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Sample records for panonychus ulmi koch

  1. [Biological control efficiency of Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudemans) on Panonychus ulmi (Koch)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Ma, Ming; Dong, Tie; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Fa-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Based on the life-table parameters and the release effects of Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudemans) under laboratory and field conditions, the control efficiency of A. cucumeris (Oudemans) on Panonychus ulmi (Koch) was evaluated. When feeding on P. ulmi, A. cucumeris could complete its development period and lay eggs with one generation time of 9.54 d at (25 +/- 1) degrees C. The egg-laying period (24.85 d) and lifespan (38.52 d) of female A. cucumeris were longer than their preys (15.93 d and 34.79 d, respectively), but the average amount of eggs laid by female A. cucumeris was 36.70, being 43.9% less than that of P. ulmi. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of P. ulmi were 103.9% and 13.2% higher than those of A. cucumeris, respectively. No matter what the good-harm ratios was 1 : 30 or 1 : 150, the control efficiency of A. cucumeris after its 20-day release under laboratory condition could be over 95%, and the efficiency after 60-day release under field condition could be 91.73%, being 23.77% higher than that when sprayed with pesticide, suggesting that A. cucumeris was a good biological agent to control the population growth of P. ulmi. When the P. ulmi population density was less than 2 per leaf, releasing A. cucumeris in the orchard could effectively control the population increase of P. ulmi. PMID:20387442

  2. Panonychus from Georgia: survey, taxonomical status and redescription of P. hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) (Acari, Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Arabuli, Tea; Çobanoglu, Sultan; Auger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Panonychus species was undertaken across Georgia from 2005 to 2014 on various host plants, revealing three species: Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916), Panonychus hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836). New hosts for P. ulmi and P. citri are recorded, Buxus sempervirens, Hedera colchica and Prunus laurocerasus for P. ulmi and Ficus carica for P. citri, whereas P. hadzhibejliae was only found on F. carica. The newly collected material also allowed us to investigate the taxonomical status of P. hadzhibejliae. The comparison of P. hadzhibejliae with the two closely related species sampled in the survey, P. ulmi and P. citri, and with data of P. caricae found in the literature, shows that P. hadzhibejliae is a valid species. It can be separated from the three other Panonychus species without ambiguity especially using the female dorsal setae length in combination with the ratio between the length of the female dorsal opisthosomal f2 and h1 setae and the ratio between the palptarsal terminal eupathidium su and the related solenidion ω. A redescription of P. hadzhibejliae is provided including the male and some morphological characters, measurements and drawings of the female that were omitted in the original description. A key to the world species of Panonychus is also proposed. PMID:27395141

  3. A Celebration of Kenneth Koch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Provides the transcript of an extemporaneous speech by the poet Kenneth Koch at the "Educating the Imagination II" conference sponsored by the Teachers and Writers Collaborative. Comments on issues of creative writing, the imagination, and poetry. Provides autobiographical material about Koch's development as a poet. (HB)

  4. Sigmund Koch as critical humanist.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B

    2001-05-01

    Just as Sigmund Koch was a good scientist without succumbing to scientism, he was a good humanist without succumbing to the popular distortions trading on the name of humanism. When humanistic psychology was seduced by the touchy-feely encounter group movement, Koch derided its technology of authenticity as shamelessly meretricious. Later, when postmodern humanists of deconstruction and textual analysis began to be heard in psychology, Koch wryly expressed his preference for the old-fashioned kind of humanism. Koch's interests and his conception of the domain of psychology thus transcended scientific and humanistic labels and boundaries. To be good science, human psychological studies have to start with and be guided by openness to all aspects of being human. No less in the present and future than during his lifetime, the implications of Koch's vision of psychological inquiry warrant discerning and disciplined attention. PMID:11355367

  5. Argonne nuclear pioneer: Leonard Koch

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Leonard Koch joined Argonne National Laboratory in 1948. He helped design and build Experimental Breeder Reactor-1 (EBR-1), the first reactor to generate useable amounts of electricity from nuclear energy.

  6. A Simple Lab Exercise Demonstrating Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which applies Koch's Postulates to a plant disease, bacterial speck. Includes an explanation of Koch's Postulate, list of equipment needed, advance preparation, outline of the three-week activity, and variations of the laboratory exercise. (DS)

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as

  8. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  9. Koch fractal boundary patch over reactive impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy V, Venkateshwar; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the enhancement of bandwidth and miniaturization for patch antennas. Introduction of fractal structure (Square Koch) over reactive impedance surface (RIS) is used to enhance impedance bandwidth while minimizing the patch size. Comparison has been made with those of a single-layer (sub1) antenna and the corresponding dual-layer (RIS) antenna. Approximately double the impedance bandwidth is achieved with the proposed RIS Square Koch antenna 1 when compared with Square Koch antenna 1without RIS. There is a 55 % reduction in the patch size. The simulated results indicate that the presented antennas provide gain of about 2.5dBi over the entire band of frequencies.

  10. 13. Photocopy of photograph, (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph, (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown INTERIOR, CLOSEUP OF FIREPLACE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  11. 7. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING OUTSIDE WALL AND GATE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  12. 8. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP OF FIRST FLOOR SHOWING DETAIL OF SQUARE COLUMNS - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  13. 6. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW SHOWING ENTRY THROUGH GATE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  14. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR FRONT, LEFT SIDE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  15. 14. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown INTERIOR, DETAIL OF DOOR AND CEILING MOLDING - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  16. 17. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown CORNER VIEW - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  17. 1. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR FRONT, RIGHT SIDE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  18. 4. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, RIGHT CORNER - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  19. 16. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown ORNATE LIGHT FIXTURE ON CEILING - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  20. 9. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR DETAIL OF ORNATE CAST-IRON BALCONIES - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  1. 15. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown INTERIOR, FIREPLACE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  2. 12. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown INTERIOR, STAIRWAY AND HALL - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  3. 10. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR DETAIL OF ORNATE CAST-IRON BALCONIES - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  4. 5. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP OF FRONT ENTRANCE - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  5. 3. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, VIEW FROM ACROSS STREET - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  6. 11. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (from collection of Mr. Koch, architect, New Orleans, Louisiana) Mr. Koch, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR DETAIL OF ORNATE CAST-IRON BALCONIES - Gaudet House, Chestnut & Josephine Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  7. Influence of a Ceratocystis ulmi Toxin on Water Relations of Elm (Ulmus americana)

    PubMed Central

    Van Alfen, Neal K.; Turner, Neil C.

    1975-01-01

    Water-soluble glycopeptides isolated from cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi have been reported to be toxins involved in Dutch elm disease. The influence of the glycopeptides on the water relations of Ulmus americana seedlings was tested by placing cut stems in glycopeptide preparations. After 4 hours in 200 micrograms per milliliter toxin the stem conductance of the seedlings was reduced by 79% and the leaf water potential was reduced by 3 bars to that at which the seedlings wilted, the stomata closed, and transpiration decreased. Decrease in stem conductance as the mode of action of the toxin was further confirmed by forcing toxin through the stem and petiole of elm and measuring the effects on stem conductance. High molecular weight dextrans were found to mimic the action of toxin on stem and petiole conductance, and their ability to do so was found to be correlated with their molecular weight. As low as 4 micrograms of toxin or dextrans were found to measurably decrease the stem and petiole conductance of elms. Disruption of the water-conducting system of elms and other plants by small quantities of high molecular weight compounds may be a factor in diseases with wilting symptoms. PMID:16659073

  8. What Koch Plans for the City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Marcia

    1978-01-01

    Presents a recent interview with education and political reporters of the New York Times and Herman Badillo, the man in charge of education and a Deputy Mayor of New York, on the Koch administration's plans for the New York City public school system. (Author/RK)

  9. Koch's postulates, carnivorous cows, and tuberculosis today.

    PubMed

    Tabrah, Frank L

    2011-07-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change--strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors. PMID:21886302

  10. Koch's Postulates, Carnivorous Cows, and Tuberculosis Today

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change—strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors. PMID:21886302

  11. Random walks on generalized Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weigang

    2013-10-01

    For deterministically growing networks, it is a theoretical challenge to determine the topological properties and dynamical processes. In this paper, we study random walks on generalized Koch networks with features that include an initial state that is a globally connected network to r nodes. In each step, every existing node produces m complete graphs. We then obtain the analytical expressions for first passage time (FPT), average return time (ART), i.e. the average of FPTs for random walks from node i to return to the starting point i for the first time, and average sending time (AST), defined as the average of FPTs from a hub node to all other nodes, excluding the hub itself with regard to network parameters m and r. For this family of Koch networks, the ART of the new emerging nodes is identical and increases with the parameters m or r. In addition, the AST of our networks grows with network size N as N ln N and also increases with parameter m. The results obtained in this paper are the generalizations of random walks for the original Koch network.

  12. Fungal colonization and host defense reactions in Ulmus americana callus cultures inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Mirella; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Bernier, Louis

    2009-06-01

    The host-pathogen interaction leading to Dutch elm disease was analyzed using histo- and cyto-chemical tests in an in vitro system. Friable and hard susceptible Ulmus americana callus cultures were inoculated with the highly aggressive pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Inoculated callus tissues were compared with water-treated callus tissues and studied with light microscopy (LM), transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). New aspects of this interaction are described. These include the histological observation, for the first time in plant callus cultures, of suberin with its typical lamellar structure in TEM and the intracellular presence of O. novo-ulmi. Expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene, monitored by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, was correlated with the accumulation of suberin, phenols, and lignin in infected callus cultures. This study validates the potential use of the in vitro system for genomic analyses aimed at identifying genes expressed during the interaction in the Dutch elm disease pathosystem. PMID:19453222

  13. 27. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 DETAIL OF HARDWARE ON CONCIERGERRIE, NORTH WEST ELEVATION - Archbishopric, 1114 Chartres Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  14. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1936 DETAIL TRANSOM ENTRANCE DOOR #201 (EXTERIOR) - Parlange Plantation, State Highway 93, New Roads, Pointe Coupee Parish, LA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer April, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer April, 1936 SHOWING SCAFFOLDING ERECTED FOR WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION - Clinton Courthouse, Saint Helena Street, Clinton, East Feliciana Parish, LA

  16. 5. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 DETAIL, FIREPLACE IN DINING ROOM - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  17. 7. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 DETAIL, ENCLOSED STAIRWAY IN DINING ROOM - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  18. 2. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 VIEW THROUGH OAKS LOOKING WEST - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  19. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 DETAIL OF SPIRAL STAIRCASE, SECOND FLOOR - ROOM no., NORTHWEST WALL - Presbytere, Jackson Square, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - VIEW FROM WINDOW OF ARCHBISHOPRIC - Beauregard House, 1113 Chartres Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  1. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 DETAIL OF HALL CEILING LOOKING TOWARD FRONT ENTRANCE - Beauregard House, 1113 Chartres Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  2. 4. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 SIDE (SOUTH) AND REAR (WEST) ELEVATIONS - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  3. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, June, 1927 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, June, 1927 (Enlargement) OLD WELL AND SUGAR KETTLE (NOW DEMOLISHED) - Barbarra Plantation (Garconniere), Saint Rose, St. Charles Parish, LA

  4. RNAseq Analysis Highlights Specific Transcriptome Signatures of Yeast and Mycelial Growth Phases in the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Martha; Laroche, Jérôme; Landry, Christian R.; Bernier, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Fungal dimorphism is a complex trait and our understanding of the ability of fungi to display different growth morphologies is limited to a small number of model species. Here we study a highly aggressive dimorphic fungus, the ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which is a model in plant pathology and the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The two growth phases that this fungus displays, i.e., a yeast phase and mycelial phase, are thought to be involved in key steps of disease development. We used RNAseq to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles that are associated with yeast and mycelial growth phases in vitro. Our results show a clear molecular distinction between yeast and mycelial phase gene expression profiles. Almost 12% of the gene content is differentially expressed between the two phases, which reveals specific functions related to each growth phase. We compared O. novo-ulmi transcriptome profiles with those of two model dimorphic fungi, Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Few orthologs showed similar expression regulation between the two growth phases, which suggests that, globally, the genes associated with these two life forms are poorly conserved. This poor conservation underscores the importance of developing specific tools for emerging model species that are distantly related to the classical ones. Taken together, our results provide insights into transcriptome regulation and molecular specificity in O. novo-ulmi and offer a new perspective for understanding fungal dimorphism. PMID:26384770

  5. Sequence analysis of the chitin synthase A gene of the Dutch elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi indicates a close association with the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Hintz, W E

    1999-09-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to conserved regions of the chitin synthase gene family and used to amplify a 621 basepair (bp) fragment from genomic DNA of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The amplification product was used as a hybridization probe to screen a library of genomic DNA sequences and to retrieve a full-length chitin synthase gene (chsA). The putative coding region of the gene was 2619 bp long, lacked introns, and encoded a polypeptide of 873 amino acids. Based on the similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence to the full-length chsC gene of Aspergillus nidulans and chsA gene of Ampelomyces quisqualis, the O. novo-ulmi chsA was classified as a Class I chitin synthase. The phylogenies constructed, according to a subregion of all available chitin synthases, showed that O. novo-ulmi consistently clustered most closely with the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii, recently classified as a member of the mitosporic Ophiostomataceae. Disruption of the chsA gene locus had no obvious effects on the growth or morphology of the fungus. PMID:10524253

  6. RNAseq Analysis Highlights Specific Transcriptome Signatures of Yeast and Mycelial Growth Phases in the Dutch Elm Disease Fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Martha; Laroche, Jérôme; Landry, Christian R; Bernier, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Fungal dimorphism is a complex trait and our understanding of the ability of fungi to display different growth morphologies is limited to a small number of model species. Here we study a highly aggressive dimorphic fungus, the ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which is a model in plant pathology and the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The two growth phases that this fungus displays, i.e., a yeast phase and mycelial phase, are thought to be involved in key steps of disease development. We used RNAseq to investigate the genome-wide gene expression profiles that are associated with yeast and mycelial growth phases in vitro. Our results show a clear molecular distinction between yeast and mycelial phase gene expression profiles. Almost 12% of the gene content is differentially expressed between the two phases, which reveals specific functions related to each growth phase. We compared O. novo-ulmi transcriptome profiles with those of two model dimorphic fungi, Candida albicans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Few orthologs showed similar expression regulation between the two growth phases, which suggests that, globally, the genes associated with these two life forms are poorly conserved. This poor conservation underscores the importance of developing specific tools for emerging model species that are distantly related to the classical ones. Taken together, our results provide insights into transcriptome regulation and molecular specificity in O. novo-ulmi and offer a new perspective for understanding fungal dimorphism. PMID:26384770

  7. Functional Annotation of the Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Genome: Insights into the Phytopathogenicity of the Fungal Agent of Dutch Elm Disease

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Dufour, Josée; Bouvet, Guillaume F.; Jacobi, Volker; Nigg, Martha; Henrissat, Bernard; Laroche, Jérôme; Levesque, Roger C.; Bernier, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is responsible for the pandemic of Dutch elm disease that has been ravaging Europe and North America for 50 years. We proceeded to annotate the genome of the O. novo-ulmi strain H327 that was sequenced in 2012. The 31.784-Mb nuclear genome (50.1% GC) is organized into 8 chromosomes containing a total of 8,640 protein-coding genes that we validated with RNA sequencing analysis. Approximately 53% of these genes have their closest match to Grosmannia clavigera kw1407, followed by 36% in other close Sordariomycetes, 5% in other Pezizomycotina, and surprisingly few (5%) orphans. A relatively small portion (∼3.4%) of the genome is occupied by repeat sequences; however, the mechanism of repeat-induced point mutation appears active in this genome. Approximately 76% of the proteins could be assigned functions using Gene Ontology analysis; we identified 311 carbohydrate-active enzymes, 48 cytochrome P450s, and 1,731 proteins potentially involved in pathogen–host interaction, along with 7 clusters of fungal secondary metabolites. Complementary mating-type locus sequencing, mating tests, and culturing in the presence of elm terpenes were conducted. Our analysis identified a specific genetic arsenal impacting the sexual and vegetative growth, phytopathogenicity, and signaling/plant–defense–degradation relationship between O. novo-ulmi and its elm host and insect vectors. PMID:25539722

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  10. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 FIREPLACE IN DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 DOVE COTE AND DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH WEST - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer August, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer August, 1936 SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING DETAIL OF COLUMN AND CORNICE - Shadows on the Teche, Main & Weeks Streets, New Iberia, Iberia Parish, LA

  14. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 VIEW OF STAIRCASE FROM LIVING ROOM INTO STAIR HALL - Spanish Custom House, 1300 Moss Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  15. 1. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 OAK AVENUE LEADING TO HOUSE LOOKING WEST - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  16. 6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 DETAIL, DOORS IN DINING ROOM LEADING TO STAIRS AND LOCKERS - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  17. 10. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 DETAIL, CORNER FIREPLACE IN SECOND FLOOR REAR BEDROOM - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  18. 8. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 DETAIL, FIREPLACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, FRONT - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  19. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 OUTBUILDING NOW PART OF BEAUREGARD HOUSE WHICH FORMERLY BELONGED TO ARCHBISHOPRIC - Beauregard House, 1113 Chartres Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 DETAIL OF GATE AND EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, SOUTH EAST ELEVATION - Beauregard House, 1113 Chartres Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  1. 9. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY Richard Koch, Photographer, September, 1934 DETAIL, FIREPLACE IN SECOND FLOOR FRONT BEDROOM - Live Oak Plantation House, Between Weyanoke & Bains, Weyanoke, West Feliciana Parish, LA

  2. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 MANTEL IN REAR BEDROOM SECOND FLOOR RIGHT HAND WING - Ormond Plantation, State Highway 1, Saint Rose, St. Charles Parish, LA

  3. Koch's postulates, microbial dysbiosis and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P; Proctor, S D; Willing, B P

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, a growing amount of evidence supports the role of microbes and an imbalanced microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While many reviews have been written on the microbiota in IBD, few have considered how they fulfil the Koch's postulates. In this review, we consider how the Koch's postulates might be modified so that they can be fulfilled for polymicrobial diseases, and we discuss the progress made to date in fulfilling them. PMID:27179648

  4. A Matter of Distance: Rachel DeWoskin Remembers Kenneth Koch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWoskin, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Eulogizes poet and teacher Kenneth Koch. Notes that Koch was a renowned poet, a pioneer of the poets-in-the-school movement, and mentor to generations of Columbia students. Describes his often caustic teaching style. (PM)

  5. Establishment of invasive and non-invasive reporter systems to investigate American elm-Ophiostoma novo-ulmi interactions.

