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Sample records for pantoea agglomerans strains

  1. Genome Sequence of Pantoea agglomerans Strain IG1

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mori, Kazuki; Kadowaki, Takeshi; Shimada, Misato; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Soma, Gen-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram-negative bacterium that grows symbiotically with various plants. Here we report the 4.8-Mb genome sequence of P. agglomerans strain IG1. The lipopolysaccharides derived from P. agglomerans IG1 have been shown to be effective in the prevention of various diseases, such as bacterial or viral infection, lifestyle-related diseases. This genome sequence represents a substantial step toward the elucidation of pathways for production of lipopolysaccharides. PMID:22328756

  2. Genotypic comparison of Pantoea agglomerans plant and clinical strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pantoea agglomerans strains are among the most promising biocontrol agents for a variety of bacterial and fungal plant diseases, particularly fire blight of apple and pear. However, commercial registration of P. agglomerans biocontrol products is hampered because this species is currently listed as a biosafety level 2 (BL2) organism due to clinical reports as an opportunistic human pathogen. This study compares plant-origin and clinical strains in a search for discriminating genotypic/phenotypic markers using multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms (fAFLP) fingerprinting. Results Majority of the clinical isolates from culture collections were found to be improperly designated as P. agglomerans after sequence analysis. The frequent taxonomic rearrangements underwent by the Enterobacter agglomerans/Erwinia herbicola complex may be a major problem in assessing clinical associations within P. agglomerans. In the P. agglomerans sensu stricto (in the stricter sense) group, there was no discrete clustering of clinical/biocontrol strains and no marker was identified that was uniquely associated to clinical strains. A putative biocontrol-specific fAFLP marker was identified only in biocontrol strains. The partial ORF located in this band corresponded to an ABC transporter that was found in all P. agglomerans strains. Conclusion Taxonomic mischaracterization was identified as a major problem with P. agglomerans, and current techniques removed a majority of clinical strains from this species. Although clear discrimination between P. agglomerans plant and clinical strains was not obtained with phylogenetic analysis, a single marker characteristic of biocontrol strains was identified which may be of use in strain biosafety determinations. In addition, the lack of Koch's postulate fulfilment, rare retention of clinical strains for subsequent confirmation, and the polymicrobial nature of P. agglomerans clinical reports

  3. 40 CFR 180.1272 - Pantoea agglomerans strain E325; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pantoea agglomerans strain E325... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1272 Pantoea agglomerans strain E325; exemption from the... Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 when used on apples and pears....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1267 - Pantoea agglomerans strain C9-1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pantoea agglomerans strain C9-1... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1267 Pantoea agglomerans strain C9-1; exemption from the... Pantoea agglomerans strain C9-1 when used on apples and pears....

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Commercial Biocontrol Strain Pantoea agglomerans P10c

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Abelli, Azzurra; Kron Morelli, Roberto; Vanneste, Joël L.; Duffy, Brion

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol strain Pantoea agglomerans P10c, composed of a draft chromosome and two plasmids: the 559-kb large Pantoea plasmid 1 (pPag3) and a 182-kb plasmid (pPag1). A genomic island containing pantocin A biosynthesis genes was identified. PMID:26659685

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Commercial Biocontrol Strain Pantoea agglomerans P10c.

    PubMed

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Abelli, Azzurra; Kron Morelli, Roberto; Vanneste, Joël L; Duffy, Brion

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol strain Pantoea agglomerans P10c, composed of a draft chromosome and two plasmids: the 559-kb large Pantoea plasmid 1 (pPag3) and a 182-kb plasmid (pPag1). A genomic island containing pantocin A biosynthesis genes was identified. PMID:26659685

  7. Mechanisms of Pantoea agglomerans Strain E325 as Antagonist of Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325, the active ingredient in Bloomtime Biological (superscript)TM, was originally isolated from apple blossoms and selected based on broad screening with detached crab apple flowers. To evaluate pH modification on Gala apple stigmas as a possible mode of antagonism, exud...

  8. [Characterization of Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Brovarskaya, O S; Bulygina, T N; Garkavaya, E G; Zhitkevich, N V

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from seven Pantoea agglomerans strains isolated from various plants were purified and chemically identified. LPS of the studied P. agglomerans strains were heterogeneous in monosaccharide composition. Thus, the LPS of P. agglomerans 8606 differed considerably from the LPSs of other strains, containing mannose as the predominant monosaccharide (69.8%), as well as ribose (15.1%) and xylose (12.6%), while the content of rhamnose, one of the predominant monosaccharides in other LPS samples, was 2.5%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed the presence of C12-C16 acids. In lipids A of all the studied strains, 3-OH-C14:0 was the predominant acid (31.7 to 39.1%, depending on the strain). C12:0 (8.2 to 31.5%), C14:0 (12.9 to 30.8%), and C16:0 acids (3.4 to 16.9%) were also revealed. The studied P. agglomerans strains fell into three groups according to their fatty acid composition. The differences stemmed from the presence or absence of two fatty acids, 2-OH-C14:0 and C16:1. Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion in agar revealed that all the LPS under study exhibited antigenic activity in homologous systems. The results of serological cross reactions indicated immunochemical heterogeneity of the species P. agglomerans. Comparative investigation of the complex of parameters of peripheral blood cells from a healthy donor before and after treatment with LPS solutions showed that the values of no parameters exceeded the normal range. PMID:25941715

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a Hypersensitive Reaction-Inducing Pantoea agglomerans Strain Isolated from Olive Knots Caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Chiaraluce; Cortese, Chiara; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio; Torelli, Emanuela; Firrao, Giuseppe; Buonaurio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans strains inducing a hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves are frequently isolated inside olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Italian P. agglomerans strain, which is able to increase olive knot disease severity when coinoculated with P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi. PMID:25103763

  10. Antibiosis Contributes to Biological Control of Fire Blight by Pantoea agglomerans Strain Eh252 in Orchards.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, V O; Johnson, K B; Sugar, D; Loper, J E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is the most serious bacterial disease of pear and apple trees. Biological control with strains of Pantoea agglomerans (syn. Erwinia herbicola) may provide an effective disease management strategy for fire blight. Most strains of P. agglomerans evaluated for suppression of fire blight produce compounds that inhibit the growth of E. amylovora in culture. The role of these inhibitory compounds in fire blight suppression in orchard environments has not been studied. In seven field trials in Oregon, we compared the population dynamics and disease suppression with P. agglomerans Eh252, a strain that produces a single antibiotic, with its near-isogenic antibiotic-deficient derivative, strain 10:12. Water or suspensions of Eh252 or 10:12 (1 x 10(8) CFU/ml) were applied at 30 and 70% bloom to pear or apple trees. Aqueous suspensions of freeze-dried cells of E. amylovora (3 x 10(5) CFU/ml) were applied at full bloom. Additional trees were treated with streptomycin or oxytetracycline at 30 and 70% bloom and in some experiments, 1 day after application of the pathogen. Population sizes of Eh252 or 10:12 on pear blossoms were estimated by spreading dilutions of blossom washes on culture media. Average population sizes of Eh252 and 10:12 on blossoms ranged from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU, and in five of six trials, the relative area under the population curve of Eh252 was not significantly different than that of its derivative 10:12. Both Eh252 and 10:12 reduced the growth of the pathogen on blossoms compared with inoculated water-treated controls. Eh252 significantly decreased the incidence of fire blight in six of seven field trials compared with the incidence on water-treated trees, and 10:12 similarly reduced the incidence of fire blight in four of seven trials. In three of seven field trials, trees treated with Eh252 had a significantly lower incidence of fire blight compared with trees treated 3 with 10:12. Overall,3 Eh252 reduced

  11. Phenotypic comparison of clinical and plant-beneficial strains of Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Bonaterra, Anna; Badosa, Esther; Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion; Montesinos, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Certain strains of Pantoea are used as biocontrol agents for the suppression of plant diseases. However, their commercial registration is hampered in some countries because of biosafety concerns. This study compares clinical and plant-beneficial strains of P. agglomerans and related species using a phenotypic analysis approach in which plant-beneficial effects, adverse effects in nematode models, and toxicity were evaluated. Plant-beneficial effects were determined as the inhibition of apple fruit infection by Penicillium expansum and apple flower infection by Erwinia amylovora. Clinical strains had no general inhibitory activity against infection by the fungal or bacterial plant pathogens, as only one clinical strain inhibited P. expansum and three inhibited E. amylovora. By contrast, all biocontrol strains showed activity against at least one of the phytopathogens, and three strains were active against both. The adverse effects in animals were evaluated in the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and the bacterial-feeding nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Both models indicated adverse effects of the two clinical strains but not of any of the plant-beneficial strains. Toxicity was evaluated by means of hemolytic activity in blood, and genotoxicity with the Ames test. None of the strains, whether clinical or plant-beneficial, showed any evidence of toxicity. PMID:26418852

  12. Antibiosis by Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 against Erwinia amylovora on apple blossom stigmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans E325, the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight control, was previously shown in vitro to produce a unique alkaline- and phosphate-sensitive antibiotic specific to Erwinia amylovora. Antibiosis was evaluated as a mode of antagonism on blossom stigmas using two...

  13. Pantoea agglomerans strain EH318 produces two antibiotics that inhibit Erwinia amylovora in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wright, S A; Zumoff, C H; Schneider, L; Beer, S V

    2001-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans (synonym: Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh318 produces through antibiosis a complex zone of inhibited growth in an overlay seeded with Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. This zone is caused by two antibiotics, named pantocin A and B. Using a genomic library of Eh318, two cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred on Escherichia coli the ability to inhibit growth of E. amylovora. The two cosmids conferred different antibiotic activities on E. coli DH5alpha and had distinct restriction enzyme profiles. A smaller, antibiotic-conferring DNA segment from each cosmid was cloned. Each subclone was characterized and mutagenized with transposons to generate clones that were deficient in conferring pantocin A and B production, respectively. Mutated subclones were introduced into Eh318 to create three antibiotic-defective marker exchange mutants: strain Eh421 (pantocin A deficient); strain Eh439 (pantocin B deficient), and Eh440 (deficient in both pantocins). Cross-hybridization results, restriction maps, and spectrum-of-activity data using the subclones and marker exchange mutants, supported the presence of two distinct antibiotics, pantocin A and pantocin B, whose biosynthetic genes were present in pCPP702 and pCPP704, respectively. The structure of pantocin A is unknown, whereas that of pantocin B has been determined as (R)-N-[((S)-2-amino-propanoylamino)-methyl]-2-methanesulfonyl-s uccina mic acid. The two pantocins mainly affect other enteric bacteria, based on limited testing. PMID:11133457

  14. Development of species-, strain- and antibiotic biosynthesis-specific quantitative PCR assays for Pantoea agglomerans as tools for biocontrol monitoring.

    PubMed

    Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea; Lehmann, Andreas; Rezzonico, Fabio; Wend, Chris; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2012-09-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is a cosmopolitan plant epiphytic bacterium that includes some of the most effective biological antagonists against the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora, a major threat to pome fruit production worldwide. Strain E325 is commercially available as Bloomtime Biological™ in the USA and Canada. New quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed for species- and strain -specific detection in the environment, and for detection of indigenous strains carrying the biocontrol antibacterial peptide biosynthesis gene paaA. The qPCR assays were highly specific, efficient and sensitive, detecting fewer than three cells per reaction or 700 colony forming units per flower, respectively. The qPCR assays were tested on field samples, giving first indications to the incidence of P. agglomerans E325 related strains, total P. agglomerans and pantocin A producing bacteria in commercial orchards. These assays will facilitate monitoring the environmental behavior of biocontrol P. agglomerans after orchard application for disease protection, proprietary strain-tracking, and streamlined screening for discovery of new biocontrol strains. PMID:22705381

  15. Colonization of wheat roots by an exopolysaccharide-producing pantoea agglomerans strain and its effect on rhizosphere soil aggregation

    PubMed

    Amellal; Burtin; Bartoli; Heulin

    1998-10-01

    The effect of bacterial secretion of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) on rhizosphere soil physical properties was investigated by inoculating strain NAS206, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum durum L.) growing in a Moroccan vertisol and was identified as Pantoea aglomerans. Phenotypic identification of this strain with the Biotype-100 system was confirmed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. After inoculation of wheat seedlings with strain NAS206, colonization increased at the rhizoplane and in root-adhering soil (RAS) but not in bulk soil. Colonization further increased under relatively dry conditions (20% soil water content; matric potential, -0.55 MPa). By means of genetic fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, we were able to verify that colonies counted as strain NAS206 on agar plates descended from inoculated strain NAS206. The intense colonization of the wheat rhizosphere by these EPS-producing bacteria was associated with significant soil aggregation, as shown by increased ratios of RAS dry mass to root tissue (RT) dry mass (RAS/RT) and the improved water stability of adhering soil aggregates. The maximum effect of strain NAS206 on both the RAS/RT ratio and aggregate stability was measured at 24% average soil water content (matric potential, -0.20 MPa). Inoculated strain NAS206 improved RAS macroporosity (pore diameter, 10 to 30 &mgr;m) compared to the noninoculated control, particularly when the soil was nearly water saturated (matric potential, -0.05 MPa). Our results suggest that P. agglomerans NAS206 can play an important role in the regulation of the water content (excess or deficit) of the rhizosphere of wheat by improving soil aggregation. PMID:9758793

  16. Colonization of Wheat Roots by an Exopolysaccharide-Producing Pantoea agglomerans Strain and Its Effect on Rhizosphere Soil Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Amellal, N.; Burtin, G.; Bartoli, F.; Heulin, T.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of bacterial secretion of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) on rhizosphere soil physical properties was investigated by inoculating strain NAS206, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum durum L.) growing in a Moroccan vertisol and was identified as Pantoea aglomerans. Phenotypic identification of this strain with the Biotype-100 system was confirmed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. After inoculation of wheat seedlings with strain NAS206, colonization increased at the rhizoplane and in root-adhering soil (RAS) but not in bulk soil. Colonization further increased under relatively dry conditions (20% soil water content; matric potential, −0.55 MPa). By means of genetic fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, we were able to verify that colonies counted as strain NAS206 on agar plates descended from inoculated strain NAS206. The intense colonization of the wheat rhizosphere by these EPS-producing bacteria was associated with significant soil aggregation, as shown by increased ratios of RAS dry mass to root tissue (RT) dry mass (RAS/RT) and the improved water stability of adhering soil aggregates. The maximum effect of strain NAS206 on both the RAS/RT ratio and aggregate stability was measured at 24% average soil water content (matric potential, −0.20 MPa). Inoculated strain NAS206 improved RAS macroporosity (pore diameter, 10 to 30 μm) compared to the noninoculated control, particularly when the soil was nearly water saturated (matric potential, −0.05 MPa). Our results suggest that P. agglomerans NAS206 can play an important role in the regulation of the water content (excess or deficit) of the rhizosphere of wheat by improving soil aggregation. PMID:9758793

  17. Assessment of the relevance of the antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine from Pantoea agglomerans biological control strains against bacterial plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Ulrike F; Reiher, Katharina; Spiteller, Dieter; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate

    2012-12-01

    The epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90 (Pa48b) is a promising biocontrol strain against economically important bacterial pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. Strain Pa48b produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine (APV) in a temperature-dependent manner. An APV-negative mutant still suppressed the E. amylovora population and fire blight disease symptoms in apple blossom experiments under greenhouse conditions, but was inferior to the Pa48b wild-type indicating the influence of APV in the antagonism. In plant experiments with the soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea both, Pa48b and the APV-negative mutant, successfully suppressed the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the P. agglomerans strain Pa48b is an efficient biocontrol organism against plant pathogens, and we prove its ability for fast colonization of plant surfaces over a wide temperature range. PMID:23233458

  18. Survival of Pantoea agglomerans E325 as fire blight biocontrol agent when osmoadapted in high-saline medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 is available commercially as the active ingredient in a freeze-dried product (Bloomtime FDTM) of Northwest Agricultural Products (NAP) for biological control of fire blight. Osmoadaptation, which involves the combination of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 is available...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a Copper-Resistant Marine Bacterium, Pantoea agglomerans Strain LMAE-2, a Bacterial Strain with Potential Use in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Corsini, Gino; Valdés, Natalia; Pradel, Paulina; Tello, Mario; Cottet, Luis; Karahanian, Eduardo; Castillo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans LMAE-2 was isolated from seabed sediment moderately contaminated with Cu2+. Here, we report its draft genome sequence, which has a size of 4.98 Mb. The presence of cop genes related with copper homeostasis in its genome may explain the resistance and strengthen its potential for use as bioremediation agent. PMID:27313292

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Copper-Resistant Marine Bacterium, Pantoea agglomerans Strain LMAE-2, a Bacterial Strain with Potential Use in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Gino; Valdés, Natalia; Pradel, Paulina; Tello, Mario; Cottet, Luis; Muiño, Laura; Karahanian, Eduardo; Castillo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans LMAE-2 was isolated from seabed sediment moderately contaminated with Cu(2+) Here, we report its draft genome sequence, which has a size of 4.98 Mb. The presence of cop genes related with copper homeostasis in its genome may explain the resistance and strengthen its potential for use as bioremediation agent. PMID:27313292

  1. [SEROLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES].

    PubMed

    Bulygina, T V; Yakovleva, L M; Brovarska, O S; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The serological and phytotoxic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of plant pathogens--Pantoea agglomerans were studied. It is known that the thin variations in the structure of the O-specific polysaccharides determining serological specificity of gram- negative bacteria and used as a molecular basis of serological classification schemes. For P. agglomerans still does not exist a classification scheme based on serology specificity of their LPS. The results of cross serological tests demonstrate immunochemical heterogeneity of species P agglomerans. Only three strains of the 8488, 8490 and 7969 according to the agglutination of O-antigens and direct hemagglutination and inhibition direct hemagglutination can be attributed to a single serogroup. Other strains--each separate group, although some have a relationship. Compared with control plants under the influence of seed treatment of LPS in plants may be reduced, and in some cases increased root length, height and weight sprout, depending on the strain from which the selected LPS. Dive seedlings of tomatoes in the solutions of the studied preparations FSC caused the loss, and after some time, restore turgor. PMID:26829835

  2. Pantoea agglomerans in Immunodeficient Patients with Different Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Flores Popoca, Erika Odilia; Miranda García, Maximino; Romero Figueroa, Socorro; Mendoza Medellín, Aurelio; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Silva Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine in 32 patients from 4 different Mexican hospitals the frequency of opportunistic bacteria in the 2010 to 2011 time period. The patients were divided in 4 groups. Group 1 included 21 HIV positive patients with acute respiratory syndrome. Four HIV positive patients with tuberculosis symptoms were included in Group 2; two patients with tuberculosis symptoms and one asymptomatic person formed Group 3. Reference Group 4 included 4 patients from whom 4 strains of Mycobacterium spp. had been reported. The strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification, API 20E and 50CH, biochemical test, and antibiotic sensitivity. The strains found were 10 Pantoea agglomerans, 6 Mycobacterium spp., 6 Pseudomonas spp. and 10 strains of normal floral species: Thermoactinomycetes bacterium (1), Enterococcus faecium (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Streptococcus oralis (2), Streptococcus anginosus (1), and Enterobacter hormaechei (1). PMID:22619600

  3. Pantoea agglomerans in immunodeficient patients with different respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Flores Popoca, Erika Odilia; Miranda García, Maximino; Romero Figueroa, Socorro; Mendoza Medellín, Aurelio; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Silva Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine in 32 patients from 4 different Mexican hospitals the frequency of opportunistic bacteria in the 2010 to 2011 time period. The patients were divided in 4 groups. Group 1 included 21 HIV positive patients with acute respiratory syndrome. Four HIV positive patients with tuberculosis symptoms were included in Group 2; two patients with tuberculosis symptoms and one asymptomatic person formed Group 3. Reference Group 4 included 4 patients from whom 4 strains of Mycobacterium spp. had been reported. The strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification, API 20E and 50CH, biochemical test, and antibiotic sensitivity. The strains found were 10 Pantoea agglomerans, 6 Mycobacterium spp., 6 Pseudomonas spp. and 10 strains of normal floral species: Thermoactinomycetes bacterium (1), Enterococcus faecium (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Streptococcus oralis (2), Streptococcus anginosus (1), and Enterobacter hormaechei (1). PMID:22619600

  4. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequences of Pantoea agglomerans Isolates Exhibiting Antagonistic Interactions with Wheat Seed-Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Links, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans isolates 3 and 4 were retrieved from the bacterial community associated with wheat seeds. These isolates differ in their pattern of growth antagonism toward Alternaria species. A comparison of the genome sequences of these two isolates revealed a high sequence identity with previously sequenced strains of P. agglomerans. PMID:27313290

  5. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequences of Pantoea agglomerans Isolates Exhibiting Antagonistic Interactions with Wheat Seed-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans isolates 3 and 4 were retrieved from the bacterial community associated with wheat seeds. These isolates differ in their pattern of growth antagonism toward Alternaria species. A comparison of the genome sequences of these two isolates revealed a high sequence identity with previously sequenced strains of P. agglomerans. PMID:27313290

  6. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  7. Pantoea agglomerans, a Plant Pathogen Causing Human Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Andrea T.; Cazacu, Andreea C.; Allen, Coburn H.

    2007-01-01

    We present 53 pediatric cases of Pantoea agglomerans infections cultured from normally sterile sites in patients seen at a children's hospital over 6 years. Isolates included 23 from the bloodstream, 14 from abscesses, 10 from joints/bones, 4 from the urinary tract, and 1 each from the peritoneum and the thorax. P. agglomerans was most associated with penetrating trauma by vegetative material and catheter-related bacteremia. PMID:17442803

  8. Early Onset Neonatal Septicaemia Caused by Pantoea agglomerans

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Das, Niloy Kumar; Guchhait, Partha; Misra, Saheli

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is an opportunistic pathogen causing infection in the immunocompromised patients. It is a plant pathogen and a rare human pathogen causing neonatal sepsis, joint infection, urinary tract infection and bloodstream infections. Neonatal Gram negative septicaemia may have an unusual presentation of subtle generalised neonatal seizures without any other cardinal features of sepsis. An appropriate diagnosis is therefore the key to proper management. P. agglomerans being an unusual cause of neonatal sepsis should be diagnosed early with proper antibiogram for clinical cure. Here, we report a case of neonatal sepsis caused by P. agglomerans in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India. PMID:27437219

  9. Draft genome sequences of Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans isolates associated with termites.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Marike; de Maayer, Pieter; Poulsen, Michael; Steenkamp, Emma T; van Zyl, Elritha; Coutinho, Teresa A; Venter, Stephanus N

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst these two species. The genomes of two isolates obtained from fungus-growing termites in South Africa were sequenced, assembled and annotated. A high number of orthologous genes are conserved within and between these species. The difference in genome size between P. agglomerans MP2 (4,733,829 bp) and P. vagans MP7 (4,598,703 bp) can largely be attributed to the differences in plasmid content. The genome sequences of these isolates may shed light on the common traits that enable P. agglomerans and P. vagans to co-occur in plant- and insect-associated niches. PMID:26937267

  10. The combination Enterobacter agglomerans is to be cited as Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Ewing and Fife 1972 and the combination Pantoea agglomerans is to be cited as Pantoea agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Gavini et al. 1989. Opinion 90. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that, according to information presented to it, the combination Enterobacter agglomerans is to be cited as Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Ewing and Fife 1972 and the combination Pantoea agglomerans is to be cited as Pantoea agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Gavini et al. 1989. PMID:25288660

  11. Evidence that antibiotic of Pantoea agglomerans E325 is produced and active against Erwinia amylovora on stigmas of pomaceous blossoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325, the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, previously was shown to produce a unique pH-sensitive inhibitor in vitro that is specific to E. amylovora. To evaluate antibiosis as a mode of antagonism of E325, Tn5 mutagenesis was used to generate...

