoptosis, and virus-induced cell death. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in natural hosts for SIV infection should therefore yield insights into the pathogenesis of AIDS and may inform vaccine design.

Klatt, Nichole R.; Silvestri, Guido; Hirsch, Vanessa

2012-01-01

446

Antigenic variants of rabies virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the

T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI

1980-01-01

447

Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.

2009-01-01

448

Genotypic Resistance Analysis of the Virological Response to Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir in Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients in CONTEXT and TRIAD Clinical Trials?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutations associated with virological response (VR) to fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) in 113 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients randomized in both CONTEXT and TRIAD clinical trials and receiving the same dose (700/100 mg twice daily) of FPV/r. The impact of each protease mutation on the VR to FPV/r, defined as the decrease in HIV RNA at week 12, was investigated with nonparametric analyses. A step-by-step procedure was done using a Jonckheere-Terpstra (JT) test that retains the group of mutations most strongly associated with the VR. Mutations at the following 14 codons were associated with a reduced VR to FPV/r: 10, 15, 33, 46, 54, 60, 62, 63, 72, 73, 82, 84, 89, and 90. The JT procedure led to selecting the CONTEXT/TRIAD genotypic set of mutations, I15V, M46I/L, I54L/M/V, D60E, L63P/T, and I84V, as providing the strongest association with the VR (P = 1.45 10?11). In the nine patients with zero mutations within this set, the median decrease in HIV RNA was ?2.63 log copies/ml, and was ?2.22 (n = 45), ?1.50 (n = 26), ?0.58 (n = 23), ?0.47 (n = 6), ?0.13 (n = 3), and 0.04 (n = 1) log copies/ml in those with one, two, three, four, five, and six mutations, respectively. This study identified six mutations associated with VR to FPV/r. Some of these mutations are shared with the current FPV/r Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) resistance score, which has been cross-validated in the CONTEXT/TRIAD data set, suggesting that the current ANRS FPV/r score is a useful tool for the prediction of VR to FPV/r in PI-experienced patients.

Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Flandre, Philippe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Katlama, Christine; Yeni, Patrick; Raffi, Francois; Antoun, Zeina; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Calvez, Vincent

2008-01-01

449

Restricted Expression of Retrovirus Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Primate Type C Virus (Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus-Simian Sarcoma Virus)-initiated Human B-Lymphoblast Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh human B-lymphoblasts established in culture following exposure of adult peripheral blood leukocytes to type C retro- viruses of the simian sarcoma virus\\/simian sarcoma-associ ated virus-gibbon ape leukemia virus group were analyzed in detail for the presence of the infecting virus. Viral expression ranged from production of low levels of intact virus in a few cultures to the presence of

P. D. Markham; F. W. Ruscelli; V. S. Kalyanaraman; L. Ceccherini-Nelli; N. R. Miller; M. S. Reitz; S. Z. Salahuddin; R. C. Gallo

450

Common Themes of Antibody Maturation to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of virus-specific immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is important to understanding the early virus-host interactions that may determine the course of virus infection and disease. Using a comprehensive panel of serological assays, we have previously demonstrated a complex and lengthy maturation of virus-specific antibody responses elicited by attenuated strains of

KELLY STEFANO COLE; MICHAEL MURPHEY-CORB; OPENDRA NARAYAN; SANJAY V. JOAG; GEORGE M. SHAW; RONALD C. MONTELARO; Marion Merrell Dow

1998-01-01

451

Replication of Semliki Forest virus.  

PubMed

Replication of Semliki Forest virus, a typical alphavirus, takes place in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The virus genome, the 42 S RNA, directs the synthesis of at least two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. By the aid of these enzymes complementary 45 S RNA is synthesized; it serves as a template for the synthesis of positive RNA strands with sedimentation values of 45 S and 26 S. In BHK cells close to 200,000 molecules of each RNA species are produced per cell. Both 26 S and 42 S RNAs are associated with polysomes synthesizing viral structural proteins. The 26 S RNA is a duplication of the nucleotide sequences coding for the virion proteins. These are translated as a polyprotein with the capsid protein at the N-terminal end followed by the envelope proteins E2 and E1. Usually only small amounts of nonstructural proteins are synthesized at the exponential phase of virus growth, indicating that a translational control operates in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells. One of our temperature-sensitive mutants, ts-1, directs, however, the synthesis of two nonstructural proteins with MWs of 78,000 and 86,000 when grown at the nonpermissive temperature. The assembly of the viral nucleocapsid begins by association of the capsid protein with the 42 S RNA, which is still serving as a messenger. In this process a cytoplasmic structure sedimenting at about 65 S is presumably one of the capsid protein donors. The 140 S nucleocapsid buds through the host cell plasma membrane whereby the capsid protein interacts with the envelope proteins creating a specific viral envelope devoid of host proteins. Altogether 5,000 to 20,000 virus particles are released from each cell by the end of the growth cycle, representing about 10% of the 42 S RNA molecules synthesized during the infection. PMID:1107685

