Sample records for panleukopenia virus fpv

  1. New quantitative methods for detection of feline parvovirus (FPV) and virus neutralizing antibody against FPV using a feline T lymphoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Miyazawa, T; Kurosawa, K; Naito, R; Hatama, S; Kai, C; Mikami, T

    1998-08-01

    Previously, we reported that a feline T lymphoid cell line, FL74 cells, was very sensitive to feline parvovirus (FPV) infection. In the present study, we developed new quantitative methods for detection of FPV and virus neutralizing antibody against FPV using FL74 cells. The methods presented here were very simple and applicable to both canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. PMID:9764414

  2. Detection of feline panleukopenia virus using a commercial ELISA for canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Beall, Melissa J; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a significant pathogen of cats. Rapid virus detection is critical for treatment and management, especially in populations in which spread may occur. This study investigated the ability of the SNAP Canine Parvovirus Antigen Test Kit (SNAP Parvo, IDEXX Laboratories) to detect FPV with confirmation of viral identity by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and genetic sequencing on fecal samples (n = 97) from cats with suspected FPV infection. Fifty-five samples were positive by SNAP Parvo; 54 of 55 were also positive by conventional PCR assay and were identified as FPV by genetic sequencing. This study demonstrates that SNAP Parvo can detect FPV in clinical samples. PMID:20425728

  3. Antigenic relationships between canine parvovirus type 2, feline panleukopenia virus and mink enteritis virus using conventional antisera and monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Parrish; L. E. Carmichael; D. F. Antczak

    1982-01-01

    Summary The antigenic relationships between three similar parvoviruses, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV) were investigated. Antisera against all 3 viruses and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to CPV were prepared and the viruses compared using several serological methods. When conventional sera were used in the hemagglutination-inhibition and agar gel precipitin (AGP) tests there

  4. Apoptosis in Feline Panleukopenia Virus-Infected Lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUHIRO IKEDA; JUNKO SHINOZUKA; TAKAYUKI MIYAZAWA; KYOKO KUROSAWA; YOSHIHIRO IZUMIYA; YORIHIRO NISHIMURA; KAZUYA NAKAMURA; JINSHUN CAI; KENTARO FUJITA; KUNIO DOI; TAKESHI MIKAMI

    1998-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) was shown to induce apoptosis to feline lymphoid cells and to reduce the expression of interleukin-2 receptor a on the cells. FPLV-induced apoptosis might be a key element in the pathophysiology of atrophy of lymphoid tissues associated with feline panleukopenia caused by FPLV. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) are classified as host range

  5. Development of FPV140 antigen-specific ELISA differentiating fowlpox virus isolates from all other viral pathogens of avian origin.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Hong, Q; Ren, Y; Lillehoj, H S; He, C; Ren, X

    2012-10-01

    The FPV140 gene encodes an envelope protein of fowlpox virus (FPV). In this study, the FPV140 gene of FPV Chinese isolate HH2008 was cloned and the comparison of its sequence with other FPV isolates showed it to be highly conserved across all FPV isolates. A recombinant plasmid pET-FPV140 carrying FPV140 gene was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli. The optimal expression condition for the FPV140 gene was developed and purified FPV140 recombinant protein was used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibody. An indirect ELISA using this anti-FPV140 polyclonal antibody was capable of distinguishing avian FPV isolates from other common avian pathogens such as mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus. This ELISA will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of FPV in clinical samples. PMID:22991535

  6. Feline panleukopenia virus: its interesting evolution and current problems in immunoprophylaxis against a serious pathogen.

    PubMed

    Truyen, Uwe; Parrish, Colin R

    2013-07-26

    Vaccination of cats against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) has been a routine part of feline medicine for the past 40 or more years, and many of the same vaccines that were first developed in the 1960s are still in routine use today. However, there has been significant evolution of the virus in the last 40 years, in particular the emergence of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs in the late 1970s, which was a host range variant of the FPV-like virus, and the world-wide spread of the CPV-derived viruses since 1978. FPV and the various antigenic types of CPV have been isolated from cats, raccoons, and many different wild and captive carnivores. The consequences of these changes in the viral populations have not been investigated, and the effectiveness of the current vaccine protocols have not been reported. Here we review the recent findings about the evolution of the viruses in carnivores including cats, and describe a study that looks at the efficiency of vaccination of kittens using the standard protocols, which shows that many cats are not protected by those approaches. PMID:23561891

  7. Canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truyen, U; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. The origin of CPV is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. Here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of CPV and FPV. Examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CPV replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas FPV replicates efficiently only in feline cells. The in vivo host ranges were unexpectedly complex and distinct from the in vitro host ranges. Inoculation of dogs with FPV revealed efficient replication in the thymus and, to some degree, in the bone marrow, as shown by virus isolation, viral DNA recovery, and Southern blotting and by strand-specific in situ hybridization. FPV replication could not be demonstrated in mesenteric lymph nodes or in the small intestine, which are important target tissues in CPV infection. Although CPV replicated well in all the feline cells tested in vitro, it did not replicate in any tissue of cats after intramuscular or intravenous inoculation. These results indicate that these viruses have complex and overlapping host ranges and that distinct tissue tropisms exist in the homologous and heterologous hosts. Images PMID:1323703

  8. Detection of protective antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus in shelter cats using a point-of-care ELISA.

    PubMed

    Digangi, Brian A; Gray, Lauren K; Levy, Julie K; Dubovi, Edward J; Tucker, Sylvia J

    2011-12-01

    Serum antibody titers are a useful measurement of protection against infection (feline panleukopenia virus [FPV]) or clinical disease (feline herpesvirus-1 [FHV] and feline calicivirus [FCV]), and their determination has been recommended as part of disease outbreak management in animal shelters. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and inter-observer and inter-assay agreement of two semi-quantitative point-of-care assays for the detection of protective antibody titers (PAT) against FPV, FHV and FCV in shelter cats. Low sensitivity for FPV antibodies (28%) rendered a canine point-of-care assay inappropriate for use in cats. The feline point-of-care assay also had low sensitivity (49%) and low negative predictive value (74%) for FPV PAT detection, but was highly accurate in the assessment of FHV and FCV PAT. Improvements in accuracy and repeatability of FPV PAT determination could make this tool a valuable component of a disease outbreak response in animal shelters. PMID:21885311

  9. Specific identification of feline panleukopenia virus and its rapid differentiation from canine parvoviruses using minor groove binder probes.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Lucente, Maria Stella; Amorisco, Francesca; Campolo, Marco; Elia, Gabriella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account reports of the isolation of canine parvoviruses (CPVs) from faecal samples of cats, we developed a real-time PCR assay, based on minor groove binder (MGB) probe technology, for rapid discrimination between true feline panleukopenia viruses (FPLVs) from CPVs. The assay takes advantage of a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 3753 of the viral genome (corresponding to residue 323 of the capsid VP2 protein) and of the ability of MGB probes to bind specifically only to perfectly complementary sequences. The FPV/CPV assay was proven to be highly specific, sensitive and reproducible and correlated well with a TaqMan assay able to recognise canine as well as feline parvoviruses. Using this assay for extensive molecular surveys will provide precise information on the real circulation of the CPV antigenic variants, including the new variant 2c, in cat population worldwide. PMID:17850892

  10. Evaluation of an in-house dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed

    Mende, Katherina; Stuetzer, Bianca; Truyen, Uwe; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-10-01

    Measuring antibody titres to determine a cat's immunity to core diseases instead of just administering annual vaccinations has not been established in Germany so far. An in-house test kit for the detection of antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus-- the ImmunoComb Feline VacciCheck--is now available in several European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the ImmunoComb Feline VacciCheck to determine antibodies by comparing it to a gold standard. The test is aimed for use in practice to assist decision-making when performing an individual health assessment to see whether a cat is potentially unprotected against FPV and requires FPV vaccination. Sera from 347 cats were included in the study. For antibody detection, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was performed as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the ImmunoComb Feline VacciCheck were determined for three different HI titre cut-off points (1:20, 1:40, 1:80). In comparison to the HI, the ImmunoComb Feline VacciCheck showed a sensitivity of 79%, 83% and 87%, and a specificity of 89%, 86% and 81%, respectively. Specificity of the ImmunoComb Feline VacciCheck, which was considered the most important parameter, was acceptable in comparison to HI. Especially when considering an antibody titre of 1:20 sufficient for protection (eg, in an adult animal), the ImmunoComb Feline VacciCheck can be recommended for use in veterinary practice. PMID:24496322

  11. Cloning and sequence of DNA encoding structural proteins of the autonomous parvovirus feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J; Rushlow, K; Maxwell, I; Maxwell, F; Winston, S; Hahn, W

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the genome of feline panleukopenia virus was cloned into pBR322. This DNA included the transcription unit for the major viral mRNA species. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned portion of the genome was determined. Comparison of the feline panleukopenia virus sequence with the sequences of the parvoviruses minute virus of mice and H-1 revealed considerable homology between the three viruses on both the nucleic acid and protein levels. Based on this homology, a model for the generation of the two size classes of viral structural proteins (VP1 and VP2') is proposed. Images PMID:2991581

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Feline Panleukopenia Virus Strain HRB-CS1, Isolated from a Domestic Cat in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunguo; Liu, Yongxiang; Liu, Dafei; Qiu, Zheng; Tian, Jin; Guo, Dongchun; Li, Zhijie; Liu, Ming; Li, Yijing

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strain HRB-CS1, isolated from a dead domestic cat showing enteric symptoms in China in 2014. The genome of HRB-CS1 was sequenced and analyzed, which will help to understand the genetic characteristics and evolution of FPLV in China. PMID:25814618

  13. Isolation of canine parvovirus from a cat manifesting clinical signs of feline panleukopenia.

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, M; Horiuchi, M; Hiragi, H; San Gabriel, M C; Yasuda, N; Uno, T

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven feline parvovirus (FPV) isolates were recovered from cats clinically diagnosed with feline panleukopenia (FPL) for assessing antigenic and genomic properties of FPL viruses (FPLV) recently prevalent among cats in Japan. All isolates, with the exception of one novel isolate, FPV-314, possessed homologous properties, and their subgroups in FPVs were identified as FPLV. The FPV-314 isolate, which was from a 1.5-year-old cat which manifested clinical signs of FPL and died on the 13th day after the first medical examination, was finally identified as canine parvovirus (CPV) because it lacked a specific antigenic epitope commonly detected in FPLV and mink enteritis virus and because the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene was almost identical to those of CPV-2a and -2b antigenic type strains recently prevalent among dogs in Japan. The present result together with our previous findings (M. Mochizuki, R. Harasawa, and H. Nakatani. Vet. Microbiol. 38:1-10, 1993) indicates the possibility that CPV and FPLV undergo mutual interspecies transmission between dogs and cats, and it is postulated that they may cause disease in some adventitious hosts. PMID:8862565

  14. Response of mink, skunk, red fox and raccoon to inoculation with mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus and prevalence of antibody to parvovirus in wild carnivores in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, I K; Povey, R C; Voigt, D R

    1983-01-01

    Mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2 were inoculated separately into groups of raccoon, mink, red fox and striped skunk. Raccoons were highly susceptible to mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia, with animals developing clinical illness, and several dying within six to ten days of inoculation with lesions typical of parvovirus infection. Both viruses were shed in high titre in the feces of infected raccoons, and high antibody titres were stimulated. Raccoons inoculated with canine parvovirus-2 showed no signs; shedding of virus was sporadic though moderate titres of antibody developed. Mink inoculated with mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia developed signs and lesions of early parvovirus infection. No signs or significant lesions followed canine parvovirus-2 inoculation. Shedding of virus was heavy (mink virus enteritis) or sporadic (feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2), though good serological responses were elicited to all three viruses. Red fox showed no signs of infection, shed all three viruses only sporadically, and the serological response was strong only to feline panleukopenia. Skunks developed low antibody titres, but no signs, and did not shed virus. Antibody to parvovirus was found in 79.2% of 144 wild red foxes; 22.3% of 112 wild raccoons; 1.3% of 157 wild skunks and 6/7 coyotes in southern Ontario. The likely significance of these viruses to wild and captive individuals and populations of these carnivores is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6309349

  15. Successive deaths of a captive snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) by infection with feline panleukopenia virus at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Mochizuki, Masami; Umemura, Takashi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-04-01

    Feline parvoviruses were isolated from frozen samples of intestines taken from a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) that died successively at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo in Hokkaido, Japan. Isolates possessed an antigenic epitope for both the feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus, identified with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Sequencing analyses of the VP2 region of the isolates revealed that the two isolates were identical and of the FPLV-type. These results suggested that FPLV was introduced from a feral cat which entered the zoo and transmitted the virus inside the zoo. PMID:21116104

  16. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n?=?99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n?=?19), stone marten (Martes foina, n?=?3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n?=?3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n?=?4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). PMID:23527182

  17. Vaccination against Feline Panleukopenia: implications from a field study in kittens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Feline Panleukopenia (FPL) is a serious disease of cats that can be prevented by vaccination. Kittens are routinely vaccinated repeatedly during their first months of life. By this time maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with vaccination and inhibit the development of active immunity. The efficacy of primary vaccination under field conditions was questioned by frequent reports to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut on outbreaks of FPL in vaccinated breeding catteries. We therefore initiated a field study to investigate the development of immunity in kittens during primary vaccination against FPL. 64 kittens from 16 litters were vaccinated against FPL at the age of 8, 12 and 16?weeks using three commercial polyvalent vaccines. Blood samples were taken before each vaccination and at the age of 20?weeks. Sera were tested for antibodies against Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) by hemagglutination inhibition test and serum neutralisation assay in two independent diagnostic laboratories. Results There was a good correlation between the results obtained in different laboratories and with different methods. Despite triple vaccination 36.7% of the kittens did not seroconvert. Even very low titres of MDA apparently inhibited the development of active immunity. The majority of kittens displayed significant titres of MDA at 8 and 12?weeks of age; in some animals MDA were still detected at 20?weeks of age. Interestingly, the vaccines tested differed significantly in their ability to overcome low levels of maternal immunity. Conclusions In the given situation it is recommended to quantify antibodies against FPV in the serum of the queen or kittens before primary vaccination of kittens. The beginning of primary vaccination should be delayed until MDA titres have declined. Unprotected kittens that have been identified serologically should be revaccinated. PMID:22613093

  18. Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.

    PubMed

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes. PMID:9711795

  19. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids. PMID:22779227

  20. Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing glycoprotein B of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and chicken IL-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18. PMID:22077232

  1. Characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Terio, Valentina; Elia, Gabriella; Lucente, Maria Stella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-01

    Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (FPL) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulcerations, that died eight days after the onset of the disease. Two pups living in the same pet shop as the cat were found to shed a CPV-2a strain genetically identical to the feline virus and were likely the source of infection. Also, non-fatal infection by a CPV-2c strain occurred in a 2.5-month-old European shorthair kitten displaying non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea and normal white blood cell counts. By sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (VP2) gene, the feline CPV-2c strain showed 100% identity to a recent canine type-2c isolate. Both kittens had been administered multivalent vaccines against common feline pathogens including FPL virus. Whether and to which extent the FPL vaccines can protect cats adequately from the antigenic variants of CPV-2 should be assessed. PMID:20334885

  2. Measurement of antibody titer to fowl pox virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Y; Sawaguchi, K

    1994-12-01

    The usefulness of the measurement of antibody titer to fowl pox virus (FPV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated in SPF chickens with or without inoculation with FPV. The optimum concentration of purified antigen was 10 micrograms/ml of protein. The absorbance at 492 nm was less than 0.10 in the chickens negative to FPV from 1 to 63 days old. By contrast, a higher titer was detected in SPF chickens with various FPVs inoculated into the wing web than in non-inoculated chickens. Moreover, there was no cross response to chicken sera immunized with Haemophilus paragallinarum, Marek's disease virus, Newcastle disease virus or infectious bronchitis virus. The titers increased after vaccination were not increased after subsequent challenge with virulent FPV. These findings suggested the usefulness of the measurement of the antibody response to FPV vaccine by ELISA. PMID:7696418

  3. Infectious bursal disease virus structural protein VP 2 expressed by a fowlpox virus recombinant confers protection against disease in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-G. Heine; D. B. Boyle

    1993-01-01

    Summary Two fowlpox virus recombinants were constructed which expressed the host-protective antigen, VP 2, of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Recombinant FPV-VP 2.4.3 contained the gene for the VP 2-VP 4-VP 3 polyprotein under the control of the vaccinia virus late promoter P.L 11 inserted within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FPV. In infected chicken embryo skin (CES) cells

  4. Differential diagnosis of fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in chicken diphtheritic manifestations by mono and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Altory, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and fowlpox virus (FPV) cause diphtheritic lesions in chicken tracheas and can simultaneously infect the same bird. A differential molecular diagnostic test, the duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, is now reported using ILTV and FPV vaccine viruses and clinical samples from chickens, either uninfected or naturally infected with ILTV or FPV, or with both viruses. The dual virus amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated to behave similarly to monoplex amplification, in spite of the fact that the real-time exponential amplification plots of the vaccine viruses were more illustrative than those of the clinical samples. PMID:25317604

  5. Fowlpox Virus Encodes a Novel DNA Repair Enzyme, CPD-Photolyase, That Restores Infectivity of UV Light-Damaged Virus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Viswanathan; Schnitzlein, William M.; Tripathy, Deoki N.

    2001-01-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV), a pathogen of poultry, can persist in desiccated scabs shed from infected hosts. Although the mechanisms which ensure virus survival are unknown, it is likely that some type of remedial action against environmentally induced damage is required. In this regard, we have identified an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a putative class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-photolyase in the genome of FPV. This enzyme repairs the UV light-induced formation of CPDs in DNA by using blue light as an energy source and thus could enhance the viability of FPV during its exposure to sunlight. Based on transcriptional analyses, the photolyase gene was found to be expressed late during the FPV replicative cycle. That the resultant protein retained DNA repair activity was demonstrated by the ability of the corresponding FPV ORF to complement functionally a photolyase-deficient Escherichia coli strain. Interestingly, insertional inactivation of the FPV photolyase gene did not impair the replication of such a genetically altered virus in cultured cells. However, greater sensitivity of this mutant than of the parental virus to UV light irradiation was evident when both were subsequently photoreactivated in the absence of host participation. Therefore, FPV appears to incorporate its photolyase into mature virions where the enzyme can promote their survival in the environment. Although expression of a homologous protein has been predicted for some chordopoxviruses, this report is the first to demonstrate that a poxvirus can utilize light to repair damage to its genome. PMID:11160666

  6. Ferric-Pyoverdine Recognition by Fpv Outer Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Hartney, Sierra L.; Mazurier, Sylvie; Girard, Maëva K.; Mehnaz, Samina; Davis, Edward W.; Gross, Harald; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (previously called P. fluorescens Pf-5) produces two siderophores, enantio-pyochelin and a compound in the large and diverse pyoverdine family. Using high-resolution mass spectroscopy, we determined the structure of the pyoverdine produced by Pf-5. In addition to producing its own siderophores, Pf-5 also utilizes ferric complexes of some pyoverdines produced by other strains of Pseudomonas spp. as sources of iron. Previously, phylogenetic analysis of the 45 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins in Pf-5 indicated that six are in a well-supported clade with ferric-pyoverdine receptors (Fpvs) from other Pseudomonas spp. We used a combination of phylogenetics, bioinformatics, mutagenesis, pyoverdine structural determinations, and cross-feeding bioassays to assign specific ferric-pyoverdine substrates to each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. We identified at least one ferric-pyoverdine that was taken up by each of the six Fpvs of Pf-5. Functional redundancy of the Pf-5 Fpvs was also apparent, with some ferric-pyoverdines taken up by all mutants with a single Fpv deletion but not by a mutant having deletions in two of the Fpv-encoding genes. Finally, we demonstrated that phylogenetically related Fpvs take up ferric complexes of structurally related pyoverdines, thereby establishing structure-function relationships that can be employed in the future to predict the pyoverdine substrates of Fpvs in other Pseudomonas spp. PMID:23222724

  7. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mara Battilani; Andrea Balboni; Martina Ustulin; Massimo Giunti; Alessandra Scagliarini; Santino Prosperi

    2011-01-01

    Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia\\u000a virus (FPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients,\\u000a since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species\\u000a which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the

  8. Selectivity of pyoverdine recognition by the FpvA receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Benjamin; Cézard, Christine; Sonnet, Pascal

    2015-07-21

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous human opportunistic pathogen, has developed resistances to multiple antibiotics. It uses its primary native siderophore, pyoverdine, to scavenge the iron essential to its growth in the outside medium and transport it back into its cytoplasm. The FpvA receptor on the bacterial outer membrane recognizes and internalizes pyoverdine bearing its iron payload, but can also bind pyoverdines from other Pseudomonads or synthetic analogues. Pyoverdine derivatives could therefore be used as vectors to deliver antibiotics into the bacterium. In this study, we use molecular dynamics and free energy calculations to characterize the mechanisms and thermodynamics of the recognition of the native pyoverdines of P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens by FpvA. Based on these results, we delineate the features that pyoverdines with high affinity for FpvA should possess. In particular, we show that (i) the dynamics and interaction of the unbound pyoverdines with water should be optimized with equal care as the interface contacts in the complex with FpvA; (ii) the C-terminal extremity of the pyoverdine chain, which appears to play no role in the bound complex, is involved in the intermediate stages of recognition; and (iii) the length and cyclicity of the pyoverdine chain can be used to fine-tune the kinetics of the recognition mechanism. PMID:26098682

  9. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing multiple genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy E; Witter, R L; Reddy, S M; Wu, P; Yanagida, N; Yoshida, S

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPVs) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B, E, I, H, and UL32 (gB1, gE, gI, gH, and UL32). An additional rFPV was constructed to contain four MDV genes (gB1, gE, gI, and UL32). These rFPVs were evaluated for their ability to protect maternal antibody-positive chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protection induced by a single rFPV/gB1 (42%) confirmed our previous finding. The protection induced by rFPV/gI (43%), rFPV/gB1UL32 (46%), rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%), and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32 (70%) contributed to additional knowledge on MDV genes involved in protective immunity. In contrast, the rFPV containing gE, gH, or UL32 did not induce significant protection compared with turkey herpesvirus (HVT). Levels of protection by rFPV/gB1 and rFPV/gl were comparable with that of HVT. Only gB1 and gI conferred synergism in rFPV containing these two genes. Protection by both rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%) and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32(70%) against Marek's disease was significantly enhanced compared with a single gB1 or gI gene (40%). This protective synergism between gB1 and gI in rFPVs may be the basis for better protection when bivalent vaccines between serotypes 2 and 3 were used. When rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 + HVT were used as vaccine against Md5 challenge, the protection was significantly enhanced (94%). This synergism between rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 and HVT indicates additional genes yet to be discovered in HVT may be responsible for the enhancement. PMID:14562881

  10. The Genome of Fowlpox Virus

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, C. L.; Tulman, E. R.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Kutish, G. F.; Rock, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a pathogenic fowlpox virus (FPV). The 288-kbp FPV genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 9.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats and contains 260 open reading frames, of which 101 exhibit similarity to genes of known function. Comparison of the FPV genome with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs) revealed 65 conserved gene homologues, encoding proteins involved in transcription and mRNA biogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein processing, and virion structure. Comparison of the FPV genome with those of other ChPVs revealed extensive genome colinearity which is interrupted in FPV by a translocation and a major inversion, the presence of multiple and in some cases large gene families, and novel cellular homologues. Large numbers of cellular homologues together with 10 multigene families largely account for the marked size difference between the FPV genome (260 to 309 kbp) and other known ChPV genomes (178 to 191 kbp). Predicted proteins with putative functions involving immune evasion included eight natural killer cell receptors, four CC chemokines, three G-protein-coupled receptors, two ? nerve growth factors, transforming growth factor ?, interleukin-18-binding protein, semaphorin, and five serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). Other potential FPV host range proteins included homologues of those involved in apoptosis (e.g., Bcl-2 protein), cell growth (e.g., epidermal growth factor domain protein), tissue tropism (e.g., ankyrin repeat-containing gene family, N1R/p28 gene family, and a T10 homologue), and avian host range (e.g., a protein present in both fowl adenovirus and Marek's disease virus). The presence of homologues of genes encoding proteins involved in steroid biogenesis (e.g., hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), antioxidant functions (e.g., glutathione peroxidase), vesicle trafficking (e.g., two ?-type soluble NSF attachment proteins), and other, unknown conserved cellular processes (e.g., Hal3 domain protein and GSN1/SUR4) suggests that significant modification of host cell function occurs upon viral infection. The presence of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase homologue in FPV suggests the presence of a photoreactivation DNA repair pathway. This diverse complement of genes with likely host range functions in FPV suggests significant viral adaptation to the avian host. PMID:10729156