  12. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  13. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    a biocontrol agent permits the decrease of pesticide doses, being a healthy and environmental-friendly procedure. The application of the preparations of this bacterium efficiently protects the stored pome, stone and citrus fruits against invasion of moulds. P. agglomerans strains associated with both rhizosphere and plant tissues (as endophytes) efficiently promote the growth of many plants, including rice and wheat, which are the staple food for the majority of mankind. The promotion mechanisms are diverse and include fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, production of phytohormones, as well as degradation of phytate and phosphate solubilizing which makes the soil phosphorus available for plants. Accordingly, P. agglomerans is regarded as an ideal candidate for an environmental-friendly bioinoculant replacing chemical fertilizers. It has been documented that the Pantoea strains show biodegradation activity on various chemical pollutants of soil and water, including petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic metals. P. agglomerans prevents the penetration of harmful industrial contaminants into deeper parts of soil by biofilm formation, and has an ability to produce hydrogen from waste. Thus, this bacterium appears as a valuable bioremediator which, in some cases, may be acquired as a cheap form of energy. In conclusion, in spite of the proven pathologic role of P. agglomerans in causing occupational diseases of allergic and/or immunotoxic background and accidental infections, the beneficial traits of this species, and of related species of Pantoea genus, are of great value for potential use in many areas of biotechnology. Hence, any restrictions on the use of these organisms and their products should be declined, providing safety precautions at work with the Pantoea biopreparations are maintained. PMID:27294621

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with P. agglomerans, others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with P. agglomerans is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by Pantoea agglomerans in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus). P. agglomerans strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. Pantoea agglomerans usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental plant called Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), and a grass called onion couch

  15. Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

  16. Immigrant Pantoea agglomerans embedded within indigenous microbial aggregates: a novel spatial distribution of epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Ma, Anzhou; Cui, Mengmeng; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-02-01

    Immigrant bacteria located on leaf surfaces are important to the health of plants as well as to people who consume fresh fruits and vegetables. However, the spatial distribution and organization of these immigrant bacteria on leaf surfaces are still poorly understood. To examine the spatial organization of these strains, two bacterial strains on tobacco leaves: (1) an indigenous strain, Pseudomonas stutzeri Nov. Y2011 labeled with green fluorescent protein, and (2) an immigrant strain Pantoea agglomerans labeled with cyan fluorescent protein isolated from pear, were studied. Under moist conditions, P. agglomerans cells quickly disappeared from direct observation by laser-scanning confocal microscopy, although elution results indicated that large amounts of live cells were still present on the leaves. Following exposure to desiccation stress, particles of cyan fluorescent protein-labeled P. agglomerans were visible within cracked aggregates of P. stutzeri Nov. Y2011. Detailed observation of sectioned aggregates showed that colonies of immigrant P. agglomerans were embedded within aggregates of P. stutzeri Nov. Y2011. Furthermore, carbon-resource partitioning studies suggested that these two species could coexist without significant nutritional competition. This is the first observation of an immigrant bacterium embedding within aggregates of indigenous bacteria on leaves to evade harsh conditions in the phyllosphere. PMID:25076531

  17. [Absence of mutagenic effect of Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens 9400 and Pantoea agglomerans P324 culture liquids].

    PubMed

    Bohdan, Iu M; Butsenko, L M; Pasichnyk, L A; Hvozdiak, R I

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of the culture liquids of phytopathogenic strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. atrofaciens 9400 and epiphytic strain Pantoea agglomerans P324 was studied in the Ames test and Allium cepa-test. In pro- and eucariotic test-systems no effect of the culture liquids of these bacteria on spontaneous mutations of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 or chromosome aberrations in the cells of Allium cepa root apical meristem was found. PMID:20812509

  18. AHL-type quorum sensing and its regulation on symplasmata formation in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Wu, Suisui; Wang, Jieru; Feng, Yongjun

    2015-05-01

    Pantoea agglomerans YS19, an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rice, is characterized by the formation of multicellular aggregate structure called symplasmata, which not only bestow the strong stress-resistance of the bacterium, but also contribute to the specific adaptation in the endophyte-host association. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), as the important signal molecule in the quorum sensing (QS) system of gram-negative bacteria, were demonstrated to regulate motility, cell-aggregation, and other bacterial behaviors. Here, the production of AHL by P. agglomerans YS19 and its regulation on the symplasmata formation were studied. It was revealed that the production of AHL by YS19 was initiated at the exponential growth stage and from then on, reached the peak values at the stationary growth stage in LB medium. The AHL was identified as N-3-oxooctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (OOHL) by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. The AHL synthesis gene pagI and receptor gene pagR in YS19 were cloned and phylogenetic analysis showed that they were high conservative among strains in species of P. agglomerans. It was revealed that AHL promoted the bacterial growth and symplasmata formation of YS19. Meanwhile, the colonization ability and growth-promoting effect of YS19 on the host plant were also enhanced by AHL. These results strongly suggest the pleiotropic effects of the AHL-type QS system in endophytic life of the strain. PMID:25283544

  19. [A case of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Pantoea agglomerans].

    PubMed

    Kurşun, Ozlem; Unal, Nesrin; Cesur, Salih; Altın, Nilgün; Canbakan, Başol; Argun, Cem; Koldaş, Kamer; Sencan, Irfan

    2012-04-01

    Pantoea species, which are the members of Enterobacteriaceae family are gram-negative bacilli that are frequently found on many plants and in soil. They may lead to localized infections in healthy subjects and systemic infections in immunosuppressed patients. In this case report a ventilator-associated pneumoniae due to Pantoea agglomerans was presented. A 55 year-old male patient with chronic renal failure was hospitalized in intensive care unit following cardiopulmonary arrest. The patient developed fever (38.8°C), had pulmonary infiltrations in chest X-ray and leucocytosis. Treatment with piperacillintazobactam was initiated upon diagnosis of nosocomial pneumoniae. Bacterial growth from the deep tracheal aspirate of the patient was identified as P.agglomerans by VITEK2 automated system (bioMérieux, France) and the identification was confirmed by conventional microbiological methods. Since the strain was susceptible to the cephoperazon-sulbactam, tobramycin, tetracycline, gentamicin and levofloxacine, the treatment was changed to levofloxacine and cephoperazon-sulbactam and the patient improved. This case was presented to withdraw attention to rare opportunistic pathogens that may lead to nosocomial infections particularly in patients with underlying diseases. PMID:22639319

  20. Detection and quantification by PCR assay of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 on apples.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Teixidó, Neus; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Torres, Rosario

    2014-04-01

    The registration of biological control agents requires the development of monitoring systems to detect and quantify the agent in the environment. Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 is an effective biocontrol agent for postharvest diseases of citrus and pome fruits. The monitoring of CPA-2 in postharvest semi-commercial trials was evaluated by Rodac impression plates and the colonies isolated were confirmed by conventional PCR using the SCAR primers PAGA1 and PAGB1. Samples were taken from different surfaces that had contact with CPA-2, the surrounding environment and working clothes worn by handlers. Moreover, population dynamics of the strain CPA-2 were determined on apple surfaces using both the classical plating technique and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A qPCR assay using a 3'-minor groove-binding (MGB) probe was developed for the specific detection and quantification of P. agglomerans strain CPA-2. Based on the nucleotide sequence of a SCAR fragment of CPA-2, one primer set and TaqMan MGB probe were designed. The primers SP2-F/SP2-R and the TaqMan MGB probe showed a specific detection of strain CPA-2 on apple surfaces, which was verified tested against purified DNA from 17 strains of P. agglomerans, 4 related Pantoea species, and 21 bacterial strains from other genera isolated from whole and also freshly-cut fruit and vegetables. The detection level was approximately 10(3) cells per reaction, and the standard curve was linear within a range of 5log units. Results from semi-commercial trials showed that CPA-2 had a low impact. The maximum persistence of P. agglomerans CPA-2 was not longer than 5days in plastic boxes stored at 0°C. Significant differences in CPA-2 population level dynamics were observed in results obtained by qPCR and dilution plating. These differences may indicate the presence of non-degraded DNA from non-viable cells. In conclusion, qPCR is a novel potential tool to quickly and specifically monitor recent surface colonisation by CPA-2

  1. Draft genome sequence of Pantoea agglomerans R190, a producer of antibiotics against phytopathogens and foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Byoung-Young; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-10-20

    Pantoea agglomerans R190, isolated from an apple orchard, showed antibacterial activity against various spoilage bacteria, including Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. agglomerans R190. This report will raise the value of P. agglomerans as an agent for biocontrol of disease. PMID:25087741

  2. Unusual causes of peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:21477370

  3. Identification of Candida tropicalis BH-6 and synergistic effect with Pantoea agglomerans BH-18 on hydrogen production in marine culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daling; Ma, Yingchao; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua

    2015-03-01

    A marine yeast was isolated from mangrove sludge and named Candida tropicalis BH-6. The optimum temperature and the initial pH value for growth of the isolated strain were 37 °C and 5.0, respectively. The strain had high salt tolerance and could survive at NaCl concentrations of 0-6 %. Additionally, the yield of hydrogen production by C. tropicalis BH-6 was only 66.30 ml/l. However, when the yeast was mixed with Pantoea agglomerans BH-18, hydrogen production increased significantly to a maximum of 1707.5 ml/l, which was 36.94 and 247.54 % higher than the monoculture of P. agglomerans BH-18 and C. tropicalis BH-6, respectively. Taken together, these results revealed that in mixed culture, the yeast strain isolated from the same ecosystem as P. agglomerans BH-18 likely consumed the organic acids produced by fermentation, thus eliminating the factor inhibiting hydrogen production by P. agglomerans BH-18. As a result, the yield of hydrogen production during mixed culture increased significantly. PMID:25561052

  4. Antibiosis and acidification by Panoea agglomerans strain E325 may contribute to suppression of Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans strain E325, a commercially-available antagonist for fire blight of apple and pear, was originally selected through broad screening based on suppression of Erwinia amylovora on flower stigmas, but specific mechanisms were unknown. Bacterial modification of pH was evaluated as a p...

  5. Association and attraction of blueberry maggot fly Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans.

    PubMed

    MacCollom, G B; Lauzon, C R; Sjogren, R E; Meyer, W L; Olday, F

    2009-02-01

    The attraction of washed, medium-free cells of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans to wild, adult Rhagoletis mendax Curran, the blueberry maggot fly, was evaluated in managed blueberry fields in Maine. Attraction was evaluated using Pherocon AM and Ladd traps, each tested with or without washed bacterial cells. Field studies showed significant increases in fly captures on the Pherocon AM traps. Apple volatiles odors on Ladd traps seemed to cancel the effects of bacterial odors. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and identified from alimentary organs within wild R. mendax. Isolates indentified included P. agglomerans. Blueberries collected in the field were surveyed for the presence of P. agglomerans and blueberries containing blueberry maggot larvae and noninfested blueberries were analyzed for amino acid content. Maggot-infested blueberry contained twice the amino acid nitrogen than that of noninfested blueberry. P. agglomerans, like with other pest tephritids, seems to be a cosmopolite with blueberry maggot. PMID:19791604

  6. Draft Genome Assemblies of Enterobacter aerogenes CDC 6003-71, Enterobacter cloacae CDC 442-68, and Pantoea agglomerans UA 0804-01.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Chertkov, O; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae are environmental and enteric microbes. We sequenced the genomes of two Enterobacter reference strains, E. aerogenes CDC 6003-71 and E. cloacae CDC 442-68, as well as one near neighbor used as an exclusionary reference for diagnostics, Pantoea agglomerans CDC UA0804-01. The genome sizes range from 4.72 to 5.55 Mbp and have G+C contents from 54.6 to 55.1%. PMID:25342683

  7. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight disease of apple.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Yong; Pusey, Paul Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu; Korban, Schuyler S; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin

    2012-07-10

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), an antagonist to the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora that causes fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 μm in diameter, were fabricated to encapsulate E325 within the core, along with nutrients, to preserve viability and promote proliferation. Controlled release of E325 was achieved by separately adjusting alginate concentrations in the shell and core solutions, and by modifying the AMC size. Viability of E325 was monitored via fluorescent staining, revealing either lack of or minimal stress during or after encapsulation. Proliferation of E325 within AMCs, followed by their subsequent release, and colonization activities within confines of apple flowers were studied under different encapsulation conditions using rfp-labeled E325 to obtain highly promising results. This study provided a 'proof of concept' of the successful use of a microencapsulated biocontrol agent, E325, against E. amylovora, and could serve as a model for further studies on the development of effective plant disease management strategies. PMID:22516094

  8. Biological Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, the Causal Agent of Basal Kernel Blight of Barley, by Antagonistic Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Braun-Kiewnick, A; Jacobsen, B J; Sands, D C

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT Strains of Pantoea agglomerans (synanamorph Erwinia herbicola) suppressed the development of basal kernel blight of barley, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, when applied to heads prior to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae infection window at the soft dough stage of kernel development. Field experiments in 1994 and 1995 revealed 45 to 74% kernel blight disease reduction, whereas glasshouse studies resulted in 50 to 100% disease control depending on the isolate used and barley cultivar screened. The efficacy of biocontrol strains was affected by time and rate of application. Percentage of kernels infected decreased significantly when P. agglomerans was applied before pathogen inoculation, but not when coinoculated. A single P. agglomerans application 3 days prior to the pathogen inoculation was sufficient to provide control since populations of about 10(7) CFU per kernel were established consistently, while Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae populations dropped 100-fold to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU per kernel. An application to the flag leaf at EC 49 (before heading) also reduced kernel infection percentages significantly. Basal blight decreased with increasing concentrations (10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml) of P. agglomerans, with 10(7) CFU/ml providing the best control. For long-term preservation and marketability, the survival of bacterial antagonists in several wettable powder formulations was tested. Over all formulations tested, the survival declined between 10- to >100-fold over a period of 1.5 years (r = -0.7; P = 0.000). Although not significant, storage of most formulations at 4 degrees C was better for viability (90 to 93% survival) than was storage at 22 degrees C (73 to 79%). However, long-term preservation had no adverse effect on biocontrol efficacy. PMID:18944586

  9. Endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans: clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Venincasa, Vincent D; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Flynn, Harry W; Sridhar, Jayanth; Miller, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical findings, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Pantoea agglomerans. Methods A consecutive case series of patients with vitreous culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by P. agglomerans from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2012 at a large university referral center. Findings from the current study were compared to prior published studies. Results Of the three study patients that were identified, clinical settings included trauma (n=2) and post-cataract surgery (n=1). Presenting visual acuity was hand motion or worse in all three cases. All isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=1) and pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=2). At last follow-up, one patient had no light perception vision, while the other two had best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 and 20/400. Conclusion All Pantoea isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, imipenem, and fluoroquinolones. All patients in the current study received at least one intravitreal antibiotic to which P. agglomerans was shown to be sensitive in vitro. In spite of this, the visual outcomes were generally poor. PMID:26185411

  10. Absence of lysogeny in wild populations of Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Roach, Dwayne R; Sjaarda, David R; Sjaarda, Calvin P; Ayala, Carlos Juarez; Howcroft, Brittany; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2015-05-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are in development as biological control agents for the prevention of fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora. Temperate phages should be excluded as biologicals since lysogeny produces the dual risks of host resistance to phage attack and the transduction of virulence determinants between bacteria. The extent of lysogeny was estimated in wild populations of E. amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans with real-time polymerase chain reaction primers developed to detect E. amylovora phages belonging to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Pantoea agglomerans, an orchard epiphyte, is easily infected by Erwinia spp. phages, and it serves as a carrier in the development of the phage-mediated biological control agent. Screening of 161 E. amylovora isolates from 16 distinct geographical areas in North America, Europe, North Africa and New Zealand and 82 P. agglomerans isolates from southern Ontario, Canada showed that none possessed prophage. Unstable phage resistant clones or lysogens were produced under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a stable lysogen was recovered from infection of bacterial isolate Ea110R with Podoviridae phage ΦEa35-20. These laboratory observations suggested that while lysogeny is possible in E. amylovora, it is rare or absent in natural populations, and there is a minimal risk associated with lysogenic conversion and transduction by Erwinia spp. phages. PMID:25678125

  11. Absence of lysogeny in wild populations of Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Dwayne R; Sjaarda, David R; Sjaarda, Calvin P; Ayala, Carlos Juarez; Howcroft, Brittany; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2015-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are in development as biological control agents for the prevention of fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora. Temperate phages should be excluded as biologicals since lysogeny produces the dual risks of host resistance to phage attack and the transduction of virulence determinants between bacteria. The extent of lysogeny was estimated in wild populations of E. amylovora and Pantoea agglomerans with real–time polymerase chain reaction primers developed to detect E. amylovora phages belonging to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Pantoea agglomerans, an orchard epiphyte, is easily infected by Erwinia spp. phages, and it serves as a carrier in the development of the phage-mediated biological control agent. Screening of 161 E. amylovora isolates from 16 distinct geographical areas in North America, Europe, North Africa and New Zealand and 82 P. agglomerans isolates from southern Ontario, Canada showed that none possessed prophage. Unstable phage resistant clones or lysogens were produced under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a stable lysogen was recovered from infection of bacterial isolate Ea110R with Podoviridae phage ΦEa35-20. These laboratory observations suggested that while lysogeny is possible in E. amylovora, it is rare or absent in natural populations, and there is a minimal risk associated with lysogenic conversion and transduction by Erwinia spp. phages. PMID:25678125

  12. [Seven cases of port-a-cath contamination caused by Pantoea agglomerans in the Oncological Service of Iseo Hospital, Brescia (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Izzo, Ilaria; Lania, Donatella; Castro, Antonino; Lanzini, Fernanda; Bella, Daniele; Pagani, Adriano; Colombini, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gram negative bacillus in the Enterobacteriaceae family, has been isolated from feculent material, plants and soil. Soft tissue and bone-joint infections due to P. agglomerans following penetrating trauma by vegetation and bacteraemia in association with intravenous fluid, total parenteral nutrition, blood products and anaesthetic agent contamination have been reported. Between October 2009 and January 2010 seven cases of port a cath contamination caused by P. agglomerans were observed in the Oncological Service of our hospital. All patients presented with septic fever after heparinization of the central venous catheter. 5/7 patients were female; mean age was 67 years (range 58-75). 6/7 patients were affected by colorectal adenocarcinoma, 1/7 by mammarian cancer. Mean time from CVC insertion was 23.8 months (range 13-42) at the time of fever. In three cases, port a cath was removed following the oncologist prescription. P. agglomerans was isolated from the catheter tip in one case and from CVC blood culture in 6-7 cases. In all cases peripheral blood cultures were negative. Patients were treated with ciprofloxacin lock therapy and systemic therapy (per os), obtaining negative cultures from port a cath. Notwithstanding the absence of isolation of Pantoea strains from environmental cultures, after educational intervention, which underlined some faulty procedures in CVC management, no further cases were observed. PMID:24955805

  13. [Ability of representatives of Pantoea agglomerans, as well as Bacillus subtilis and some Pseudomonas species to suppress the development of phytopathgenic bacteria and micromycetes in regulating plant growth].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, V M; Alimov, D M

    2000-01-01

    The ability of representatives of Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) Dye [21]), Bacillus subtilis and some species of Pseudomonas genus to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria and micromycetes and to regulate the growth of plants has been comparatively studied. The ability to inhibit the growth of mycellium of phytopathogenic Fusarium avenaceum, F. gibbosum, F. oxysporum was found out in all of 13 investigated strains of P. agglomerans, while the growth of F. culmorum is inhibited by 2 strains and Bipolaris sorokiniana is inhibited by 7 strains. The strains of P. agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis inhibit the growth of mycellium of these mycromycetes to the greater extent than the representatives of Pseudomonas genus. The mycellium growth of B. sorokiniana is better inhibited by B. subtilis and representatives of Pseudomonas genus. Besides the antifungal action 8 strains of P. agglomerans manifested the antagonistic activity in respect to phytopathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and representatives of genera Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and also in respect to the microflora which is present in the cabbage and wheat seeds. The strains have been revealed which, parallel with high antagonistic activity in respect to phytopathogenic micromycetes and bacteria, stimulate the seed germination and increase the weight of the cabbage and wheat sprouts. PMID:11421000

  14. In vitro adsorption revealing an apparent strong interaction between endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 and host rice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuxuan; Zhou, Jia; Chen, Cuicui; Shen, Delong; Song, Wei; Feng, Yongjun

    2008-12-01

    Pantoea (formerly Enterobacter) agglomerans YS19 is a dominant diazotrophic endophyte isolated from rice (Oryza sativa cv. Yuefu) grown in a temperate-climate region in west Beijing, China. In vitro adsorption and invasion of YS19 on host plant root were studied in this research. Adsorption of YS19 on rice seedling roots closely resembled the Langmuir adsorption and showed a higher adsorption quantity than the control strains Paenibacillus polymyxa WY110 (a rhizospheric bacterium from the same rice cultivar) and Escherichia coli HB101 (a general model bacterium). Adsorption dynamics study revealed high rates and a long duration of the YS19-rice root adsorption process. Adsorption of YS19 was mainly observed on the root hair, though which it enters the plant. This in vitro adsorption study revealed an apparent strong interaction between YS19 and rice at the early endophyte-host recognition stage. PMID:18781359

  15. Control of Diatraea saccharalis by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans 33.1 expressing cry1Ac7.

    PubMed

    Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Tsui, S; Parra, J R P; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is found in more than 90 % of the products used against insects, it has some difficulty reaching the internal regions where the larvae feed. To solve this problem, many genetically modified microorganisms that colonize the same pests have been developed. Thus, the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (33.1), which has been recently described as a promising sugarcane growth promoter, was genetically modified with the pJTT vector (which carries the gene cry1Ac7) to control the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. Firstly, the bioassays for D. saccharalis control by 33.1:pJTT were conducted with an artificial diet. A new in vivo methodology was also developed, which confirmed the partial control of larvae by 33.1:pJTT. The 33.1:pJTT strain was inoculated into sugarcane stalks containing the D. saccharalis larvae. In the sugarcane stalks, 33.1:pJTT was able to increase the mortality of D. saccharalis larvae, impair larval development and decrease larval weight. Sugarcane seedlings were inoculated with 33.1:pJTT, and re-isolation confirmed the capacity of 33.1:pJTT to continuously colonize the sugarcane. These results prove that P. agglomerans (33.1), a sugarcane growth promoter, can be improved by expressing the Cry protein, and the resulting strain is able to control the sugarcane borer. PMID:24531524

  16. Characterization and properties of intracellular proteins after cold acclimation of the ice-nucleating bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) IFO12686.

    PubMed

    Koda, N; Aoki, M; Kawahara, H; Yamade, K; Obata, H

    2000-11-01

    The ice-nucleating bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) IFO12686 (INA(+)) responds to a decrease in temperature by the induction of proteins. The pattern of protein bands from strain IFO12686 following a shift in temperature from 30 to 12 degrees C could be divided into four major groups: (1) increasing protein bands, (2) decreasing protein bands, (3) increasing--decreasing protein bands, and (4) almost constant protein bands. We identified a cryoprotective function in the increasing protein band found in strain IFO12686. The increasing protein bands that followed a reduction in temperature were considered to have an important role in cold acclimation or adaptation. We showed that these proteins possessed cryoprotective activity when tested against the freeze-labile enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The strain IFO12686 had greater cryotolerance than Pa. agglomerans IAM1595 (INA(-)), and the degree of cryotolerance was increased by cold acclimation. PMID:11161552

  17. An unusual cause of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients: Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Kazancioglu, Rumeyza; Buyukaydin, Banu; Iraz, Meryem; Alay, Murat; Erkoc, Reha

    2014-07-01

    Peritonitis is a serious infection and early diagnosis and treatment is mandatory. A variety of microorganisms are identified in these cases and during recent years a new one was included, Pantoea agglomerans. In this case report, a female patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy with a peritonitis episode caused by this organism is described. The source of infection was thought to be due to contact of catheter with non-sterile surfaces. In microbiologic culture, this organism was identified and the patient successfully treated with a three week course of gentamicin therapy. The number of reported cases with this organism has increased in last years and various infection localizations and clinical progress patterns have been identified. In peritoneal dialysis patients presenting with peritonitis, this organism must be kept in mind. PMID:25022305

  18. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  19. Indole affects the formation of multicellular aggregate structures in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuemei; Jiang, Jing; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Jieru; Shen, Delong; Feng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans YS19 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rice. As well as having the ability to form a biofilm, as do most bacteria, it is characterized by the formation of a unique multicellular aggregate structure called symplasmata. Indole is traditionally known as a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan, which, however, has recently been shown to participate in various regulations of bacterial physiological processes, including stress resistance, quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Here, an indole signal was found to promote symplasmata formation, yet inhibit biofilm formation, indicating different regulatory pathways of indole in the construction of the two structures. However, symplasmata showed almost an equivalent stress-resistant capability, as compared with biofilms, for YS19 to confront acids, heavy metals (Cu(2+)), and UV treatments. Moreover, indole was tested to show a promoting effect on exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and an inhibition effect on the expression of an outer membrane protein OmpW. These results provide evidence for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of indole on such multicellular aggregates. PMID:26923129

  20. Diversity of endophytic bacteria from Eucalyptus species seeds and colonization of seedlings by Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anderson; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Oda, Shinitiro; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2008-10-01

    The diversity and beneficial characteristics of endophytic microorganisms have been studied in several host plants. However, information regarding naturally occurring seed-associated endophytes and vertical transmission among different life-history stages of hosts is limited. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from seeds and seedlings of 10 Eucalyptus species and two hybrids. The results showed that endophytic bacteria, such as Bacillus, Enterococcus, Paenibacillus and Methylobacterium, are vertically transferred from seeds to seedlings. In addition, the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans was tagged with the gfp gene, inoculated into seeds and further reisolated from seedlings. These results suggested a novel approach to change the profile of the plants, where the bacterium is a delivery vehicle for desired traits. This is the first report of an endophytic bacterial community residing in Eucalyptus seeds and the transmission of these bacteria from seeds to seedlings. The bacterial species reported in this work have been described as providing benefits to host plants. Therefore, we suggest that endophytic bacteria can be transmitted vertically from seeds to seedlings, assuring the support of the bacterial community in the host plant. PMID:18710397

  1. Polar auxin transport is essential for gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans on Gypsophila.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Weinthal, Dan; Gaba, Victor; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2013-02-01

    The virulence of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) on Gypsophila paniculata depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors. The hypothesis that plant-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a major role in gall formation was examined by disrupting basipetal polar auxin transport with the specific inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). On inoculation with Pag, galls developed in gypsophila stems above but not below lanolin rings containing TIBA or NPA, whereas, in controls, galls developed above and below the rings. In contrast, TIBA and NPA could not inhibit tumour formation in tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The colonization of gypsophila stems by Pag was reduced below, but not above, the lanolin-TIBA ring. Following Pag inoculation and TIBA treatment, the expression of hrpL (a T3SS regulator) and pagR (a quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator) decreased four-fold and that of pthG (a T3SS effector) two-fold after 24 h. Expression of PIN2 (a putative auxin efflux carrier) increased 35-fold, 24 h after Pag inoculation. However, inoculation with a mutant in the T3SS effector pthG reduced the expression of PIN2 by two-fold compared with wild-type infection. The results suggest that pthG might govern the elevation of PIN2 expression during infection, and that polar auxin transport-derived IAA is essential for gall initiation. PMID:23083316

  2. Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

  3. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4)-10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3)-10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic controls on cotransport of Pantoea agglomerans cells and Zn through clean and iron oxide coated sand columns.

