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Sample records for panleukopenia virus fpv

  1. Case series of feline panleukopenia virus in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Benjanirut, Chutamas

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a series of confirmed and suspected cases of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and in-contact cats in an adoption-guarantee shelter in an FPV-endemic area by reviewing shelter records over a 10-month period (January-October 2010). Cats were divided into three groups: in-contact group - asymptomatic cats that were housed with a FPV fecal antigen (Ag)-positive cat/kitten as part of a litter group (n = 66); FPV-survivors group (FPV-infected survivors) - tested FPV fecal Ag-positive and showed clinical signs of FPV, but survived (n = 27); FPV-non-survivors group (FPV-infected non-survivors) - showed clinical signs of FPV and either tested FPV fecal Ag-positive or were housed with an Ag-positive family member, but did not survive (n = 52). Ages ranged from 3 weeks to 3 years, but most were <6 months old (in-contact group: 79%; FPV-survivors group: 70%; FPV-non-survivors group: 85%). A seasonal peak occurred over summer, but cases occurred year-round. Anorexia, dehydration, fever and diarrhea predominated in the FPV-survivors group, and death was preceded by clinical signs of circulatory shock in the FPV-non-survivors group. Housing litters of kittens with their mother was not associated with improved outcome, perhaps because in this population clinical FPV infection was relatively common in queens arriving at the shelter with susceptible litters. PMID:23873047

  2. Development of FPV140 antigen-specific ELISA differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X

    2012-10-01

    The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535

  3. Canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truyen, U; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. The origin of CPV is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. Here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of CPV and FPV. Examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CPV replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas FPV replicates efficiently only in feline cells. The in vivo host ranges were unexpectedly complex and distinct from the in vitro host ranges. Inoculation of dogs with FPV revealed efficient replication in the thymus and, to some degree, in the bone marrow, as shown by virus isolation, viral DNA recovery, and Southern blotting and by strand-specific in situ hybridization. FPV replication could not be demonstrated in mesenteric lymph nodes or in the small intestine, which are important target tissues in CPV infection. Although CPV replicated well in all the feline cells tested in vitro, it did not replicate in any tissue of cats after intramuscular or intravenous inoculation. These results indicate that these viruses have complex and overlapping host ranges and that distinct tissue tropisms exist in the homologous and heterologous hosts. Images PMID:1323703

  4. DNA vaccine prime and recombinant FPV vaccine boost: an important candidate immunization strategy to control bluetongue virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Junping; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Feng, Yufei; Lv, Shuang; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Wu, Donglai

    2015-10-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), an important sheep disease that caused great economic loss to the sheep industry. There are 26 BTV serotypes based on the outer protein VP2. However, the serotypes BTV-1 and BTV-16 are the two most prevalent serotypes in China. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing viral infections. Therefore, the need for an effective vaccine against BTV is urgent. In this study, DNA vaccines and recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines expressing VP2 alone or VP2 in combination with VP5 or co-expressing the VP2 and VP5 proteins of BTV-1 were evaluated in both mice and sheep. Several strategies were tested in mice, including DNA vaccine prime and boost, rFPV vaccine prime and boost, and DNA vaccine prime and rFPV vaccine boost. We then determined the best vaccine strategy in sheep. Our results indicated that a strategy combining a DNA vaccine prime (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) followed by an rFPV vaccine boost (co-expressing VP2 and VP5) induced a high titer of neutralizing antibodies in sheep. Therefore, our data suggest that a DNA vaccine consisting of a pCAG-(VP2+VP5) prime and an rFPV-(VP2+VP5) boost is an important candidate for the design of a novel vaccine against BTV-1. PMID:26048472

  5. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  6. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  7. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  8. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  9. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... susceptible cats (four vaccinates and one control) as the test animals. Blood samples drawn from each cat... of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a 1:2... dose and the cats observed each day for 14 to 21 days. (3) Serology. At the end of the...

  10. Outbreak of fatal salmonellosis in cats following use of a high-titer modified-live panleukopenia virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Foley, J E; Orgad, U; Hirsh, D C; Poland, A; Pedersen, N C

    1999-01-01

    A 14-week-old kitten from a private cattery was examined because of an acute onset of recumbency and epistaxis 10 days after receiving a high-titer modified-live virus vaccine containing panleukopenia virus, calicivirus, and herpesvirus components. The kitten died the following day, and intestinal crypt necrosis; hepatic, splenic, and lymph node inflammation and necrosis; and pneumonia were seen at necropsy. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes and the spleen. The breeder reported that 4 other kittens had died in the previous month, each within 1 to 2 weeks after being vaccinated with the same modified-live virus vaccine. Carcasses of 3 kittens were available for examination, and Salmonella sp was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of all 3. Villus crypt necrosis and secondary fibrosis were also found. Three of the remaining 12 kittens in the cattery were also found to be shedding Salmonella sp in their feces. Clinical and pathologic findings in these kittens were likely attributable to salmonellosis and panleukopenia, and suggest that mild immunosuppression induced by vaccination could have facilitated development of fatal salmonellosis in subclinical carrier kittens. However, we cannot prove that vaccination actually played any role. PMID:9887942

  11. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction detects panleukopenia virus DNA in formalin-fixed hearts from cats with idiopathic cardiomyopathy and myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Meurs, K M; Fox, P R; Magnon, A L; Liu, S; Towbin, J A

    2000-01-01

    Viral myocarditis has been suggested as an etiology for cardiomyopathy in several mammalian species. Myocarditis and idiopathic cardiomyopathy have been reported in the domestic cat, although a viral etiology has not been demonstrated. Because of the continuing interest in the potential relationship between viral myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, we evaluated hearts from cats with spontaneous, idiopathic cardiomyopathy for viral genomic material within myocytes by polymerase chain reaction, and for the presence of myocarditis by light microscopy. Thirty-one (31) formalin-fixed hearts from domestic cats who died of idiopathic cardiomyopathy were randomly selected from pathology archives. Seventeen (17) formalin-fixed hearts from healthy cats were similarly selected as normal controls. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate myocardial tissue for the presence of viral genome from feline panleukopenia virus, herpes virus, calici virus, and corona virus. Hearts were examined using light microscopy for histologic evidence of myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria. Panleukopenia virus was identified by PCR in 10 of 31 cats with cardiomyopathy but in none of the controls. Neither cardiomyopathic or control cats tested positive by PCR for herpes virus, calici virus, and corona virus. Myocarditis was detected by histologic examination in 18 of 31 cardiomyopathic cats and in none of 17 control cats. Myocarditis and or feline panleukopenia virus genome was detected in felines with idiopathic hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathy, suggesting a possible role of viral infection and inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in this species. PMID:10867362

  12. Successive deaths of a captive snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) by infection with feline panleukopenia virus at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Mochizuki, Masami; Umemura, Takashi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-04-01

    Feline parvoviruses were isolated from frozen samples of intestines taken from a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) that died successively at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo in Hokkaido, Japan. Isolates possessed an antigenic epitope for both the feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus, identified with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Sequencing analyses of the VP2 region of the isolates revealed that the two isolates were identical and of the FPLV-type. These results suggested that FPLV was introduced from a feral cat which entered the zoo and transmitted the virus inside the zoo. PMID:21116104

  13. Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida D; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically

  14. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically

  15. Vaccination against Feline Panleukopenia: implications from a field study in kittens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Feline Panleukopenia (FPL) is a serious disease of cats that can be prevented by vaccination. Kittens are routinely vaccinated repeatedly during their first months of life. By this time maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with vaccination and inhibit the development of active immunity. The efficacy of primary vaccination under field conditions was questioned by frequent reports to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut on outbreaks of FPL in vaccinated breeding catteries. We therefore initiated a field study to investigate the development of immunity in kittens during primary vaccination against FPL. 64 kittens from 16 litters were vaccinated against FPL at the age of 8, 12 and 16 weeks using three commercial polyvalent vaccines. Blood samples were taken before each vaccination and at the age of 20 weeks. Sera were tested for antibodies against Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) by hemagglutination inhibition test and serum neutralisation assay in two independent diagnostic laboratories. Results There was a good correlation between the results obtained in different laboratories and with different methods. Despite triple vaccination 36.7% of the kittens did not seroconvert. Even very low titres of MDA apparently inhibited the development of active immunity. The majority of kittens displayed significant titres of MDA at 8 and 12 weeks of age; in some animals MDA were still detected at 20 weeks of age. Interestingly, the vaccines tested differed significantly in their ability to overcome low levels of maternal immunity. Conclusions In the given situation it is recommended to quantify antibodies against FPV in the serum of the queen or kittens before primary vaccination of kittens. The beginning of primary vaccination should be delayed until MDA titres have declined. Unprotected kittens that have been identified serologically should be revaccinated. PMID:22613093

  16. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  17. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  18. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  19. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  20. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids. PMID:22779227

  1. Characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Terio, Valentina; Elia, Gabriella; Lucente, Maria Stella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-01

    Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (FPL) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulcerations, that died eight days after the onset of the disease. Two pups living in the same pet shop as the cat were found to shed a CPV-2a strain genetically identical to the feline virus and were likely the source of infection. Also, non-fatal infection by a CPV-2c strain occurred in a 2.5-month-old European shorthair kitten displaying non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea and normal white blood cell counts. By sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (VP2) gene, the feline CPV-2c strain showed 100% identity to a recent canine type-2c isolate. Both kittens had been administered multivalent vaccines against common feline pathogens including FPL virus. Whether and to which extent the FPL vaccines can protect cats adequately from the antigenic variants of CPV-2 should be assessed. PMID:20334885

  2. Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing glycoprotein B of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and chicken IL-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18. PMID:22077232

  3. Determination of Uas Trajectory in a Known Environment from Fpv Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel self-localization method. The algorithm automatically establishes correspondence between the FPV video streamed from a UAS flying in a structured urban environment and its 3D model. The resulting camera pose provides a precise navigation solution in the densely crowded environment. Initially, Vertical Line Features are extracted from a streamed FPV video frame, as the camera is kept approximately leveled through a gimbal system. The features are then matched with Vertical Line Features extracted from a synthetic image of the 3D model. A space resection is performed to provide the EOPs for this frame. The features are tracked in the next frame, followed by an incremental triangulation. The main contribution of this paper lies in automating this process as an FPV video sequence typically consists of thousands of frames. Accuracies of the position and orientation parameters of the video camera and the validation checks of the estimated parameters are presented. Future work includes testing the method in real-time to determine latencies and reliability, and multi-directional field of view of the FPV video camera.