Kriinen, L; Kernen, S; Lachmi, B; Sderlund, H; Tuomi, K; Ulmanen, I

1975-10-01

452

Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names  

PubMed Central

A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists.

Jahrling, Peter B.

2010-01-01

453

Cross-protection between Tacaribe complex viruses. Presence of neutralizing antibodies against Junin virus (Argentine hemorrhagic fever) in guinea pigs infected with Tacaribe virus.  

PubMed

Cross-protection between Junin virus and five other Tacaribe complex viruses and the serological response of guinea pigs inoculated with Tacaribe virus are reported here. Previous infection with Tamiami or Pichinde viruses significantly delayed guinea pig deaths. A 58% survival rate was found among animals immunized with three doses of Amapari virus, while guinea pigs inoculated with one dose of Machupo or Tacaribe virus were fully protected against Junin virus. Neutralization tests performed in serum samples of guinea pigs immunized with five doses of Tacaribe virus showed that they developed monologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies. PMID:178627

Weissenbacher, M C; Coto, C E; Calello, M A

454

Managing diseases caused by viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant viruses and virus-like pathogens are of considerable economic importance in potato production. The plant viruses and viroids are small, noncellular pathogens. In contrast, phytoplasmas are cellular organisms. In this chapter, information is presented on a number of virus and virus-like pat...

455

Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

456

Influenza virus RNA structure: unique and common features.  

PubMed

The influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. Here we review the currently available data on structure-function relationships in influenza virus RNAs. Various ideas and hypotheses about the roles of influenza virus RNA folding in the virus replication are also discussed in relation to other viruses. PMID:20923332

Gultyaev, Alexander P; Fouchier, Ron A M; Olsthoorn, Ren C L

2010-10-05

457

Selective Phosphorylation of Antiviral Drugs by Vaccinia Virus Thymidine Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral activity of a new series of thymidine analogs was determined against vaccinia virus (VV), cowpox virus (CV), herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus. Several compounds were identified that had good activity against each of the viruses, including a set of novel 5-substituted deoxyuridine analogs. To investigate the possibility that these drugs might be phosphorylated preferentially by the viral

Emma Harden; Kathy A. Keith; Mary P. Johnson; Alexis McBrayer; Ming Luo; Shihong Qiu; Debasish Chattopadhyay; Xuesen Fan; Paul Torrence; Earl Kern; Mark Prichard

2007-01-01

458

Modeling the dynamics of virus shedding into the saliva of Epstein-Barr virus positive individuals  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect both B cells and epithelial cells. Infection of B cells enables the virus to persist within a host while infection of epithelial cells is suggested to amplify viral output. Data from a recent study have shown that the virus shedding in EBV positive individuals is relatively stable over short periods of time but varies significantly over long periods. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of virus shedding within a host are not fully understood. In this paper, we construct a model of ordinary differential equations to study the dynamics of virus shedding into the saliva of infected hosts. Infection of epithelial cells is further separated into infection by virus released from B cells and virus released from epithelial cells. We use the model to investigate whether the long-term variation and short-term stability of virus shedding can be generated by three possible factors: stochastic variations in the number of epithelial cells susceptible to virus released from infected B cells, to virus released from infected epithelial cells, or random variation in the probability that CD8+ T cells encounter and successfully kill infected cells. The results support all three factors to explain the long-term variation but only the first and third factors to explain the short-term stability of virus shedding into saliva. Our analysis also shows that clearance of virus shedding is possible only when there is no virus reactivation from B cells.