    PubMed

    Kapetas, Leon; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Macdonald, Alan M; Elphick, Stephen C

    2012-12-18

    Recent observations that subsurface bacteria quickly adsorb metal contaminants raise concerns that they may enhance metal transport, given the high mobility of bacteria themselves. However, metal adsorption to bacteria is also reversible, suggesting that mobility within porous medium will depend on the interplay between adsorption-desorption kinetics and thermodynamic driving forces for adsorption. Till now there has been no systematic investigation of these important interactions. This study investigates the thermodynamic and kinetic controls of cotransport of Pantoea agglomerans cells and Zn in quartz and iron-oxide coated sand (IOCS) packed columns. Batch kinetic studies show that significant Zn sorption on IOCS takes place within two hours. Adsorption onto P. agglomerans surfaces reaches equilibrium within 30 min. Experiments in flow through quartz sand systems demonstrate that bacteria have negligible effect on zinc mobility, regardless of ionic strength and pH conditions. Zinc transport exhibits significant retardation in IOCS columns at high pH in the absence of cells. Yet, when mobile bacteria (non attached) are passed through simultaneously with zinc, no facilitated transport is observed. Adsorption onto cells becomes significant and plays a role in mobile metal speciation only once the IOCS is saturated with zinc. This suggests that IOCS exhibits stronger affinity for Zn than cell surfaces. However, when bacteria and Zn are preassociated on entering the column, zinc transport is initially facilitated. Subsequently, zinc partly desorbs from the cells and redistributes onto the IOCS as a result of the higher thermodynamic affinity for IOCS. PMID:23153272

  5. Characterization of the mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity of Pantoea agglomerans MMB051 isolated from an iron-rich soil in southeastern Venezuela (Bolívar State).

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Miguel; Pérez, Elizabeth; Ball, María M; Bahsas, Alí; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2009-04-01

    The mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) activity of a Pantoea agglomerans strain, namely MMB051, isolated from an iron-rich, acidic soil near Ciudad Piar (Bolívar State, Venezuela), was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including tri-calcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)], iron phosphate (FePO(4)), aluminum phosphate (AlPO(4)), and Rock Phosphate (RP) were tested as sole sources of P for bacterial growth. Solubilization of Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) was very efficient and depended on acidification of the external milieu when MMB051 cells were grown in the presence of glucose. This was also the case when RP was used as the sole P source. On the other hand, the solubilization efficiency toward more insoluble mineral phosphates (FePO(4) and AlPO(4)) was shown to be very low. Even though gluconic acid (GA) was detected on culture supernatants of strain MMB051, a consequence of the direct oxidation pathway of glucose, inorganic-P solubilization seemed also to be related to other processes dependent on active cell growth. Among these, proton release by ammonium (NH(4)(+) ) fixation appeared to be of paramount importance to explain inorganic-P solubilization mediated by strain MMB051. On the contrary, the presence of nitrate (NO(3)(-) ) salts as the sole N source affected negatively the ability of MMB051 cells to solubilize inorganic P. PMID:19067045

  6. Characterization of the Biosynthetic Operon for the Antibacterial Peptide Herbicolin in Pantoea vagans Biocontrol Strain C9-1 and Incidence in Pantoea Species

    PubMed Central

    Kamber, Tim; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Ishimaru, Carol A.; Smits, Theo H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Pantoea vagans C9-1 is a biocontrol strain that produces at least two antibiotics inhibiting the growth of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of pear and apple. One antibiotic, herbicolin I, was purified from culture filtrates of P. vagans C9-1 and determined to be 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine, also known as Nß-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP-valine. A plasposon library was screened for mutants that had lost the ability to produce herbicolin I. It was shown that mutants had reduced biocontrol efficacy in immature pear assays. The biosynthetic gene cluster in P. vagans C9-1 was identified by sequencing the flanking regions of the plasposon insertion sites. The herbicolin I biosynthetic gene cluster consists of 10 coding sequences (CDS) and is located on the 166-kb plasmid pPag2. Sequence comparisons identified orthologous gene clusters in Pantoea agglomerans CU0119 and Serratia proteamaculans 568. A low incidence of detection of the biosynthetic cluster in a collection of 45 Pantoea spp. from biocontrol, environmental, and clinical origins showed that this is a rare trait among the tested strains. PMID:22504810

  7. Characterization of the biosynthetic operon for the antibacterial peptide herbicolin in Pantoea vagans biocontrol strain C9-1 and incidence in Pantoea species.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Lansdell, Theresa A; Stockwell, Virginia O; Ishimaru, Carol A; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2012-06-01

    Pantoea vagans C9-1 is a biocontrol strain that produces at least two antibiotics inhibiting the growth of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease of pear and apple. One antibiotic, herbicolin I, was purified from culture filtrates of P. vagans C9-1 and determined to be 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine, also known as N(ß)-epoxysuccinamoyl-DAP-valine. A plasposon library was screened for mutants that had lost the ability to produce herbicolin I. It was shown that mutants had reduced biocontrol efficacy in immature pear assays. The biosynthetic gene cluster in P. vagans C9-1 was identified by sequencing the flanking regions of the plasposon insertion sites. The herbicolin I biosynthetic gene cluster consists of 10 coding sequences (CDS) and is located on the 166-kb plasmid pPag2. Sequence comparisons identified orthologous gene clusters in Pantoea agglomerans CU0119 and Serratia proteamaculans 568. A low incidence of detection of the biosynthetic cluster in a collection of 45 Pantoea spp. from biocontrol, environmental, and clinical origins showed that this is a rare trait among the tested strains. PMID:22504810

  8. The influence of antibiotic production and pre-emptive colonization on the population dynamics of Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) Eh1087 and Erwinia amylovora in planta.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Stephen R; Houliston, Gary J; Mahanty, H Khris

    2003-10-01

    Stigma colonization by Erwinia amylovora is the crucial first step in the development of most fire blight infections in apple and pear trees. Suppression at this point of the disease process by antagonists of E. amylovora, such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola) strain Eh1087, is a rational approach to control fire blight. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of E. amylovora to compete with Eh1087 for colonization of a stigma is reduced by the potential for Eh1087 to produce the phenazine antibiotic, d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA). In competition experiments on the stigmas of apple flowers, E. amylovora was significantly less successful against Eh1087 (AGA+) than against EhDeltaAGA (AGA-). Further experiments to test the importance of pre-emptive colonization of the stigma by either the pathogen or the antagonist suggested that AGA production significantly enhanced the competitiveness of Eh1087 when it was applied at the same time or 24 h before the pathogen. We also found that pre-emptive stigma colonization by either the pathogen or the antagonist resulted in a population that was resilient to subsequent invasion by a second species suggesting that niche exclusion has a dominant influence on the dynamics of bacterial populations on stigmas. PMID:14510856

  9. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. PMID:24548212

  10. Kinetics of bacterial potentiometric titrations: the effect of equilibration time on buffering capacity of Pantoea agglomerans suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kapetas, Leon; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Macdonald, Alan M; Elphick, Stephen C

    2011-07-15

    Several recent studies have made use of continuous acid-base titration data to describe the surface chemistry of bacterial cells as a basis for accurately modelling metal adsorption to bacteria and other biomaterials of potential industrial importance. These studies do not share a common protocol; rather they titrate in different pH ranges and they use different stability criteria to define equilibration time during titration. In the present study we investigate the kinetics of bacterial titrations and test the effect they have on the derivation of functional group concentrations and acidity constants. We titrated suspensions of Pantoea agglomerans by varying the equilibration time between successive titrant additions until stability of 0.1 or 0.001 mV s(-1) was attained. We show that under longer equilibration times, titration results are less reproducible and suspensions exhibit marginally higher buffering. Fluorescence images suggest that cell lysis is not responsible for these effects. Rather, high DOC values and titration reversibility hysterisis after long equilibration times suggest that variability in buffering is due to the presence of bacterial exudates, as demonstrated by titrating supernatants separated from suspensions of different equilibration times. It is recommended that an optimal equilibration time is always determined with variable stability control and preliminary reversibility titration experiments. PMID:21543082

  11. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  12. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40–79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  13. DNA-based methodologies for the quantification of live and dead cells in formulated biocontrol products based on Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Solsona, Cristina; Teixidó, Neus

    2015-10-01

    Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against the major postharvest pathogens present on pome and citrus fruits. Dehydration, such as freeze-drying, spray-drying and fluidized bed drying is one of the best ways to formulate BCAs. In this work, the survival of CPA-2 cells after formulation was determined by dilution plating and molecular methods as qPCR alone and combined with a sample pretreatment with a propidium monoazide dye (PMA-qPCR) and they were used to calculate treatment concentrations in efficacy trials on postharvest oranges. Furthermore, no significant differences in CPA-2 survival were observed as determined by dilution plating and PMA-qPCR after both the freeze drying and fluidized bed drying processes; however, an interesting significant difference was observed in the spray dried product comparing all quantitative methods. A difference of 0.48 and 2.17 log10 CFU or cells g/dw was observed among PMA-qPCR with qPCR and dilution plating, respectively. According to our study, dilution plating was shown to be an unreliable tool for monitoring the survival of CPA-2 after spray drying. In contrast, the combination of PMA and qPCR enabled a quick and unequivocal methodology to enumerate viable and VBNC CPA-2 cells under stress-dried conditions. Efficacy trials showed that, after 3 days, spray drying formulation rehydrated with 10% non-fat skimmed milk (NFSM) was as effective as fresh cells to control Penicillium digitatum in oranges. PMID:26114590

  14. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  15. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pantoea sp. OXWO6B1

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea sp. strain OXWO6B1 inhibits the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. We determined the 5.2-Mbp genome sequence of this strain, which featured at least 3 confirmed plasmids of up to 250 kbp. The genome sequence of OXWO6B1 is different from that of all previously sequenced strains of Pantoea. PMID:27340064

  16. The type III effector HsvG of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans mediates expression of the host gene HSVGT.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Gal; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura; Teper, Doron; Yeheskel, Adva; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac

    2012-02-01

    The type III effector HsvG of the gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae is a DNA-binding protein that is imported to the host nucleus and involved in host specificity. The DNA-binding region of HsvG was delineated to 266 amino acids located within a secondary structure region near the N-terminus of the protein but did not display any homology to canonical DNA-binding motifs. A binding site selection procedure was used to isolate a target gene of HsvG, named HSVGT, in Gypsophila paniculata. HSVGT is a predicted acidic protein of the DnaJ family with 244 amino acids. It harbors characteristic conserved motifs of a eukaryotic transcription factor, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal, zinc finger, and leucine zipper DNA-binding motifs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that HSVGT transcription is specifically induced in planta within 2 h after inoculation with the wild-type P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae compared with the hsvG mutant. Induction of HSVGT reached a peak of sixfold at 4 h after inoculation and progressively declined thereafter. Gel-shift assay demonstrated that HsvG binds to the HSVGT promoter, indicating that HSVGT is a direct target of HsvG. Our results support the hypothesis that HsvG functions as a transcription factor in gypsophila. PMID:21995766

  17. Isolation of Bioactive Phenazine-1-Carboxamide from the Soil Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and Study of Its Anticancer Potency on Different Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hayssam M; El-Shikh, Mohamed S; Salem, Mohamed Z M; M, Muzaheed

    2016-09-01

    The study was designed to investigate the anticancer effect of phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) isolated from the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans naturally present in soil. PCN showed cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibitory concentrations on the cancer cell lines A549, HeLa, and SW480 were between 32 and 40 μM. Significantly increased concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase were found with increasing concentrations of PCN, which resulted in increased destruction of the cancer cell membrane. A significantly increased p53 level was accompanied by the increased production of cytochrome c protein in all cancer cell lines studied. This condition in cells leads to the overexpression of caspase 3 and Bcl-2 family proteins. Upregulation and downregulation of proapoptotic and antiproapoptotic proteins were analyzed for their messenger RNA and protein expression. The activation of caspases and their cleavage compounds paves the way for the complete apoptosis process in cancer cells. We conclude that P. agglomerans-derived PCN acts as an effective anticancer drug or compound. PMID:27349444

  18. Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Pantoea stewartii Strain M073A through Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Izzati Mohamad, Nur; Tan, Wen-Si; Chang, Chien-Yi; Keng Tee, Kok; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii strain M073a is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a tropical waterfall. This strain exhibits quorum-sensing activity. Here, the assembly and annotation of its genome are presented. PMID:25700398

  19. Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Pantoea stewartii Strain M073A through Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Izzati Mohamad, Nur; Tan, Wen-Si; Chang, Chien-Yi; Keng Tee, Kok; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii strain M073a is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a tropical waterfall. This strain exhibits quorum-sensing activity. Here, the assembly and annotation of its genome are presented. PMID:25700398

  20. Examining phylogenetic relationships of Erwinia and Pantoea species using whole genome sequence data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yucheng; Qiu, Sai

    2015-11-01

    The genera Erwinia and Pantoea contain species that are devastating plant pathogens, non-pathogen epiphytes, and opportunistic human pathogens. However, some controversies persist in the taxonomic classification of these two closely related genera. The phylogenomic analysis of these two genera was investigated via a comprehensive analysis of 25 Erwinia genomes and 23 Pantoea genomes. Single-copy orthologs could be extracted from the Erwinia/Pantoea core-genome to reconstruct the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny. This tree has strong bootstrap support for almost all branches. We also estimated the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between each genome; strains from the same species showed ANI values ≥96% and isDDH values >70%. These data confirm that whole genome sequence data provides a powerful tool to resolve the complex taxonomic questions of Erwinia/Pantoea, e.g. Pantoea agglomerans 299R was not clustered into a single group with other P. agglomerans strains, and the ANI values and isDDH values between them were <91% and around 43.8%, respectively. These data indicate P. agglomerans 299R should not be classified into the P. agglomerans species. In addition, another strain (Pantoea sp. At_9b) was identified that may represent a novel Pantoea species. We also evaluated the performance of six commonly used housekeeping genes (atpD, carA, gyrB, infB, recA, and rpoB) in phylogenetic inference. A single gene was not enough to obtain a reliable species tree, and it was necessary to use the multilocus sequence analysis of the six marker genes to recover the Erwinia/Pantoea phylogeny. PMID:26296376

  1. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter spp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens isolates from a Bulgarian hospital.

    PubMed

    Markovska, Rumyana Donkova; Stoeva, Temenuga Jekova; Bojkova, Kalina Dineva; Mitov, Ivan Gergov

    2014-04-01

    Forty-two extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens, collected consecutively during the period January-November 2011 from the University Hospital in Varna, Bulgaria, were studied to characterize their ESBLs by isoelectric focusing, group-specific PCR, and sequencing. The epidemiological relationship was evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). Transferability of ESBL genes was determined by conjugation experiments. Plasmid analysis was done by replicon typing and PstI fingerprinting. The overall rate of ESBL production was 20%. The most widespread enzyme was CTX-M-3, found in 64%. It was dominant in E. aerogenes (100%) and S. marcescens (83%). SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found among E. cloacae isolates in 50%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Three main CTX-M-3-producing epidemic clones of E. aerogenes and S. marcescens have been detected. Among E. cloacae isolates, six different RAPD profiles were discerned. The plasmids harboring blaCTX-M-3 belonged to IncL/M type and demonstrated similar PstI fingerprinting profiles. IncFII plasmids were detected in two CTX-M-15-producing E. cloacae isolates. Our results demonstrate wide intrahospital dissemination of clonal E. aerogenes and S. marcescens isolates, carrying IncL/M conjugative plasmids. PMID:24171449

  2. A Lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea Agglomerans Is a Promising Adjuvant for Sublingual Vaccines to Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice via TLR4 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fukasaka, Masahiro; Asari, Daisuke; Kiyotoh, Eiji; Okazaki, Arimichi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Hori, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSpa) has been applied to various fields for human use as a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand and its safety has been confirmed. Here, we showed for the first time the application of LPSpa as an effective mucosal adjuvant for activating vaccine-induced antigen specific immune responses. Mice sublingually immunized with influenza vaccine (HA split vaccine) with LPSpa induced both HA-specific IgG (systemic) and IgA (mucosal) antibody responses, which led to a significant increase in survival rate against lethal influenza virus challenge compared with subcutaneous vaccination. After sublingual administration of ovalbumin with LPSpa, ovalbumin-specific mucosal IgA responses were induced at both mucosal surfaces close to the immunized site and at remote mucosal surfaces. Sublingual administration of LPSpa evoked local antigen-uptake by dendritic cells in cervical lymph nodes. LPSpa induced cytokine production and the maturation and proliferation of innate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 in dendritic cells. Collectively, these results suggest that LPSpa can be used as an effective mucosal adjuvant to stimulate and activate local innate immune cells to improve and enhance mucosal vaccine potency against various pathogens. PMID:25978818

  3. A Lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea Agglomerans Is a Promising Adjuvant for Sublingual Vaccines to Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice via TLR4 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kiyotoh, Eiji; Okazaki, Arimichi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Hori, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSpa) has been applied to various fields for human use as a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand and its safety has been confirmed. Here, we showed for the first time the application of LPSpa as an effective mucosal adjuvant for activating vaccine-induced antigen specific immune responses. Mice sublingually immunized with influenza vaccine (HA split vaccine) with LPSpa induced both HA-specific IgG (systemic) and IgA (mucosal) antibody responses, which led to a significant increase in survival rate against lethal influenza virus challenge compared with subcutaneous vaccination. After sublingual administration of ovalbumin with LPSpa, ovalbumin-specific mucosal IgA responses were induced at both mucosal surfaces close to the immunized site and at remote mucosal surfaces. Sublingual administration of LPSpa evoked local antigen-uptake by dendritic cells in cervical lymph nodes. LPSpa induced cytokine production and the maturation and proliferation of innate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 in dendritic cells. Collectively, these results suggest that LPSpa can be used as an effective mucosal adjuvant to stimulate and activate local innate immune cells to improve and enhance mucosal vaccine potency against various pathogens. PMID:25978818

  4. Pantoea applied genomics to understand and improve biocontrol activity against fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans and P. vagans (ex. Erwinia herbicola) are common epiphytes of pome fruit flowers and three strains (E325, P10c, C9-1) have been commercially developed as effective biocontrol products for managing fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Antibiotics as a standard, reliable chemical optio...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores. PMID:24309733

  6. Understanding the Quorum-Sensing Bacterium Pantoea stewartii Strain M009 with Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen-Si; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii is known to be the causative agent of Stewart’s wilt, which usually affects sweet corn (Zea mays) with the corn flea beetle as the transmission vector. In this work, we present the whole-genome sequence of Pantoea stewartii strain M009, isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. PMID:25635007

  7. Understanding the Quorum-Sensing Bacterium Pantoea stewartii Strain M009 with Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii is known to be the causative agent of Stewart's wilt, which usually affects sweet corn (Zea mays) with the corn flea beetle as the transmission vector. In this work, we present the whole-genome sequence of Pantoea stewartii strain M009, isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. PMID:25635007

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea sp. Strain MBLJ3, Isolated in a Laboratory Environmental Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tianwei; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of a newly isolated strain, Pantoea sp. MBLJ3. The genome is 4.8 Mb in size, with a G+C content of 54.27%, and it contains 4,522 protein-coding sequences, 69 tRNA genes, and 5 rRNA genes. PMID:25720687

  9. Emended description of the genus Pantoea, description of four species from human clinical samples, Pantoea septica sp. nov., Pantoea eucrina sp. nov., Pantoea brenneri sp. nov. and Pantoea conspicua sp. nov., and transfer of Pectobacterium cypripedii (Hori 1911) Brenner et al. 1973 emend. Hauben et al. 1998 to the genus as Pantoea cypripedii comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Venter, Stephanus N; Engelbeen, Katrien; De Vos, Paul; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial strains belonging to DNA hybridization groups (HG) II, IV and V, in the Erwinia herbicola-Enterobacter agglomerans complex, of Brenner et al. [Int J Syst Bacteriol 34 (1984), 45-55] were suggested previously to belong to the genus Pantoea, but have never been formally described and classified. Additionally, it has been shown in several studies that Pectobacterium cypripedii is more closely related to species of Pantoea than to those of Pectobacterium. In this study, the phylogenetic positions of Brenner's DNA HG II, IV and V and Pectobacterium cypripedii were re-examined by both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) based on the gyrB, rpoB, atpD and infB genes. The analyses revealed that DNA HG II, IV and V and Pectobacterium cypripedii form five separate branches within the genus Pantoea (strains from HG V were split into two branches). DNA-DNA hybridization data further confirmed that DNA HG II, IV and V constitute four separate species. Pectobacterium cypripedii was shown to be a close phylogenetic relative of Pantoea dispersa and DNA HG IV by both 16S rRNA gene sequence and MLSA analyses. Biochemical analyses performed on strains from DNA HG II, IV and V and Pectobacterium cypripedii confirmed their taxonomic position within the genus Pantoea and revealed phenotypic characteristics that allow the differentiation of these species from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. It is proposed to emend the description of the genus Pantoea and to describe Pantoea septica sp. nov. for DNA HG II (type strain LMG 5345(T) =BD 874(T) =CDC 3123-70(T)), Pantoea eucrina sp. nov. for DNA HG IV (type strain LMG 2781(T) =BD 872(T) =CDC 1741-71(T) =LMG 5346(T)), Pantoea brenneri sp. nov. for strains of DNA HG V excluding LMG 24534 (type strain LMG 5343(T) =BD 873(T) =CDC 3482-71(T)) and Pantoea conspicua sp. nov. for the remaining strain of DNA HG V (type strain LMG 24534(T) =BD 805(T) =CDC 3527-71(T)) and to transfer

  10. Development of PMA real-time PCR method to quantify viable cells of Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2, an antagonist to control the major postharvest diseases on oranges.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Teixidó, Neus; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Torres, Rosario

    2014-06-16

    Dilution plating is the quantification method commonly used to estimate the population level of postharvest biocontrol agents, but this method does not permit a distinction among introduced and indigenous strains. Recently, molecular techniques based on DNA amplification such as quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been successfully applied for their high strain-specific detection level. However, the ability of qPCR to distinguish viable and nonviable cells is limited. A promising strategy to avoid this issue relies on the use of nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), as a sample pretreatment prior to the qPCR. The objective of this study was to optimize a protocol based on PMA pre-treatment samples combined with qPCR to distinguish and quantify viable cells of the biocontrol agent P. agglomerans CPA-2 applied as a postharvest treatment on orange. The efficiency of PMA-qPCR method under the established conditions (30μM PMA for 20min of incubation followed by 30min of LED light exposure) was evaluated on an orange matrix. Results showed no difference in CFU or cells counts of viable cells between PMA-qPCR and dilution plating. Samples of orange matrix inoculated with a mixture of viable/dead cells showed 5.59log10 CFU/ml by dilution plating, 8.25log10 cells/ml by qPCR, and 5.93log10 cells/ml by PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, samples inoculated with heat-killed cells were not detected by dilution plating and PMA-qPCR, while by qPCR was of 8.16log10 cells/ml. The difference in quantification cycles (Cq) among qPCR and PMA-qPCR was approximately 16cycles, which means a reduction of 65,536 fold of the dead cells detected. In conclusion, PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantify viable CPA-2 cells, which could be useful to estimate the ability of this antagonist to colonize the orange surface. PMID:24786552

  11. Influence of native plasmids to fitness of Pantoea vagans strain C9-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea vagans strain C9-1 is a biological control agent for fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora. We cured C9-1 of two of its three plasmids: pPag2, pPag3, and both pPag2 and pPag3, tested phenotypes of the derivatives, and evaluated blossom colonization in the field. pPag2 (166 kb) encodes for ...