  4. Differential diagnosis of fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in chicken diphtheritic manifestations by mono and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Altory, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and fowlpox virus (FPV) cause diphtheritic lesions in chicken tracheas and can simultaneously infect the same bird. A differential molecular diagnostic test, the duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, is now reported using ILTV and FPV vaccine viruses and clinical samples from chickens, either uninfected or naturally infected with ILTV or FPV, or with both viruses. The dual virus amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated to behave similarly to monoplex amplification, in spite of the fact that the real-time exponential amplification plots of the vaccine viruses were more illustrative than those of the clinical samples. PMID:25317604

  5. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (i) A constant virus-carrying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. (ii) Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  6. Ferric-Pyoverdine Recognition by Fpv Outer Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Hartney, Sierra L.; Mazurier, Sylvie; Girard, Maëva K.; Mehnaz, Samina; Davis, Edward W.; Gross, Harald; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In addition to producing its own siderophores, Pf-5 also utilizes ferric complexes of some pyoverdines produced by other strains of Pseudomonas spp. as sources of iron. Previously, phylogenetic analysis of the 45 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins in Pf-5 indicated that six are in a well-supported clade with ferric-pyoverdine receptors (Fpvs) from other Pseudomonas spp. We used a combination of phylogenetics, bioinformatics, mutagenesis, pyoverdine structural determinations, and cross-feeding bioassays to assign specific ferric-pyoverdine substrates to each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. We identified at least one ferric-pyoverdine that was taken up by each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. Functional redundancy of the Pf-5 Fpvs was also apparent, with some ferric-pyoverdines taken up by all mutants with a single Fpv deletion but not by a mutant having deletions in two of the Fpv-encoding genes. Finally, we demonstrated that phylogenetically related Fpvs take up ferric complexes of structurally related pyoverdines, thereby establishing structure-function relationships that can be employed in the future to predict the pyoverdine substrates of Fpvs in other Pseudomonas spp. PMID:23222724

  7. Ferric-pyoverdine recognition by Fpv outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Hartney, Sierra L; Mazurier, Sylvie; Girard, Maëva K; Mehnaz, Samina; Davis, Edward W; Gross, Harald; Lemanceau, Philippe; Loper, Joyce E

    2013-02-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In addition to producing its own siderophores, Pf-5 also utilizes ferric complexes of some pyoverdines produced by other strains of Pseudomonas spp. as sources of iron. Previously, phylogenetic analysis of the 45 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins in Pf-5 indicated that six are in a well-supported clade with ferric-pyoverdine receptors (Fpvs) from other Pseudomonas spp. We used a combination of phylogenetics, bioinformatics, mutagenesis, pyoverdine structural determinations, and cross-feeding bioassays to assign specific ferric-pyoverdine substrates to each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. We identified at least one ferric-pyoverdine that was taken up by each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. Functional redundancy of the Pf-5 Fpvs was also apparent, with some ferric-pyoverdines taken up by all mutants with a single Fpv deletion but not by a mutant having deletions in two of the Fpv-encoding genes. Finally, we demonstrated that phylogenetically related Fpvs take up ferric complexes of structurally related pyoverdines, thereby establishing structure-function relationships that can be employed in the future to predict the pyoverdine substrates of Fpvs in other Pseudomonas spp. PMID:23222724

  8. The soluble pyocins S2 and S4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bind to the same FpvAI receptor.

    PubMed

    Elfarash, Ameer; Wei, Qing; Cornelis, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Soluble (S-type) pyocins are Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriocins that kill nonimmune P. aeruginosa cells by gaining entry via a specific receptor, which, in the case of pyocin S2, is the siderophore pyoverdine receptor FpvAI, and in the case of pyocin S3, FpvAII. The nucleic acid sequence at the positions 4327697-4327359 of P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome was not annotated, but it was predicted to encode the immunity gene of the flanking pyocin S4 gene (PA3866) based on our analysis of the genome sequence. Using RT-PCR, the expression of the immunity gene was detected, confirming the existence of an immunity gene overlapping the S4 pyocin gene. The PA3866 coding for pyocin S4 and the downstream gene coding for the immunity protein were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the His-tagged S4 pyocin was obtained in pure form. Forty-three P. aeruginosa strains were typed via PCR to identify their ferripyoverdine receptor gene (fpvAI-III) and were tested for their sensitivity to pyocin S4. All S4-sensitive strains had the type I ferripyoverdine receptor fpvA gene. Some S4-resistant type I fpvA-positive strains were detected, but all of them had the S4 immunity gene, and, following the deletion of the immunity gene, became S4-sensitive. The fpvAI receptor gene was deleted in a S4-sensitive strain, and, as expected, the mutant became resistant to S4. The N-terminal receptor binding domain (RBD) of pyocin S2, which also uses the FpvAI receptor to enter the cell, was cloned in the pET-15b vector, and expressed in E. coli. When the purified RBD was mixed with pyocin S4 at different ratios, an inhibition of killing was observed, indicating that S2 RBD competes with the pyocin S4 for the binding to the FpvAI receptor. The S2 RBD was also shown to enhance the expression of the pvdA pyoverdine gene, suggesting that it, like pyoverdine, works via the known siderophore-mediated signalization pathway. PMID:23170226

  9. Selectivity of pyoverdine recognition by the FpvA receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Benjamin; Cézard, Christine; Sonnet, Pascal

    2015-07-21

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous human opportunistic pathogen, has developed resistances to multiple antibiotics. It uses its primary native siderophore, pyoverdine, to scavenge the iron essential to its growth in the outside medium and transport it back into its cytoplasm. The FpvA receptor on the bacterial outer membrane recognizes and internalizes pyoverdine bearing its iron payload, but can also bind pyoverdines from other Pseudomonads or synthetic analogues. Pyoverdine derivatives could therefore be used as vectors to deliver antibiotics into the bacterium. In this study, we use molecular dynamics and free energy calculations to characterize the mechanisms and thermodynamics of the recognition of the native pyoverdines of P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens by FpvA. Based on these results, we delineate the features that pyoverdines with high affinity for FpvA should possess. In particular, we show that (i) the dynamics and interaction of the unbound pyoverdines with water should be optimized with equal care as the interface contacts in the complex with FpvA; (ii) the C-terminal extremity of the pyoverdine chain, which appears to play no role in the bound complex, is involved in the intermediate stages of recognition; and (iii) the length and cyclicity of the pyoverdine chain can be used to fine-tune the kinetics of the recognition mechanism. PMID:26098682

  10. The Genome of Fowlpox Virus

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, C. L.; Tulman, E. R.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Kutish, G. F.; Rock, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a pathogenic fowlpox virus (FPV). The 288-kbp FPV genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 9.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats and contains 260 open reading frames, of which 101 exhibit similarity to genes of known function. Comparison of the FPV genome with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs) revealed 65 conserved gene homologues, encoding proteins involved in transcription and mRNA biogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein processing, and virion structure. Comparison of the FPV genome with those of other ChPVs revealed extensive genome colinearity which is interrupted in FPV by a translocation and a major inversion, the presence of multiple and in some cases large gene families, and novel cellular homologues. Large numbers of cellular homologues together with 10 multigene families largely account for the marked size difference between the FPV genome (260 to 309 kbp) and other known ChPV genomes (178 to 191 kbp). Predicted proteins with putative functions involving immune evasion included eight natural killer cell receptors, four CC chemokines, three G-protein-coupled receptors, two β nerve growth factors, transforming growth factor β, interleukin-18-binding protein, semaphorin, and five serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). Other potential FPV host range proteins included homologues of those involved in apoptosis (e.g., Bcl-2 protein), cell growth (e.g., epidermal growth factor domain protein), tissue tropism (e.g., ankyrin repeat-containing gene family, N1R/p28 gene family, and a T10 homologue), and avian host range (e.g., a protein present in both fowl adenovirus and Marek's disease virus). The presence of homologues of genes encoding proteins involved in steroid biogenesis (e.g., hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), antioxidant functions (e.g., glutathione peroxidase), vesicle trafficking (e.g., two α-type soluble NSF attachment proteins), and other

  11. Detection of T- and B-cell Target Antigens of Fowlpox Virus Isolated from Backyard Chickens in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bithi; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Samanta, Indranil; Das, Pradip K; Alam, Sk Sahanawaz; Nandi, Sudip