  11. Influenza Viruses Select Ordered Lipid Domains during Budding from the Plasma Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Scheiffele; Anton Rietveld; Thomas Wilk; Kai Simons

    1999-01-01

    During the budding of enveloped viruses from the plasma membrane, the lipids are not randomly incorpo- rated into the envelope, but virions seem to have a lipid composition different from the host membrane. Here, we have analyzed lipid assemblies in three different viruses: fowl plague virus (FPV) from the influenza vi- rus family, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and Semliki Forest

  12. Construction and immunogenicity studies of recombinant fowl poxvirus containing the S1 gene of Massachusetts 41 strain of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuqing; Schnitzlein, William M; Tripathy, Deoki N; Girshick, Theodore; Khan, Mazhar I

    2002-01-01

    The spike 1 (S1) surface glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the major inducer of the generation of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the administration of purified S1 has been shown to elicit a protective immune response against virulent virus challenge. On the basis of these observations, recombinant fowl poxvirus (rFPV) containing a cDNA copy of the S1 gene of IBV Mass 41 (rFPV-S1) was constructed and its immunogenicity and vaccine potential were evaluated. Initially, rFPV-S1 was shown to express the S1 in vito by indirect immunofluorescence staining and western blot analyses. Later, in vivo expression was demonstrated by the detection of IBV-specific serum immunoglobulin G and neutralization antibodies in the sera of chickens immunized with rFPV-S1. That the recombinant virus elicited anti-IBV protective immunity was indicated by the manifested, relatively mild clinical signs of disease, decreased titers of recovered challenge virus, and less severe histologic changes of the tracheas in virulent IBV Mass 41-challenged chickens previously receiving rFPV-S1 as compared with parental fowl poxvirus (FPV)-vaccinated control birds. In contrast, chickens immunized with either recombinant or parental FPV were resistant to a subsequent virulent FPV challenge. As to a preferred method of immunization, wing web administration appeared to be superior to the subcutaneous route because a greater percentage of birds vaccinated by the former protocol exhibited an anti-IBV humoral immune response. Thus, rFPV-S1 has potential as a poultry vaccine against both fowl pox and infectious bronchitis. PMID:12495043

  13. Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Sequences within the Genomes of Field Strains of Fowlpox Virus Display Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratik Singh; William M. Schnitzlein; Deoki N. Tripathy

    2003-01-01

    Nine field strains of fowlpox virus (FPV) isolated during a 24-year span from geographically diverse out- breaks of fowlpox in the United States were screened for the presence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) sequences in their genomes by PCR. Each isolate appeared to be heterogeneous in that either a nearly intact provirus or just a 248- or 508-nucleotide fusion of portions

  14. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Mara; Balboni, Andrea; Ustulin, Martina; Giunti, Massimo; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Prosperi, Santino

    2011-01-01

    Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a) the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b) the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts. PMID:21366901

  15. The NS Segment of an H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) Is Sufficient To Alter Replication Efficiency, Cell Tropism, and Host Range of an H7N1 HPAIV ? †

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Brenner, Dominique; Wang, Zhongfang; Dauber, Bianca; Ehrhardt, Christina; Högner, Katrin; Herold, Susanne; Ludwig, Stephan; Wolff, Thorsten; Yu, Kangzhen; Richt, Jürgen A.; Planz, Oliver; Pleschka, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    A reassortant avian influenza virus (designated FPV NS GD), carrying the NS-segment of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GD; H5N1) in the genetic background of the HPAIV strain A/FPV/Rostock/34 (FPV; H7N1), was rescued by reverse genetics. Remarkably, in contrast to the recombinant wild-type FPV (rFPV), the reassortant virus was able to replicate more efficiently in different human cell lines and primary mouse epithelia cells without prior adaptation. Moreover, FPV NS GD caused disease and death in experimentally infected mice and was detected in mouse lungs; in contrast, rFPV was not able to replicate in mice effectively. These results indicated an altered host range and increased virulence. Furthermore FPV NS GD showed pronounced pathogenicity in chicken embryos. In an attempt to define the molecular basis for the apparent differences, we determined that NS1 proteins of the H5N1 and H7N1 strains bound the antiviral kinase PKR and the F2F3 domain of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30) with comparable efficiencies in vitro. However, FPV NS GD infection resulted in (i) increased expression of NS1, (ii) faster and stronger PKR inhibition, and (iii) stronger beta interferon promoter inhibition than rFPV. Taken together, the results shed further light on the importance of the NS segment of an H5N1 strain for viral replication, molecular pathogenicity, and host range of HPAIVs and the possible consequences of a reassortment between naturally occurring H7 and H5 type HPAIVs. PMID:20007264

  16. Acylation-Mediated Membrane Anchoring of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Is Essential for Fusion Pore Formation and Virus Infectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Wagner; Astrid Herwig; Nahid Azzouz; Hans Dieter Klenk

    2005-01-01

    Attachment of palmitic acid to cysteine residues is a common modification of viral glycoproteins. The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) has three conserved cysteine residues at its C terminus serving as acylation sites. To analyze the structural and functional roles of acylation, we have generated by reverse genetics a series of mutants (Ac1, Ac2, and Ac3) of fowl plague virus (FPV)

  17. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nazerian, K; Witter, R L; Lee, L F; Yanagida, N

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPV) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B (gB1), C (gC), and D (gD) and tegument proteins UL47 and UL48, as well as genes from serotypes 2 and 3 MDV coding for glycoprotein B (gB2 and gB3). These rFPVs, alone and in various combinations, including combinations of fowl poxvirus (FPV)/gBs with turkey herpesvirus (HVT), were evaluated for ability to protect maternal antibody-positive (ab+) and -negative (ab-) chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protective efficacy was also compared with that of prototype Marek's disease (MD) vaccines. No protection was induced in ab+ chickens by rFPV expressing gC, gD, UL47, or UL48. In contrast, the rFPV/gB1 construct protected about 23% of ab+ chickens against MDV challenge compared with 26% for cell-associated HVT. Levels of protection by rFPV/gBs of different MDV serotypes was highest for gB1, intermediate for gB2, and lowest for gB3. When rFPV/gB1 was combined with cell-associated HVT, protection was enhanced by an average of 138% compared with the best component monovalent vaccine, and the mean level of protection was 59% compared with 67% for the HVT+SB-1 bivalent vaccine. Relatively high protection (50%) and enhancement (200%) were also observed between rFPV/gB1 and cell-free HVT. These results suggest a specific synergistic interaction between rFPV/gB1 and HVT, possibly analogous to that previously described between serotypes 2 and 3 viruses. Levels of protection by rFPV/ gB1 alone or by bivalent rFPV/gB1+cell-associated HVT were similar to those of conventional cell-associated MD vaccines. However, the bivalent rFPV/gB1+cell-free HVT vaccine was clearly more protective than cell-free HVT alone and, thus, may be the most protective, entirely cell-free MD vaccine thus far described. PMID:8790888

  18. Detection of fowl poxvirus integrated with reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences from an outbreak in backyard chickens in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sanchay K; Jana, Chandrakanta; Chand, Karam; Rehman, Waseem; Mondal, Bimalendu

    2011-01-01

    Fowl poxvirus (FPV) infection was observed in unvaccinated backyard chickens. A total of 15 birds were affected in a flock of 37. Pock lesions were observed on the comb, eyelids, beak and wattles. The birds appeared sick with roughened feathers and stunted growth. No mortality was recorded. DNA was isolated from scabs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the 4b core protein gene of FPV, the envelope (env) gene of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the region of FPV flanking REV 5´ long terminal repeat (LTR). Correct-size PCR products of 578 bp, 807 bp and 370 bp, respectively, were observed in agarose gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of these products suggests that the virus was an FPV with a genome containing an integrated near full-length REV provirus. Given the fact that REV has been associated with immunosuppression, its presence in the genome of FPV appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of fowl pox and presumably prolongs persistence of FPV in bird populations. In the present case, fowl pox has been observed to have persisted for about three years in fowl that were reared in backyard systems in villages. PMID:21706467

  19. [Canine parvovirus: recent knowledge of the origin and development of a viral pathogen].

    PubMed

    Truyen, U

    1994-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a "new" virus that suddenly emerged in the mid 1970s. Antigenetically it is very similar to the long known feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). Soon after its appearance CPV was classified as a mutant of FPV. As with all "new" viruses, CPV continues to show active evolution, obvious by the appearance of new antigenic types. Interestingly, the new types, designated CPV-2a and CPV-2b, completely replaced the original type. This review summarizes the facts that are known about the emergence and evolution of CPV and discusses the relevance of the new antigenic types for the diagnosis of CPV and the vaccination against it. PMID:7716757

  20. Latex agglutination test for detecting feline panleukopenia virus, canine parvovirus, and parvoviruses of fur animals.

    PubMed Central

    Veijalainen, P M; Neuvonen, E; Niskanen, A; Juokslahti, T

    1986-01-01

    A latex agglutination (LA) test for the detection of parvoviruses of fur animals, cats, and dogs was developed, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with those of hemagglutination (HA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissue culture isolation was used to confirm the specificity results. Fecal samples from various sources were tested, including specimens from raccoon dogs and mink which were experimentally infected with parvoviruses by oral exposure. LA compared favorably with the other tests. The ELISA was the most sensitive. When it was considered as a reference test, the corresponding sensitivities for HA and LA were 96 and 91%, respectively. The specificities were 93% for the ELISA, 95% for the HA test, and 92% for the LA test. LA seems to be a suitable technique for screening animals in the field and in laboratories in which sophisticated techniques are not available. PMID:3007568

  1. The Structure of Porcine Parvovirus: Comparison with Related Viruses

    E-print Network

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    mammals, including humans, dogs, cats, rodents, cows, and pigs1,2 (Figure 1). The human parvovirus B19 parvoviruses, including human adeno-associated viruses (AAV), are prom- ising vectors for gene therapy example is the adaptation of FPV to dogs.10,13,14 Present address: B. HeÂbert, Inno-Centre, 550

  2. Co-infection with feline and canine parvovirus in a cat.

    PubMed

    Battilani, Mara; Balboni, Andrea; Giunti, Massimo; Prosperi, Santino

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reported a case of co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2a and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) in a 3-month-old male kitten, with the presence of a parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between CPV and FPV. The report of a viral variant which contained FPV- and CPV-specific epitopes stresses the importance of the mechanism of multistep mutation in the production of new variants and in the emergence of new viruses. This type of multistep adaptation has already been documented during the emergence of CPV and on the basis of our results, it was hypothesized that CPV had presumably started a new process of readaptation in the feline host, confirming the importance of viral host switching as a mechanism for the emergence of new viruses. PMID:23564594

  3. Acylation-Mediated Membrane Anchoring of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Is Essential for Fusion Pore Formation and Virus Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Ralf; Herwig, Astrid; Azzouz, Nahid; Klenk, Hans Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Attachment of palmitic acid to cysteine residues is a common modification of viral glycoproteins. The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) has three conserved cysteine residues at its C terminus serving as acylation sites. To analyze the structural and functional roles of acylation, we have generated by reverse genetics a series of mutants (Ac1, Ac2, and Ac3) of fowl plague virus (FPV) containing HA in which the acylation sites at positions 551, 559, and 562, respectively, have been abolished. When virus growth in CV1 and MDCK cells was analyzed, similar amounts of virus particles were observed with the mutants and the wild type. Protein patterns and lipid compositions, characterized by high cholesterol and glycolipid contents, were also indistinguishable. However, compared to wild-type virus, Ac2 and Ac3 virions were 10 and almost 1,000 times less infectious, respectively. Fluorescence transfer experiments revealed that loss of acyl chains impeded formation of fusion pores, whereas hemifusion was not affected. When the affinity to detergent-insoluble glycolipid (DIG) domains was analyzed by Triton X-100 treatment of infected cells and virions, solubilization of Ac2 and Ac3 HAs was markedly facilitated. These observations show that acylation of the cytoplasmic tail, while not necessary for targeting to DIG domains, promotes the firm anchoring and retention of FPV HA in these domains. They also indicate that tight DIG association of FPV HA is essential for formation of fusion pores and thus probably for infectivity. PMID:15858028

  4. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Vagnozzi; Guillermo Zavala; Sylva M. Riblet; Alice Mundt; Maricarmen García

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of

  5. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral-vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Vagnozzi; Guillermo Zavala; Sylva M. Riblet; Alice Mundt; Maricarmen García

    2011-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) carrying Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the United States. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously achieving variable results. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by

  6. A simple touch-down polymerase chain reaction for the detection of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus in feces.

    PubMed

    Schunck, B; Kraft, W; Truyen, U

    1995-11-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is described for the detection of parvovirus in feces of dogs and cats. A touch-down protocol was used which enabled the specific amplification of virion DNA from feces after a fast and simple boiling pretreatment. The sensitivity of PCR was as high as ten infectious particles per reaction which corresponds to a titer of about 10(3) infectious particles per gram of unprocessed feces. This renders the PCR about 10- to 100-fold more sensitive than electron microscopy, the standard method for parvovirus diagnosis. The very rapid and simple sample preparation recommends this PCR assay as an alternative technique for routine parvovirus diagnosis. PMID:8609207

  7. Predictive Value of Pharmacokinetics-Adjusted Phenotypic Susceptibility on Response to Ritonavir-Enhanced Protease Inhibitors (PIs) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects Failing Prior PI Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Eron, Joseph J.; Park, Jeong-Gun; Haubrich, Richard; Aweeka, Francesca; Bastow, Barbara; Pakes, Gary E.; Yu, Song; Wu, Hulin; Richman, Douglas D.

    2009-01-01

    The activities of protease inhibitors in vivo may depend on plasma concentrations and viral susceptibility. This nonrandomized, open-label study evaluated the relationship of the inhibitory quotient (IQ [the ratio of drug exposure to viral phenotypic susceptibility]) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) change for ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs). Subjects on PI-based regimens replaced their PIs with ritonavir-enhanced indinavir (IDV/r) 800/200 mg, fosamprenavir (FPV/r) 700/100 mg, or lopinavir (LPV/r) 400/200 mg twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were assessed at day 14; follow-up lasted 24 weeks. Associations between IQ and VL changes were examined. Fifty-three subjects enrolled, 12 on IDV/r, 33 on FPV/r, and 8 on LPV/r. Median changes (n-fold) (FC) of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) to the study PI were high. Median 2-week VL changes were ?0.7, ?0.1, and ?1.0 log10 for IDV/r, FPV/r, and LPV/r. With FPV/r, correlations between the IQ and the 2-week change in VL were significant (Spearman's r range, ?0.39 to ?0.50; P ? 0.029). The strongest correlation with response to FPV/r was the IC50 FC (r = 0.57; P = 0.001), which improved when only adherent subjects were included (r = 0.68; P = 0.001). In multivariable analyses of the FPV/r arm that included FC, one measure of the drug concentration, corresponding IQ, baseline VL, and CD4, the FC to FPV was the only significant predictor of VL decline (P < 0.001). In exploratory analyses of all arms, the area under the concentration-time curve IQ was correlated with the week 2 VL change (r = ?0.72; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in PI-experienced subjects with highly resistant HIV-1, short-term VL responses to RTV-enhanced FPV/r correlated best with baseline susceptibility. The IQ improved correlation in analyses of all arms where a greater range of virologic responses was observed. PMID:19307363

  8. NS Reassortment of an H7-Type Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Affects Its Propagation by Altering the Regulation of Viral RNA Production and Antiviral Host Response? †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Robb, Nicole C.; Lenz, Eva; Wolff, Thorsten; Fodor, Ervin; Pleschka, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) with reassorted NS segments from H5- and H7-type avian virus strains placed in the genetic background of the A/FPV/Rostock/34 HPAIV (FPV; H7N1) were generated by reverse genetics. Virological characterizations demonstrated that the growth kinetics of the reassortant viruses differed from that of wild-type (wt) FPV and depended on whether cells were of mammalian or avian origin. Surprisingly, molecular analysis revealed that the different reassortant NS segments were not only responsible for alterations in the antiviral host response but also affected viral genome replication and transcription as well as nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP) export. RNP reconstitution experiments demonstrated that the effects on accumulation levels of viral RNA species were dependent on the specific NS segment as well as on the genetic background of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Beta interferon (IFN-?) expression and the induction of apoptosis were found to be inversely correlated with the magnitude of viral growth, while the NS allele, virus subtype, and nonstructural protein NS1 expression levels showed no correlation. Thus, these results demonstrate that the origin of the NS segment can have a dramatic effect on the replication efficiency and host range of HPAIV. Overall, our data suggest that the propagation of NS reassortant influenza viruses is affected at multiple steps of the viral life cycle as a result of the different effects of the NS1 protein on multiple viral and host functions. PMID:20739516

  9. Correlation of Pathogenicity and Gene Constellation of Influenza A Viruses. III. Non-pathogenic Recombinants Derived from Highly Pathogenic Parent Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rott; M. Orlich; C. Scholtissek

    1979-01-01

    SUMMARY We have demonstrated by recombination of two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (A\\/FPV\\/Rostock (HaviNg) × A\\/turkey\\/England \\/63 (Havi- Nay3)) that recombinants can be isolated which are pathogenic as well as non- pathogenic for chickens. They carried the glycoproteins of either parent strains, and all are produced in infectious form in chick embryo cells. Genetic analysis revealed that the non-pathogenic

  10. Serologic evaluation of vaccinated American river otters.

    PubMed

    Hoover, J P; Castro, A E; Nieves, M A

    1985-12-01

    The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation acquired 20 American river otters (Lutra canadensis) between 1984 and 1985 for reintroduction into Oklahoma waterways. In 1985, 10 otters were evaluated for serum antibody titers after vaccination with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline rhinotracheitis virus (FRV), and feline calicivirus. Prevaccination serum-virus neutralization (SVN) antibody to feline rhinotracheitis virus was found in 2 otters and to feline calicivirus in 1 otter. Using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay, prevaccination antibody to CPV and FPV was found in 2 otters. A significant increase in SVN antibody titers was found after vaccination of otters with canine adenovirus type 2 (6 of 8 animals) and feline calicivirus (1 of 8 animals). One of 8 otters developed significant antibody titers to CPV and FPV, as measured by IFA assay. Otters did not develop SVN antibody titers to canine distemper virus after vaccination. Antigens of feline leukemia virus, using ELISA, or antibodies to feline infectious peritonitis, using IFA assay, were not found in the 20 otters. PMID:3001000

  11. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  12. Development of a vaccine incorporating killed virus of canine origin for the prevention of canine parvovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  13. Immune dysfunction following infection with chicken anemia agent and infectious bursal disease virus. II. Alterations of in vitro lymphoproliferation and in vivo immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cloud, S S; Rosenberger, J K; Lillehoj, H S

    1992-11-01

    To determine the functional impact of alterations in lymphocyte concentrations and ratios following infection with chicken anemia agent (CAA) alone or in combination with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on the immune system of young chickens, in vitro lymphoproliferation assays and in vivo responses to vaccination with several common viral agents were assessed at various time intervals post-inoculation (PI). Concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation of splenic lymphocytes (SPL) collected from control birds could not be detected until 10-14 days PI. Infection with CAA was characterized by significantly higher PWM stimulation of SPL at 17 days PI and significantly lower PWM stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) at 14 days PI, compared with uninfected controls. Concanavalin A and PWM stimulation of SPL was significantly increased in birds inoculated with IBDV alone. Lymphocytes harvested from birds inoculated simultaneously with CAA and IBDV had significantly lower responses. Effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity following CAA and/or IBDV were determined by evaluating vaccination responses to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), fowl pox virus (FPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) during the acute phase of CAA infection (2 weeks PI). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 1 day of age resulted in decreased protection against NDV (85.7%) and ILTV (7.1%) challenge compared with protection rates in control birds (100% and 53.3% respectively). Infectious bursal disease virus infection was associated with decreased protection against NDV (60%) only. Concomitant infection at 1 day of age resulted in a greater reduction in NDV challenge protection (33.3%), slightly decreased FPV protection (87.5%), increased numbers of persistent FPV vaccination lesions and increased protection against ILTV challenge (71.4%). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 2 weeks of age resulted in slightly decreased NDV humoral antibody, development of persistent FPV vaccination lesions (17%) and increased immunity to ILTV challenge compared with control birds (83.3% vs. 66.7%). Chickens inoculated with IBDV alone displayed a more severe depression in NDV antibody titers and only a slight decrease in ILTV protection. Vaccination following concomitant infection at 2 weeks of age resulted in a higher percentage of FPV persistent vaccination lesions (39%) and greatly enhanced immunity to ILTV challenge (100%). PMID:1333677

  14. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

  15. Feline parvovirus infection and associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Stuetzer, Bianca; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-08-01

    Feline panleukopenia, caused by the single-stranded DNA virus feline parvovirus (FPV), is a highly contagious and often lethal disease of cats and other Felidae. FPV, but also canine parvovirus (CPV) can be isolated from both healthy and diseased cats. In Germany, CPV was detected in only approximately 10% of feline samples, but in Southeast Asia, reports estimated that up to approximately 80% of diseased cats were infected with CPV. Infection spreads rapidly, especially in cells with high mitotic activity, such as bone marrow, lymphoid tissue and intestinal crypt cells. Anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, neutropenia and lymphopenia are common in clinically affected cases. In utero or neonatal infection can result in cerebellar hypoplasia. Depending on the severity of clinical signs, mortality ranges from 25 to 100%. Effective vaccination and thorough disinfection are of the utmost importance in the prevention of disease transmission in multi-cat households and animal shelters. If clinical signs develop, supportive treatment should be commenced. The efficacy of feline recombinant interferon and FPV antibodies has not been clearly demonstrated. Commercially available vaccines should induce protective immunity when administered according to current guidelines. Recent studies suggest that in some kittens, maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can persist for much longer than has been previously recognised. FPV serum antibody tests are available, but protection status needs to be interpreted with caution in kittens with MDA and a negative titre in adult cats does not necessarily denote lack of protection. PMID:24923754

  16. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of avian leukosis virus p27 antigen.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-02-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs. PMID:23201286

  17. Genetic divergence of the NS genes of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Nobusawa, E; Ogawa, T; Nakajima, S

    1987-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the NS genes of avian influenza A viruses, A/Chicken/Japan/24, A/Duck/England/56, A/Tern/South Africa/61, A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63, and A/Mynah/Haneda-Thai/76, were determined and compared among themselves and with two reported NS sequences of the avian viruses, A/FPV/Rostock/34 and A/Duck/Alberta/60/76. Thirty-six to two hundred forty base differences in the NS genes were found in pairwise comparisons among the viruses. The numbers of base differences in the NS genes increased with time, except A/Duck/Alberta/60/76 virus. However, the NS genes of the avian viruses did not change sequentially with time and were arranged in separate evolutionary lineages. When the NS genes of avian viruses employed in the present study were compared with those of human viruses, sequence similarity was confirmed (M. Baez, R. Taussig, J. J. Zarza, J. F. Young, P. Palese, A. Reisfield, and A. M. Skalka, 1980, Nucleic Acids Res. 8, 5845-5858). The numbers of base differences in the NS genes between avian viruses and the A/PR/8/34 virus were 61 to 83, and the NS gene of the oldest avian isolate, A/Chicken/Japan/24, was most closely related to that of the A/PR/8/34 virus. It was hypothesized that NS genes of human influenza viruses and those of some avian influenza viruses had been derived from a common ancestor gene. PMID:2954302

  18. Purified feline and canine transferrin receptors reveal complex interactions with the capsids of canine and feline parvoviruses that correspond to their host ranges.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Laura M; Hafenstein, Susan L; Parrish, Colin R

    2006-09-01

    The cell infection processes and host ranges of canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are controlled by their capsid interactions with the transferrin receptors (TfR) on their host cells. Here, we expressed the ectodomains of wild-type and mutant TfR and tested those for binding to purified viral capsids and showed that different naturally variant strains of the viruses were associated with variant interactions with the receptors which likely reflect the optimization of the viral infection processes in the different hosts. While all viruses bound the feline TfR, reflecting their tissue culture host ranges, a naturally variant mutant of CPV (represented by the CPV type-2b strain) that became the dominant virus worldwide in 1979 showed significantly lower levels of binding to the feline TfR. The canine TfR ectodomain did not bind to a detectable level in the in vitro assays, but this appears to reflect the naturally low affinity of that interaction, as only low levels of binding were seen when the receptor was expressed on mammalian cells; however, that was sufficient to allow endocytosis and infection. The apical domain of the canine TfR controls the specific interaction with CPV capsids, as a canine TfR mutant altering a glycosylation site in that domain bound FPV, CPV-2, and CPV-2b capsids efficiently. Enzymatic removal of the N-linked glycans did not allow FPV binding to the canine TfR, suggesting that the protein sequence difference is itself important. The purified feline TfR inhibited FPV and CPV-2 binding and infection of feline cells but not CPV-2b, indicating that the receptor binding may be able to prevent the attachment to the same receptor on cells. PMID:16912298

  19. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious diseases of poultry. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILT vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses were safe, stable, and immunogenic and replicated efficiently in birds. Vaccination of chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred complete protection against ILTV and NDV challenge. These novel bivalent vaccines can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations at low cost, which will have a direct impact on poultry health, fitness, and performance. PMID:24829337

  20. Exposure to selected Pathogens in to selected pathogens in Geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, M Virginia; Marull, Carolina A; Ferreyra, Hebe del Valle; Pereira, Javier A

    2012-10-01

    Wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. Because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 Geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central Argentina (Lihué Calel National Park, La Pampa, and Campos del Tuyú National Park, Buenos Aires), as well as five domestic cats and 11 domestic dogs from catde ranches adjacent to Lihué Calel Park. Geoffroy's cats had detectable antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline coronavirus, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira interrogans (serovars Ictero/Icter and Ballum), and Dirofilaria immitis. None of the wild cats had antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus, or rabies virus. Domestic dogs had antibodies to CDV, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus, and canine parvovirus. Antibodies to FPV, FCV, FIV, and T. gondii were found in domestic cats. We provide the first data on exposure of free-ranging Geoffroy's cats to pathogens at two sites within the core area of the species distribution range, including the first report of antibodies to CDV in this species. We encourage continued monitoring for diseases in wild and domestic carnivores as well as preventive health care for domestic animals, particularly in park buffer zones where overlap is greatest. PMID:23060491

  1. Canine and Feline Parvoviruses Preferentially Recognize the Non-Human Cell Surface Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    PubMed Central

    Löfling, Jonas; Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Parrish, Colin R.; Varki, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of ?2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both ?2-3 and ?2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. PMID:23497940

  2. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid.