Huynh, Giao T; Rong, Libin

2012-01-01

459

The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposis Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection.

2013-01-01

460

The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses.  

PubMed

Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV).Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection. PMID:23741982

Fuentes-Gonzlez, Alma Mariana; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana; Manzo-Merino, Joaqun; Lizano, Marcela

2013-06-06

461

Pheasant virus: new class of ribodeoxyvirus.  

PubMed

Cocultivation of cells derived from embryos of golden pheasants or Amherst pheasants with chicken embryo cells infected with Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus resulted in the detection of viruses which appear to be endogenous in these pheasant cells. The pheasant viruses (PV) were similar to avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses (ALSV) in their gross morphology, in the size of their RNA, in the presence of a virion-associated RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (DNA nucleotidyltransferase; deoxynucleoside triphosphate: DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.7), and in their growth characteristics. PV also serves as a helper for the glycoprotein-defective Rous sarcoma virus. However, PV was shown to be different from both ALSV and reticuloendotheliosis virus in the following properties: (i) PV does not have ALSV group specific antigens; (ii) the protein composition of PV is different from those of the other two groups of viruses; (iii) PV fails to complement the defective polymerase of alpha type Rous sarcoma virus; and (iv) PV RNA shows no detectable homology with nucleic acids of the other two groups of viruses. Thus, PV appears to be a new class of RNA viruses which contain RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. PMID:57621

Hanafusa, T; Hanafusa, H; Metroka, C E; Hayward, W S; Rettenmier, C W; Sawyer, R C; Dougherty, R M; Distefano, H S

1976-04-01

462

IMMUNIZATION EXPERIMENTS WITH SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

1. Swine influenza virus obtained from the lungs of infected ferrets or mice, when administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, immunizes swine to swine influenza. 2. Ferrets, which have received subcutaneous injections of swine influenza virus obtained from the lungs of infected ferrets, are immune to intranasal infection with this virus. Similar injections with virus from the lungs of infected mice or swine do not immunize. 3. Mice can be immunized to intranasal infection with swine influenza virus by the subcutaneous injection of virus obtained from the lungs of infected mice, but not by similar injection with virus from the lungs of infected ferrets or swine. Repeated injections induce greater immunity than a single one. 4. Intraperitoneal inoculation of both mice and ferrets with swine influenza virus immunizes them to intranasal infection and it appears to make little or no difference whether the virus used as vaccine is obtained from the lungs of infected mice, ferrets, or swine. 5. Field experiments in which swine influenza followed the intramuscular administration of virus are cited as examples of the hazard involved in the use of this means of immunization in a densely crowded susceptible population.

Shope, Richard E.

1936-01-01

463

THE LEECH AS A POTENTIAL VIRUS RESERVOIR  

PubMed Central

Leeches, fed on swine infected with hog cholera, contained virus for as long as 87 days after their infective blood meals. In three instances, infected leeches apparently transmitted hog cholera virus to susceptible swine in the process of normal feeding. Myxoma virus persisted in leeches for as long as 154 days after the ingestion of a blood meal from rabbits with myxomatosis. Leeches fed consecutively, first on swine with hog cholera, and later on rabbits with myxomatosis, acquired both viruses. In such dually infected leeches, the hog cholera virus persisted for as long as 122 days and the myxoma virus for as long as 110 days, the longest periods tested. Leeches fed consecutively, first on rabbits with myxomatosis, and later on swine with hog cholera, acquired only the myxoma virus. Hog cholera virus could not be demonstrated in such dually fed leeches. Myxoma and hog cholera viruses appeared to be present in about equivalent amounts in the anterior and posterior thirds of the bodies of infected leeches. Myxoma and hog cholera viruses were present in the bloody gut contents of infected leeches but were not demonstrable in the body tissues of these leeches. It seems from the findings presented that leeches are not biological carriers of either myxoma or hog cholera virus but instead carry these two agents mechanically in their gastrointestinal tracts. In doing this, they appear to protect the viruses from various deleterious chemical and physical influences to which they would have been exposed in the open. It is speculated that leeches could play a role in nature in perpetuating the blood-borne viruses of certain diseases in which close association with bodies of fresh water is of epidemiological importance.

Shope, Richard E.