    PubMed

    Sherif, S; Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Saxena, P K

    2014-10-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by ascomycete fungi in the Ophiostoma genus, is the most devastating disease of American elm (Ulmus americana) trees. Cerato ulmin (CU), a hydrophobin secreted by the fungus, has been implicated in the development of DED, but its role in fungal pathogenicity and virulence remains uncertain and controversial. Here, we describe reporter systems based on the CU promoter and three reporter proteins (GFP, GUS and LUC), developed as research tools for quantitative and qualitative studies of DED in vitro, in vivo and in planta. A strain of the aggressive species Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was transformed with the reporter constructs using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the fungal transformants, namely M75-GFP, M75-GUS and M75-LUC, were examined for mitotic stability after repeated subcultures. The intensity of GFP fluorescence was strong in M75-GFP spores and hyphae, allowing microscopic investigations of spore structure, fungal morphogenesis and fungal development. The interaction of M75-GFP and U. americana callus cells was explored with scanning laser confocal microscopy facilitating qualitative studies on fungal strategies for the invasion and penetration of elm cells. M75-GUS was generated to provide an invasive, yet quantitative approach to study fungal-plant interactions in vitro and in planta. The generation of M75-LUC transformants was aimed at providing a non-destructive quantitative approach to study the role of CU in vivo. The sensitivity, low background signal and linearity of LUC assays all predict a very reliable approach to investigate and re-test previously claimed roles of this CU in fungal pathogenicity. These reporter systems provide new tools to investigate plant-pathogen interactions in this complex pathosystem and may aid in better understanding the development of DED. PMID:25139300

  6. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  7. 78 FR 2482 - Koch Industries, Inc.-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Koch Industries, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company Koch Industries, Inc. (Koch), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire indirect control of Texas South-Eastern Railroad Co. (TSE), a Class III rail carrier. Koch...

  8. Safely Teaching Koch's Postulates on the Causation of Infectious Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which the interactions between a parasite and its host may be demonstrated using the relationship between yogurt and two species of bacteria. Background information on Koch's postulates is provided. Materials, laboratory procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  9. Composing a la Koch: Making Sense of Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroble, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    Argues one way to make sense of a catastrophe is to use Kenneth Koch's poetry methods. By using these strategics, teachers can help students discover the thoughts and feelings of great artists. Students can then express their thoughts through these model poems. (BR)

  10. Embracing the Black English Vernacular: Response to Koch and Gross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Myra N.; Burlew, Randi; Hudson, Glenetta

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the findings of L. Koch and A. Gross (1997) and suggests that the positive perceptions of black children toward Black English reflect the dominant linguistic standard within their peer groups. Retention of the Black English vernacular is advocated because it is an expressively rich form of communication. (SLD)

  11. Obituary: Robert H. Koch (1929-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Joanne; Corcoran, Michael; Holenstein, Bruce; Sion, Edward

    2011-12-01

    Robert H. Koch, emeritus professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Pennsylvania, passed away at his home in Ardmore, Pennsylvania on 11 October 2010 after a brief illness. Bob was 80 years old and remained sharp and intellectually engaged with the astronomical community up until the onset of complications from a brain tumor. Bob was born in York, Pennsylvania on 19 December 1929, and graduated from York Catholic High School in 1947. He attended the University of Pennsylvania on a senatorial scholarship, graduating in 1951. After two years in the United States Army, he enrolled in graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania, doing his doctoral research on the photoelectric photometry of R CMa, AO Cas, AS Eri, and XY Leo at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in Tucson. Bob would continue this exploration of close binary stars, their atmospheres and interactions, for the rest of his career. Bob met his future spouse, Joanne C. Underwood, while in graduate school in 1957 and they were married in 1959. Bob received his PhD in astronomy in 1959 and moved to Amherst, Massachusetts, where he taught as a member of the Four College Astronomy Department until 1966. Following a year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, Bob joined the Astronomy Department at Penn, teaching and doing research there until his retirement in 1996. Bob's main interests were the study of close and eclipsing binary stars, stellar envelopes and winds, intrinsic variables, transits and occultations, and the Milky Way Galaxy, producing well over 100 refereed publications. Bob was partial to photoelectric photometry and polarimetry, conducting most of his observational research at the University of Pennsylvania Flower and Cook Observatory, and at other ground- and space-based observatories. As an international figure in the area of binary stars, Bob had widespread collaborations with scientists at other institutions, in the US and throughout the world, and

  12. Functional categorization of unique expressed sequence tags obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of the elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly aggressive pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi continues to be a serious threat to the American elm (Ulmus americana) in North America. Extensive studies have been conducted in North America to understand the mechanisms of virulence of this introduced pathogen and its evolving population structure, with a view to identifying potential strategies for the control of Dutch elm disease. As part of a larger study to examine the genomes of economically important Ophiostoma spp. and the genetic basis of virulence, we have constructed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library using total RNA extracted from the yeast-like growth phase of O. novo-ulmi (isolate H327). Results A total of 4,386 readable EST sequences were annotated by determining their closest matches to known or theoretical sequences in public databases by BLASTX analysis. Searches matched 2,093 sequences to entries found in Genbank, including 1,761 matches with known proteins and 332 matches with unknown (hypothetical/predicted) proteins. Known proteins included a collection of 880 unique transcripts which were categorized to obtain a functional profile of the transcriptome and to evaluate physiological function. These assignments yielded 20 primary functional categories (FunCat), the largest including Metabolism (FunCat 01, 20.28% of total), Sub-cellular localization (70, 10.23%), Protein synthesis (12, 10.14%), Transcription (11, 8.27%), Biogenesis of cellular components (42, 8.15%), Cellular transport, facilitation and routes (20, 6.08%), Classification unresolved (98, 5.80%), Cell rescue, defence and virulence (32, 5.31%) and the unclassified category, or known sequences of unknown metabolic function (99, 7.5%). A list of specific transcripts of interest was compiled to initiate an evaluation of their impact upon strain virulence in subsequent studies. Conclusions This is the first large-scale study of the O. novo-ulmi transcriptome. The expression profile obtained from the yeast

  13. Robert Koch redux: malaria immunology in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stanisic, D I; Mueller, I; Betuela, I; Siba, P; Schofield, L

    2010-08-01

    Over a century ago, the malaria expedition of the brilliant microbiologist Robert Koch to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and German New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea, or PNG), resulted in profound observations that are still central to our current understanding of the epidemiology and acquisition of immunity to the malaria parasite Plasmodium. The tradition of malaria research in PNG pioneered by Koch continues to this day, with a number of recent studies still continuing to elucidate his original concepts and hypotheses. These include age and exposure-related acquisition of immunity, species-specific and cross-species immunity, correlates of protective immunity and determining the prospects for anti-malaria vaccines. PMID:20626817

  14. Spectrum of walk matrix for Koch network and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pinchen; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2015-06-01

    Various structural and dynamical properties of a network are encoded in the eigenvalues of walk matrix describing random walks on the network. In this paper, we study the spectra of walk matrix of the Koch network, which displays the prominent scale-free and small-world features. Utilizing the particular architecture of the network, we obtain all the eigenvalues and their corresponding multiplicities. Based on the link between the eigenvalues of walk matrix and random target access time defined as the expected time for a walker going from an arbitrary node to another one selected randomly according to the steady-state distribution, we then derive an explicit solution to the random target access time for random walks on the Koch network. Finally, we corroborate our computation for the eigenvalues by enumerating spanning trees in the Koch network, using the connection governing eigenvalues and spanning trees, where a spanning tree of a network is a subgraph of the network, that is, a tree containing all the nodes.

  15. Efficiency of transportation on weighted extended Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a family of weighted extended Koch networks based on a class of extended Koch networks. They originate from a r-complete graph, and each node in each r-complete graph of current generation produces mr-complete graphs whose weighted edges are scaled by factor h in subsequent evolutionary step. We study the structural properties of these networks and random walks on them. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average weighted shortest path length (AWSP), average receiving time (ART) and average sending time (AST). Besides, the technique of resistor network is employed to uncover the relationship between ART and AST on networks with unit weight. In the infinite network order limit, the average weighted shortest path lengths stay bounded with growing network order (0 < h < 1). The closed form expression of ART shows that it exhibits a sub-linear dependence (0 < h < 1) or linear dependence ( h = 1) on network order. On the contrary, the AST behaves super-linearly with the network order. Collectively, all the obtained results show that the efficiency of message transportation on weighted extended Koch networks has close relation to the network parameters h, m and r. All these findings could shed light on the structure and random walks of general weighted networks.

  16. [GENETIC VARIABILITY OF MATERNAL PLANTS AND SEED EMBRYOS OF KOCH PINE POPULATIONS (PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH EX KOCH) IN CRIMEA].

    PubMed

    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841. PMID:27281923

  17. In vivo transmission of 'candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' by Amplicephalus curtulus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and its effect on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. tama).

    PubMed

    Arismendi, N L; Riegel, R; Carrillo, R

    2014-02-01

    In Chile, phytoplasmas have been reported in sugar beet, grapevine, peony, and Chilean shrubs. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' have been detected in plants of Ugni molinae Turczanínow (Myrtaceae) and the leafhopper Amplicephalus curtulus Linnavuori & DeLong. We evaluated the possibility of phytoplasma transmission from native plants to grasses by A. curtulus and the possible effect on the plant hosts. Newly emerged adults were placed in cages with phytoplasma-infected U. molinae for 72 h (acquisition access period). These plants were then replaced by healthy ryegrasses for 20 d (latent period). They were again replaced for other healthy ryegrasses and were place in cages for 14, 7, and 1 d (inoculation access period [IAP]). After IAP, these plants were moved into different insect-free cages for 30 d, after which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were carried out. Phytoplasma-free insects on ryegrasses were considered as control treatments. Furthermore, plant height and leaf area were recorded for all treatments. After PCR, 46, 60, and 13% of the plants exposed to infected A. curtulus by 14, 7, and 1 d of IAP, respectively, were infected with 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi'. Similarly, plants exposed to an IAP of 14, 7, and 1 d with phytoplasma-infected leafhoppers showed a reduction in plant height of 19, 39, and 28% and leaf area of 302, 169, and 55%, respectively, in comparison to those exposed to phytoplasma-free leafhoppers. We showed that A. curtulus has the ability to transmit phytoplasma from U. molinae to ryegrasses, affecting ryegrass plant height and leaf area PMID:24665688

  18. On the Design and Analysis of Modified Koch Curve Fractal Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S.; Singh, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study of the conventional and modified Koch curve antennas has been analyzed. The geometries of the antennas are obtained by an iterative function system algorithm for fractal curve generation. It has been observed that by keeping height and width of curve constant the modified Koch curve antenna provide more resonant frequencies with better return loss in comparison with conventional Koch curve antenna. The presented analysis quantifies the advantages provided by the modified Koch curve antenna and is validated by simulations and experimental results.

  19. Robert Koch: Centenary of the Discovery of the Tubercle Bacillus, 1882

    PubMed Central

    Sakula, Alex

    1983-01-01

    This is an account of the life and work of Robert Koch (1843-1910), Nobel Laureate in Medicine and a founder of the science of bacteriology. In particular, Koch's researches into tuberculosis are described — the discovery of the tubercle bacillus, the controversy regarding the human and bovine types, the Koch phenomenon, and the introduction of tuberculin, which proved to be ineffective as a cure but became important as a diagnostic tool in the management of tuberculosis. By his achievements in this field, Koch may be considered to be the father of the scientific study of tuberculosis. On the occasion of the centenary of Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882, we pay tribute to this great German master of medicine. Robert Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882 was a major event in the history of medicine, a turning point in our understanding and conquest of that deadly disease which had plagued mankind for millenia. After centuries of speculation as to the possible infectious nature of tuberculosis, Koch proved conclusively that the cause of the disease was infection by a specific micro-organism which he isolated. In tuberculosis, both seed and soil play their part, but without the seed — the tubercle bacillus — there is no disease. On the occasion of the centenary of Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus, we pay tribute to the father of the modern scientific approach to the management of tuberculosis. Imagesp128-a PMID:17422248

  20. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  1. Independence polynomial and matching polynomial of the Koch network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunhua; Xie, Xiaoliang

    2015-11-01

    The lattice gas model and the monomer-dimer model are two classical models in statistical mechanics. It is well known that the partition functions of these two models are associated with the independence polynomial and the matching polynomial in graph theory, respectively. Both polynomials have been shown to belong to the “#P-complete” class, which indicate the problems are computationally “intractable”. We consider these two polynomials of the Koch networks which are scale-free with small-world effects. Explicit recurrences are derived, and explicit formulae are presented for the number of independent sets of a certain type.

  2. Robert Koch: centenary of the discovery of the tubercle bacillus, 1882.

    PubMed Central

    Sakula, A

    1982-01-01

    This is an account of the life and work of Robert Koch (1843-1910), Nobel Laureate in Medicine and a founder of the science of bacteriology. In particular, Koch's researches into tuberculosis are described--the discovery of the tubercle bacillus, the controversy regarding the human and bovine types, the Koch phenomenon, and the introduction of tuberculin, which proved to be ineffective as a cure but became important as a diagnostic tool in the management of tuberculosis. By his achievements in this field, Koch may be considered to be the father of the scientific study of tuberculosis. On the occasion of the centenary of Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882, we pay tribute to this great German master of medicine. Images PMID:6180494

  3. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  4. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60) on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Luo, Lingyan; Chen, Xieting; Hu, Meiying; Hu, Qiongbo; Gong, Liang; Weng, Qunfang

    2015-01-01

    The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation. PMID:26569230

  5. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60) on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Luo, Lingyan; Chen, Xieting; Hu, Meiying; Hu, Qiongbo; Gong, Liang; Weng, Qunfang

    2015-01-01

    The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation. PMID:26569230

  6. [A matter of methods: the historicity of Koch's postulates 1840-2000].

    PubMed

    Gradmann, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical origins and the popularity of 'Koch's Postulates'. In 1884 Friedrich Löffler wrote down the well-known three steps of isolation, cultivation and inoculation as conditions for establishing the existence of a pathogen. These postulates are frequently invoked in textbooks of medical history. Yet they seem to have had little relevance in medical research. Their assumed inventor, Robert Koch, produced numerous variations in his own methodology. However, underlying his work was a sort of trivial ontology of diseases which rendered an experimental reconstruction of human pathologies in animal models practical and meaningful. There were many ways to pursue this end. Koch usually limited his discussion to practical questions related to the course that investigations had to take, while matters of principle were only treated implicitly in his writings. Löffler's achievement was to popularise Koch's views in his postulates. Given that, it is not surprising that the countless references to Koch's postulates which one finds in the 20th century usually refer to the spirit rather than the literal meaning of the postulates. For example, proponents of virology or molecular medicine devise variations of Koch's postulates that serve to relate their own work to Koch's bacteriology. The latter is perceived as the origin of modern experimental medicine. The nature of such references is less historical than anecdotal: referring to a historical object that did not exist as such, these references produce ex traditione credentials for experimental medicine. PMID:18839931

  7. Average receiving scaling of the weighted polygon Koch networks with the weight-dependent walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dandan; Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Shao, Shuxiang; Xie, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Based on the weighted Koch networks and the self-similarity of fractals, we present a family of weighted polygon Koch networks with a weight factor r(0 < r ≤ 1) . We study the average receiving time (ART) on weight-dependent walk (i.e., the walker moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the weight of edge linking them), whose key step is to calculate the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at a hub node. We use a recursive division method to divide the weighted polygon Koch networks in order to calculate the ART scaling more conveniently. We show that the ART scaling exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted polygon Koch networks are more efficient than expended Koch networks in receiving information. Finally, compared with other previous studies' results (i.e., Koch networks, weighted Koch networks), we find out that our models are more general.

  8. Long-term impact of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi on leaf traits and transpiration of branches in the Dutch elm hybrid 'Dodoens'.

    PubMed

    Plichta, Roman; Urban, Josef; Gebauer, Roman; Dvořák, Miloň; Ďurkovič, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    To better understand the long-term impact of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier on leaf physiology in 'Dodoens', a Dutch elm disease-tolerant hybrid, measurements of leaf area, leaf dry mass, petiole anatomy, petiole hydraulic conductivity, leaf and branch water potential, and branch sap flow were performed 3 years following an initial artificial inoculation. Although fungal hyphae were detected in fully expanded leaves, neither anatomical nor morphological traits were affected, indicating that there was no impact from the fungal hyphae on the leaves during leaf expansion. In contrast, however, infected trees showed both a lower transpiration rate of branches and a lower sap flow density. The long-term persistence of fungal hyphae inside vessels decreased the xylem hydraulic conductivity, but stomatal regulation of transpiration appeared to be unaffected as the leaf water potential in both infected and non-infected trees was similarly driven by the transpirational demands. Regardless of the fungal infection, leaves with a higher leaf mass per area ratio tended to have a higher leaf area-specific conductivity. Smaller leaves had an increased number of conduits with smaller diameters and thicker cell walls. Such a pattern could increase tolerance towards hydraulic dysfunction. Measurements of water potential and theoretical xylem conductivity revealed that petiole anatomy could predict the maximal transpiration rate. Three years following fungal inoculation, phenotypic expressions for the majority of the examined traits revealed a constitutive nature for their possible role in Dutch elm disease tolerance of 'Dodoens' trees. PMID:26843210

  9. Random walks on non-homogenous weighted Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Lifeng

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce new models of non-homogenous weighted Koch networks on real traffic systems depending on the three scaling factors r1,r2,r3∈(0,1). Inspired by the definition of the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), we define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT). Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its neighbors, we show that in large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(r1,r2,r3)=log4(1+r1+r2+r3). Moreover, the AWSP, in the infinite network order limit, only depends on the sum of scaling factors r1,r2,r3.

  10. Fulfilling Koch's postulates in glycoscience: HCELL, GPS and translational glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Sackstein, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Glycoscience-based research that is performed expressly to address medical necessity and improve patient outcomes is called "translational glycobiology". In the 19th century, Robert Koch proposed a set of postulates to rigorously establish causality in microbial pathogenesis, and these postulates can be reshaped to guide knowledge into how naturally-expressed glycoconjugates direct molecular processes critical to human well-being. Studies in the 1990s indicated that E-selectin, an endothelial lectin that binds sialofucosylated carbohydrate determinants, is constitutively expressed on marrow microvessels, and investigations in my laboratory indicated that human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) uniquely express high levels of a specialized glycoform of CD44 called "hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand" (HCELL) that functions as a highly potent E-selectin ligand. To assess the role of HCELL in directing HSC migration to marrow, a method called "glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution" (GPS) was developed to custom-modify CD44 glycans to enforce HCELL expression on viable cell surfaces. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are devoid of E-selectin ligands, but GPS-based glycoengineering of CD44 on MSCs licenses homing of these cells to marrow in vivo, providing direct evidence that HCELL serves as a "bone marrow homing receptor". This review will discuss the molecular basis of cell migration in historical context, will describe the discovery of HCELL and its function as the bone marrow homing receptor, and will inform on how glycoengineering of CD44 serves as a model for adapting Koch's postulates to elucidate the key roles that glycoconjugates play in human biology and for realizing the immense impact of translational glycobiology in clinical medicine. PMID:26933169

  11. [Tuberculosis 110 years after the Nobel Prize awarded to Koch].