  12. Degradation of acephate by Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus cereus and Pantoea agglomerans isolated from diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L), a pest of cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Murthy, Kottilingam Srinivasa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Varghese, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Acephate-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from the larval gut of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a notorious pest of cruciferous crops worldwide that has developed resistance to insecticides. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as Bacillus cereus (PX-B.C.Or), Enterobacter asburiae (PXE), and Pantoae agglomerans (PX-Pt.ag.Jor). All isolates grew on minimal media (MM) in the presence of acephate at 100 and 200 ppm, with maximum growth at 200 ppm. LC-MS analyses of spent medium showed that E. asburiae degraded acephate to methamidophos and O, O-dimethyl phosporamidate and B. cereus O,S-dimethyl to phosphorothioate but P. agglomerans to an unnamed compound. All three isolates used acephate as a source of carbon and energy for growth; however, P. agglomerans used it also as source of sulphur. Strong evidence revealed that the bacterial communities present in the gut of diamondback moth might aid in acephate degradation and play a role in the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:27498509

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea anthophila Strain 11-2 from Hypersaline Lake Laysan, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shaobin; Phan, Nolwenn; Malone Moss, Jennifer S.; Donachie, Stuart P.; Alam, Maqsudul

    2015-01-01

    Most Pantoea spp. have been isolated from plant sources or clinical samples. However, we cultivated Pantoea anthophila 11-2 from hypersaline water from the lake on Laysan, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Draft genome sequencing of 11-2 provides a molecular basis for studies in evolution and pathogenicity in Pantoea spp. PMID:25977417

  14. Pantoea pleuroti sp. nov., Isolated from the Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanwei; Yin, Yonggang; Rong, Chengbo; Chen, Sanfeng; Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Xu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Four Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii showing symptoms of bacterial blight disease in Beijing, China. Nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed these isolates in the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on the partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB revealed Pantoea agglomerans as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic tests confirmed the classification of the new isolates as a novel species. The name Pantoea pleuroti sp. nov. [type strain KCTC 42084(T) = CGMCC 1.12894(T) = JZB 2120015(T)] is proposed. PMID:26581526

  15. Comparative genomics of type VI secretion systems in strains of Pantoea ananatis from different environments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been identified in several different bacteria, including the plant pathogenPantoea ananatis. Previous in silico analyses described three different T6SS loci present in the pathogenic strain of P. ananatis LMG 20103. This initial investigation has been extended to include an additional seven sequenced strains of P. ananatis together with 39 strains from different ecological niches. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were used to investigate the distribution, evolution, intra-strain variability and operon structure of the T6SS in the sequenced strains. Results Three different T6SS loci were identified in P. ananatis strain LMG 20103 and designated PA T6SS 1-3. PA T6SS-1 was present in all sequenced strains of P. ananatis and in all 39 additional strains examined in this study. In addition, PA T6SS-1 included all 13 core T6SS genes required for synthesis of a functional T6SS. The plasmid-borne PA T6SS-2 also included all 13 core T6SS genes but was restricted to only 33% (15/46) of the strains examined. In addition, PA T6SS-2 was restricted to strains of P. ananatis isolated from symptomatic plant material. This finding raises the possibility of an association between PA T6SS-2 and either pathogenicity or host specificity. The third cluster PA T6SS-3 was present in all strains analyzed in this study but lacked 11 of the 13 core T6SS genes suggesting it may not encoded a functional T6SS. Inter-strain variability was also associated with hcp and vgrG islands, which are associated with the T6SS and encode a variable number of proteins usually of unknown function. These proteins may play a role in the fitness of different strains in a variety of ecological niches or as candidate T6SS effectors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PA T6SS-1 and PA T6SS-2 are evolutionarily distinct. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the three T6SSs of P. ananatis appear to have been independently acquired and may play different

  16. Discovery of Pantoea rodasii Strain ND03 that Produces N-(3-Oxo-hexanoyl)-l-homoserine Lactone

    PubMed Central

    Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Proteobacteria use quorum sensing to regulate target gene expression in response to population density. Quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via so-called signalling molecules and the best-studied QS signalling system uses N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). This study aimed to identify and characterize the production of AHLs by a bacterium ND03 isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. Molecular identification showed that ND03 is a Pantoea sp. closely related to Pantoea rodasii. We used Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, an AHL biosensor for preliminary AHL production screening and then used high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, to confirm that P. rodasii strain ND03 produced N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for such a discovery in P. rodasii strain ND03. PMID:24859023

  17. Discovery of Pantoea rodasii strain ND03 that produces N-(3-Oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Proteobacteria use quorum sensing to regulate target gene expression in response to population density. Quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via so-called signalling molecules and the best-studied QS signalling system uses N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). This study aimed to identify and characterize the production of AHLs by a bacterium ND03 isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. Molecular identification showed that ND03 is a Pantoea sp. closely related to Pantoea rodasii. We used Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, an AHL biosensor for preliminary AHL production screening and then used high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, to confirm that P. rodasii strain ND03 produced N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for such a discovery in P. rodasii strain ND03. PMID:24859023

  18. High-quality draft genome sequence of a new phytase-producing microorganism Pantoea sp. 3.5.1.

    PubMed

    Suleimanova, Aliya D; Toymentseva, Anna A; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Kazakov, Sergey V; Mardanova, Ayslu M; Balaban, Nelly P; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2015-01-01

    Strain 3.5.1 was isolated from soils of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, on the basis of presence of a high phytate-degrading activity. Strains with such activities attract special interest because of its potential use as feed additives and natural manures. Strain 3.5.1 harbors a 99 % 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence similarity to different Pantoea species (P. vagans, P. ananatis, P. agglomerans, P. anthophila and Pantoea sp.) and exhibits unique biochemical properties that do not allow strain identification up to species. Moreover, the strain 3.5.1 shows a low ANI and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry scores. Thus, it is likely that the strain 3.5.1 represents a new Pantoea species. Here, we present the genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1. The 4,964,649 bp draft genome consists of 23 contigs with 4,556 protein-coding and 143 RNA genes. Genome sequencing and annotation revealed two phytase genes and putative regulatory genes controlling its activity. PMID:26566420

  19. Genome Sequence of Pantoea annatis strain CFH 7-1, which is associated with a vector-borne cotton fruit disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea ananatis is a bacterium with versatile niches that vary from pathogenic to beneficial. We present the genome of strain CFH 7-1, which was recovered from a diseased greenhouse cotton boll previously caged with a field-collected cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus). These data will ...

  20. Distribution and Replication of the Pathogenicity Plasmid pPATH in Diverse Populations of the Gall-Forming Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Weinthal, Dan M.; Barash, Isaac; Panijel, Mary; Valinsky, Lea; Gaba, Victor; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2007-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans has been transformed from a commensal bacterium into two related gall-forming pathovars by acquisition of pPATH plasmids containing a pathogenicity island (PAI). This PAI harbors an hrp/hrc gene cluster, type III effectors, and phytohormone biosynthetic genes. DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed two major groups of P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae and one group of P. agglomerans pv. betae. The pPATH plasmids of the different groups had nearly identical replicons (98% identity), and the RepA protein showed the highest level of similarity with IncN plasmid proteins. A series of plasmids, designated pRAs, in which the whole replicon region (2,170 bp) or deleted derivatives of it were ligated with nptI were generated for replicon analysis. A basic 929-bp replicon (pRA6) was sufficient for replication in Escherichia coli and in nonpathogenic P. agglomerans. However, the whole replicon region (pRA1) was necessary for expulsion of the pPATH plasmid, which resulted in the loss of pathogenicity. The presence of direct repeats in the replicon region suggests that the pPATH plasmid is an iteron plasmid and that the repeats may regulate its replication. The pPATH plasmids are nonconjugative but exhibit a broad host range, as shown by replication of pRA1 in Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses indicated that the PAIs in the two groups of P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae are similar but different from those in P. agglomerans pv. betae. The results could indicate that the pPATH plasmids evolved from a common ancestral mobilizable plasmid that was transferred into different strains of P. agglomerans. PMID:17921271

  1. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathway and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activities in Pantoea dispersa strain GPK.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, G B; Nayak, A S; Sajjan, S S; Oblesha, A; Karegoudar, T B

    2013-05-01

    This investigation deals with the production of IAA by a bacterial isolate Pantoea dispersa strain GPK (PDG) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. HPLC and Mass spectral analysis of metabolites from bacterial spent medium revealed that, IAA production by PDG is Trp-dependent and follows indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) showed high activities, only when tryptophan (Trp) and α-ketoglutarate (α-kg) were used as substrates. AAT is highly specific for Trp and α-kg as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. The effect of exogenous IAA on bacterial growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA induced the growth, whereas high concentration decreased the growth of bacterium. PDG treatment significantly increased the root length, shoot length and dry mass of the chickpea and pigeon pea plants. PMID:23448265

  2. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles to Compare Copper-Tolerant and Copper-Sensitive Strains of Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, C; Gitaitis, R; Sanders, H; Langston, D; Mullinix, B; Torrance, R; Boyhan, G; Zolobowska, L

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT A survey was conducted to evaluate differences in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles among strains of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), isolated from 15 different onion cultivars in three different sites in Georgia. Differences in FAME composition were determined by plotting principal components (PCs) in two-dimensional plots. Euclidean distance squared (ED(2)) values indicated a high degree of similarity among strains. Plotting of PCs calculated from P. ananatis strains capable of growing on media amended with copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) indicated that copper-tolerant strains grouped into tight clusters separate from clusters formed by wild-type strains. However, unlike copper-sensitive strains, the copper-tolerant strains tended to cluster by location. A total of 80, 60, and 73% of the strains from Tift1, Tift2, and Tattnall, respectively, exhibited either confluent growth or partial growth on copper-amended medium. However, all strains were sensitive to a mixture of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) and maneb (40 mug/ml). When copper-tolerant clones were analyzed and compared with their wild-type parents, in all cases the plotting of PCs developed from copper-tolerant clones formed tight clusters separate from clusters formed by the parents. Eigenvalues generated from these tests indicated that two components provided a good summary of the data, accounting for 98, 98, and 96% of the standardized variance for strains Pna 1-15B, Pna 1-12B, and Pna 2-5A, respectively. Furthermore, feature 4 (cis-9-hexadecenoic acid/2-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanoic acid) and feature 7 (cis-9/trans-12/cis-7-octadecenoic acid) were the highest or second highest absolute values for PC1 in all three strains of the parents versus copper-tolerant clones, and hexadecanoic acid was the highest absolute value for PC2 in all three strains. Along with those fatty acids, dodecanoic acid and feature 3 (3-hydroxytetradecanoic

  3. Identification of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii by mass spectrometry of whole-cell extracts and its detection with novel PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Wensing, Annette; Zimmermann, Stefan; Geider, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the causative agent of Stewart's wilt, a bacterial disease transmitted by the corn flea beetle mainly to sweet corn (Zea mays). In many countries, it is classified as a quarantine organism and must be differentiated from other yellow enteric bacteria frequently occurring with corn. We have created novel primers from the pstS-glmS region of P. stewartii for use in conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). To facilitate rapid diagnosis, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Using whole-cell protein extracts, profiles were generated with a Bruker microflex machine, and the bacteria classified. P. stewartii strains were clearly distinguished from strains of Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea dispersa, and Pantoea ananatis. Dendrogram analysis of the protein profiles confirmed the score values and showed the formation of separate clades for each species. The identification achieved by MALDI-TOF MS analysis agrees with the diagnosis by specific PCR primers. The combination of both methods allows a rapid and simple identification of the corn pathogen. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii and P. stewartii subsp. indologenes are highly related and can be distinguished not only by virulence assays and indole tests but also by a characteristic pattern in the nucleotide sequence of recA. PMID:20656863

  4. Novel Glucose-1-Phosphatase with High Phytase Activity and Unusual Metal Ion Activation from Soil Bacterium Pantoea sp. Strain 3.5.1.

    PubMed

    Suleimanova, Aliya D; Beinhauer, Astrid; Valeeva, Liia R; Chastukhina, Inna B; Balaban, Nelly P; Shakirov, Eugene V; Greiner, Ralf; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient, but its availability in soil is limited. Many soil microorganisms improve the bioavailability of phosphate by releasing it from various organic compounds, including phytate. To investigate the diversity of phytate-hydrolyzing bacteria in soil, we sampled soils of various ecological habitats, including forest, private homesteads, large agricultural complexes, and urban landscapes. Bacterial isolate Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1 with the highest level of phytase activity was isolated from forest soil and investigated further. The Pantoea sp. 3.5.1 agpP gene encoding a novel glucose-1-phosphatase with high phytase activity was identified, and the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, sequenced by mass spectroscopy, and biochemically characterized. The AgpP enzyme exhibits maximum activity and stability at pH 4.5 and at 37°C. The enzyme belongs to a group of histidine acid phosphatases and has the lowest Km values toward phytate, glucose-6-phosphate, and glucose-1-phosphate. Unexpectedly, stimulation of enzymatic activity by several divalent metal ions was observed for the AgpP enzyme. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) analyses of phytate hydrolysis products identify dl-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate as the final product of the reaction, indicating that the Pantoea sp. AgpP glucose-1-phosphatase can be classified as a 3-phytase. The identification of the Pantoea sp. AgpP phytase and its unusual regulation by metal ions highlight the remarkable diversity of phosphorus metabolism regulation in soil bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that natural forest soils harbor rich reservoirs of novel phytate-hydrolyzing enzymes with unique biochemical features. PMID:26209662

  5. Novel Glucose-1-Phosphatase with High Phytase Activity and Unusual Metal Ion Activation from Soil Bacterium Pantoea sp. Strain 3.5.1

    PubMed Central

    Suleimanova, Aliya D.; Beinhauer, Astrid; Valeeva, Liia R.; Chastukhina, Inna B.; Balaban, Nelly P.; Greiner, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient, but its availability in soil is limited. Many soil microorganisms improve the bioavailability of phosphate by releasing it from various organic compounds, including phytate. To investigate the diversity of phytate-hydrolyzing bacteria in soil, we sampled soils of various ecological habitats, including forest, private homesteads, large agricultural complexes, and urban landscapes. Bacterial isolate Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1 with the highest level of phytase activity was isolated from forest soil and investigated further. The Pantoea sp. 3.5.1 agpP gene encoding a novel glucose-1-phosphatase with high phytase activity was identified, and the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, sequenced by mass spectroscopy, and biochemically characterized. The AgpP enzyme exhibits maximum activity and stability at pH 4.5 and at 37°C. The enzyme belongs to a group of histidine acid phosphatases and has the lowest Km values toward phytate, glucose-6-phosphate, and glucose-1-phosphate. Unexpectedly, stimulation of enzymatic activity by several divalent metal ions was observed for the AgpP enzyme. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) analyses of phytate hydrolysis products identify dl-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate as the final product of the reaction, indicating that the Pantoea sp. AgpP glucose-1-phosphatase can be classified as a 3-phytase. The identification of the Pantoea sp. AgpP phytase and its unusual regulation by metal ions highlight the remarkable diversity of phosphorus metabolism regulation in soil bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that natural forest soils harbor rich reservoirs of novel phytate-hydrolyzing enzymes with unique biochemical features. PMID:26209662

  6. Application of Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification and Clustering Analysis of Pantoea Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Vogel, Guido; Duffy, Brion; Tonolla, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is an ecologically diverse taxon that includes commercially important plant-beneficial strains and opportunistic clinical isolates. Standard biochemical identification methods in diagnostic laboratories were repeatedly shown to run into false-positive identifications of P. agglomerans, a fact which is also reflected by the high number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in public databases that are incorrectly assigned to this species. More reliable methods for rapid identification are required to ascertain the prevalence of this species in clinical samples and to evaluate the biosafety of beneficial isolates. Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods and reference spectra (SuperSpectrum) were developed for accurate identification of P. agglomerans and related bacteria and used to detect differences in the protein profile within variants of the same strain, including a ribosomal point mutation conferring streptomycin resistance. MALDI-TOF MS-based clustering was shown to generally agree with classification based on gyrB sequencing, allowing rapid and reliable identification at the species level. PMID:20453125

  7. Reclassification of non-pigmented Erwinia herbicola strains from trees as Erwinia billingiae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Mergaert, J; Hauben, L; Cnockaert, M C; Swings, J

    1999-04-01

    Twenty-two Erwinia-like strains, isolated from trees since the late fifties and belonging to a distinct phenotypic group with resemblance to Pantoea agglomerans, were further characterized by conventional biochemical tests, the BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting system and fatty acid analysis. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by comparing the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain to available sequences of Erwinia, Pantoea, Pectobacterium and Brenneria species. The strains were shown to belong to the genus Erwinia, with Erwinia rhapontici and Erwinia persicina as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The name Erwinia billingiae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LMG 2613T) and a description of the species is given. PMID:10319458

  8. Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on bulb rot caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis, and Pantoea allii in storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop loss of onion bulbs during storage carries an exceptionally high economic impact since a large portion of the production expenses have been expended before storage occurs. Because of this, it is important to define practices that can reduce onion bulb losses caused by storage rots. This study...

  9. Control of fire blight by Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 and Pantoea vagans C9-1 applied as single strains and mixed inocula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 and Pantoea vagans C9-1 were evaluated individually and in combination for the suppression of fire blight of pear or apple in ten field trials inoculated with the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. The formulation of pathogen inoculum applied to b...

  10. Pantoea allii sp. nov., isolated from onion plants and seed.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carrie L; Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2011-04-01

    Eight yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria were isolated from onion seed in South Africa and from an onion plant exhibiting centre rot symptoms in the USA. The isolates were assigned to the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD sequences, confirmed the allocation of the isolates to the genus Pantoea. MLSA further indicated that the isolates represented a novel species, which was phylogenetically most closely related to Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also placed the isolates into a cluster separate from P. ananatis and P. stewartii. Compared with type strains of species of the genus Pantoea that showed >97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain BD 390(T), the isolates exhibited 11-55 % whole-genome DNA-DNA relatedness, which confirmed the classification of the isolates in a novel species. The most useful phenotypic characteristics for the differentiation of the isolates from their closest phylogenetic neighbours are production of acid from amygdalin and utilization of adonitol and sorbitol. A novel species, Pantoea allii sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain BD 390(T) ( = LMG 24248(T)). PMID:20495023

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea ananatis Strain AMG521, a Rice Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from the Guadalquivir Marshes in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Megías, Esaú; Megías, Manuel; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The rice endophyte Pantoea ananatis AMG521 shows several plant growth-promoting properties and promotes rice yield increases. Its draft genome was estimated at 4,891,568 bp with 4,704 coding sequences (CDS). The genome encodes genes for N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) synthases, AHL hydrolases, hyperadherence (yidQ, yidP, and yidR), fusaric acid resistance, and oxidation of lignin, highlighting its biotechnological potential. PMID:26893418

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea ananatis Strain AMG521, a Rice Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from the Guadalquivir Marshes in Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Esaú; Megías, Manuel; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The rice endophyte Pantoea ananatis AMG521 shows several plant growth-promoting properties and promotes rice yield increases. Its draft genome was estimated at 4,891,568 bp with 4,704 coding sequences (CDS). The genome encodes genes for N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) synthases, AHL hydrolases, hyperadherence (yidQ, yidP, and yidR), fusaric acid resistance, and oxidation of lignin, highlighting its biotechnological potential. PMID:26893418

  13. Nitrogen-fixing Enterobacter agglomerans isolated from guts of wood-eating termites.

    PubMed Central

    Potrikus, C J; Breznak, J A

    1977-01-01

    Two strains of facultatively anaerobic, N2-fixing bacteria were isolated from guts of Coptotermes formosanus and identified as Enterobacter agglomerans. The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of isolates was 52.6 and 53.1 mol% guanine plus cytosine. Both isolates and a known strain of E. agglomerans carried out a mixed acid type of glucose fermentation. N2 fixation by E. agglomerans was inhibited by O2; consequently, N2 served as an N source only for cells growing anaerobically in media lacking a major source of combined N. However, peptone, NH4Cl, or KNO3 served as an N source under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. It was estimated that 2 x 10(2) cells of E. agglomerans were present per termite gut. This value was 100-fold lower than expected, based on N2 fixation, low recoveries of E. agglomerans may be related to the marked decrease in N2 fixation rates observed when intact termites or their extracted guts were manipulated for the isolation of bacteria. It was concluded that the N2-fixing activity of E. agglomerans may be important to the N economy of C. formosanus. PMID:848958

  14. Pantoea theicola sp. nov., isolated from black tea.

    PubMed

    Kato Tanaka, Yuko; Horie, Nobuhiro; Mochida, Kaoru; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Okugawa, Eri; Nanjo, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic strain was isolated from black tea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain QC88-366T was grouped into the genus Pantoea, being related most closely to the type strains of Pantoea gaviniae (98.5 %) and Pantoea calida (98.3 %); sequence similarities were ≤ 97.0 % to the type strains of other species of the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on partial sequences of the gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes also revealed P. gaviniae and P. calida as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The fatty acid profile showed the major fatty acids of strain QC88-366T were C16 : 0, C16 : 1 and C18 : 1, the same as those of its closest related species. However, the ratio of C16 : 1, C17 : 0 cyclo, C18 : 1 and C18 : 2 differed slightly compared with those of the related neighbours. In addition, the results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain QC88-366T from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The G+C content of the DNA was 57.2 mol%. Strain QC88-366T therefore represents a novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the name Pantoea theicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is QC88-366T ( = DSM 29212T = NBRC 110557T). PMID:26297578

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antibiotic-Producing Epiphytic Isolate Pantoea ananatis BRT175

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek D. N.; Kirzinger, Morgan W. B.