    PubMed

    Löfling, Jonas; Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Parrish, Colin R; Varki, Ajit

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of ?2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both ?2-3 and ?2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. PMID:23497940

  3. Marek's disease virus latent protein MEQ: delineation of an epitope in the BR1 domain involved in nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy F; Liu, J-L; Cui, X-P; Kung, H-J

    2003-12-01

    Marek's disease virus latent protein MEQ (MDV Eco Q) is abundantly expressed and consistently detected in MDV-induced tumors and cell lines. Deletion mutants were constructed to study the domain structure of MEQ. Four deletion mutants were obtained in the basic regions of MEQ, namely basic region 1 (DeltaBR1), basic region 2 (DeltaBR2), basic regions 1 and 2 (DeltaBR1 and 2), and the C-terminal (bZIP) domain. The BR1 and BR2 are nuclear localization signals and either is sufficient to cause transport of MEQ into the nucleus. In addition, the BR2 is also responsible for MEQ's nucleolar localization. A monoclonal antibody (Mab 23B46) was produced using recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) expressing MEQ (rFPV/MEQ) as a source of protein. The isotype of Mab 23B46 is IgG1 and immunoprecipitated a band in rFPV/MEQ infected cells with molecular weight of 60 kDa specific to MEQ protein. We detected abundant expression of MEQ in (rFPV/MEQ), recombinant baculovirus (rBac) (rBac/MEQ), and lymphoid tumors induced by MDV. In order to delineate the epitope of MEQ reactive with Mab 23B46, we used four deletion mutants from the basic and bZIP domains. We found the deletions in the N-terminal region including BR1 (DeltaBR1), and (DeltaBR1 and 2) completely abolished the specific binding with Mab 23B46 as shown by Western blot analysis and immunofluoresence test. Deletion of BR2 (DeltaBR2) and the C-terminal (bZIP) domain had no effect on antibody binding. These data provide direct evidence that monoclonal antibody reactive epitope is localized in the BR1 domain of the molecule. Since both BR1 and BR2 domains contain sequences important for nuclear entry, we now have reagent to further study and elucidate the mechanism of MEQ's involvement in nuclear and nucleolar localization. PMID:14618081

  4. Porcine parvovirus: DNA sequence and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Ranz, A I; Manclús, J J; Díaz-Aroca, E; Casal, J I

    1989-10-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of an almost full-length clone of porcine parvovirus (PPV). The sequence is 4973 nucleotides (nt) long. The 3' end of virion DNA shows a Y-shaped configuration homologous to rodent parvoviruses. The 5' end of virion DNA shows a repetition of 127 nt at the carboxy terminus of the capsid proteins. The overall organization of the PPV genome is similar to those of other autonomous parvoviruses. There are two large open reading frames (ORFs) that almost entirely cover the genome, both located in the same frame of the complementary strand. The left ORF encodes the non-structural protein NS1 and the right ORF encodes the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2 and VP3). Promoter analysis, location of splicing sites and putative amino acid sequences for the viral proteins show a high homology of PPV with feline panleukopenia virus and canine parvoviruses (FPV and CPV) and rodent parvovirus. Therefore we conclude that PPV is related to the Kilham rat virus (KRV) group of autonomous parvoviruses formed by KRV, minute virus of mice, Lu III, H-1, FPV and CPV. PMID:2794971

  5. Effect of Antacids and Ranitidine on the Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Fosamprenavir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Ford; Mary B. Wire; Yu Lou; Katherine L. Baker; Daniel S. Stein

    2005-01-01

    Fosamprenavir (FPV, GW433908) has been approved for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult patients. FPV, a phosphoester prodrug, is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to the HIV protease inhibitor amprena- vir (APV) during absorption, with minimal systemic FPV ex- posure (12). Due to the chemical properties of FPV, an interaction with both antacids and histamine2-receptor antagonists is possible. FPV exhibits

  6. Immunogenicity of recombinant fowl-pox virus co-expressing structural protein precursor P1-2A and proteinase 3C of FMDV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ningyi Jin; Hongyong Zhang; Gefeng Yin; Min Zheng; Tong Liu; Wenzheng Jiang; Zijian Li

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant plasmids, pUTA2P1 and pUTAL3CP1, were constructed by inserting structural protein precursor P1-2A and proteinase\\u000a 3C of foot- and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) into fowl-pox virus (FPV) recombinant vectors pUTA-2 and pUTA-16-LacZ respectively,\\u000a and two recombinant FPVs (vUTA2P1 and vUTAL3CP1) screened by the RT-PCR, IFA assay and Western blotting assay were obtained\\u000a successfully. Mice injected respectively with rFPVs were induced

  7. Potential of acylated peptides to target the influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawolski, Damian; Storm, Julian; Ludwig, Kai; Volkmer, Rudolf; Memczak, Henry; Herrmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary For antiviral drug design, especially in the field of influenza virus research, potent multivalent inhibitors raise high expectations for combating epidemics and pandemics. Among a large variety of covalent and non-covalent scaffold systems for a multivalent display of inhibitors, we created a simple supramolecular platform to enhance the antiviral effect of our recently developed antiviral Peptide B (PeBGF), preventing binding of influenza virus to the host cell. By conjugating the peptide with stearic acid to create a higher-order structure with a multivalent display, we could significantly enhance the inhibitory effect against the serotypes of both human pathogenic influenza virus A/Aichi/2/1968 H3N2, and avian pathogenic A/FPV/Rostock/34 H7N1 in the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Further, the inhibitory potential of stearylated PeBGF (C18-PeBGF) was investigated by infection inhibition assays, in which we achieved low micromolar inhibition constants against both viral strains. In addition, we compared C18-PeBGF to other published amphiphilic peptide inhibitors, such as the stearylated sugar receptor mimicking peptide (Matsubara et al. 2010), and the “Entry Blocker” (EB) (Jones et al. 2006), with respect to their antiviral activity against infection by Influenza A Virus (IAV) H3N2. However, while this strategy seems at a first glance promising, the native situation is quite different from our experimental model settings. First, we found a strong potential of those peptides to form large amyloid-like supramolecular assemblies. Second, in vivo, the large excess of cell surface membranes provides an unspecific target for the stearylated peptides. We show that acylated peptides insert into the lipid phase of such membranes. Eventually, our study reveals serious limitations of this type of self-assembling IAV inhibitors.

  8. Avian pox infection in different wild birds in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Mohanchandra Pawar; Sirigineedi Sasi Bhushan; Anantula Poornachandar; Uthandaraman Lakshmikantan; Sisinthy Shivaji

    Amplicons of fpv167 and fpv140, of 578 and 1,800 bp, respectively, characteristic of the avipox viral genes, were amplified by PCR using DNA from viruses\\u000a isolated from eight Indian wild birds. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the fpv167 and fpv140 amplicons indicated that Fowlpox virus (FWPV) was the nearest phylogenetic neighbour to the viral isolates, from two Indian

  9. The role of evolutionary intermediates in the host adaptation of canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Stucker, Karla M; Pagan, Israel; Cifuente, Javier O; Kaelber, Jason T; Lillie, Tyler D; Hafenstein, Susan; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-02-01

    The adaptation of viruses to new hosts is a poorly understood process likely involving a variety of viral structures and functions that allow efficient replication and spread. Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged in the late 1970s as a host-range variant of a virus related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). Within a few years of its emergence in dogs, there was a worldwide replacement of the initial virus strain (CPV type 2) by a variant (CPV type 2a) characterized by four amino acid differences in the capsid protein. However, the evolutionary processes that underlie the acquisition of these four mutations, as well as their effects on viral fitness, both singly and in combination, are still uncertain. Using a comprehensive experimental analysis of multiple intermediate mutational combinations, we show that these four capsid mutations act in concert to alter antigenicity, cell receptor binding, and relative in vitro growth in feline cells. Hence, host adaptation involved complex interactions among both surface-exposed and buried capsid mutations that together altered cell infection and immune escape properties of the viruses. Notably, most intermediate viral genotypes containing different combinations of the four key amino acids possessed markedly lower fitness than the wild-type viruses. PMID:22114336

  10. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  11. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

    2001-01-01

    Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

  12. Interdependence of Hemagglutinin Glycosylation and Neuraminidase as Regulators of Influenza Virus Growth: a Study by Reverse Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Ralf; Wolff, Thorsten; Herwig, Astrid; Pleschka, Stephan; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2000-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of fowl plague virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) carries two N-linked oligosaccharides attached to Asn123 and Asn149 in close vicinity to the receptor-binding pocket. In previous studies in which HA mutants lacking either one (mutants G1 and G2) or both (mutant G1,2) glycosylation sites had been expressed from a simian virus 40 vector, we showed that these glycans regulate receptor binding affinity (M. Ohuchi, R. Ohuchi, A. Feldmann, and H. D. Klenk, J. Virol. 71:8377–8384, 1997). We have now investigated the effect of these mutations on virus growth using recombinant viruses generated by an RNA polymerase I-based reverse genetics system. Two reassortants of influenza virus strain A/WSN/33 were used as helper viruses to obtain two series of HA mutant viruses differing only in the neuraminidase (NA). Studies using N1 NA viruses revealed that loss of the oligosaccharide from Asn149 (mutant G2) or loss of both oligosaccharides (mutant G1,2) has a pronounced effect on virus growth in MDCK cells. Growth of virus lacking both oligosaccharides from infected cells was retarded, and virus yields in the medium were decreased about 20-fold. Likewise, there was a reduction in plaque size that was distinct with G1,2 and less pronounced with G2. These effects could be attributed to a highly impaired release of mutant progeny viruses from host cells. In contrast, with recombinant viruses containing N2 NA, these restrictions were much less apparent. N1 recombinants showed lower neuraminidase activity than N2 recombinants, indicating that N2 NA is able to partly overrule the high-affinity binding of mutant HA to the receptor. These results demonstrate that N-glycans flanking the receptor-binding site of the HA molecule are potent regulators of influenza virus growth, with the glycan at Asn149 being dominant and that at Asn123 being less effective. In addition, we show here that HA and NA activities need to be highly balanced in order to allow productive influenza virus infection. PMID:10864641

  13. Oncolytic Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Nemunaitis

    1999-01-01

    Viruses capable of inducing lysis of malignant cells through theirreplication process are known as ``oncolytic'' viruses. Clinicaltrials in oncology have been performed with oncolytic viruses fornearly fifty years. Both systemic and intratumoral routes ofadministration have been explored. Toxicity has generally beenlimited to injection site pain, transient fever and tumor necrosis.Responses with early crude materials were usually short induration; however, recent

  14. Effect of high-dose ciclosporin on the immune response to primary and booster vaccination in immunocompetent cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth S; VanLare, Karen A; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica oral solution for cats 100 mg/ml; Novartis Animal Health) was recently approved for use in cats with feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. The immunosuppressant effect of ciclosporin on the ability of cats to mount an immune response following vaccination was determined. Thirty-two healthy, immunocompetent adult cats (16 cats/group) were treated with either ciclosporin for 56 days at a dose of 24 mg/kg once daily or sham dosed. Prior to treatment, cats had an adequate antibody response to primary vaccination against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and rabies. Booster vaccination or novel vaccination with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was administered 28 days after initiation of treatment with ciclosporin. There were no differences between the ciclosporin-treated and control cats for FCV and FPV antibody titers following booster vaccination. There were delays/reductions in antibody response to FHV-1, FeLV and rabies in treated cats; however, adequate protection was achieved in response to all booster vaccinations. Following primary vaccination with FIV, control cats showed a response, but treated cats showed no antibody production. Adverse events commonly associated with ciclosporin treatment, including diarrhea/loose stool, vomiting, salivation and regurgitation, were reported. In adult cats treated with 24 mg/kg/day of ciclosporin (more than three times the therapeutic dose), vaccine titer levels were adequate for protection following booster vaccination. In contrast, treated cats failed to mount a humoral response to a novel (FIV) vaccination, suggesting that memory B-cell immune responses remain intact during repeated high-dose ciclosporin administration in cats, but that primary immune responses are impaired. PMID:24820998

  15. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  16. Influence of IFNgamma co-expression on the safety and antiviral efficacy of recombinant fowlpox virus HIV therapeutic vaccines following interruption of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Emery, S; Kelleher, A D; Workman, C; Puls, R L; Bloch, M; Baker, D; Anderson, J; Hoy, J; Ip, S; Nalliah, K; Ward, L D; Law, M G; Cooper, D A

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic immunization to stimulate host immune responses and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication is being investigated as a supplementary treatment for the management of HIV infection. On completion of an earlier study involving three vaccinations while taking combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), twenty-five subjects with plasma viral load (pVL) <50 copies/mL received a booster vaccination with either placebo (n = 7); fowl pox vaccine (rFPV) expressing HIV-1 Gag/Pol; [partial construct- PC (n = 8)] or rFPV coexpressing HIV-1 Gag/Pol and human interferon gamma[full construct - FC (n = 10)]. One week after the booster vaccination, participants stopped ART and were monitored for safety, pVL and immunological parameters for < or =20 weeks. The time weighted mean change (SD) from baseline plasma HIV RNA was 1.80 (0.72), 1.78 (0.91) and 0.96 (0.91) log(10) copies/mL for placebo, PC and FC recipients respectively (p = 0.06; mean differences between placebo and FC). Laboratory evaluations did not reveal differences in anti-HIV specific immune responses between study arms. No difference between treatment arms for host genetic factors known to affect pVL was demonstrated. In conclusion, vaccination with FC was associated with a trend toward lower rates of HIV replication following cessation of ART relative to placebo or PC. The promising antiretrovirological effect supports further study of FC in a larger trial with a broader population of patients with HIV disease. PMID:18340117

  17. Obesity Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2007-06-12

    Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

  18. Host-specific parvovirus evolution in nature is recapitulated by in vitro adaptation to different carnivore species.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Kohler, Dennis J; Ortega, Alicia; Hoover, Elizabeth A; Grove, Daniel M; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range. PMID:25375184

  19. Host-Specific Parvovirus Evolution in Nature Is Recapitulated by In Vitro Adaptation to Different Carnivore Species

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Ortega, Alicia; Hoover, Elizabeth A.; Grove, Daniel M.; Holmes, Edward C.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that >95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range. PMID:25375184

  20. Phytophthora viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

  1. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  2. Emerging Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  3. HIV virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

    2005-12-09

    HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

  4. Calf w/ Virus 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ). One of the best animal models of MS is the demyelination induced by Theiler's virus. The early events that occur during Theiler's virus infection are crucial in the effective clearance of virus from the CNS. Failure to clear virus results...

  5. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated April 2015 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... live Ebola virus in vaginal secretions. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  6. Peptidomimetic furin inhibitor MI-701 in combination with oseltamivir and ribavirin efficiently blocks propagation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and delays high level oseltamivir resistance in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinghui; Hardes, Kornelia; Dahms, Sven O; Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Eva; Steinmetzer, Torsten; Than, Manuel E; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Garten, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Antiviral medication is used for the treatment of severe influenza infections, of which the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the most effective drugs, approved so far. Here, we investigated the antiviral efficacy of the peptidomimetic furin inhibitor MI-701 in combination with oseltamivir carboxylate and ribavirin against the infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) that are activated by the host protease furin. Cell cultures infected with the strains A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1) and A/FPV/Rostock/1934 (H7N1) were treated with each agent alone, or in double and triple combinations. MI-701 alone achieved a concentration-dependent reduction of virus propagation. Double treatment of MI-701 with oseltamivir carboxylate and triple combination with ribavirin showed synergistic inhibition and a pronounced delay of virus propagation. MI-701 resistant mutants were not observed. Emergence of NA mutation H275Y conferring high oseltamivir resistance was significantly delayed in the presence of MI-701. Our data indicate that combination with a potent furin inhibitor significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of conventional antivirals drugs against HPAIV infection. PMID:26022200

  7. Computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  8. Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn P. Weems

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

  9. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick B. Cohen

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

  10. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

  11. Exploring computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Davis

    1988-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

  12. METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Mareike Kümmerer1* Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic antibodies without the need of using infectious CHIKV. Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Virus replicon particles

  13. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  14. Detection of feline parvovirus in dying pedigree kittens.

    PubMed

    Addie, D D; Toth, S; Thompson, H; Greenwood, N; Jarrett, J O

    1998-04-01

    Feline parvovirus (FPV) was detected in the intestinal tract contents of 13 pedigree kittens which were fading or died suddenly by the use of a new chromatographic test strip for canine parvovirus (CPV) and FPV. The test appeared to be sensitive and specific for the detection of FPV and was a useful diagnostic aid. In three cases in which virus was grown in cell culture, the isolates were characteristic of FPV and not CPV. Cats in the households in which the kittens were reared were regularly immunised with FPV vaccines. The most likely explanation for the occurrence of FPV-associated disease was exposure of the young kittens to large doses of virus contaminating the environment. PMID:9587196

  15. Dengue Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Smith

    \\u000a Dengue Virus (DENV) diagnosis can be performed by isolation of DENV from blood or autopsy samples; demonstration of a four-fold\\u000a or greater rise in reciprocal IgG or IgM antibody titres to one or more DENV in paired serum samples (acute and convascent);\\u000a use of the newer rapid diagnostic test kit (also differentiates between primary and secondary dengue infections – these

  16. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  17. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  18. Binding site on the transferrin receptor for the parvovirus capsid and effects of altered affinity on cell uptake and infection.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Laura B; Lyi, Sangbom M; Johnson, Natalie C; Cifuente, Javier O; Hafenstein, Susan L; Parrish, Colin R

    2010-05-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and its relative feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) bind the transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR) to infect their host cells but show differences in the interactions with the feline and canine TfRs that determine viral host range and tissue tropism. We changed apical and protease-like domain residues by introducing point mutations and adding or removing glycosylation signals, and we then examined the interactions of those mutant TfRs with the capsids. Most substitutions had little effect on virus binding and uptake. However, mutations of several sites in the apical domain of the receptor either prevented binding to the capsids or reduced the affinity of receptor binding to various degrees. Glycans within the virus binding face of the apical domain also controlled capsid binding. CPV, but not the related feline parvovirus, could use receptors containing a canine TfR-specific glycosylation to mediate efficient infection, while addition of other N-linked glycosylation sites into the virus binding face of the feline apical domain reduced or eliminated both binding and infection. Replacement of critical feline TfR residue 221 with every amino acid had effects on binding and infection which were significantly associated with the biochemical properties of the residue replaced. Receptors with reduced affinities mostly showed proportional changes in their ability to mediate infection. Testing feline TfR variants for their binding and uptake patterns in cells showed that low-affinity versions bound fewer capsids and also differed in attachment to the cell surface and filopodia, but transport to the perinuclear endosome was similar. PMID:20200243

  19. The nature of measles virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Atherton; K. S. K. Lain

    1965-01-01

    Summary Observations of the effect of halogen derivatives of deoxyuridine, known to affect the synthesis of deoxyviruses (DNA-containing viruses) show that measles virus replication is unaffected. This suggests that measles virus is a ribovirus (RNA-containing virus).

  20. Molecular evolution of primate immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis delta virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Samuilovna Krushkal

    1996-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, or lentiviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are RNA viruses characterized by rapid evolution. Infection by primate immunodeficiency viruses usually results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans and AIDS-like illnesses in Asian macaques. Similarly, hepatitis delta virus infection causes hepatitis and liver cancer in humans. These viruses are heterogeneous

  1. Viruses and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

  2. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  3. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus G Weinbauer

    2004-01-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

  4. MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

  5. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe N. Peyrefi; Dominique Rousset; Boris A. M. Pastorino; Regis Pouillot; Maël Bessaud; Fabienne Tock; Helene Mansaray; Olivier L. Merle; Aurelie M. Pascual; Christophe Paupy; Aurelia Vessiere; Patrice Imbert; Jean-Paul Durand; Hugues J. Tolou; Marc Grandadam

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a pa- tient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cam- eroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  6. VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

  7. Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan Benjamin J. Briggs, Barry Atkinson, Donna M. Czechowski-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan reported. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The TBEV

  8. Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chen; J. S. Pettis; A. Collins; M. F. Feldlaufer

    2006-01-01

    Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses

  9. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  10. Serodiagnosis for tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brian J; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J; Whitby, Denise

    2015-04-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (BV). RNA tumor viruses include human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  11. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  12. VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN EPIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barbarossa; G. Loconsole; C. Vovlas

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2005 a survey was conducted in the main citrus- growing areas of Epirus. Commercial groves and nurs- eries were inspected for symptoms of virus and virus- like diseases and a total of 123 samples were collected. Molecular hybridisation was used to test for Citrus tris- teza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus in- fectious variegation virus (CVV),

  13. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  14. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  15. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  16. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  17. Cell transformation by viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Melnick; Janet S. Butel; Satvir S. Tevethia; Nilambar Biswal; Matilda Benyesh-Melnick

    1971-01-01

    Summary  This paper describes some current work pertaining to transformation of cells by oncogenic viruses.\\u000a \\u000a Part I includes: (1) the effect of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tumor virus (SV40) on the antigenic characteristics of transformed\\u000a cells; (2) in vitro and in vivo methods of detecting virus-specific surface antigens; (3) the role that the host cell may\\u000a play in the expression of

  18. Virus entry paradigms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjula Kalia; Shahid Jameel

    Viruses, despite being relatively simple in structure and composition, have evolved to exploit complex cellular processes\\u000a for their replication in the host cell. After binding to their specific receptor on the cell surface, viruses (or viral genomes)\\u000a have to enter cells to initiate a productive infection. Though the entry processes of many enveloped viruses is well understood,\\u000a that of most

  19. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infected wheat plants normally are stunted, with leaves mottled and streaked in green-yellow, parallel and discontinuous patterns (Fig. 1). This disease?s negative impact varies from year to year depending on its severity and distribution...; in the Southern Great Plains states, crop losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified...