    PubMed

    Ritacco, Viviana; Kantor, Isabel N

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1905 to Robert Koch "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis (TB)". He discovered the causal agent of TB, described the four principles that since then have guided research in communicable diseases and also prepared the old tuberculin, a bacillary extract that failed as a healing element but allowed the early diagnosis of TB infection and promoted the understanding of cellular immunity. After his death, the most conspicuous achievements against TB were the BCG vaccine, and the discovery of streptomycin, the antibiotic that launched the era of the effective treatment of TB. Drug-resistance soon appeared. In Argentina, studies on drug resistance began in the 60s. In the 70s, shortened anti-TB drug schemes were introduced consisting in two-month treatment with four drugs, followed by four months with two drugs. The incidence of TB decreased worldwide, but the immune depression associated with awarded together with the misuse of anti-TB drugs allowed the emergence of multidrug resistance and extensive resistance, with the emergence of nosocomial outbreaks worldwide, including Argentina. New rapid diagnostic methods based on molecular biology were developed and also new drugs, but the treatment of multidrug resistant and extensively resistant TB is still difficult and expensive. TB research has marked several milestones in medical sciences, including the monumental Koch postulates, the tuberculin skin test that laid the basis for understanding cell-mediated immunity, the first design of randomized clinical trials and the use of combined multi-drug treatments. PMID:26707664

  12. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  13. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  14. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  15. Description of Panagrellus ulmi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Panagrolaimidae) from Iran, and comments on the species of the genus and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Alizadeh, Mehrdad; Khakvar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Panagrellus, P. ulmi sp. n., has been found inside wetwood cankers of elms from the city of Tabriz, Iran. The new species is characterized by having small body size (0.91‒1.22 mm long in females and 0.82‒1.18 mm long in males), lateral field with three longitudinal incisures, lip region narrowing to distal end with six small lips and oral opening surrounded by six acute liplets, stoma with gymnostom shorter than cheilostom, cheilorhabdia not refringent, gymnorhabdia refringent, pharynx with metacorpus not swollen and isthmus slender, excretory pore at level of metacorpus, ovary very long without flexures, oviduct swollen, postvulval uterine sac long, 2.0‒3.4 times the corresponding body diameter, both female and male tails conoid-elongate, spicules with rounded and ventrally bent manubrium and lamina with dorsal anterior hump and fork-like bifurcate tip, gubernaculum with anterior dorsal handle-like manubrium, postcloacal genital papillae five pairs, two anterior subventral, one anterior subdorsal at same level than the first subventral, one posterior subventral and one posterior subdorsal both at same level. Description, measurements and illustrations are provided. In addition, species of Panagrellus and its relatives (Panagrobelus and Plectonchus) are analyzed. After this analysis, Plectonchus hunti is considered an intermediate species between Panagrellus and Panagrobelus, and is transferred, based on morphological and molecular evidence, to the latter genus as Panagrobelus hunti n. comb. On the other hand, Panagrellus (Panagrellinae) and Baujardia (Baujardinae), are two very similar genera according to both morphological and molecular evidence; we consider the respective subfamilies synonyms. Also, Plectonchus and Anguilluloides show great similarities, which justify considering Anguilluloides a junior synonym of the former genus. A. procerus is accordingly transferred as Plectonchus procerus n. comb. while Anguilluloides

  16. Sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of Koch's postulates.

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, D N; Relman, D A

    1996-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, Robert Koch introduced his ideas about how to prove a causal relationship between a microorganism and a disease. Koch's postulates created a scientific standard for causal evidence that established the credibility of microbes as pathogens and led to the development of modern microbiology. In more recent times, Koch's postulates have evolved to accommodate a broader understanding of the host-parasite relationship as well as experimental advances. Techniques such as in situ hybridization, PCR, and representational difference analysis reveal previously uncharacterized, fastidious or uncultivated, microbial pathogens that resist the application of Koch's original postulates, but they also provide new approaches for proving disease causation. In particular, the increasing reliance on sequence-based methods for microbial identification requires a reassessment of the original postulates and the rationale that guided Koch and later revisionists. Recent investigations of Whipple's disease, human ehrlichiosis, hepatitis C, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and Kaposi's sarcoma illustrate some of these issues. A set of molecular guidelines for establishing disease causation with sequence-based technology is proposed, and the importance of the scientific concordance of evidence in supporting causal associations is emphasized. PMID:8665474

  17. Trapping on Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks with Small-World Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Xie, Qi; Xi, Lifeng

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present weighted tetrahedron Koch networks depending on a weight factor. According to their self-similar construction, we obtain the analytical expressions of the weighted clustering coefficient and average weighted shortest path (AWSP). The obtained solutions show that the weighted tetrahedron Koch networks exhibits small-world property. Then, we calculate the average receiving time (ART) on weighted-dependent walks, which is the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at the trap located at a hub node. We find that the ART exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order.

  18. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  19. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  20. Scaling of Average Weighted Receiving Time on Double-Weighted Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan; Hou, Jie; Li, Xingyi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of the double-weighted Koch networks based on actual road networks depending on the two weight factors w,r ∈ (0, 1]. The double weights represent the capacity-flowing weight and the cost-traveling weight, respectively. Denote by wFij the capacity-flowing weight connecting the nodes i and j, and denote by wCij the cost-traveling weight connecting the nodes i and j. Let wFij be related to the weight factor w, and let wCij be related to the weight factor r. This paper assumes that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the capacity-flowing weight of edge linking them. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the cost-traveling weight connecting the two nodes. We define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) on the double-weighted Koch networks. The obtained result displays that in the large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(w,r) = ½ log2(1 + 3wr). We show that the AWRT exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the double-weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information.

  1. A Snowflake Project: Calculating, Analyzing, and Optimizing with the Koch Snowflake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Linda A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a project that addresses several components of the Algebra and Communication Standards for Grades 9-12 presented in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Describes doing mathematical modeling and using the language of mathematics to express a recursive relationship in the perimeter and area of the Koch snowflake.…

  2. Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted expanded Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

  3. Steps towards the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch, 1882.

    PubMed

    Cambau, E; Drancourt, M

    2014-03-01

    Palaeomicrobiology has detected the tuberculosis agent in animal and human skeletons that are thousands of years old. The German doctor Robert Koch was the first microbiologist to report in 1882 the successful isolation of the causative agent of tuberculosis, named 1 year later as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This immense discovery, however, was not made from scratch, but involved the combining of previous scientific knowledge, chiefly the previous demonstration by the French doctor Jean-Antoine Villemin that tuberculosis was a transmissible disease, and two innovations--a new staining procedure that allowed R. Koch to consistently observe the new organism in tuberculous lesions, and use of a solidified, serum-based medium instead of broths for the culture. These innovations allowed R. Koch not only to isolate M. tuberculosis from animal and patient specimens for the first time, but also to reproduce the disease in experimentally inoculated guinea pigs. It is thanks to R. Koch that one of the most lethal diseases in human history could be diagnosed, could be treated and cured after the discovery of streptomycin 65 years later, and could be efficiently prevented by isolation of cases. His microbiological innovations are now being renewed with molecular and improved culture-based detection being the twenty-first century weapons in the fight against this disease, which remains a major killer. PMID:24450600

  4. Space-time derivative estimates of the Koch-Tataru solutions to the nematic liquid crystal system in Besov spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiao

    2015-06-01

    In recent paper [7], Y. Du and K. Wang (2013) proved that the global-in-time Koch-Tataru type solution (u, d) to the n-dimensional incompressible nematic liquid crystal flow with small initial data (u0, d0) in BMO-1 × BMO has arbitrary space-time derivative estimates in the so-called Koch-Tataru space norms. The purpose of this paper is to show that the Koch-Tataru type solution satisfies the decay estimates for any space-time derivative involving some borderline Besov space norms.

  5. Functional analysis of a chitinase gene during the larval-nymph transition in Panonychus citri by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Shen, Xiao-Min; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Zhong, Rui; Liao, Chong-Yu; Feng, Ying-Cai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for chitin degradation and reconstruction in arthropods. In this study, we report a cDNA sequence encoding a putative chitinase (PcCht1) from the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri. The PcCht1 (564 aa) possessed a signal peptide, a conserver domain, and a chitin-binding domain. Structural and phylogenetic analyses found that PcCht1 had high sequence similarity to chitinases in Tetranychus urticae. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of PcCht1 peaked periodically in larval and nymph stages. Moreover, significant increase of PcCht1 transcript level in the larvae was observed upon the exposure of diflubenzuron. In contrast, exposures of the larvae to diflubenzuron resulted in the decreased chitin content. Furthermore, through a feeding-based RNA interference approach, we were able to reduce the PcCht1 transcript level by 59.7 % in the larvae, and consequently the treated larvae showed a very low molting rate compared with the control. Our results expanded the understanding of the important role of PcCht1 in the growth and development of P. citri. PMID:27388447

  6. Antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Hong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-12-01

    Relatively low or high temperatures are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Induced thermal stress was recently associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect of the relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (32, 35, 38, and 41 °C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as a marker of lipid peroxidation in organisms, was also measured in the citrus red mite under thermal stress conditions. Results showed that SOD and GST activities were significantly increased and play an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and changed in a time-dependent manner. CAT and POX activity, as well as TEAC, did not vary significantly and play a minor role to remove the ROS generation. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in the citrus red mite. PMID:20709071

  7. Taxonomic revision of the species group rubripes of Corinna Koch, 1842 (Araneae; Corinnidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Bruno V B; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2014-01-01

    The species of the group rubripes, which harbors the type species of the genus Corinna C. L. Koch, 1842, are revised, including 20 Neotropical species. Three previously known species are re-diagnosed: Corinna rubripes C. L. Koch, 1842, Corinna nitens (Keyserling, 1891) and Corinna mourai Bonaldo, 2000. New records of Corinna nitens are provided, including the first ones from Peru and Bolivia. Seventeen new species, all from Brazil, were described: C. aechmea n. sp., C. balacobaco n. sp., C. caatinga n. sp., C. demersa n. sp., C. escalvada n. sp., C. hyalina n. sp., C. jecatatu n. sp., C. kuryi n. sp., C. loiolai n. sp., C. maracas n. sp., C. regii n. sp., C. telecoteco n. sp., C. tranquilla n. sp., C. vesperata n. sp., C. vilanovae n. sp., C. zecarioca n. sp. and C. ziriguidum n. sp. A key for all twenty species of the group is presented. PMID:24943629

  8. Assessment of Prey Preference by the Generalist Predator, Mallada basalis (Walker), When Offered Two Species of Spider Mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) on Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated potential prey preference of the generalist predator Mallada basalis (Walker) when offered two mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), both important pests on papaya. Laboratory choice tests revealed that none of the three larval instars of M. basalis sho...

  9. Optimal spinneret layout in Von Koch curves of fractal theory based needleless electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Ligai; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yang; Yao, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Needleless electrospinning technology is considered as a better avenue to produce nanofibrous materials at large scale, and electric field intensity and its distribution play an important role in controlling nanofiber diameter and quality of the nanofibrous web during electrospinning. In the current study, a novel needleless electrospinning method was proposed based on Von Koch curves of Fractal configuration, simulation and analysis on electric field intensity and distribution in the new electrospinning process were performed with Finite element analysis software, Comsol Multiphysics 4.4, based on linear and nonlinear Von Koch fractal curves (hereafter called fractal models). The result of simulation and analysis indicated that Second level fractal structure is the optimal linear electrospinning spinneret in terms of field intensity and uniformity. Further simulation and analysis showed that the circular type of Fractal spinneret has better field intensity and distribution compared to spiral type of Fractal spinneret in the nonlinear Fractal electrospinning technology. The electrospinning apparatus with the optimal Von Koch fractal spinneret was set up to verify the theoretical analysis results from Comsol simulation, achieving more uniform electric field distribution and lower energy cost, compared to the current needle and needleless electrospinning technologies.

  10. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient. PMID:23569793

  11. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

  12. REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, HF-82-35-PMPW™ ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two Koch Membrane Systems HF-82-35-PMPW ultrafiltration membrane cartridges were tested for removal of viruses, bacteria, and protozoan cysts at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. The ETV testing was conducted as part of a series of evaluations of the Expeditiona...

  13. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is linked to sulfur-induced outbreaks of this pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 19-23, 1999, tests of Koch Filter Corporation's Multi-Sak 6FZ159-S paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic per...

  15. The Development of a High School Poetry Writing Program from Selected Writings of Erik Erikson, Kenneth Koch, and Theodore Roethke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Albert Luck, Jr.

    In this study, a program for teaching poetry writing in secondary schools is derived from Kenneth Koch's and Theodore Roethke's ideas, and from Erik Erikson's model of adolescent human processes. A review of related literature defines three major approaches to the teaching of poetry writing: models, activities, and models and activities combined.…

  16. Money and microbes: Robert Koch, tuberculin and the Foundation of the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin in 1891.

    PubMed

    Gradmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Starting from an assessment of how far Robert Koch's bacteriology had developed in the late 1880s this paper attempts to analyse different aspects of the process that led to the foundation of the Berlin Institute for Infectious Diseases in 1891. With the development of his supposed cure against tuberculosis, tuberculin, Koch attempted to give his research a new direction, earn a fortune with the profits and become more independent of Prussian government officials who, up to that point, had had a major influence on his career. In the period following the presentation of the cure in autumn 1890, however, it became clear that tuberculin's value in treatment was at most dubious. Thus, the failure of tuberculin meant that Koch had to drop his own plans and accommodate those of the Prussian Ministry of Culture. As a result he assumed directorship of the newly founded Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. Even though this was definitely a prestigious position it reaffirmed Koch's dependency on Prussian government officials and was by no means the kind of institution he had aimed for at the outset. PMID:11258101

  17. Dual-band and polarization-insensitive terahertz absorber based on fractal Koch curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Bing; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Li, Yuan-Xun; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Wei-En; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a dual-band and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber (MA), which consists of periodically arranged fractal Koch curves acting as the top resonator array and a metallic ground plane separated by a dielectric spacer. Compared with conventional MAs, a more compact size and multi-frequency operation are achieved by using fractal geometry as the unit cell of the MA. Both the effective medium theory and the multi-reflection interference theory are employed to investigate the underlying physical mechanism of the proposed terahertz MA, and results indicate that the latter theory is not suitable for explaining the absorption mechanism in our investigated structure. Two absorption peaks are observed at 0.226 THz and 0.622 THz with absorptivities of 91.3% and 95.6% respectively and good agreements between the full-wave simulation and experimental results are achieved.

  18. A cladistically based reinterpretation of the taxonomy of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Platynotina)

    PubMed Central

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract On the basis of a newly performed cladistic analysis a new classification of the representatives of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera, Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 sensu Iwan 2002a, is provided. Eleoselinus is described as a new genus. The genus Monodius, previously synonymized with Selinus by Iwan (2002), is redescribed and considered as a separate genus. Following new combinations are proposed: Ectateus calcaripes (Gebien, 1904), Monodius laevistriatus (Fairmaire, 1897), Monodius lamottei (Gridelli, 1954), Monodius plicicollis (Fairmaire, 1897), Eleoselinus villiersi (Ardoin, 1965) and Eleoselinus ursynowiensis (Kamiński, 2011). Neotype for Ectateus calcaripes and lectotypes for E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897), E. ghesquierei Koch, 1956 and Monodius malaisei malaisei Koch, 1956 are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these taxa. The following synonymies are proposed: Selinus monardi Kaszab, 1951 and Ectateus latipennis Koch, 1956 with E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897). Identification keys are provided to all known species of Ectateus sensu novum, Eleoselinus, Monodius and Selinus sensu novum. PMID:25009425

  19. A cladistically based reinterpretation of the taxonomy of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Platynotina).

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a newly performed cladistic analysis a new classification of the representatives of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera, Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 sensu Iwan 2002a, is provided. Eleoselinus is described as a new genus. The genus Monodius, previously synonymized with Selinus by Iwan (2002), is redescribed and considered as a separate genus. Following new combinations are proposed: Ectateus calcaripes (Gebien, 1904), Monodius laevistriatus (Fairmaire, 1897), Monodius lamottei (Gridelli, 1954), Monodius plicicollis (Fairmaire, 1897), Eleoselinus villiersi (Ardoin, 1965) and Eleoselinus ursynowiensis (Kamiński, 2011). Neotype for Ectateus calcaripes and lectotypes for E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897), E. ghesquierei Koch, 1956 and Monodius malaisei malaisei Koch, 1956 are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these taxa. The following synonymies are proposed: Selinus monardi Kaszab, 1951 and Ectateus latipennis Koch, 1956 with E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897). Identification keys are provided to all known species of Ectateus sensu novum, Eleoselinus, Monodius and Selinus sensu novum. PMID:25009425

  20. [First research work by Robert Koch on etiology of anthrax-in cooperation with Józef Knechtel, Polish apothecary].

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Zenobiusz; Bednarska, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    Terroristic attack on United States of America 11 September 2001 and just after many cases of anthrax spores employment as biological warfare called our attention to Robert Koch. He determined anthrax etiology and enclosed it in his first research work: Die Aetiologie der Milzbrand-Kranheit begrundet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus Anthracis. The results of this research are widely described. In the scientific researches participated J. Knechtel, Pole, pharmacist, pharmacy owner in Wolsztyn. His adjacent laboratory near pharmacy was provided with microscope, camera, table and two chairs. Many slides and above mentioned article / without J. Knechtel as joint author/were the results of this findings. About cooperation Pole with R. Koch we found out from two letters doctor Brinkmann' s authorship and three reports explored by A. Skrobacki in Central Register Office in Merseburg. The objects mentioned above were delivered by J. Knechtel's widow as the gift to Institute of Infectious Diseases in Berlin in 1905. Robert Koch' s cooperation with a Polish pharmacist was concealed. It was caused by a historic background and the policy of Prussia - an invader state in relation to Polish people. The official demonstration of cooperation with a Polish pharmacist under these circumstances could not take place. PMID:14565192

  1. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  2. Exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  3. Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in China. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) gene (PcGSTm5) in abamectin-resistant P. citri. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcripts of PcGSTm5 were also significantly up-regulated after exposure to abamectin and the maximum mRNA expression level at nymphal stage. The recombinant protein of PcGSTm5-pET-28a produced by Escherichia coli showed a pronounced activity toward the conjugates of 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH). The kinetics of CDNB and GSH and its optimal pH and thermal stability were also determined. Reverse genetic study through a new method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding further support a link between the expression of PcGSTm5 and abamectin resistance. However, no direct evidence was found in metabolism or inhibition assays to confirm the hypothesis that PcGSTm5 can metabolize abamectin. Finally, it is here speculated that PcGSTm5 may play a role in abamectin detoxification through other pathway such as the antioxidant protection. PMID:27521916

  4. Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in late neurosyphilis. Recently it has been suggested that various types of spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review all data available in the literature on the detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established criteria of Koch and Hill. The results show a statistically significant association between spirochetes and AD (P = 1.5 × 10-17, OR = 20, 95% CI = 8-60, N = 247). When neutral techniques recognizing all types of spirochetes were used, or the highly prevalent periodontal pathogen Treponemas were analyzed, spirochetes were observed in the brain in more than 90% of AD cases. Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the brain in 25.3% of AD cases analyzed and was 13 times more frequent in AD compared to controls. Periodontal pathogen Treponemas (T. pectinovorum, T. amylovorum, T. lecithinolyticum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. socranskii) and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected using species specific PCR and antibodies. Importantly, co-infection with several spirochetes occurs in AD. The pathological and biological hallmarks of AD were reproduced in vitro by exposure of mammalian cells to spirochetes. The analysis of reviewed data following Koch's and Hill's postulates shows a probable causal relationship between neurospirochetosis and AD. Persisting inflammation and amyloid deposition initiated and sustained by chronic spirochetal infection form together with the various hypotheses suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD a comprehensive entity. As suggested by Hill, once the probability of a causal relationship is established prompt action is needed. Support and attention should be given to this field of AD research

  5. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  6. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  7. Ovariuterus of Pandinus imperator, Koch (Scorpiones; Scorpionidae): comparison of virgin female with mother.