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of assessing the antigenic characteristics of a circulating pool of fowlpox virus (FPV) that exists in the backyard poultry system in India, one of the field isolates generated was characterized by in vitro immunologic techniques. FPV was isolated from clinically positive fowlpox cases (n  =  10) from the Jhargram (West Midnapur district) and Kakdwip (South 24 Pargana district) areas of West Bengal State, India. Initially, FPV-specific PCR was performed for confirmation of the samples. Isolation of FPV was done using embryonated chicken eggs and the choreoallantoic membrane route. Subsequently, FPV antigen was prepared from chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture-adapted field isolate. Biologic transmission of FPV was performed in Rhode Island red chickens experimentally to assess humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. High level of anti-FPV antibodies were observed in test birds as assessed by indirect ELISA. Seroreactive polypeptides (B-cell antigens) of FPV antigen with molecular weights of 44.5, 66.5, 75, 90.5, and 99 kDa were detected by western blot analysis. Significant increases in CMI responses were observed in inoculated chickens as assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytotoxicity assay, and T-cell immunoblotting. The predominant T-cell antigen of FPV detected had a molecular weight of 66.5 kDa. The present study revealed the antigenic characteristics of FPV that exists in backyard poultry system in West Bengal for the first time, thus exploring the rationality of designing future T- and B-cell vaccines against fowlpox. PMID:26473675

  12. Protection of chickens from Newcastle disease and infectious laryngotracheitis with a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing the F, HN genes of Newcastle disease virus and gB gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui-Ling; Wang, Yun-Feng; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Miao, De-Yuan; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Wang, Ming; Wang, Mei

    2008-03-01

    A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) coexpressing the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes and infectious laryngothracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein B gene was constructed. This virus was then evaluated for its ability to protect specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens against clinical symptoms and death after challenge by virulent NDV and ILTV. SPF chickens were grouped and vaccinated with the rFPV and commercial NDV (La Sota) and ILTV attenuated live vaccine (Nobilis ILT), respectively. After challenge with NDV 10 days postvaccination, 70% of chickens vaccinated with rFPV were protected from death, whereas 100% of the commercial NDV-vaccinated chickens were protected from death. In contrast, 100% of the unvaccinated chickens died after challenge. After challenge with ILTV, both the rFPV and commercial ILTV-vaccinated chickens were completely protected from death and 70% of chickens were protected from respiratory signs. In comparison, 100% of the unvaccinated chickens developed severe respiratory disease and 10% of chickens died. The protective efficacy was also measured by the antibody responses and isolation of challenge viruses. Results showed that this rFPV could be a potential vaccine for preventing NDV and ILTV by a single immunization. PMID:18459306

  13. Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Françoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David

    2006-05-01

    The crystallization and X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of the outer membrane pyoverdine transducer FpvA from P. aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine are described. The resolution of the crystals ranges from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form; all were obtained in the presence of C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent. Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvA–Pvd-Fe solubilized in C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

  14. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

  15. Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species. PMID:23221559

  16. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Kohler, Dennis J; Fox, Karen A; Brown, Justin D; Gerhold, Richard W; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Dubovi, Edward J; Parrish, Colin R; Holmes, Edward C

    2013-02-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus ("FPV-like") or canine parvovirus ("CPV-like"). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species. PMID:23221559

  17. Effect of complement depletion by cobra venom factor on fowlpox virus infection in chickens and chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Komine, K; Ishijima, Y; Okada, H

    1986-01-01

    The course of infection with an attenuated strain of fowlpox virus (FPV), which is known to induce antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway, was investigated in 1- to 3-day-old chickens and 14-day-old chicken embryos by treatment with cobra venom factor (CVF). CVF was found to inhibit complement activity transiently via the alternative pathway but not via the classical pathway. In chickens treated with CVF, virus growth in the skin was enhanced, and pock lesions tended to disseminate, leading to fatal infection in some birds. Histologically, an acute inflammation at an early stage of infection (within 3 days) was inhibited, and virus content in the pock lesion was increased. In chicken embryos with immature immune capacities, CVF treatment caused changes in pock morphology from clear pocks to diffuse ones, an increase in virus content in the pock, and inhibition of cell infiltration. Thus, FPV infection was aggravated in both CVF-treated chickens and chicken embryos. These results are discussed in relation to roles of complement in the elimination of virus at an early stage of FPV infection. Images PMID:3003397

  18. Adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 co-administered with infectious bursal disease virus recombinant VP2 antigen in chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, Bor Sheu; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Lin, Cheng Chung; Shien, Jui Hung; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-02-15

    A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/VP2) expressing infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV) VP2 gene has been constructed. After purification and identification of rFPV/VP2, the adjuvant activity of the recombinant chicken IL-12 (rchIL-12), synthesized by our previous construct of rFPV/chIL-12, in rFPV/VP2-expressed rVP2 antigen was assessed in one-week-old specific-pathogen free chickens. The results indicated that rchIL-12 alone or rchIL-12 plus mineral oil (MO) co-administered with rVP2 antigen significantly enhanced the production of serum neutralization (SN) antibody against IBDV, compared to those with MO alone. The SN titers in groups receiving rVP2 antigen with MO alone were more inconsistent after vaccination. On the other hand, rchIL-12 significantly stimulated IFN-γ production in serum and in splenocyte cultured supernatant, suggesting that rchIL-12 alone or plus MO significantly induced a cell-mediated immune response. Finally, bursal lesion protection from very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge in chickens receiving rVP2 antigen with rchIL-12 alone or plus MO was much more effective than that with MO alone at two weeks after boosting. Taken together, rchIL-12 alone augmented in vivo the induction of a primary and also a secondary SN antibody production and a cell-mediated immunity against IBDV rVP2 antigen, which conferred the enhancement of bursal lesion protective efficacy from vvIBDV challenge. These data indicated that a potential for chIL-12 as immunoadjuvant for chicken vaccine development such as IBDV rVP2 antigen. PMID:21035196

  19. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  20. Diseases associated with spontaneous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M

    1989-05-01

    More than 2000 cats sent for necropsy in order to provide a diagnosis were investigated immunohistologically using paraffin sections for the presence of a persistent infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). The spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases associated significantly with FeLV infection was determined statistically. Three-quarters of the cats with persistent FeLV infections died of non-neoplastic diseases and about 23% died of tumors, nearly exclusively those of the leukemia/lymphoma disease complex. A strong association with liver degeneration, icterus and a FeLV-associated enteritis was found in addition to the known association with non-neoplastic diseases and conditions such as anemia, bacterial secondary infections and respiratory tract inflammations due to the immunosuppressive effect of FeLV, hemorrhages and feline infectious peritonitis. Surprisingly, diseases and conditions like feline infectious panleukopenia, enteritis (of other types than FeLV-associated enteritis and feline infectious panleukopenia), glomerulonephritis, uremia and hemorrhagic cystitis were not associated with persistent FeLV infection. Another unexpected finding was that most pathogenic infectious agents demonstrated in the cats were not FeLV-associated either. Thus, immunosuppression due to FeLV infection seems to make the animals susceptible to certain pathogenic infectious agents, but not to the majority. PMID:2549696

  1. Frequency and significance of feline leukemia virus infection in necropsied cats.

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Theilen, G

    1987-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection was diagnosed immunohistologically on paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from 1,095 necropsied cats. Significant association of FeLV infection was demonstrated by chi 2 and Fisher's tests with various conditions and diseases (ie, anemia, tumors of the leukemia/lymphoma complex, feline infectious peritonitis, bacterial infections, emaciation, FeLV-associated enteritis, lymphatic hyperplasia, and hemorrhage). Unexpected findings associated with FeLV infection were icterus, several types of hepatitis, and liver degeneration. A negative association with FeLV infection was found for most parasitic and viral infections, including feline panleukopenia. Neither positive nor negative associations were established for FeLV infection and most forms of nephritis, including severe glomerulonephritis. Feline leukemia virus-infected cats were significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test) older than were FeLV-negative cats with the same nonneoplastic FeLV-associated diseases. PMID:3037951

  2. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

  3. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  4. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  5. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid.

    PubMed

    Löfling, Jonas; Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Parrish, Colin R; Varki, Ajit

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. PMID:23497940

  6. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of avian leukosis virus p27 antigen.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-02-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs. PMID:23201286

  7. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically

  8. Porcine parvovirus: DNA sequence and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Ranz, A I; Manclús, J J; Díaz-Aroca, E; Casal, J I

    1989-10-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of an almost full-length clone of porcine parvovirus (PPV). The sequence is 4973 nucleotides (nt) long. The 3' end of virion DNA shows a Y-shaped configuration homologous to rodent parvoviruses. The 5' end of virion DNA shows a repetition of 127 nt at the carboxy terminus of the capsid proteins. The overall organization of the PPV genome is similar to those of other autonomous parvoviruses. There are two large open reading frames (ORFs) that almost entirely cover the genome, both located in the same frame of the complementary strand. The left ORF encodes the non-structural protein NS1 and the right ORF encodes the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2 and VP3). Promoter analysis, location of splicing sites and putative amino acid sequences for the viral proteins show a high homology of PPV with feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvoviruses (FPV and CPV) and rodent parvovirus. Therefore we conclude that PPV is related to the Kilham rat virus (KRV) group of autonomous parvoviruses formed by KRV, minute virus of mice, Lu III, H-1, FPV and CPV. PMID:2794971