    2013-01-01

    Pantoea is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, whose members have been shown to produce novel antibiotics. Here, we report the 4.8-Mb genome sequence of Pantoea ananatis strain BRT175, an epiphytic isolate from strawberries that produces an antibiotic that is effective against the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. PMID:24201193

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antibiotic-Producing Epiphytic Isolate Pantoea ananatis BRT175.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek D N; Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Stavrinides, John

    2013-01-01

    Pantoea is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, whose members have been shown to produce novel antibiotics. Here, we report the 4.8-Mb genome sequence of Pantoea ananatis strain BRT175, an epiphytic isolate from strawberries that produces an antibiotic that is effective against the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. PMID:24201193

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOEpatents

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  18. Pantoea intestinalis sp. nov., isolated from the human gut.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Nimonkar, Yogesh; Vaishampayan, Ankita; Mishra, Mrinal; Kumbhare, Shreyas; Josef, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2015-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, 29Y89BT, was isolated from a faecal sample of a healthy human subject. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Strain 29Y89BT formed cream-coloured colonies 2 mm in diameter on trypticase soy agar and showed optimum growth at 35 °C. Strain 29Y89BT showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pantoea gaviniae A18/07T (98.4 %) followed by Pantoea calida 1400/07T (97.2 %). Multi-locus sequence analysis using atpD (ATP synthase β subunit), gyrB (DNA gyrase), infB (initiation translation factor 2) and rpoB (RNA polymerase β subunit) genes also supported the result of 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogeny. Strain 29Y89BT showed 62 and 40.7 % DNA-DNA relatedness with P. calida DSM 22759T and P. gaviniae DSM 22758T. Strain 29Y89BT contained C17  : 0 cyclo, C19  : 0 cyclo ω8c, C16 : 0, C14 : 0 and C12 : 0 as predominant fatty acids. In addition, strain 29Y89BT showed physiological and phenotypic differences from its closest relatives P. gaviniae DSM 22758T and P. calida DSM 22759T. The polar lipid profile mainly comprised phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 59.1 mol%. Thus, based on the findings of the current study, strain 29Y89BT showed clear delineations from its closest relatives P. gaviniae DSM 22758T and P. calida DSM 22759T, and is thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the name Pantoea intestinalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 29Y89BT ( = DSM 28113T = MCC 2554T). PMID:26297006

  19. Inheritance of Pantoea type III secretion systems through both vertical and horizontal transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Butz, Cory J; Stavrinides, John

    2015-12-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an extracellular apparatus used by many Gram-negative bacteria to deliver effector proteins directly into plant and animal cells, thereby facilitating host-specific association. Strains of the enterobacterial genus, Pantoea, have been isolated from a wide variety of hosts, including plants, insects, and humans, yet it is unclear whether the T3SS may be involved in these associations. In this study, we use comparative genomics and phylogenetic methods to examine the origin and distribution of T3SSs in 35 sequenced environmental and clinical strains of Pantoea. We began our analysis by examining the distribution of the previously characterized plant cell-specific PSI-1 and animal cell-specific PSI-2 of the plant pathogenic Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii DC283 (PstDC283), and showed that both had a somewhat limited distribution. Our analysis, however, identified two variants of a unique plant cell-specific T3SS (PSI-1a and PSI-1b) in six Pantoea strains, including a clinical isolate. Our genome analysis of PstDC283 also identified a third T3SS that we named PSI-3, which has a similar genetic content and organization to the Salmonella, animal cell-specific SPI-2 system. Phylogenetic analysis of all three systems suggests that the PSI-1 system has been inherited vertically, whereas the newly identified PSI-1a and PSI-1b systems have been acquired independently from other genera within the Enterobacteriaceae. PSI-2 appears to have been acquired horizontally as far back as the Erwinia/Pantoea common ancestor, with evidence of more recent horizontal acquisition of the PSI-3 system. Our results suggest that Pantoea is a relatively old plant pathogen that has lost and subsequently regained different plant-associated T3SSs. This work has broad implications for understanding the host-associating capacity of Pantoea strains, and reveals the propensity for Pantoea isolates to exchange pathogenicity determinants with human

  20. Decolorization of azo dyes with Enterobacter agglomerans immobilized in different supports by using fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moutaouakkil, Adnane; Zeroual, Youssef; Dzayri, Fatima Zohra; Talbi, Mohamed; Lee, Kangmin; Blaghen, Mohamed

    2004-02-01

    Immobilized cells of Enterobacter agglomerans, able to reduce azo dyes enzymatically, were used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic medium containing the toxic azo dye methyl red (MR). This bacterial strain exhibits high ability to completely decolorize 100 mg/L of MR after only 6 h of incubation under aerobic conditions. Cells of E. agglomerans were immobilized in calcium alginate, polyacylamide, cooper beech, and vermiculite, and were used for the decolorization of MR from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when E. agglomerans was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and was of about 3.04 mg MR/g cell/h with a 50% conversion time ( t(1/2)) of about 1.6 h. Moreover, immobilized cells in calcium alginate continuously decolorized MR even after seven repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-, cooper beech-, and vermiculite-immobilized cells retained only 62, 15, and 13% of their original activity, respectively. PMID:15057480

  1. Characterization of Alcaligenes faecalis strain AD15 indicating biocontrol activity against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Adachi, Yoshitomi; Asakura, Shuichi; Kohyama, Erina

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial strain possessing both bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity (biocontrol activity) against pathogens of cyclamen (Cyclamen sp.) was isolated from the soil in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, and characterized with respect to its taxonomic and biocontrol properties. The sequence of its 16S rRNA gene, morphology, biochemistry, and fatty acid composition demonstrated that it is a strain most closely related to Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis LMG 1229(T). The isolate was named A. faecalis strain AD15. A. faecalis AD15 produced hydroxylamine at maximum yields of 33.3±1.7 mg/L after 16 h cultivation in LB medium and 19.0±0.44 mg/L after 19 h cultivation in synthetic medium. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentrations of hydroxylamine against the cyclamen pathogens Pantoea agglomerans and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were 4.20±0.98 and 16.5±0.67 mg/L. These results indicated that the biocontrol activity of strain AD15 might be attributed to hydroxylamine, a metabolite in the culture medium, and it had the potential for biopesticide application. PMID:23759862

  2. Pantoea coffeiphila sp. nov., cause of the 'potato taste' of Arabica coffee from the African Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Gueule, Dominique; Fourny, Gérard; Ageron, Elisabeth; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Grimont, Patrick A D; Cilas, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates recovered from coffee seeds giving off a potato-like flavour were studied. Gene sequencing (rrs and rpoB) showed they belong to the genus Pantoea. By DNA-DNA hybridization, the isolates constituted a genomic species with less than 17% relatedness to 96 strains representing enterobacterial species. Multilocus sequence analysis (gyrB, rpoB, atpD and infB genes) showed the isolates to represent a discrete species of the genus Pantoea. Nutritional versatility of the novel species was poor. The novel species is proposed as Pantoea coffeiphila sp.nov. and its type strain is Ca04(T) ( =CIP 110718(T) =DSM 28482(T)). PMID:25267869

  3. Acute dacryocystitis in a 2-year old child caused by pantoea.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuhler, Bruno; Carifi, Gianluca; Leatherbarrow, Brian

    2012-02-01

    A previously healthy 23-month-old girl was admitted for the management of an acute unilateral dacryocystitis following accidental contact with dog faeces. No periocular trauma was reported. Microbiological investigation showed a multiresistant strain of Pantoea species to be the responsible pathogen. The infection responded to a course of oral Clindamycin and Ciprofloxacin, in combination with Chloramphenicol eye drops. This is the first report of an acute dacryocystitis sustained by this microorganism. PMID:22296230

  4. Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of a chitinase gene from Enterobacter agglomerans.

    PubMed Central

    Chernin, L S; De la Fuente, L; Sobolev, V; Haran, S; Vorgias, C E; Oppenheim, A B; Chet, I

    1997-01-01

    The gene chiA, which codes for endochitinase, was cloned from a soilborne Enterobacter agglomerans. Its complete sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme designated Chia_Entag yielded an open reading frame coding for 562 amino acids of a 61-kDa precursor protein with a putative leader peptide at its N terminus. The nucleotide and polypeptide sequences of Chia_Entag showed 86.8 and 87.7% identity with the corresponding gene and enzyme, Chia_Serma, of Serratia marcescens, respectively. Homology modeling of Chia_Entag's three-dimensional structure demonstrated that most amino acid substitutions are at solvent-accessible sites. Escherichia coli JM109 carrying the E. agglomerans chiA gene produced and secreted Chia_Entag. The antifungal activity of the secreted endochitinase was demonstrated in vitro by inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum spore germination. The transformed strain inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth on plates and the root rot disease caused by this fungus in cotton seedlings under greenhouse conditions. PMID:9055404

  5. Pantoea hericii sp. nov., Isolated from the Fruiting Bodies of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Rong, Chengbo; Ma, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Chen, Sanfeng; Huang, Bin; Wang, Jing; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Three Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hericium erinaceus showing symptoms of soft rot disease in Beijing, China. Sequences of partial 16S rRNA gene placed these isolates in the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on the partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB revealed P. eucalypti and P. anthophila as their closest phylogenetic relatives and indicated that these isolates constituted a possible novel species. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of these isolates as a novel species and phenotypic tests allowed for differentiation from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Pantoea hericii sp. nov. [Type strain LMG 28847(T) = CGMCC 1.15224(T) = JZB 2120024(T)] is proposed. PMID:26897127

  6. Transmission of the opportunistic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll pathogen Pantoea agglomerans by the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage to developing cotton bolls by piercing-sucking insects such as stink bugs has traditionally been attributed solely to pest feeding. Previously, we showed clear differences in severity of boll damage resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) fed sterile food compared to thos...

  7. Use of the λ Red-recombineering method for genetic engineering of Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Katashkina, Joanna I; Hara, Yoshihiko; Golubeva, Lyubov I; Andreeva, Irina G; Kuvaeva, Tatiana M; Mashko, Sergey V

    2009-01-01

    Background Pantoea ananatis, a member of the Enterobacteriacea family, is a new and promising subject for biotechnological research. Over recent years, impressive progress in its application to L-glutamate production has been achieved. Nevertheless, genetic and biotechnological studies of Pantoea ananatis have been impeded because of the absence of genetic tools for rapid construction of direct mutations in this bacterium. The λ Red-recombineering technique previously developed in E. coli and used for gene inactivation in several other bacteria is a high-performance tool for rapid construction of precise genome modifications. Results In this study, the expression of λ Red genes in P. ananatis was found to be highly toxic. A screening was performed to select mutants of P. ananatis that were resistant to the toxic affects of λ Red. A mutant strain, SC17(0) was identified that grew well under conditions of simultaneous expression of λ gam, bet, and exo genes. Using this strain, procedures for fast introduction of multiple rearrangements to the Pantoea ananatis genome based on the λ Red-dependent integration of the PCR-generated DNA fragments with as short as 40 bp flanking homologies have been demonstrated. Conclusion The λ Red-recombineering technology was successfully used for rapid generation of chromosomal modifications in the specially selected P. ananatis recipient strain. The procedure of electro-transformation with chromosomal DNA has been developed for transfer of the marked mutation between different P. ananatis strains. Combination of these techniques with λ Int/Xis-dependent excision of selective markers significantly accelerates basic research and construction of producing strains. PMID:19389224

  8. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Pike, S; Hoyos, M E; Novacky, A; Coplin, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt of sweet corn. A hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system is needed to produce water-soaking and wilting symptoms in corn and to cause a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Sequencing of the hrp cluster revealed a putative harpin gene, hrpN. The product of this gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to elicit the HR in tobacco and systemic resistance in radishes. The protein was designated HrpN(Pnss). Like other harpins, it was heat stable and protease sensitive, although it was three- to fourfold less active biologically than Erwinia amylovora harpin. We used antibodies to purified HrpN(Pnss) to verify that hrpN mutants could not produce harpin. This protein was secreted into the culture supernatant and was produced by strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. In order to determine the importance of HrpN(Pnss) in pathogenesis on sweet corn, three hrpN::Tn5 mutants were compared with the wild-type strain with 50% effective dose, disease severity, response time, and growth rate in planta as parameters. In all tests, HrpN(Pnss) was not required for infection, growth, or virulence in corn or endophytic growth in related grasses. PMID:11605962

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea ananatis GB1, a Plant-Growth-Promoting Hydrocarbonoclastic Root Endophyte, Isolated at a Diesel Fuel Phytoremediation Site Planted with Populus.

    PubMed

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    We report the 4.76-Mb draft genome of Pantoea ananatis GB1, a Gram-negative bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from the roots of poplars planted for phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated plume at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB1 promotes plant growth in various hosts and metabolizes hydrocarbons. PMID:26950324

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pantoea ananatis GB1, a Plant-Growth-Promoting Hydrocarbonoclastic Root Endophyte, Isolated at a Diesel Fuel Phytoremediation Site Planted with Populus

    PubMed Central

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele

    2016-01-01

    We report the 4.76-Mb draft genome of Pantoea ananatis GB1, a Gram-negative bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from the roots of poplars planted for phytoremediation of a diesel-contaminated plume at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB1 promotes plant growth in various hosts and metabolizes hydrocarbons. PMID:26950324

  11. Raman chemical imaging of the rhizosphere bacterium Pantoea sp. YR343 and its co-culture with Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Polisetti, Sneha; Bible, Amber N.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2016-02-29

    Chemical imaging of plant-bacteria co-cultures renders it possible to characterize bacterial populations and behaviors and their interactions with proximal organisms, under conditions closest to the environment in the rhizosphere. Here Raman micro-spectroscopy and confocal Raman imaging are used as minimally invasive probes to study the rhizosphere bacterial isolate, Pantoea sp. YR343, and its co-culture with model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by combining enhanced Raman spectroscopies with electron microscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). The presence of carotenoid pigments in the wild type Pantoea sp. YR343 was characterized using resonance Raman scattering, which was also used to confirm successful disruption of themore » crtB gene in an engineered carotenoid mutant strain. Other components of the Pantoea sp. YR343 cells were imaged in the presence of resonantly enhanced pigments using a combination of surface enhanced Raman imaging and PCA. Pantoea sp. YR343 cells decorated with Ag colloid synthesized ex situ gave spectra dominated by carotenoid scattering, whereas colloids synthesized in situ produced spectral signatures characteristic of flavins in the cell membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of whole cells and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of thinly sliced cross-sections were used to assess structural integrity of the coated cells and to establish the origin of spectral signatures based on the position of Ag nanoparticles in the cells. Finally, raman imaging was also used to characterize senescent green Arabidopsis thaliana plant roots inoculated with Pantoea sp. YR343, and PCA was used to distinguish spectral contributions from plant and bacterial cells, thereby establishing the potential of Raman imaging to visualize the distribution of rhizobacteria on plant roots.« less

  12. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  13. Postsurgical Pantoea calida meningitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pantoea calida, a recently described environmental Enterobacteriaceae organism, has not yet been associated with human infection. Case presentation We report a case of postoperative meningitis caused by P. calida. After pituitary adenoma resection, a 52-year-old Caucasian woman developed febrile meningitis confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis. P. calida was grown in pure culture from this fluid and was firmly identified with partial rpoB gene sequencing. She was cured by a 14-day course of meropenem. Conclusions P. calida must be added to the list of opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae pathogens responsible for postsurgical meningitis. It is easily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:24934580

  14. GST activity and membrane lipid saturation prevents mesotrione-induced cellular damage in Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Prione, Lilian P; Olchanheski, Luiz R; Tullio, Leandro D; Santo, Bruno C E; Reche, Péricles M; Martins, Paula F; Carvalho, Giselle; Demiate, Ivo M; Pileggi, Sônia A V; Dourado, Manuella N; Prestes, Rosilene A; Sadowsky, Michael J; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Pileggi, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Callisto(®), containing the active ingredient mesotrione (2-[4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoyl]1,3-cyclohenanedione), is a selective herbicide that controls weeds in corn crops and is a potential environmental contaminant. The objective of this work was to evaluate enzymatic and structural changes in Pantoea ananatis, a strain isolated from water, in response to exposure to this herbicide. Despite degradation of mesotrione, probably due a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pathway in Pantoea ananatis, this herbicide induced oxidative stress by increasing hydrogen peroxide production. Thiol fragments, eventually produced after mesotrione degradation, could be involved in increased GST activity. Nevertheless, there was no peroxidation damage related to this production, as malondialdehyde (MDA) synthesis, which is due to lipid peroxidation, was highest in the controls, followed by the mesotrione- and Callisto(®)-treated cultures at log growth phase. Therefore, P. ananatis can tolerate and grow in the presence of the herbicide, probably due an efficient control of oxidative stress by a polymorphic catalase system. MDA rates depend on lipid saturation due to a pattern change to a higher level of saturation. These changes are likely related to the formation of GST-mesotrione conjugates and mesotrione degradation-specific metabolites and to the presence of cytotoxic adjuvants. These features may shift lipid membrane saturation, possibly providing a protective effect to bacteria through an increase in membrane impermeability. This response system in P. ananatis provides a novel model for bacterial herbicide tolerance and adaptation in the environment. PMID:27620734

  15. Detection of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii from maize seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is one of 52 that will compose the second edition of the Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria from Seeds and other Planting Material, to be published by the American Phytopathological Society. The chapter presents a description of Pantoea stewartii, the causa...

  16. Draft genome sequence of Pantoea ananatis B1-9, a nonpathogenic plant growth-promoting bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jin Hee; Kang, Beom Ryong; Rong, Xiaoqing; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B; Ji, Hyung Jin; Park, Chang-Seuk; Kim, Young Cheol

    2012-02-01

    Pantoea ananatis B1-9 is an endophytic Gram-negative rhizobacterium that was isolated for its ability to promote plant growth and improve crop yield in the field. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. ananatis B1-9. Comparison of this sequence to the sequenced genome of a plant-pathogenic P. ananatis strain, LMG20103, indicated that the pathogenesis-related genes were absent, but a subset of gene functions that may be related to its plant growth promotion were present. PMID:22247529

  17. Diversity of culturable bacteria including Pantoea in wild mosquito Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The microbiota has been shown to play an important role in the biology of insects. In recent decades, significant efforts have been made to better understand the diversity of symbiotic bacteria associated with mosquitoes and assess their influence on pathogen transmission. Here, we report the bacterial composition found in field-caught Aedes albopictus populations by using culture-dependent methods. Results A total of 104 mosquito imagos (56 males and 48 females) were caught from four contrasting biotopes of Madagascar and their bacterial contents were screened by plating whole body homogenates on three different culture media. From 281 bacterial colony types obtained, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) showed they had 40 distinct ribotypes. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA genes responsible for each representative profile made it possible to identify 27 genera distributed in three major phyla. In female mosquitoes, bacterial isolates were mostly Proteobacteria (51.3%) followed by Firmicutes (30.3%) and Actinobacteria (18.4%). Conversely, Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum in male mosquitoes (48%) followed by Proteobacteria (30.6%) and Firmicutes (20.4%). The relative abundance and composition of isolates also varied between sampling sites, ranging from 3 distinct families in Ankazobe to 8 in Tsimbazaza Park, and Toamasina and Ambohidratrimo. Pantoea was the most common genus in both females and males from all sampling sites, except for Ambohidratrimo. No differences in genome size were found between Pantoea isolates from mosquitoes and reference strains in pulse field gel electrophoresis. However, according to the numbers and sizes of plasmids, mosquito isolates clustered into three different groups with other strains isolated from insects but distinct from isolates from the environment. Conclusions The recent upsurge in research into the functional role of the insect microbiota prompts the interest to better

  18. PA 20, a semi-selective medium for isolation and enumeration of Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2006-02-01

    A semi-selective medium, PA 20, was developed for the isolation and enumeration of Pantoea ananatis from plant material, specifically from onion seed. The medium has a pH of 8.0 and contains NH4H2PO4, K2HPO4, magnesium sulphate, NaCl, d (+) arabitol, crystal violet, bromothymol blue and thallium nitrate. All P. ananatis strains from a variety of hosts produced characteristic yellow colonies in 6-7 days at 25 degrees C. Plating efficiencies on PA 20 in comparison to nutrient agar ranged from 92 to 112%. Recovery from naturally infested and artificially contaminated onion seed was high, with an almost total reduction of saprophytes. PMID:15979177

  19. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek D N; Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric; Stavrinides, John

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID:27303689

  20. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek D. N.; Nickzad, Arvin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID

  1. Pantoea ananatis as a cause of corneal infiltrate after rice husk injury.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Geetha; Lalitha, Prajna; Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya; Dsilva, Sean Socrates; Prajna, N Venkatesh

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of an agricultural worker presenting with corneal infiltrate following ocular injury with a rice husk. On examination, a superficial corneal foreign body was removed and sent for culture, which grew Pantoea ananatis. This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical case report of Pantoea ananatis causing corneal infiltrate. PMID:22461671

  2. [Enterobacter agglomerans B1 producing beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity: screening, identification, fermentation conditions, and galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min; Xu, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are promising non-digestible oligosaccharides recognized as prebiotics. Commercial GOS containing galactose as subunit, are synthesized from lactose using the galactosyl-transferase activity of beta-galactosidase. A strain producing beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity was screened from the soil. Phenotypic analysis including morphology and physiology characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were carried out. Based on taxonomy results, the strain was identified as Enterobacter agglomerans B1. Medium and fermentation conditions were optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The enzyme reached 9.7 U/mL in the medium (pH 7.5) containing 1% lactose, 1% yeast extract, and 0.5% peptone when cultured at 25 degrees C for 26 h. Effects of pH, temperature, lactose concentration, and reaction time on transgalactosylation by whole cells were studied. Yield of GOS reached 40.7% in 30% lactose (pH 7.5) at 50 degrees C for 12 h, as analyzed by HPLC and TLC. The results of an MS analysis showed that GOS were composed of di, tri-, and tetrasaccharides. PMID:18338574

  3. Lanthanide-labeled immunochromatographic strips for the rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua; Xue, Qiang

    2014-01-15

    The lateral flow immunoassay is used in commercial pregnancy detection, and is an accepted point-of-care testing technique. The most widely used format for lateral flow immunochromatographic strips uses gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection. However, this method often suffers from poor quantitative discrimination and low analytical sensitivity. To address these limitations, lanthanide chelate-loaded silica nanoparticles have been used as fluorescent labels. The fluorescent nanoparticles can easily bind to antibodies, with dextran as a linker. The strip reader described here was based on a sandwich immunoreaction performed on a strip, using lanthanide-labeled antibodies that served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent readout. The strip reader was used as a quantitative test system. In this work, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of the strip reader. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit was determined as 10(3)cfu/mL. The quantification limit was calculated to be 10(4)cfu/mL. The detection limit for Pss was 100 times lower than those displayed by colloidal gold-labeled strips or ELISAs. No cross-reactions were observed with the other nine strains, indicating the good specificity of the Pss strip. This strip showed good stability in repeated tests. The tests using the fluorescence immunochromatographic strip were easy to perform, rapid, and sensitive. Methods using fluorescence strips and a strip reader have the potential to be a powerful tool for the quantification of bacteria. PMID:23928093

  4. Identification of a Pantoea biosynthetic cluster that directs the synthesis of an antimicrobial natural product.

    PubMed

    Walterson, Alyssa M; Smith, Derek D N; Stavrinides, John

    2014-01-01

    Fire Blight is a destructive disease of apple and pear caused by the enteric bacterial pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. E. amylovora initiates infection by colonizing the stigmata of apple and pear trees, and entering the plants through natural openings. Epiphytic populations of the related enteric bacterium, Pantoea, reduce the incidence of disease through competition and antibiotic production. In this study, we identify an antibiotic from Pantoea ananatis BRT175, which is effective against E. amylovora and select species of Pantoea. We used transposon mutagenesis to create a mutant library, screened approximately 5,000 mutants for loss of antibiotic production, and recovered 29 mutants. Sequencing of the transposon insertion sites of these mutants revealed multiple independent disruptions of an 8.2 kb cluster consisting of seven genes, which appear to be coregulated. An analysis of the distribution of this cluster revealed that it was not present in any other of our 115 Pantoea isolates, or in any of the fully sequenced Pantoea genomes, and is most closely related to antibiotic biosynthetic clusters found in three different species of Pseudomonas. This identification of this biosynthetic cluster highlights the diversity of natural products produced by Pantoea. PMID:24796857

  5. Identification of a Pantoea Biosynthetic Cluster That Directs the Synthesis of an Antimicrobial Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Walterson, Alyssa M.; Smith, Derek D. N.; Stavrinides, John

    2014-01-01

    Fire Blight is a destructive disease of apple and pear caused by the enteric bacterial pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. E. amylovora initiates infection by colonizing the stigmata of apple and pear trees, and entering the plants through natural openings. Epiphytic populations of the related enteric bacterium, Pantoea, reduce the incidence of disease through competition and antibiotic production. In this study, we identify an antibiotic from Pantoea ananatis BRT175, which is effective against E. amylovora and select species of Pantoea. We used transposon mutagenesis to create a mutant library, screened approximately 5,000 mutants for loss of antibiotic production, and recovered 29 mutants. Sequencing of the transposon insertion sites of these mutants revealed multiple independent disruptions of an 8.2 kb cluster consisting of seven genes, which appear to be coregulated. An analysis of the distribution of this cluster revealed that it was not present in any other of our 115 Pantoea isolates, or in any of the fully sequenced Pantoea genomes, and is most closely related to antibiotic biosynthetic clusters found in three different species of Pseudomonas. This identification of this biosynthetic cluster highlights the diversity of natural products produced by Pantoea. PMID:24796857

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Rhamnolipid-Producing Bacterial Strains from a Biodiesel Facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, E. hormaecheii, Pantoea stewartii and Pseudomona...