    PubMed

    Mahsberg, D; Warburg, M R

    2000-03-01

    The ovariuterus of the female Pandinus imperator Koch (Scorpiones; Scorpionidae), was compared in a virgin female and a female that had previously given birth at least twice (in the laboratory). The virgin female did not have any embryonic diverticulae (Ed) nor did it have any degenerated, post-partum diverticulae (Dd), whereas in the mother scorpion several Dd were clearly seen on the ovariuterus. This latter female lacked any embryonic diverticulae (Ed). The number of the Dd corresponds well with the number of juveniles in the last brood born to that female during the previous year. Based on the total number of diverticula observed, and the average known litter size, it is suggested that these long-lived scorpions are potentially able to breed at least six times during their lifetime. Since they apparently do not breed in consecutive years (as is evident from the lack of Ed in the female that had bred a year before) and perhaps only every alternate year, they are capable of breeding for 12 years. If a litter amounts to about 25 young, a female is capable of producing 150 young. As it takes about three years to mature from nymph to adult, the life expectancy in this species is therefore about 15 years, by a conservative estimate. PMID:10755184

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    PubMed

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. PMID:20589337

  9. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  10. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory.

    PubMed

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-07-11

    Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro) in mean generation time (T), which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ) and doubled every 3.7 days (TD). PMID:27409230

  11. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae), by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ling Lan; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Campbell, James F; Yang, Ping Shih; Chen, Chien Chung; Lu, Chiu Tung

    2009-06-01

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of larvae of a domesticated line of the green lacewing, Mallada basalis (Walker), in no-choice tests with different life stages of these two mite pests. After a period of prey deprivation, all three larval instars of M. basalis exhibited a high rate of acceptance of all life stages of both T. kanzawai and P. citri. In 2-h trials, second- and third-instar predators foraged actively most of the time, whereas first instars spent approximately 40% of the time at rest. Consumption increased and prey handling time decreased as predator life stage advanced and prey stage decreased. Third-instar lacewings consumed an average of 311.4 T. kanzawai eggs (handling time: 6.7 s/egg) and 68.2 adults (handling time: 58.8 s/adult), whereas first instars consumed 19.6 eggs (handling time: 23.6 s/egg) and 4.0 adults (handling time: 633.4 s/adult). M. basalis generally consumed more P. citri than T. kanzawai. Except for prey eggs, handling times of T. kanzawai were generally longer than those of P. citri by all M. basalis instars. Handling times were shorter, and consumption were greater, at the higher P. citri density than at the lower one, whereas there were generally no significant differences in prey acceptability and foraging time between those two densities. This study suggests that M. basalis larvae may have high potential for augmentative biological control of mites on papayas. PMID:19508780

  12. Biological and life table parameters of Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans (Acari, Phytoseiidae) fed on Panonychus citri and pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Haralabos; Principato, Dennj; Jordà Palomero, Raoul; Lombardo, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the Mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. In the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid Panonychus citri. Iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the shortest mean time between eggs laid (0.55 day) on Oxalis pollen, whereas the two food types did not influence these parameters in T. laurentii. However, Oxalis pollen showed a positive effect on the survivorship of the latter phytoseiid, with a median life time (LT50) of 44.51 days, which was two times longer than that registered on prey with the same phytoseiid, and on both food types with I. degenerans. This latter species had a better performance on the pollen (rm = 0.243, λ = 1.275, Ro = 22.88, DT = 2.85) than on prey (rm = 0.182, λ = 1.199, Ro = 17.43, DT = 3.81). On the other hand, the pollen influenced the net reproductive rate (25.43 females/female) of T. laurentii positively but showed the same effect as the prey on the other demographic parameters. Our results improve knowledge on the feeding behaviour of the above mentioned phytoseiids on two food sources that could represent the main possibility to maintain a consistent population of these predators during winter. Moreover, both phytoseiids were shown to be good biocontrol candidates of P. citri populations. PMID:27497592

  13. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. PMID:26185740

  14. On the Evolutionary and Biogeographic History of Saxifraga sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud.) Koch (Saxifragaceae Juss.)

    PubMed Central

    DeChaine, Eric G.; Anderson, Stacy A.; McNew, Jennifer M.; Wendling, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic-alpine plants in the genus Saxifraga L. (Saxifragaceae Juss.) provide an excellent system for investigating the process of diversification in northern regions. Yet, sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud.) Koch, which is comprised of about 8 to 26 species, has still not been explored by molecular systematists even though taxonomists concur that the section needs to be thoroughly re-examined. Our goals were to use chloroplast trnL-F and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data to circumscribe the section phylogenetically, test models of geographically-based population divergence, and assess the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships. To do so, we sequenced both genetic markers for 19 taxa within the section. The phylogenetic inferences of sect. Trachyphyllum using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that the section is polyphyletic, with S. aspera L. and S bryoides L. falling outside the main clade. In addition, the analyses supported several taxonomic re-classifications to prior names. We used two approaches to test biogeographic hypotheses: i) a coalescent approach in Mesquite to test the fit of our reconstructed gene trees to geographically-based models of population divergence and ii) a maximum likelihood inference in Lagrange. These tests uncovered strong support for an origin of the clade in the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America followed by dispersal and divergence episodes across refugia. Finally we adopted a stochastic character mapping approach in SIMMAP to investigate the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships among taxa. We found that few morphological characters were phylogenetically informative and many were misleading. Our molecular analyses provide a foundation for the diversity and evolutionary relationships within sect. Trachyphyllum and hypotheses for better understanding the patterns and processes of divergence in this section, other saxifrages, and plants inhabiting

  15. Study of Vertebral Body Replacement with Reconstruction Spinal Cages in Dorsolumbar Traumatic and Koch's Spine

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective and prospective case series. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the results of reconstruction of anterior column, fusion and complications related to cages. Overview of Literature Literature shows that corpectomy has become a common surgical procedure for spinal infection, trauma, deformity, instability and metastasis. Also the use of reconstructive spinal cages is common after corpectomy. Methods Study was carried out in patients with dorsolumbar traumatic and Koch's spine. We assessed 25 patients (13 traumatic/12 tuberculous) who were treated with cages with/without any other instrumentation. Radiographs were obtained before and after the surgery. A preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in every patient. Results Fourteen patients underwent 1 level of corpectomy, 9 patients underwent 2 levels and 2 patients underwent 3 levels of corpectomy. Anterior reconstruction alone was performed in 8 patients; 360° reconstruction was performed in 17 patients and 2 of them underwent reconstruction through single posterior approach only. The mean kyphotic angulation improved from 21.2° preoperatively to 9.3° postoperatively and to 12° at final follow up. 8 patients with neurological deficits had improvement by at least one or more Frankel grade. No migration/displacement of cage was seen in any patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the vertebral body replacement after corpectomy by reconstructive cages provides a reconstruction of the anterior column, good correction of the mean kyphotic angle, and a correction maintained with cage without any cage related complication at long term follow up. The fusion can be achieved with reconstructive cage plus bone graft with or without posterior instrumentation. PMID:25558321

  16. Toxicity and repellency of hot pepper extracts to spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern about persistence and environmental impact of synthetic pesticide residues require development of biodegradable and environmentally safe alternatives. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Twenty-four Capsicum accessions (Solanaceae) were screened for their toxicity and repellency to the spider mites. Crude extracts from fruits of C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were prepared in methanol and tested for their acaricidal properties. Spider mite mortality was greatest (45%) when fruit extract of accession Grif-9169 (C. annuum) was used. Results from diving board bioassays indicated that mites avoided filter paper strips treated with hot pepper extracts from accessions PI-596057 (C. baccatum), PI-195299 (C. annuum), and Grif- 9270 (C. annuum). This investigation suggests that methanolic extracts of these three accessions may have a great potential for repelling spider mites and should be field-tested on a large-scale to assess their value in managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. An attempt was made to correlate repellency with chemical constituents of fruit extracts of the most repellent accessions to identify chemical sources of repellency. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that these are not likely related to the toxicity or repellency of the pepper fruit extracts. Other, unidentified chemicals are likely responsible for toxicity and repellency to the two-spotted spider mite. PMID:17090499

  17. A Simulation Model of the Mass Rearing of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Beans.

    PubMed

    Bustos, A; Rodríguez, D; Cure, J R; Cantor, F

    2016-06-01

    The supply of predatory mites as natural enemies is a key component to guarantee the success of biological pest control programs as alternatives to chemical control in commercial crops. To meet the demand for a supply of biologicals, the mass rearing of natural enemies is an option, and the first step must be to develop a standardized system that maximizes the production of prey. One choice for this first step is to use simulation models that can evaluate scenarios that are difficult or complex to address experimentally. In this work, a model was developed to evaluate the current management conditions for the mass rearing of the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our aim was to identify alternative scenarios to maximize mite production through mass rearing that could be evaluated in real systems. We assumed that populations of T. urticae were regulated by the conditions of supply-demand theory and modeled the age structure, temperature effects, and individual phenology of T. urticae. The supply-demand theory of resources was used to regulate populations, which involved structured ages and temperature effects for the different stages in the development of individuals. We used the functional response and the paradigm of metabolic pool models to describe resource acquisition and allocation. We demonstrated that 7- to 14-day-old plants infested with 45 or 62 T. urticae/plant could reach 25,000 individuals/plant, being 50% of these preys at the preferred stages by the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Our theoretical model requires validation in experimental/real systems of mass rearing to better verify the validity of all of the parameters and predictions before commercial implementation. PMID:26943232

  18. Cytotoxic activity and composition of petroleum ether extract from Magydaris tomentosa (Desf.) W. D. J. Koch (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania; Formisano, Carmen; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum ether extract of Magydaris tomentosa flowers (Desf.) W. D. J. Koch has been analyzed by GC-MS. It is mainly constituted by furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isopimpinellin, and bergaptene. Other coumarins such as 7-methoxy-8-(2-formyl-2-methylpropyl) coumarin and osthole also occurred. The antiproliferative activity of Magydaris tomentosa flower extract has been evaluated in vitro on murine monocye/macrophages (J774A.1), human melanoma (A375) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumor cell lines, showing a major activity against the latter. PMID:25603502

  19. Acaricidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, H; Bostanian, N J; Vincent, C

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 [25% EC (vol:vol)], based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control the adult stage and egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). After a laboratory bioassay with adult twospotted spider mites, a 0.5% concentration of UDA-245 was more effective than 0.7% (AI) of neem oil (Neem Rose Defense). After a similar bioassay with the European red mite, a 0.5% concentration UDA-245 was as effective as 0.006% (AI) of abamectin (Avid). UDA-245 at 0.5% significantly reduced egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, 5 and 9 d after treatment and of the European red mite 6 d after treatment. Egg hatch was significantly lower using 0.006% (AI) of abamectin, 0.7% of neem oil, and 1.0% insecticidal soap than UDA-245. Residual tests indicated that UDA-245 may be persistent in the environment only for a few hours. Only 23% mortality was noted when mites were introduced on bean leaves 1 h after treatment with a 2% concentration of UDA-245. At the recommended dose of 0.5%, UDA-245 was not considered phytotoxic for most plants tested, i.e., lettuce, roses, and tomatoes. Results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management program using UDA-245 could effectively and selectively control mite infestations by treating "hot spots" with negligible effect on biological control agents when treating before introduction or when natural enemies are absent. PMID:15384350

  20. Effect of the width of the herbicide strip on mite dynamics in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Bostanian, N J; Thistlewood, H M A

    2011-03-01

    Herbicide strips are used in apple orchards to promote tree growth and survival, to increase yield and to reduce the risk of rodent damage to tree bark. However, herbicide strips, particularly wider ones, may cause problems including soil erosion, reduced organic matter, leaching of nitrates into ground water and increased incidence of plant diseases and pests, including two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In this 2 year study we monitored mite dynamics in apple trees and used sticky bands on tree trunks to determine rates of T. urticae immigration into Nova Spy apple trees in plots with wide (2 m) or narrow (0.5 m) herbicide strips. Use of wider herbicide strips promoted two risk factors that could trigger outbreaks of tetranychid mites. First, concentrations of leaf N in apple trees were higher and those of P and K were lower with the wide strips. Such changes in nutritional quality of leaves would increase the potential for more rapid population growth of T. urticae, and to a lesser extent, the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Second, there were higher rates of T. urticae immigration from the ground cover vegetation into the trees. In 2006, and for most of 2007, densities of T. urticae were higher with wide herbicide strips, whereas densities of P. ulmi were not enhanced. However, by late August to early September in 2007, densities of both tetranychids were lower with wide herbicide strips. This is because both risk factors were counterbalanced, and eventually negated, by the enhanced action of phytoseiid predators, mostly Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. From July through September 2006, ratios of phytoseiids to tetranychids were always several-fold lower with wide herbicide strips but in 2007, from mid-July onwards, predator-prey ratios were usually several-fold higher with wide strips. However, this numerical response of phytoseiids to prey density can only occur where the pesticide program in orchards is not too harsh on phytoseiids

  1. Blackmargined aphid (Monellia caryella (Fitch); Hemiptera: Aphididae) honeydew production in pecan (Carya illinoinesis (Koch)) and implications for managing the pecan aphid complex in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies of the blackmargined aphid, Monellia caryella (Fitch), were conducted on three cultivars, “Cheyenne,” “Kiowa,” and “Pawnee,” of pecan, Carya illinoinisis (Wang) K. Koch. Aphid and natural enemy (lacewings, ladybird beetles, and spiders) densities were determined twice weekly by direct...

  2. Identification and quantification of coumarins in Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) Koch by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Sylvia; Zehl, Martin; Picker, Paolo; Urban, Ernst; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2011-05-11

    The rhizomes of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) Koch (masterwort) are traditionally used in the alpine region as ingredient of liqueurs and bitters, and as a herbal drug. A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of its main coumarins, oxypeucedanin hydrate, oxypeucedanin, ostruthol, imperatorin, osthole, isoimperatorin, and ostruthin. Fast HPLC separation could be achieved on an Acclaim C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3 μm) using a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile-water modified with 0.01% acetic acid. The quantification by HPLC-DAD was performed with imperatorin as external standard and validated to demonstrate selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The content of the main coumarins was quantitated in various batches of commercial and field-collected rhizomes of Peucedanum ostruthium, as well as in beverages prepared thereof. PMID:21425828

  3. Amensalism via webs causes unidirectional shifts of dominance in spider mite communities.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Hongo, Kimiko; Funayama, Ken; Osumi, Senichi

    2006-12-01

    Competitive displacement is considered the most severe consequence of interspecific competition; if a superior competitor invades the habitat of an inferior species, the inferior species will be displaced. Most displacements previously reported among arthropods were caused by exotic species. The lack of investigation of displacement among native species may be due to their apparently harmonious coexistence, even if it is equivalent to an outcome of interspecific association. A seasonal change in the species composition of spider mites, from Panonychus ulmi to Tetranychus urticae, is observed in apple trees worldwide. Previous laboratory experiments have revealed amensal effects of T. urticae on P. ulmi via their webs. Using manipulation experiments in an orchard, we tested whether this seasonal change in species composition occurred as the result of interspecific competition between these spider mites. Invasion by T. urticae prevented an increase in P. ulmi densities throughout the experimental periods. Degree of overlap relative to the independent distribution on a leaf-surface basis (omega (S)) changed from positive to negative with increasing density of T. urticae. T. urticae invasion drove P. ulmi toward upper leaf surfaces (competitor-free space). The niche adjustment by P. ulmi occurred between leaf surfaces but not among leaves. Our findings show that asymmetrical competition between T. urticae and P. ulmi plays an important role in this unidirectional displacement and that the existence of refuges within a leaf produces the apparently harmonious coexistence of the mites and obscures their negative association. PMID:17024380

  4. First results of the German Barcode of Life (GBOL) - Myriapoda project: Cryptic lineages in German Stenotaenialinearis (Koch, 1835) (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Voigtländer, Karin; Decker, Peter; Oeyen, Jan Philip; Spelda, Jörg; Lindner, Norman

    2015-01-01

    As part of the German Barcode of Life (GBOL) Myriapoda program, which aims to sequence the COI barcoding fragment for 2000 specimens of Germany's 200 myriapod species in the near future, 44 sequences of the centipede order Geophilomorpha are analyzed. The analyses are limited to the genera Geophilus Leach, 1814 and Stenotaenia Koch, 1847 and include a total of six species. A special focus is Stenotaenia, of which 19 specimens from southern, western and eastern Germany could be successfully sequenced. The Stenotaenia data shows the presence of three to four vastly different (13.7-16.7% p-distance) lineages of the genus in Germany. At least two of the three lineages show a wide distribution across Germany, only the lineage including topotypes of Stenotaenialinearis shows a more restricted distribution in southern Germany. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis the Italian species Stenotaenia 'sorrentina' (Attems, 1903) groups with the different German Stenotaenialinearis clades. The strongly different Stenotaenialinearis lineages within Germany, independent of geography, are a strong hint for the presence of additional, cryptic Stenotaenia species in Germany. PMID:26257532

  5. The Herbal Drug Melampyrum pratense L. (Koch): Isolation and Identification of Its Bioactive Compounds Targeting Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, S.; Atanasov, A. G.; Binder, M.; Bulusu, M.; Zehl, M.; Fakhrudin, N.; Heiss, E. H.; Picker, P.; Wawrosch, C.; Saukel, J.; Reznicek, G.; Urban, E.; Bochkov, V.; Dirsch, V. M.; Kopp, B.

    2013-01-01

    Melampyrum pratense L. (Koch) is used in traditional Austrian medicine for the treatment of different inflammation-related conditions. In this work, we show that the extracts of M. pratense stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- (PPARs-)α and -γ that are well recognized for their anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and induction of its target genes interleukin-8 (IL-8) and E-selectin in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified several active flavonoids and iridoids including melampyroside and mussaenoside and the phenolic compound lunularin that were identified in this species for the first time. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were distinguished as the main components accountable for the anti-inflammatory properties. Apigenin and luteolin effectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB-mediated transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, the two compounds dose-dependently reduced IL-8 and E-selectin protein expression after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TNF-α in endothelial cells (ECs). The iridoids melampyroside and mussaenoside prevented the elevation of E-selectin in LPS-stimulated ECs. Lunularin was found to reduce the protein levels of the proinflammatory mediators E-selectin and IL-8 in ECs in response to LPS. These data validate the ethnomedical use of M. pratense for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and point to the constituents accountable for its anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23533479

  6. [The (German) Center for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD) at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Wolf, U; Barnes, B; Bertz, J; Haberland, J; Laudi, A; Stöcker, M; Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K; Kurth, B-M

    2011-11-01

    Cancer represents the second most common cause of death in Germany. The country's federal states operate regional population-based cancer registries that collect and analyze data on cancer patients. This provides an essential basis for describing the cancer burden in the German population. In order to obtain valid and reliable information on cancer incidence at the national level, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) set up the Federal Cancer Surveillance Unit in 1983 as a central institution for evaluating this cancer registry data. In August 2009, when the Federal Cancer Registry Data Act (BKRG) came into force, the Center for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD) at the RKI took over the work of the Cancer Surveillance Unit with a broader remit. In the future, it will also regularly publish findings on survival, prevalence, and tumor stage distribution. A newly established record linkage process will help identify multiple submissions from the federal states. Further innovations and new tasks of the ZfKD include expanding an interactive Internet platform and encouraging a more intensive use of cancer registry data for epidemiological research by providing datasets to external scientists. The range of information available to the interested public is also to be expanded. PMID:22015795

  7. Fulfilling Koch's postulates for beet curly top Iran virus and proposal for consideration of new genus in the family Geminiviridae.