  9. Serosurvey of viral infections in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Munson, Linda; Marker, Laurie; Dubovi, Edward; Spencer, Jennifer A; Evermann, James F; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity have unusually high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, a trait that could be an outcome of population homogeneity or the immunomodulating effects of chronic stress. Free-ranging Namibian cheetahs share ancestry with captive cheetahs, but their susceptibility to infectious diseases has not been investigated. The largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs resides on Namibian farmlands, where they share habitat with domestic dogs and cats known to carry viruses that affect cheetah health. To assess the extent to which free-ranging cheetahs are exposed to feline and canine viruses, sera from 81 free-ranging cheetahs sampled between 1992 and 1998 were evaluated for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis virus; FCoV/ FIPV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens. Antibodies against CDV, FCoV/FIPV, FHV1, FPV, and FCV were detected in 24, 29, 12, 48, and 65% of the free-ranging population, respectively, although no evidence of viral disease was present in any animal at the time of sample collection. Neither FIV antibodies nor FeLV antigens were present in any free-ranging cheetah tested. Temporal variation in FCoV/FIPV seroprevalence during the study period suggested that this virus is not endemic in the free-ranging population. Antibodies against CDV were detected in cheetahs of all ages sampled between 1995 and 1998, suggesting the occurrence of an epidemic in Namibia during the time when CDV swept through other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This evidence in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs of exposure to viruses that cause severe disease in captive cheetahs should direct future guidelines for translocations, including quarantine of seropositive cheetahs and preventing contact between cheetahs and domestic pets

  10. [Abortive myxovirus infection in Ehrlich's ascitic carcinoma cells. Further study of the nature of the virus-specific structures produced by heterokaryons].

    PubMed

    Asadullaev, T A; Shekhtman, A B; Lur'e, L M; Bukrinskaia, A G

    1977-01-01

    Fowl plague virus-infected cells of Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma produce a noninfectious virus which is defective in fragility of its membranes. An attempt has been made to produce nondefective virus by fusion of infected Ehrlich cells with permissive cells: infected and non-infected chicken fibroblasts. The fusion of FPV-infected and 3H-uridine labeled Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma cells with infected unlabeled chicken fibroblasts using inactivated Sendai virus resulted in production of two types of labeled virus particles: with a buoyant density in cesium chloride gradient of 1.29 g/cm3 characteristic of particles produced by infected Ehrlich cells and buoyant density 1.22 g/cm3 typical of standard influenza virus. Both types of particles has infectious activity which was greater in the virus with the density of 1.22 g/cm3. However, particles with the density of 1.22 g/cm3 are not found upon the fusion of infected Ehrlich cells with uninfected chicken fibroblasts, with chicken fibroblasts early after infection, or with chicken fibroblasts treated with actinomycin D before infection. Infected chicken fibroblasts in hybrids were shown not to use the radioactive pool of Ehrlich cells and, accordingly, the virus with the density of 1.22 g/cm3 if formed from components pre-existing in Ehrlich cells. It is suggested that the standard virus buds on the areas of membranes of permissive cells which are parts of the hybrids. PMID:200012

  11. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Löfling, Jonas; Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R.; Varki, Ajit

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  12. Emergence of reticuloendotheliosis virus in pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Tao; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Wen-Kang; Lv, Dian-Hong; Chen, Rui-Ai

    2016-07-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an important immunosuppressive pathogen, has many hosts, including chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, and wild birds. Clinically, REV may lead to increased susceptibility to other pathogens, resulting in serious tissue damage (especially tumors) and the death of its host. In this study, we encountered a disease outbreak resulting in a large number of deaths of pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Histopathological analysis revealed apparent tumor-like lesions in multiple organs of pigeons. PCR assays for detection of tumor-associated pathogens (REV, avian leukosis virus, and Marek's disease virus) in poultry revealed the presence of REV sequences only. Moreover, fowlpox virus (FPV) with an insertion of REV long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences was also considered, but it was excluded using a specific PCR assay. To gain more genetic information, two full-length REV genome sequences were determined and found to have the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (99.9 %) and the closest genetic relationship to a vaccine strain (MD-2) and had a more distant genetic relationship (94.3 %) to a duck-origin strain (ATCC-VR775). To confirm the presence of REVs in pigeons, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and healthy pigeons were inoculated with microfiltered tumor tissue homogenates and were found to be susceptible to infection with REV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of REV in pigeons, and the data suggest that pigeons may be the natural host of REV. PMID:27120185

  13. Effect of high-dose ciclosporin on the immune response to primary and booster vaccination in immunocompetent cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth S; VanLare, Karen A; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica oral solution for cats 100 mg/ml; Novartis Animal Health) was recently approved for use in cats with feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. The immunosuppressant effect of ciclosporin on the ability of cats to mount an immune response following vaccination was determined. Thirty-two healthy, immunocompetent adult cats (16 cats/group) were treated with either ciclosporin for 56 days at a dose of 24 mg/kg once daily or sham dosed. Prior to treatment, cats had an adequate antibody response to primary vaccination against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and rabies. Booster vaccination or novel vaccination with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was administered 28 days after initiation of treatment with ciclosporin. There were no differences between the ciclosporin-treated and control cats for FCV and FPV antibody titers following booster vaccination. There were delays/reductions in antibody response to FHV-1, FeLV and rabies in treated cats; however, adequate protection was achieved in response to all booster vaccinations. Following primary vaccination with FIV, control cats showed a response, but treated cats showed no antibody production. Adverse events commonly associated with ciclosporin treatment, including diarrhea/loose stool, vomiting, salivation and regurgitation, were reported. In adult cats treated with 24 mg/kg/day of ciclosporin (more than three times the therapeutic dose), vaccine titer levels were adequate for protection following booster vaccination. In contrast, treated cats failed to mount a humoral response to a novel (FIV) vaccination, suggesting that memory B-cell immune responses remain intact during repeated high-dose ciclosporin administration in cats, but that primary immune responses are impaired. PMID:24820998

  14. [New betulin derivatives in combination with rimantadine for inhibition of influenza virus reproduction].

    PubMed

    Savinova, O V; Pavlova, N I; Boreko, E I

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary studies mainly revealed comparable inhibition activities of 3-oxime of betulonic acid, 3beta-O-acetyl-28-O-hemiphthalate of betulin and 3,28-dioxime of betulin against reproduction of influenza viruses A (H1N1), A (H7N1), A (H3N2) and B, as well as against the strains of influenza virus A (H1N1) with intrinsic resistance to rimantadine and A (H7N1) with acquired resistance to the drug. The level of the activity depended on the system used for the virus reproduction. The highest level was observed under conditions providing higher permissibivity, i.e. in the chick embryo fibroblast cell culture for A (H7N1) and in fragments of chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (for all the viruses). In the experiments with virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) in the chick embryo fibroblast cell culture the average effective concentrations (EC50) of the triterpene compounds were 10.4-17.5 mcM in comparison to EC50 of rimantadine (0.014 mcM). The use of every of the compounds in combination with rimantadine resulted in a 2-16 times decrease of their EC50 and correction of the concentration-effect relation of rimantadine. However, when rimantadine was used alone within the higher range of the nontoxic concentrations (11.6-57.6 mcM). its antiviral properties were significantly less pronounced. As a result the virus titer difference in comparison to the control within the above range of the rimantadine concentrations increased from < 1 to > 2.35 Ig PPU/ml and the relations of the maximal tolerance concentrations of the compounds to their EC50 increased 1.7-15.9 times. PMID:20052912

  15. Characterization of the stage(s) in the virus replication cycle at which the host-cell specificity of the feline parvovirus subgroup is regulated in canine cells.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, M; Ishiguro, N; Goto, H; Shinagawa, M

    1992-08-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV), mink enteritis virus (MEV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) are classified as a host-range variants. They show different host-range specificity in vivo and host-cell specificity in vitro. For instance, FPLV and MEV cannot grow or can grow only inefficiently in canine cell lines such as MDCK and the canine fibroma cell line A72. Here we have studied the mechanism(s) by which the different cell tropism is mediated in vitro. When FPLV or MEV was inoculated to A72 cells, viral DNA replicated slightly, few viral-antigen-positive cells were detected, and the culture fluid contained the threshold level of infectivity. On the other hand, when an infectious molecular clone of MEV (pMEV) was introduced into A72 cells, viral DNA replicated efficiently, and the culture fluid of pMEV-transfected cells contained much higher infectivities than that of MEV-infected cells. In spite of the restrictive growth in A72 cells, MEV could bind to A72 cells as efficiently as CPV. No detectable viral RNA was produced in MEV-infected A72 cells. In contrast, efficient viral transcription occurred in pMEV-transfected A72 cells. These results suggest that the restrictive infections of MEV and FPLV in A72 cells are not mediated by the attachment of the virus to the cells or by the events occurring after the viral transcription. It appears to be caused by the stage(s) in the virus replication cycle, which exists between a postadsorptional step required for virus penetration and the initiation of viral transcription. PMID:1322591

  16. Host-Specific Parvovirus Evolution in Nature Is Recapitulated by In Vitro Adaptation to Different Carnivore Species

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Ortega, Alicia; Hoover, Elizabeth A.; Grove, Daniel M.; Holmes, Edward C.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that >95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range. PMID:25375184

  17. Host-specific parvovirus evolution in nature is recapitulated by in vitro adaptation to different carnivore species.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Kohler, Dennis J; Ortega, Alicia; Hoover, Elizabeth A; Grove, Daniel M; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range. PMID:25375184

  18. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  19. An insulated isothermal PCR method on a field-deployable device for rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 at points of need.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T