  20. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  1. CDC: West Nile Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

  2. Heterologous prime-boost-boost immunisation of Chinese cynomolgus macaques using DNA and recombinant poxvirus vectors expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is renewed interest in the development of poxvirus vector-based HIV vaccines due to the protective effect observed with repeated recombinant canarypox priming with gp120 boosting in the recent Thai placebo-controlled trial. This study sought to investigate whether a heterologous prime-boost-boost vaccine regimen in Chinese cynomolgus macaques with a DNA vaccine and recombinant poxviral vectors expressing HIV virus-like particles bearing envelopes derived from the most prevalent clades circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, focused the antibody response to shared neutralising epitopes. Methods Three Chinese cynomolgus macaques were immunised via intramuscular injections using a regimen composed of a prime with two DNA vaccines expressing clade A Env/clade B Gag followed by boosting with recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HIV-1 clade D Gag, Env and cholera toxin B subunit followed by the final boost with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 clade C Env, Gag and human complement protein C3d. We measured the macaque serum antibody responses by ELISA, enumerated T cell responses by IFN-? ELISpot and assessed seroneutralisation of HIV-1 using the TZM-bl ?-galactosidase assay with primary isolates of HIV-1. Results This study shows that large and complex synthetic DNA sequences can be successfully cloned in a single step into two poxvirus vectors: MVA and FPV and the recombinant poxviruses could be grown to high titres. The vaccine candidates showed appropriate expression of recombinant proteins with the formation of authentic HIV virus-like particles seen on transmission electron microscopy. In addition the b12 epitope was shown to be held in common by the vaccine candidates using confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. The vaccine candidates were safely administered to Chinese cynomolgus macaques which elicited modest T cell responses at the end of the study but only one out of the three macaques elicited an HIV-specific antibody response. However, the antibodies did not neutralise primary isolates of HIV-1 or the V3-sensitive isolate SF162 using the TZM-bl ?-galactosidase assay. Conclusions MVA and FP9 are ideal replication-deficient viral vectors for HIV-1 vaccines due to their excellent safety profile for use in humans. This study shows this novel prime-boost-boost regimen was poorly immunogenic in Chinese cynomolgus macaques. PMID:21899739

  3. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  4. Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

    1963-01-01

    A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

  5. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  6. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  7. Human Papilloma Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. Cecil

    1989-01-01

    Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

  8. DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

  9. Towards synthetic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Zuber; Emmanuel Dauty; Marc Nothisen; Pascale Belguise; Jean-Paul Behr

    2001-01-01

    Gene delivery is too complex to be performed with a single carrier molecule. Synthetic multicomponent vectors are being designed that mimic key properties of viruses. Some solutions, such as diverting cell-anchoring molecules or the endogenous nuclear import machinery from their normal function, are directly copied from bacteria and viruses. Some other solutions are original ones: monomolecular genome condensation via detergent

  10. Biological versus computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel GUINIER

    1989-01-01

    To understand biological viruses, some notions of the fundamental knowledge of the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the biosynthesis of proteins, the transcription, replication and transfer processes,... are presented so as to give an idea as to how the genetic information is decrypted by biological mechanisms and consequently, how viruses work.A computer \\

  11. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

  12. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  13. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  14. Cutthroat Trout Virus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

  15. Characterization and identification of two virus diseases of spinach in South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Edward Blair

    1979-01-01

    mosaic virus Beet western yellows virus Beet yellows virus Broad bean wilt virus Carnation ring spot virus Clover yellow mosaic virus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus Lettuce mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Raspberry...

  16. Replication of Sendai Virus

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Carol D.; Robinson, William S.

    1970-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblast cultures infected with Sendai virus were incubated with 3H-uridine in the presence of actinomycin D beginning at 18 hr after infection. The 35 and 18S virus-specific ribonucleic acid (RNA) components were found in a ribonuclease-sensitive form in the cell and appeared to be associated with polyribosomes. Newly synthesized 57S viral RNA was rapidly coated with protein to form intracellular viral nucleocapsid, and no 57S RNA was found “free” (ribonucleasesensitive) in the 2,000 × g supernatant fraction of disrupted cells. The nucleocapsid from detergent-disrupted Sendai virus and that from disrupted cells were indistinguishable in ultrastructure and buoyant density, and neither was found to be infectious or have hemagglutinating activity. Kinetic studies of nucleocapsid and virus formation indicated a relative block in conversion of viral nucleocapsid to complete enveloped virus in these cells, resulting in accumulation of large amounts of nucleocapsid in the cell cytoplasm. Images PMID:4315961

  17. Is The Virus Problem Getting Worse?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Hruska

    2001-01-01

    The number of known viruses exceeded 50?000 in August 2000. The vast majority of those (74%) are parasitic viruses (attacking executables), second most populous are macro viruses (19%) and 7% are boot sector viruses. In May 2000, 88% of infections reported to Sophos were due to macro viruses, 9% were parasitic viruses and only 3% were boot sector viruses. Note

  18. Understanding virus filtration membrane performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ranil Wickramasinghe; Emily D. Stump; David L. Grzenia; Scott M. Husson; John Pellegrino

    2010-01-01

    Virus filtration membranes are used to obtain virus clearance during the purification of biopharmaceutical products. These direct flow (also referred to as dead end or normal flow) filtration membranes are designed to reject virus particles and yield >98% product recovery for proteins less than 170kDa. Virus filtration feed streams generally have high purity and high product concentrations. Decrease in permeate

  19. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  20. Citrus Virus Symptoms in Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bruno

    1964-01-01

    SARDINIA was believed to be a virus-free citrus region until Boselli1 first noted a disorder showing symptoms commonly referred to as the psorosis virus complex. Following this, the main citrus areas of the Island have been surveyed with the view of recognizing and recording virus or virus-like manifestations.

  1. Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ?450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 ?S/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 ?S/cm for films containing 100 ?M virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films. PMID:22856875

  2. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

  3. Towards synthetic viruses.

    PubMed

    Zuber, G; Dauty, E; Nothisen, M; Belguise, P; Behr, J P

    2001-11-19

    Gene delivery is too complex to be performed with a single carrier molecule. Synthetic multicomponent vectors are being designed that mimic key properties of viruses. Some solutions, such as diverting cell-anchoring molecules or the endogenous nuclear import machinery from their normal function, are directly copied from bacteria and viruses. Some other solutions are original ones: monomolecular genome condensation via detergent dimerization or endosome disruption by the proton sponge effect are not exploited by natural cell invaders. All these components, however, still have to be assembled into a unique supramolecular system, an 'artificial virus'. PMID:11718949

  4. [Grapevine viruses in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Acheche, H; Fattouch, S; M'Hirsi, S; Marzouki, N; Marrakchi, M

    1998-01-01

    Tunisian grapevine culture is affected by many viruses caused by some phytovirus belonging to nepovirus, closterovirus and trichovirus groups. The present work deal with the economically important viroses identified in tunisian grapevines. We present here the development methods to detect these viruses in propagating material. The important viruses biologically, biochemically, serologically and using molecular techniques, characterised are: GFLV, GLRaV3 and GVB. The genetic polymorphism analysis was also carried and tunisian isolates were compared to previously described ones in literature. PMID:14666749

  5. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

  6. Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

  7. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... discovered all the way back in 1937 in Africa, the West Nile virus probably didn't make ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  8. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-01-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

  9. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  10. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  11. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  12. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attachment time needed to transmit the virus. When spending time in wooded or brushy habitat in north ... and woods, and doing thorough tick checks after spending time in the woods. These precautions are most ...

  13. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Image West Nile Virus KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & ...

  14. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... have tre- mendous reproductive capability, enabling large populations to build. The mite is most active during warm weather, with temperatures of 75-80 degrees F optimum for reproduction. Mites require a living grass host to survive the summer; sum...

  15. Dengue Virus Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeni Eltzov; Danit Atias; Levi Gheber; Robert S. Marks

    \\u000a Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging arborviral disease caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV) which has emerged as the\\u000a most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas and it continues to expand geographically. The four serotypes\\u000a of DENV that cause human disease are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Expansion in geographic distribution of both viruses\\u000a and mosquito vectors, has led

  16. Origins of Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ed Rybicki

    This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Trépo, Christian; Chan, Henry L Y; Lok, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide; roughly 30% of the world's population show serological evidence of current or past infection. Hepatitis B virus is a partly double-stranded DNA virus with several serological markers: HBsAg and anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HBe, and anti-HBc IgM and IgG. It is transmitted through contact with infected blood and semen. A safe and effective vaccine has been available since 1981, and, although variable, the implementation of universal vaccination in infants has resulted in a sharp decline in prevalence. Hepatitis B virus is not cytopathic; both liver damage and viral control--and therefore clinical outcome--depend on the complex interplay between virus replication and host immune response. Overall, as much as 40% of men and 15% of women with perinatally acquired hepatitis B virus infection will die of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to decreasing hepatic inflammation, long-term antiviral treatment can reverse cirrhosis and reduce hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of new therapies that can improve HBsAg clearance and virological cure is warranted. PMID:24954675

  18. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  19. Multiple virus infections in the honey bee and genome divergence of honey bee viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanping Chen; Yan Zhao; John Hammond; Hei-ti Hsu; Jay Evans; Mark Feldlaufer

    2004-01-01

    Using uniplex RT-PCR we screened honey bee colonies for the presence of several bee viruses, including black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), and described the detection of mixed virus infections in bees from these colonies. We report for the first time that individual bees can harbor four viruses simultaneously.

  20. Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

    2005-01-01

    More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

  1. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles.

    PubMed

    Pompei, R; Flore, O; Marccialis, M A; Pani, A; Loddo, B

    1979-10-25

    Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizie acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus particles irreversibly. PMID:233133

  2. Chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  3. Research on computer virus database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  4. Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zeman, Petr; Halouzka, Ji?í; Ju?icová, Zina; Š?oví?ková, Eva; Bálková, Helena; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    Specimens from residents (n = 497) of an area affected by the 2002 flood were examined serologically for mosquitoborne viruses. Antibodies were detected against Tahyna (16%), Sindbis (1%), and Batai (0.2%) viruses, but not West Nile virus. An examination of paired serum samples showed 1 Tahyna bunyavirus (California group) infection. PMID:15705333

  5. CAN CRYPTOGRAPHY PREVENT COMPUTER VIRUSES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F Morar; David M Chess

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between cryptography and virus prevention is anything but simple. Since the beginning of the computer virus problem, people have proposed solutions involving some form of cryptography; but cryptography plays only a minor role in the solutions we actually use today. Encryption can also make virus prevention more difficult, by providing viral hiding places inside the objects that it

  6. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  7. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  8. Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

    2003-01-01

    Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

  9. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  10. Toscana Virus in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz; Ximena Collao; María Paz Sánchez-Seco; Francisco Morillas-Márquez; Manuel de la Rosa-Fraile; José María Navarro-Marí; Antonio Tenorio

    2005-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunya- viridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture

  11. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2010-01-08

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  12. Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

  13. Cache Valley virus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J F

    1994-11-01

    Cache Valley Virus (CVV) is a causative agent of a mosquito-borne disease syndrome of sheep and, possibly, of all ruminants, characterized by embryonic and fetal death, stillbirths, and multiple congenital malformations. CVV is endemic in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Several related Bunyaviruses also may play a role in syndromes of congenital malformations and embryonic losses in North America. PMID:7728634

  14. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  15. Viruses and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle. PMID:19750559

  16. VIRUS PERSISTENCE IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...

  17. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

  18. Polyadenylic acid in Visna virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, D; Takemoto, K; Robert, M; Gallo, R C

    1973-03-30

    Visna virus 70S RNA contains long stretches of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)]. The homogeneity in length of poly(4) regions is observed in 70S RNA from visna virus and all RNA tumor viruses tested, and not with other types of RNA. By this criterion visna virus resembles RNA tumor viruses. PMID:4631425

  19. GB virus-C infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans L Tillmann; Michael P Manns

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis virus infections are frequent in patients suffering from HIV infection due to similar transmission routes of these viruses. In addition, hepatitis virus infections lead to impaired survival in HIV positive patients. The recently discovered flavivirus GB virus C (alias Hepatitis G Virus) was initially believed to be another hepatitis virus. While there is still some minor discussion whether GB

  20. Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

    2002-01-01

    Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

  1. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  2. Virus diseases of Solanum laciniatum Ait. in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Thomson

    1976-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus Y, potato virus X, tobacco mosaic virus, and tomato spotted wilt virus were identified in Solatium laciniatum Ait. Cucumber mosaic virus induced the most severe symptoms, including mottle and narrowing of the leaf lamina. Infection of crops with cucumber mosaic virus varied from 0–70% (mean of seven crops 25%), and potato virus Y from 0–48%

  3. PREVALENCE AND TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF HONEY BEE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission mechanisms of six viruses including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV) in honey bee colonies were investigated by RT-PCR methods. The virus...

  4. Phage Displayed Peptides to Avian H5N1 Virus Distinguished the Virus from Other Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chengfeng; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:21887228

  5. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Response Network Biorisk Reduction Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease May 2015 FAQs from August 2014 ... based on recent evidence. For more information on Ebola virus disease Fact sheet on Ebola virus disease ...

  6. Virus-encoded superantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, B T; Hsu, P N; Sutkowski, N

    1996-01-01

    Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly. PMID:8840782

  7. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-04-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid and in some cases are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assemble within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for the assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells and how these are modified in cases in which the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly that are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

  8. Canine respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2007-01-01

    Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple infections can result in more severe clinical forms. In addition, acute respiratory diseases associated with infection by influenza A virus, and group I and II coronaviruses, have been described recently in dogs. Host species shifts and tropism changes are likely responsible for the onset of these new pathogens. The importance of the viral agents in the kennel cough complex is discussed. PMID:17296161

  9. The encephalomyocarditis virus

    PubMed Central

    Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

    2012-01-01

    The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

  10. Measles Virus Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yanagi; M. Takeda; S. Ohno; T. Hashiguchi

    Measles virus (MV) has two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein, which are responsible for attachment\\u000a and membrane fusion, respectively. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a membrane glycoprotein\\u000a expressed on immune cells, acts as the principal cellular receptor for MV, accounting for its lymphotropism and immunosuppressive\\u000a nature. MV also infects polarized epithelial cells via an

  11. Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Simon; Emilie Javelle; Manuela Oliver; Isabelle Leparc-Goffart; Catherine Marimoutou

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. After half a century of focal outbreaks of acute febrile polyarthralgia in Africa and Asia, the disease unexpectedly spread\\u000a in the past decade with large outbreaks in Africa and around the Indian Ocean and rare autochthonous transmission in temperate\\u000a areas. This emergence brought new insights

  12. Molecular studies of avian leukosis virus 

    E-print Network

    Mozisek, Blayne Myron

    2007-04-25

    leukosis virus (ALV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), and murine leukemia virus (MLV). These viruses were the subject of intense study due to their propensity to form neoplastic disease in their host organisms. Investigations... into the mechanisms by which these viruses were able to cause tumors eventually led to the discovery and development of the oncogene theory of tumorigenesis: the elucidation of oncogenes within their viral genomes or their interaction with host oncogenes following...

  13. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms.

  14. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  15. Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). PMID:25395156

  16. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  17. Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: an ideal persistent virus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. W. Plagemann; Raymond R. R. Rowland; Chen Even; Kay S. Faaberg

    1995-01-01

    LDV contradicts all commonly held views about mechanisms of virus persistence, namely that persistence is primarily associated with noncytopathic viruses, or the selection of immune escape variants or other mutants, or a decrease in expression of certain viral proteins by infected cells, or replication in “immune-privileged sites”, or a general suppression of the host immune system, etc. [1, 2, 5,

  19. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus - strategic decisions for diagnosis and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Brownlie; Ian Thompson; Andrew Curwen

    2000-01-01

    IN the 15 years since the last In Practice article on bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (Brownlie 1985), there has been an explosion in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and mutation, especially those related to biotypic variation. Hand in hand has come a greater understanding of the importance of BVDV as a primary pathogen of cattle,

  20. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil. PMID:23171598

  1. INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

  2. West Nile Virus and Wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

  3. Hepatitis C Virus and Cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Matsumori

    2000-01-01

    The importance of hepatitis C virus infection has been recently noted in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or dilated cardiomyopathy. In a collaborative research project of the Committees for the Study of Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy, hepatitis C virus antibody was found in 74 of 697 patients (10.65) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in 42 of 663 patients (6.3%) with dilated cardiomyopathy; these prevalences

  4. Human viruses: discovery and emergence

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

    2012-01-01

    There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

  5. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  6. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  7. Dynamic models for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R. C. Piqueira; Adolfo A. De Vasconcelos; Carlos E. C. J. Gabriel; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Computer viruses are an important risk to computational systems endangering either corporations of all sizes or personal computers used for domestic applications. Here, classical epidemiological models for disease propagation are adapted to computer networks and, by using simple systems identification techniques a model called SAIC (Susceptible, Antidotal, Infectious, Contaminated) is developed. Real data about computer viruses are used to validate

  8. Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

  9. Mathematical models on computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bimal Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Saini

    2007-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop mathematical models on computer viruses infecting the system under different conditions. Mathematical model 1 discusses the situation to find the probability that at any time t how many software components are infected by virus, assuming the recovery rate and proportion of un-infected population receiving infection per unit time does not change with time.

  10. Computer Viruses as Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment.

  11. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  12. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  13. Pathogenic pseudorabies virus, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Qu, Ping; Liu, Jinhua; Zhai, Xinyan; Tian, Kegong

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic. PMID:24377462

  14. Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Qu, Ping; Liu, Jinhua; Zhai, Xinyan

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic. PMID:24377462

  15. How Viruses Enter Animal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia E. Smith; Ari Helenius

    2004-01-01

    Viruses replicate within living cells and use the cellular machinery for the synthesis of their genome and other components. To gain access, they have evolved a variety of elegant mechanisms to deliver their genes and accessory proteins into the host cell. Many animal viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways and rely on the cell to guide them through a complex

  16. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  17. Vaccinia virus in postvaccinal encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gurvich, E B; Vilesova, I S

    1983-03-01

    Results of virological examination of 239 samples taken from 84 children with neurological complications after smallpox vaccination are described. In postvaccinal encephalitis, vaccinia virus was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and pharyngeal secretions of 23 out of 40 children (57.5%) as well as from autopsy specimens sampled between 10-35 days after vaccination. During the acute period of disease, virus was detected in 17 out of 31 (54.2%) cerebrospinal fluid specimens. In 3 postvaccinal encephalitis cases the virus was present in brain and in a case of encephalomyelitis--in the spinal cord. These results confirmed the participation of vaccinia virus in the pathogenesis of postvaccinal encephalitis. The pathogenicity of vaccinia virus may be manifested only under a changed reactivity of the vaccinated host. PMID:6135334

  18. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

  19. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

  20. IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster

    E-print Network

    IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last Symantec AntiVirus managed version from the "Computing Essentials 2004" CD or download it from http

  1. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  2. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. While investigating virus-invertebrate host interactions we found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), were unable to infect certain Lepido...

  3. Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn

    2006-01-01

    DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene

  4. Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

    1995-01-01

    Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

  5. Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

  6. Evolution of Canine Parvovirus Involved Loss and Gain of Feline Host Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UWE TRUYEN; JAMES F. EVERMANN; ELKE VIELER; COLIN R. PARRISH

    1996-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) type-2 emerged as a new virus infecting dogs in 1978, and it was probably derived as a variant of feline panleukopenia virus or of a closely related virus infecting another carnivore. CPV type-2 was subsequently replaced in nature by antigenically variant viruses (CPV type-2a and CPV type-2b) which now coexist in dog populations worldwide. We show that

  7. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  8. Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

  9. Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Burke, David

    2008-06-27

    CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

  10. SARS and West Nile Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Loeb

    Clinical presentation of SARS is nonspecific; the important clinical findings in West Nile virus infection are those associated\\u000a with neurological complications.\\u000a \\u000a Rapid and accurate diagnosis of SARS and West Nile virus infection remains an important clinical challenge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older adults are at higher risk of complications, including death from SARS and West Nile virus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a At present, there is no effective therapy

  11. Respiratory Viruses Other than Influenza Virus: Impact and Therapeutic Advances

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, W. Garrett; Peck Campbell, Angela J.; Boeckh, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Though several antivirals have been developed and marketed to treat influenza virus infections, the development of antiviral agents with clinical activity against other respiratory viruses has been more problematic. Here we review the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, examine the evidence surrounding the currently available antivirals for respiratory viral infections other than influenza, highlight those that are in the pipeline, and discuss the hurdles for development of such agents. PMID:18400797

  12. Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A A; Fraser, K M; Esposito, J J

    1996-01-01

    About 47% identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of a protein encoded by a gene of the parapoxvirus orf virus (OV) strain NZ2 and a 6 kDa protein of unknown function reported to be produced by an open reading frame expressed early after infection by the orthopoxvirus Western Reserve vaccinia virus (VAC); the open reading frame is absent from VAC strain Copenhagen. Examination of sequences reported for variola virus (VAR) strains Bangladesh, India, Congo- 1970, Somalia- 1977 and Garcia- 1966 revealed each encoded a correlate 58 amino acid protein. The open reading frame was not reported in the original analyses of these sequences because a lower limit of 60 amino acids was used to identify potential encoded proteins. Inspection of partial reading frames reported for cowpox virus (CWV) and ectromelia virus (EMV) suggested that these viruses might also code for a correlate of the VAC WR protein. DNA sequencing of cloned fragments of CWV and EMV confirmed that both these orthopoxviruses encode closely related, full length variants of the VAC and VAR open reading frames. The OV homologue is coded in the OV strain NZ2 BamHI-E fragment E2L open reading frame, which we reported is transcribed early postinfection; moreover, analysis of an NZ2 variant showed E2L was absent, indicating that E2L, like the VAC cognate, is nonessential for virus replication in cell culture. The parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus correlates have about 20% amino acid sequence resemblance to African swine fever virus DNA binding protein p10, suggesting an ancestral relation of genes. PMID:8972571

  13. Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoki Todo

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of oncolytic virus vectors has been developed lately for cancer therapy. Herpes simplex virus type 1\\u000a (HSV-1) vectors are particularly useful, because they can be genetically engineered to replicate and spread highly selectively\\u000a in tumor cells and can also express multiple foreign transgenes. These vectors can manifest cytopathic effect in a wide variety\\u000a of tumor types without

  14. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses? †

    PubMed Central

    Fargette, D.; Pinel, A.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Traoré, O.; Sérémé, D.; Sorho, F.; Issaka, S.; Hébrard, E.; Séré, Y.; Kanyeka, Z.; Konaté, G.

    2008-01-01

    The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in different parts of Africa. The evolution rate of RYMV was estimated by pairwise distance linear regression on five phylogeographically defined groups comprising a total of 135 isolates. It was further assessed from 253 isolates collected all over Africa by Bayesian coalescent methods under strict and relaxed molecular clock models and under constant size and skyline population genetic models. Consistent estimates of the evolution rate between 4 × 10?4 and 8 × 10?4 nucleotides (nt)/site/year were obtained whatever method and model were applied. The synonymous evolution rate was between 8 × 10?4 and 11 × 10?4 nt/site/year. The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. Experimentally, in host change studies, substitutions accumulated at an even higher rate. The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. PMID:18199644

  15. Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Manuel AFV

    2005-01-01

    The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry. PMID:15877812

  16. Role of murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Muriaux, Delphine; Costes, Sylvain; Nagashima, Kunio; Mirro, Jane; Cho, Ed; Lockett, Stephen; Rein, Alan

    2004-11-01

    The retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC) originates by cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. It is highly basic and contains one or two zinc fingers. Mutations in either the basic residues or the zinc fingers can affect several events of the virus life cycle. They frequently prevent the specific packaging of the viral RNA, affect reverse transcription, and impair virion assembly. In this work, we explore the role of NC in murine leukemia virus (MLV) particle assembly and release. A panel of NC mutants, including mutants of the zinc finger and of a basic region, as well as truncations of the NC domain of Gag, were studied. Several of these mutations dramatically reduce the release of virus particles. A mutant completely lacking the NC domain is apparently incapable of assembling into particles, although its Gag protein is still targeted to the plasma membrane. By electron microscopy on thin sections of virus-producing cells, we observed that some NC mutants exhibit various stages of budding defects at the plasma membrane and have aberrant particle morphology; electron micrographs of cells expressing some of these mutants are strikingly similar to those of cells expressing "late-domain" mutants. However, the defects of NC mutants with respect to virus release and infectivity could be complemented by an MLV lacking the p12 domain. Therefore, the functions of NC in virus budding and infectivity are completely distinct from viral late-domain function. PMID:15507624

  17. Role of Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Muriaux, Delphine; Costes, Sylvain; Nagashima, Kunio; Mirro, Jane; Cho, Ed; Lockett, Stephen; Rein, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC) originates by cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. It is highly basic and contains one or two zinc fingers. Mutations in either the basic residues or the zinc fingers can affect several events of the virus life cycle. They frequently prevent the specific packaging of the viral RNA, affect reverse transcription, and impair virion assembly. In this work, we explore the role of NC in murine leukemia virus (MLV) particle assembly and release. A panel of NC mutants, including mutants of the zinc finger and of a basic region, as well as truncations of the NC domain of Gag, were studied. Several of these mutations dramatically reduce the release of virus particles. A mutant completely lacking the NC domain is apparently incapable of assembling into particles, although its Gag protein is still targeted to the plasma membrane. By electron microscopy on thin sections of virus-producing cells, we observed that some NC mutants exhibit various stages of budding defects at the plasma membrane and have aberrant particle morphology; electron micrographs of cells expressing some of these mutants are strikingly similar to those of cells expressing “late-domain” mutants. However, the defects of NC mutants with respect to virus release and infectivity could be complemented by an MLV lacking the p12 domain. Therefore, the functions of NC in virus budding and infectivity are completely distinct from viral late-domain function. PMID:15507624

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  19. Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is an unfamiliar disease with a high mortality rate. Until recently, it occurred only in rural tropical regions and most health care providers had only read about it in epidemiology classes. With globalization, international travel, and foreign medical missions, it is possible that a patient with Ebola exposure and/or symptoms may present in any emergency department. All health care providers must be familiar with identifying the signs and symptoms of Ebola and capable of initiating an appropriate response. This article presents an overview of Ebola virus disease for health care providers, covering pathophysiology, identification, treatment, and general considerations for hospitals and providers to consider when developing policies and procedures. PMID:25929221

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  1. Arthropod viruses and small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C

    2013-10-01

    The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976

  2. Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses

    E-print Network

    Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-10-17

    with the potential to cause acute fatal disease in healthy adult humans are RNA viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus (IAV), Ebola virus, ra- bies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephali- tis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine...