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Keyvani, Nahid; Razavinejad, Sara; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-02-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a divergent geminivirus with biological properties similar to those of curtoviruses; however, the virus is distinct from curtoviruses phylogenetically and in its genome organisation. The replication-associated protein is phylogenetically more closely related to those of mastreviruses than to those of curtoviruses whereas the capsid protein shares high amino acid sequence identity (77-83 %) with those of curtoviruses. The 17 BCTIV genomes from Iran share ~77 % pairwise nucleotide sequence identity with spinach curly top Arizona virus (SCTAV) from Arizona, USA, which was characterised recently. To demonstrate the infectivity of the monopartite BCTIV genome and to fulfil Koch's postulates, an infectious clone was constructed using a dimer of the full-length genome of an isolate from this study - BCTIV-[IR:Neg:B33P:Sug:08]. Agroinoculation with the cloned DNA resulted in the efficient infection of 74 % of sugar beet plants, which resulted in curly top symptoms. The curly top infection of agroinoculated plants was successfully transmitted to 80 % of healthy sugar beet plants by the natural BCTIV vector, Circulifer haematoceps. Since BCTIV and SCTAV share <62 % pairwise nucleotide sequence identity with all other geminiviruses and have unique genome architectures and properties, and since this is coupled with phylogenetic support at the full-genome level and that of it proteins, we propose that they should be re-classified as members of a new genus, "Becurtovirus", in the family Geminiviridae. PMID:23081676

  8. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J.

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America. PMID:25699210

  9. Microstructural homogeneity of support silk spun by Eriophora fuliginea (C.L. Koch) determined by scanning X-ray microdiffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekel, C.; Craig, C. L.; Burghammer, M.; Müller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Scanning X-ray microdiffraction (SXD) permits the 'imaging' in-situ of crystalline phases, crystallinity and texture in whole biopolymer samples on the micrometre scale. SXD complements transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, which reach sub-nanometre lateral resolution but require thin sections and a vacuum environment. This is demonstrated using a support thread from a web spun by the orb-weaving spider Eriophora fuliginea (C.L. Koch). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows a central thread composed of two fibres to which thinner fibres are loosely attached. SXD of a piece of support thread approximately 60 µm long shows in addition the presence of nanometre-sized crystallites with the β-poly(L-alanine) structure in all fibres. The crystallinity of the thin fibres appears to be higher than that of the central thread, which probably reflects a higher polyalanine content of the fibroins. The molecular axis of the polymer chains in the central thread is orientated parallel to the macroscopic fibre axis, but in the thin fibres the molecular axis is tilted by about 71° to the macroscopic fibre axis. A helical model is tentatively proposed to describe this morphology. The central thread has a homogeneous distribution of crystallinity along the macroscopic fibre axis.

  10. Variability in Damage Caused by the Mite Tetranychus urticae (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) Koch on Three Varieties of Strawberry.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, S G; Santillán-Galicia, M T; González-Hernández, V; Suárez Espinosa, J; González-Hernández, H

    2015-06-01

    The strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae), is an important crop in Mexico. We evaluated the tolerance of three newly developed Mexican strawberry varieties (CP0615, CPLE-7, and CPJacona) to Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), the most important pest of strawberry. We evaluated the effect of three different initial mite densities on population growth, duration of each developmental stage and survival of T. urticae on the three strawberry varieties. We also compared the photosynthetic activity (Pn), sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs) and the area of leaf damaged in the three varieties. The largest final density of mites occurred on the variety CP0615, followed by the varieties CPLE-7 and CPJacona. There were no significant differences in the duration of T. urticae developmental stages amongst the varieties, except for larvae where the shortest duration was on variety CPLE-7. The proportion of eggs reaching the adult stage (survival) was significantly lower on the variety CPLE-7. The number and morphology of the trichomes did not play an important role in the outcomes, as they were similar in the three varieties. There were no significant differences in Pn, Ci, and gs values amongst the three varieties in the presence and absence of T. urticae. The area of leaf damaged in variety CPLE-7 was significantly smaller than for the other varieties. Based on these results, and with regard to spider mite tolerance, we believe that the variety CPLE-7 has the greatest potential for further development, and eventually, for use on a commercial scale in Mexico. PMID:26470266

  11. Growing hot pepper for cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) control.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Rogers, Jami A; Hu, Yoon-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    With the public perception that synthetic pesticides leave harmful residues in crop produce for human consumption, there has been increased interest in using natural products for pest control. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper for controlling the cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is explored in this investigation. Crude extracts from fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. annuum, were prepared and tested under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal and acaricidal performance. Mortality was greatest (94%) when fruit extract of accession PI-593566 (C. annuum) was sprayed on larvae of the cabbage looper, while crude extracts of accessions PI-241675 (C. frutescens) and PI-310488 (C. annuum) were repellent to the spider mite. We investigated differences in chemical composition of the crude fruit extracts that may explain the observed differences in mortality and repellency between accessions. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry spectrometric analysis revealed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that the two capsaicinoids are not likely related to the efficacy of pepper fruit extracts. Major compounds in hot pepper fruit extracts were detected and identified as pentadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. Spectrometric analysis and toxicity to cabbage looper larvae revealed that pentadecanoic acid methyl ester is likely related to cabbage looper mortality. However, the concentration of pentadecanoic acid methyl ester in some accessions was insufficient to explain the observed mortality of cabbage looper and repellency of spider mite. Fruit extracts of accessions PI-593566 (C. annuum) and PI-241675 (C. frutescens) could be useful for managing populations of cabbage loopers and spider mites, which could reduce reliance

  12. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) coexist in China: a red (carmine) form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473) and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE) and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance) effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects. PMID:22348504

  13. Amblyomma dissimile Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) attacking Primolius maracana Vieillot (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Amazon region, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A; Bahia, M; Martins, A L; Góes-Cavalcante, G; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B

    2011-01-01

    The tick Amblyomma dissimile Koch feeds preferentially on reptiles (Squamata), although amphibians (Anura) also seem to be important hosts. We report an A. dissimile nymph infesting a blue-winged macaw, Primolius maracana, held in captivity in the Mangal das Garças Park, State of Pará, Brazil. Environmental observations suggest that free-living iguanas (Iguana iguana), which used to walk on the bird enclosure in the park, were the source of the A. dissimile tick that infested the blue-winged macaw. We provide the second world record of a bird host for A. dissimile, and the first bird record for this species in South America. PMID:21952971

  14. No millipede endemics north of the Alps? DNA-Barcoding reveals Glomeris malmivaga Verhoeff, 1912 as a synonym of G. ornata Koch, 1847 (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the status of the only species of pill millipede (Glomerida) endemic to Germany, Glomeris malmivaga Verhoeff, 1912, a DNA barcoding study based on the COI mitochondrial gene was conducted. Sequences of G. malmivaga were compared to those of G. ornata Koch, 1847 from Slovenia, of which the former was previously described as a variety of the latter before being elevated to subspecies- and, recently, species-rank. Included in the analysis were specimens of G. helvetica Verhoeff, 1894, also originally described as a variety of G. ornata, which was supposed to be closely related to G. malmivaga based on its morphology, as well as geographical proximity of occurrence. Additionally, G. valesiaca Rothenbühler, 1899, which occurs in sympatry and looks quite similar to G. helvetica was also sequenced for the first time and included in the study. Sequences of four widespread Glomeris species, all occurring in close proximity to G. malmivaga, G. marginata Villers, 1789, G. connexa Koch, 1847, G. klugii Brandt, 1833 and G. intermedia Latzel, 1884 were downloaded from Genbank and incorporated in the analysis. While G. helvetica and G. valesiaca were found to be clearly separate from G. ornata (11.8-14.6% p-distance), G. malmivaga is almost identical to the latter (0.5% p-distance), despite the large geographical distance between both species. Because of their great morphological and genetical similarity, G. malmivaga n. syn. is synonymised under G. ornata. PMID:26623596

  15. Sweepoviruses Cause Disease in Sweet Potato and Related Ipomoea spp.: Fulfilling Koch's Postulates for a Divergent Group in the Genus Begomovirus

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and related Ipomoea species are frequently infected by monopartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae), known as sweepoviruses. Unlike other geminiviruses, the genomes of sweepoviruses have been recalcitrant to rendering infectious clones to date. Thus, Koch's postulates have not been fullfilled for any of the viruses in this group. Three novel species of sweepoviruses have recently been described in Spain: Sweet potato leaf curl Lanzarote virus (SPLCLaV), Sweet potato leaf curl Spain virus (SPLCSV) and Sweet potato leaf curl Canary virus (SPLCCaV). Here we describe the generation of the first infectious clone of an isolate (ES:MAL:BG30:06) of SPLCLaV. The clone consisted of a complete tandem dimeric viral genome in a binary vector. Successful infection by agroinoculation of several species of Ipomoea (including sweet potato) and Nicotiana benthamiana was confirmed by PCR, dot blot and Southern blot hybridization. Symptoms observed in infected plants consisted of leaf curl, yellowing, growth reduction and vein yellowing. Two varieties of sweet potato, ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Promesa’, were infected by agroinoculation, and symptoms of leaf curl and interveinal loss of purple colouration were observed, respectively. The virus present in agroinfected plants was readily transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to I. setosa plants. The progeny virus population present in agroinfected I. setosa and sweet potato plants was isolated and identity to the original isolate was confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled for the first time for a sweepovirus. PMID:22073314

  16. Removal of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water: Koch Membrane Systems, Inc. Targa® 10-48-35-PMC™ Ultrafiltration Membrane, as Used in the Village Marine Tec. Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Koch Membrane Systems Targa 10-48-35-PMC UF membrane module is used for the first treatment step in the US Navy Office of Naval Research’s Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP). Two used UF cartridges from the EUWP were tested for removal of endospores of the bacteria Bac...

  17. Taxonomy of European Damaeidae VIII. Contribution to classification of genus Damaeus C. L. Koch, 1835, with a review of Adamaeus Norton, 1978 and Paradamaeus Bulanova-Zachvatkina, 1957 and redescription of three species.

    PubMed

    Miko, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Adamaeus Norton, 1978 and Paradamaeus Bulanova-Zachvatkina, 1957, two subgenera of genus Damaeus C. L. Koch, 1835, are reviewed on the basis of the redescription of their type species. Subgenus Eudamaeus Pérez-Iñigo, 1987 and genus Tectodamaeus Aoki, 1984 are reviewed and their relation to Damaeus is discussed. Damaeus firmus Kunst, 1957 is redescribed and placed into the nominate subgenus. Damaeus helveticus (Schweizer, 1956) n.comb. is redescribed and placed into the nominate subgenus, its synonymy with Damaeus (Adamaeus) onustus C.L.Koch, 1844 is rejected. Damaeus alpinus (Schweizer, 1956) n.comb. is redescribed and placed into the nominate subgenus. Lectotypes and paralectotypes of Damaeus firmus Kunst, 1957; Damaeus helveticus (Schweizer, 1956) and Damaeus alpinus (Schweizer, 1956) are indicated. Based on published reviews and redescriptions, new diagnoses for Tectodamaeus Aoki, 1984, Damaeus C. L. Koch, 1835 and its subgenera are proposed, and a list of all known European species of Damaeus C. L. Koch, 1835 is provided. Tectodamaeus longus Xie & Yang, 2009 is newly combined to Damaeus as D. longus (Xie & Yang, 2009) n.comb. PMID:26249946

  18. Application of gamma irradiation on eggs, active and quiescence stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osouli, Sh.; Ziaie, F.; Haddad Irani Nejad, K.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) is amongst the most serious pests of cut flowers and ornamentals. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on different biological stages (including quiescent stages) of this pest have been studied. Irradiation at the doses of 250, 250, 200, 250, 200, 350 and 300 Gy causes sterility of females who were able to reach to adult stage from eggs, larva, protochrysalis, protonymph, deutochrysalis, deutonymph and teliochrysalis stages, respectively. The irradiation caused a decrease in percentage of mites entering the adult stage, developed the adult mite‘s longevity, number of laid eggs per adult female emerged from irradiated immature stages, and finally a retardation of embryonic and post-embryonic development. The sex ratio of the adult mites resulted from irradiated immature stages was biased towards females through increase of dose. The adult mites developed from irradiated two-day old eggs, three-day old eggs, larva, protochrysalis and deutochrysalis at 100, 350, 300, 350 and 350 Gy, respectively, were 100% females. In general the females resulted from irradiated quiescent stages have shown a high sensitivity to characteristics like eggs hatchability percentage and the emerged adult's sex ratio. On the other hand with regard to percentage of immature mites developed to adult stages, longevity of adult males and females, number of eggs laid by females and the time needed to complete their development, teliochrysalis has been the most tolerant stage. Also a 300 Gy dose could cause sterility in females irradiated at deutonymph stage and mated with adult males irradiated before mating and prevent their eggs to be hatched. In conclusion the most tolerance stages of this mite for most of characteristics was generally the most developed ones and a dose of around 300 Gy could be a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for Tetranychus urticae Koch.

  19. First results of the German Barcode of Life (GBOL) – Myriapoda project: Cryptic lineages in German Stenotaenia linearis (Koch, 1835) (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Voigtländer, Karin; Decker, Peter; Oeyen, Jan Philip; Spelda, Jörg; Lindner, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As part of the German Barcode of Life (GBOL) Myriapoda program, which aims to sequence the COI barcoding fragment for 2000 specimens of Germany’s 200 myriapod species in the near future, 44 sequences of the centipede order Geophilomorpha are analyzed. The analyses are limited to the genera Geophilus Leach, 1814 and Stenotaenia Koch, 1847 and include a total of six species. A special focus is Stenotaenia, of which 19 specimens from southern, western and eastern Germany could be successfully sequenced. The Stenotaenia data shows the presence of three to four vastly different (13.7–16.7% p-distance) lineages of the genus in Germany. At least two of the three lineages show a wide distribution across Germany, only the lineage including topotypes of Stenotaenia linearis shows a more restricted distribution in southern Germany. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis the Italian species Stenotaenia ‘sorrentina’ (Attems, 1903) groups with the different German Stenotaenia linearis clades. The strongly different Stenotaenia linearis lineages within Germany, independent of geography, are a strong hint for the presence of additional, cryptic Stenotaenia species in Germany. PMID:26257532

  20. [Compared biology and behavior of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Bollgard and non-transgenic isoline cotton].

    PubMed

    Esteves Filho, Alberto B; de Oliveira, José V; Torres, Jorge B; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2010-01-01

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a nontarget herbivore of Bt-cotton, but acquires and accumulates higher levels of Cry toxin than that expressed by transgenic plants. This work investigated the development and reproduction of T. urticae and of the predator Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks, during three successive generations looking for potential nontarget effect. In addition, behavioral studies on feeding preference, oviposition, and predation were carried out on Bt and non-Bt cottons. The development and reproduction of T. urticae and P. macropilis was conducted using leaf discs of Bt and non-Bt cottons. Arena containing leaf discs from both cotton types connected by a slide coverslip were also used in the behavioral studies. Averages of the three generations showed that the Bt-cotton does not affect the development, survival of immature stages, and reproductive output of T. urticae and of the predator P. macropilis. Furthermore, the preference for feeding and oviposition of T. urticae and P. macropilis were similar on both cotton types. In addition, P. macropilis exhibited similar predatory behavior on T. urticae fed on both cotton types. Levels of Cry1Ac toxin in T. urticae was 3.97 times greater than that found in the Bt-cotton plants as determined using a ELISA test. Despite of the amount of toxin acquired by the prey (T. urticae), no detectable levels of Cry1Ac were found in the predatory mite P. macropilis. PMID:20676505

  1. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., Typhochlaena costae sp. n., Typhochlaena curumim sp. n., Typhochlaena paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., Iridopelma marcoi sp. n., Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. and Iridopelma vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided. PMID:23166476

  2. Infestation and seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Maghreb mouse-eared bat, Myotis punicus Felten, 1977, in northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair S; BaniHani, Rihan

    2016-06-01

    Infestation of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 on Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 from two sites (Trios Tunnel and Sidi Trad cave) in northeastern Algeria was studied. An overall infestation of 41.4% for all stages was found among bats collected from both sites. By stage, a total of eight females, 70 nymphs, and 107 larvae were recovered from both populations. The number of females recovered per bat at Sidi Trad ranged from 0-1, for nymphs 0-2, and for larvae 0-2. While no female ticks were collected at Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs ranged from 0-2 and for larvae 0-2. At Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs was significantly higher during April and June but not for July and September. On the other hand, the number of larvae increased from July to November, while at Sidi Trad cave, female ticks were recovered during April and May and then disappeared until the end of the study period. Significant differences were noted during all the months when compared with all stages. Nymphs infested bats significantly during April and May, declined in June and July, and then became steady until October. Larvae peaked in July, with low frequency in April, and then fluctuated from August to November. PMID:27232132

  3. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae).

    PubMed

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided. PMID:23166476

  4. Compositions of essential oils and trichomes of Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ayla; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü C

    2009-01-01

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. is a member of the Lamiaceae family and is represented in the Flora of Turkey by six subspecies. The aerial organs of T. chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil. bears numerous eglandular and glandular trichomes. Eglandular trichomes are simple, long-multicellular with cuticular micropapillae, and glandular hairs are of peltate and capitate types. The peltate hairs consist of a basal cell, a short unicellular stalk, and multicellular secretory head, and the capitate ones possess 1-2 stalk cells and one glandular head cell. The aerial parts were subjected to microdistillation for the isolation of volatiles. The analysis was simultaneously performed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were characterized as beta-caryophyllene (18%), nonacosane (12%), germacrene D (11%), caryophyllene oxide (7%), and alpha-pinene (7%) for subsp. trapezunticum, and caryophyllene oxide (23%), alpha-pinene (11%), and caryophyllenol II (5%) for subsp. syspirense. PMID:19180459

  5. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage, and value of fir Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G

    2003-12-01

    The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots. PMID:14977113

  6. Dermal glands in freshwater mites Limnesia undulata (O.F. Müller, 1776) and Limnesia fulgida (C.L. Koch, 1836) (Acariformes, Limnesiidae).