    2015-08-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), including subtypes 2a, 2b and 2c, causes an acute enteric disease in both domestic and wild animals. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis aids effective disease management at points of need (PON). A commercially available, field-deployable and user-friendly system, designed with insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) technology, displays excellent sensitivity and specificity for nucleic acid detection. An iiPCR method was developed for on-site detection of all circulating CPV-2 strains. Limit of detection was determined using plasmid DNA. CPV-2a, 2b and 2c strains, a feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strain, and nine canine pathogens were tested to evaluate assay specificity. Reaction sensitivity and performance were compared with an in-house real-time PCR using serial dilutions of a CPV-2b strain and 100 canine fecal clinical samples collected from 2010 to 2014, respectively. The 95% limit of detection of the iiPCR method was 13 copies of standard DNA and detection limits for CPV-2b DNA were equivalent for iiPCR and real-time PCR. The iiPCR reaction detected CPV-2a, 2b and 2c and FPV. Non-targeted pathogens were not detected. Test results of real-time PCR and iiPCR from 99 fecal samples agreed with each other, while one real-time PCR-positive sample tested negative by iiPCR. Therefore, excellent agreement (k = 0.98) with sensitivity of 98.41% and specificity of 100% in detecting CPV-2 in feces was found between the two methods. In conclusion, the iiPCR system has potential to serve as a useful tool for rapid and accurate PON, molecular detection of CPV-2. PMID:25889355

  20. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  1. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  2. Serosurvey of small carnivores in the Bolivian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Noss, Andrew J; Deem, Sharon L; Maffei, Leonardo; Dubovi, Edward J

    2007-07-01

    Five species of Bolivian carnivores, including nine Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), ten ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), one jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), nine pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and five crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were sampled between March 2001 and April 2005 and tested for antibodies to common pathogens of domestic carnivores. Carnivores were trapped in three areas: a village, the region between human settlements and a protected area, and within Kaa-Iya National Park, Bolivia. Antibodies to canine distemper virus were detected in ocelots and pampas foxes. Antibodies to canine parvovirus were detected in pampas foxes and crab-eating foxes. Geoffroy's cats and all of the ocelots tested positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), while fewer than half of Geoffroy's cats and no ocelots had antibodies to feline panleukopenia (FPV). These results confirm that these species of Bolivian carnivores are not naïve to common pathogens of domestic carnivores, and seropositive animals were found in villages as well as in the national park. PMID:17699100

  3. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  4. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Areas with Zika Countries and territories with active Zika virus transmission... Mosquito Control Prevent mosquito bites, integrated mosquito ...

  5. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to her ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, ...

  6. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in ... Chikungunya Prevention is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's ...

  7. Two Novel Relative Double-Stranded RNA Mycoviruses Infecting Fusarium poae Strain SX63

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luan; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Hailong; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Two novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses, termed Fusarium poae dsRNA virus 2 (FpV2) and Fusarium poae dsRNA virus 3 (FpV3), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium poae strain SX63, and molecularly characterized. FpV2 and FpV3, with respective genome sequences of 9518 and 9419 base pairs (bps), are both predicted to contain two discontinuous open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. A hypothetical polypeptide (P1) and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are encoded by ORF1 and ORF2, respectively. Phytoreo_S7 domain (pfam07236) homologs were detected downstream of the RdRp domain (RdRp_4; pfam02123) of the ORF2-coded proteins of both FpV2 and FpV3. The same shifty heptamers (GGAAAAC) were both found immediately before the stop codon UAG of ORF1 in FpV2 and FpV3, which could mediate programmed –1 ribosomal frameshifting (–1 PRF). Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp sequences clearly place FpV2 and FpV3 in a taxonomically unassigned dsRNA mycovirus group. Together, with a comparison of genome organization, a new taxonomic family termed Fusagraviridae is proposed to be created to include FpV2- and FpV3-related dsRNA mycoviruses, within which FpV2 and FpV3 would represent two distinct virus species. PMID:27144564

  8. Hepadna viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  9. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the United States, they are most common in ...

  10. Zika virus.

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    Essential facts Zika virus disease is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. While it generally causes a mild illness, there is increasing concern that it is harmful in pregnancy and can cause congenital abnormalities in infants born to women infected with the virus. There is no antiviral treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites. PMID:26860150

  11. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  12. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  13. Different levels of immunogenicity of two strains of Fowlpox virus as recombinant vaccine vectors eliciting T-cell responses in heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Matthew G; van Maurik, Andre; Zago, Manola; Newton, Angela T; Anderson, Richard J; Howard, M Keith; Schneider, Jörg; Skinner, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    The FP9 strain of F has been described as a more immunogenic recombinant vaccine vector than the Webster FPV-M (FPW) strain (R. J. Anderson et al., J. Immunol. 172:3094-3100, 2004). This study expands the comparison to include two separate recombinant antigens and multiple, rather than single, independent viral clones derived from the two strains. Dual-poxvirus heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens using individual clones of recombinant FP9 or FPW in combination with recombinant modified V Ankara expressing the same antigen were evaluated for their ability to elicit T-cell responses against recombinant antigens from Plasmodium berghei (circumsporozoite protein) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein). Gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays of the responses to specific epitopes confirmed the approximately twofold-greater cellular immunogenicity of FP9 compared to FPW, when given as the priming or boosting immunization. Equality of transgene expression in mouse cells infected with the two strains in vitro was verified by Western blotting. Directed partial sequence analysis and PCR analysis of FPW and comparison to available whole-genome sequences revealed that many loci that are mutated in the highly attenuated and culture-adapted FP9 strain are wild type in FPW, including the seven multikilobase deletions. These "passage-specific" alterations are hypothesized to be involved in determining the immunogenicity of fowlpox virus as a recombinant vaccine vector. PMID:16829611

  14. A Rapid Screening Assay Identifies Monotherapy with Interferon-ß and Combination Therapies with Nucleoside Analogs as Effective Inhibitors of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Stephen D. S.; Majchrzak-Kita, Beata; Racine, Trina; Kozlowski, Hannah N.; Baker, Darren P.; Hoenen, Thomas; Kobinger, Gary P.; Fish, Eleanor N.; Branch, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). While a number of candidate drugs have shown limited efficacy in vitro and/or in non-human primate studies, differences in experimental methodologies make it difficult to compare their therapeutic effectiveness. Using an in vitro model of Ebola Zaire replication with transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLPs), requiring only level 2 biosafety containment, we compared the activities of the type I interferons (IFNs) IFN-α and IFN-ß, a panel of viral polymerase inhibitors (lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine (AZT) tenofovir (TFV), favipiravir (FPV), the active metabolite of brincidofovir, cidofovir (CDF)), and the estrogen receptor modulator, toremifene (TOR), in inhibiting viral replication in dose-response and time course studies. We also tested 28 two- and 56 three-drug combinations against Ebola replication. IFN-α and IFN-ß inhibited viral replication 24 hours post-infection (IC50 0.038μM and 0.016μM, respectively). 3TC, AZT and TFV inhibited Ebola replication when used alone (50–62%) or in combination (87%). They exhibited lower IC50 (0.98–6.2μM) compared with FPV (36.8μM), when administered 24 hours post-infection. Unexpectedly, CDF had a narrow therapeutic window (6.25–25μM). When dosed >50μM, CDF treatment enhanced viral infection. IFN-ß exhibited strong synergy with 3TC (97.3% inhibition) or in triple combination with 3TC and AZT (95.8% inhibition). This study demonstrates that IFNs and viral polymerase inhibitors may have utility in EVD. We identified several 2 and 3 drug combinations with strong anti-Ebola activity, confirmed in studies using fully infectious ZEBOV, providing a rationale for testing combination therapies in animal models of lethal Ebola challenge. These studies open up new possibilities for novel therapeutic options, in particular combination therapies, which could prevent and treat Ebola infection and potentially reduce drug

  15. A Rapid Screening Assay Identifies Monotherapy with Interferon-ß and Combination Therapies with Nucleoside Analogs as Effective Inhibitors of Ebola Virus.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Stephen D S; Majchrzak-Kita, Beata; Racine, Trina; Kozlowski, Hannah N; Baker, Darren P; Hoenen, Thomas; Kobinger, Gary P; Fish, Eleanor N; Branch, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). While a number of candidate drugs have shown limited efficacy in vitro and/or in non-human primate studies, differences in experimental methodologies make it difficult to compare their therapeutic effectiveness. Using an in vitro model of Ebola Zaire replication with transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLPs), requiring only level 2 biosafety containment, we compared the activities of the type I interferons (IFNs) IFN-α and IFN-ß, a panel of viral polymerase inhibitors (lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine (AZT) tenofovir (TFV), favipiravir (FPV), the active metabolite of brincidofovir, cidofovir (CDF)), and the estrogen receptor modulator, toremifene (TOR), in inhibiting viral replication in dose-response and time course studies. We also tested 28 two- and 56 three-drug combinations against Ebola replication. IFN-α and IFN-ß inhibited viral replication 24 hours post-infection (IC50 0.038μM and 0.016μM, respectively). 3TC, AZT and TFV inhibited Ebola replication when used alone (50-62%) or in combination (87%). They exhibited lower IC50 (0.98-6.2μM) compared with FPV (36.8μM), when administered 24 hours post-infection. Unexpectedly, CDF had a narrow therapeutic window (6.25-25μM). When dosed >50μM, CDF treatment enhanced viral infection. IFN-ß exhibited strong synergy with 3TC (97.3% inhibition) or in triple combination with 3TC and AZT (95.8% inhibition). This study demonstrates that IFNs and viral polymerase inhibitors may have utility in EVD. We identified several 2 and 3 drug combinations with strong anti-Ebola activity, confirmed in studies using fully infectious ZEBOV, providing a rationale for testing combination therapies in animal models of lethal Ebola challenge. These studies open up new possibilities for novel therapeutic options, in particular combination therapies, which could prevent and treat Ebola infection and potentially reduce drug

  16. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  17. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

  18. Computer viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  19. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk for developing fetal complications. Blood, organ and tissue donor screening tests are also needed to assure the safety of transfusion and transplantation in areas of active mosquito-borne virus transmission. ...