  3. Cellular Sequences in Stealth Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. John Martin

    1998-01-01

    Cloned DNA obtained from the culture of an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus-derived stealth virus contains multiple discrete regions of significant sequence homology (p values ranging from 4 × 10–3to 1 × 10–20) to portions of known human cellular genes. The stealth virus was cultured from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Earlier studies had revealed considerable sequence heterogeneity

  4. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Cavanagh

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

  5. Simian virus 40 in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Martini; Alfredo Corallini; Veronica Balatti; Silvia Sabbioni; Cecilia Pancaldi; Mauro Tognon

    2007-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 footprints in humans have been found associated

  6. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

  7. Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Park; E. J. Kim; T. H. Yun; J. H. Lee; C. K. Kim; Y. H. Seo; S. A. Oh; S. S. Choi; S. J. Cho; M. S. Kim; G. Y. Han; M. Y. Kim; H. S. Jeong; D. S. Cheon; H. S. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of enteric viruses are a major public health concern. The present study has been carried out to assess\\u000a the presence of enteric viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in groundwater intended for drinking and\\u000a produce washing. In total, 62 samples from groundwater for drinking and produce washing collected from Dec 2007 to Dec 2008\\u000a in Seoul were

  8. Lily symptomless virus in tulip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. L. M. Derks; C. J. Asjes

    1975-01-01

    Lily symptomless virus (LSV) was transmitted mechanically to only two out of 53 plant species (18 families) tested, i.e.Lilium formosanum and tulip ‘Rose Copland’ (Liliaceae). The aphid speciesMacrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, andAphis gossypii transmitted LSV in a non-persistent manner fromLilium Mid-century hybrid ‘Enchantment’ to tulip ‘Rose Copland’.M. euphorbiae transmitted the virus more efficiently thanM. persicae andA. gossypii. The yield of

  9. Another Really, Really Big Virus

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

  10. A DNA Virus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

  11. ENZYMATIC VARIANTS OF INFLUENZA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Billie L.; Walker, Duard L.

    1958-01-01

    The rate of elution of the variant virus from chicken RBC is progressively decreased as the temperature of incubation is increased above 25°C. The activity of the parent virus, on the other hand, is increased as the temperature is increased up to 40°C. The major cause of the decreased activity of the variant at temperatures above 2S°C. is an inhibition of the variant enzyme rather than its inactivation. The activity of the variant enzyme is stimulated in the presence of strontium, calcium, and barium ions. Manganese has only a slight effect, and magnesium has no stimulatory effect on the elution of the variant virus. Elution of the variant at 37°C. is progressively inhibited at pH values above 7, while the parent virus is still active at pH 8. In the absence of calcium the variant enzyme, hemagglutinin, and infectivity are more heat labile than those of the parent virus. The addition of calcium increases the heat stability of all three properties of the variant, and in the presence of calcium the infectivity of the variant is as stable as that of the parent virus. PMID:13587849

  12. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  13. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  14. Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America.

    PubMed

    Kuno, G; Artsob, H; Karabatsos, N; Tsuchiya, K R; Chang, G J

    2001-11-01

    Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we obtained the near-full-length genomic sequence of the DT virus and complete sequences of 3 genomic regions of 15 strains of POW-related virus strains. The phylogeny revealed 2 lineages, one of which had the prototype POW virus and the other DT virus. Both lineages can cause central nervous system infection in humans. By use of the combination of molecular definition of virus species within the genus Flavivirus and serological distinction in a 2-way cross-neutralization test, the lineage of DT virus is classified as a distinct genotype of POW virus. PMID:11716135

  15. [Canine parvovirus infection in a group of beagles (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Baba, M; Yasoshima, A; Kojima, A; Kato, N; Abiko, T; Nitta, S

    1981-04-01

    An outbreak of canine parvovirus infection in a group of 26 beagles was described. The disease characterized by acute intestinal involvement was highly contagious but fatality was low (1/26). Transient leukopenia was recorded in some animals. All the convalescent sera were positive in agar gel diffusion test using feline panleukopenia virus antigen. Histopathological examination on fetal dog revealed regressive change associated with formation of amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the enterocytes of the Lieberkühn's crypt and regressive change in the lymphoid tissues. Pathologic picture exhibited strikingly resemblance with that of feline panleukopenia. PMID:7286068

  16. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks. The clinical manifestation of NoV infection, however, is relatively mild. Asymptomatic infections are common and may contribute to the spread of the infection. Introduction of NoV in a community or population (a seeding event) may be followed by additional spread because of the highly infectious nature of NoV, resulting in a great number of secondary infections (50% of contacts). Hepatitis A is an increasing problem because of the decrease in immunity of populations in countries with high standards of hygiene. Molecular-based methods can detect viruses in shellfish but are not yet available for other foods. The applicability of the methods currently available for monitoring foods for viral contamination is unknown. No consistent correlation has been found between the presence of indicator microorganisms (i.e. bacteriophages, E. coli) and viruses. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and exhibit variable levels of resistance to heat and disinfection agents. However, they are both inactivated at 100 degrees C. No validated model virus or model system is available for studies of inactivation of NoV, although investigations could make use of structurally similar viruses (i.e. canine and feline caliciviruses). In the absence of a model virus or model system, food safety guidelines need to be based on studies that have been performed with the most resistant enteric RNA viruses (i.e. HAV, for which a model system does exist) and also with bacteriophages (for water). Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected foodhandler, rather than to industrially processed foods. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the process from farm to fork, but most foodborne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is not heated or otherwise treated afterwards. Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. If viruses are present in food preprocessing, residual viral infectivity may be present after some industrial processes. Therefore, it is key that sufficient attention be given to good agriculture practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to avoid introduction of viruses onto the raw material and into the food-manufacturing environment, and to HACCP to assure adequate management of (control over) viruses present during the manufacturing process. If viruses are present in foods after processing, they remain infectious in most circumstances and in most foods for several days or weeks, especially if kept cooled (at 4 degrees C). Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. For the control of foodborne viral infections, it is necessary to: Heighten awareness about the presence and spread of these viruses by foodhandlers; Optimise and standardise methods for the detection of foodborne viruses; Develop laboratory-based surveillance to detect large, common-source outbreaks at an early stage; and Emphasise consideration of viruses in setting up food safety quality control and management systems (GHP, GMP, HACCP). PMID:14672828

  17. Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

    1979-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

  18. Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Rehmann L.L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.

  19. Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J

    2012-03-01

    In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

  20. Plasmodesmata: channels for viruses on the move.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The symplastic communication network established by plasmodesmata (PD) and connected phloem provides an essential pathway for spatiotemporal intercellular signaling in plant development but is also exploited by viruses for moving their genomes between cells in order to infect plants systemically. Virus movement depends on virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that target PD and therefore represent important keys to the cellular mechanisms underlying the intercellular trafficking of viruses and other macromolecules. Viruses and their MPs have evolved different mechanisms for intracellular transport and interaction with PD. Some viruses move from cell to cell by interacting with cellular mechanisms that control the size exclusion limit of PD whereas other viruses alter the PD architecture through assembly of specialized transport structures within the channel. Some viruses move between cells in the form of assembled virus particles whereas other viruses may interact with nucleic acid transport mechanisms to move their genomes in a non-encapsidated form. Moreover, whereas several viruses rely on the secretory pathway to target PD, other viruses interact with the cortical endoplasmic reticulum and associated cytoskeleton to spread infection. This chapter provides an introduction into viruses and their role in studying the diverse cellular mechanisms involved in intercellular PD-mediated macromolecular trafficking. PMID:25287194

  1. Phylogenetic Properties of RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions. PMID:23028645

  2. Virus Population Dynamics and Acquired Virus Resistance in Natural Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders F. Andersson; Jillian F. Banfield

    2008-01-01

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer

  3. Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

    2009-01-01

    Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

  4. Differential diagnosis and genetic analysis of the antigenically related swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otfried Marquardt; Volker F. Ohlinger

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against an isolate of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), characterized by virus neutralization tests and competition assays, were used to compare SVDV isolates and isolates of the antigenically related Coxsackie viruses by ELISA. Four SVDV-specific reaction patterns and one specific for Coxsackie viruses were observed. This provided a method for distinguishing between these enteroviruses. In addition, RT-PCRs

  5. A comparative electrophoretic examination of swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie B5 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Summary Purified suspensions of Coxsackie B5 virus and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) were prepared by harvesting and purifying cell pack virus. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was carried out with purified N and H antigen fractions (full and empty particles). Relative migration velocity (RMV) was calculated for the N antigen fraction of 3 SVD viruses (UKG72, HK71 and Italy66) and 2 Coxsackie

  6. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    E-print Network

    A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV KW, Taylor SL, et al. (2013) A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits

  7. Functional Features of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Pseudotype Virus Entry into Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Meyer; Arnab Basu; Ranjit Ray

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the generation of pseudotype virus from chimeric gene constructs encoding the ectodomain of the E1 or E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1a appended to the trans membrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein. Sera derived from chimpanzees immunized with homologous HCV glycoproteins neutralized pseudotype virus infectivity (L.

  8. Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

  9. Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly

    E-print Network

    Tao, Yizhi Jane

    Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Å

  10. GENOMIC SEQUENCING OF DEER TICK VIRUS AND PHYLOGENY OF POWASSAN-RELATED VIRUSES OF NORTH AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG

    2001-01-01

    Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we

  11. Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

    2012-01-01

    Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Meng; Zheng, Weinan; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS1), and nuclear export protein (NEP), summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses. PMID:26008706

  13. Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C Virus" /> Consumer Summary – Sept. 13, 2013 Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus Formats View PDF ( ... longer for bleeding to stop Understanding Hepatitis C Testing How do I know if I have the ...

  14. The Origins of the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Max; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    1988-01-01

    States that the virus is not unique since it has been discovered in other primates as well as in man. Relates studies of viruses that indicate some have evolved disease-free coexistence with their animal hosts. (RT)

  15. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  16. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  17. Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and Anti-Virus Techniques: A Short Survey

    E-print Network

    Rad, Babak Bashari; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process, anti-virus experts design and develop new methodologies to make them stronger, more and more, every day. The purpose of this paper is to review these methodologies and outline their strengths and weaknesses to encourage those are interested in more investigation on these areas.

  18. A Mediterranean arbovirus: The Toscana virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Valassina; Maria Grazia Cusi; Pier Egisto Valensin

    2003-01-01

    Toscana virus (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) is a sandfly fever virus responsible for human neurological infections.\\u000a Sandfly viruses are transmitted by insect vectors (Phlebotomus species) and the infection is present in climatic areas that\\u000a allow the life cycle of the vector. The arthropode-borne Toscana virus is the etiologic agent of meningitis, meningoencephalitis,\\u000a and encephalitis. The frequency of this neuropathic infection

  19. SURVEY OF GRAPEVINE VIRUSES IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fiore; S. Prodan; J. Montealegre; E. Aballay; A. M. Pino; A. Zamorano

    SUMMARY Grapevines from six Chilean regions were surveyed for virus diseases and tested for the presence of the most important viruses. ELISA testing of 2535 samples and confirmatory RT-PCR of some ELISA-negative samples from symptomatic and symptomless vines gave the fol- lowing infection rates: 6.36% for Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV); 4.67% for Grapevine leafroll associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1); 16.05% for

  20. Metamorphic Viruses Detection Using Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essam Al Daoud

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new artificial immune system for metamorphic viruses detection, the suggested system uses components and techniques found in the biological immune system such as multilayer, self, nonself , skin,skeleton, B-cell and receptors. In this study; metamorphic viruses are generated by two tools: Next Generation Virus Creation Kit (NGVCK0.30) and Virus Creation Lab for Windows 32 (VCL32). The

  1. Recent advances in oncolytic virus design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

    2011-01-01

    The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

  2. Virus-membrane interactions: spectroscopic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Datema

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some new aspects of the infection process of nonenveloped viruses are reported. The interaction of a rod-shaped (TMV) and three spherical (CCMV, BMV, SBMV) plant viruses, of the filamentous bacteriophage M13, and of their coat proteins with membranes have been investigated. A comparison is made between the infection mechanisms of these non-enveloped viruses.1 EFFECT OF PLANT VIRUSES

  3. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  4. Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma P. Tavakoli; Heng Wang; Michelle Dupuis; Rene Hull; Gregory D. Ebel; Emily J. Gilmore; Phyllis L. Faust

    2010-01-01

    Summary Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year- old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analy- ses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific

  5. Cooperation between the Hemagglutinin of Avian Viruses and the Matrix Protein of Human Influenza A Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Scholtissek; Jürgen Stech; Scott Krauss; Robert G. Webster

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the compatibility of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinins (HAs) and human influenza A virus matrix (M) proteins M1 and M2, we doubly infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane hydrochloride)-resistant human viruses and amantadine-sensitive avian strains. By using antisera against the human virus HAs and amantadine, we selected reassortants containing the human virus M gene and the

  6. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Kielian

    2006-01-01

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes

  7. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  8. Immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-Jie Yu; Gui-Qiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    The immune system functions to control and clear virus infections. Viral persistence has been closely associated with dysfunctional specific immunity, especially cellular immunity. Current antiviral therapies have been disappointing. Immunotherapies with strategies to boost or restore the virus-specific immune response of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have been proposed for curing persistent i n f e c t

  9. killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

  10. Inhibition of Interferons by Ectromelia Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent P. Smith; Antonio Alcami

    2002-01-01

    Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice. Mousepox is a useful model of OPV infection because EV is likely to be a natural mouse pathogen, unlike its close relatives vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mouse interferons (IFNs) in resistance to and recovery from

  11. Report on potato virus diseases in 1939

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Dykstra

    1940-01-01

    This report gives a review of some of the papers on potato virus diseases published during 1939 and the latter part of I938. Not all these papers were read, and in some cases only the abstracts found in the Review of Applied Mycology were used. Dennis (8) conducted studies to determine the properties of Solanum virus 4 (= virus B)

  12. Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus I Schwartz D Lévy URA-INRA d-Alfort cedex, France (Received 16 March 1994; accepted 25 July 1994) Summary ― Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus similar to the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). Most BLV infected animals (70

  13. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUS FROM GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, has been shown to be susceptible to insect virus infections. A new virus was isolated from field caught GWSS and partially sequenced. Sequence identity showed that this was a new sharpshooter virus separate from those already reported by Hunter et. al. 2004, and...

  14. GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

  15. Ubiquitous Reassortments in influenza a viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-feng Wan; Mufit Ozden; Guohui Lin

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a negative stranded RNA virus, composed of eight segmented RNA molecules, including polymerases (PB2, PB1, PA), haemaglutin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructure gene (NS). The influenza A viruses are notorious for rapid mutations, frequent genomic reassortments, and possible recombinations. Among these evolutionary events, genetic reassortments refer to exchanges of internal fragments

  16. Taxonomic Classification of Hepatitis A Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Gust; Anthony G. Coulepis; Stephen M. Feinstone; Stephen A. Locarnini; Yasuo Moritsugu; Raphael Najera; Gunter Siegl

    1983-01-01

    Summary Sufficient data have accumulated to permit the ICTV Ad Hoc Study Group on the Taxonomy of Hepatitis Viruses to recognize hepatitis A virus as a picornavirus. Within the family Picornaviridae, hepatitis A virus closely resembles members of the genus Enterovirus.Copyright © 1983 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Email Virus Propagation Modeling and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff C. Zou; Don Towsley; Weibo Gong

    2003-01-01

    Email viruses constitute one of the major Internet security problems. In this paper we present an email virus model that accounts for the behaviors of email users, such as email checking frequency and the probability of opening an email attachment. Email viruses spread over a logical network defined by email address books. The topology of email network plays an important

  18. A modified epidemiological model for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Roberto C. Piqueira; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Since the computer viruses pose a serious problem to individual and corporative computer systems, a lot of effort has been dedicated to study how to avoid their deleterious actions, trying to create anti-virus programs acting as vaccines in personal computers or in strategic network nodes. Another way to combat viruses propagation is to establish preventive policies based on the whole

  19. A history of computer viruses - Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Joseph Highland

    1997-01-01

    The following series of articles are taken from Harold's Computer Virus Handbook, published by Elsevier Advanced Technology in 1990. Viruses have moved on a long way since then, but the extracts published here provide a useful background in virus development, and contain much information that is still relevant today. It is also interesting to note that Harold introduces the Macro

  20. Current best practice against computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Cohen

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research on viruses and defenses. The author examines the state-of-the-art in virus defense today and describes how normal computing activities can proceed without undue risk of substantial viral harm. He then describes a set of redundant integrity protection mechanisms used in defending against computer viruses in untrusted computing environments. They include applications of coding theory, cryptography, operating system modifications,

  1. An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Adleman

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the detection of computer viruses has become common place. It appears that for the most part these viruses\\u000a have been ‘benign’ or only mildly destructive. However, whether or not computer viruses have the potential to cause major\\u000a and prolonged disruptions of computing environments is an open question.

  2. Pairwise Alignment of Metamorphic Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott McGhee

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses and other forms of malware pose a threat to virtually any software system (with only a few exceptions). A computer virus is a piece of software which takes advantage of known weaknesses in a software system, and usually has the ability to deliver a malicious payload. A common technique that virus writers use to avoid detection is to

  3. On the time complexity of computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-hong Zuo; Qing-xin Zhu; Ming-tian Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Computer viruses can disable computer systems not only by destroying data or modifying a system's configuration, but also by consuming most of the computing resources such as CPU time and storage. The latter effects are related to the computational complexity of computer viruses. In this correspondence, we investigate some issues concerning the time complexity of computer viruses, and prove some

  4. Semester Thesis Virus Inoculation on Social Graphs -

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Stefan

    led to a huge number of computer-viruses, acting in many different manners and aiming at diverse. A contaminated computer hence serves as a source for the virus to infect every other directly linked computer of the virus, every computer that eventually is infected has also to face a drawback in terms of e.g. lost data

  5. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  6. Open Problems in Computer Virus Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve R. White

    1998-01-01

    Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

  7. Assembly and budding of influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi P. Nayak; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Subrata Barman

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are causative agents of an acute febrile respiratory disease called influenza (commonly known as “flu”) and belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses possess segmented, negative stranded RNA genomes (vRNA) and are enveloped, usually spherical and bud from the plasma membrane (more specifically, the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells). Complete virus particles, therefore, are not found

  8. VIRUS TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS IN A SANDY AQUIFER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of human enteric viruses in ground water has been well documented in the literature. Bacteriophages, such as MS-2 and PRD1, have properties similar to pathogenic human viruses, suggesting that bacteriophages can be used as proxies for virus transport. The objective of this study is to...

  9. G to A hypermutation of TT virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masataka Tsuge; Chiemi Noguchi; Rie Akiyama; Miyuki Matsushita; Kana Kunihiro; Sachi Tanaka; Hiromi Abe; Fukiko Mitsui; Shosuke Kitamura; Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama; Takashi Kimura; Daiki Miki; Nobuhiko Hiraga; Michio Imamura; Shoichi Takahashi; C. Nelson Hayses; Kazuaki Chayama

    2010-01-01

    APOBEC3 proteins function as part of innate antiviral immunity and induce G to A hypermutation in retroviruses and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes. Whether APOBEC3 proteins affect viruses that replicate without a reverse transcription step is unknown. TT virus (TTV), known to present in serum of healthy individuals and HBV carriers, has a single-stranded circular DNA genome and replicates without

  10. Emerging intracellular receptors for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Jae, Lucas T; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus and Lassa virus belong to different virus families that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening disease in humans with limited treatment options. To infect a target cell, Ebola and Lassa viruses engage receptors at the cell surface and are subsequently shuttled into the endosomal compartment. Upon arrival in late endosomes/lysosomes, the viruses trigger membrane fusion to release their genome into the cytoplasm. Although contact sites at the cell surface were recognized for Ebola virus and Lassa virus, it was postulated that Ebola virus requires a critical receptor inside the cell. Recent screens for host factors identified such internal receptors for both viruses: Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) for Ebola virus and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) for Lassa virus. A cellular trigger is needed to permit binding of the viral envelope protein to these intracellular receptors. This 'receptor switch' represents a previously unnoticed step in virus entry with implications for host-pathogen interactions and viral tropism. PMID:26004032

  11. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Ebel; Andrew Spielman; Sam R. Telford

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether Powassan virus (POW) and deer tick virus (DTV) constitute distinct flaviviral populations transmitted by ixodid ticks in North America, we analysed diverse nucleotide sequences from 16 strains of these viruses. Two distinct genetic lineages are evident, which may be defined by geographical and host associations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lineage one (comprising New York

  12. VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St Maryâ??s Campus; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

    2010-02-12

    Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

  13. HIV-1 Pathogenesis: The Virus

    PubMed Central

    Swanstrom, Ronald; Coffin, John

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of HIV-1 results in the establishment of a new infection, typically starting from a single virus particle. That virion replicates to generate viremia and persistent infection in all of the lymphoid tissue in the body. HIV-1 preferentially infects T cells with high levels of CD4 and those subsets of T cells that express CCR5, particularly memory T cells. Most of the replicating virus is in the lymphoid tissue, yet most of samples studied are from blood. For the most part the tissue and blood viruses represent a well-mixed population. With the onset of immunodeficiency, the virus evolves to infect new cell types. The tropism switch involves switching from using CCR5 to CXCR4 and corresponds to an expansion of infected cells to include naïve CD4+ T cells. Similarly, the virus evolves the ability to enter cells with low levels of CD4 on the surface and this potentiates the ability to infect macrophages, although the scope of sites where infection of macrophages occurs and the link to pathogenesis is only partly known and is clear only for infection of the central nervous system. A model linking viral evolution to these two pathways has been proposed. Finally, other disease states related to immunodeficiency may be the result of viral infection of additional tissues, although the evidence for a direct role for the virus is less strong. Advancing immunodeficiency creates an environment in which viral evolution results in viral variants that can target new cell types to generate yet another class of opportunistic infections (i.e., HIV-1 with altered tropism). PMID:23143844

  14. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  16. Halting viruses in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezs?, Zoltán; Barabási, Albert-László

    2002-05-01

    The vanishing epidemic threshold for viruses spreading on scale-free networks indicate that traditional methods, aiming to decrease a virus' spreading rate cannot succeed in eradicating an epidemic. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate a virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. Furthermore, such biased policies are more cost effective, requiring less cures to eradicate the virus.