    PubMed

    Shatrov, Andrew B; Soldatenko, Elena V

    2016-07-01

    Dermal glands in the water mites Limnesia undulata (O.F. Müller, 1776) and Limnesia fulgida (C.L. Koch, 1836) and their secretion were studied by means of light microscopical, transmission electron microscopical (TEM) and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) methods. These mites possess two types of dermal glands - the 'common' dermal glands in a number of 14 pairs and one pair of the so-called 'idiosomal' dermal glands. The common dermal glands are bi-lobed organs and consist of high prismatic secretory cells directed to the gland mouth and mostly replacing the intra-alveolar lumen. The cells contain numerous cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and specifically organized Golgi bodies (GB) producing electron-dense elongated secretory granules. These granules are released from the cells via apocrine secretion and come to the gland mouth, where they are sometimes accompanied by secretory cell cytoplasm. The final secretion may show a fibrous character. The idiosomal glands are sac-like organs stretched along the ventral body wall in posterior direction from the gland orifice corresponding to the epimeroglandularia 4. The secretory epithelium leaves a large intra-alveolar lumen filled with an electron-dense secretory material. Golgi bodies are organized identically with those in the common glands, which indicates the general homology of these two types of dermal glands. The glands' orifices are organized similarly in all glands and possess an internal funnel-shaped sclerite with muscle armament, an internal valve, medial epicuticular flaps and an external circular cuticular ring. All glandularia, except for E4 and V1, are accompanied with a long and thin sensitive seta. During fixation, secretion of the common dermal glands is extruded to the exterior in the form of large amounts of convoluted tube-like structures. In the living organisms, being secreted in mass from the glands, this secretion acquires the form of long rigid mostly hollow un

  7. Effects of potential food sources on biological and demographic parameters of the predatory mites Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, Mauro; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

    2012-11-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni are generalist predatory mites important in controlling tetranychid and eriophyoid mites in European vineyards. They can persist by exploiting various non-prey foods when their main prey is absent or scarce. A comparative analysis of the effects of various prey and non-prey foods on the life history of these predators is lacking. In the laboratory, predatory mites were reared on herbivorous mites (Panonychus ulmi, Eotetranychus carpini and Colomerus vitis), a potential alternative prey (Tydeus caudatus) and two non-prey foods, i.e. the pollen of Typha latifolia and the mycelium of Grape downy mildew (GDM) Plasmopara viticola. Developmental times, survival, sex ratio and fecundity as well as life table parameters were estimated. Kampimodromus aberrans developed faster on E. carpini, C. vitis or pollen than on P. ulmi and laid more eggs on pollen than on prey. Low numbers of this predator developed on GDM infected leaves. Tydeus caudatus was not suitable as prey for any of the three predatory mites. Kampimodromus aberrans showed the highest intrinsic rate of population increase when fed on pollen. Developmental times of T. pyri on prey or pollen were similar but fecundity was higher on pollen than on P. ulmi. Typhlodromus pyri had higher intrinsic rates of population increase on C. vitis and pollen than on P. ulmi; E. carpini showed intermediate values whereas GDM resulted in the lowest r ( m ) values. Development of A. andersoni females was faster on pollen and C. vitis than on P. ulmi and GDM. Fecundity was higher on pollen and mites compared to GDM. Life table parameters of A. andersoni did not differ when predators were fed with prey or pollen while GDM led to a lower r ( m ) value. On a specific diet A. andersoni exhibited faster development and higher fecundity than T. pyri and K. aberrans. These findings improve knowledge on factors affecting the potential of predatory mites in controlling

  8. [Taxonomic status of the Artashat virus (ARTSV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros alactagalis Issaakjan, 1936 and O. verrucosus Olenev, Sassuchin et Fenuk, 1934 (Argasidae Koch, 1844) collected in Transcaucasia].

    PubMed

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Samokhvalov, E I; Zakarian, V A

    2014-01-01

    The Artashat virus (ARTSV) was originally isolated fom the Ornithodoros alactagalis Issaakjan, 1936 (Argasidae Koch, 1844), which were collected in the burrow of small five-toed jerboa (Allactaga elater Lichtenstein, 1825) in Armenia in 1972. Later, the ARTSV was isolated from the O. verrucosus Olenev, Sassuchin et Fenuk, 1934 collected in the burrows of Persian gerbil (Meriones persicus Blanford, 1875) in Azerbaijan. Based on the virion morphology, the ARTSV was assigned to the Bunyaviridae viruses. In this work, the ARTSV genome was partially sequenced (GenBank ID: KF801650) and it was shown that the ARTSV is a new member of the Nairovirus genus. ARTSV has from 42% (Issyk-Kul virus) to 58% (Raza virus, Hughes group) similarity with the nairoviruses for nucleotide sequence of part of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). The similarity on the amino acid level is 65-70%. Low level of homology and the equidistant position of the ARTSV on phylogenetic tree indicate that the ARTSV is a new prototype species of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae) forming a separate phylogenetic branch. PMID:25335415

  9. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S.; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L.; de Almeida, Aline; dos Santos, Carla Eliete I.; Dias, Johnny F.; Allgayer, Mariangela C.; dos Santos, Marcela S.; Pereira, Patrícia; Picada, Jaqueline N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200–2,000 mg kg−1). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg−1. However, PSAE (50–200 mg·kg−1) and the phenolic compounds (10–100 mg·kg−1) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10–100 mg·kg−1) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients. PMID:27525021

  10. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients. PMID:27525021

  11. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Tirry, Luc; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Nauen, Ralf; Dermauw, Wannes

    2015-06-01

    Acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. An analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. Other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly Brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. Acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits (74% of the market), including grape vines and citrus. However, their use is increasing in major crops where spider mites are becoming more important, such as soybean, cotton and corn. As revealed by a detailed case study of the Japanese market, major shifts in acaricide use are partially driven by resistance development and the commercial availability of compounds with novel mode of action. The importance of the latter cannot be underestimated, although some compounds are successfully used for more than 30 years. A review of recent developments in mode of action research is presented, as such knowledge is important for devising resistance management programs. This includes spirocyclic keto-enols as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the carbazate bifenazate as a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a novel class of complex II inhibitors, and the mite growth inhibitors hexythiazox, clofentezine and etoxazole that interact with chitin synthase I. PMID:26047107

  12. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified... in § 133.3. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial... of parts 101 and 130, except that enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared...

  13. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified... in § 133.3. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial... of parts 101 and 130, except that enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared...

  14. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified... in § 133.3. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial... of parts 101 and 130, except that enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared...

  15. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified... in § 133.3. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial... of parts 101 and 130, except that enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared...

  16. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified... in § 133.3. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial... of parts 101 and 130, except that enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared...

  17. Memoriam for David G. Koch, 1945-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Dave worked on scientific space instrumentation since the Apollo era in the mid-1960s. He was born and raised in Milwaukee, WI, and attended Milwaukee Lutheran High School where he built a Michelson interferometer that proved to be a stepping-stone for his interest in physics. Dave graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he earned a Bachelor of Science in applied mathematics and engineering physics in 1967. As an undergraduate, he worked on balloon-launched sounding rockets and scientific instruments in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. At Cornell University, Dave earned a master's degree in 1971, and a doctorate in 1972, both in physics. He built a balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope that detected the first pulsed high-energy gamma rays from the Crab pulsar. In 1972, Dave began his career at American Science and Engineering where he was the project scientist for the Uhuru X-ray satellite. Later, he served as the project scientist for the development of the Einstein Observatory. Dave joined the Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in 1977 as the project scientist for the Spacelab-2 infrared telescope. There, he served as a co-investigator on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility - IRAC camera proposal, and co-investigator on the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, which launched in December 1998. Dave came to NASA Ames Research Center to lead the mission operations for SIRTF and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) in 1988. He created the Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment project. In 1992, Dave began working on what has become the Kepler mission, for which he served as deputy principal investigator until retiring in August 2011. Dave's contributions were many but most notably, he led the development of the Kepler Technology Demonstration used to prove that the transit photometry method would work under on-orbit conditions. Dave loved to build things and was passionate about engaging young hearts and minds with the excitement of science and space exploration. He was particularly fond of educating and empowering teachers with the right tools to connect with the formal and informal classroom.

  18. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24114337

  19. Analysis of Transcriptome Differences between Resistant and Susceptible Strains of the Citrus Red Mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Jiang, Gaofei; Zhang, Yunfei; Li, Junli; Li, Xiaojiao; Yue, Jiansu; Chen, Fei; Liu, Haoqiang; Li, Hongjun; Zhu, Shiping; Wang, Jinjun; Ran, Chun

    2011-01-01

    Background The citrus red mite is a worldwide citrus pest and a common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis. It has developed strong resistance to many registered acaricides, However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. we therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptomes between resistant strains and susceptible strains. Results We obtained 34,159, 30,466 and 32,217 unigenes by assembling the SS reads, RS reads and SS&RS reads respectively. There are total 17,581 annotated unigenes from SS&RS reads by BLAST searching databases of nr, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) with an E-value ≤ 1e-5, in which 7,075 unigenes were annotated in the COG database, 12, 712 unigenes were found in the KEGG database and 3,812 unigenes were assigned to Gene ontology (GO). Moreover, 2,701 unigenes were judged to be the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on the uniquely mapped reads. There are 219 pathways in all annotated unigenes and 198 pathways in DEGs that mapped to the KEGG database. We identified 211 metabolism genes and target genes related to general insecticide resistance such as P450 and Cytochrome b, and further compared their differences between RS and SS. Meanwhile, we identified 105 and 194 genes related to growth and reproduction, respectively, based on the mode of action of Hexythiazox. After further analyses, we found variation in sequences but not in gene expression related to mite growth and reproduction between different strains. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome study to discover candidate genes involved in phytophagous mite resistance. This study identified differential unigenes related to general pesticide resistance and organism growth and reproduction in P. citri. The assembled, annotated transcriptomes provide a valuable genomic resource for further understanding the molecular basis of resistance mechanisms. PMID:22162774

  20. The Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Six Species of Tetranychus Provide Insights into the Phylogeny and Evolution of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Da-Song; Jin, Peng-Yu; Zhang, Kai-Jun; Ding, Xiu-Lei; Yang, Si-Xia; Ju, Jia-Fei; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2014-01-01

    Many spider mites belonging to the genus Tetranychus are of agronomical importance. With limited morphological characters, Tetranychus mites are usually identified by a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular diagnostics. To clarify their molecular evolution and phylogeny, the mitochondrial genomes of the green and red forms of Tetranychus urticae as well as T. kanzawai, T. ludeni, T. malaysiensis, T. phaselus, T. pueraricola were sequenced and compared. The seven mitochondrial genomes are typical circular molecules of about 13,000 bp encoding and they are composed of the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. The order of the mitochondrial (mt) genes is the same as that in the mt genomes of Panonychus citri and P. ulmi, but very different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the mitochondrial genomes have high (∼84%) A+T contents, negative GC-skews and positive AT-skews. The nucleotide sequence of the cox1 gene, which is commonly used as a taxon barcode and molecular marker, is more highly conserved than the nucleotide sequences of other mitochondrial genes in these seven species. Most tRNA genes in the seven genomes lose the D-arm and/or the T-arm. The functions of these tRNAs need to be evaluated. The mitochondrial genome of T. malaysiensis differs from the other six genomes in having a slightly smaller genome size, a slight difference in codon usage, and a variable loop in place of the T-arm of some tRNAs by a variable loop. A phylogenic analysis shows that T. malaysiensis first split from other Tetranychus species and that the clade of the family Tetranychoidea occupies a basal position in the Trombidiformes. The mt genomes of the green and red forms of T. urticae have limited divergence and short evolutionary distance. PMID:25329165

  1. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Rajamurugan, R; Selvaganabathy, N; Kumaravel, S; Ramamurthy, Ch; Sujatha, V; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2012-01-01

    Profound research has been done on the medicinal value of Brassica nigra (BN) seeds, and the leaves of the plant have been investigated in this study. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to several in vitro studies. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract was demonstrated with a wide range of concentration, 10-500 µg mL(-1), and the antioxidant activity increased with the increase in concentration. Total phenol content was found to be 171.73 ± 5.043 gallic acid equivalents and the total flavonoid content 7.45 ± 0.0945 quercetin equivalents. Further quantification and identification of the compounds were done by HPTLC and GC-MS analyses. The predominant phenolic compounds determined by HPTLC were gallic acid, followed by quercetin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. The free radical quenching property of BN leaf extract suggests the presence of bioactive natural compounds. PMID:22103437

  2. Phenotypic- and Genotypic-Resistance Detection for Adaptive Resistance Management in Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Kang, Taek-Jun; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2015-01-01

    Rapid resistance detection is necessary for the adaptive management of acaricide-resistant populations of Tetranychus urticae. Detection of phenotypic and genotypic resistance was conducted by employing residual contact vial bioassay (RCV) and quantitative sequencing (QS) methods, respectively. RCV was useful for detecting the acaricide resistance levels of T. urticae, particularly for on-site resistance detection; however, it was only applicable for rapid-acting acaricides (12 out of 19 tested acaricides). QS was effective for determining the frequencies of resistance alleles on a population basis, which corresponded to 12 nonsynonymous point mutations associated with target-site resistance to five types of acaricides [organophosphates (monocrotophos, pirimiphos-methyl, dimethoate and chlorpyrifos), pyrethroids (fenpropathrin and bifenthrin), abamectin, bifenazate and etoxazole]. Most field-collected mites exhibited high levels of multiple resistance, as determined by RCV and QS data, suggesting the seriousness of their current acaricide resistance status in rose cultivation areas in Korea. The correlation analyses revealed moderate to high levels of positive relationships between the resistance allele frequencies and the actual resistance levels in only five of the acaricides evaluated, which limits the general application of allele frequency as a direct indicator for estimating actual resistance levels. Nevertheless, the resistance allele frequency data alone allowed for the evaluation of the genetic resistance potential and background of test mite populations. The combined use of RCV and QS provides basic information on resistance levels, which is essential for choosing appropriate acaricides for the management of resistant T. urticae. PMID:26545209

  3. Biochemical characterization of soluble proteins in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2008-09-10

    Pecans (cv. Desirable) contained approximately 10% protein on a dry weight basis. The minimum nitrogen solubility (5.9-7.5%) at 0.25-0.75 M trichloroacetic acid represented the nonprotein nitrogen. Among the solvents assessed for protein solubilization, 0.1 M NaOH was the most effective, while borate saline buffer (pH 8.45) was judged to be optimal for protein solubilization. The protein solubility was minimal in the pH range of 3-7 and significantly increased on either side of this pH range. Increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4 M significantly improved ( approximately 8-fold increase) protein solubilization. Following Osborne protein fractionation, the alkali-soluble glutelin fraction (60.1%) accounted for a major portion of pecan proteins followed by globulin (31.5%), prolamin (3.4%), and albumin (1.5%), respectively. The majority of pecan polypeptides were in the molecular mass range of 12-66 kDa and in the pI range of 4.0-8.3. The pecan globulin fraction was characterized by the presence of several glycoprotein polypeptides. Lysine was the first limiting essential amino acid in the defatted flour, globulin, prolamin, and alkaline glutelin fractions. Leucine and tryptophan were the first limiting essential amino acids in albumin and acid glutelin fractions, respectively. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies detected a range of pecan polypeptides in the 12-60 kDa range, of which the globulin fraction contained the most reactive polypeptides. PMID:18693738

  4. Biochemical composition and immunological comparison of select pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Seeram, Navindra P; Heber, David; Thompson, Tommy E; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2007-11-28

    On an edible portion basis, pecan moisture, protein, lipid, total soluble sugars, and ash contents ranged from 2.1% to 6.4%, 6.0% to 11.3%, 65.9% to 78.0%, 3.3% to 5.3%, and 1.2% to 1.8%, respectively. With the exception of a high tannin (2.7%) Texas seedling, pecan tannin content was in a narrow range (0.6-1.85%). Unsaturated fatty acids (>90%) dominated pecan lipid composition with oleic (52.52-74.09%) and linoleic (17.69-37.52%) acids as the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Location significantly influenced pecan biochemical composition. Pecan lipid content was negatively correlated with protein (r = -0.663) and total sugar (r = -0.625). Among the samples tested using SDS-PAGE a common pattern, with minor differences, in subunit polypeptide profiles was revealed. Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based immunoblotting experiments (Western blot) also illustrated the similarity in polypeptide profiles with respect to immunoreactivity. All tested cultivars registered similar immunoreactivity when their protein extracts (each at 1 mg/mL) were assessed using inhibition ELISAs (mean +/- standard deviation = 0.89 +/- 0.20; n = 27) with the USDA "Desirable" cultivar as the reference standard (immunoreactivity designated as 1.0). PMID:17973444

  5. Ultrastructural characterization of the hemocytes of Lasiodora sp. (Koch, 1850) (Araneae: Theraphosidae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Tatiana; Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela Dos Santos; Ferreira, Felipe Roberto Borba; Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro de Mendonça; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-05-01

    This paper is the first descriptive review of hemolymph cell types in the circulation of the tarantula spider Lasiodora sp. These animals are more long-lived than other arthropods, and may live for approximately twenty years. Such remarkable longevity may result from a highly successful immune system, which in turn is directly correlated with hemocyte function. Since the literature on the genus Lasiodora sp. is limited, the main goal of the present study was to identify the different cell types by optical and transmission microscope. Six hemocyte types were characterized and called prohemocyte, granulocyte type I, granulocyte type II, spherulocyte, oenocytoid and plasmatocyte. Prohemocytes presented a large nucleus, elongated granulocytes type I showed the nucleus with the same cell format, elliptical granulocytes type II showed the central nucleus of identical shape, spherulocytes exhibited the nucleus filling almost the whole cell, oval oenocytoids showed eccentric nucleus and less dense cytoplasm, and irregular plasmatocytes showed a nucleus and no granules in cytoplasm. These polymorphic granulocytes presented a round, elongated, elliptical, oval or irregular profile with large and varied numbers of granules, except for plasmatocytes, that were agranular. Different densities and different concentrations of these granules were found at the periphery of the cell. The possible reasons and implications of differences and similarities between arthropods hemocytes are discussed. It can be concluded that there are six cell types in Lasiodora sp. This study is of the first step in the elucidation of the role these cells play in the circulatory and immune system in spiders. PMID:23478026

  6. Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): First record confirmation in Colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America. PMID:27062448

  7. Identification and Characterization of a New Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Allergen, Car i 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Lee, BoRam; Du, Wen-Xian; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Grauke, Larry J; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; McHugh, Tara H

    2016-05-25

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods from the "big eight" food allergen groups. Here, for the first time, pecan vicilin was found to be a food allergen. Western blot experiments revealed that 30% of 27 sera used in this study and 24% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo controlled clinical pecan allergy contained IgE antibodies specific to pecan vicilin. This allergen consists of a low-complexity region at its N-terminal and a structured domain at the C-terminal that contains two cupin motifs and forms homotrimers. The crystal structure of recombinant pecan vicilin was determined. The refined structure gave R/Rfree values of 0.218/0.262 for all data to 2.65 Å. There were two trimeric biological units in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Pecan vicilin is also a copper protein. These data may facilitate the understanding of the nutritional value and the allergenicity relevance of the copper binding property of seed storage proteins in tree nuts. PMID:27128197

  8. Hedera nepalensis K. Koch: A Novel Source of Natural Cancer Chemopreventive and Anticancerous Compounds.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Kondrytuk, Tamara P; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Ullah, Nazif; Pezzuto, John M; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-03-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are often used for both the prevention and the treatment of local diseases. Taking into consideration the medicinal importance of Hedera nepalensis within local Pakistani traditions, the present study was undertaken to analyze the in vitro cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of the plant. The in vitro cancer chemopreventive testing was performed using nitrite assay, NFκB assay, aromatase assay, and quinone reductase 1 (QR1) assay. The cytotoxic potential was evaluated on three cancer-cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results of cancer chemopreventive assays show that n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of tested plant have promising cancer chemopreventive potential. Lupeol isolated from n-hexane as well as ethyl acetate fraction showed lowest IC50 (0.20 ± 1.9 μM) in NFκB assay. Crude extract and its fractions inhibited the growth of three cancer cell lines by more than 60%, IC50 value of lupeol varied from 2.32 to 10.2 μM. HPLC-DAD-based quantification of lupeol in different plant tissues demonstrated that leaves of H. nepalensis are a rich source of lupeol (0.196 mg/100 mg dry weight). Our data have shown that H. nepalensis harbors cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic agents. PMID:26692176

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, KOCH FILTER CORPORATION, DUO-PAK 650

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  10. The Tree-Drawing Test (Koch's Baum Test): A Useful Aid to Diagnose Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; Matacena, Corrado; Sambati, Luisa; Oppi, Federico; Poda, Roberto; De Matteis, Maddalena; Gallassi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the Tree-Drawing Test in a group of demented patients and compare it with a group of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) and controls. Methods. Consecutive outpatients were classified as affected by dementia (Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VD)) or by MCI. Patients and controls underwent the Tree-Drawing Test and MMSE. Results. 118 AD, 19 FTD, 46 VD, and 132 MCI patients and 90 controls were enrolled. AD patients draw trees globally smaller than other patients and controls. FTD patients draw trees with a wider space occupation than AD and MCI patients but smaller than controls as well as VD patients. Trees drawn by MCI patients are intermediate in size between AD patients and controls. The trunk-to-crown ratio of trees drawn by cognitive impaired patients is greater than controls while the tree size-relative-to-page space index is significantly smaller. The tree size-relative-to-page space index of trees drawn by AD patients is smaller than that of the other cognitively impaired patients. Tree height and the trunk-to-crown ratio are independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Trees drawn by cognitively impaired patients are different from those drawn by healthy subjects with a progressive differentiation from mild to more relevant degrees of cognitive impairment. PMID:26175548

  11. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br.