  20. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  1. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  2. Parainfluenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2003-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

  3. Hendra virus

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. For reasons that are not well understood an unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011, including the first recorded field infection of a dog, leading to heightened community concern. Increasingly, pressure mounted to instigate measures for control of flying-fox numbers, and equine health care workers started to leave the industry on account of risk and liability concerns. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. This approach to emerging infectious disease management focuses on the role of horses as the proximal cause of human Hendra virus disease, and may assist in redirecting community concerns away from the flying-fox reservoirs, keystone species for the ongoing health of Australia’s native forests. PMID:25281398

  4. [Influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Antoniukas, Linas

    2007-01-01

    Every year, especially during the cold season, many people catch an acute respiratory disease, namely flu. It is easy to catch this disease; therefore, it spreads very rapidly and often becomes an epidemic or a global pandemic. Airway inflammation and other body ailments, which form in a very short period, torment the patient several weeks. After that, the symptoms of the disease usually disappear as quickly as they emerged. The great epidemics of flu have rather unique characteristics; therefore, it is possible to identify descriptions of such epidemics in historic sources. Already in the 4th century bc, Hippocrates himself wrote about one of them. It is known now that flu epidemics emerge rather frequently, but there are no regular intervals between those events. The epidemics can differ in their consequences, but usually they cause an increased mortality of elderly people. The great flu epidemics of the last century took millions of human lives. In 1918-19, during "The Spanish" pandemic of flu, there were around 40-50 millions of deaths all over the world; "Pandemic of Asia" in 1957 took up to one million lives, etc. Influenza virus can cause various disorders of the respiratory system: from mild inflammations of upper airways to acute pneumonia that finally results in the patient's death. Scientist Richard E. Shope, who investigated swine flu in 1920, had a suspicion that the cause of this disease might be a virus. Already in 1933, scientists from the National Institute for Medical Research in London - Wilson Smith, Sir Christopher Andrewes, and Sir Patrick Laidlaw - for the first time isolated the virus, which caused human flu. Then scientific community started the exhaustive research of influenza virus, and the great interest in this virus and its unique features is still active even today. PMID:18182834

  5. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  6. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  7. Measles virus

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Hussein Y

    2014-01-01

    Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of the virus and its pathogenesis. Subsequently these technologies facilitated the development of novel vaccine candidates that induce immunity against measles and other pathogens. Based on the promising prospective, the use of MV as a recombinant vaccine and a therapeutic vector is addressed. PMID:25483511

  8. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. PMID:27029595

  9. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key ... for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  10. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  11. Hanta virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

  12. SAMPLING VIRUSES FROM SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes in detail methods for detecting viruses of bacteria and humans in soil. Methods also are presented for the assay of these viruses. Reference sources are provided for information on viruses of plants.

  13. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  14. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-11-27

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  15. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  16. Virophages or satellite viruses?

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, Virginija

    2011-11-01

    It has been argued that the smaller viruses associated with giant DNA viruses are a new biological entity. However, Mart Krupovic and Virginija Cvirkaite-Krupovic argue here that these smaller viruses should be classified with the satellite viruses. PMID:22016897

  17. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  18. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  19. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  20. Morphogenesis of Bittner Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Frederick W.; Clarke, John K.; Dermott, Evelyn

    1970-01-01

    The morphogenesis of Bittner virus (mouse mammary tumor virus) was studied in sectioned mammary tumor cells. Internal components of the virus (type A particles) were seen being assembled in virus factories close to the nucleus and were also seen forming at the plasma membrane. The particles in virus factories became enveloped by budding through the membrane of cytoplasmic vacuoles which were derived from dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Complete virus particles were liberated from these vacuoles by cell lysis. Particles budding at the plasma membrane were released into intercellular spaces. Maturation of enveloped virus occurred after release, but mature internal components were rarely seen in the cytoplasm before envelopment. Direct cell-to-cell transfer of virus by pinocytosis of budding particles by an adjacent cell was observed, and unusual forms of budding virus which participated in this process are illustrated and described. There was evidence that some virus particles contained cytoplasmic constituents, including ribosomes. Certain features of the structure of internal components are discussed in relation to a recently proposed model for the internal component of the mouse leukemia virus. Intracisternal virus-like particles were occasionally seen in tumor cells, but there was no evidence that these structures were developmentally related to Bittner virus. Images PMID:4193837

  1. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several important virus diseases of raspberry and black raspberry in the Pacific Northwest. Pollen-borne viruses include Raspberry bushy dwarf virus and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (aka Tobacco streak virus –Rubus isolate or Black raspberry latent virus). Strawberry necrotic shock viru...

  2. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the U.S. in ...

  3. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections more often in ... hands, and touching objects or surfaces with the viruses on them then touching your mouth, nose, or ...

  4. Advances in virus research

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. ); Murphy, F.A. ); Shatkin, A.J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

  5. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  6. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease After a comprehensive review of evidence, there ...

  7. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  10. Virus Assembly and Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

  11. Hepatitis D Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John M

    2015-11-01

    This work reviews specific related aspects of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) reproduction, including virion structure, the RNA genome, the mode of genome replication, the delta antigens, and the assembly of HDV using the envelope proteins of its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV). These topics are considered with perspectives ranging from a history of discovery through to still-unsolved problems. HDV evolution, virus entry, and associated pathogenic potential and treatment of infections are considered in other articles in this collection. PMID:26525452

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A ... often get it when older kids carry the virus home from school and pass it to ... often happen in epidemics that last from late fall through early spring. ...

  13. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  14. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  15. Computer Virus Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  16. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    PubMed

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored. PMID:26914357

  17. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  18. Heterologous prime-boost-boost immunisation of Chinese cynomolgus macaques using DNA and recombinant poxvirus vectors expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is renewed interest in the development of poxvirus vector-based HIV vaccines due to the protective effect observed with repeated recombinant canarypox priming with gp120 boosting in the recent Thai placebo-controlled trial. This study sought to investigate whether a heterologous prime-boost-boost vaccine regimen in Chinese cynomolgus macaques with a DNA vaccine and recombinant poxviral vectors expressing HIV virus-like particles bearing envelopes derived from the most prevalent clades circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, focused the antibody response to shared neutralising epitopes. Methods Three Chinese cynomolgus macaques were immunised via intramuscular injections using a regimen composed of a prime with two DNA vaccines expressing clade A Env/clade B Gag followed by boosting with recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HIV-1 clade D Gag, Env and cholera toxin B subunit followed by the final boost with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 clade C Env, Gag and human complement protein C3d. We measured the macaque serum antibody responses by ELISA, enumerated T cell responses by IFN-γ ELISpot and assessed seroneutralisation of HIV-1 using the TZM-bl β-galactosidase assay with primary isolates of HIV-1. Results This study shows that large and complex synthetic DNA sequences can be successfully cloned in a single step into two poxvirus vectors: MVA and FPV and the recombinant poxviruses could be grown to high titres. The vaccine candidates showed appropriate expression of recombinant proteins with the formation of authentic HIV virus-like particles seen on transmission electron microscopy. In addition the b12 epitope was shown to be held in common by the vaccine candidates using confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. The vaccine candidates were safely administered to Chinese cynomolgus macaques which elicited modest T cell responses at the end of the study but only one out of the three macaques elicited an HIV-specific antibody

  19. [Viruses as biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Akçali, Alper

    2005-07-01

    The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499

  20. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  1. Online identification of viruses.

    PubMed

    Kolaskar, A S; Naik, P S

    2000-06-01

    A computerized animal virus information system is developed in the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) format. This database is available on the Word Wide Web (WWW) at the site http://bioinfo.ernet.in/www/avis/avis++ +.html. The database has been used to generate large number of identification matrices for each family. The software is developed in C. Unix shell scripts and Hypertext Marked-up Language (HTML) to assign the family to an unknown virus deterministically and to identify the virus probabilistically. It has been shown that such web based virus identification approach provides results with high confidence in those cases where identification matrix uses large number of independent characters. Protein sequence data for animal viruses have been analyzed and oligopeptides specific to each virus family and also specific to each virus species are identified for several viruses. These peptides thus could be used to identify the virus and to assign the virus family with high confidence showing the usefulness of sequence data in virus identification. PMID:10917875

  2. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  3. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  4. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  5. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  6. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  7. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  8. Vaccinia virus transcription.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Steven S

    2003-09-01

    Vaccinia virus replication takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The nearly 200 kbp genome owes part of its complexity to encoding most of the proteins involved in genome and mRNA synthesis. The multisubunit vaccinia virus RNA polymerase requires a separate set of virus-encoded proteins for the transcription of the early, intermediate and late classes of genes. Cell fractionation studies have provided evidence for a role for host cell proteins in the initiation and termination of vaccinia virus intermediate and late gene transcription. Vaccinia virus resembles nuclear DNA viruses in the integration of viral and host proteins for viral mRNA synthesis, yet is markedly less reliant on host proteins than its nuclear counterparts. PMID:12917449

  9. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  10. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Goldberg, P.W.; Phillips, C.A.; Sorkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  11. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  12. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  13. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  14. Residual viruses in pork products.