  17. Divergent Roles of Autophagy in Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiramel, Abhilash I.; Brady, Nathan R.; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have played an important role in human evolution and have evolved diverse strategies to co-exist with their hosts. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit and manipulate different host cell processes, including cellular trafficking, metabolism and immunity-related functions, for their own survival. In this article, we review evidence for how autophagy, a highly conserved cellular degradative pathway, serves either as an antiviral defense mechanism or, alternatively, as a pro-viral process during virus infection. Furthermore, we highlight recent reports concerning the role of selective autophagy in virus infection and how viruses manipulate autophagy to evade lysosomal capture and degradation. PMID:24709646

  18. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  19. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

  20. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for or blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in expression of viral components. Here we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901

  1. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-06-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  2. West Nile virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christal G

    2008-06-01

    West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

  3. Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

    2012-01-01

    During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461

  4. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Mehul S.; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in ‘omics’ resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems based approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  5. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient. PMID:25676629

  6. A virus-based biocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2007-04-01

    Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

  7. Who Let the Virus In?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-01

    Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

  8. West Nile Virus Problem Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; )

    2005-12-13

    As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

  9. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Sourisseau; Clémentine Schilte; Nicoletta Casartelli; Céline Trouillet; Florence Guivel-Benhassine; Dominika Rudnicka; Nathalie Sol-Foulon; Karin Le Roux; Marie-Christine Prevost; Hafida Fsihi; Marie-Pascale Frenkiel; Fabien Blanchet; Philippe V. Afonso; Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi; Simona Ozden; Antoine Gessain; Isabelle Schuffenecker; Bruno Verhasselt; Alessia Zamborlini; Ali Saïb; Felix A. Rey; Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos; Philippe Desprès; Alain Michault; Matthew L. Albert; Olivier Schwartz

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial

  10. Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

  11. New vaccines against influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

  12. Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Conraths, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, spread rapidly across Europe, and almost disappeared in 2013. However, since late summer 2014, new cases have occurred in adult cattle. Full-genome analysis revealed some amino acid substitution differences from the first SBV sample. Viremia developed in experimentally infected sheep and cattle for 4–6 days. PMID:26079975

  13. Powassan virus encephalitis, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Birge, Justin; Sonnesyn, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

  14. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Sonnesyn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

  15. Molecular Characteristic-Based Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, and E Viruses and GB Virus C\\/Hepatitis G Virus in Myanmar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZUHIKO NAKAI; KHIN MAUNG WIN; SAN SAN OO; YASUYUKI ARAKAWA; KENJI ABE

    2001-01-01

    We carried out a molecular characteristic-based epidemiological survey of various hepatitis viruses, includ- ing hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and GB virus C (GBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV), in Myanmar. The study population of 403 subjects consisted of 213 healthy individuals residing in the city of Yangon, Myanmar, and the surrounding suburbs and 190

  16. Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

  17. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum. 

    E-print Network

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum M.P.K.J. Theu and R. W. Toler1 Abstract A pathogenic interaction between sorghum yel low banding virus (SYBV) and maize dwarf mosaic (MDMV-A) virus was proved. Inoculation... of MDMV A 3 days before inoculation with SYBV resulted in a more severe disease and the resultant disease symp toms were different from those caused by either virus alone. Both viruses were serologically detected in a treatment in which MDMV...

  18. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors? PMID:23568292

  19. Electronic Parameters of Mesoporous Silicon Upon Adsorption of Plant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy Vashpanov; Jung-Young Son; Kae-Dal Kwack; Seung-Jung Shin

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the electronic parameters of mesoporous silicon upon adsorption of nematodetransmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses of plant [tomato ringspot virus (TORSV), grapevine virus A (GVA), and grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV)] measured at room temperature are investigated. The adsorption of these viruses affected essentially on the electronic characteristic of the porous material. The measurement of the electronic characteristics of porous

  20. SURVEY FOR VIRUSES OF GRAPEVINE IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines in Washington and Oregon were surveyed for the prevalence of key grapevine viruses. Samples collected from 1522 vines in Washington were tested for Rupestris stem pitting associated virus (RSPaV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), ...

  1. Flow cytometry assay for intracellular rabies virus detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliano Bordignon; Silvia Cordoba Pires Ferreira; Graciane Maria Medeiros Caporale; Maria Luiza Carrieri; Ivanete Kotait; Hermênio Cavalcante Lima; Carlos Roberto Zanetti

    2002-01-01

    Following previous studies reporting microbiological diagnosis by flow cytometry, the possibility of using this method was examined to monitor infection of susceptible cell lines by a fixed rabies virus strain (Pasteur Virus strain—PV) or a wild rabies virus strain (WRS). Suspensions of BHK-21 and C6 cells were infected with viruses and a time course of virus infection was established. Sequentially,

  2. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  3. A Dynamic Immunity-Based Model for Computer Virus Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Tao Li; Renchao Qin

    2008-01-01

    Internet provides a fertile medium for new breeds of computer viruses. Many people who have access to a wealth of information via Internet are attacked by more computer viruses than they can effectively process. We present a dynamic computer virus detection model that can detect known viruses and previously unknown viruses to prevent information systems from damage. This model is

  4. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Mamaev; I. K. G. Visser; S. I. Belikov; N. N. Denikina; T. C. Harder; L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; T. Barrett

    1996-01-01

    The virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987\\/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals

  5. Determinants of the Host Range of Feline Leukaemia Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Jarrett; HELEN M. LAIRD; D. Hay

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY Feline leukaemia viruses of subgroups B and C multiply in human and canine cells, while subgroup A viruses do not. This host range restriction is determined by the virus envelope and operates at the level of virus entry into the cell. Subgroup A virus genomes are expressed and replicated when they are introduced within B subgroup envelopes into human

  6. Managing diseases caused by viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses and virus-like pathogens are of considerable economic importance in potato production. The plant viruses and viroids are small, noncellular pathogens. In contrast, phytoplasmas are cellular organisms. In this chapter, information is presented on a number of virus and virus-like pat...

  7. Intrahost Dynamics of Influenza Virus Reassortment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Steel, John

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The segmented nature of the influenza virus genome allows reassortment between coinfecting viruses. This process of genetic exchange vastly increases the diversity of circulating influenza viruses. The importance of reassortment to public health is clear from its role in the emergence of a number of epidemiologically important viruses, including novel pandemic and epidemic strains. To gauge its impact on within-host genomic variation, we tracked reassortment in coinfected guinea pigs over time and given matched or discordant doses of coinfecting viruses. To ensure unbiased detection of reassortants, we used parental viruses of equivalent fitness that differ only by noncoding nucleotide changes. These viruses were based on the isolate A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2). At a dose of 2 × 102 PFU, one parental virus was absent from each guinea pig throughout the time course, indicating the presence of a bottleneck. With an intermediate dose of 2 × 103 PFU, genomic diversity present in nasal lavage samples increased from 1 to 3 days postinfection (dpi) and then declined by 6 dpi. With a high dose of 2 × 106 PFU, however, reassortment levels were high (avg. 59%) at 1 dpi and remained stable. Even late in the course of infection, parental viruses were not eclipsed by reassortants, suggesting that a uniformly high multiplicity of infection was not achieved in vivo. Inoculation with ?10-fold discordant doses did not reduce reassortment relative to equivalent inputs but markedly changed the spectrum of genotypes produced. Our data reveal the potential for reassortment to contribute to intrahost diversity in mixed influenza virus infection. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus reassortment is prevalent in nature and is a major contributor to the diversity of influenza viruses circulating in avian, swine, human and other host species. This diversity, in turn, increases the potential for influenza viruses to evade selective pressures or adapt to new host environments. As examples, reassortment was key to the emergence of the 1957, 1968, and 2009 pandemics; the unusually severe influenza epidemics of 2003, 1951, and 1947; and the rise in adamantane resistance among currently circulating human H3N2 viruses. We reveal here the diversity of viral genotypes generated over time in a host coinfected with two influenza viruses. We found that intrahost diversity driven by reassortment is dynamic and dependent on the amount of each virus initiating infection. Our results demonstrate the readiness with which reassortant influenza viruses arise, offering new insight into this important mechanism of influenza virus evolution. PMID:24741099

  8. Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

  9. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  10. Sumoylation of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Is Essential for Intracellular Trafficking and Virus Growth

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qinglin; Chang, Chong; Li, Li; Klenk, Christoph; Cheng, Jinke; Chen, Yixin; Xia, Ningshao; Shu, Yuelong; Chen, Ze; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses take advantage of host posttranslational modifications for their own benefit. It was recently reported that influenza A virus proteins interact extensively with the host sumoylation system. Thereby, several viral proteins, including NS1 and M1, are sumoylated to facilitate viral replication. However, to what extent sumoylation is exploited by influenza A virus is not fully understood. In this study, we found that influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a bona fide target of sumoylation in both NP-transfected cells and virus-infected cells. We further found that NP is sumoylated at the two most N-terminal residues, lysines 4 and 7, and that sumoylation at lysine 7 of NP is highly conserved across different influenza A virus subtypes and strains, including the recently emerged human H7N9 virus. While NP stability and polymerase activity are little affected by sumoylation, the NP sumoylation-defective WSN-NPK4,7R virus exhibited early cytoplasmic localization of NP. The growth of the WSN-NPK4,7R virus was highly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type WSN virus, and the lysine residue at position 7 is indispensable for the virus's survival, as illustrated by the rapid emergence of revertant viruses. Thus, sumoylation of influenza A virus NP is essential for intracellular trafficking of NP and for virus growth, illustrating sumoylation as a crucial strategy extensively exploited by influenza A virus for survival in its host. IMPORTANCE Host posttranslational modifications are heavily targeted by viruses for their own benefit. We and others previously reported that influenza A virus interacts extensively with the host sumoylation system. However, the functional outcomes of viral sumoylation are not fully understood. Here we found that influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), an essential component for virus replication, is a new target of SUMO. This is the first study to find that NP from different influenza A viruses, including recently emerged H7N9, is sumoylated at conserved lysine 7. Our data further illustrated that sumoylation of influenza A virus NP is essential for intracellular trafficking of NP and virus growth, indicating that influenza A virus relies deeply on sumoylation to survive in host cells. Strategies to downregulate viral sumoylation could thus be a potential antiviral treatment. PMID:24920808

  11. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Biek, Roman; Zarnke, Randall L; Gillin, Colin; Wild, Margaret; Squires, John R; Poss, Mary

    2002-10-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of samples was tested for feline immunodeficiency virus; all were negative. For all other pathogens, evidence for exposure was found in at least one location. Serologic evidence for FPV was found in all six areas but was more common in southern populations. Also, more males than females showed evidence of exposure to FPV. Overall, prevalences were low and did not exceed 8% for any of the pathogens tested. This suggests that free-ranging lynx rarely encounter common feline pathogens. PMID:12528455

  12. Comparison of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus and Coxsackie B5 Virus by Serological and RNA Hybridization Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brown; T. F. Wild; L. W. Rowe; B. O. Underwood; T. J. R. Harris

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY The relatedness of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus has been studied by virus neutralization and immunodiffusion tests and by hybridization of the virus RNAs. Clearly defined differences between the two viruses were found by the three methods. Isolates of SVDV from several countries were very closely related but could be differentiated. Recent isolates of Coxsackie

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis Viruses and Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Harbin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Ding; Hongxi Gu; Zhao-Hua Zhong; Xu Zilong; Huy Thien-Tuan Tran; Yohko Iwaki; Tian-Cheng Li; Tetsutaro Sata; Kenji Abe

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: We carried out a molecular-based epidemiological survey of hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV), in Harbin, China. The study population of 358 subjects consisted of 132 healthy blood donors and 226 liver disease patients residing in Harbin City and surrounding suburbs. The infection rate of each virus among healthy

  14. Chemical Modification of Viruses and Virus-Like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Strable; M. G. Finn

    Protein capsids derived from viruses may be modified by methods, generated, isolated, and purified on large scales with relative\\u000a ease. In recent years, methods for their chemical derivatization have been employed to broaden the properties and functions\\u000a accessible to investigators desiring monodisperse, atomic-resolution structures on the nanometer scale. Here we review the\\u000a reactions and methods used in these endeavors, including

  15. Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  16. Host range and some properties of Physalis mosaic virus, a new virus of the turnip yellow mosaic virus group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Peters; A. F. L. M. Derks

    1974-01-01

    An apparently undescribed virus was isolated fromPhysalis subglabrata in Illinois, USA, and its properties were studied. The virus was namedPhysalis mosaic virus (PMV). It was readily transmitted by sap inoculation to 23 out of 34 Solanaceae tested, toChenopodium foetidum andSonchus oleraceus but not to 28 other non-solanaceous species inoculated. Purified preparations of PMV contained isometric particles of 27 nm in

  17. Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.

    PubMed

    Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

    2014-03-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  18. Powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.

    PubMed

    McLean, D M; Cobb, C; Gooderham, S E; Smart, C A; Wilson, A G; Wilson, W E

    1967-03-18

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) TCD(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  19. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  20. Kunjin Virus Replicon Vectors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Development†

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Tracey J.; Anraku, Itaru; Linedale, Richard; Harrich, David; Mackenzie, Jason; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the ability of the vaccine vectors based on replicon RNA of the Australian flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) to induce protective antiviral and anticancer CD8+ T-cell responses using murine polyepitope as a model immunogen (I. Anraku, T. J. Harvey, R. Linedale, J. Gardner, D. Harrich, A. Suhrbier, and A. A. Khromykh, J. Virol. 76:3791-3799, 2002). Here we showed that immunization of BALB/c mice with KUN replicons encoding HIV-1 Gag antigen resulted in induction of both Gag-specific antibody and protective Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Two immunizations with KUNgag replicons in the form of virus-like particles (VLPs) induced anti-Gag antibodies with titers of ?1:10,000. Immunization with KUNgag replicons delivered as plasmid DNA, naked RNA, or VLPs induced potent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, with one immunization of KUNgag VLPs inducing 4.5-fold-more CD8+ T cells than the number induced after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the gag gene (rVVgag). Two immunizations with KUNgag VLPs also provided significant protection against challenge with rVVgag. Importantly, KUN replicon VLP vaccinations induced long-lasting immune responses with CD8+ T cells able to secrete gamma interferon and to mediate protection 6 to 10 months after immunization. These results illustrate the potential value of the KUN replicon vectors for human immunodeficiency virus vaccine design. PMID:12829819

  1. Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

    2013-01-01

    Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens. PMID:24167629

  2. Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Anders F; Banfield, Jillian F

    2008-05-23

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer sequences that occur among clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) that are a hallmark of virus resistance. Virus population genomic analyses provided evidence that extensive recombination shuffles sequence motifs sufficiently to evade CRISPR spacers. Only the most recently acquired spacers match coexisting viruses, which suggests that community stability is achieved by rapid but compensatory shifts in host resistance levels and virus population structure. PMID:18497291

  3. Virus vector gene inserts are stabilized in the presence of satellite panicum mosaic virus coat protein 

    E-print Network

    Everett, Anthany Laurence

    2009-05-15

    The coat protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) was used to stabilize viral vector gene inserts in planta. A Potato virus X (PVX) vector carrying the SPMV capsid protein (CP) gene was successfully stabilized through three serial passages...

  4. The role of feline syncytium forming virus in feline immunodeficiency virus-mediated acquired immunodeficiency 

    E-print Network

    Zenger, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    THE ROLE OF FELINE SYNCYTIUM FORMING VIRUS IN FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-MEDIATED ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY A Thesis by ELIZABETH ZENGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery THE ROLE OF FELINE SYNCYTIUM FORMING VIRUS IN FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-MEDIATED ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY A Thesis by ELIZABETH ZENGER...

  5. Human and Animal Viruses in Food (Including Taxonomy of Enteric Viruses)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail E. Greening

    1.0. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of food-borne diseases worldwide, with viruses now recognized as a major cause of these illnesses. The viruses implicated in food-borne disease are the enteric viruses, which are found in the human gut, excreted in human feces, and transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Many different viruses are found

  6. Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Other RNA Viruses Based on New Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jishuang Chen

    \\u000a Plant diseases caused by viruses and related pathogenic agents bring about substantial losses in agricultural and horticultural\\u000a crops. And the study of plant viruses has contributed quite a lot to the agricultural progress and basic understanding of\\u000a plant development as a molecular standard. For example, based on a virus’s diagnosis, the omission of plant viruses from potato\\u000a and many vegetative

  7. Virus Neutralising Antibodies Against 22 Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Isolates in Vaccinated Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hamers; E. Di valentin; C. Lecomte; M. Lambot; E. Joris; B. Genicot; P. Pastoret

    2002-01-01

    Seven of nine colostrum deprived calves, free from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were vaccinated with a commercially available vaccine containing two inactivated strains of BVDV, an inactivated strain of bovine herpesvirus-1 and modified-live strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and para-influenza-3 virus. The two other calves were kept as controls. The virus neutralising (VN) antibodies induced by vaccination were

  8. Systemic vaccination with inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus protects against respiratory challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Howard; M. C. Clarke; P. Sopp; J. Brownlie

    1994-01-01

    Inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus, strain 11249nc, inoculated subcutaneously three times with Quil-A into calves protected against intranasal challenge with the same strain. Virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs taken 4 to 8 days post challenge and blood taken 4 to 6 days post challenge from control calves but not from vaccinated calves. A second strain of virus, Kyl203nc, was

  9. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

    2001-01-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

  10. Satsuma Dwarf and Related Viruses Belong to a New Lineage of Plant Picorna-like Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander V. Karasev; Sang Sub Han; Toru Iwanami

    2001-01-01

    Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) and two closely related viruses, Citrus mosaic (CiMV), and Naval orange infectious mottling (NIMV), seriously affect citrus varieties grown in Japan and East Asia. All three viruses have icosahedral particles built of two proteins encapsidating two single-stranded genomic RNAs. The natural mode of transmission of these SDV-like viruses is unknown, and they were previously placed among

  11. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  12. Determination of Time Dependent Virus Inactivation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C. V.; Vogler, E. T.

    2003-12-01

    A methodology is developed for estimating temporally variable virus inactivation rate coefficients from experimental virus inactivation data. The methodology consists of a technique for slope estimation of normalized virus inactivation data in conjunction with a resampling parameter estimation procedure. The slope estimation technique is based on a relatively flexible geostatistical method known as universal kriging. Drift coefficients are obtained by nonlinear fitting of bootstrap samples and the corresponding confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrap percentiles. The proposed methodology yields more accurate time dependent virus inactivation rate coefficients than those estimated by fitting virus inactivation data to a first-order inactivation model. The methodology is successfully applied to a set of poliovirus batch inactivation data. Furthermore, the importance of accurate inactivation rate coefficient determination on virus transport in water saturated porous media is demonstrated with model simulations.

  13. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Norma P; Wang, Heng; Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Ebel, Gregory D; Gilmore, Emily J; Faust, Phyllis L

    2009-05-14

    Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohistochemical analysis with antisera specific for deer tick virus identified numerous immunoreactive neurons, with prominent involvement of large neurons in the brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and spinal cord. This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis. PMID:19439744

  14. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  18. Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot: Study Strain of H3N2 virus that ... the virus that circulated during the last flu season. The findings were published June 25 in the ...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  2. Genetic Screen of a Library of Chimeric Poxviruses Identifies an Ankyrin Repeat Protein Involved in Resistance to the Avian Type I Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Buttigieg, Karen; Laidlaw, Stephen M.; Ross, Craig; Davies, Marc; Goodbourn, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Viruses must be able to resist host innate responses, especially the type I interferon (IFN) response. They do so by preventing the induction or activity of IFN and/or by resisting the antiviral effectors that it induces. Poxviruses are no exception, with many mechanisms identified whereby mammalian poxviruses, notably, vaccinia virus (VACV), but also cowpox and myxoma viruses, are able to evade host IFN responses. Similar mechanisms have not been described for avian poxviruses (avipoxviruses). Restricted for permissive replication to avian hosts, they have received less attention; moreover, the avian host responses are less well characterized. We show that the prototypic avipoxvirus, fowlpox virus (FWPV), is highly resistant to the antiviral effects of avian IFN. A gain-of-function genetic screen identified fpv014 to contribute to increased resistance to exogenous recombinant chicken alpha IFN (ChIFN1). fpv014 is a member of the large family of poxvirus (especially avipoxvirus) genes that encode proteins containing N-terminal ankyrin repeats (ANKs) and C-terminal F-box-like motifs. By binding the Skp1/cullin-1 complex, the F box in such proteins appears to target ligands bound by the ANKs for ubiquitination. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting demonstrated that tandem affinity-purified, tagged fpv014 was complexed with chicken cullin-1 and Skp1. Prior infection with an fpv014-knockout mutant of FWPV still blocked transfected poly(I·C)-mediated induction of the beta IFN (ChIFN2) promoter as effectively as parental FWPV, but the mutant was more sensitive to exogenous ChIFN1. Therefore, unlike the related protein fpv012, fpv014 does not contribute to the FWPV block to induction of ChIFN2 but does confer resistance to an established antiviral state. PMID:23427151

  3. Genetic screen of a library of chimeric poxviruses identifies an ankyrin repeat protein involved in resistance to the avian type I interferon response.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Karen; Laidlaw, Stephen M; Ross, Craig; Davies, Marc; Goodbourn, Stephen; Skinner, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    Viruses must be able to resist host innate responses, especially the type I interferon (IFN) response. They do so by preventing the induction or activity of IFN and/or by resisting the antiviral effectors that it induces. Poxviruses are no exception, with many mechanisms identified whereby mammalian poxviruses, notably, vaccinia virus (VACV), but also cowpox and myxoma viruses, are able to evade host IFN responses. Similar mechanisms have not been described for avian poxviruses (avipoxviruses). Restricted for permissive replication to avian hosts, they have received less attention; moreover, the avian host responses are less well characterized. We show that the prototypic avipoxvirus, fowlpox virus (FWPV), is highly resistant to the antiviral effects of avian IFN. A gain-of-function genetic screen identified fpv014 to contribute to increased resistance to exogenous recombinant chicken alpha IFN (ChIFN1). fpv014 is a member of the large family of poxvirus (especially avipoxvirus) genes that encode proteins containing N-terminal ankyrin repeats (ANKs) and C-terminal F-box-like motifs. By binding the Skp1/cullin-1 complex, the F box in such proteins appears to target ligands bound by the ANKs for ubiquitination. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting demonstrated that tandem affinity-purified, tagged fpv014 was complexed with chicken cullin-1 and Skp1. Prior infection with an fpv014-knockout mutant of FWPV still blocked transfected poly(I·C)-mediated induction of the beta IFN (ChIFN2) promoter as effectively as parental FWPV, but the mutant was more sensitive to exogenous ChIFN1. Therefore, unlike the related protein fpv012, fpv014 does not contribute to the FWPV block to induction of ChIFN2 but does confer resistance to an established antiviral state. PMID:23427151

  4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a clinically significant cause of respiratory tract disease, especially among high-risk infants and immunocompromised and elderly adults. Despite the burden of disease, there is no licensed prophylactic RSV vaccine. The initial efforts to develop an RSV vaccine involved formalin-inactivated virus preparations that unexpectedly caused vaccine-enhanced disease in clinical trials in RSV-naïve children. Over the last four decades, cautious and deliberate progress has been made towards RSV vaccine development using a variety of experimental approaches (Table 1), including live attenuated strains, vector-based, and viral protein subunit/DNA-based candidates. The scientific rationale, preclinical testing, and clinical development of each of these approaches are reviewed. PMID:19892231

  5. Seasonal Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Inactivated influenza virus vaccines are the primary modality used for prevention of influenza. A system of annual identification of new strains causing illnesses, selections for vaccines, chick embryo growth, inactivation, processing, packaging, distribution and usage has been in place for decades. Current vaccines contain 15 µg of the HA of an A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strain and are given parenterally to induce serum anti-HA antibody for prevention of subsequent infection and illness from natural influenza. Reactogenicity is low and protection among healthy older children and adults is good; protection levels are generally lower in young children and the elderly. Needs include ensuring antigenic matches of vaccine and epidemic viruses each season, enhancing immunization rates, and providing new and improved vaccines and immunization approaches for the varied populations and circumstances globally. PMID:18602728

  6. [Characterization of Marburg virus morphology].

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause severe filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) in humans, with high case fatality rates, and represent potential agents for bioterrorism and biological weapons. It is necessary to keep surveillance of filoviruses, even though there is no report of their isolation and patients in China so far. To characterize MARV morphology, the Lake Victoria marburgvirus--Leiden was stained negatively and observed under a transmission electron microscope which is one of important detection methods for filoviruses in emergencies and bioterrorism. MARV showed pleomorphism, with filamentous, rod-shaped, cobra-like, spherical, and branch-shaped particles of uniform diameter but different lengths. Pleomorphism of negatively stained MARV is summarized in this article, so as to provide useful information for possible electron microscopic identification of filoviruses in China. PMID:25118385

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  8. Eradicating Computer Viruses on Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jinyu

    2012-01-01

    Spread of computer viruses can be modeled as the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation. We show that in order to ensure the random immunization or the targeted immunization effectively prevent computer viruses propagation on homogeneous networks, we should install antivirus programs in every computer node and frequently update those programs. This may produce large work and cost to install and update antivirus programs. Then we propose a new policy called "network monitors" to tackle this problem. In this policy, we only install and update antivirus programs for small number of computer nodes, namely the "network monitors". Further, the "network monitors" can monitor their neighboring nodes' behavior. This mechanism incur relative small cost to install and update antivirus programs.We also indicate that the policy of the "network monitors" is efficient to protect the network's safety. Numerical simulations confirm our analysis.