    PubMed

    Chua, Melinda; Baldwin, Timothy C; Hocking, Trevor J; Chan, Kelvin

    2010-03-24

    Amorphophallus konjac (konjac) has long been used in China, Japan and South East Asia as a food source and as a traditional medicine. Flour extracted from the corm of this species is used in Far Eastern cuisine to make noodles, tofu and snacks. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a gel prepared from the flour has been used for detoxification, tumour-suppression, blood stasis alleviation and phlegm liquefaction; and for more than 2000 years has been consumed by the indigenous people of China for the treatment of asthma, cough, hernia, breast pain, burns as well as haematological and skin disorders. Over the past two decades, purified konjac flour, commonly known as konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been introduced on a relatively small scale into the United States and Europe, both as a food additive and a dietary supplement. The latter is available in capsule form or as a drink mix and in food products. Clinical studies have demonstrated that supplementing the diet with KGM significantly lowers plasma cholesterol, improves carbohydrate metabolism, bowel movement and colonic ecology. Standards for the classification of both konjac flour and KGM have been established by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, the European Commission and the U.S. Food Chemicals Codex. However, to date, there is no worldwide agreed regulatory standard for konjac flour or KGM. This highlights the need for harmonization of konjac commercial standards to assess and ensure the quality of existing and future KGM products. Despite the widespread consumption of konjac derived products in East and South East Asia, there has been limited research on the biology, processing and cultivation of this species in the West. Most studies performed outside Asia have focussed on the structural characterisation and physicochemical properties of KGM. Therefore, the objective of this monograph is to review the literature covering the ethnic uses, botany and cultivation of konjac corms, together with the health benefits of KGM with the associated requirements for quality control. Possible directions for future research and development and standardisation of production and classification of this versatile natural product will be discussed. PMID:20079822

  12. Confirmation of SSR markers within a structured collection of pecan [Carya illinoinesis (Wangenh.) K. Koch], cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers have proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing genetic diversity, investigating population structure, verifying cultivar identity and parentage, and aiding selection in breeding programs. The USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Pecans and Hic...

  13. The Formation of Collective Silk Balls in the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  14. Hypovirus molecular biology: from Koch's postulates to host self-recognition genes that restrict virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Angus L; Nuss, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    The idea that viruses can be used to control fungal diseases has been a driving force in mycovirus research since the earliest days. Viruses in the family Hypoviridae associated with reduced virulence (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have held a prominent place in this research. This has been due in part to the severity of the chestnut blight epidemics in North America and Europe and early reports of hypovirulence-mediated mitigation of disease in European forests and successful application for control of chestnut blight in chestnut orchards. A more recent contributing factor has been the development of a hypovirus/C. parasitica experimental system that has overcome many of the challenges associated with mycovirus research, stemming primarily from the exclusive intracellular lifestyle shared by all mycoviruses. This chapter will focus on hypovirus molecular biology with an emphasis on the development of the hypovirus/C. parasitica experimental system and its contributions to fundamental and practical advances in mycovirology and the broader understanding of virus-host interactions and fungal pathogenesis. PMID:23498905

  15. Biochemical composition and immunological comparison of select pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On an edible portion basis, pecan moisture, protein, lipid, total soluble sugars and ash contents ranged from 2.1 to 6.4%, 6.0 to 11.3%, 65.9 to 78.0%, 3.3 to 5.3% and 1.2 to 1.8%; respectively. With the exception of a high tannin (2.7%) native Texas cultivar, pecan tannin content was in a narrow ra...

  16. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge (Koch+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Preston, G. W.; Thompson, I. B.

    2015-11-01

    The stars studied here were identified in a search for EMP stars in the Galactic bulge (Preston et al. unpublished), near b=-10°, employing the 2.5-m du Pont and 1-m Swope telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory. Observations of seven EMP candidates presented here were taken spread over six nights in July 2007 with a median seeing of 0.95", while individual exposures reached as high as 2" and notably better conditions (~0.6") during several nights. Our chosen set-up included a 0.5" slit, 2x1 binning in spectral and spatial dimensions and resulted in a resolving power of R~45000. An observing log is given in Table 1. (3 data files).

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC5897 red giant abundances (Koch+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.

    2014-03-01

    Our observations were performed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the 6.5-m Magellan2/Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The data were gathered over four nights in May 2013. (2 data files).

  19. The Laboratory Culture of Eucyclops Agilis (Koch) and Suggestions for Its Use in Practical Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a technique for the laboratory culture of Eucyclops agilis using Euglena. Details of the life cycle are given, and suggestions for its use in laboratory practicals, and in investigations with sixth-form (16 to 18 year-olds) and college students in the United Kingdom. (Author/HM)

  20. Field Observations of Questing and Dispersal by Colonized Nymphal Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Portugal, José Santos; Goddard, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    :  Almost nothing is known about the questing and dispersal behavior of immature Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum), a vector of both medical and veterinary concern. This experiment examined host-seeking (questing) and dispersal of marked, previously colonized, nymphal A. maculatum released in field plots in rural Oktibbeha County, Mississippi during 2015. A total of 500 (250 per replication) A. maculatum nymphs were painted and released in 5 plots (50 ticks each time). Observations were then made 5 times, approximately every 3 days, searching the plots for ticks from the release points outwards to 50 cm. Mean overall vertical questing height of ticks in Replication 1 in March (5.13 cm) was significantly higher than that of Replication 2 in April (2.57 cm) for a combined mean questing height of 3.58 cm. Ticks dispersed at a mean rate of 1.71 cm/day (Replication 1) and 0.98 cm/day (Replication 2), for an overall mean dispersal rate of 1.27 cm/day. When observation days where tick movement was impacted by adverse weather conditions were excluded, means between the replications were much closer. Only 38 of 2,500 possible total observations (1.5%) of the marked ticks were subsequently seen questing in this study, perhaps mirroring low questing rates of nymphal A. maculatum in nature. Additionally, 2 ticks were found in dense vegetation at the base of a plant. These data show that nymphs of this species disperse slowly, quest low to the ground, and can hide in very dense vegetation. PMID:26824469

  1. Description of two new species of Dermacentor Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Oriental Asia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Apanaskevich, Maria A

    2016-02-01

    Dermacentor tamokensis n. sp. and Dermacentor pseudocompactus n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described based on adults ex wild boar and vegetation from China, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam and males ex wild boar from Nepal, respectively. Adults of D. tamokensis n. sp. are similar to those of D. taiwanensis Sugimoto, 1935 and D. atrosignatus Neumann, 1906 but can be distinguished by the colour pattern of the conscutum and scutum, the size and density of punctations on the pseudoscutum and scutum, the width of the cornua, and the shape of female genital structures. Males of D. pseudocompactus n. sp. are most similar to those of D. compactus Neumann, 1901 but can be distinguished by the colour pattern, sculpture and punctations of the conscutum, and the shape and length of the coxal spurs. PMID:26790680

  2. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  3. Tactile learning by a whip spider, Phrynus marginemaculatus C.L. Koch (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    PubMed

    Santer, Roger D; Hebets, Eileen A

    2009-04-01

    The ability of animals to learn and remember underpins many behavioural actions and can be crucial for survival in certain contexts, for example in finding and recognising a habitual refuge. The sensory cues that an animal learns in such situations are to an extent determined by its own sensory specialisations. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi) are nocturnal and possess uniquely specialised sensory systems that include elongated 'antenniform' forelegs specialised for use as chemo- and mechanosensory feelers. We tested the tactile learning abilities of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus in a maze learning task with two tactile cues of different texture--one associated with an accessible refuge, and the other with an inaccessible refuge. Over ten training trials, whip spiders got faster and more accurate at finding the accessible refuge. During a subsequent test trial where both refuges were inaccessible, whip spiders searched for significantly longer at the tactile cue previously associated with the accessible refuge. Using high-speed cinematography, we describe three distinct antenniform leg movements used by whip spiders during tactile examination. We discuss the potential importance of tactile learning in whip spider behaviour and a possible role for their unique giant sensory neurons in accessing tactile information. PMID:19198849

  4. Early development of the anterior body region of the grey widow spider Latrodectus geometricus Koch, 1841 (Theridiidae, Araneae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2009-09-01

    We document the early morphogenesis of Latrodectus geometricus, particularly of the anterior body region. Significant changes in the development of the external prosomal structures revealed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images include: (1) reorganisation of each pre-cheliceral lobe by subdivision and internalisation of its central area; (2) shortening of the ventro-median bridge connecting the pre-cheliceral lobes and its eventual disappearance; (3) appearance and expansion of a prospective mouth region between the pre-cheliceral lobes with a recessed median area surrounded by lip-like borders, the anterior lip-part developing into the hypostome; (4) reduction of the mouth region to an area around the hypostome and the lip-like latero-posterior border of the mouth opening; (5) change of the position of the mouth region from anterior to the insertions of the chelicerae to posterior to them; (6) eventual shortening of the mouth opening to a slit overhung by the hypostome; (7) origination of the prosomal shield from the anterior margin of the pre-cheliceral lobes and the tergal portions of the four posterior-most prosomal segments; and (8) expansion of a 'ventral sulcus' from the cheliceral to the fifth opisthosomal segment separating the sides of these segments. Embryonic features are compared across the Chelicerata and discussed briefly in a phylogenetic context. PMID:19374954

  5. Repellent effects of various cherry tomato accessions on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Lucini, T; Resende, J T V; Oliveira, J R F; Scabeni, C J; Zeist, A R; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on resistance sources to improve the genetic resistance of farm-grown tomatoes to arthropod pests, including phytophagous mites. In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite on different cherry tomato accessions to identify possible sources of resistance (repellent effect) to this pest. Sixty-four accessions of cherry tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal), were tested. In addition, a commercial cultivar of cherry tomato cv. Sweet Grape (susceptible pattern) and the wild tomato accession Solanum pennellii Correll LA-716 (multiple pest resistance) were evaluated as well. The distance traveled by mites on the leaflet surface over time varied largely among cherry tomato accessions. The wild genotype, S. pennellii LA-716, showed the smallest traveled distance on the leaflet surface (0.8 to 1.1 mm over time), and the variety cv. Sweet Grape was one of the genotypes with highest traveled distance (16.2 to 16.4 mm over time). The cherry tomato accessions 2298-42, RVTC-03, and 6889-53 showed a decrease in the traveled distance by mites over time, similar to that as observed in the wild tomato accession LA716. These accessions showed mite repellence levels similar to those of the wild genotype and may, therefore, be good candidates for breeding programs dealing with resistance to mites. PMID:27050983

  6. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates

    PubMed Central

    Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch’s postulates for this parasite. PMID:27508942

  7. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home. PMID:17611781

  8. The disposition of carbaryl in the hepatopancreas, haemolymph and embryos of the viviparous scorpion, Heterometrus fulvipes (Koch) during gestation.

    PubMed

    Rajyalakshmi, A; Reddy, P U; Rao, B N; Reddy, T G

    1991-04-01

    1. The disposition of carbaryl in the hepatopancreas and haemolymph of maternal animals and embryos of H. fulvipes (scorpion) after administration of a single sublethal dose was studied by g.l.c. 2. High levels of carbaryl were observed in haemolymph at 10 min, and in hepatopancreas at 1 h after administration. About 90% of the residues in the hepatopancreas were eliminated by 24 h. 3. In embryos high levels were noticed 6 h after administration and only 60% of the accumulated carbaryl was eliminated by 24 h. Carbaryl residues were observed in embryos even 1 week after administration. PMID:1910229

  9. FT-IR spectroscopy of microorganisms at the Robert Koch Institute: experiences gained during a successful project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    The characterization and identification of microorganisms by infrared or Raman spectroscopy is probably one of the best developed and most frequent applications of biomedical vibrational spectroscopy. The serial types of dedicated instruments for routine FT-IR characterizations of microorganisms are now available on the market and already used in routine microbiological laboratories. The experiences gained to date, especially the necessity to define standards for sampling and measurement procedures and the details of how data compatibility between different laboratories is achieve will be discussed as well as the problem to establish validated reference data bases for objective species or strain identifications.

  10. Experimental reproduction of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (mystery swine disease) by infection with Lelystad virus: Koch's postulates fulfilled.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, C; Wensvoort, G; Pol, J M

    1991-07-01

    Aerosol exposure of eight pregnant sows to cell-culture- propagated Lelystad virus resulted in clinical signs characteristic of so-called mystery swine disease. After an incubation of 4-7 days, all sows were inappetant and listless for 6-9 days. Two sows developed a transient red-blue discolouration of the ears ('abortus blauw' or blue ear disease) accompanied by abdominal respiration, and two had a fever for one day only. One sow aborted at 109 days of gestation. The other seven sows, farrowing between 113 and 117 days of gestation, gave birth to numerous mummified, dead, and weak piglets. Of these seven, the mean number of piglets born dead to each sow was 4.6 and the mean number born alive was 7.7; 3.1 piglets per sow (40%) died within the first week. Lelystad virus was isolated from 31 piglets, which were born dead or died shortly after birth. Antibody was detected in precolostral blood samples or ascitic fluids of 23 piglets, a finding which demonstrated transplacental passage of the virus in six out of eight litters. We conclude that Lelystad virus is the causal agent of mystery swine disease. Since its aetiology is no longer a mystery, we propose the more appropriate name 'porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (PEARS)'. PMID:1949539

  11. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development. PMID:22051373

  12. Sex allocation in haplodiploids is mediated by egg size: evidence in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Macke, Emilie; Magalhães, Sara; Khan, Hong Do-Thi; Luciano, Anthony; Frantz, Adrien; Facon, Benoît; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Haplodiploid species display extraordinary sex ratios. However, a differential investment in male and female offspring might also be achieved by a differential provisioning of eggs, as observed in birds and lizards. We investigated this hypothesis in the haplodiploid spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which displays highly female-biased sex ratios. We show that egg size significantly determines not only larval size, juvenile survival and adult size, but also fertilization probability, as in marine invertebrates with external fertilization, so that female (fertilized) eggs are significantly larger than male (unfertilized) eggs. Moreover, females with on average larger eggs before fertilization produce a more female-biased sex ratio afterwards. Egg size thus mediates sex-specific egg provisioning, sex and offspring sex ratio. Finally, sex-specific egg provisioning has another major consequence: male eggs produced by mated mothers are smaller than male eggs produced by virgins, and this size difference persists in adults. Virgin females might thus have a (male) fitness advantage over mated females. PMID:20926443

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than 10 micrometers. The APCT Verification Center...

  14. Wheat seed embryo excision enables the creation of axenic seedlings and Koch's postulates testing of putative bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Rebekah J; Fraaije, Bart A; Clark, Ian M; Jackson, Robert W; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2016-01-01

    Early establishment of endophytes can play a role in pathogen suppression and improve seedling development. One route for establishment of endophytes in seedlings is transmission of bacteria from the parent plant to the seedling via the seed. In wheat seeds, it is not clear whether this transmission route exists, and the identities and location of bacteria within wheat seeds are unknown. We identified bacteria in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Hereward seed environment using embryo excision to determine the location of the bacterial load. Axenic wheat seedlings obtained with this method were subsequently used to screen a putative endophyte bacterial isolate library for endophytic competency. This absence of bacteria recovered from seeds indicated low bacterial abundance and/or the presence of inhibitors. Diversity of readily culturable bacteria in seeds was low with 8 genera identified, dominated by Erwinia and Paenibacillus. We propose that anatomical restrictions in wheat limit embryo associated vertical transmission, and that bacterial load is carried in the seed coat, crease tissue and endosperm. This finding facilitates the creation of axenic wheat plants to test competency of putative endophytes and also provides a platform for endophyte competition, plant growth, and gene expression studies without an indigenous bacterial background. PMID:27151146

  15. Molecular and morphological evaluation of the aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae), with a description of a new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyalopterus is a small genus containing two currently recognized species: Hyalopterus amygdali (Blanchard) and Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy). Morpholgical means of distinguishing these species have been difficult and identifications have often been based on host plant data rather than structural char...

  16. A new species of the water mite genus Hygrobates Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae) from the ancient Lake Ohrid.