  7. Stabilization of pSW100 from Pantoea stewartii by the F conjugation system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2008-05-01

    Plasmid pSW100 is 1 of the 13 plasmids from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii SW2 which has a replicon that resembles that of ColE1. This work uses a pSW100 derivative, pSW140K, to study how the pSW100 replicon is stably maintained in its hosts. Our results indicate that although pSW140K is stable in Escherichia coli HB101, the plasmid is rapidly lost in another E. coli strain, DH5alpha, indicating that the genetic background of an E. coli strain affects the stability of pSW140K. Mutagenesis of E. coli HB101 with EZ::TN revealed that mutations in traC, traF, traG, traN, and traV, which encode the components of the sex pilus assembly, reduce plasmid stability. Furthermore, this work identified that a 38-bp region located immediately upstream of the RNAII promoter is critical to the maintenance of plasmid stability in E. coli HB101. TraC binds to the region, and in addition, deleting the region destabilizes the plasmid. Furthermore, inserting this 38-bp fragment into a plasmid that contains the minimal replicon from pSW200 stabilizes the plasmid in E. coli HB101. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining also revealed that derivatives of pSW100, pSW128A, and TraC are colocalized in cells, suggesting that pSW100 may use the sex pilus assembly as a partition apparatus to ensure the even distribution of the plasmid during cell division, which may thus maintain the plasmid's stability. PMID:18344358

  8. A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    von Bodman, S B; Majerczak, D R; Coplin, D L

    1998-06-23

    Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production is controlled by quorum sensing in a population density-dependent manner. Two genes, esaI and esaR, encode essential regulatory proteins for quorum sensing. EsaI is the AHL signal synthase, and EsaR is the cognate gene regulator. esaI, DeltaesaR, and DeltaesaI-esaR mutations were constructed to establish the regulatory role of EsaR. We report here that strains containing an esaR mutation produce high levels of EPS independently of cell density and in the absence of the AHL signal. Our data indicate that quorum-sensing regulation in P. s. subsp. stewartii, in contrast to most other described systems, uses EsaR to repress EPS synthesis at low cell density, and that derepression requires micromolar amounts of AHL. In addition, derepressed esaR strains, which synthesize EPS constitutively at low cell densities, were significantly less virulent than the wild-type parent. This finding suggests that quorum sensing in P. s. subsp. stewartii may be a mechanism to delay the expression of EPS during the early stages of infection so that it does not interfere with other mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:9636211

  9. Cloning and Expression of a Xylitol-4-Dehydrogenase Gene from Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Aarnikunnas, J. S.; Pihlajaniemi, A.; Palva, A.; Leisola, M.; Nyyssölä, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Pantoea ananatis ATCC 43072 mutant strain is capable of growing with xylitol as the sole carbon source. The xylitol-4-dehydrogenase (XDH) catalyzing the oxidation of xylitol to l-xylulose was isolated from the cell extract of this strain. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was determined, and an oligonucleotide deduced from this peptide sequence was used to isolate the xylitol-4-dehydrogenase gene (xdh) from a P. ananatis gene library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 795 bp, encoding the xylitol-4-dehydrogenase, followed by a 5′ region of another open reading frame encoding an unknown protein. Results from a Northern analysis of total RNA isolated from P. ananatis ATCC 43072 suggested that xdh is transcribed as part of a polycistronic mRNA. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the transcript confirmed the operon structure and suggested that xdh was the first gene of the operon. Homology searches revealed that the predicted amino acid sequence of the P. ananatis XDH shared significant identity (38 to 51%) with members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The P. ananatis xdh gene was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, XDH was purified to homogeneity, and some of its enzymatic properties were determined. The enzyme had a preference for NAD+ as the cosubstrate, and in contrast to previous reports, the enzyme also showed a side activity for the d-form of xylulose. Xylitol was converted to l-xylulose with a high yield (>80%) by the resting recombinant cells, and the l-xylulose was secreted into the medium. No evidence of d-xylulose being synthesized by the recombinant cells was found. PMID:16391066

  10. Introduction of an opportunistic bacterial cotton pathogen into bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, seed and boll rot associated with microorganism infections have had a significantly negative impact on cotton yield in southeastern Cotton Belt states. Based on Koch’s postulates, we previously established that an opportunistic strain of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans, originall...

  11. Temporal analysis of cotton boll symptoms resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) feeding and transmission of a bacterial pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug (SGSB)(Nezara viridula L.) is a significant pest of cotton and is becoming an increasing challenge due to the decrease in use of broad spectrum insecticides on the crop. The SGSB can vector an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain (designated Sc 1-R) into cotton bolls...

  12. Transmission of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seed and boll rotting bacteria by southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the ability of the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) to transmit an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain into unopened, green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) bolls. Southern green stink bug (SGSB) colonies were reared on fresh green beans in the labo...

  13. Potential for Nezara virdula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Transmit Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens into Cotton Bolls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we described the vectoring of an opportunistic Pantoea agglomerans strain into green cotton bolls by the southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) (SGSB) that resulted in disease. We hypothesized that our established experimental disease model could be used to determine whether SGSB s...

  14. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jyh-Ching |; Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusively high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The replicon of pSW800 from Pantoea stewartii.

    PubMed

    Wu, C Y; Fu, J F; Liu, S T

    2001-10-01

    A 2019 bp DNA fragment containing the replicon of pSW800 from Pantoea stewartii SW2 was cloned and characterized. This replicon contains two genes--repA and repB, which encode a 36.5 kDa replication initiation protein (RepA) and a peptide of 18 aa, respectively. These two genes overlap by 8 bases with repB situated upstream. The replicon also transcribes an antisense RNA (RNAI) that inhibits the expression of repA and repB. The ribosome-binding sequence (RBS) of repA is likely to be hidden in a stem-loop structure, inhibiting the translation of repA. Furthermore, translation of repB is likely to disrupt the stem-loop structure, which is one of the criteria allowing the translation of repA to begin. A mutagenesis study revealed that a sequence (5'-GCACGGG-3') located 111 nt upstream from repA is crucial; mutation of this sequence prevented the translation of repA. Additionally, this region and the stem-loop structure containing the RBS of repA may form an RNA pseudoknot. Results in this study demonstrate that a mechanism similar to that regulating plasmid replication in the IncB, IncIalpha and IncL/M groups also regulates pSW800 replication. PMID:11577155

  16. An In-depth Analysis of a Multilocus Phylogeny Identifies leuS As a Reliable Phylogenetic Marker for the Genus Pantoea.

    PubMed

    Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Kaneza, Cynthia-Anne; Nshogozabahizi, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of six core genes (fusA, gyrB, leuS, pyrG, rlpB, and rpoB) of 37 strains of Pantoea species were analyzed in order to obtain a comprehensive view regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the Pantoea genus and compare tree topologies to identify gene(s) for reliable species and subspecies differentiation. All genes used in this study were effective at species-level delineation, but the internal nodes represented conflicting common ancestors in fusA- and pyrG-based phylogenies. Concatenated gene phylogeny gave the expected DNA relatedness, underscoring the significance of a multilocus sequence analysis. Pairwise comparison of topological distances and percent similarities indicated a significant differential influence of individual genes on the concatenated tree topology. leuS- and fusA-inferred phylogenies exhibited, respectively, the lowest (4) and highest (52) topological distances to the concatenated tree. These correlated well with high (96.3%) and low (64.4%) percent similarities of leuS- and fusA-inferred tree topologies to the concatenated tree, respectively. We conclude that the concatenated tree topology is strongly influenced by the gene with the highest number of polymorphic and non-synonymous sites in the absence of significant recombination events. PMID:25125967

  17. An In-depth Analysis of a Multilocus Phylogeny Identifies leuS As a Reliable Phylogenetic Marker for the Genus Pantoea

    PubMed Central

    Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Kaneza, Cynthia-Anne; Nshogozabahizi, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of six core genes (fusA, gyrB, leuS, pyrG, rlpB, and rpoB) of 37 strains of Pantoea species were analyzed in order to obtain a comprehensive view regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the Pantoea genus and compare tree topologies to identify gene(s) for reliable species and subspecies differentiation. All genes used in this study were effective at species-level delineation, but the internal nodes represented conflicting common ancestors in fusA- and pyrG-based phylogenies. Concatenated gene phylogeny gave the expected DNA relatedness, underscoring the significance of a multilocus sequence analysis. Pairwise comparison of topological distances and percent similarities indicated a significant differential influence of individual genes on the concatenated tree topology. leuS- and fusA-inferred phylogenies exhibited, respectively, the lowest (4) and highest (52) topological distances to the concatenated tree. These correlated well with high (96.3%) and low (64.4%) percent similarities of leuS- and fusA-inferred tree topologies to the concatenated tree, respectively. We conclude that the concatenated tree topology is strongly influenced by the gene with the highest number of polymorphic and non-synonymous sites in the absence of significant recombination events. PMID:25125967

  18. Characterization of pUCD5000 involved in pink disease color formation by Pantoea citrea.

    PubMed

    Pujol, C J; Kado, C I

    1998-09-01

    Pantoea citrea, the causal agent of pink disease of pineapple, harbors a cryptic plasmid of 5229 bp. designated pUCD5000. On the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses, pUCD5000 contains both replication and mobilization loci (bom and mobCABD) that are similar to those in plasmids pSW100 and pSW200 in Pantoea stewartii and pEC3 in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The survival of P. citrea on pineapple does not depend on pUCD5000. However, full pink coloration development, which is characteristic of the pink disease, appears to require this plasmid. PMID:9735319

  19. Quorum-sensing regulation governs bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and host colonization in Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    PubMed

    Koutsoudis, Maria D; Tsaltas, Dimitrios; Minogue, Timothy D; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2006-04-11

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii synthesizes stewartan exo/capsular polysaccharide (EPS) in a cell density-dependent manner governed by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing (QS) system. This study analyzes biofilm development and host colonization of the WT and QS regulatory mutant strains of P. stewartii. First, we show that the cell density-dependent synthesis of stewartan EPS, governed by the EsaI/EsaR QS system, is required for proper bacterial adhesion and development of spatially defined, 3D biofilms. Second, a nonvirulent mutant lacking the esaI gene adheres strongly to surfaces and develops densely packed, less structurally defined biofilms in vitro. This strain appears to be arrested in a low cell density developmental mode. Exposure of this strain to exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactone counteracts this adhesion phenotype. Third, QS mutants lacking the EsaR repressor attach poorly to surfaces and form amorphous biofilms heavily enmeshed in excess EPS. Fourth, the WT strain disseminates efficiently within the xylem, primarily in a basipetal direction. In contrast, the two QS mutant strains remain largely localized at the site of infection. Fifth, and most significantly, epifluorescence microscopic imaging of infected leaf tissue and excised xylem vessels reveals that the bacteria colonize the xylem with unexpected specificity, particularly toward the annular rings and spiral secondary wall thickenings of protoxylem, as opposed to indiscriminate growth to fill the xylem lumen. These observations are significant to bacterial plant pathogenesis in general and may reveal targets for disease control. PMID:16585516

  20. Integrative conjugative elements of the ICEPan family play a potential role in Pantoea ananatis ecological diversification and antibiosis

    PubMed Central

    De Maayer, Pieter; Chan, Wai-Yin; Martin, Douglas A. J.; Blom, Jochen; Venter, Stephanus N.; Duffy, Brion; Cowan, Don A.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Coutinho, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is a highly versatile enterobacterium isolated from diverse environmental sources. The ecological diversity of this species may be attributed, in part, to the acquisition of mobile genetic elements. One such element is an Integrative and Conjugative Element (ICE). By means of in silico analyses the ICE elements belonging to a novel family, ICEPan, were identified in the genome sequences of five P. ananatis strains and characterized. PCR screening showed that ICEPan is prevalent among P. ananatis strains isolated from different environmental sources and geographic locations. Members of the ICEPan family share a common origin with ICEs of other enterobacteria, as well as conjugative plasmids of Erwinia spp. Aside from core modules for ICEPan integration, maintenance and dissemination, the ICEPan contain extensive non-conserved islands coding for proteins that may contribute toward various phenotypes such as stress response and antibiosis, and the highly diverse ICEPan thus plays a major role in the diversification of P. ananatis. An island is furthermore integrated within an ICEPan DNA repair-encoding locus umuDC and we postulate its role in stress-induced dissemination and/or expression of the genes on this island. PMID:26106378

  1. Pantoea: insights into a highly versatile and diverse genus within the Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Walterson, Alyssa M; Stavrinides, John

    2015-11-01

    The bacterial genus Pantoea comprises many versatile species that have been isolated from a multitude of environments. Pantoea was delineated as a genus approximately 25 years ago, but since then, approximately 20 species have been identified having a diversity of characteristics. Isolates from water and soil have been harnessed for industrial purposes including bioremediation, and the degradation of herbicides and other toxic products. Other isolates possess nitrogen fixation and plant growth-promoting capabilities, which are currently being explored for agricultural applications. Some isolates are antibiotic producers, and have been developed into biocontrol agents for the management of plant diseases. Pantoea is also known to form host associations with a variety of hosts, including plants, insects and humans. Although often thought of as a plant pathogen, recent evidence suggests that Pantoea is being frequently isolated from the nosocomial environment, with considerable debate as to its role in human disease. This review will explore this highly versatile group and its capabilities, its known associations, and the underlying genetic and genomic determinants that drive its diversity and adaptability. PMID:26109597

  2. Comparison of nine PCR primer sets designed to detect Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize, is a major quarantine pest in maize seed. Verifying freedom from P. stewartii remains a significant hurdle in exporting corn seed from the U.S. Several PCR primer sets have been developed and suggested as bein...

  3. Characterization of a Pantoea stewartii TTSS gene required for persistence in its flea beetle vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize is caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), a bacterium that is transmitted by the flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria. Few studies have focused on the molecular basis of the interactions of Pnss with its vector. Genome analyses indicated that Pnss carri...

  4. ISOLATION OF AN OPERON INVOLVED IN XYLITOL METABOLISM FROM PANTOEA ANANATIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An operon involved in xylitol metabolism in a xylitol-utilizing Pantoea ananatis mutant was cloned by the transposon tagging method. Sequencing analysis revealed that seven consecutive open reading frames (ORFs) are located in the same strand (xytA-G). Sequence homology search suggested that the o...

  5. First report of Pantoea ananatis (Syn. Erwinia uredovora) being associated with peanut rust in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia arachidis. This disease, if not treated can cause severe damage and defoliation. While sequencing DNA of urediniospores of the rust fungus, BLAST analysis detected many sequences corresponding to the bacterial species Pantoea ananatis. This bacterium, ...

  6. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Naveed, Muhammad; Jehl, Marc-André; Sessitsch, Angela; Rattei, Thomas; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7, and S8), which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7), commensal (S8), to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6) in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed. PMID:26029184

  7. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Naveed, Muhammad; Jehl, Marc-André; Sessitsch, Angela; Rattei, Thomas; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7, and S8), which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7), commensal (S8), to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6) in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed. PMID:26029184

  8. Pantoea sp. isolated from tropical fresh water exhibiting N-acyl homoserine lactone production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25197715

  9. Pantoea sp. Isolated from Tropical Fresh Water Exhibiting N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen-Si; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25197715

  10. Physiologic Mechanisms Involved in Accumulation of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde during Fermentation of Glycerol by Enterobacter agglomerans

    PubMed Central

    Barbirato, F.; Soucaille, P.; Bories, A.

    1996-01-01

    When grown in 700 mM glycerol within the pH range 6.0 to 7.5, anaerobic pH-regulated cultures of Enterobacter agglomerans exhibited an extracellular accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). This phenomenon, which causes fermentation cessation, occurred earlier when pH was low. In contrast, substrate consumption was complete at pH 8. Levels of glycerol-catabolizing enzymes, i.e., glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase for the oxidative route and glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase for the reductive route, as well as the nucleotide pools were determined periodically in the pH 7- and pH 8-regulated cultures. A NAD/NADH ratio of 1.7 was correlated with the beginning of the production of the inhibitory metabolite. Further accumulation was dependent on the ratio of glycerol dehydratase activity to 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase activity. For a ratio higher than 1, 3-HPA was produced until fermentation ceased, which occurred for the pH 7-regulated culture. At pH 8, a value below 1 was noticed and 3-HPA accumulation was transient, while the NAD/NADH ratio decreased. The low rate of glycerol dissimilation following the appearance of 3-HPA in the culture medium was attributed to the strong inhibitory effect exerted by 3-HPA on glycerol dehydrogenase activity. PMID:16535461

  11. Anaerobic pathways of glycerol dissimilation by Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210: limitations and regulations.

    PubMed

    Barbirato, F; Astruc, S; Soucaille, P; Camarasa, C; Salmon, J M; Bories, A

    1997-07-01

    Continuous cultures of Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210 were performed under regulated pH conditions (pH 7.0) with glycerol or glucose (20 g l-1) as carbon source. Cultures grown on glucose produced mainly acetate, ethanol and formate. In contrast, 1,3-propanediol (PPD) was the main product with glycerol. The carbon flow distribution at branching metabolic points was investigated. Higher PPD yields with increased dilution rate were correlated with an important increase in the relative ratio of glycerol dehydratase to glycerol dehydrogenase. Determination of intracellular triose-phosphate and fructose 1,6-biphosphate concentrations demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is the limiting step in glycerol dissimilation. At the pyruvate branching point, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was systematically detected. The pyruvate flow shifted to PDH is suspected to represent up to 22% of the acetyl-CoA formed. In addition, this enzyme pattern combined with the enhanced in vivo lactate dehydrogenase activity at high growth rates, was correlated with a decrease in the pyruvate formate-lyase activity. A regulation of this latter enzyme by the accumulation of triose-phosphate is suspected. PMID:9245823

  12. A novel beta-galactosidase capable of glycosyl transfer from Enterobacter agglomerans B1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Zhengyi; Li, Yumei

    2007-04-27

    A novel transglycosylating beta-galactosidase was purified from Enterobacter agglomerans B1. It was a homodimer of approximately 248 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for oNPGal hydrolysis were 7.5-8.0 and 37-40 degrees C, respectively. The K(m) values for oNPGal and lactose were 0.06 and 114 mM, respectively. The enzyme produced galacto-oligosaccharides in a 38% yield at the lactose concentration of 12.5% (w/v). When using oNPGal as donor, the enzyme was able to catalyze glycosyl transfer to a series of acceptors, including hexose, pentose, beta- or alpha-disaccharides, hexahydroxy alcohol, cyclitol, and aromatic glycosides. This suggested the enzyme to be a potential synthetic tool for preparing galactose-containing chemicals. The gene encoding this enzyme was cloned by degenerate PCR and TAIL-PCR. It revealed an ORF of 3090 nucleotides encoding a 1029 amino-acid protein, which had been expressed in Escherichia coli. Transferase activities in both recombinant and natural enzymes were similar. PMID:17336932

  13. Pantoea species sepsis associated with sickle cell crisis in a pregnant woman with a history of pica

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Morhaf Al; Rogers, Jordan S.; Muszynski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Bacteria in the Pantoea genus are plant and soil associated Gram-negative rods described as nosocomial pathogens and as rare causes of community-acquired infections. The latter have been classically associated with gardening and plant thorn injuries and immunocompromised states are additional risk factors. We report a patient with pica and geophagia, Pantoea sepsis, and sickle cell crisis, associations not previously described. Case Report: A 23-year-old pregnant female presented to the emergency department with sickle cell pain crisis. On the third day of hospitalization the patient developed fever subsequently determined to be caused by Pantoea bacteremia and sepsis. She was successfully treated with a two-week course of ceftriaxone. The patient admitted to a habit of frequently eating large amounts of soil and this geophagia had increased since she became pregnant. She had marked clinical improvement with treatment and she was counseled to stop eating soil. Conclusions: This is the first reported case of Pantoea infection possibly associated with geophagia and the first reported case of Pantoea bacteremia and sepsis related to an episode of sickle cell crisis. PMID:23569479

  14. Transcriptome-based analysis of the Pantoea stewartii quorum-sensing regulon and identification of EsaR direct targets.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V; Stevens, Ann M

    2014-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. PMID:25015891

  15. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of the Pantoea stewartii Quorum-Sensing Regulon and Identification of EsaR Direct Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V.

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. PMID:25015891

  16. Duplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Stenocarpella maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of two seedborne maize pathogens in a single assay. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) (syn. Erwinia stewartii) is the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize. Stewart's wilt i...

  17. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  18. Transmission and Importance of Pantoea ananatis During Feeding on Cotton Buds (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by Cotton Fleahoppers (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus Reuter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fleahoppers collected from various hosts in the field or raised on green beans in the laboratory were frequently infested with Pantoea spp. These isolates caused a severe internal boll rot in cotton when introduced into young bolls via a small puncture wound caused by a 28-gauge needle. Bud...

  19. Bacterial inoculants for enhanced seed germination of Spartina densiflora: Implications for restoration of metal polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Páliz, Karina I; Pajuelo, Eloísa; Doukkali, Bouchra; Caviedes, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-09-15

    The design of effective phytoremediation programs is severely hindered by poor seed germination on metal polluted soils. The possibility that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could help overcoming this problem is hypothesized. Our aim was investigating the role of PGPR in Spartina densiflora seed germination on sediments with different physicochemical characteristics and metal pollution degrees. Gram negative Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7, and gram positive Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25, together with the consortium of the three strains, were used for independent inoculation experiments. The presence of metals (As, Cu, Pb and Zn) in sediments reduced seed germination by 80%. Inoculation with Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25 or Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7 enhanced up to 2.5 fold the germination rate of S. densiflora in polluted sediments regarding non-inoculated controls. Moreover, the germination process was accelerated and the germination period was extended. The consortium did not achieve further improvements in seed germination. PMID:27315751

  20. Analyzing the Transcriptomes of Two Quorum-Sensing Controlled Transcription Factors, RcsA and LrhA, Important for Pantoea stewartii Virulence.

    PubMed

    Kernell Burke, Alison; Duong, Duy An; Jensen, Roderick V; Stevens, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes wilt disease in corn plants. Wilting is primarily due to bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production that blocks water transport in the xylem during the late stages of infection. EsaR, the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator in P. stewartii, modulates EPS levels. At low cell densities EsaR represses or activates expression of a number of genes in the absence of its acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) ligand. At high cell densities, binding of AHL inactivates EsaR leading to derepression or deactivation of its direct targets. Two of these direct targets are the key transcription regulators RcsA and LrhA, which in turn control EPS production and surface motility/adhesion, respectively. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to further examine the physiological impact of deleting the genes encoding these two second-tier regulators. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the regulation observed in the RNA-Seq data. A GFP transcriptional fusion reporter confirmed the existence of a regulatory feedback loop in the system between LrhA and RcsA. Plant virulence assays carried out with rcsA and lrhA deletion and complementation strains demonstrated that both transcription factors play roles during establishment of wilt disease in corn. These efforts further define the hierarchy of the QS-regulated network controlling plant virulence in P. stewartii. PMID:26699719

  1. An immunosensor based on magnetic relaxation switch and polystyrene microparticle-induced immune multivalency enrichment system for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. Stewartii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi ping; Zou, Ming qiang; Wang, Da ning; Li, Yong liang; Xue, Qiang; Xie, Meng xia; Qi, Cai

    2013-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive, and simple immunosensor has been developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. Stewartii (Pss). This immunosensor combines magnetic relaxation switch (MRS) assay with polystyrene microparticle-induced immune multivalency enrichment system. Comparing to conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the immunosensor developed in this study provides higher sensitivity and requires less analysis time. The detection limit of Pss obtained by immunosensor was determined to be 10(3)cfu/mL, 50 times lower than that by ELISA (5×10(4)cfu/mL), while the analysis time required by immunosensor is 30min much shorter than that by ELISA. The average recoveries studied with Pss at various spiking levels ranged from 85.5% to 93.4% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6.0%. No cross-reaction with the other five strains was found, demonstrating a good specificity of Pss detection. The results showed that the MRS immunosensor combined with PS-induced immune multivalency enhancement system is a promising platform for the determination of large biological molecules due to its high sensitivity, specificity, homogeneity, and speed. PMID:23274190

  2. Analyzing the Transcriptomes of Two Quorum-Sensing Controlled Transcription Factors, RcsA and LrhA, Important for Pantoea stewartii Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roderick V.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes wilt disease in corn plants. Wilting is primarily due to bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production that blocks water transport in the xylem during the late stages of infection. EsaR, the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator in P. stewartii, modulates EPS levels. At low cell densities EsaR represses or activates expression of a number of genes in the absence of its acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) ligand. At high cell densities, binding of AHL inactivates EsaR leading to derepression or deactivation of its direct targets. Two of these direct targets are the key transcription regulators RcsA and LrhA, which in turn control EPS production and surface motility/adhesion, respectively. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to further examine the physiological impact of deleting the genes encoding these two second-tier regulators. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the regulation observed in the RNA-Seq data. A GFP transcriptional fusion reporter confirmed the existence of a regulatory feedback loop in the system between LrhA and RcsA. Plant virulence assays carried out with rcsA and lrhA deletion and complementation strains demonstrated that both transcription factors play roles during establishment of wilt disease in corn. These efforts further define the hierarchy of the QS-regulated network controlling plant virulence in P. stewartii. PMID:26699719

  3. Lotus japonicus plants of the Gifu B-129 ecotype subjected to alkaline stress improve their Fe(2+) bio-availability through inoculation with Pantoea eucalypti M91.