  9. West Nile Virus Maps - 2002

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

  10. Influenza virus and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Y; Tobita, K

    1997-08-01

    Influenza viruses rarely cause acute encephalopathy. Post-influenzal encephalitis, which occurs a few weeks after recovery from influenza is thought to be an autoimmune process associated with demyelination and vasculopathy. It has been suggested that Economo lethargic encephalitis followed by postencephalitic Parkinsonism was associated with the influenza A epidemic of 1918 (Spanish flu). The incidence of Reye's syndrome has markedly decreased due to the avoidance of salicylates in the treatment of influenza or varicella. One inactivated flu vaccine is thought to have caused Guillain Barre syndrome due to molecular mimicry between viral protein and myelin, which triggered autoimmune responses. The persistence of influenza virus genes in neural cells as one of the causes of chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system by inducing apoptosis of the host cells is yet to be proven. PMID:9316161

  11. Replication of avian influenza viruses in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Beare; R. G. Webster

    1991-01-01

    Summary Volunteers inoculated with avian influenza viruses belonging to subtypes currently circulating in humans (H1N1 and H3N2) were largely refractory to infection. However 11 out of 40 volunteers inoculated with the avian subtypes, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7, shed virus and had mild clinical symptoms: they did not produce a detectable antibody response. This was presumably because virus multiplication was limited

  12. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  13. Biomedical Nanotechnology Using Virus-Based Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Destito; A. Schneemann; M. Manchester

    A great challenge in biomedicine is the ability to target therapeutics to specific locations in the body in order to increase\\u000a therapeutic benefit and minimize adverse effects. Virus-based nanotechnology takes advantage of the natural circulatory and\\u000a targeting properties of viruses, in order to design therapeutics and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest\\u000a in vivo. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and

  14. Newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.

    PubMed

    Halpin, K; Young, P L; Field, H; Mackenzie, J S

    1999-08-16

    Flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order Mononegavirales, namely Hendra virus (HeV), Menangle virus and Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABL). Early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. In 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in Queensland. The virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (EMV) and has since been renamed HeV. Investigation into the reservoir of HeV has produced evidence that antibodies capable of neutralising HeV have only been detected in flying foxes. Over 20% of flying foxes in eastern Australia have been identified as being seropositive. Additionally six species of flying foxes in Papua New Guinea have tested positive for antibodies to HeV. In 1996 a virus from the family Paramyxoviridae was isolated from the uterine fluid of a female flying fox. Sequencing of 10000 of the 18000 base pairs (bp) has shown that the sequence is identical to the HeV sequence. As part of investigations into HeV, a virus was isolated from a juvenile flying fox which presented with neurological signs in 1996. This virus was characterised as belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, and was named ABL. Since then four flying fox species and one insectivorous species have tested positive for ABL. The third virus to be detected in flying foxes is Menangle virus, belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. This virus was responsible for a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans in New South Wales in 1997. Antibodies capable of neutralising Menangle virus, were detected in flying foxes. PMID:10501164

  15. Dose-Response Model for Lassa Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil B. Tamrakar; Charles N. Haas

    2008-01-01

    This article develops dose-response models for Lassa fever virus using data sets found in the open literature. Dose-response data were drawn from two studies in which guinea pigs were given subcutaneous and aerosol exposure to Lassa virus. In one study, six groups of inbred guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with doses of Lassa virus and five groups of out-bred guinea

  16. Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10-11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  17. RNA Virus Reverse Genetics and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24967693

  18. Detecting Unknown Computer Viruses - A New Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Mori

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a We give an overview of the tools to detect computer viruses without relying on “pattern files” that contain “signatures” of\\u000a previously captured viruses. The system combines static code analysis with code simulation to identify malicious behaviors\\u000a commonly found in computer viruses such as mass mailing, file infection, and registry overwrite. These prohibited behaviors\\u000a are defined separately as security policies at

  19. Nucleotide sequence of cassava latent virus DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stanley; Michael R. Gay

    1983-01-01

    Only two groups of plant viruses, the caulimoviruses1,2 and the geminiviruses3, are known to contain a genome of DNA. Unlike that of the caulimoviruses, the genome of the geminivinises is composed of single-stranded, covalently-closed circles of DNA. There is evidence that the geminiviruses, specifically bean golden mosaic virus4 and tomato golden mosaic virus5, have a genome composed of two similar-sized

  20. Tubule-Guided Movement of Plant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Ritzenthaler; Christina Hofmann

    Plant viruses move from cell to cell through plasmodesmata, which are complex gatable pores in the\\u000a cell wall. While plasmodesmata normally allow the diffusion of only small molecules, they can be biochemically\\u000a or structurally modified by virus-encoded movement proteins to enable the passage of either infectious ribonucleoprotein\\u000a complexes or entire virus particles. In the latter case, the movement protein forms

  1. NK Cells and Virus-Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infections and can play roles in such infections by attacking virus-infected cells or by regulating adaptive immune responses. Experimental models suggest that NK cells may also have the capacity to restrain virus-induced cancers. Here, we discuss the seven viruses linked to human cancers and the evidence of NK cell involvement in these systems. PMID:24941377

  2. Transgenic gene silencing strategies for virus control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dietzgen; N. Mitter

    2006-01-01

    Co-suppression of transgenes and their homologous viral sequences by RNA silencing is a powerful strategy for achieving high-level\\u000a virus resistance in plants. This review provides a brief overview of RNA silencing mechanisms in plants and discusses important\\u000a transgene construct design features underpinning successful RNA silencing-mediated transgenic virus control. Application of\\u000a those strategies to protect horticultural and field crops from virus

  3. Virus Transmission—Getting Out and In

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Blanc

    Logically, most plant viruses being vector-transmitted, the majority of viral transport mechanisms\\u000a associated to the transmission step have been approached through the study of virus-vector relationships.\\u000a However, in the case of non-vector vertical transmission through the seeds, some viruses have evolved specific\\u000a patterns to colonize either the gametes or the embryo, thereby connecting viral transport within the plant\\u000a to that

  4. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is a small spherical plant virus that contains two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Virions are approximately 30 nm in diameter and composed of two serologically related...

  5. Incorporation of High Levels of Chimeric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoproteins into Virus-Like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Zhong Wang; Weimin Liu; Sang-Moo Kang; Munir Alam; Chunzi Huang; Ling Ye; Yuliang Sun; Yingying Li; Denise L. Kothe; Peter Pushko; Terje Dokland; Barton F. Haynes; Gale Smith; Beatrice H. Hahn; Richard W. Compans

    2007-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) protein is incorporated into HIV virions or virus-like particles (VLPs) at very low levels compared to the glycoproteins of most other enveloped viruses. To test factors that influence HIV Env particle incorporation, we generated a series of chimeric gene constructs in which the coding sequences for the signal peptide (SP), transmembrane (TM), and

  6. Cell Type Mediated Resistance of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Sendai Virus to Ribavirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirav R. Shah; Amanda Sunderland; Valery Z. Grdzelishvili; Ron A. M. Fouchier

    2010-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a synthetic nucleoside analog with broad spectrum antiviral activity. Although RBV is approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Lassa fever virus infections, its mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy remains highly controversial. Recent reports show that the development of cell-based resistance after continuous RBV treatment via decreased RBV uptake can greatly

  7. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  8. New perspectives on virus detection in shellfish: hemocytes as a source of concentrated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS research indicates that circulating phagocytic cells (hemocytes) within oysters retain virus particles. We find that persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oyster hemocytes correlates with the presence of virus within whole oysters. Since bivalve shellfish have no self-nonself immun...

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Like Particles Produced by a Vaccinia Virus Expression Vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velissarios Karacostas; Kunio Nagashima; Matthew A. Gonda; Bernard Moss

    1989-01-01

    Infectious retrovirus particles consist of a core structure containing RNA and gag-pol polypeptides surrounded by a lipid membrane studded with env proteins. A recombinant vaccinia virus was designed to express the entire gag-pol precursor protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Synthesis and processing of gag proteins occurred in mammalian cells infected with this live recombinant virus, and reverse

  10. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  11. 72 FR 4467 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Detection of Avian Lymphoid Leukosis Virus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-01-31

    We are proposing to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations concerning testing for avian lymphoid leukosis in veterinary biologics to specify that the test is for the detection of extraneous replicating avian leukosis virus; require such testing to be conducted using a procedure that will detect extraneous replicating avian leukosis virus and that is acceptable to the Animal and Plant Health......

  12. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  13. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  14. A comparative study of O'nyong nyong virus with Chikungunya virus and plaque variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Chanas; Z. Hubalek; B. K. Johnson; D. I. H. Simpson

    1979-01-01

    Summary Two plaque variants of Chikungunya (CHIK) virus were serologically compared with O'nyong nyong (ONN) virus in order to elucidate the reported one way antigenic relationships between the two viruses. Three different hypotheses are examined and evidence is shown to support one of them.

  15. Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L Warfield; Dana L Swenson; Diane L Negley; Alan L Schmaljohn; M. Javad Aman; Sina Bavari

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing outbreaks of filoviruses in Africa and concerns about their use in bioterrorism attacks have led to intense efforts to find safe and effective vaccines to prevent the high mortality associated with these viruses. We previously reported the generation of virus-like particles (VLPs) for the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) virus, and that vaccinating mice with Ebola VLPs (eVLPs)

  16. Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-10-01

    The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

  17. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  18. Subterranean clover red leaf virus and bean yellow mosaic virus in alsike clover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Ashby

    1976-01-01

    Subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were isolated from alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) grown in experimental plots on the Canterbury Plains. SCRLV caused reddening of older leaves, and BYMV caused yellowing and streaking of the leaves of infected plants. Some plants were infected by both viruses. A survey in the mid-altitude zone (50D-1000

  19. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we review several agents and strategies that are now under active development. PMID:25630412

  20. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta L. DeBiasi

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), first recognized in North America in 1999, was responsible for the largest arboviral epidemic of human\\u000a encephalitis in history and continues to be the most frequent cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. WNV\\u000a neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in fewer than 1% of infected individuals, with presentations including aseptic meningitis,\\u000a encephalitis, and poliomyelitis. Between 1999 and

  1. Giant virus in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The viral nature of the first “giant virus,” Mimivirus, was realized in 2003, 10 y after its initial isolation from the water of a cooling tower in Bradford, UK. Soon after its genome was sequenced, the mining of the Global Ocean Sampling environmental sequence database revealed that the closest relatives of Mimivirus, only known to infect Acanthamoeba, were to be found in the sea. These predicted marine Mimivirus relatives remained elusive until 2010, with the first genomic characterization of a virus infecting a heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote, the microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. The genome analysis of a virus (PgV) infecting the common unicellular algae Phaeocystis globosa now shows that it is a bona fide member of the Mimivirus family (i.e., the Megaviridae), extending the realm of these giant viruses to abundant blooming phytoplankton species. Despite its smaller genome size (460 kb encoding 434 proteins), PgV exhibits the most intriguing feature of the previously characterized Megaviridae: an associated virophage. However, the 19-kb virophage genome, devoid of a capsid gene, is packaged in the PgV particle and propagated as a “viral plasmid,” the first ever described. The PgV genome also exhibits the duplication of “core genes,” normally present as single copies and a putative new type of mobile element. In a DNA polymerase phylogeny including representatives of the three cellular domains, PgV and the other Megaviridae cluster into their own clade deeply branching between domains Archaea and Eukarya domains, thus exhibiting the topology of a fourth domain in the Tree of Life. PMID:24563700

  2. Metamorphic Viruses with Built-In Buffer Overflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronak Shah

    2010-01-01

    Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure—and thereby their signature—each time they infect a system. Metamorphic viruses are potentially one of the most dangerous types of computer viruses because they are difficult to detect using signature-based methods. Most anti-virus software today is based on signature detection techniques. In this project, we create and analyze a metamorphic virus toolkit which creates viruses

  3. Reversible Inactivation and Desiccation Tolerance of Silicified Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Laidler, James R.; Shugart, Jessica A.; Cady, Sherry L.; Bahjat, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance host-independent virus dispersal is poorly understood, especially for viruses found in isolated ecosystems. To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 is not silicified. Moreover, silicification provides viruses with remarkable desiccation resistance, which could allow extensive aerial dispersal. PMID:24109222

  4. Reversible inactivation and desiccation tolerance of silicified viruses.

    PubMed

    Laidler, James R; Shugart, Jessica A; Cady, Sherry L; Bahjat, Keith S; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    Long-distance host-independent virus dispersal is poorly understood, especially for viruses found in isolated ecosystems. To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 is not silicified. Moreover, silicification provides viruses with remarkable desiccation resistance, which could allow extensive aerial dispersal. PMID:24109222

  5. Electronic Parameters of Mesoporous Silicon Upon Adsorption of Plant Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Son, Jung-Young; Kwack, Kae-Dal; Shin, Seung-Jung

    2008-06-01

    Changes in the electronic parameters of mesoporous silicon upon adsorption of nematodetransmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses of plant [tomato ringspot virus (TORSV), grapevine virus A (GVA), and grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV)] measured at room temperature are investigated. The adsorption of these viruses affected essentially on the electronic characteristic of the porous material. The measurement of the electronic characteristics of porous silicon can be applied to the creation of detectors for the presence of viruses in a given environment.

  6. Quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3, Grapevine virus A, Grapevine fanleaf virus and Grapevine fleck virus in field-collected Vitis vinifera L. ‘Nebbiolo’ by real-time reverse transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Pacifico; Piero Caciagli; Sabrina Palmano; Franco Mannini; Cristina Marzachì

    2011-01-01

    TaqMan one-step real-time qRT-PCR assays were developed for the quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3 (GLRaV-1 and -3), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) in Vitis vinifera L. Virus load in the progenies of three ‘Nebbiolo’ clones planted in two experimental vineyards in Piemonte (northwestern Italy), and carrying the viruses in

  7. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  8. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  9. Structural studies of Hantaan virus.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anthony J; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Chipman, Paul R; Kaufmann, Bärbel; Jonsson, Colleen B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Hantaan virus is the prototypic member of the Hantavirus genus within the family Bunyaviridae and is a causative agent of the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The Bunyaviridae are a family of negative-sense RNA viruses with three-part segmented genomes. Virions are enveloped and decorated with spikes derived from a pair of glycoproteins (Gn and Gc). Here, we present cryo-electron tomography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy studies of Hantaan virus virions. We have determined the structure of the tetrameric Gn-Gc spike complex to a resolution of 2.5 nm and show that spikes are ordered in lattices on the virion surface. Large cytoplasmic extensions associated with each Gn-Gc spike also form a lattice on the inner surface of the viral membrane. Rod-shaped ribonucleoprotein complexes are arranged into nearly parallel pairs and triplets within virions. Our results differ from the T=12 icosahedral organization found for some bunyaviruses. However, a comparison of our results with the previous tomographic studies of the nonpathogenic Tula hantavirus indicates a common structural organization for hantaviruses. PMID:21068243

  10. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. PMID:24300672

  11. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Yen; Chen, Da-Yuan; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  12. Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C. Martin; Menon, Smita; Eilers, Brian J.; Bothner, Brian; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses populate virtually every ecosystem on the planet, including the extreme acidic, thermal, and saline environments where archaeal organisms can dominate. For example, recent studies have identified crenarchaeal viruses in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically and genetically unique, with genomes that show little similarity to genes of known function, complicating efforts to understand their viral life cycles. Here, we review progress in understanding these fascinating viruses at the molecular level and the evolutionary insights coming from these studies. PMID:19158076

  13. Viruses: Making Friends with Old Foes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trevor Douglas (Montana State University; Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials)

    2006-05-12

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The study of viruses has traditionally focused on their roles as infectious agents and as tools for understanding cell biology. Viruses are now finding a new expanded role as nanoplatforms with applications in materials science and medicine. Viruses form highly symmetrical monodisperse architectures and are ideal templates for engineering multifunctionality, including multivalent display of surface ligands and encapsulation of inorganic and organic materials. These developments assure that viruses will find applications as versatile nanoscale materials.

  14. Flexible filamentous virus structure from fiber diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Gerald; Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah; McCullough, Ian; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Ghabrial, Said (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky)

    2008-10-24

    Fiber diffraction data have been obtained from Narcissus mosaic virus, a potexvirus from the family Flexiviridae, and soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a potyvirus from the family Potyviridae. Analysis of the data in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy data allowed us to determine the symmetry of the viruses and to make reconstructions of SMV at 19 {angstrom} resolution and of another potexvirus, papaya mosaic virus, at 18 {angstrom} resolution. These data include the first well-ordered data ever obtained for the potyviruses and the best-ordered data from the potexviruses, and offer the promise of eventual high resolution structure determinations.

  15. Neutralizing Antibody Response to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2011-01-01

    A critical first step in a “rational vaccine design” approach for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to identify the most relevant mechanisms of immune protection. Emerging evidence provides support for a protective role of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the ability of the B cell response to modify the course of acute HCV infection. This has been made possible by the development of in vitro cell culture models, based on HCV retroviral pseudotype particles expressing E1E2 and infectious cell culture-derived HCV virions, and small animal models that are robust tools in studies of antibody-mediated virus neutralization. This review is focused on the immunogenic determinants on the E2 glycoprotein mediating virus neutralization and the pathways in which the virus is able to escape from immune containment. Encouraging findings from recent studies provide support for the existence of broadly neutralization antibodies that are not associated with virus escape. The identification of conserved epitopes mediating virus neutralization that are not associated with virus escape will facilitate the design of a vaccine immunogen capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against this highly diverse virus. PMID:22163337

  16. [Rift Valley fever virus: evolution in progress].

    PubMed

    Tolou, H; Plumet, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Couissinier-Paris, P

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses now circulating in tropical zones around the globe are potential threats for ever-increasing human populations even in temperate zones that have long remained unaffected. The mechanisms underlying transport and transmission, which can be enhanced by human activity, can be even stronger in zones where factors needed to support development of these viruses, i.e., hosts, reservoirs and vectors, are already present. This possibility has been illustrated by dengue virus, and now by the rapid spread of the Chikungunya virus on Reunion Island in 2005 and then in Italy in 2007. The spreading of Chikungunya virus despite its mild reputation had a major unexpected impact. It showed that the evolution of the virus, whether a cause or consequence of observed events, could be determinant. The risk of extension of more pathogenic viruses due to similar mechanisms must be considered as a possibility. In this regard the Rift Valley fever virus, that already involves a large area and has a major reservoir, is one of the viruses that deserves close surveillance. PMID:19702138

  17. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  18. The nucleolar interface of RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Stephen M; Moseley, Gregory W

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, understanding of the nucleolus has undergone a renaissance. Once considered primarily as the sites of ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli are now understood to be highly dynamic, multifunctional structures that participate in a plethora of cellular functions including regulation of the cell cycle, signal recognition particle assembly, apoptosis and stress responses. Although the molecular/mechanistic details of many of these functions remain only partially resolved, it is becoming increasingly apparent that nucleoli are also common targets of almost all types of viruses, potentially allowing viruses to manipulate cellular responses and the intracellular environment to facilitate replication and propagation. Importantly, a number of recent studies have moved beyond early descriptive observations to identify key roles for nucleolar interactions in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis. While it is perhaps unsurprising that many viruses that replicate within the nucleus also form interactions with nucleoli, the roles of nucleoli in the biology of cytoplasmic viruses is less intuitive. Nevertheless, a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm are known to express proteins that enter the nucleus and target nucleoli, and recent data have indicated similar processes in several cytoplasmic negative-sense RNA viruses. Here, we review this emerging aspect of the virus-host interface with a focus on examples where virus-nucleolus interactions have been linked to specific functional outcomes/mechanistic processes in infection and on the nucleolar interfaces formed by viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm. PMID:26041433

  19. Viruses as Modulators of Mitochondrial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjeev K.; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles with diverse roles including energy production and distribution, apoptosis, eliciting host immune response, and causing diseases and aging. Mitochondria-mediated immune responses might be an evolutionary adaptation by which mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. This makes them a target for all the invading pathogens including viruses. Viruses either induce or inhibit various mitochondrial processes in a highly specific manner so that they can replicate and produce progeny. Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This review will summarize the strategies employed by viruses to utilize cellular mitochondria for successful multiplication and production of progeny virus. PMID:24260034

  20. RNA Viruses: ROS-Mediated Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Su, Yi-Che; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for being both beneficial and deleterious. The main thrust of this review is to investigate the role of ROS in ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus pathogenesis. Much evidences has accumulated over the past decade, suggesting that patients infected with RNA viruses are under chronic oxidative stress. Changes to the body's antioxidant defense system, in relation to SOD, ascorbic acid, selenium, carotenoids, and glutathione, have been reported in various tissues of RNA-virus infected patients. This review focuses on RNA viruses and retroviruses, giving particular attention to the human influenza virus, Hepatitis c virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the aquatic Betanodavirus. Oxidative stress via RNA virus infections can contribute to several aspects of viral disease pathogenesis including apoptosis, loss of immune function, viral replication, inflammatory response, and loss of body weight. We focus on how ROS production is correlated with host cell death. Moreover, ROS may play an important role as a signal molecule in the regulation of viral replication and organelle function, potentially providing new insights in the prevention and treatment of RNA viruses and retrovirus infections. PMID:24899897

  1. Infectivity of rabies virus-exposed macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nazé, Florence; Suin, Vanessa; Lamoral, Sophie; Francart, Aurélie; Brochier, Bernard; Roels, Stefan; Mast, Jan; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2013-02-01

    Rabies virus distributes widely in infected mice, including lymphoid tissues and spleen macrophages. The infection characteristics in murine macrophages and the infectivity of virus-exposed macrophages were examined upon inoculation in mice. In vitro, Mf4/4 spleen macrophages supported mild virus production (10(4)-fold less than neuroblastoma), with formation of typical virions. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were most efficient to capture virus, but new virus production was not detected. Virus-induced cell death was significantly stronger in BMM, which might have eliminated BMM with productive infection. Still, viral RNA remained detectable in the remaining BMM for at least 4 weeks. Injection of in vitro-infected Mf4/4 in the nose or brain proved efficient to propagate infection in mice, even when cells were pre-incubated with neutralizing antibodies. Surprisingly, injection of ex-vivo-infected BMM in the brain also led to lethal infection in 8 out of 12 mice. Injection of infected Mf4/4 in the muscle mostly favoured a protective antibody response. Despite that macrophages are less fit to support virus production, they can still act as a source of infectious virus upon transfer in mice. This may be relevant for screening donor organs/cells, for which RT-PCR should be preferred over the traditional antigen or virus isolation assays. PMID:23159243

  2. Isolation of influenza viruses in MDCK 33016PF cells and clearance of contaminating respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bernhard; Mohr, Hannah; Enders, Martin; Garten, Wolfgang; Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2012-01-11

    This paper summarizes results obtained by multiplex PCR screening of human clinical samples for respiratory viruses and corresponding data obtained after passaging of virus-positive samples in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using the ResPlexII v2.0 (Qiagen) multiplex PCR, 393 positive results were obtained in 468 clinical samples collected during an influenza season in Germany. The overall distribution of positive results was influenza A 42.0%, influenza B 38.7%, adenovirus 1.5%, bocavirus 0.5%, coronavirus 3.3%, enterovirus 5.6%, metapneumovirus 1.0%, parainfluenza virus 0.8%, rhinovirus 4.1%, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 2.5%. Double infections of influenza virus together with another virus were found for adenovirus B and E, bocavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus and for rhinovirus. These other viruses were rapidly lost upon passages in MDCK 33016PF cells and under conditions as applied to influenza virus passaging. Clinical samples, in which no influenza virus but other viruses were found, were also subject to passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using lower inoculum dilutions than those normally applied for preparations containing influenza virus (total dilution of the original sample of ?10(4)), the positive results for the different viruses turned negative already after 2 or 3 passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. These results demonstrate that, under practical conditions as applied to grow influenza viruses, contaminating viruses can be effectively removed by passages in MDCK cells. In combination with their superior isolation efficiency, MDCK cells appear highly suitable to be used as an alternative to embryonated eggs to isolate and propagate influenza vaccine candidate viruses. PMID:22119922

  3. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

  4. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses. PMID:25275541

  5. Phylogenetic and histological variation in avipoxviruses isolated in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Offerman, Kristy; Carulei, Olivia; Gous, Tertius A.; Douglass, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen novel avipoxviruses were isolated from birds from different regions of South Africa. These viruses could be divided into six groups, according to gross pathology and pock appearance on chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs). Histopathology revealed distinct differences in epidermal and mesodermal cell proliferation, as well as immune cell infiltration, caused by the different avipoxviruses, even within groups of viruses causing similar CAM gross pathology. In order to determine the genetic relationships among the viruses, several conserved poxvirus genetic regions, corresponding to vaccinia virus (VACV) A3L (fpv167 locus, VACV P4b), G8R (fpv126 locus, VLTF-1), H3L (fpv140 locus, VACV H3L) and A11R–A12L (fpv175–176 locus) were analysed phylogenetically. The South African avipoxvirus isolates in this study all grouped in clade A, in either subclade A2 or A3 of the genus Avipoxvirus and differ from the commercial fowlpox vaccines (subclade A1) in use in the South African poultry industry. Analysis of different loci resulted in different branching patterns. There was no correlation between gross morphology, histopathology, pock morphology and phylogenetic grouping. There was also no correlation between geographical distribution and virus phenotype or genotype. PMID:23860490

  6. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum.