    PubMed

    McKercher, P D; Hess, W R; Hamdy, F

    1978-01-01

    Partly cooked canned hams and dried pepperoni and salami sausages were prepared from the carcasses of pigs infected with African swine fever virus and pigs infected with hog cholera virus. Virus was not recovered from the partly cooked canned hams; however, virus was recovered in the hams before heating in both instances. Both African swine fever virus and hog cholera virus were recovered from the dried salami and pepperoni sausages, but not after the required curing period. PMID:564162

  15. Ferric-pyoverdine recognition by Fpv outer-membrane proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In ad...

  16. Human Papilloma Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. Cecil

    1989-01-01

    Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

  17. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  18. Influenza A virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens around the world. Avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry is unusual in that it can cause a range of disease symptoms from a subclinical infection to being highly virulent with 100% mortality. The difference between low pathogen...

  19. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  20. Zika Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Werner

    2016-06-01

    The history of Zika virus disease serves as a paradigm of a typical emerging viral infection. Zika virus disease, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest of Uganda. The same virus was also isolated from jungle-dwelling mosquitoes (Aedes [Stegomyia] africanus). In many areas of Africa and South Asia human infections with Zika virus were detected by both serology and virus isolation. About 80% of infections are asymptomatic, and in 20% a mostly mild disease with fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis may occur. Fetal infections with malformations were not recorded in Africa or Asia. Zika virus was imported to northern Brazil possibly during the world soccer championship that was hosted by Brazil in June through July 2014. A cluster of severe fetal malformations with microcephaly and ocular defects was noted in 2015 in the northeast of Brazil, and intrauterine infections with Zika virus were confirmed. The dramatic change in Zika virus pathogenicity upon its introduction to Brazil has remained an enigma. PMID:27337468

  1. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Denise; Hurst, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus and reports linking infection in pregnant women with microcephaly in newborns have caused concern worldwide. Information has been evolving rapidly. Nurses and other clinicians, especially those who work with women of childbearing age, play a pivotal role in disseminating accurate information and identifying potential cases of Zika virus infection. PMID:27287356

  4. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  5. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  6. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  7. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  8. Respiratory viruses and children.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory viruses place a great disease burden especially on the youngest children in terms of high rates of infection, bacterial complications and hospitalizations. In developing countries, some viral infections are even associated with substantial mortality in children. The interaction between viruses and bacteria is probably much more common and clinically significant than previously understood. Respiratory viruses frequently initiate the cascade of events that ultimately leads to bacterial infection. Effective antiviral agents can substantially shorten the duration of the viral illness and prevent the development of bacterial complications. Viral vaccines have the potential to not only prevent the viral infection but also decrease the incidence of bacterial complications. At present, antivirals and vaccines are only available against influenza viruses, but new vaccines and antivirals against other viruses, especially for RSV, are being developed. PMID:27177731

  9. Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus-Virus Plaque Assay.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays. PMID:27233264

  10. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  11. A Virus in Turbo Pascal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

  12. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  13. Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Cun; Liu, Yuehuan; Ye, Weicheng; Han, Jingwen; Ma, Guoming; Zhang, Dongdong; Xu, Feng; Gao, Xuhui; Tang, Yi; Shi, Shaohua; Wan, Chunhe; Zhang, Chen; He, Bin; Yang, Mengjie; Lu, Xinhao; Huang, Yu; Diao, Youxiang; Ma, Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%–91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks. PMID:22000358

  14. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  15. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  16. Viruses of Chelonia.

    PubMed

    Ahne, W

    1993-02-01

    Viruses occurring in turtles and tortoises are hetergeneous but according to ecologic characteristics and pathogenic properties they can be divided in two major groups: 1. Arboviruses (toga-, flavi-, rhabdo- and bunyaviruses) transmitted by arthropods cause severe diseases in homoiothermic vertebrates. The viruses are of great epidemiological interest in human and veterinary medicine. Chelonia and other reptiles infected by bites of vectors e.g. Aedes, Anopheles, Culex develop cyclic viremia without injury. The ectothermic animals maintain inapparent arbovirus infections during hibernation and they play role as reservoirs for these viruses. 2. Viruses of Chelonia origin (papova-, herpes-, irido- and paramyxoviruses) associated with diseases of infected turtles and tortoises have been described frequently during the last 20 years. Several viruses or virus-like particles could be demonstrated in affected reptiles mainly by electron microscopy. Especially herpesviruses seem to attack Chelonia and epizootics due to infections with these viruses were reported in several reptiles in collections. However, the etiological role of the agents detected is not well documented yet. PMID:8456570

  17. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Barclay, J Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. ≤35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. PMID:20877898

  18. Foamy virus vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D W; Miller, A D

    1996-01-01

    Human foamy virus (HFV) is a retrovirus of the spumavirus family. We have constructed vectors based on HFV that encode neomycin phosphotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. These vectors are able to transduce a wide variety of vertebrate cells by integration of the vector genome. Unlike vectors based on murine leukemia virus, HFV vectors are not inactivated by human serum, and they transduce stationary-phase cultures more efficiently than murine leukemia virus vectors. These properties, as well as their large packaging capacity, make HFV vectors promising gene transfer vehicles. PMID:8523528

  19. Fighting cancer with viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most promising strategies to treat cancer is attacking it with viruses. Viruses can kill tumor cells specifically or act as carriers that deliver normal genes into cancer cells. A model for virotherapy of cancer is investigated and its predictions are in agreement with results obtained from experimental tumors. Furthermore, the model reveals an oscillatory (periodic or aperiodic) response of tumor cells and virus populations which may make clinical prognosis difficult. These results suggest the need for new in vivo and in vitro experiments aiming to detect this oscillatory response.

  20. Viruses in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae

  1. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  2. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to human beings through their bites. Credit: CDC Biology, Genetics, & Clinical Research NIAID conducts and funds basic and clinical research on WNV biology and viral structure, ways the virus causes human ...

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

  4. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  5. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important ... the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But ...

  7. How rigid are viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartschuh, R. D.; Wargacki, S. P.; Xiong, H.; Neiswinger, J.; Kisliuk, A.; Sihn, S.; Ward, V.; Vaia, R. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2008-08-01

    Viruses have traditionally been studied as pathogens, but in recent years they have been adapted for applications ranging from drug delivery and gene therapy to nanotechnology, photonics, and electronics. Although the structures of many viruses are known, most of their biophysical properties remain largely unexplored. Using Brillouin light scattering, we analyzed the mechanical rigidity, intervirion coupling, and vibrational eigenmodes of Wiseana iridovirus (WIV). We identified phonon modes propagating through the viral assemblies as well as the localized vibrational eigenmode of individual viruses. The measurements indicate a Young’s modulus of ˜7GPa for single virus particles and their assemblies, surprisingly high for “soft” materials. Mechanical modeling confirms that the DNA core dominates the WIV rigidity. The results also indicate a peculiar mechanical coupling during self-assembly of WIV particles.

  8. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  9. Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

  10. [Zika, a neurotropic virus?].

    PubMed

    Del Carpio-Orantes, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the neurotropism potential Zika virus is discussed, by comparison with viruses both RNA and DNA are neurotropic known, also it is said that compared with the new viruses that have affected the Americas, as the chikungunya, Zika has shown great affinity by brain tissue, manifested by a high incidence of acute neurological conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, among others, as well as the reported incidence of microcephaly that is abnormally high compared with the previous incidence, which, in a stillborn subject necropsied significant alterations demonstrated in brain tissue, identifying viral material and live virus in the fetoplacental complex, and demonstrating the impact both white matter and gray matter as well as basal ganglia, corpus callosum, ventricles and spinal cord, which could explain the microcephaly that concerns him. Although not a direct cause-effect relationship is demonstrated, however current evidence supports that relationship, hoping to be supported scientifically. PMID:27197113

  11. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-01-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

  12. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes spread the virus that causes it. People who ... barrels Stay indoors between dusk and dawn, when mosquitoes are most active Use screens on windows to ...

  13. Ebola virus disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen. The virus can enter the body through a ... use condoms for 12 months or until their semen has twice tested negative. Long-term complications can ...