    PubMed

    Campestre, María Paula; Castagno, Luis Nazareno; Estrella, María Julia; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo

    2016-03-15

    Inoculation assays with Pantoea eucalypti M91 were performed on Lotus japonicus ecotype Gifu. Under alkaline conditions, this ecotype is characterized by the development of interveinal chlorosis of the apical leaves due to low mobilization of Fe(2+). Inoculation with P. eucalypti M91, a plant growth-promoting bacterial strain capable of producing pyoverdine-like and pyochelin-like siderophores under alkaline growth conditions, alters the root, resulting in a herringbone pattern of root branching. Additional features include improvement in Fe(2+) transport to the shoots, acidification of the hydroponic solution of the plant cultures, and an accompanying increase in the efficiency of the PSII parameters. In addition, there was an increase in the expression of the FRO1 and IRT1 genes, accompanied by a significant increase in FRO activity. Results showed that P. eucalypti M91 has a beneficial effect on the Fe acquisition machinery of Strategy I, as described for non-graminaceous monocots and dicots, suggesting its potential as an inoculant for legume crops cultivated in alkaline soils. PMID:26815729

  4. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii produces an endoglucanase that is required for full virulence in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a xylem-dwelling bacterium, is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt and blight of sweet corn. The goal of this study was to characterize the only gene in the P. stewartii subsp. stewartii genome predicted to encode an endoglucanase (EGase); this gene was designated engY. Culture supernatants from P. stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli expressing recombinant EngY protein possessed both EGase and xylanase activities. Deletion of engY abolished EGase and xylanase activity, demonstrating that EngY appears to be the major EGase or xylanase produced by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Most importantly, our results show that EngY contributes to movement in the xylem and disease severity during the wilting phase of Stewart's wilt but is not required for water-soaked lesion formation. PMID:22122328

  5. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

  6. Development of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 10(5) cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

  7. Dual amplified electrochemical immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of Pantoea stewartii sbusp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Liqiang; Kong, Dezhao; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2014-12-10

    Accurate and highly sensitive detection of Pantoea stewartii sbusp. stewartii-NCPPB 449 (PSS) is urgently required for international shipments due to tremendous agricultural economic losses. Herein, a dual amplified electrochemical sandwich immunosensor for PSS detection was developed, utilizing the good specificity and low cost of electrochemical immunoassay, the favorable conductivity and large specific surface area of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and the excellent catalytic ability of and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). A linear curve between current response and PSS concentration was established, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.8 × 10(3) cfu/mL, which is 20 times lower than that for conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This strategy is a useful approach for the highly sensitive detection of plant pathogenic bacterium. PMID:25384268

  8. Biological role of pigment production for the bacterial phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contributes to the complete antioxidant pathway of P. stewartii. Moreover, production of this pigment is regulated by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing system and significantly contributes to the virulence of the pathogen in planta. PMID:22820327

  9. Culturable bacterial microbiota of Plagiodera versicolora (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and virulence of the isolated strains.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Meryem; Sevim, Elif; Demir, İsmail; Sevim, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important forest pest which damages many trees such as willow, poplar, and hazelnut. In order to find new microbes that can be utilized as a possible microbial control agent against this pest, we investigated the culturable bacterial flora of it and tested the isolated bacteria against P. versicolora larvae and adults. We were able to isolate nine bacteria from larvae and adults. The isolates were characterized using a combination of morphological, biochemical, and physiological methods. Additionally, we sequenced the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to verify conventional identification results. Based on characterization studies, the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus sp. Pv1, Rahnella sp. Pv2, Rahnella sp. Pv3, Rahnella sp. Pv4, Rahnella sp. Pv5, Pantoea agglomerans Pv6, Staphylococcus sp. Pv7, Micrococcus luteus Pv8, and Rahnella sp. Pv9. The highest insecticidal activity against larvae and adults was obtained from M. luteus Pv8 with 50 and 40 % mortalities within 10 days after treatment, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activity of the bacterial isolates such as amylase, proteinase, lipase, cellulose, and chitinase was also determined. Consequently, our results show that M. luteus Pv8 might be a good candidate as a possible microbial control agent against P. versicolora and were discussed with respect to biocontrol potential of the bacterial isolates. PMID:23054688

  10. Characterization of the inaA gene and expression of ice nucleation phenotype in Pantoea ananatis isolates from Maize White Spot disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, A M; Figueiredo, J E F; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Paccola-Meirelles, L D

    2016-01-01

    Maize White Spot (MWS), a foliar disease caused by Pantoea ananatis, could cause up to 60% yield loss. Some strains of P. ananatis harboring the ice nucleation gene inaA catalyze the formation of ice nuclei, causing tissue damage at temperatures slightly below freezing. Little is known about the relationship between the presence of the ina gene in this maize pathogen and its expression during the phenomenon of ice nucleus formation. Here, we attempted to verify the presence of the inaA gene and the expression of phenotype in vitro. The identity of the isolates and the presence of the inaA gene were determined by P. ananatis species-specific primers. The expression of the inaA gene was assessed in vitro by the visualization of ice-crystal formation in water at subzero temperatures. A total of ninety P. ananatis isolates from MWS lesions were characterized. The presence of the inaA gene was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the 350-400-bp PCR products. The inaA primers did not lead to DNA fragment amplification in three isolates. The ice nucleation phenotype was expressed in 83.34% of the isolates carrying the inaA gene. Our study showed that the ice nucleation in P. ananatis isolated from MWS lesions was dependent on the presence of a functional ina gene in the genome. We also found evidence indicating that some P. ananatis strains have a mutated form of the inaA gene, producing a non-functional ice nucleation protein. This is the first report on inaA gene characterization in P. ananatis isolates from Maize White Spot. PMID:26985943

  11. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-01-01

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops. PMID:26634494

  12. Functional and Photochemical Characterization of a Light-Driven Proton Pump from the Gammaproteobacterium Pantoea vagans.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Yuki; Yoshizawa, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    Photoactive retinal proteins are widely distributed throughout the domains of the microbial world (i.e., bacteria, archaea, and eukarya). Here we describe three retinal proteins belonging to a phylogenetic clade with a unique DTG motif. Light-induced decrease in the environmental pH and its inhibition by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone revealed that these retinal proteins function as light-driven outward electrogenic proton pumps. We further characterized one of these proteins, Pantoea vagans rhodopsin (PvR), spectroscopically. Visible spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that PvR has an absorption maximum at 538 nm with the retinal chromophore predominantly in the all-trans form (>90%) under both dark and light conditions. We estimated the pKa values of the protonated Schiff base of the retinal chromophore and its counterion as approximately 13.5 and 2.1, respectively, by using pH titration experiments, and the photochemical reaction cycle of PvR was measured by time-resolved flash-photolysis in the millisecond timeframe. We observed a blue-shifted and a red-shifted intermediate, which we assigned as M-like and O-like intermediates, respectively. Decay of the M-like intermediate was highly sensitive to environmental pH, suggesting that proton uptake is coupled to decay of the M-like intermediate. From these results, we propose a putative model for the photoreaction of PvR. PMID:26970049

  13. Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii based on microsphere immunoreaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Jinfeng; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-04-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) are two plant pathogens that can cause tremendous agricultural economic losses. This novel method based on microsphere immunoreaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of Cmn and Pss in maize. This multiplex method was constructed based on microsphere immunodetection with fluorescent labels such as quantum dots (QDs) and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) for the detection of Cmn and Pss. Captured QDs and R-PE serve as signal reporters for fluorescent readout. The principle of this method is based on a sandwich immunoreaction. Cmn and Pss captured by the microspheres were detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection of this method was 10 times lower than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its analysis time (1 h) was much shorter compared with ELISA (6-8 h). The method, which has been proven to be an effective approach to multiplex detection of plant bacteria (Cmn and Pss as models), not only increased the varieties but also improved the sensitivity. The microsphere immunoreaction provides a universal method for the multiplex determination of microbes because of its high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the future, the method will be more fully validated in vivo to detect diversiform bacteria. PMID:23169888

  14. Acyl-homoserine lactones produced by Pantoea sp. isolated from the "maize white spot" foliar disease.

    PubMed

    Pomini, Armando M; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia D; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2007-02-21

    The "maize white spot" foliar disease is a problem of increasing importance to Brazilian maize crops. A bacterium isolated from water-soaked lesions from infected maize leaves was pathogenic in biological assays in vivo. It was identified as a Gram-negative, nonsporulating, facultative anaerobic bacterium, belonging to the genus Pantoea. Chemical study of the extracts from bacterial cultivation media allowed the identification of (S)-(-)-N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone and trace amounts of N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, widely recognized quorum-sensing signaling substances employed in cell-to-cell communication systems. The absolute configuration of natural (S)-(-)-N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with a chiral stationary phase and by comparison of circular dichroism spectroscopic data with enantiopure synthetic substances. Biological evaluations with reporter Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4) were carried out with synthetic and natural products and also with extracts from maize leaves contaminated with the isolated bacterium, as well as from healthy leaves. PMID:17256964

  15. Interactions Between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the Center Rot Epidemic of Onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Barman, Apurba; Avci, Utku; Marasigan, Kathleen; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2016-09-01

    An Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, is the causal agent of an economically important disease of onion, center rot. P. ananatis is transmitted by an onion-infesting thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). However, interactions between F. fusca and P. ananatis as well as transmission mechanisms largely remain uncharacterized. This study investigated P. ananatis acquisition by thrips and transstadial persistence. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial acquisition on thrips fitness were also evaluated. When thrips larvae and adults were provided with acquisition access periods (AAP) on peanut leaflets contaminated with the bacterium, an exponentially positive relationship was observed between AAP and P. ananatis acquisition (R(2) ≥ 0.77, P = 0.01). P. ananatis persisted in thrips through several life stages (larvae, pupae, and adult). Despite the bacterial persistence, no significant effects on thrips fitness parameters such as fecundity and development were observed. Immunofluorescence microscopy of adult thrips with P. ananatis-specific antibody after 48 h AAP on contaminated food revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut. These results suggested that the pathogen is not circulative and could be transmitted through feces. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates produced center rot symptoms, whereas inoculation with rinsates potentially containing salivary secretions did not. These results provide evidence for stercorarian transmission (transmission through feces) of P. ananatis by F. fusca. PMID:27135678

  16. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source. PMID:24648142

  17. Spatial Organization of Dual-Species Bacterial Aggregates on Leaf Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Monier, J.-M.; Lindow, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial organization of cells within bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces was determined for pair-wise mixtures of three different bacterial species commonly found on leaves, Pseudomonas syringae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cells were coinoculated onto bean plants and allowed to grow under moist conditions, and the resulting aggregates were examined in situ by epifluorescence microscopy. Each bacterial strain could be localized because it expressed either the green or the cyan fluorescent protein constitutively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed by propidium iodide staining. Each pair of bacterial strains that was coinoculated onto leaves formed mixed aggregates. The degree of segregation of cells in mixed aggregates differed between the different coinoculated pairs of strains and was higher in mixtures of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R and mixtures of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R than in mixtures of two isogenic strains of P. agglomerans 299R. The fractions of the total cell population that were dead in mixed and monospecific aggregates of a gfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R and a cfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R, or of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R, were similar. However, the proportion of dead cells in mixed aggregates of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R was significantly higher (13.2% ± 8.2%) than that in monospecific aggregates of these two strains (1.6% ± 0.7%), and it increased over time. While dead cells in such mixed aggregates were preferentially found at the interface between clusters of cells of these strains, cells of these two strains located at the interface did not exhibit equal probabilities of mortality. After 9 days of incubation, about 77% of the P. agglomerans 299R cells located at the interface were dead, while only about 24% of the P. syringae B728a cells were dead. The relevance of our results to understanding bacterial interactions

  18. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  19. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Amber N.; Fletcher, Sarah J.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Weston, David J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; Bohn, Paul W.; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of IAA. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343. PMID:27148182

  20. The rcsA promoter of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii features a low-level constitutive promoter and an EsaR quorum-sensing-regulated promoter.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Aurelien L; von Bodman, S B

    2006-06-01

    The upstream region of the Pantoea stewartii rcsA gene features two promoters, one for constitutive basal-level expression and a second autoregulated promoter for induced expression. The EsaR quorum-sensing repressor binds to a site centered between the two promoters, blocking transcription elongation from the regulated promoter under noninducing conditions. PMID:16740966

  1. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bible, Amber; Fletcher, Sarah J; Pelletier, Dale A; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Jawdy, Sara; Weston, David; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; et al

    2016-04-18

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically-important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. Tomore » better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343.« less

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of the Onion Center Rot Pathogen Pantoea ananatis PA4 and Maize Brown Stalk Rot Pathogen P. ananatis BD442

    PubMed Central

    Weller-Stuart, Tania; Chan, Wai Yin; Venter, Stephanus N.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion; Goszczynska, Teresa; Cowan, Don A.; de Maayer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is an emerging phytopathogen that infects a broad spectrum of plant hosts. Here, we present the genomes of two South African isolates, P. ananatis PA4, which causes center rot of onion, and BD442, isolated from brown stalk rot of maize. PMID:25103759

  3. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization.

    PubMed

    Bible, Amber N; Fletcher, Sarah J; Pelletier, Dale A; Schadt, Christopher W; Jawdy, Sara S; Weston, David J; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; Bohn, Paul W; Coutinho, Teresa A; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of IAA. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343. PMID:27148182

  4. The bacterium Pantoea stewartii uses two different type III secretion systems to colonize its plant host and insect vector.

    PubMed

    Correa, Valdir R; Majerczak, Doris R; Ammar, El-Desouky; Merighi, Massimo; Pratt, Richard C; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Coplin, David L; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2012-09-01

    Plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (herein referred to as P. stewartii), the causative agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize, carries phylogenetically distinct T3SSs. In addition to an Hrc-Hrp T3SS, known to be essential for maize pathogenesis, P. stewartii has a second T3SS (Pantoea secretion island 2 [PSI-2]) that is required for persistence in its flea beetle vector, Chaetocnema pulicaria (Melsh). PSI-2 belongs to the Inv-Mxi-Spa T3SS family, typically found in animal pathogens. Mutagenesis of the PSI-2 psaN gene, which encodes an ATPase essential for secretion of T3SS effectors by the injectisome, greatly reduces both the persistence of P. stewartii in flea beetle guts and the beetle's ability to transmit P. stewartii to maize. Ectopic expression of the psaN gene complements these phenotypes. In addition, the PSI-2 psaN gene is not required for P. stewartii pathogenesis of maize and is transcriptionally upregulated in insects compared to maize tissues. Thus, the Hrp and PSI-2 T3SSs play different roles in the life cycle of P. stewartii as it alternates between its insect vector and plant host. PMID:22773631

  5. Use of continuous culture to screen for lipase-producing microorganisms and interesterification of butter fat by lipase isolates.

    PubMed

    Pabai, F; Kermasha, S; Morin, A

    1996-05-01

    The continuous cultivation technique was used to investigate the screening for lipase-producing microorganisms from four commercial starters suitable for the degradation of domestic wastes. Using this technique, three strains of lipase-producing bacteria were isolated and identified: Pantoea agglomerans (BB96CC1, BB168CC2) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (BW96CC1). In addition, butter fat induced more lipase production when present in the growth medium. Interesterification of butter fat triacylglycerols by enzymatic extracts of the isolated strains of microorganisms resulted in an appreciable interesterification yield, implying that hydrolysis was suppressed and interesterification of butter fat triacylglycerols was maximized in a microemulsion free-cosurfactant system. PMID:8640605

  6. [THE SENSITIVITY OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA TO STREPTOMYCIN UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PESTICIDES].

    PubMed

    Buletsa, N M; Butsenko, L M; Pasichnyk, L A; Patyka, V P

    2015-01-01

    The results of the streptomycin sensitivity changes of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas translucens bacteria under the action of pesticides are pre- sented. It is demonstrated that phytopathogenic strains show greater changes of strepto- mycin sensitivity compared to epiphytic Pantoea agglomerans strain under the pesticides influence. Granstar herbicide, Tviks and Alpha Super insecticides increase the number of streptomycin resistant cells of Xanthomonas translucens 3164, P syringae pv. syringae YKM B-1027 and P syringae pv. atrofaciens YKM B-1011. This fact indicates mutagenic action of these pesticides against researched phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:26829841

  7. WtsE, an AvrE-family effector protein from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, causes disease-associated cell death in corn and requires a chaperone protein for stability.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Angel S; Mackey, David M; Coplin, David L

    2006-10-01

    The pathogenicity of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii to sweet corn and maize requires a Hrp type III secretion system. In this study, we genetically and functionally characterized a disease-specific (Dsp) effector locus, composed of wtsE and wtsF, that is adjacent to the hrp gene cluster. WtsE, a member of the AvrE family of effector proteins, was essential for pathogenesis on corn and was complemented by DspA/E from Erwinia amylovora. An intact C-terminus of WtsE, which contained a putative endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention signal, was important for function of WtsE. Delivery of WtsE into sweet corn leaves by an Escherichia coli strain carrying the hrp cluster of Erwinia chrysanthemi caused water-soaking and necrosis. WtsE-induced cell death was not inhibited by cycloheximide treatment, unlike the hypersensitive response caused by a known Avr protein, AvrRxol. WtsF, the putative chaperone of WtsE, was not required for secretion of WtsE from P. stewartii, and the virulence of wtsF mutants was reduced only at low inoculum concentrations. However, WtsF was required for full accumulation of WtsE within the bacteria at low temperatures. In contrast, WtsF was needed for efficient delivery of WtsE from E. coli via the Erwinia chrysanthemi Hrp system. PMID:17022173

  8. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii exhibits surface motility, which is a critical aspect of Stewart's wilt disease development on maize.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carmen M; Koutsoudis, Maria D; Wang, Xiaolei; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2008-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes Stewart's vascular wilt in maize. The organism is taxonomically described as aflagellated and nonmotile. We recently showed that P. stewartii colonizes the xylem of maize as sessile, cell-wall-adherent biofilms. Biofilm formation is a developmental process that generally involves some form of surface motility. For that reason, we reexamined the motility properties of P. stewartii DC283 based on the assumption that the organism requires some form of surface motility for biofilm development. Here, we show that the organism is highly motile on agar surfaces. This motility is flagella dependent, shown by the fact that a fliC mutant, impaired in flagellin subunit synthesis, is nonmotile. Motility also requires the production of stewartan exopolysaccharide. Moreover, surface motility plays a significant role in the colonization of the plant host. PMID:18785831

  9. Structural elucidation and biological activity of acyl-homoserine lactones from the phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis Serrano 1928.

    PubMed

    Pomini, Armando M; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2006-08-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are the main signaling substances employed in cell-to-cell communication systems. This paper describes the chemical characterization of acyl-HSLs produced by the worldwide-spread phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis (Serrano 1928) by using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the major identified substance, (S)-(--)-N-hexanoyl-HSL, was determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with a chiral capillary column. Biological activities of extracts, fractions, and synthetic products were evaluated with the specific reporter Agrobacterium tumefaciensNTL4(pZLR4) in beta-galactosidase expression assays. PMID:16900431

  10. Dapdiamides, Tripeptide Antibiotics Formed by Unconventional Amide Ligases†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Construction of a genomic DNA library from Pantoea agglomerans strain CU0119 and screening against the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora yielded a new family of antibiotics, dapdiamides A−E (1−5). The structures were established through 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectrometry, as well as the synthesis of dapdiamide A (1). Transposon mutagenesis of the active cosmid allowed identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster. The dapdiamide family’s promiscuous biosynthetic pathway contains two unconventional amide ligases that are predicted to couple its constituent monomers. PMID:20041689

  11. OEM--a new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Ali M; Bonasera, Jean M; Beer, Steven V

    2012-12-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by a number of bacterial pathogens including Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. axonopodis and several Pseudomonas spp. We developed a semi-selective medium, termed onion extract medium (OEM), to selectively and rapidly isolate bacteria pathogenic to and associated with onions and onion-related samples including bulbs, seeds, sets, transplant seedlings, soil and water. Most strains of interest grow sufficiently on OEM in 24h at 28°C for tentative identification based on colony morphology, facilitating further characterization by microbiological and/or molecular means. PMID:23041494

  12. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1997-01-01

    Logarithmic strain is the preferred measure of strain used by materials scientists, who typically refer to it as the "true strain." It was Nadai who gave it the name "natural strain," which seems more appropriate. This strain measure was proposed by Ludwik for the one-dimensional extension of a rod with length l. It was defined via the integral of dl/l to which Ludwik gave the name "effective specific strain." Today, it is after Hencky, who extended Ludwik's measure to three-dimensional analysis by defining logarithmic strains for the three principal directions.

  13. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  14. Isolation and characterization of rhamnolipid-producing bacterial strains from a biodiesel facility.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Price, Neil P J; Ray, Karen J; Kuo, Tsung-Min

    2009-06-01

    Novel strains of rhamnolipid-producing bacteria were isolated from soils at a biodiesel facility on the basis of their ability to grow on glycerol as a sole carbon source. Strains were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Pantoea stewartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strains of the former five species were found to produce rhamnolipids in quantities the same as, or similar to, coisolated strains of P. aeruginosa. Measurements of surface tension revealed that that emulsifying properties of these strains were similar to levels displayed by rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa. Results of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS analyses revealed that the predominant compounds made by all strains were C10-C10 mono- and dirhamnolipids. Notably, E. hormaechei and one strain of A. calcoaceticus produced rhamnolipids in amounts similar to the pseudomonads. As all strains examined were from the same taxonomic class of Proteobacteria, further examination of this group may reveal many additional species not previously known to produce rhamnolipids in addition to novel strains of species currently known to produce rhamnolipids. PMID:19473254

  15. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  16. Habitat visualization and genomic analysis of "Candidatus Pantoea carbekii," the primary symbiont of the brown marmorated stink bug.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Laura J; Meulia, Tea; Sabree, Zakee L

    2015-02-01

    Phytophagous pentatomid insects can negatively impact agricultural productivity and the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive pest responsible for damage to many fruit crops and ornamental plants in North America. Many phytophagous stink bugs, including H. halys, harbor gammaproteobacterial symbionts that likely contribute to host development, and characterization of symbiont transmission/acquisition and their contribution to host fitness may offer alternative strategies for managing pest species. "Candidatus Pantoea carbekii" is the primary occupant of gastric ceca lumina flanking the distal midgut of H. halys insects and it is acquired each generation when nymphs feed on maternal extrachorion secretions following hatching. Insects prevented from symbiont uptake exhibit developmental delays and aberrant behaviors. To infer contributions of Ca. P. carbekii to H. halys, the complete genome was sequenced and annotated from a North American H. halys population. Overall, the Ca. P. carbekii genome is nearly one-fourth (1.2 Mb) that of free-living congenerics, and retains genes encoding many functions that are potentially host-supportive. Gene content reflects patterns of gene loss/retention typical of intracellular mutualists of plant-feeding insects. Electron and fluorescence in situ microscopic imaging of H. halys egg surfaces revealed that maternal extrachorion secretions were populated with Ca. P. carbekii cells. The reported findings detail a transgenerational mode of symbiont transmission distinct from that observed for intracellular insect mutualists and illustrate the potential additive functions contributed by the bacterial symbiont to this important agricultural pest. PMID:25587021

  17. Structure/function analysis of the Pantoea stewartii quorum-sensing regulator EsaR as an activator of transcription.

    PubMed

    Schu, Daniel J; Carlier, Aurelien L; Jamison, Katherine P; von Bodman, Susanne; Stevens, Ann M

    2009-12-01

    In Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, two regulatory proteins are key to the process of cell-cell communication known as quorum sensing: the LuxI and LuxR homologues EsaI and EsaR. Most LuxR homologues function as activators of transcription in the presence of their cognate acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal. However, EsaR was initially found to function as a repressor in the absence of AHL. Previous studies demonstrated that, in the absence of AHL, EsaR retains the ability to function as a weak activator of the lux operon in recombinant Escherichia coli. Here it is shown that both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of EsaR are necessary for positive regulation. A site-directed mutagenesis study, guided by homology modeling to LuxR and TraR, has revealed three critical residues in EsaR that are involved in activation of RNA polymerase. In addition, a native EsaR-activated promoter has been identified, which controls expression of a putative regulatory sRNA in P. stewartii. PMID:19820098

  18. A novel transcriptional autoregulatory loop enhances expression of the Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii Hrp type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Massimo; Majerczak, Doris R; Coplin, David L

    2005-02-15

    The hrp type III secretion regulon of Pantoea stewartii is regulated by a cascade involving the HrpX/HrpY two-component system, the HrpS enhancer-binding protein and the HrpL alternate sigma factor. hrpXY is both constitutive and autoregulated; HrpY controls hrpS; and HrpS activates hrpL. These regulatory genes are arranged in the order hrpL, hrpXY and hrpS and constitute three operons. This study describes a novel autoregulatory loop involving HrpS. Genetic experiments using a chromosomal hrpS-lacZ fusion demonstrated that ectopic expression of HrpS increases hrpS transcription and that this effect is blocked by polar mutations in hrpXY and hrpL and by a nonpolar mutation in hrpY. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis revealed a hrpL-hrpXY polycistronic mRNA. These results suggest that HrpS-mediated autoregulation is due to activation of hrpS by increased levels of HrpY resulting from read-through transcription of hrpXY from the hrpL promoter. This novel autoregulatory loop may serve to rapidly induce hrp genes during infection and to compensate for negative regulatory mechanisms that keep the regulon off in the insect vector. PMID:15751134

  19. The plant pathogen Pantoea ananatis produces N-acylhomoserine lactone and causes center rot disease of onion by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamazaki, Go; Ishida, Akio; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2007-11-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria have a quorum-sensing system and produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) that they use them as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Pantoea ananatis is reported as a common colonist of wheat heads at ripening and causes center rot of onion. In this study, we demonstrated that P. ananatis SK-1 produced two AHLs, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). We cloned the AHL-synthase gene (eanI) and AHL-receptor gene (eanR) and revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of EanI/EanR showed high identity to those of EsaI/EsaR from P. stewartii. EanR repressed the ean box sequence and the addition of AHLs resulted in derepression of ean box. Inactivation of the chromosomal eanI gene in SK-1 caused disruption of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves, which were recovered by adding exogenous 3-oxo-C6-HSL. These results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system involved the biosynthesis of EPS, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves in P. ananatis SK-1. PMID:17827290

  20. Identification of genetic markers to distinguish the virulent and avirulent subspecies of Pantoea stewartii by comparative proteomics and genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Jiang, Zide; Liao, Jinliang; Chen, Zhinan; Li, Huaping; Mei, Mantong; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2007-02-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize and sweet corn, is one of the quarantine pathogens in many countries and regions. In contrast, P. stewartii subsp. indologenes (Pnsi), the closely related subspecies of Pnss, is avirulent on these plants. In this study, the protein expression profiles of these two subspecies were compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis. Twenty-one unique protein spots consistently detected in Pnss but not in Pnsi were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Some of these Pnss-specific proteins are known to be essential for virulence and survival in host, such as FoxR and HrcJ, which are the key components of iron uptake and Type III secretion systems, respectively. For further genetic analysis, six Pnss-specific proteins were characterized by peptide sequencing. Southern and Northern blot analyses revealed that the differences in protein expression profiles of the two subspecies were either due to the discrepancy at genome level or because of the variations in transcriptional expression. The results provide novel genetic markers to distinguish the two closely related subspecies and may also serve as useful clues for investigation of the genetic basis accounting for their sharp difference in virulence. PMID:17086414

  1. A single genetic locus in the phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii enables gut colonization and pathogenicity in an insect host.