    E-print Network

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum M.P.K.J. Theu and R. W. Toler1 Abstract A pathogenic interaction between sorghum yel low banding virus (SYBV) and maize dwarf mosaic (MDMV-A) virus was proved. Inoculation..., MDMV-A was the only virus that was serologically detected. SYBV infected root tissue revealed the presence of SYBV particles in the mitochondria and not in the nucleus. Maize dwarf mosaic strain 0 also produced a patho genic synergistic interaction...

  7. Detection of Vaccinia Virus DNA, but not Infectious Virus, in the Blood of Smallpox Vaccine Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Hohman, Patricia; Preuss, Jeanne C.; Li, Li; Fischer, Steven H.; Fedorko, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors of a recent study suggested that the duration of deferral for blood donations by smallpox vaccinees should be extended, based on detection of vaccinia virus DNA in 5 blood samples by PCR and the potential for viremia. We found that 4 of 202 blood specimens (from 3 of 27 smallpox vaccinees) were positive for vaccinia virus DNA by PCR; none were positive for virus by culture. Throat swabs were negative by PCR and culture. Thus, while some blood specimens contained vaccinia virus DNA, infectious virus was not detected. Current guidelines for deferral of blood donation in vaccinees seem appropriate. PMID:17493714

  8. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance in transgenic citrus based on virus challenge of protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Olivares-Fuster; G. H. Fleming; M. R. Albiach-Marti; S. Gowda; W. O. Dawson; J. W. Crosser

    2003-01-01

    Summary  A strategy for the sereening of candidate virus-derived sequences to provide RNA-mediated citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance\\u000a and early selection of virus-resistant citrus is presented. The system is based on the polyethylene glycol-(PEG) mediated\\u000a cotransformation of protoplasts using virus-derived sequences and green fluorescent protein as a single selectable marker,\\u000a followed by an in vitro assay of virus inoculation into transgenic

  9. Characterization of the Early Steps of Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Using Luciferase Reporter Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoudakis, George; Kaul, Artur; Steinmann, Eike; Kallis, Stephanie; Lohmann, Volker; Pietschmann, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The lack of an efficient system to produce hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles has impeded the analysis of the HCV life cycle. Recently, we along with others demonstrated that transfection of Huh7 hepatoma cells with a novel HCV isolate (JFH1) yields infectious viruses. To facilitate studies of HCV replication, we generated JFH1-based bicistronic luciferase reporter virus genomes. We found that RNA replication of the reporter construct was only slightly attenuated and that virus titers produced were only three- to fivefold lower compared to the parental virus, making these reporter viruses an ideal tool for quantitative analyses of HCV infections. To expand the scope of the system, we created two chimeric JFH1 luciferase reporter viruses with structural proteins from the Con1 (genotype 1b) and J6CF (genotype 2a) strains. Using these and the authentic JFH1 reporter viruses, we analyzed the early steps of the HCV life cycle. Our data show that the mode of virus entry is conserved between these isolates and involves CD81 as a key receptor for pH-dependent virus entry. Competition studies and time course experiments suggest that interactions of HCV with cell surface-resident glycosaminoglycans aid in efficient infection of Huh7 cells and that CD81 acts during a postattachment step. The reporter viruses described here should be instrumental for investigating the viral life cycle and for the development of HCV inhibitors. PMID:16699011

  10. Animal Viruses Probe dataset (AVPDS) for microarray-based diagnosis and identification of viruses.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Vasishtha, Dinesh P; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-03-01

    AVPDS (Animal Viruses Probe dataset) is a dataset of virus-specific and conserve oligonucleotides for identification and diagnosis of viruses infecting animals. The current dataset contain 20,619 virus specific probes for 833 viruses and their subtypes and 3,988 conserved probes for 146 viral genera. Dataset of virus specific probe has been divided into two fields namely virus name and probe sequence. Similarly conserved probes for virus genera table have genus, and subgroup within genus name and probe sequence. The subgroup within genus is artificially divided subgroups with no taxonomic significance and contains probes which identifies viruses in that specific subgroup of the genus. Using this dataset we have successfully diagnosed the first case of Newcastle disease virus in sheep and reported a mixed infection of Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine herpesvirus in cattle. These dataset also contains probes which cross reacts across species experimentally though computationally they meet specifications. These probes have been marked. We hope that this dataset will be useful in microarray-based detection of viruses. The dataset can be accessed through the link https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/94060831/avpds/HOME.html. PMID:24129840

  11. Virus Enrichment for Single Virus Infection by Using 3D Insulator Based Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v?=?10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

  12. Virus enrichment for single virus infection by using 3D insulator based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v = 10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

  13. Label-Free Capacitance-Based Identification of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Karakkat, Jimsheena V.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate a single virus suspension in culture medium without any pre-processing. The electrical capacitance per virus particle was used to identify the kind of virus present by measuring the suspension (virus plus medium) capacitance, de-embedding the medium contribution, and dividing by the virus count. The proposed technique is based on finding the single virus effective dielectric constant which is directly related to the virus composition. This value was used to identify the virus type accordingly. Two types of viruses thus tested were further quantified by a biochemical technique to validate the results. Furthermore, non-organic nanoparticles with known concentration and capacitance per particle were identified using the proposed method. The selectivity of the method was demonstrated by performing electrical measurements on a third virus, revealing that the proposed technique is specific and sensitive enough to permit detection of a few hundred virus particles per milliliter within a few minutes. PMID:25966875

  14. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection: a therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; El Bouchtili, Souheil; Siai, Karima; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Azzouz, Mohamed Msaddak

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are the two most common causes of chronic liver disease in the world. Dual infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, whose prevalence is underestimated, is characterized by a more severe liver injury, a higher probability of liver cirrhosis and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of these patients represents a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of an hepatitis B virus-hepatitis C virus co-infected patient, which particularly illustrates the interactions between these two viruses and therapeutic problems caused by the dual infection. HCV was initially dominant, which indicated a combination therapy by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This treatment was associated with an early virological response of the HCV but an increase of HBV DNA occurred, requiring the use of a nucleoside analogue. A good response was obtained for the HBV but a relapse of HCV was noted, posing a problem for therapeutic decision. PMID:22959099

  15. Expression of the Hantaan virus M genome segment by using a vaccinia virus recombinant.

    PubMed

    Pensiero, M N; Jennings, G B; Schmaljohn, C S; Hay, J

    1988-03-01

    A cDNA containing the complete open reading frame of the Hantaan virus (HTN) M genome segment has been cloned into vaccinia virus. This recombinant virus expresses two glycoproteins which are similar to the HTN structural glycoproteins, G1 and G2, in molecular weight, cleavage pattern, and cellular distribution. Both HTN and recombinant vaccinia virus glycoproteins are exclusively associated with the Golgi apparatus of the cell. Despite this intracellular restriction, mice inoculated with the recombinant vaccinia virus raised neutralizing antibodies against HTN. The specificity of virus neutralization appears to reside in the HTN glycoproteins, since a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the HTN nucleocapsid protein was unable to elicit a neutralizing antibody response. PMID:3123711

  16. Satsuma dwarf and related viruses belong to a new lineage of plant picorna-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Karasev, A V; Han, S S; Iwanami, T

    2001-01-01

    Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) and two closely related viruses, Citrus mosaic (CiMV), and Naval orange infectious mottling (NIMV), seriously affect citrus varieties grown in Japan and East Asia. All three viruses have icosahedral particles built of two proteins encapsidating two single-stranded genomic RNAs. The natural mode of transmission of these SDV-like viruses is unknown, and they were previously placed among tentative members of the family Comoviridae. Recently, a complete genome of SDV was sequenced, and its replication-related proteins were found only distantly related to those of viruses from the family Comoviridae (Iwanami T., Kondo Y., and Karasev A.V. J Gen Virol 80, 793-797, 1999). Here we present a partial genome sequence for another SDV-like virus, NIMV, and a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the gene products encoded by SDV, CiMV, and NIMV to assess their relationships with picorna-like viruses infecting plants, insects, and vertebrates. The RdRp's of SDV-like viruses form a new lineage, separate from members of Como- and Sequiviridae families. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that SDV-like viruses may represent a new family of plant picorna-like viruses. Sequence analysis of the capsid proteins (CPs) encoded by the SDV-like viruses revealed a region of similarity to CPs of animal calici- and picornaviruses that encompasses the structural core of the eight-strand beta-barrel characteristic of picornaviral CPs. These data suggest that SDV and related bipartite viruses evolved separately from the viruses in the family Comoviridae and that the split of an ancestor, monopartite picorna-like virus genome might have occurred more than once. PMID:11556400

  17. GRAPEVINE RUPESTRIS STEM PITTING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a recently identified virus and belongs to the Foveavirus genus within the Flexiviridae family. Its single–stranded RNA genome contains five open reading frames that potentially encode the replication related proteins, a triple gene bloc...

  18. Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J Freeman; George Marinos; Rosemary A Ffrench; Andrew R Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus, a recently identified member of the family Flaviviridae, is an important cause of chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. There are similarities in the nature of the immune response to this pathogen with immunity in other flavivirus and hepatotropic virus infections, such as hepatitis B. However, the high rate of viral persistence after primary hepatitis C infection, and

  19. Swine influenza virus: epidemiology and vaccine concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a primary cause of respiratory disease in swine and a component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Influenza viruses are an important health and economic concern for swine producers throughout the world. Swine operations may be affected by...

  20. Influenza A virus infections in Chinese landbirds

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Bush, Sarah E.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Ip, Hon S.

    2009-10-01

    occurrence of infl uenza viruses in diverse taxa of Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 14, No. 10, October 2008 1645 Table. Prevalence of influenza A virus in avian orders and families at 5 sites, People’s Republic of China Location, no...

  1. Influenza A Virus Infections in Land

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah­PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

  2. The Genomes of Sheeppox and Goatpox Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Tulman; C. L. Afonso; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; J.-H. Sur; N. T. Sandybaev; U. Z. Kerembekova; V. L. Zaitsev; G. F. Kutish; D. L. Rock

    2002-01-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), members of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central Africa, southwest and central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five SPPV and GTPV isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two

  3. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  4. Original article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay. respiratory syncytial. INTRODUCTION Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) is the major cause of acute respi- ratory diseaseOriginal article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay Mauro

  5. Pseudorabies virus infection in Oklahoma hunting dogs.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Sarah D; Campbell, Gregory A; Njaa, Bradley L; Morgan, Sandra E; Smith, Stephen K; McLin, William R; Brodersen, Bruce W; Wise, Annabel G; Scherba, Gail; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Maes, Roger K

    2011-09-01

    Pseudorabies is caused by Suid herpesvirus 1, a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. Although pigs are the natural host of Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the virus has a broad host range and may cause fatal encephalitis in many species. The United States obtained PRV-free status in 2004 after the virus was eradicated from domestic swineherds, but the virus is still present in feral swine populations. The current report describes PRV infection in 3 dogs that were used to hunt feral swine. The dogs developed clinical signs including facial pruritus with facial abrasions, dyspnea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, muscle stiffness, and death. Two were euthanized, and 1 died within approximately 48 hr after onset of clinical signs. The salient histologic changes consisted of neutrophilic trigeminal ganglioneuritis with neuronophagia and equivocal intranuclear inclusion bodies. Pseudorabies virus was isolated from fresh tissues from 2 of the dogs, and immunohistochemistry detected the virus in the third dog. Virus sequencing and phylogeny, based upon available GenBank sequences, revealed that the virus was likely a field strain that was closely related to a cluster of PRV strains previously identified in Illinois. Though eradicated from domestic swine in the United States, PRV is present in populations of feral swine, and should therefore continue to be considered a possible cause of disease in dogs and other domestic animals with compatible clinical history and signs. Continued surveillance is necessary to prevent reintroduction of PRV into domestic swine. PMID:21908347

  6. Lettuce necrotic yellows virus in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fry; R. C. Close; C. H. Procter; R. Sunde

    1973-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus, found in lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) near Blenheim in 1965 caused severe losses in an Auckland lettuce crop in 1969. The virus was transmitted between S. oleraceus plants by the aphid Hyperomyzus lactucae L., which occurs throughout the year but is least plentiful during winter. Most infectivity in sap extracts was

  7. Immune System for Virus Detection and Elimination

    E-print Network

    Immune System for Virus Detection and Elimination Rune Schmidt Jensen IMM-THESIS-2002-08-31 IMM #12 consider the aspects of designing a computer immune system for virus detection and elimination using components and techniques found in the biological immune system. Already published proposals for constructing

  8. Transmission and pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative single stranded RNA arthropod-borne virus member of the Family Rhabdoviridae. The virion is composed of the host derived plasma membrane, the envelope, and an internal ribonucleoprotein core. The envelope contain...

  9. Control of virus diseases of berry crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all...

  10. VIRUS-MEMBRANE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    #12;#12;VIRUS-MEMBRANE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies #12;Promotor: dr. T.J. Schaafsma VIRUS-MEMB NE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor. Dr. T.J. Schaafsma was mijn promotor. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd binnen de "virusgroep", waarvan

  11. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  12. The Molecular Biology of the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseltine, William A.; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1988-01-01

    Describes the initial site, and symptoms of the human immunodeficiency virus. Explains the diverse behavior and destructive consequences of the disease through discussion, diagrams, and pictures of the life cycle of the virus and the genetic material that controls it. (RT)

  13. Viruses infecting Passiflora species in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report documents multiple viruses in Passiflora spp. in Florida. It also reiterates the risk of movement of vegetatively-propagated plant material. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  14. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  15. SOIL-BORNE WHEAT MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus is widely distributed in most temperate wheat growing regions of the world. It can cause significant yield loss although due to the transient symptoms that disappear as temperatures increase, the disease is often mistaken for a nutrient deficiency. The virus has many ...

  16. Virology: Independent virus development outside a host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Häring; Gisle Vestergaard; Reinhard Rachel; Lanming Chen; Roger A. Garrett; David Prangishvili

    2005-01-01

    Viruses are thought to be functionally inactive once they are outside and independent of their host cell. Here we describe an exceptional property of a newly discovered virus that infects a hyperthermophilic archaeon growing in acidic hot springs: the lemon-shaped viral particle develops a very long tail at each of its pointed ends after being released from its host cell.

  17. Molecular biology of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Fuchs; Jutta Veits; Dorothee Helferich; Harald Granzow; Jens P. Teifke; Thomas C. Mettenleiter

    2007-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes an econom- ically important chicken disease, which results in delayed growth, reduced egg production, and also frequently in death of the animals. After acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, the virus can establish latency in the central nervous system, and subsequent reactivations can lead to infec- tion of naive chickens.

  18. Viruses of the Archaea: a unifying view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Forterre; Roger A. Garrett; David Prangishvili

    2006-01-01

    DNA viruses of the Archaea have highly diverse and often exceptionally complex morphotypes. Many have been isolated from geothermally heated hot environments, raising intriguing questions about their origins, and contradicting the widespread notion of limited biodiversity in extreme environments. Here, we provide a unifying view on archaeal viruses, and present them as a particular assemblage that is fundamentally different in

  19. Molecular evolution of swine vesicular disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Zhang; Daniel T. Haydon; Nick J. Knowles; John W. McCauley

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis was used to examine the evolutionary relationships within a group of coxsackie B viruses that contained representatives of the major serotypes of this group and 45 isolates of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) from Asia and Europe. Separate analyses of sequence data from two regions of the viral genomes encoding the VP1 and 3BC genes both revealed that

  20. Virus dissemination via the lymphomyeloid complex.

    PubMed

    Yoffey, J M

    1990-06-01

    In the previous AIDS symposium organized by the Society, Witte and Witte (1) made a number of predictions, one of which was that in AIDS patients, "Lymph from the thoracic duct should be strongly positive for HIV." Though direct evidence for this is lacking, some early experiments of ours with vaccinia virus (2) are fully in accord with this prediction, to which they lend indirect support. In rabbits, nasally instilled vaccinia virus spreads via the lymphatic pathway (afferent peripheral lymph--deep cervical gland--efferent lymph--thoracic duct) in as short a time as nine hours. Virus is transported mainly in cells, for when the efferent lymph is centrifuged virus is found only in the cell sediment. It seems reasonable to assume that other viruses, including HIV, are similarly disseminated. Paradoxically, the lymphomyeloid complex both greatly facilitates the spread of virus, and at the same time, mounts the immunological defenses against the virus which it so effectively helps to disseminate. Whatever the portal of entry of the virus, its transport by migrating cells ensures its dissemination throughout the lymphomyeloid complex, including the bone marrow. The bone marrow is an integral part of the complex, as the prime source of B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte precursors, and many of the antigen-presenting cells as well as the granulocytes. There is some evidence concerning possible ways in which the bone marrow can contribute to the development of immune deficiency in AIDS patients. The bone marrow merits further study in this context. PMID:2214864

  1. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand. PMID:23171736

  2. Reemergence of Chikungunya virus in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand. PMID:23171736

  3. Propagation of Viruses on Micropatterned Host Cells

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Propagation of Viruses on Micropatterned Host Cells Elizabeth E. Endler,1 Karen A. Duca,1,2 Paul F-mail: yin@engr.wisc.edu 2 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Tufts University developed a technique to characterize the in vitro propagation of viruses. Microcontact printing was used

  4. Computer Viruses: An Assessment of Student Perceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C. Jones; Kirk P. Arnett

    1992-01-01

    Virtually every computer installation is susceptible to the damage that computer viruses may cause. Without appropriate precautionary measures, it is difficult to contain\\/prevent the spread of these unwanted interlopers. The key to such precautionary measures is education about viruses and the damage they can cause. This article presents the findings of a study undertaken to assess what business college students

  5. Computer Viruses - A Form of Artificial Life?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford

    1991-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many personal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed manner. However, only

  6. A fault tolerance approach to computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark K. Joseph; Algirdas AviZienis

    1988-01-01

    Extensions of program flow monitors and n-version programming can be combined to provide a solution to the detection and containment of computer viruses. The consequence is that a computer can tolerate both deliberate faults and random physical faults by one common mechanism. Specifically, the technique detects control flow errors due to physical faults as well as the presence of viruses

  7. Accuracy estimation of foamy virus genome copying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Gärtner; Tatiana Wiktorowicz; Ayalew Mergia; Axel Rethwilm; Carsten Scheller

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FVs) are the most genetically stable viruses of the retrovirus family. This is in contrast to the in vitro error rate found for recombinant FV reverse transcriptase (RT). To investigate the accuracy of FV genome copying in vivo we analyzed the occurrence of mutations in HEK 293T cell culture after a single round of reverse transcription using

  8. Genetics of seed transmission Soybean mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is an aphid- and seed-transmitted member of the Potyviridae that infects soybean plants and, in years when virus infections are widespread, can cause significant reductions in the quantity and quality of seed harvested. Because seed-borne infections are the primary sources...

  9. RNA viruses: hijacking the dynamic nucleolus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian A. Hiscox

    2007-01-01

    The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear structure with roles in ribosome subunit biogenesis, mediation of cell-stress responses and regulation of cell growth. The proteome and structure of the nucleolus are constantly changing in response to metabolic conditions. RNA viruses interact with the nucleolus to usurp host-cell functions and recruit nucleolar proteins to facilitate virus replication. Investigating the interactions between RNA

  10. Detection of enteric viruses in shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus and hepatitis A virus contamination are significant threats to the safety of shellfish and other foods. Methods for the extraction and assay of these viruses from shellfish are complex, time consuming, and technically challenging. Here, we itemize some of the salient points in extracting...

  11. Evolutionary Genomics of Marek's Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. The virus is classified as a member of the genus Mardivirus in the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of Herpesviridae. The disease (Marek's Disease...

  12. Optimization of network protection against virus spread

    E-print Network

    Van Mieghem, Piet

    Optimization of network protection against virus spread Eric Gourdin Orange Labs, Issy Abstract--The effect of virus spreading in a telecommunication network, where a certain curing strategy and interdependent. As a consequence, the security of each host depends heavily on the level of protection of its

  13. Multipartite nature of potato virus X.

    PubMed Central

    Price, M

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) was among the first viruses to be purified. Nonetheless, properties of the purified virus remain contentious. The literature has been heavily influenced by the concept of a virus as a monopartite entity. Despite the fact that electron micrographs invariably show large proportions of shorter virus particles, the latter are universally ignored. Seven distinct classes of particle lengths were detected. Seven RNA species of approximate sizes 6.4, 3.6, 3.0, 2.1, 1.8, 1.4, and 0.9 kb were extracted from these purified virus preparations. This study shows clearly that shorter PVX particles are not breakage products and indicates that they may reflect fundamental properties of the genome strategy. Furthermore, other potexviruses have been found to contain many shorter particles, and the level of these particles is stable during purification. PVX is generally believed to consist of particles of single length even though the literature does not confirm this conclusion. The notion of a single particle length appears to reflect historical concepts of what a virus should be rather than what PVX is. This report considers whether shorter rods present in virus preparations of PVX are distinctive products of infection. The problem addressed is significant because if affects conclusions concerning the mechanisms of PVX biosynthesis and replication. Images PMID:8416388

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Carcinoma Cervix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jaisri; Shanta Bhaskaran; Prasanna Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Carcinoma of the cervix is the second leading cause of death in women in the world. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) which plays a major role in the etiology of cervical cancer is said to have the same mode of transmission as the H uman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Hence the curiosity to learn the prevalence, incidence and as sociation

  15. Citrus viruses in sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. R. Cronjéa

    There are approximately 20 known citrus viruses. The most important ones in South Africa used to be CiTV (trizteza), exocortis, and porosis. Since the initiation of the Cultivar Improvement Programme (CIP), exocortis and psorosis were excluded from new planting material by the use of shoot tip grafting. The only virus which is still of major importance is trizteza, especially on

  16. Viruses in Water: The Problem, Some Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerba, Charles P.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Increasing population and industrialization places heavy demands on water resources making recycling of wastewaters for domestic consumption inevitable. Eliminating human pathogenic viruses is a major problem of reclaiming wastewater. Present water treatment methods may not be sufficient to remove viruses. (MR)

  17. Common Respiratory Viruses and Pulmonary Mucosal Immunology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Huang

    tory epithelium. In most cases, viral infection is limited to the upper airways; however, infections of the lower airway regions occur in a significant number of infected individuals. Worldwide, approximately 90% of the cases of the “common cold” are caused by viruses and most are seen in the winter months. These viruses are spread from person to person and commonly

  18. A case of Ebola virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R T Emond; B Evans; Etw Bowen; G Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In November 1976 an investigator at the Microbiological Research Establishment accidentally inoculated himself while processing material from patients in Africa who had been suffering from a haemorrhagic fever of unknown cause. He developed an illness closely resembling Marburg disease, and a virus was isolated from his blood that resembled Marburg virus but was distinct serologically. The course of the illness

  19. THE EBOLA VIRUS BY R. AARON ROBISON

    E-print Network

    Faraon, Andrei

    OUTBREAK: THE EBOLA VIRUS BY R. AARON ROBISON IN JULY OF 1976, A SUDANESE STOREKEEPER BECAME forests of central Africa. The virus that killed him eventually became known as Ebola, named after a river traveling from Africa started exhibiting Ebola-like symptoms, sparking a brief media bonanza before she

  20. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M. Leroy; Brice Kumulungui; Xavier Pourrut; Pierre Rouquet; Alexandre Hassanin; Philippe Yaba; André Délicat; Janusz T. Paweska; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Robert Swanepoel

    2005-01-01

    The first recorded human outbreak of Ebola virus was in 1976, but the wild reservoir of this virus is still unknown. Here we test for Ebola in more than a thousand small vertebrates that were collected during Ebola outbreaks in humans and great apes between 2001 and 2003 in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. We find evidence of