    PubMed

    Pešić, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A new water mite species, Hygrobates zawali n. sp., is described from material collected in the ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula. This species has been confused for a long time with the rhithrobiontic H. diversiporus Sokolow, 1927, known from the Caucasus (Russia) and Turkey. The new species closely resembles H. quanaticola Schwoerbel & Sepasgozarian, 1976, a little documented species described from Iran, which is here illustrated based on re-examination of the type material. Furthermore, a key for the identification of species of the subgenus Rivobates Thor, 1897, from the Western Palaearctic is given. PMID:25781785

  17. Diversity in yeast-mycelium dimorphism response of the Dutch elm disease pathogens: the inoculum size effect.

    PubMed

    Wedge, Marie-Ève; Naruzawa, Erika Sayuri; Nigg, Martha; Bernier, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by the dimorphic fungi Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Ophiostoma himal-ulmi. A cell population density-dependent phenomenon related to quorum sensing was previously shown to affect the reversible transition from yeast-like to mycelial growth in liquid shake cultures of O. novo-ulmi NRRL 6404. Since the response to external stimuli often varies among DED fungal strains, we evaluated the effect of inoculum size on 8 strains of the 3 species of DED agents by determining the proportion of yeast and mycelium produced at different spore inoculum concentrations in defined liquid shake medium. The results show that not all DED fungi strains respond similarly to inoculum size effect, since variations were observed among strains. It is thus possible that the different strains belonging to phylogenetically close species use different signalling molecules or molecular signalling pathways to regulate their growth mode via quorum-sensing mechanisms. PMID:27068623

  18. Do mites phoretic on elm bark beetles contribute to the transmission of Dutch elm disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, John C.; Konrad, Heino; Blomquist, Stacy R.; Kirisits, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is a destructive vascular wilt disease of elm ( Ulmus) trees caused by the introduced Ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In Europe, this DED pathogen is transmitted by elm bark beetles in the genus Scolytus. These insects carry phoretic mites to new, suitable habitats. The aim of this study was to record and quantify conidia and ascospores of O. novo-ulmi on phoretic mites on the three elm bark beetle species Scolytus multistriatus, Scolytus pygmaeus, and Scolytus scolytus. Spores of O. novo-ulmi were found on four of the ten mite species phoretic on Scolytus spp. These included Elattoma fraxini, Proctolaelaps scolyti, Pseudotarsonemoides eccoptogasteri, and Tarsonemus crassus. All four species had spores attached externally to their body surfaces. However, T. crassus carried most spores within its sporothecae, two paired pocket-like structures adapted for fungal transmission. Individuals of Pr. scolyti also had O. novo-ulmi conidia and ascospores frequently in their digestive system, where they may remain viable. While E. fraxini and P. eccoptogasteri rarely had spores attached to their bodies, large portions of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus carried significant numbers of conidia and/or ascospores of O. novo-ulmi. P. scolyti and T. crassus, which likely are fungivores, may thus contribute to the transmission of O. novo-ulmi, by increasing the spore loads of individual Scolytus beetles during their maturation feeding on twigs of healthy elm trees, enhancing the chance for successful infection with the pathogen. Only S. scolytus, which is the most efficient vector of O. novo-ulmi in Europe, carried high numbers of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus, in contrast to S. multistriatus and S. pygmaeus, which are known as less efficient vectors. The high efficiency of S. scolytus in spreading Dutch elm disease may be partly due to its association with these two mites and the hyperphoretic spores of O. novo-ulmi they carry.

  19. Isolation and characterization of SsmTx-I, a Specific Kv2.1 blocker from the venom of the centipede Scolopendra Subspinipes Mutilans L. Koch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minzhi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-03-01

    Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, also known as Chinese red-headed centipede, is a venomous centipede from East Asia and Australasia. Venom from this animal has not been researched as thoroughly as venom from snakes, snails, scorpions, and spiders. In this study, we isolated and characterized SsmTx-I, a novel neurotoxin from the venom of S. subspinipes mutilans. SsmTx-I contains 36 residues with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. It had low sequence similarity (<10%) with other identified peptide toxins. By whole-cell recording, SsmTx-I significantly blocked voltage-gated K⁺ channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons with an IC₅₀ value of 200 nM, but it had no effect on voltage-gated Na⁺ channels. Among the nine K⁺ channel subtypes expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, SsmTx-I selectively blocked the Kv2.1 current with an IC₅₀ value of 41.7 nM, but it had little effect on currents mediated by other K⁺ channel subtypes. Blockage of Kv2.1 by SsmTx-I was not associated with significant alteration of steady-state activation, suggesting that SsmTx-I might act as a simple inhibitor or channel blocker rather than a gating modifier. Our study reported a specific Kv2.1-blocker from centipede venom and provided a basis for future investigations of SsmTx-I, for example on structure-function relationships, mechanism of action, and pharmacological potential. PMID:24464516

  20. Book lung development in the embryo, postembryo and first instar of the cobweb spider, Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L Koch, 1841 (Araneomorphae, Theridiidae).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2015-07-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to compare spider book lung development with earlier studies of the development of horseshoe crab book gills and scorpion book lungs. Histological studies at the beginning of the 20th century provided evidence that spider and scorpion book lungs begin with outgrowth of a few primary lamellae (respiratory furrows, saccules) from the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds, reminiscent of the formation of book gills in the horseshoe crab. In spider embryos, light micrographs herein also show small primary lamellae formed at the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds. Later, more prominent primary lamellae extend into each book lung sinus from the inner wall of the book lung operculum formed from the limb bud. It appears most primary lamellae continue developing and become part of later book lungs, but there is variation in the rate and sequence of development. Electron micrographs show the process of air channel formation from parallel rows of precursor cells: mode I (cord hollowing), release of secretory vesicles into the extracellular space and mode II (cell hollowing), alignment and fusion of intracellular vesicles. Cell death (cavitation) is much less common but occurs in some places. Results herein support the early 20th century hypotheses that 1) book lungs are derived from book gills and 2) book lungs are an early step in the evolution of spider tracheae. PMID:25936921

  1. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae).

    PubMed

    Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods. PMID:24250416

  2. [The portrayal of tuberculosis in the motion picture "Robert Koch--Bekämpfer des Todes". How do movies shape knowledge about diseases in urology and medicine?].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Görgen, A; Krischel, M; Fangerau, H

    2011-11-01

    Popular media have an immediate effect on an audience of millions. They are the base of social learning through the times. Therefore they deserve greater attention from professionals. The Nazi propaganda for example created an elaborate system, which made use of new technologies of the twentieth century, especially radio broadcasting and the movies. Escapism should be produced. Up to now those movies are shown on TV or in the cinema often without reference to their origin and intention which were later on regarded as harmless. As a consequence, "propaganda" is maintained in a very distinguished way. In 1945, the Allies first banned the showing of films made during the Nazi era and confiscated important documents. Those films regarded as "harmless" were soon released to the public again, but in the 1950s some 250 politically dubious films were still under lock and key. Interestingly, they often can be received via the Internet from other countries especially the USA. It only became clear over time that the propagandistic aims that found expression in some 1,100 films needed to be examined more carefully. PMID:21779885

  3. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease.

    PubMed

    Khazneh, Elian; Hřibová, Petra; Hošek, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Kollár, Peter; Pražanová, Gabriela; Muselík, Jan; Hanaková, Zuzana; Václavík, Jiří; Miłek, Michał; Legáth, Jaroslav; Šmejkal, Karel

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE)-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL). The chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1) and leucodin (CP2) showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results. PMID:27023504

  4. “Candidatus liberibacter sp.”, without koch's postulates completed, can the bacterium be considered as the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow shoot disease is a destructive disease that threatens citrus production worldwide. The emergence of HLB in Sao Paulo, State of Brazil in 2004 and in Florida of the U.S. in 2005 has increased concern in the citrus production community in the USA. Intensive research is cu...

  5. Aqueous extract of pecan nut shell (Carya illinoensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) exerts protection against oxidative damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Benvegnu, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Roversi, Katiane; Boufleur, Nardelli; Pase, Camila S; Trevizol, Fabiola; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Reckziegel, Patricia; Lima, Fernanda; de Lima, Luiz A R; de Carvalho, Leandro M; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro A; Burger, Marilise E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on the oxidative and morphological status of rat testis treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Wistar rats received water or AE (5%) ad libitum for 37 days. On day 30, half of each group received a single intraperitoneal administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg. After 7 days, the animals were killed and their testis removed. Rats treated with CP presented reduced levels of lactate dehydrogenase, vitamin C, and gluthatione, as well as decreased catalase activity, increased lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity, no alteration in carbonyl protein levels, and a loss of morphological testicular integrity. In contrast, cotreatment with pecan shell AE totally prevented the decrease of lactate dehydrogenase and vitamin C levels and catalase activity and partially prevented the depletion of gluthatione levels. Moreover, it totally prevented the increase in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxidation levels and maintained testicular integrity. These findings show the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced testicular toxicity. The use of this phytotherapy may be considered to minimize deleterious effects related to this chemotherapy. PMID:24579785

  6. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity and mutagenic activity of the aqueous extract of pecan shells [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    PubMed

    Porto, Luiz Carlos Santos; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; dos Santos, Marcela Silva; Porto, Caroline Dalla Lana; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    The infusion of pecan shells has been used to prevent and control hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and toxicological diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and mutagenic effects of pecan shells aqueous extract (PSAE). Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of 300 or 2000 mg/kg of PSAE in the acute toxicity test. For the subacute test, the animals received 10 or 100 mg/kg of PSAE for 28 days. The mutagenicity was evaluated using Salmonella/microsome assay in TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and TA102 S. typhimurium strains in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) and micronucleus test in bone marrow. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, gallic and ellagic acids. Except for triglycerides, all treated groups presented normal hematological and biochemical parameters. Lower levels of triglycerides and weight loss were observed in the 100 mg/kg group. Mutagenic activities were not detected in S. typhimurium strains and by the micronucleus test. Based on these results, PSAE was not able to induce chromosomal or point mutations, under the conditions tested. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant antihyperlipidemic action, with no severe toxic effects. PMID:23831307

  7. The Multiple Forms of alpha-Amylase Enzyme of the Araucaria Species of South America: A. araucana (Mol.) Koch and A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kutz : A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Salas, E; Cardemil, L

    1986-08-01

    alpha-Amylase is one of the major enzymes present in the seeds of both Araucaria species of South America and it initiates starch hydrolysis during germination and early seedling growth. The pattern of the multiple forms of alpha-amylase of the two Araucaria species was investigated by electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing of the native enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme forms were compared in the embryo and megagametophyte of quiescent seeds and of seeds imbibed for 18, 48, and 90 hours. Specific alpha-amylase enzyme forms appear and disappear during these imbibition periods showing both similarities and differences between tissues and species. Before imbibition, there are five alpha-amylase forms identical in both tissues, but different between species. After 18 hours of imbibition, there are two enzyme forms in both tissues of Araucaria araucana seeds, only one form in the embryo of Araucaria angustifolia but two forms in the megagametophyte of this specie. After 48 hours of seed imbibition, most of the enzyme forms present in quiescent seeds reappear. At 90 hours of imbibition different enzyme forms are detected in the embryo with respect to the gametophyte. The changes in form patterns of alpha-amylase are discussed according to a possible regulation of gene expression by endogenous gibberellins. PMID:16664944

  8. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  9. A point mutation in a glutamate-gated chloride channel confers abamectin resistance in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Kwon, D H; Yoon, K S; Clark, J M; Lee, S H

    2010-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms and genetics of abamectin resistance mediated by target site insensitivity in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were investigated by comparing two isogenic abamectin-susceptible (AbaS) and abamectin-resistant (AbaR) strains. Cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA fragments of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel genes revealed no polymorphisms between the two strains. However, sequence comparison of the full-length cDNA fragment of a T. urticae glutamate-gated chloride channel gene (TuGluCl) identified a G323D point mutation as being tentatively related with abamectin resistance. In individual F(2) progenies obtained by backcrossing, the G323D genotype was confirmed to correlate with abamectin resistance. Bioassays using progeny from reciprocal crossings revealed that the abamectin resistance trait resulting from TuGluCl insensitivity is incompletely recessive. PMID:20522121

  10. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  11. Vitellogenin-like gene expression in freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum (Koch, 1835): functional characterization in females and potential for use as an endocrine disruption biomarker in males.

    PubMed

    Xuereb, Benoît; Bezin, Laurent; Chaumot, Arnaud; Budzinski, Hélène; Augagneur, Sylvie; Tutundjian, Renaud; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier

    2011-08-01

    The induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis is widely accepted as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in male and juvenile fish. Vtg synthesis has emerged as an interesting endpoint to assess endocrine disruptor (ED) effects in crustaceans. However, studies reporting induction of Vtg in male crustaceans are lacking. This study investigated the expression of the Vtg gene in a freshwater amphipod, Gammarus fossarum, using calibrated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR). First, we described the basal pattern of expression in healthy male and female organisms at different reproductive moult stages, in order to validate the function of this gene. Females expressed from 200 to 700 times more Vtg transcripts than males, depending on the female reproductive stage. Females displayed significant elevation of Vtg mRNA levels at the end of the inter-moult phase and at the beginning of the pre-moult phase. Second, male gammarids were exposed to the estrogenic compound nonylphenol (NP) (0.05, 0.5, 5 and 50 μg L(-1)) and to the anti-androgen cyproterone (1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg L(-1)) for 2, 4, 8 and 16 days. Both chemicals altered the pattern of interindividual variability of Vtg gene expression in males with strong induction in some individuals. Finally, the impact of urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on male Vtg gene expression was assessed in organisms transplanted in the field during in situ bioassay campaigns in three different watersheds. Induction of the Vtg mRNA level was observed in males transplanted downstream from WWTP effluent discharge in two of the three study sites. PMID:21701845

  12. The pathogen causing Dutch elm disease makes host trees attract insect vectors

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Geoff; Gries, Regine; von Reuß, Stephan H; Rahe, James E; McIntosh, Rory; König, Wilfried A; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is transmitted by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. We have found that four semiochemicals (the monoterpene (−)-β-pinene and the sesquiterpenes (−)-α-cubebene, (+)-spiroaxa-5,7-diene and (+)-δ-cadinene) from diseased American elms, Ulmus americana, synergistically attract H. rufipes, and that sesquiterpene emission is upregulated in elm trees inoculated with O. novo-ulmi. The fungus thus manipulates host trees to enhance their apparency to foraging beetles, a strategy that increases the probability of transportation of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID:16271975

  13. National PKU News

    MedlinePlus

    ... and History Staff & Board How Much Phe Guthrie-Koch Scholarship Books Resources Support Us Contact Us Donors ... new Amino Acid Analysis Results This Year’s Guthrie-Koch PKU Scholarship Winners © 2016 National PKU News

  14. 78 FR 35634 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... & OFF License. Koch Maritime, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 2230 Energy Park Drive, St. Paul, MN 55108. Officers: Stan Sing Lau, Vice President (QI), David Koch, CEO. Application Type: QI Change. Logistics...

  15. I Never Told Anybody: Four Poetry Writing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    Offers excerpts from Kenneth Koch's classic book in which he tells how he and Kate Farrell taught poetry writing to elderly people in a nursing home. Describes four poetry writing classes, first giving students' poems, then Koch's commentary. (PA)

  16. Parents, Take Heed: Your Kids Copy Your Heart Health Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults who have metabolic risk factors," said Pamela Koch, executive director of the Tisch Center for Food, ... cardiologist, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Pamela Koch, executive director, Laurie M. Tisch Center for Food, ...

  17. 78 FR 28627 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ..., Specialty Manufacturing Division, a Subsidiary of Koch Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers of DS&E..., also doing business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of Koch... Division, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, including on-site leased workers of DS&E Company,...

  18. 78 FR 28633 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ..., Specialty Manufacturing Division, a Subsidiary of Koch Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers of DS&E... Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, Duluth, Minnesota (subject firm). The workers produce... Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing Division, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, including...

  19. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  20. [Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae. PMID:25549462

  1. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control. PMID:26545599

  2. Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices – analysis of a survey from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. Method: The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. Results: 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed. There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists. In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Discussion: Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. Conclusion: While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not backed by evidence. PMID:22558048

  3. Isolation of the orthologue of the cerato-ulmin gene in Ophiostoma quercus and characterization of the purified protein.

    PubMed

    Carresi, Lara; Comparini, Cecilia; Bettini, Priscilla P; Pazzagli, Luigia; Cappugi, Gianni; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2008-10-01

    Ophiostoma quercus is an ophiostomatoid fungus strictly related to the Ophiostoma's (O. ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, and O. himal-ulmi) that cause Dutch elm disease (DED). O. quercus has a number of morphological characteristics in common with the DED pathogens, and is a well-known and economically important sapstaining fungus occurring worldwide on hardwoods and commercially produced pines, and causes typical cankers on oak stems. In elm trees O. quercus can survive for months without causing any disease symptoms. DED fungi produce cerato-ulmin (CU), a class II hydrophobin, which is generally considered as the main toxin potentially involved in various phases of the DED pathogenesis. In the present work we isolated and sequenced the orthologue of the cu gene in the O. quercus isolates H988, H1042, and H2053. Moreover the CU protein from O. quercus isolate H988 was also purified and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that there is a pronounced difference between the whole cu gene region of O. quercus and the homologous fragments of the DED-causing species O. ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, and O. himal-ulmi. It also appeared that differences in the structural conformation of the promoter were unlikely to play a role in the modulation of the transcript level and that, for O. quercus, differences in CU production did not result from the potential different regulation levels. Clear differences were shown in the transcriptional unit of the cu genes and in the amino acid sequences among all the CUs. The purified O. quercus CU was separated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry into seven forms of increasing molecular weight from 7190 to 7724Da. The hydrophobicity profiles indicated that two regions of the O. quercus CU protein were more hydrophobic than the corresponding regions of the CUs of the DED fungi. The O. quercus CUs had theoretical isoelectric point values similar to those of the DED fungi. Finally, the contradiction between

  4. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm. PMID:17310333

  5. Notes toward an Extraordinary Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Describes a screening and discussion of Eric Breitbart's 1970 documentary film on Kenneth Koch's teaching. Presents commentary on the program that helped to put the film in a larger pedagogical context and to extract from Koch's classroom a few lessons for everyone. Reflects on Project Zero's exploration of how young children learn to use symbols…

  6. The Art of Poetry: Poems, Parodies, Interviews, Essays, and Other Work. Poets on Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kenneth

    This collection of some of the critical works of a lauded contemporary poet, Kenneth Koch, gathers together poems, articles and interviews which are about poetry--Koch's critical work has mainly taken the form of poems about poetry (including parodies) and books about teaching the writing of poetry to schoolchildren. Focused on the practical…

  7. Poetry in the Classroom: Finding New Roads. Poetry and Children Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This 20-minute videotape program presents poet and Columbia University professor Kenneth Koch conducting a poetry workshop with a small group of fourth and fifth graders. The program's notes explain that Koch believes that students should be allowed to write poetry in the same way that they are allowed to dance and sing--with freedom,…

  8. Heterodichogamy in Pecan as Affected by Climate in California and Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) is a heterodichogamous anemophilous species that expresses severe inbreeding depression. This study compared pollen shed and pistil receptivity patterns for commercial pecan cultivars commonly grown in Durham, California and in Brownwood and College St...

  9. Can plant bioregulators be potential tools for managing black pecan aphids?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some classes of plant bioregulators (PBRs) possess the potential for usage on pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) to protect foliar canopies from black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding injury. The black pecan aphid elicits localized chlorotic...

  10. INCORPORATING CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: A REPLY TO ROBBINS, HILDERBRAND AND FARLEY (2002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phillips & Koch (2002) outlined a new stable isotope mixing model which incorporates differences in elemental concentrations in the determinations of source proportions in a mixture. They illustrated their method with sensitivity analyses and two examples from the wildlife ecolog...