    PubMed

    Stavrinides, John; No, Alexander; Ochman, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are typically exposed to a variety of epiphytic and phytopathogenic bacteria, many of which have entomopathogenic potential. Here we describe the interaction between Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii DC283 (DC283), an enteric phytopathogen and causal agent of Stewart's wilt, and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. When ingested by aphids, DC283 establishes and aggregates in the crop and gut, preventing honeydew flow and excretion, resulting in aphid death in 72 h. A mutagenesis screen identified a single locus, termed ucp1 (youcannot pass), whose disruption abolishes aphid pathogenicity. Moreover, the expression of ucp1 in Escherichia coli is sufficient to mediate the hindgut aggregation phenotype by this normally avirulent species. Ucp1 is related to six other proteins in the DC283 genome, each having a common N-terminal region and a divergent C-terminus, but only ucp1 has a role in pathogenicity. Based on predicted motifs and secondary structure, Ucp1 is a membrane-bound protein that functions in bacterial adhesion and promotes the formation of aggregates that are lethal to the insect host. These results illustrate that the enteric plant pathogenic bacteria have the capacity to exploit alternative non-plant hosts, and retain genetic determinants for colonizing the gut. PMID:19788413

  2. The Plant Pathogen Pantoea ananatis Produces N-Acylhomoserine Lactone and Causes Center Rot Disease of Onion by Quorum Sensing▿

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamazaki, Go; Ishida, Akio; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria have a quorum-sensing system and produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) that they use them as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Pantoea ananatis is reported as a common colonist of wheat heads at ripening and causes center rot of onion. In this study, we demonstrated that P. ananatis SK-1 produced two AHLs, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). We cloned the AHL-synthase gene (eanI) and AHL-receptor gene (eanR) and revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of EanI/EanR showed high identity to those of EsaI/EsaR from P. stewartii. EanR repressed the ean box sequence and the addition of AHLs resulted in derepression of ean box. Inactivation of the chromosomal eanI gene in SK-1 caused disruption of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves, which were recovered by adding exogenous 3-oxo-C6-HSL. These results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system involved the biosynthesis of EPS, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves in P. ananatis SK-1. PMID:17827290

  3. The cell density-dependent expression of stewartan exopolysaccharide in Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii is a function of EsaR-mediated repression of the rcsA gene.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Carlier, Aurelien L; Koutsoudis, Maria D; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2005-04-01

    The LuxR-type quorum-sensing transcription factor EsaR functions as a repressor of exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis in the phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii. The cell density-dependent expression of EPS is critical for Stewart's wilt disease development. Strains deficient in the synthesis of a diffusible acyl-homoserine lactone inducer remain repressed for EPS synthesis and are consequently avirulent. In contrast, disruption of the esaR gene leads to hypermucoidy and attenuated disease development. Ligand-free EsaR functions as a negative autoregulator of the esaR gene and responds to exogenous acyl-homoserine lactone for derepression. The focus of this study was to define the mechanism by which EsaR governs the expression of the cps locus, which encodes functions required for stewartan EPS synthesis and membrane translocation. Genetic and biochemical studies show that EsaR directly represses the transcription of the rcsA gene. RcsA encodes an essential coactivator for RcsA/RcsB-mediated transcriptional activation of cps genes. In vitro assays identify an EsaR DNA binding site within the rcsA promoter that is reasonably well conserved with the previously described esaR box. We also describe that RcsA positively controls its own expression. Interestingly, promoter proximal genes within the cps cluster are significantly more acyl-homoserine lactone responsive than genes located towards the middle or 3' end of the gene cluster. We will discuss a possible role of EsaR-mediated quorum sensing in the differential expression of the cps operon. PMID:15773989

  4. Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy

    2013-01-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  5. Perturbation of maize phenylpropanoid metabolism by an AvrE family type III effector from Pantoea stewartii.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Jo Ann E; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Mackey, David

    2015-03-01

    AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

  6. Proteomic analysis of the quorum-sensing regulon in Pantoea stewartii and identification of direct targets of EsaR.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Stevens, Ann M

    2013-10-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  7. Perturbation of Maize Phenylpropanoid Metabolism by an AvrE Family Type III Effector from Pantoea stewartii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Jo Ann E.; Lin, Jinshan; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Gentzel, Irene; Majerczak, Doris; Opiyo, Stephen O.; Zhao, Wanying; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Coplin, David L.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Mackey, David

    2015-01-01

    AvrE family type III effector proteins share the ability to suppress host defenses, induce disease-associated cell death, and promote bacterial growth. However, despite widespread contributions to numerous bacterial diseases in agriculturally important plants, the mode of action of these effectors remains largely unknown. WtsE is an AvrE family member required for the ability of Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii (Pnss) to proliferate efficiently and cause wilt and leaf blight symptoms in maize (Zea mays) plants. Notably, when WtsE is delivered by a heterologous system into the leaf cells of susceptible maize seedlings, it alone produces water-soaked disease symptoms reminiscent of those produced by Pnss. Thus, WtsE is a pathogenicity and virulence factor in maize, and an Escherichia coli heterologous delivery system can be used to study the activity of WtsE in isolation from other factors produced by Pnss. Transcriptional profiling of maize revealed the effects of WtsE, including induction of genes involved in secondary metabolism and suppression of genes involved in photosynthesis. Targeted metabolite quantification revealed that WtsE perturbs maize metabolism, including the induction of coumaroyl tyramine. The ability of mutant WtsE derivatives to elicit transcriptional and metabolic changes in susceptible maize seedlings correlated with their ability to promote disease. Furthermore, chemical inhibitors that block metabolic flux into the phenylpropanoid pathways targeted by WtsE also disrupted the pathogenicity and virulence activity of WtsE. While numerous metabolites produced downstream of the shikimate pathway are known to promote plant defense, our results indicate that misregulated induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism also can be used to promote pathogen virulence. PMID:25635112

  8. Colonization of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), by endophytes encoding gfp marker.

    PubMed

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Cursino, Luciana; de Barros Rossetto, Priscilla; Mondin, Mateus; Hungria, Mariangela; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2013-07-01

    This study reports the introduction of gfp marker in two endophytic bacterial strains (Pantoea agglomerans C33.1, isolated from cocoa, and Enterobacter cloacae PR2/7, isolated from citrus) to monitor the colonization in Madagascar perinwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Stability of the plasmid encoding gfp was confirmed in vitro for at least 72 h of bacterial growth and after the colonization of tissues, under non-selective conditions. The colonization was observed using fluorescence microscopy and enumeration of culturable endophytes in inoculated perinwinkle plants that grew for 10 and 20 days. Gfp-expressing strains were re-isolated from the inner tissues of surface-sterilized roots and stems of inoculated plants, and the survival of the P. agglomerans C33:1gfp in plants 20 days after inoculation, even in the absence of selective pressure, suggests that is good colonizer. These results indicated that both gfp-tagged strains, especially P. agglomerans C33.1, may be useful tools to deliver enzymes or other proteins in plant. PMID:23695435

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Ran; Tian, Gui-Qiao; Shen, Hong-Jie; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Zeaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid that is used in nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and animal feed industries. Zeaxanthin is chemically synthesized or purified from microorganisms as a natural product; however, increasing demand requires development of alternative sources such as heterologous biosynthesis by recombinant bacteria. For this purpose, we molecularly engineered Escherichia coli to optimize the synthesis of zeaxanthin from lycopene using fusion protein-mediated substrate channeling as well as by the introduction of tunable intergenic regions. The tunable intergenic regions approach was more efficient compared with protein fusion for coordinating expression of lycopene β-cyclase gene crtY and β-carotene 3-hydroxylase gene crtZ. The influence of the substrate channeling effect suggests that the reaction catalyzed by CrtZ is the rate-limiting step in zeaxanthin biosynthesis. Then Pantoea ananatis, Pantoea agglomerans and Haematococcus pluvialis crtZ were compared. Because P. ananatis crtZ is superior to that of P. agglomerans or H. pluvialis for zeaxanthin production, we used it to generate a recombinant strain of E. coli BETA-1 containing pZSPBA-2(P37-crtZPAN) that produced higher amounts of zeaxanthin (11.95 ± 0.21 mg/g dry cell weight) than other engineered E. coli strains described in the literature. PMID:25533633

  10. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  11. Regulation of nif gene expression in Enterobacter agglomerans: nucleotide sequence of the nifLA operon and influence of temperature and ammonium on its transcription.

    PubMed

    Siddavattam, D; Steibl, H D; Kreutzer, R; Klingmüller, W

    1995-12-20

    The nucleotide sequence of a plasmid-borne 3.9 kb XhoI-SmaI fragment comprising the 3'-region of the nifM gene, the nifL and nifA genes and the 5'-region of nifB gene of Enterobacter agglomerans was determined. The genes were identified by their homology to the corresponding nif genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A typical sigma 54-dependent promoter and a consensus NtrC-binding motif were identified upstream of nifL. The predicted amino acid sequence of NifL showed close similarities to NifL of K. pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii. However, no histidine residue was found to correspond to histidine-304 of A. vinelandii NifL, which had been proposed to be required for the repressor activity of NifL. The NifA sequence with a putative DNA binding motif (Q(x3) A(x3) G(x5)I) and an ATP binding site in the C-terminal and central domains, respectively, resembles that of other known NifA proteins. The function of the nifL and nifA genes was demonstrated in vivo using a binary plasmid system by their ability to activate a nifH promoter-lacZ fusion at different temperatures and concentrations of NH4+. Maximal promoter activity occurred at 25 degrees C, and it appears that the sensitivity of NifA to elevated temperatures is independent of NifL. The expression of nifL inhibited promoter activity in the presence of NifA when the initial NH4+ concentration in the medium exceeded 4 mM. PMID:8544828

  12. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    PubMed

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  13. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Palmira; Tristezza, Mariana; Haidukowski, Miriam; Fanelli, Francesca; Sisto, Angelo; Mulè, Giuseppina; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles). The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s) for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system. PMID:26633497

  14. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Vineyard Soils

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Palmira; Tristezza, Mariana; Haidukowski, Miriam; Fanelli, Francesca; Sisto, Angelo; Mulè, Giuseppina; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with a main nephrotoxic activity contaminating several foodstuffs. In the present report, five soil samples collected from OTA-contaminated vineyards were screened to isolate microorganisms able to biodegrade OTA. When cultivated in OTA-supplemented medium, OTA was converted in OTα by 225 bacterial isolates. To reveal clonal relationships between isolates, molecular typing by using an automated rep-PCR system was carried out, thus showing the presence of 27 different strains (rep-PCR profiles). The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis of an isolate representative of each rep-PCR profiles indicated that they belonged to five bacterial genera, namely Pseudomonas, Leclercia, Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter. However, further evaluation of OTA-degrading activity by the 27 strains revealed that only Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain 396.1 and Acinetobacter sp. strain neg1, consistently conserved the above property; their further characterization showed that they were able to convert 82% and 91% OTA into OTα in six days at 24 °C, respectively. The presence of OTα, as the unique OTA-degradation product was confirmed by LC-HRMS. This is the first report on OTA biodegradation by bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soils and carried out under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures. These microorganisms might be used to detoxify OTA-contaminated feed and could be a new source of gene(s) for the development of a novel enzymatic detoxification system. PMID:26633497

  15. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Pulled hip flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare

  16. Culturable bacterial microflora associated with nectarine fruit and their potential for control of brown rot.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2010-06-01

    Microflora of fruit surfaces have been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decay of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grape, apple, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces from the early stage of development until harvest. Identification of bacterial strains was made using MIDI (fatty acid methyl ester analysis) and Biolog systems. Biolog identified 35% and MIDI 53% of the strains. Thus results from MIDI were used to determine the frequency of occurrence of genera and species. The most frequently occurring genera were Curtobacterium (21.31%), followed by Pseudomonas (19.99%), Microbacterium (13.57%), Clavibacter (9.69%), Pantoea (6.59%), and Enterobacter (4.26%). The frequency of isolations of some bacteria - for example, the major pseudomonads (Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas savastanoi) or Pantoea agglomerans - tended to decline as fruit developed. As Pseudomonas declined, Curtobacterium became more dominant. Time of isolation was a significant factor in the frequency of occurrence of different bacteria, indicating succession of the genera. Throughput screening of the bacterial strains against Monilinia fructicola on nectarine fruit resulted in the detection of strains able to control brown rot. The 10 best-performing antagonistic strains were subjected to secondary screening. Four strains reduced decay severity by more than 50% (51.7%-91.4% reduction) at the high pathogen inoculum concentration of 105 conidia/mL. PMID:20657618

  17. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  18. Identification of an RcsA/RcsB recognition motif in the promoters of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic operons from Erwinia amylovora and Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii.

    PubMed

    Wehland, M; Kiecker, C; Coplin, D L; Kelm, O; Saenger, W; Bernhard, F

    1999-02-01

    The regulation of capsule synthesis (Rcs) regulatory network is responsible for the induction of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many enterobacterial species. We have previously shown that two transcriptional regulators, RcsA and RcsB, do bind as a heterodimer to the promoter of amsG, the first reading frame in the operon for amylovoran biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. We now identified a 23-base pair fragment from position -555 to -533 upstream of the translational start site of amsG as sufficient for the specific binding of the Rcs proteins. In addition, we could detect an RcsA/RcsB-binding site in a corresponding region of the promoter of cpsA, the homologous counterpart to the E. amylovora amsG gene in the operon for stewartan biosynthesis of Pantoea stewartii. The specificity and characteristic parameters of the protein-DNA interaction were analyzed by DNA retardation, protein-DNA cross-linking, and directed mutagenesis. The central core motif TRVGAAWAWTSYG of the amsG promoter was found to be most important for the specific interaction with RcsA/RcsB, as evaluated by mutational analysis and an in vitro selection approach. The wild type P. stewartii Rcs binding motif is degenerated in two positions and an up-mutation according to our consensus motif resulted in about a 5-fold increased affinity of the RcsA/RcsB proteins. PMID:9920870

  19. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition influences motility and is required for full virulence of the xylem-dwelling bacterial phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey; Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Roper, M Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a key micronutrient for microbial growth but is often present in low concentrations or in biologically unavailable forms. Many microorganisms overcome this challenge by producing siderophores, which are ferric-iron chelating compounds that enable the solubilization and acquisition of iron in a bioactive form. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. The proteins involved in the biosynthesis and export of this siderophore are encoded by the iucABCD-iutA operon, which is homologous to the aerobactin biosynthetic gene cluster found in a number of enteric pathogens. Mutations in iucA and iutA resulted in a decrease in surface-based motility that P. stewartii utilizes during the early stages of biofilm formation, indicating that active iron acquisition impacts surface motility for P. stewartii. Furthermore, bacterial movement in planta is also dependent on a functional siderophore biosynthesis and uptake pathway. Most notably, siderophore-mediated iron acquisition is required for full virulence in the sweet corn host, indicating that active iron acquisition is essential for pathogenic fitness for this important xylem-dwelling bacterial pathogen. PMID:25326304

  20. A Large Repetitive RTX-Like Protein Mediates Water-Soaked Lesion Development, Leakage of Plant Cell Content and Host Colonization in the Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii Pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Roper, M Caroline; Burbank, Lindsey P; Williams, Kayla; Viravathana, Polrit; Tien, Hsin-Yu; von Bodman, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the etiological agent of Stewart's wilt and is a serious bacterial pathogen affecting sweet corn. During the leaf blight phase, P. stewartii colonizes the leaf apoplast and causes a characteristic water-soaked lesion. The Hrp type III secretion system has been implicated in the water-soaking phenotype, and the goal of this study was to investigate other potential factors that contribute to the plant cellular disruption associated with these lesions. The P. stewartii genome contains a gene encoding a large repetitive RTX toxin, designated rtx2. RTX toxins comprise a large family of pore-forming proteins, which are widely distributed among gram-negative bacteria. These cytotoxins usually lyse their target host cells and cause significant tissue damage as a consequence. We hypothesized that this RTX-like toxin plays a role in the water-soaking phase of infection due to its predicted cytolytic properties. Based on the data reported here, we conclude that RTX2 contributes significantly to the development of water-soaked lesions and leakage of plant cellular contents and is an important pathogenicity factor for P. stewartii. PMID:26284907

  1. Siderophore-Mediated Iron Acquisition Influences Motility and Is Required for Full Virulence of the Xylem-Dwelling Bacterial Phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    PubMed Central

    Burbank, Lindsey; Mohammadi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a key micronutrient for microbial growth but is often present in low concentrations or in biologically unavailable forms. Many microorganisms overcome this challenge by producing siderophores, which are ferric-iron chelating compounds that enable the solubilization and acquisition of iron in a bioactive form. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. The proteins involved in the biosynthesis and export of this siderophore are encoded by the iucABCD-iutA operon, which is homologous to the aerobactin biosynthetic gene cluster found in a number of enteric pathogens. Mutations in iucA and iutA resulted in a decrease in surface-based motility that P. stewartii utilizes during the early stages of biofilm formation, indicating that active iron acquisition impacts surface motility for P. stewartii. Furthermore, bacterial movement in planta is also dependent on a functional siderophore biosynthesis and uptake pathway. Most notably, siderophore-mediated iron acquisition is required for full virulence in the sweet corn host, indicating that active iron acquisition is essential for pathogenic fitness for this important xylem-dwelling bacterial pathogen. PMID:25326304

  2. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  3. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  4. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  5. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's Sports Injuries Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries Knee Injuries Broken Bones, Sprains, and Strains Strains and Sprains ... Pain Going to a Physical Therapist Hamstring Strain Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries ...

  6. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25507473

  7. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25423750

  8. Probing the Impact of Ligand Binding on the Acyl-Homoserine Lactone-Hindered Transcription Factor EsaR of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii ▿

    PubMed Central

    Schu, Daniel J.; Ramachandran, Revathy; Geissinger, Jared S.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The quorum-sensing regulator EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a LuxR homologue that is inactivated by acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL). In the corn pathogen P. stewartii, production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) is repressed by EsaR at low cell densities. However, at high cell densities when high concentrations of its cognate AHL signal are present, EsaR is inactivated and derepression of EPS production occurs. Thus, EsaR responds to AHL in a manner opposite to that of most LuxR family members. Depending on the position of its binding site within target promoters, EsaR serves as either a repressor or activator in the absence rather than in the presence of its AHL ligand. The effect of AHL on LuxR homologues has been difficult to study in vitro because AHL is required for purification and stability. EsaR, however, can be purified without AHL enabling an in vitro analysis of the response of the protein to ligand. Western immunoblots and pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that EsaR is stable in vivo in the absence or presence of AHL. Limited in vitro proteolytic digestions of a biologically active His-MBP tagged version of EsaR highlighted intradomain and interdomain conformational changes that occur in the protein in response to AHL. Gel filtration chromatography of the full-length fusion protein and cross-linking of the N-terminal domain both suggest that this conformational change does not impact the multimeric state of the protein. These findings provide greater insight into the diverse mechanisms for AHL responsiveness found within the LuxR family. PMID:21949066

  9. Probing the impact of ligand binding on the acyl-homoserine lactone-hindered transcription factor EsaR of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Schu, Daniel J; Ramachandran, Revathy; Geissinger, Jared S; Stevens, Ann M

    2011-11-01

    The quorum-sensing regulator EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a LuxR homologue that is inactivated by acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL). In the corn pathogen P. stewartii, production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) is repressed by EsaR at low cell densities. However, at high cell densities when high concentrations of its cognate AHL signal are present, EsaR is inactivated and derepression of EPS production occurs. Thus, EsaR responds to AHL in a manner opposite to that of most LuxR family members. Depending on the position of its binding site within target promoters, EsaR serves as either a repressor or activator in the absence rather than in the presence of its AHL ligand. The effect of AHL on LuxR homologues has been difficult to study in vitro because AHL is required for purification and stability. EsaR, however, can be purified without AHL enabling an in vitro analysis of the response of the protein to ligand. Western immunoblots and pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that EsaR is stable in vivo in the absence or presence of AHL. Limited in vitro proteolytic digestions of a biologically active His-MBP tagged version of EsaR highlighted intradomain and interdomain conformational changes that occur in the protein in response to AHL. Gel filtration chromatography of the full-length fusion protein and cross-linking of the N-terminal domain both suggest that this conformational change does not impact the multimeric state of the protein. These findings provide greater insight into the diverse mechanisms for AHL responsiveness found within the LuxR family. PMID:21949066

  10. WtsE, an AvrE-family type III effector protein of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, causes cell death in non-host plants.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris; Ewert, Sophie; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Mackey, David; Coplin, David

    2008-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) causes Stewart's bacterial wilt of sweet corn and leaf blight of maize. The pathogenicity of Pnss depends on synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and an Hrp type III secretion system. WtsE, a type III secreted effector protein, is essential for the virulence of Pnss on corn. It belongs to the AvrE family of effectors, which includes DspA/E from Erwinia amylovora and AvrE1 from Pseudomonas syringae. Previously, WtsE was shown to cause disease-associated cell death in its host plant, sweet corn. Here, we examine the biological activity of WtsE in several non-host plants. WtsE induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, tobacco, beet and Arabidopsis thaliana when it was transiently produced in plant cells following agroinfiltration or translocated into plant cells from Pnss, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph). WtsE-induced cell death in N. benthamiana, tobacco and beet resembled a hypersensitive response and in N. benthamiana it was delayed by cycloheximide. Interestingly, WtsE strongly promoted the growth of Pnss in N. benthamiana prior to the onset of cell death. Deletion derivatives of WtsE that failed to induce cell death in N. benthamiana and tobacco also did not complement wtsE mutants of Pnss for virulence in sweet corn, indicating a correlation between the two activities. WtsE also induced cell death in A. thaliana, where it suppressed basal defences induced by Pph. Thus, WtsE has growth-promoting, defence-suppressing and cell death-inducing activities in non-host plants. Expression of WtsE also prevented the growth of yeast, possibly due to an innate toxicity to eukaryotic cells. PMID:19018993