1957-01-01

464

Evidence that Bean Golden Mosaic Virus Invades Non-phloem Tissue in Double Infections with Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Bean leaves that had been doubly infected systemically with the legume strain of tobacco mosaic virus (CP-TMV) and bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) were studied ultrastructurally. Virus particles and the cytopathological changes associated with each virus in single infections occurred within the same cell when plants were doubly infected, indicating that individual systemically infected host cells can multiply viruses

R. J. Carr; K. S. Kim

1983-01-01

465

Bunyaviridae: Morphologic and Morphogenetic Similarities of Bunyamwera Serologic Supergroup Viruses and Several Other Arthropod-Borne Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thin section electron microscopic examination of several viruses of the Bunyamwera serologic supergroup of arbo viruses confirmed their precise similarities in morphology and morphogenesis and their differences from viruses of other groups. Several viruses that are serologically unrelated to the supergroup were indistinguishable from Bunyamwera virus when observed in the same way. A separate taxonomic group or family, ultimately

Frederick A. Murphy; Alyne K. Harrison; Sylvia G. Whitfield

1973-01-01

466

A Pathogenic Threshold of Virus Load Defined in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian-Human Immunodeficiency VirusInfected Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if a specific pathogenic threshold of plasma viral RNA could be defined irrespective of virus strain, RNA levels in the plasma of more than 50 infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were measured. Animals were inoculated intravenously with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains of known pathogenic potential (SIV8980, SIVsmm-3, SIVmac32H\\/J5, SIVmac32H\\/1XC, reverse transcriptase-SHIV,

PETER TEN HAAFT; BABS VERSTREPEN; KLAUS UBERLA; BRIGITTE ROSENWIRTH; JONATHAN HEENEY

1998-01-01

467

Virus-Specific Cofactor Requirement and Chimeric Hepatitis C Virus\\/GB Virus B Nonstructural Protein 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

GB virus B (GBV-B) is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and causes acute hepatitis in tamarins (Saguinus species), making it an attractive surrogate virus for in vivo testing of anti-HCV inhibitors in a small monkey model. It has been reported that the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) serine protease of GBV-B shares similar substrate specificity with its counterpart in

NANCY BUTKIEWICZ; NANHUA YAO; WEIDONG ZHONG; JACQUELYN WRIGHT-MINOGUE; PAUL INGRAVALLO; RUMIN ZHANG; JAMES DURKIN; DAVID N. STANDRING; BAHIGE M. BAROUDY; DAVID V. SANGAR; STANLEY M. LEMON; JOHNSON Y. N. LAU; ZHI HONG

2000-01-01

468

Host range and some properties of Physalis mosaic virus, a new virus of the turnip yellow mosaic virus group  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparently undescribed virus was isolated fromPhysalis subglabrata in Illinois, USA, and its properties were studied. The virus was namedPhysalis mosaic virus (PMV). It was readily transmitted by sap inoculation to 23 out of 34 Solanaceae tested, toChenopodium foetidum andSonchus oleraceus but not to 28 other non-solanaceous species inoculated. Purified preparations of PMV contained isometric particles of 27 nm in

D. Peters; A. F. L. M. Derks

1974-01-01

469

Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease  

PubMed Central

The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease.

Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

2013-01-01

470

Neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee cells induced by adenovirus type 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus.  

PubMed Central

The adenovirus 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus produced neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee skin fibroblasts in vitro. The transformed fibroblasts showed morphological alteration and became permanent lines. The transformed cells contained both adenovirus 12 and simian virus 40 large tumor antigens and were virus producers. However at passage 9, one line (WES) was found to be a nonproducer, producing neither infectious virus nor virus-specific antigen detectable by the complement fixation test. Virus particles were not detected nor could infectious hybrid virus be rescued from this line by cocultivation with Vero cells. The transformed cells formed large cell aggregates and grew in liquid growth medium above an agar base, formed colonies in soft agar, and grew to high saturation densities; the normal chimpanzee skin fibroblasts did not. One transformed WES line produced tumors when transplanted subcutaneously into newborn nude mice, thus providing an important tool for studying tumor immunity in the chimpanzee. Images

Rhim, J S; Trimmer, R; Arnstein, P; Huebner, R J

1981-01-01

471

Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens.

Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

2013-01-01

472

Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and