  14. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  15. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-10-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. PMID:2224837

  16. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  17. Control of cucurbit viruses.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Hervé; Katis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    More than 70 well-characterized virus species transmitted by a diversity of vectors may infect cucurbit crops worldwide. Twenty of those cause severe epidemics in major production areas, occasionally leading to complete crop failures. Cucurbit viruses' control is based on three major axes: (i) planting healthy seeds or seedlings in a clean environment, (ii) interfering with vectors activity, and (iii) using resistant cultivars. Seed disinfection and seed or seedling quality controls guarantee growers on the sanitary status of their planting material. Removal of virus or vector sources in the crop environment can significantly delay the onset of viral epidemics. Insecticide or oil application may reduce virus spread in some situations. Diverse cultural practices interfere with or prevent vector reaching the crop. Resistance can be obtained by grafting for soil-borne viruses, by cross-protection, or generally by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. The diversity of the actions that may be taken to limit virus spread in cucurbit crops and their limits will be discussed. The ultimate goal is to provide farmers with technical packages that combine these methods within an integrated disease management program and are adapted to different countries and cropping systems. PMID:25410104

  18. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection. PMID:27486731

  19. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  20. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  1. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  2. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  3. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. PMID:27079865

  4. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  5. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskiy, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-γ-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Kellner, James D.; Davies, H. Dele

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus, the most common cause of bronchiolitis, is the leading cause of infant hospitalization in developed countries and accounts for substantial mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Children at increased risk of developing severe bronchiolitis are those <6 weeks of age, those born prematurely and those with an underlying cardiopulmonary disorder or immunodeficiency. Approximately 80% of cases occur in the first year of life. By two years of age, virtually all children have been infected by at least one strain of the virus. Classically, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis manifests as cough, wheezing and respiratory distress. The mainstay of treatment is supportive care, consisting of adequate fluid intake, antipyretics to control fever and use of supplemental oxygen if necessary. Frequent and meticulous hand-washing is the best measure to prevent secondary spread. Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis beyond supportive care should be individualized. Palivizumab has been shown to be effective in preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in high-risk children when given prophylactically. In the majority of cases, the disease is usually self-limited. The mortality rate is <1% and occurs predominantly in children at high risk for severe disease. PMID:16396064

  7. Viruses and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gregory P; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  8. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  9. Nongenital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

    2010-11-01

    Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

  10. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  11. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  12. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  13. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  14. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  15. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  16. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  17. Chlorella viruses isolated in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. )

    1988-09-01

    Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  19. Oncolytic viruses: finally delivering.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2016-02-16

    Oncolytic viruses can be found at the confluence of virology, genetic engineering and pharmacology where versatile platforms for molecularly targeted anticancer agents can be designed and optimised. Oncolytic viruses offer several important advantages over traditional approaches, including the following. (1) Amplification of the active agent (infectious virus particles) within the tumour. This avoids unnecessary exposure to normal tissues experienced during delivery of traditional stoichiometric chemotherapy and maximises the therapeutic index. (2) The active cell-killing mechanisms, often independent of programmed death mechanisms, should decrease the emergence of acquired drug resistance. (3) Lytic death of cancer cells provides a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and the potential for induction of an anticancer vaccine response. (4) Tumour-selective expression and secretion of encoded anticancer biologics, providing a new realm of potent and cost-effective-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26766734

  20. Oncolytic viruses: finally delivering

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses can be found at the confluence of virology, genetic engineering and pharmacology where versatile platforms for molecularly targeted anticancer agents can be designed and optimised. Oncolytic viruses offer several important advantages over traditional approaches, including the following. (1) Amplification of the active agent (infectious virus particles) within the tumour. This avoids unnecessary exposure to normal tissues experienced during delivery of traditional stoichiometric chemotherapy and maximises the therapeutic index. (2) The active cell-killing mechanisms, often independent of programmed death mechanisms, should decrease the emergence of acquired drug resistance. (3) Lytic death of cancer cells provides a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and the potential for induction of an anticancer vaccine response. (4) Tumour-selective expression and secretion of encoded anticancer biologics, providing a new realm of potent and cost-effective-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26766734

  1. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  2. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  3. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  4. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  5. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  6. Detection of Lassa Virus, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Lopez, Job E.; Sogoba, Nafomon; Traore’, Sékou F.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Ebihara, Hideki; Branco, Luis; Garry, Robert F.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever. PMID:20587185

  7. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  8. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. PMID:27154393

  9. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Weinbauer, Markus G

    2004-05-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment. PMID:15109783

  10. Relationship of lychnis ringspot virus to barley stripe mosaic virus and poa semilatent virus.

    PubMed

    Hunter, B G; Smith, J; Fattouh, F; Jackson, A O

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), poa semilatent virus (PSLV), and lychnis ringspot virus (LRSV) have previously been assigned to the hordeivirus group because of similarities in their particle morphology, physicochemical properties and serological analyses. However, the serological relationships of the three viruses have not been determined by direct comparison. The present study evaluated the relatedness of these viruses by Western and dot immunoblotting and by nucleic acid hybridizations. Serological analyses of the coat proteins separated by gel electrophoresis and of intact virus particles bound to nitrocellulose membranes revealed that BSMV and PSLV are distantly related, but that they are more closely related to each other than to LRSV. The genomic RNAs of the viruses failed to cross-hybridize in northern hybridization tests conducted at different temperatures. These comparisons showed that BSMV, PSLV and LRSV are distinct viruses with little nucleotide sequence relatedness. Thus our data provide additional support for their inclusion as separate members of the hordeivirus group. PMID:2722469

  11. Research on computer virus database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  12. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  13. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  14. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  15. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  16. Schmallenberg virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, K; Elbers, A; Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects domestic and wild ruminants. Adult animals show only mild clinical symptoms or none at all, whereas an infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. Vaccination could be an important aspect of disease control. PMID:26601441

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  18. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  19. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  20. Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

  1. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

    2014-05-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  2. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  3. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  4. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA. PMID:26551994

  5. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  6. Cold Facts about Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

  7. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2009-02-09

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  8. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

  9. VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial contamination of ground water is a serious problem that can result in large outbreaks of waterborne disease. The purpose of this article is to review the literature available on viruses in ground water in order to evaluate the present state-of-knowledge, assess the ...

  10. Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

  11. Varicella zoster virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

  12. The FEFM Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cjelli, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of human performance technology (HPT) interventions focuses on requests for solutions to problems that involve conflict between the FEFM ("Fix 'em for me") Virus and the WIIFM ("What's in it for me?") Requirement. Building a relationship of mutual trust and confidence with the client and demonstrating responsiveness are advocated. (LRW)

  13. Cell injury with viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, I.

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitions of cellular protein and RNA synthesis in picornavirus-infected cells are early events which require only limited synthesis of virus-specific proteins. The inhibition of cellular protein synthesis appears to be due to blocking of the association of ribosomes with host messenger RNA. Inhibition of cellular RNA synthesis involves inactivation of the template-enzyme complex and affects ribosomal RNA synthesis before messenger RNA synthesis. Inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis also occurs early and may be secondary to inhibition of cellular protein synthesis. Early chromatid breaks may be related to inhibitions of cellular protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Stimulation of phospholipid synthesis in picornavirus-infected cells also requires only limited synthesis of virus-specific proteins. In contrast, release of lysosomal enzymes, proliferation of smooth cytoplasmic membranes, cellular vacuolization, retraction, and rounding, and diffuse chromosomal changes related to karyorrhexis and pyknosis are all dependent on considerable synthesis of virus-specific proteins during the middle part of the picornavirus growth cycle. The early virus-induced alterations in cellular biosynthetic processes are not the direct or sole cause of the subsequent marked pathologic changes in the membranes and chromosomes of the cell. Images Figure 1 PMID:1180330

  14. Yellow Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

  15. Varicella zoster virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anne A; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Cohrs, Randall J; Gershon, Michael D; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G E; Oxman, Michael N; Seward, Jane F; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death - a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14xVI1. PMID:27188665

  16. Honey Bee Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses are significant threats to the health and well-being of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. To alleviate the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally-benign disease control ...

  17. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2010-01-08

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  18. Raspberry leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

  19. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

  20. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  1. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  2. Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

  3. GENOME OF HORSEPOX VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212 kbp genome contained 7.5 kbp inverted terminal repeats (ITR) and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 ORFs with sim...

  4. Viruses and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

  5. A vaccinia virus renaissance

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

    2012-01-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

  6. Western equine encephalitis virus is a recombinant virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, C S; Lustig, S; Strauss, E G; Strauss, J H

    1988-01-01

    The alphaviruses are a group of 26 mosquito-borne viruses that cause a variety of human diseases. Many of the New World alphaviruses cause encephalitis, whereas the Old World viruses more typically cause fever, rash, and arthralgia. The genome is a single-stranded nonsegmented RNA molecule of + polarity; it is about 11,700 nucleotides in length. Several alphavirus genomes have been sequenced in whole or in part, and these sequences demonstrate that alpha-viruses have descended from a common ancestor by divergent evolution. We have now obtained the sequence of the 3'-terminal 4288 nucleotides of the RNA of the New World Alphavirus western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of WEEV with those of other alphaviruses clearly show that WEEV is recombinant. The sequences of the capsid protein and of the (untranslated) 3'-terminal 80 nucleotides of WEEV are closely related to the corresponding sequences of the New World Alphavirus eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), whereas the sequences of glycoproteins E2 and E1 of WEEV are more closely related to those of an Old World virus, Sindbis virus. Thus, WEEV appears to have arisen by recombination between an EEEV-like virus and a Sindbis-like virus to give rise to a new virus with the encephalogenic properties of EEEV but the antigenic specificity of Sindbis virus. There has been speculation that recombination might play an important role in the evolution of RNA viruses. The current finding that a widespread and successful RNA virus is recombinant provides support for such an hypothesis. Images PMID:3413072

  7. Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

  8. Single Virus Genomics: A New Tool for Virus Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lasken, Roger S.; Williamson, Shannon J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called ‘Single Virus Genomics’, which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882

  9. Neuroteratogenic Viruses and Lessons for Zika Virus Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. ZIKV now joins five other neuroteratogenic (NT) viruses in humans and ZIKV research is in its infancy. In addition, there is only one other NT human arbovirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), which is also poorly understood. But further insight into ZIKV can be found by evaluating arboviruses in domestic animals, of which there are at least seven NT viruses, three of which have been well studied. Here we review two key anatomical structures involved in modeling transplacental NT virus transmission: the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier. We then survey major research findings regarding transmission of NT viruses for guidance in establishing a mouse model of Zika disease that is crucial for a better understanding of ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis. PMID:27387029

  10. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...